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Sample records for brazilian case examined

  1. Emotion and Language Politics: The Brazilian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to make a case for the claim that exclusive focus on the rational has only helped isolate linguists and prevented them from having a say on important political issues relating to language. One important feature of the ordinary person's view of and involvement with language is that emotions play an important role in…

  2. Universality, correlations, and rankings in the Brazilian universities national admission examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Roberto; Lamb, Luis C.; Barbosa, Marcia C.

    2016-09-01

    We analyze the scores obtained by students who have taken the ENEM examination, The Brazilian High School National Examination which is used in the admission process at Brazilian universities. The average high schools scores from different disciplines are compared through the Pearson correlation coefficient. The results show a very large correlation between the performance in the different school subjects. Even though the students' scores in the ENEM form a Gaussian due to the standardization, we show that the high schools' scores form a bimodal distribution that cannot be used to evaluate and compare students performance over time. We also show that this high schools distribution reflects the correlation between school performance and the economic level (based on the average family income) of the students. The ENEM scores are compared with a Brazilian non standardized exam, the entrance examination from the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. The analysis of the performance of the same individuals in both tests shows that the two tests not only select different abilities, but also lead to the admission of different sets of individuals. Our results indicate that standardized tests might be an interesting tool to compare performance of individuals over the years, but not of institutions.

  3. Delivering Online Examinations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Jason; Messing, John; Altas, Irfan

    2004-01-01

    This paper represents a brief case study of delivering online examinations to a worldwide audience. These examinations are delivered in partnership with a commercial online testing company as part of the Industry Master's degree at Charles Sturt University (CSU). The Industry Master's degree is an academic program for students currently employed…

  4. [Examination reports on survived strangulation cases].

    PubMed

    Jänisch, Stefanie; Heine, Josephin; Günther, Detlef; Germerott, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Clinical-forensic examination of strangulation victims is an increasing part of the routine of many forensic pathology institutes. The cases examined between 2004 and 2008 at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the Hanover Medical School were retrospectively analysed. In total, the study material comprised 218 victims (175 females and 43 males). In 80.7 %, the clinical-forensic examination was performed within 24 hours after the incident. In the overwhelming number of cases, the alleged perpetrator was no stranger. 128 victims (58.7 %) had strangulation marks, 32 victims (14.7 %) ligature marks and 65 victims (29.8 %) nail marks. Four victims showed injuries of the laryngeal and pharyngeal structures (reddening, hematomas, swelling and in one case a fracture of the cricoid cartilage on both sides). Extensive petechiae were predominantly seen in the conjunctivae, the buccal mucosa and the skin of the face in cases where the victims suffered a loss of consciousness. 87 cases (39.9% were classified as potentially life-threatening and 30 cases (13.8 %) as acute life-threatening events. This classification is of legal relevance for the penalty. In addition, 60 victims experienced sexual violence. These results suggest that early clinical-forensic examination is crucial for documenting forensic evidence in support of police investigations and may deliver significant details relevant in court.

  5. [Examination reports on survived strangulation cases].

    PubMed

    Jänisch, Stefanie; Heine, Josephin; Günther, Detlef; Germerott, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Clinical-forensic examination of strangulation victims is an increasing part of the routine of many forensic pathology institutes. The cases examined between 2004 and 2008 at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the Hanover Medical School were retrospectively analysed. In total, the study material comprised 218 victims (175 females and 43 males). In 80.7 %, the clinical-forensic examination was performed within 24 hours after the incident. In the overwhelming number of cases, the alleged perpetrator was no stranger. 128 victims (58.7 %) had strangulation marks, 32 victims (14.7 %) ligature marks and 65 victims (29.8 %) nail marks. Four victims showed injuries of the laryngeal and pharyngeal structures (reddening, hematomas, swelling and in one case a fracture of the cricoid cartilage on both sides). Extensive petechiae were predominantly seen in the conjunctivae, the buccal mucosa and the skin of the face in cases where the victims suffered a loss of consciousness. 87 cases (39.9% were classified as potentially life-threatening and 30 cases (13.8 %) as acute life-threatening events. This classification is of legal relevance for the penalty. In addition, 60 victims experienced sexual violence. These results suggest that early clinical-forensic examination is crucial for documenting forensic evidence in support of police investigations and may deliver significant details relevant in court. PMID:21121118

  6. The challenges for solid waste management in accordance with Agenda 21: a Brazilian case review.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Gisele de Lorena Diniz; dos Santos, Jorge Luiz; Rocha, Sandra Mara Santana

    2014-09-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the suitability of the Brazilian solid waste policy (BSWP) with global Agenda 21 and the challenges of implementing the BSWP in municipalities. For this, a review of the principles that guided the creation of this policy was performed to demonstrate that international pressures were important in determining its effectiveness. The contradictory relationship between the satisfactory legal framework that established the Brazilian waste management policy and its weakened implementation in the municipalities is also examined . To illustrate the difficulties faced at the local level, a case study involving municipalities that compose the state of Espírito Santowe was undertaken. In this state, the municipalities signed terms of environmental commitment with supervisory agencies who undertook, within a pre-established schedule, to implement a set of actions to shape the proper management of solid waste, adapted to the requirements of national policy and the guidelines of Agenda 21. Finally, the various difficulties in meeting the requirements are discussed. It is necessary and urgent that Brazil finds a way to coordinate the mechanisms of an innovative and well formulated legal instrument to ensure the successful implementation of solid waste management at the local level to achieve the environmental, economic and social objectives.

  7. The challenges for solid waste management in accordance with Agenda 21: a Brazilian case review.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Gisele de Lorena Diniz; dos Santos, Jorge Luiz; Rocha, Sandra Mara Santana

    2014-09-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the suitability of the Brazilian solid waste policy (BSWP) with global Agenda 21 and the challenges of implementing the BSWP in municipalities. For this, a review of the principles that guided the creation of this policy was performed to demonstrate that international pressures were important in determining its effectiveness. The contradictory relationship between the satisfactory legal framework that established the Brazilian waste management policy and its weakened implementation in the municipalities is also examined . To illustrate the difficulties faced at the local level, a case study involving municipalities that compose the state of Espírito Santowe was undertaken. In this state, the municipalities signed terms of environmental commitment with supervisory agencies who undertook, within a pre-established schedule, to implement a set of actions to shape the proper management of solid waste, adapted to the requirements of national policy and the guidelines of Agenda 21. Finally, the various difficulties in meeting the requirements are discussed. It is necessary and urgent that Brazil finds a way to coordinate the mechanisms of an innovative and well formulated legal instrument to ensure the successful implementation of solid waste management at the local level to achieve the environmental, economic and social objectives. PMID:25023985

  8. Clinical and oral findings in an Afro-Brazilian family with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome: case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    da Silva Pierro, Viviane Santos; Marins, Marcello Roter; Borges de Oliveira, Renata Cabral; Cortezzi, Wladimir; Janini, Maria Elisa; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2015-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS) seems to be unusual in black persons. The authors present an Afro-Brazilian family case report of GGS. The main complaint of the index case was a painless swelling of the left mandible, which was diagnosed as an odontogenic keratocyst. Further classical features of the Syndrome were present in this patient. Other two family members were diagnosed as cases of GGS and one of them presented 11 clinical findings characteristic of the syndrome. From the three cases reported, two of them presented five major diagnostic criteria for the GGS, and the diagnosis was only made because of an oral complaint. This case series emphasizes the importance of carefully examining the patient and close relatives for signs of GGS, even if they belong to an ethnic group in which this diagnosis is unusual. PMID:25039802

  9. Work for sustainability: Case studies of Brazilian companies.

    PubMed

    Bolis, Ivan; Brunoro, Claudio M; Sznelwar, Laerte I

    2016-11-01

    The introduction of strategic corporate sustainability policies is expected to result in the improvement of several issues in companies. One of these issues is work, which should involve greater well-being for workers. Within the context of production engineering, this research connects sustainability and work-related issues, the latter seen in light of the discipline of ergonomics. Based on case studies conducted at four companies considered sustainability benchmarks, we examined how the introduction of the theme of sustainability has influenced work-related issues. The elements analyzed here were the corporate sustainability strategy, organizational practices for deploying the strategy, and the work design phase. The last element is the moment in which work is prescribed in the organization. The results show that, despite the announcement of the inclusion of changes in work, there is not any explicit evidence confirming that such changes are considered as a requirement for corporate sustainability projects.

  10. Cerebro-oculo-nasal syndrome: 13 new Brazilian cases.

    PubMed

    Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli Maria; Richieri-Costa, Antonio

    2007-12-15

    Cerebro-oculo-nasal syndrome (CONS) is characterized by structural anomalies of the central nervous system (encephalocele, ventricular dilatation, defects of corpus callosum, and even holoprosencephaly in one instance), by ocular alterations ranging from anophthalmia/microphthalmia to normal eyes, and by proboscis-like nares. Here, we report on 13 new cases with CONS, review 7 previously published cases, and evaluate the findings in all 20 patients. Despite marked variability among cases, the nasal configuration appears to be unique and diagnostic. Although one patient had a mutation in the PTCH gene, the cause of all other cases remains unknown to date. PMID:17985375

  11. Scales of Political Action and Social Movements in Education: The Case of the Brazilian Black Movement and Law 10.639

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Renato Emerson Nascimento; Soeterik, Inti Maya

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines social coordination by the Brazilian Black Movement in the area of Brazilian education. It explains how these developments relate to the construction of race-based public education policies in the country. Focus goes to the process of creation and implementation of law 10.639 in Brazilian Basic education. Using the concept…

  12. External Evaluation of Education and Teacher Work: The Brazilian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothen, José Carlos; da Cunha Malheiros Santana, Andréia

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to discuss whether external evaluations are instruments to ensure increased quality of public school education. It is part of a research that investigated how evaluation results and the resulting indices were used in two schools in the state of São Paulo (Brazil). The methodology adopted was the case study, using different…

  13. Gender Differences: Examination of the 12-Item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI-12) in an Older Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Lisa F.; Vafaei, Afshin; Guerra, Ricardo; Freire, Aline; Phillips, Susan P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although gender is often acknowledged as a determinant of health, measuring its components, other than biological sex, is uncommon. The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) quantifies self-attribution of traits, indicative of gender roles. The BSRI has been used with participants across cultures and countries, but rarely in an older population in Brazil, as we have done in this study. Our primary objective was to determine whether the BSRI-12 can be used to explore gender in an older Brazilian population. Methods The BSRI was completed by volunteer participants, all community dwelling adults aged 65+ living in Natal, Brazil. Exploratory factor analysis was performed, followed by a varimax rotation (orthogonal solution) for iteration to examine the underlying gender roles of feminine, masculine, androgynous and undifferentiated, and to validate the BSRI in older adults in Brazil. Results The 278 participants, (80 men, 198 women) were 65–99 years old (average 73.6 for men, 74.7 for women). Age difference between sexes was not significant (p = 0.22). A 12 item version of the BSRI (BSRI-12) previously validated among Spanish seniors was used and showed validity with 5 BSRI-12 items (Cronbach=0.66) loading as feminine, 6 items (Cronbach=0.51) loading onto masculine roles and neither overlapping with the category of biological sex of respondent. Conclusions Although the BSRI-12 appears to be a valid indicator of gender among elderly Brazilians, the gender role status identified with the BSRI-12 was not correlated with being male or female. PMID:24098482

  14. Orofacial injury in a Brazilian professional basketball player: case report.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Ana Paula Pires; Monte Alto, Luciane A

    2006-06-01

    The frequency of dental trauma has increased among children and athletes of all ages who play contact sports. This kind of trauma may result in irreversible damage to the patient. The aim of this report is to present a case of an orofacial trauma involving a professional basketball player who was elbowed by another player. The athlete reported loss of sensitivity in three teeth and computerized tomography showed fractures in three points of the malar bone. After the incident and dental follow-up, the player was made aware of the need to wear a mouthguard.

  15. Severity of Scorpion Stings in the Western Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Amanda M.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Mendonça, Iran; Fé, Nelson F.; Sachett, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L.; Feitosa, Esaú; Wen, Fan Hui; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    Background Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in Brazil, with an increasing number of registered cases every year. Affecting mostly vulnerable populations, the phenomenon is not well described and is considered a neglected disease. In Brazil, the use of anti-venom formulations is provided free of charge. The associate scorpion sting case is subject to compulsory reporting. This paper describes the epidemiology and identifies factors associated with severity of scorpions stings in the state of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings This study included all cases of scorpion stings in the state of Amazonas reported to the Brazilian Diseases Surveillance System from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with scorpions sting severity. A total of 2,120 cases were reported during this period. The mean incidence rate in the Amazonas was 7.6 per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Scorpion stings showed a large spatial distribution in the state and represent a potential occupational health problem for rural populations. There was a positive correlation between the absolute number of cases and the altimetric river levels in the Central (p<0.001; Rs = 0.479 linear) and Southwest (p = 0.032; linear Rs = 0.261) regions of the state. Cases were mostly classified as mild (68.6%), followed by moderate (26.8%), and severe (4.6%). The overall lethality rate was 0.3%. Lethality rate among children ≤10 years was 1.3%. Age <10 years [OR = 2.58 (95%CI = 1.47–4.55; p = 0.001)], stings occurring in the rural area [OR = 1.97 (95%CI = 1.18–3.29; p = 0.033) and in the South region of the state [OR = 1.85 (95%CI = 1.17–2.93; p = 0.008)] were independently associated with the risk of developing severity. Conclusions/Significance Scorpion stings show an extensive distribution in the Western Brazilian Amazon threatening especially rural populations, children ≤10 in particular. Thus

  16. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease): report of a case in a girl of Brazilian Indian descent.

    PubMed

    Martins, W D; de Lima, A A S; Vieira, S

    2006-01-01

    Summary. Background. This report describes the case of a patient with focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), a rare but distinctive entity of viral aetiology with characteristic clinical and histopathological features. Case report. The condition is usually seen in children and adolescents of American Indian and Eskimo background. Surgical removal of papillomatous lesions is the treatment of choice, either for aesthetic reasons, or when the lesions interfere with function or are readily traumatized. Recurrence and the site of new lesions are unpredictable, and continued review of the patient is often necessary. The patient described here has been followed for 24 months without recurrences or changes in the aspect of the remaining lesions. Conclusion. This case highlights a possible genetic predilection for FEH, since the patient is a descent of a Brazilian Xavante Indian.

  17. Techno-economic analysis for brewer's spent grains use on a biorefinery concept: the Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Mussatto, Solange I; Moncada, Jonathan; Roberto, Inês C; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-11-01

    A techno-economic analysis for use of brewer's spent grains (BSG) on a biorefinery concept for the Brazilian case is presented. Four scenarios based on different levels of heat and mass integration for the production of xylitol, lactic acid, activated carbon and phenolic acids are shown. A simulation procedure using the software Aspen Plus and experimental yields was used. Such procedure served as basis for the techno-economic and environmental assessment according to the Brazilian conditions. Full mass integration on water and full energy integration was the configuration with the best economic and environmental performance. For this case, the obtained economic margin was 62.25%, the potential environmental impact was 0.012 PEI/kg products, and the carbon footprint of the processing stage represented 0.96 kg CO2-e/kg of BSG. This result served as basis to draw recommendations on the technological, economic and environmental feasibility for implementation of such type of biorefinery in Brazil.

  18. Diversification of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest: A case study in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Márcia; Schulte, Katharina; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Zanella, Camila M; Büttow, Miriam V; Capra, Fernanda; Bered, Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia comprises ca. 20 species distributed in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, with a center of diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We examined interspecific relationships of Ortgiesia based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP). Ninety-six accessions belonging to 14 species of Ortgiesia were sampled, and genotyped with 11 AFLP primer combinations. The neighbor joining (NJ) tree depicted two main genetic groups within Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia, and four subgroups. The NJ tree showed short internal branches, indicating an overall shallow genetic divergence among Ortgiesia species as expected for the recently radiated subfamily Bromelioideae. Our results suggest that hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting may have hampered the reconstruction of interspecific relationships in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia. The mapping of petal color (yellow, blue, pink, or white), inflorescence type (simple or compound), and inflorescence shape (ellipsoid, subcylindric, cylindric, or pyramidal) against the NJ tree indicated that these characters are of limited taxonomic use in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia due to homoplasy. An analysis of the current distribution of Ortgiesia identified the southern region of the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, between latitudes of 26° and 27°S, as the center of diversity for the subgenus. PMID:26957015

  19. Detection of medical examiner cases from review of cremation requests.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Craig L; Winston, David C

    2006-06-01

    Title 9, Chapter 19, Article 3 of the Arizona Administrative Code requires all bodies that are to be cremated must have the death certificate reviewed by a county medical examiner. In Tucson, AZ, and surrounding Pima County, all cremation requests are submitted to the Forensic Science Center, where the death certificates are reviewed by one of 5 board-certified forensic pathologists. In 2002, there were 5557 cremation requests, and in 2003 there were 5662 cremation requests. Of these requests, 670 (12.1%) and 447 (7.9%) death certificates were flagged for further investigation in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Eventually, 47 cases (0.8% of total, 7.0% of flagged cases) were accepted as medical examiner cases in 2002, and 43 cases (0.8% of total, 9.6% of flagged cases) were accepted as medical examiner cases in 2003. In 2002, the majority of cases were handled as a records review; however, 4 cases were brought in for autopsy and 1 was certified after an external examination only. In 2003, all cases were certified via a records review. The manner of death in all but 3 of these deaths was certified as accident, with complications of remote trauma being the most common proximate cause of death. The 3 most common injuries were complications of fractured pelvis or femur (15 in 2002, 22 in 2003), head injury due to fall (18 in 2002, 8 in 2003), and complications of remote motor vehicle accident (3 in 2002, 6 in 2003). The other 3 deaths included 2 homicides, 1 in each year, and 1 suicide in 2003.

  20. A Case of Hydranencephaly in Which Ophthalmic Examinations Were Performed

    PubMed Central

    Eda, Shohei; Terai, Tomoko; Nishikawa, Yuko; Tonari, Masahiro; Kida, Teruyo; Oku, Hidehiro; Sugasawa, Jun; Shimakawa, Shuichi; Hasegawa, Masashi; Ogihara, Tohru; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We performed ophthalmic examinations, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), on a case diagnosed with hydranencephaly. Case Report This case involved a female infant born at the gestational age of 35 weeks and 4 days, with the birth weight of 2,152 g, who was one of monochorionic diamniotic twins, and the identical twin died in utero at the gestational age of 24 weeks. After that, examination by fetal echo indicated that she had microcephaly and ventriculomegaly. Postnatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her head indicated microcephaly and significant enlargement of the lateral ventricle on both sides, with no obvious signs of elevated intracranial pressure. The brain parenchyma of both sides of the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and occipital lobe had marked thinning, yet that of the temporal lobe, basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum had been maintained. Moreover, no obvious hematoma or neoplastic lesions were observed. Ophthalmic examinations indicated that both of her eyes had slight light reflex, attributed to optic nerve atrophy. Examination by use of a hand-held OCT system indicated a layered structure of the retina and thinning of the ganglion cell layer. Flicker electroretinogram (ERG) examination by use of a hand-held ERG system indicated an almost normal wave. However, no clear visual reaction was observed when she was 10 months old. Conclusion Our findings in this case of hydranencephaly revealed that even though the outer layer functions of the patient's retina were maintained, extensive damage to her cerebral cortex resulted in poor visual function.

  1. A Case of Examination Anxiety in an Adult

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Donna M.

    1972-01-01

    In keeping with a learning theory approach, it is postulated that fear of examinations was a learned maladaptive pattern of behavior. Therefore, counter-conditioning through progressive relaxation and systematic desensitization was utilized to eliminate the maladaptive response in this case. (Author)

  2. Strategies for reducing carbon emissions on the tropical rain forest: The case of the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, M.A.V. de; Rosa, L.P.

    1995-11-01

    Forests systems are renewable resources that can be used by present generations and that should be available to future generations if they are exploited on a sustainable basis. The tropical forest is still an immense and unknown field. The issues are: What means a sustainable basis in the tropical rain forests? What are the means of harmonising an economic development with an environmental equilibrium in tropical regions? One way to meet this requirement is to analyse the potentially {open_quotes}no regrets{close_quotes} options on which it is possible to agree upon despite controversies about what will be the true long run costs and benefits of various courses of actions. In the case of the Brazilian Amazon, in the last thirty years, the use of biomass and land has increased rapidly. Therefore, environmental and social problems have emerged with some intensity and have had repercussions on local and global scales. In relation to the recent global environmental changes, the Brazilian Amazon is considered as a key region for biodiversity conservation and preserving a carbon sink. In this paper, the main methodological option is to conceive a set of {open_quotes}no-regret{close_quotes} options, related with the land uses and biomass valorisation, which are analysed through the same framework. The options considered here are: decrease of the great cattle ranching and of the predatory timber extraction; the increase of forest management (harvest of timber and nontimber extractive products) and forest plantations in the degraded lands. The aims to focus on three elements: job creation, technico-economic adequation and environmental impacts, with special regards concerning the limitation of the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon flow).

  3. Brazilian spotted fever: real-time PCR for diagnosis of fatal cases.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Fabiana Cristina Pereira; do Nascimento, Elvira Maria Mendes; Katz, Gizelda; Angerami, Rodrigo Nogueira; Colombo, Silvia; de Souza, Eliana Rodrigues; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; da Silva, Marcos Vinicius

    2012-12-01

    Suspicion of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) should occur in endemic regions upon surveillance of the acute febrile icteric hemorrhagic syndrome (AFIHS). However, limitations associated with currently available laboratory tests pose a challenge to early diagnosis, especially in fatal cases. Two real-time PCR (qPCR) protocols were evaluated to diagnose BSF in 110 fatal AFIHS cases, collected in BSF-endemic regions in 2009-2010. Of these, 24 were positive and 86 negative by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) assay (cut-off IgG and/or IgM ≥ 128). DNA from these samples was used in the qPCR protocols: one to detect Rickettsia spp. (citrate synthase gene) and another to determine spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia species (OmpA gene). Of the 24 IFA-positive samples, 5 (21%) were positive for OmpA and 9 (38%) for citrate synthase. In the IFA-negative group (n=86), OmpA and citrate synthase were positive in 23 (27%) and 27 (31%), respectively. These results showed that the 2 qPCR protocols were about twice as sensitive as the IFA test alone (93% concordance). In conclusion, qPCR is a sensitive method for the diagnosis of fatal BSF cases and should be considered for routine surveillance of AFIHS in places like Brazil, where spotted fever-related lethality is high and other endemic diseases like dengue and leptospirosis can mislead diagnosis.

  4. Transformational change in healthcare: an examination of four case studies.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Kate; Jamieson, Maggie; Davey, Rachel; Butler, Colin D

    2016-04-01

    Objectives Healthcare leaders around the world are calling for radical, transformational change of our health and care systems. This will be a difficult and complex task. In this article, we examine case studies in which transformational change has been achieved, and seek to learn from these experiences. Methods We used the case study method to investigate examples of transformational change in healthcare. The case studies were identified from preliminary doctoral research into the transition towards future sustainable health and social care systems. Evidence was collected from multiple sources, key features of each case study were displayed in a matrix and thematic analysis was conducted. The results are presented in narrative form. Results Four case studies were selected: two from the US, one from Australia and one from the UK. The notable features are discussed for each case study. There were many common factors: a well communicated vision, innovative redesign, extensive consultation and engagement with staff and patients, performance management, automated information management and high-quality leadership. Conclusions Although there were some notable differences between the case studies, overall the characteristics of success were similar and collectively provide a blueprint for transformational change in healthcare. What is known about the topic? Healthcare leaders around the world are calling for radical redesign of our systems in order to meet the challenges of modern society. What does this paper add? There are some remarkable examples of transformational change in healthcare. The key factors in success are similar across the case studies. What are the implications for practitioners? Collectively, these key factors can guide future attempts at transformational change in healthcare.

  5. Transformational change in healthcare: an examination of four case studies.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Kate; Jamieson, Maggie; Davey, Rachel; Butler, Colin D

    2016-04-01

    Objectives Healthcare leaders around the world are calling for radical, transformational change of our health and care systems. This will be a difficult and complex task. In this article, we examine case studies in which transformational change has been achieved, and seek to learn from these experiences. Methods We used the case study method to investigate examples of transformational change in healthcare. The case studies were identified from preliminary doctoral research into the transition towards future sustainable health and social care systems. Evidence was collected from multiple sources, key features of each case study were displayed in a matrix and thematic analysis was conducted. The results are presented in narrative form. Results Four case studies were selected: two from the US, one from Australia and one from the UK. The notable features are discussed for each case study. There were many common factors: a well communicated vision, innovative redesign, extensive consultation and engagement with staff and patients, performance management, automated information management and high-quality leadership. Conclusions Although there were some notable differences between the case studies, overall the characteristics of success were similar and collectively provide a blueprint for transformational change in healthcare. What is known about the topic? Healthcare leaders around the world are calling for radical redesign of our systems in order to meet the challenges of modern society. What does this paper add? There are some remarkable examples of transformational change in healthcare. The key factors in success are similar across the case studies. What are the implications for practitioners? Collectively, these key factors can guide future attempts at transformational change in healthcare. PMID:26188916

  6. A nested case-control study of fatal work related injuries among Brazilian steel workers.

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, S M; Swerdlow, A J; Smith, P G; Higgins, C D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the relative risk of death from work related injury in a steelworks, associated with exposure to various occupational hazards, sociodemographic factors, and medical history. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a nested case-control design. It was based on a cohort of men employed in the steel plant of USIMINAS, Brazil between January 1977 and August 1990, who were followed up to November 1992. The cases were defined as all workers in the cohort who died from injury in the study period and whose death had been notified to the Brazilian Ministry of Labour as being related to work. Four controls per case, matched to cases on year of birth, were randomly selected from among workers employed in the plant at the time of death of the matching case. Data on potential risk factors for occupational injury were extracted from company records; for the controls these data were abstracted for the period preceding the death of the matching case. RESULTS: There were 37 deaths related to work injuries during the study period. Four surviving workers were selected as controls for each case, but for eight the personnel records were incomplete, leaving 140 controls in all. Significantly increased risk of fatal injury related to work was associated with exposure to noise, heat, dust and fumes, gases and vapours, rotating shift work, being a manual worker, and working in the steel mill, coke ovens, blast furnaces, and energy and water supply areas. Risk of fatal injury related to work increased with intensity of exposure to noise (P (trend) = 0.004) and heat (P < 0.001), and increased greatly with a hazard score that combined information on noise, heat, dust, and gas exposure (P < 0.001). Number of years of schooling (P = 0.03) and salary level (P = 0.03) were both negatively associated with risk. In a multivariate analysis including all these significant factors, only hazard score and area of work remained associated with death from injury related to work. The

  7. Leprosy incidence, characterization of cases and correlation with household and cases variables of the Brazilian states in 2010*

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Shamyr Sulyvan; Santos, Juliana Pereira Pontes; Abreu, Graziela Basílio; Oliveira, Vanessa Rossato; Fernandes, Luciane Fernanda Rodrigues Martinho

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leprosy is millenary disease and still persists in several countries. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of leprosy in the Brazilian states and for the country in the year 2010; to describe the cases reported according to the studied variables; to verify the correlation between the overall incidence and the studied variables. METHODS: Ecological descriptive study, with population data from the 27 states, 2010. Information about reported cases were collected: gender, race, percentage of patients younger than 15 years old and living conditions. The analysis was performed using percentages, means, incidence rates and the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: The states of Mato Grosso and Tocantins recorded the highest incidence rates; Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, the lowest; there was a higher incidence of leprosy among men; the incidence of leprosy increases proportionally with the nonwhites among the inhabitants; patients younger than 15 years; the average number of residents per household; and a decrease in coverage of water supply and presence of bathrooms. CONCLUSION: The incidence of leprosy is related to factors as gender, race and house conditions (p<0,05 for all). PMID:26982775

  8. The discourse of ethics in nursing education: experience and reflections of Brazilian teachers - case study.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires; Brehmer, Laura Cavalcanti de Farias; Gelbcke, Francine Lima; Schmoeller, Soraia Dornelles; Lorenzetti, Jorge

    2013-10-01

    From a scenario of political and technological changes in work and health education, the purpose of this study was to understand the ethics discourse in nurses' education process in Brazilian nursing schools. A research was performed with a qualitative approach, characterized as a case study, involving six schools of a region in the south of Brazil. The data were collected by focal groups involving 50 teachers. The results were organized in three categories: (1) experience and motivation to teach ethics and bioethics, (2) indicators of change identified in global and local contexts and (3) challenges in the education of ethics, values and related themes. The teachers have highlighted complex elements related to scientific, educational and professional contexts, and pointed out the need for a critical perspective on the professional scenario and on their own situations as nurses and educators. The analyzed discourse brings to light the topic of ethics, seen as peculiar to the present day and in intimate connection with the daily routine of clinical, pedagogical and political professional practices. The findings suggest that the reflections on nurses' ethics education should not be limited to discussing content and pedagogical strategies but should be extended to include a commitment to the adoption of values in professional practice and to the process of the construction of a professional identity.

  9. Bioethics, culture and infanticide in Brazilian indigenous communities: the Zuruahá case.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Saulo Ferreira; Garrafa, Volnei; Cornelli, Gabriele; Tardivo, Carla; Carvalho, Samuel José de

    2010-05-01

    This article analyzes the practice of infanticide in indigenous communities in Brazil. Taking as a reference point a specific case involving two children of the Zuruahá people, it takes a broader look at the issue and discusses how infanticide is understood among other indigenous peoples. A debate focusing specifically on this topic that took place during a public hearing held in the Brazilian National Congress in December 2005 has also been taken into consideration in this discussion. In view of the positions adopted as a result of the hearing, this paper seeks to identify the ethical problems and moral dilemmas relating to the subject, by putting them into context and analyzing them in the light of respect for cultural pluralism. Seeking to contribute to the debate, the authors analyze the possibilities for intervention in the traditional practices of infanticide, while rejecting those positions that are not anchored in an attitude of profound respect for other people's cultures or that do not create conditions for dialogue between individuals or groups with different moralities.

  10. Courts and health care rationing: the case of the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daniel W L

    2013-01-01

    The recognition that access to health care is a constitutional right in Brazil has resulted in a situation in which citizens denied treatments by the public health care system have brought lawsuits against health authorities, claiming that their right to health was violated. This litigation forces the courts to decide between a patient-centred and a population-centred approach to public health - a choice that forces the courts to assess health care rationing decisions. This article analyses the judgments of the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court in right to health cases, arguing that the Court's recent decisions have been contrary to their long-standing stance against rationing. In 2009, the Court organized a public hearing to discuss this topic with civil society and established criteria to determine when rationing would be legal. However, I argue that these criteria for health care rationing do not adequately address the most difficult health care distribution dilemmas. They force the health care system to keep their rationing criteria implicit and make population-centred concerns secondary to individual-centred ones.

  11. Lipoprotein glomerulopathy: a case report of a rare disease in a Brazilian child.

    PubMed

    Pêgas, Karla Lais; Rohde, Roberta; Garcia, Clotilde Druck; Bittencourt, Viviane de Barros; Keitel, Elizete; Poloni, José Antonio Tesser; Cambruzzi, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG) is a rare autosomal recessive glomerulopathy associated with the deposition of lipoprotein thrombi in the capillary lumina due to apoE gene mutations. Abnormal plasma lipoprotein profile and marked increase in serum apoliprotein E (apoE) are characteristic clinical data. The compromised patients can present nephrotic syndrome, hematuria, and progressive renal failure. Herein, the authors present the first described case of LPG in a Brazilian male patient, 11 years, who presented with a steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Renal function was normal. Kidney biopsy showed markedly enlarged glomerulus, with dilated capillary loops and weak eosinophilic lipoprotein thrombi in the capillary lumina. Interstitium, tubules, arteries, and veins showed normal histologic aspect. Genotypic study for the apoE gene showed the presence of the alleles E3 and E4. The diagnosis of LPG was then performed. The patient received lipid-lowering treatment. After 2 years of follow-up, renal function is gradually decreasing, with persisting heavy proteinuria, despite a marked decrease in serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels. PMID:24676620

  12. Examining Racial Disproportionality in Child Protective Services Case Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Font, Sarah A.; Berger, Lawrence M.; Slack, Kristen S.

    2012-01-01

    Using a national sample of 1,461 child protective services (CPS) investigations in the United States, we examine differences between black and white families with regard to caseworker ratings of risk and harm to the child, as well as the probability that a case is substantiated for maltreatment. We employ difference-in-difference methods to identify whether gaps in outcomes for black and white families are equivalent when black and white CPS workers conduct the investigation, and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition methods to identify the portion of the black-white difference in outcomes that is attributable to differences in case characteristics (risk factors) versus differences in associations between these characteristics and the outcomes by race (differential treatment). We find no differences in outcomes by child race after adjusting for case characteristics. At the same time, we find that relative to white caseworkers, black caseworkers are more likely to rate black children at subjectively higher risk of harm than white children and are also more likely to substantiate black families for maltreatment. The decomposition results suggest that—even after accounting for caseworker race—differences in outcomes for black and white children are primarily explained by differences in family and case circumstances rather than differential treatment. Thus, our analyses suggest that interventions addressing maltreatment-related risk factors that disproportionately affect black families may have greater utility for reducing racial disparities in CPS involvement than current emphases on cultural competence training. PMID:22984321

  13. An inconclusive digital audio authenticity examination: a unique case.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Bruce E; Lacey, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    This case report sets forth an authenticity examination of 35 encrypted, proprietary-format digital audio files containing recorded telephone conversations between two codefendants in a criminal matter. The codefendant who recorded the conversations did so on a recording system he developed; additionally, he was both a forensic audio authenticity examiner, who had published and presented in the field, and was the head of a professional audio society's writing group for authenticity standards. The authors conducted the examination of the recordings following nine laboratory steps of the peer-reviewed and published 11-step digital audio authenticity protocol. Based considerably on the codefendant's direct involvement with the development of the encrypted audio format, his experience in the field of forensic audio authenticity analysis, and the ease with which the audio files could be accessed, converted, edited in the gap areas, and reconstructed in such a way that the processes were undetected, the authors concluded that the recordings could not be scientifically authenticated through accepted forensic practices.

  14. Intelligent image capture of cartridge cases for firearms examiners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brett C.; Guerci, Joseph R.

    1997-02-01

    The FBI's DRUGFIRETM system is a nationwide computerized networked image database of ballistic forensic evidence. This evidence includes images of cartridge cases and bullets obtained from both crime scenes and controlled test firings of seized weapons. Currently, the system is installed in over 80 forensic labs across the country and has enjoyed a high degree of success. In this paper, we discuss some of the issues and methods associated with providing a front-end semi-automated image capture system that simultaneously satisfies the often conflicting criteria of the many human examiners visual perception versus the criteria associated with optimizing autonomous digital image correlation. Specifically, we detail the proposed processing chain of an intelligent image capture system (IICS), involving a real- time capture 'assistant,' which assesses the quality of the image under test utilizing a custom designed neural network.

  15. Sustainability and Local Knowledge: The Case of the Brazilian ESP Project 1980-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, John; Celani, Maria Antonieta A.

    2006-01-01

    On the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the Brazilian ESP Project, this paper discusses why it has been able to sustain itself and develop over such a long period. The analysis focuses on two main areas of decision-making which led to this success: the structure of the project itself and the ESP methodology which was developed. Comparing the…

  16. Off-Farm Work among Rural Households: A Case Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWey, Leah; Vithayathil, Trina

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes off-farm work among subsistence-level farmers in the Santarem region of the Brazilian Amazon. We build on the literature on rural livelihoods in the Global South by exploring how the opportunity to work off the farm is embedded in social relationships. We additionally differentiate our analysis by type of off-farm work, and…

  17. Female Educators, Development, and Human Capital: A Brazilian Case. Working Paper #35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Linda

    The role of female educators in the Brazilian Amazon community of Itaituba (population in 1970: 12,690) has fallen short of that envisioned by the policymakers and social scientists in the early 1970s, as indicated by research conducted in 1976-77. Based on the "human capital" theory, better-trained local teachers were to train the local labor…

  18. A study of the abilities in oral language comprehension of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination -- Portuguese version: a reference guide for the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Mansur, L L; Radanovic, M; Taquemori, L; Greco, L; Araújo, G C

    2005-02-01

    We analyzed the performance of 162 normal subjects, subdivided into groups according to age and schooling, in the oral comprehension tasks of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination translated and adapted to Brazilian Portuguese to obtain a profile of performance for the Brazilian population, as well as cut-off scores for each task, and to determine the best combination of tasks that distinguish normal from aphasic subjects, as a guide for clinicians. The normal subjects were compared to 69 aphasics. Age alone influenced the performance in the designation of actions (subjects above 70 years showing the worst performance); schooling alone influenced the comprehension of forms, colors and numbers (subjects with less than four years of education showing a poorer performance). Both age and schooling influenced the performance in Body Part Identification (BPI) and Complex Ideational Material (CIM) with mean values of 70.5 +/- 3.3 (Word Discrimination, WD), 18.9 +/- 1.4 (BPI), 14.7 +/- 0.9 (Commands), and 10.3 +/- 1.7 (CIM) for the whole sample; the cut-off scores obtained were 65 (WD), 17.5 (BPI), 14 (Commands), and 9.5 (CIM) for the whole sample. Logistic regression showed that the combination of BPI + Commands + CIM was the most efficient in differentiating normal subjects from aphasics, with 72.5% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity. However, for low-education subjects, BPI and Commands were sufficient for this differentiation (75.7% sensitivity and 84.7% specificity). The main contribution of this study was to provide reference values that are far more representative of our population to be used by health professionals in Brazil, taking into account cultural differences.

  19. [Documents make a difference: the case of Brazilian domestic workers in Massachusetts, USA].

    PubMed

    Siqueira, C Eduardo; Soares, Gabriella Barreto; Araújo, Pedro Luiz de; Tracy, Maria Natalicia

    2016-07-21

    Brazilian immigrants in the United States experience various social, labor, and health challenges. This study aimed to analyze the profile of female Brazilian domestic workers in Massachusetts, USA, through a description of their working conditions and self-rated health. This was a cross-sectional study of 198 domestic workers in Massachusetts, recruited with "snowball" sampling. The instrument addressed participants' demographic characteristics, work conditions, and self-rated health. Data were analyzed with SPSS 21.0. Among the interviewees, 95.5% were women, 62.1% were 30 to 49 years of age, and 55.6% were undocumented. Documented and undocumented participants showed statistically significant differences in demographics, work conditions, and health. Irregular immigrant status appears to have a negative impact on domestic workers' living and health conditions.

  20. Can we predict crashes? The case of the Brazilian stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.; Werneck, Filipe K.

    2009-04-01

    In this study we analyze Brazilian stock prices to detect the development of bubbles and crashes in individual stocks using a log-periodic equation. We implement a genetic algorithm to calibrate the parameters of the model and we test the methodology for the most liquid stocks traded on the Brazilian Stock Market (Bovespa). In order to evaluate whether this approach is useful we employ nonparametric statistics and test whether returns after the predicted crash are negative and lower than returns before the crash. Empirical results are consistent with the prediction hypothesis, e.g., the method applied can be used to forecast the end of asset bubbles or large corrections in stock prices.

  1. [Programa de saúde: a case of book censorship during the Brazilian military dictatorship].

    PubMed

    Reimão, Sandra

    2013-11-30

    Some documents produced by the government during the Brazilian military dictatorship have been made available for reference, including censors' reports on television and radio programs, plays, films, songs, advertisements and printed matter. Of the 500 or so reports on books, there is one that vetoes Programa de saúde: projetos e temas de higiene e saúde, an educational work that proposed actions to help students understand their sanitary conditions and acquire knowledge about health and health-promoting habits in this area. The argument for vetoing it was that the information could fall into the hands of poorly trained teachers, who could distort its content, causing serious damage to Brazilian youth. In this report we see evidence of the obscurantist, elitist posture adopted by the Department of Censorship of Public Entertainment, which aimed to restrict the circulation of information and curb debate.

  2. [Programa de saúde: a case of book censorship during the Brazilian military dictatorship].

    PubMed

    Reimão, Sandra

    2013-11-30

    Some documents produced by the government during the Brazilian military dictatorship have been made available for reference, including censors' reports on television and radio programs, plays, films, songs, advertisements and printed matter. Of the 500 or so reports on books, there is one that vetoes Programa de saúde: projetos e temas de higiene e saúde, an educational work that proposed actions to help students understand their sanitary conditions and acquire knowledge about health and health-promoting habits in this area. The argument for vetoing it was that the information could fall into the hands of poorly trained teachers, who could distort its content, causing serious damage to Brazilian youth. In this report we see evidence of the obscurantist, elitist posture adopted by the Department of Censorship of Public Entertainment, which aimed to restrict the circulation of information and curb debate. PMID:24346208

  3. [Documents make a difference: the case of Brazilian domestic workers in Massachusetts, USA].

    PubMed

    Siqueira, C Eduardo; Soares, Gabriella Barreto; Araújo, Pedro Luiz de; Tracy, Maria Natalicia

    2016-07-21

    Brazilian immigrants in the United States experience various social, labor, and health challenges. This study aimed to analyze the profile of female Brazilian domestic workers in Massachusetts, USA, through a description of their working conditions and self-rated health. This was a cross-sectional study of 198 domestic workers in Massachusetts, recruited with "snowball" sampling. The instrument addressed participants' demographic characteristics, work conditions, and self-rated health. Data were analyzed with SPSS 21.0. Among the interviewees, 95.5% were women, 62.1% were 30 to 49 years of age, and 55.6% were undocumented. Documented and undocumented participants showed statistically significant differences in demographics, work conditions, and health. Irregular immigrant status appears to have a negative impact on domestic workers' living and health conditions. PMID:27462853

  4. Examining Charging Agreement between Police and Prosecutors in Rape Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleran, David; Beichner, Dawn; Spohn, Cassia

    2010-01-01

    Although prior research has contributed to understanding of the factors that influence sexual assault case processing, it has primarily been viewed through the prosecutorial lens. The authors assert that a prosecutor's charging decision involves not only a decision to file or reject the charge but, assuming that the case is not rejected, also a…

  5. A Case for Re-Evaluating Dictionary Availability in Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The Qualifications and Curriculum Authority's (QCA) radical decision to allow bilingual dictionaries in GCSE modern languages examinations from 1998 was subsequently reversed, and by 2003 dictionaries were no longer allowed in any public examinations at any level. The removal of dictionaries appeared to be based on one study that concluded that…

  6. Examining Effective Teaching via a Social Constructivist Pedagogy "Case Study"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Steven; Grenier, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    As students engage in pre-service teacher (PT) activities, they take a number of courses that help prepare them to teach in schools. During that time, they must also form their own understanding of what teaching and learning means for them (Kroll, 2004). In many cases, this can conflict with their view of teaching as a command approach to…

  7. Effect of the Brazilian Conditional Cash Transfer and Primary Health Care Programs on the New Case Detection Rate of Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Joilda Silva; Pereira, Susan Martins; Rasella, Davide; Penna, Maria Lúcia Fernandes; Aquino, Rosana; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Penna, Gerson Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Background Social determinants can affect the transmission of leprosy and its progression to disease. Not much is known about the effectiveness of welfare and primary health care policies on the reduction of leprosy occurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Brazilian cash transfer (Bolsa Família Program-BFP) and primary health care (Family Health Program-FHP) programs on new case detection rate of leprosy. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted the study with a mixed ecological design, a combination of an ecological multiple-group and time-trend design in the period 2004–2011 with the Brazilian municipalities as unit of analysis. The main independent variables were the BFP and FHP coverage at the municipal level and the outcome was new case detection rate of leprosy. Leprosy new cases, BFP and FHP coverage, population and other relevant socio-demographic covariates were obtained from national databases. We used fixed-effects negative binomial models for panel data adjusted for relevant socio-demographic covariates. A total of 1,358 municipalities were included in the analysis. In the studied period, while the municipal coverage of BFP and FHP increased, the new case detection rate of leprosy decreased. Leprosy new case detection rate was significantly reduced in municipalities with consolidated BFP coverage (Risk Ratio 0.79; 95% CI  = 0.74–0.83) and significantly increased in municipalities with FHP coverage in the medium (72–95%) (Risk Ratio 1.05; 95% CI  = 1.02–1.09) and higher coverage tertiles (>95%) (Risk Ratio 1.12; 95% CI  = 1.08–1.17). Conclusions At the same time the Family Health Program had been effective in increasing the new case detection rate of leprosy in Brazil, the Bolsa Família Program was associated with a reduction of the new case detection rate of leprosy that we propose reflects a reduction in leprosy incidence. PMID:25412418

  8. Cytogenetic studies of Brazilian pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome cases: challenges and difficulties in a large and emerging country

    PubMed Central

    Velloso, E.D.R.P.; Chauffaille, M.L.; Peliçario, L.M.; Tanizawa, R.S.S.; Toledo, S.R.C.; Gaiolla, R.D.; Lopes, L.F.

    2013-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) are rare hematopoietic stem cell diseases affecting children. Cytogenetics plays an important role in the diagnosis of these diseases. We report here the experience of the Cytogenetic Subcommittee of the Brazilian Cooperative Group on Pediatric Myelodysplastic Syndromes (BCG-MDS-PED). We analyzed 168 cytogenetic studies performed in 23 different cytogenetic centers; 84 of these studies were performed in patients with confirmed MDS (primary MDS, secondary MDS, JMML, and acute myeloid leukemia/MDS+Down syndrome). Clonal abnormalities were found in 36.9% of the MDS cases and cytogenetic studies were important for the detection of constitutional diseases and for differential diagnosis with other myeloid neoplasms. These data show the importance of the Cooperative Group for continuing education in order to avoid a late or wrong diagnosis. PMID:23314345

  9. Can the DSM-5 differentiate between nonpathological possession and dissociative identity disorder? A case study from an Afro-Brazilian religion.

    PubMed

    Delmonte, Romara; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Moreira-Almeida, Alexander; Farias, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine whether the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), are able to differentiate between nonpathological religious possession and dissociative identity disorder (DID). We use the case study of an individual who leads an Afro-Brazilian religious group (Umbanda), focusing on her personal development and possession experiences from early childhood to the present, spanning a period of more than 40 years, and examine these data following DSM-5 criteria for DID (300.14). Her experiences of possession can be broken into 2 distinct stages. In the 1st stage (childhood and early adulthood), she displayed intrusive thoughts and a lack of control over possession states, which were associated with a heightened state of anxiety, loneliness, amnesia, and family conflict (meeting all 5 criteria for DID). In the 2nd stage (late 20s up to the present), she regularly experienced possession states but felt in control of their onset and found them religiously meaningful. In this 2nd stage, she only fulfilled 3 criteria for DID. We question the accuracy of diagnosing this individual with DID in her earlier life and suggest that the DSM-5 criteria fail to address the ambiguity of affect surrounding possession experiences (positive at the individual level, negative at the interpersonal level) and lack a clearer acknowledgment of the prevalence of possession and other unusual experiences in general populations. PMID:26461039

  10. Can the DSM-5 differentiate between nonpathological possession and dissociative identity disorder? A case study from an Afro-Brazilian religion.

    PubMed

    Delmonte, Romara; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Moreira-Almeida, Alexander; Farias, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine whether the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), are able to differentiate between nonpathological religious possession and dissociative identity disorder (DID). We use the case study of an individual who leads an Afro-Brazilian religious group (Umbanda), focusing on her personal development and possession experiences from early childhood to the present, spanning a period of more than 40 years, and examine these data following DSM-5 criteria for DID (300.14). Her experiences of possession can be broken into 2 distinct stages. In the 1st stage (childhood and early adulthood), she displayed intrusive thoughts and a lack of control over possession states, which were associated with a heightened state of anxiety, loneliness, amnesia, and family conflict (meeting all 5 criteria for DID). In the 2nd stage (late 20s up to the present), she regularly experienced possession states but felt in control of their onset and found them religiously meaningful. In this 2nd stage, she only fulfilled 3 criteria for DID. We question the accuracy of diagnosing this individual with DID in her earlier life and suggest that the DSM-5 criteria fail to address the ambiguity of affect surrounding possession experiences (positive at the individual level, negative at the interpersonal level) and lack a clearer acknowledgment of the prevalence of possession and other unusual experiences in general populations.

  11. Pathological examinations of an enterovirus 71 infection: an autopsy case

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lulu; Lin, Peixin; Liu, Shuguang; Lei, Bin; Chen, Qing; Yu, Shouyi; Shen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    We report an 8-month-old female infant with the fatal enterovirus 71 infection here. Clinically, she developed respiratory failure and severe pulmonary edema rapidly. Histologically, the lung specimen showed diffuse, severe pulmonary congestion and edema with focal intra-alveolar hemorrhage and typical features of acute encephalitis were easily identified under light microscope. Immunohistochemically, enterovirus 71 antigen was positive in the cerebella and brainstem. We measured the viral loads of different tissues and found that the brainstem and mesenteric lymph nodes showed the highest viral loads among all tissues. We hope that our case report may help to have a better understanding of the enterovirus 71 infection and provide clues to the prevention and treatment of this disease. PMID:25197403

  12. Charcot arthropathy in ultrasound examination - a case report.

    PubMed

    Płaza, Mateusz; Nowakowska-Płaza, Anna; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta; Chojnowski, Marek; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2016-06-01

    This article presents a patient with a long history of type 1 diabetes mellitus complicated with neuropathy and Charcot disease. The most common cause of neuropathic osteoarthropathy, called Charcot osteoarthropathy, is poorly controlled diabetes. The clinical picture is characterized by considerable edema, redness and increased skin temperature with relatively slight pain due to injury to nerve fibers responsible for pain sensation. The differential diagnosis should include bacterial or autoimmune arthritis, arthritis associated with gout as well as venous thrombosis and injury. The contribution of a local inflammatory reaction and abnormal bone turnover with excessive osteoclast activity might play a role in the etiopathogenesis of this disease. As a result, osseous and articular destruction progresses rapidly leading to irreversible deformity of the foot. Avoiding weight-bearing and resting the foot in a specially selected plaster cast is the most important part of treatment. Patients with the aforementioned complaints are referred to radiologists for imaging examinations. An ultrasonographer should pay attention to changes typical of Charcot arthropathy, such as: inflammatory and destructive changes in joints of the foot, uneven contour of bones with thickening and periosteal hyperemia as well as soft tissue swelling.

  13. Charcot arthropathy in ultrasound examination – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska-Płaza, Anna; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta; Chojnowski, Marek; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a patient with a long history of type 1 diabetes mellitus complicated with neuropathy and Charcot disease. The most common cause of neuropathic osteoarthropathy, called Charcot osteoarthropathy, is poorly controlled diabetes. The clinical picture is characterized by considerable edema, redness and increased skin temperature with relatively slight pain due to injury to nerve fibers responsible for pain sensation. The differential diagnosis should include bacterial or autoimmune arthritis, arthritis associated with gout as well as venous thrombosis and injury. The contribution of a local inflammatory reaction and abnormal bone turnover with excessive osteoclast activity might play a role in the etiopathogenesis of this disease. As a result, osseous and articular destruction progresses rapidly leading to irreversible deformity of the foot. Avoiding weight-bearing and resting the foot in a specially selected plaster cast is the most important part of treatment. Patients with the aforementioned complaints are referred to radiologists for imaging examinations. An ultrasonographer should pay attention to changes typical of Charcot arthropathy, such as: inflammatory and destructive changes in joints of the foot, uneven contour of bones with thickening and periosteal hyperemia as well as soft tissue swelling. PMID:27446605

  14. Charcot arthropathy in ultrasound examination - a case report.

    PubMed

    Płaza, Mateusz; Nowakowska-Płaza, Anna; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta; Chojnowski, Marek; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2016-06-01

    This article presents a patient with a long history of type 1 diabetes mellitus complicated with neuropathy and Charcot disease. The most common cause of neuropathic osteoarthropathy, called Charcot osteoarthropathy, is poorly controlled diabetes. The clinical picture is characterized by considerable edema, redness and increased skin temperature with relatively slight pain due to injury to nerve fibers responsible for pain sensation. The differential diagnosis should include bacterial or autoimmune arthritis, arthritis associated with gout as well as venous thrombosis and injury. The contribution of a local inflammatory reaction and abnormal bone turnover with excessive osteoclast activity might play a role in the etiopathogenesis of this disease. As a result, osseous and articular destruction progresses rapidly leading to irreversible deformity of the foot. Avoiding weight-bearing and resting the foot in a specially selected plaster cast is the most important part of treatment. Patients with the aforementioned complaints are referred to radiologists for imaging examinations. An ultrasonographer should pay attention to changes typical of Charcot arthropathy, such as: inflammatory and destructive changes in joints of the foot, uneven contour of bones with thickening and periosteal hyperemia as well as soft tissue swelling. PMID:27446605

  15. Nosocomial bloodstream infections in Brazilian hospitals: analysis of 2,563 cases from a prospective nationwide surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Marra, Alexandre R; Camargo, Luis Fernando Aranha; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos; Sukiennik, Teresa; Behar, Paulo Renato Petersen; Medeiros, Eduardo Alexandrino Servolo; Ribeiro, Julival; Girão, Evelyne; Correa, Luci; Guerra, Carla; Brites, Carlos; Pereira, Carlos Alberto Pires; Carneiro, Irna; Reis, Marise; de Souza, Marta Antunes; Tranchesi, Regina; Barata, Cristina U; Edmond, Michael B

    2011-05-01

    Nosocomial bloodstream infections (nBSIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Data from a nationwide, concurrent surveillance study, Brazilian SCOPE (Surveillance and Control of Pathogens of Epidemiological Importance), were used to examine the epidemiology and microbiology of nBSIs at 16 Brazilian hospitals. In our study 2,563 patients with nBSIs were included from 12 June 2007 to 31 March 2010. Ninety-five percent of BSIs were monomicrobial. Gram-negative organisms caused 58.5% of these BSIs, Gram-positive organisms caused 35.4%, and fungi caused 6.1%. The most common pathogens (monomicrobial) were Staphylococcus aureus (14.0%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (12.6%), Klebsiella spp. (12.0%), and Acinetobacter spp. (11.4%). The crude mortality was 40.0%. Forty-nine percent of nBSIs occurred in the intensive-care unit (ICU). The most frequent underlying conditions were malignancy, in 622 patients (24.3%). Among the potential factors predisposing patients to BSI, central venous catheters were the most frequent (70.3%). Methicillin resistance was detected in 157 S. aureus isolates (43.7%). Of the Klebsiella sp. isolates, 54.9% were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. Of the Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, 55.9% and 36.8%, respectively, were resistant to imipenem. In our multicenter study, we found high crude mortality and a high proportion of nBSIs due to antibiotic-resistant organisms. PMID:21411591

  16. Polymorphisms in regulatory regions of Cyclooxygenase-2 gene and breast cancer risk in Brazilians: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is up-regulated in several types of cancer, and it is hypothesized that COX-2 expression may be genetically influenced. Here, we evaluate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the COX-2 gene (PTGS2) and the occurrence of breast cancer among Brazilian women. Methods The study was conducted prospectively in two steps: First, we screened the promoter region and three fragments of the 3'-untranslated region of PTGS2 from 67 healthy Brazilians to identify SNPs and to select those with a minor allele frequency (MAF) of at least 0.10. The MAF of these selected SNPs was further characterized in 402 healthy volunteers to evaluate potential differences related to heterogeneous racial admixture and to estimate the existence of linkage disequilibrium among the SNPs. The second step was a case-control study with 318 patients and 273 controls designed to evaluate PTGS2 genotype- or haplotype-associated risk of breast cancer. Results The screening analysis indicated nine SNPs with the following MAFs: rs689465 (0.22), rs689466 (0.15), rs20415 (0.007), rs20417 (0.32), rs20419 (0.015), rs5270 (0.02), rs20424 (0.007), rs5275 (0.22) and rs4648298 (0.01). The SNPs rs689465, rs689466, rs20417 and rs5275 were further studied: Their genotypic distributions followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the MAFs were not affected by gender or skin color. Strong linkage disequilibrium was detected for rs689465, rs20417 and rs5275 in the three possible pairwise combinations. In the case-control study, there was a significant increase of rs5275TC heterozygotes in cases compared to controls (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.01-2.06; P = 0.043), and the haplotype formed by rs689465G, rs689466A, rs20417G and rs5275C was only detected in cases. The apparent association with breast cancer was not confirmed for rs5275CC homozygotes or for the most frequent rs5275C-containing haplotypes. Conclusions Our results indicate no strong association between the

  17. Twentieth-century astronomical heritage: the case of the Brazilian National Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboza, Christina Helena

    2015-08-01

    The National Observatory of Brazil was created in 1827. It was initially focused on the practical teaching of Astronomy to the students of military and naval academies. Since the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth century it was installed over the ruins of a Jesuit church located in the center of Rio de Janeiro, capital of the Brazilian Empire.Due to the constant complaints of its successive directors, the search for a new site to house the Observatory began in 1911. The new headquarters of the institution were located on the hill of São Januário, a little further but still around the city center of Rio de Janeiro. Its inauguration took place in 1921.The main building of the new Observatory was based on one of the Brazilian pavilions of the Turin Exhibition of 1911, and its architecture can be characterized as eclectic. The pavilions intended to house the many telescopes were scattered in a large wooded area. Since 1985 all these facilities are protected by the Federal government, as a consequence of the same initiative that gave birth to the Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences, which has the custody also of the Observatory’s former instruments, furniture, and documents.Although built in the early twentieth century the National Observatory new facilities reveal astronomical practices typical of the previous century. One of its most important activities was the determination of the legal time, a task that justifies its location in the urban environment. It was also responsible for the organization of expeditions destined to determine the geographical positions of railroads and the borders of Brazil. For this reason, the Museum of Astronomy has currently more than 3,000 portable instruments. Moreover, these instruments belong to the domain of Astronomy, but also to Geodesy, Meteorology, Electricity. Due to the creation of the Museum of Astronomy, this rich collection is now open to public visitation, and has become the object of scholarly

  18. Magnetospheric disturbance induced equatorial plasma bubble development and dynamics: A case study in Brazilian sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdu, M. A.; Batista, I. S.; Takahashi, H.; MacDougall, J.; Sobral, J. H.; Medeiros, A. F.; Trivedi, N. B.

    2003-12-01

    Equatorial ionospheric plasma bubble irregularity development and dynamics during the major magnetospheric storm of 26 August 1998 are investigated using the data collected by a multistation and multi-instrument diagnostic network operated at equatorial and low latitude sites in Brazil, and auroral electrojet activity (AU/AL), IMF, and Dst indices. A magnetospheric disturbance onset in the morning of 26 August 1998 was initiated by a solar wind shock and associated IMF Bz polarity reversals and ssc that were soon followed by a succession of substorm-like auroral electrojet (AE) intensifications and Dst development. An IMF Bz southward turning and associated AE intensifications in the Brazilian dusk sector produced intense prompt penetration eastward electric field that caused large F region vertical drift and consequently the developments of intense postsunset equatorial anomaly and a series of intense plasma bubbles, the latter event lasting the entire night, as observed by digital ionosondes at São Luís (2.33°S, 315.8°E, dip angle: -.5°) and Fortaleza (3.9°S, 321.55°W, dip angle: -9°) and an all-sky imager, two scanning photometers, and a Digisonde at the low-latitude site Cachoeira Paulista (22.6°S, 315°E dip angle: -28°). A notable aspect of the dynamics of the bubbles was their initially very low eastward drift velocity which turned into steadily increasing westward velocity that lasted till early morning hours. The results show for the first time a relationship between the zonal drift velocities of optically observed large-scale bubbles (tens to hundreds of kilometers) and that of the smaller scale (kilometer sizes) structures as observed by a digital ionosonde. The results point to the dominant role of a disturbance dynamo associated westward thermospheric wind to maintain the plasma irregularity drift increasingly westward going into postmidnight hours. As an important finding, the results further show that significant contribution to the

  19. Melanoma patterns of distant relapse: a study of 108 cases from a South Brazilian center*

    PubMed Central

    Rovere, Rodrigo Kraft; de Souza, Maria Eduarda Pires; Cidral, Danielle Louise da Maia; Hilgert, Sara Fernanda; Ddine, Yasmine Rodrigues Chamse; Stein, Carlos Efrain; Borges, Giuliano Santos; de Lima, Adma Silva

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased over the last decades. Recurrences occur most frequently within the first 2-3 years after diagnosis but patients carry a lifelong risk of relapse. Nevertheless, there is no consensus in the literature on what screening tests patients should undergo. Objectives: To evaluate the most common melanoma metastasis sites among a South Brazilian population from a city with one of the highest melanoma rates, and establish the best screening method for these patients. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study of 108 consecutive melanoma patients followed up at a center from 2009 to 2013. Data were collected on demographic and tumoral characteristics, as well as the site of the first diagnosed metastasis. Results: Patients were divided into 3 groups for analytical purposes: Non-visceral metastases (48% of patients), visceral metastasis (39%) and brain metastasis (13%). We tried to correlate age, gender, mean Breslow thickness, mitosis and death rates with the aforementioned groups but none showed any statistically significant association. Conclusion: Melanoma patients must be monitored to detect early relapse and subsequent effective treatment but the best follow-up strategy remains to be established. PMID:26982777

  20. "Arubaito," or Short-Term Working Abroad in Japan: A Case Study of Brazilian University Students of Japanese Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    International migration between Japan and Brazil dates back to 1908, when the first group of Japanese migrated to Brazil. However, in the 1980s, a reverse flow occurred, as thousands of Brazilians of Japanese descent traveled to Japan to work in manufacturing and construction factories ("dekasegi" workers). Japanese Brazilians up until the third…

  1. Factors associated with obesity in brazilian children enrolled in the school health program: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Honório, Renata Félix; Costa Monteiro Hadler, Maria Claret

    2014-09-01

    Case-control studies evaluating the factors associated with childhood obesity are scarce in Brazil. We aimed to analyze the factors associated with obesity in Brazilian schoolchildren enrolled in the School Health Program.A case-control study was conducted on 80 schoolchildren aged 7 to 9 years, 40 of them obese and 40 of normal weight according to the cut-off points established by the World Health Organization (2007). Weight, height and waist circumference were obtained. Socioeconomic, demographic, health, eating behavior and lifestyle data were collected by applying a questionnaire to the person responsible and by determining his/her nutritional status. A binary unconditional logistic regression model (univariate and multivariate) was used for data analysis. The prevalence of obesity was 7.21%. The final model showed that duration of breast-feeding ≥ 6 months of age (OR 5.3; 95% CI: 1.3-22.1), excess weight of the person responsible (OR 7.1; 95% CI: 1.2-40.2), a sedentary level of physical activity (OR 4.1; 95% CI: 1.1- 15.5), and fast chewing (OR 7.4; 95% CI: 2.1-26.9) were significantly associated with childhood obesity. The factors associated with obesity in schoolchildren were duration of breast-feeding ≥ 6 months, persons responsible with excess weight, and sedentary children who chew fast. The present study contributes information to be used for the health actions planned by the School Health Program.

  2. Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck's Disease) in a 57-Year-Old Brazilian Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Luciano Alberto; de Castro, Joao Gabriel Leite; da Cruz, Alexandre Duarte Lopes; Barbosa, Bruno Henrique de Sousa; de Spindula-Filho, Jose Vieira; Costa, Mauricio Barcelos

    2016-04-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is a rare disease of the oral mucosa associated with infection by some subtypes of human papilloma virus, especially subtypes 13 or 32. The disease is predominantly found in children and adolescents with indigenous heritage, but other ethnic groups can be affected worldwide. To the best of the authors' knowledge, it has not been reported in Brazil's elderly population. This article describes a case of FEH in a 57-year-old Brazilian patient presenting since childhood, with multiple lesions in the lips, buccal mucosa and tongue. The solitary tongue lesion underwent excisional biopsy and the histopathological analysis showed parakeratosis, acanthosis, rete pegs with a club-shaped appearance, koilocytosis and the presence of mitosoid cells. These microscopic findings in conjunction with clinical presentation were sufficient to establish the accurate diagnosis of FEH. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed, but no one human papillomavirus (HPV) subtype could be identified. Clinicians must be aware of this rare oral disease, which can even affect elderly patients, as we described here. Treatment may be indicated in selected cases due to esthetic and/or functional problems.

  3. Lean diesel technology and human health: a case study in six Brazilian metropolitan regions

    PubMed Central

    de André, Paulo Afonso; Veras, Mariana Matera; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Due to their toxicity, diesel emissions have been submitted to progressively more restrictive regulations in developed countries. However, in Brazil, the implementation of the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy (Euro IV standards for vehicles produced in 2009 and low-sulfur diesel with 50 ppm of sulfur) was postponed until 2012 without a comprehensive analysis of the effect of this delay on public health parameters. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy on health indicators and monetary health costs in Brazil. METHODS: The primary estimator of exposure to air pollution was the concentration of ambient fine particulate matter (particles with aerodynamic diameters <2.5 µm, [PM2.5]). This parameter was measured daily in six Brazilian metropolitan areas during 2007-2008. We calculated 1) the projected reduction in the PM2.5 that would have been achieved if the Euro IV standards had been implemented in 2009 and 2) the expected reduction after implementation in 2012. The difference between these two time curves was transformed into health outcomes using previous dose-response curves. The economic valuation was performed based on the DALY (disability-adjusted life years) method. RESULTS: The delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy will result in an estimated excess of 13,984 deaths up to 2040. Health expenditures are projected to be increased by nearly US$ 11.5 billion for the same period. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that a significant health burden will occur because of the postponement in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy. These results also reinforce the concept that health effects must be considered when revising fuel and emission policies. PMID:22760904

  4. Envenomation by Micrurus coral snakes in the Brazilian Amazon region: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Pardal, Pedro Pereira de Oliveira; Pardal, Joseana Silva de Oliveira; Gadelha, Maria Apolônia da Costa; Rodrigues, Líliam da Silva; Feitosa, Darlan Tavares; Prudente, Ana Lúcia da Costa; Fan, Hui Wen

    2010-01-01

    Two cases of proven coral snake bites were reported in Belém, Pará State, Brazil. The first case was a severe one caused by Micrurus surinamensis. The patient required mechanical ventilation due to acute respiratory failure. The second case showed just mild signs of envenomation caused by Micrurus filiformis. Both patients received specific Micrurus antivenom and were discharged without further complications. Coral snake bites are scarcely reported in the Amazon region and there is a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, varying from extremely mild to those which may rapidly lead to death if the patient is not treated as soon as possible.

  5. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    PubMed Central

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website. PMID:27438217

  6. External Examinations for Internal Evaluation: The National Board Part I Test as a Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wile, Marcia Z.

    1978-01-01

    The appropriateness of the Part I examination of the National Board of Medical Examiners to evaluate second-year curricular performance of students at Case Western Reserve School of Medicine was examined. The school used the results in making policy-changing decisions. (Author/LBH)

  7. Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Treatment Default in an Endemic Area of the Brazilian Amazon: A Case Control-Study

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Marlucia da Silva; Penna, Maria Lucia; Perez-Porcuna, Tomàs M.; de Souza, Alexandra Brito; Marreiro, Leni da Silva; Albuquerque, Bernardino Claudio; Martínez-Espinosa, Flor Ernestina; Bührer-Sékula, Samira

    2012-01-01

    Setting Treatment default is a serious problem in tuberculosis control because it implies persistence of infection source, increased mortality, increased relapse rates and facilitates the development of resistant strains. Objective This study analyzed tuberculosis treatment default determinants in the Amazonas State to contribute in planning appropriate control interventions. Design Observational study with a retrospective cohort using Brazilian Disease Notification System data from 2005 to 2010. A nested case control study design was used. Patients defaulting from treatment were considered as ‘cases’ and those completing treatment as ‘controls’. In the analysis, 11,312 tuberculosis patients were included, 1,584 cases and 9,728 controls. Results Treatment default was observed to be associated to previous default (aOR 3.20; p<0.001), HIV positivity (aOR 1.62; p<0.001), alcoholism (aOR 1.51; p<0.001), low education level (aOR 1.35; p<0.001) and other co-morbidities (aOR 1.31; p = 0.05). Older patients (aOR 0.98; p = 0.001) and DOT (aOR 0,72; p<0.01) were considered as protective factor for default. Conclusions Associated factors should be considered in addressing care and policy actions to tuberculosis control. Information on disease and treatment should be intensified and appropriate to the level of education of the population, in order to promote adherence to treatment and counter the spread of multidrug resistance to anti-TB drugs. PMID:22720052

  8. School Physical Education in the Transition from Solid Modernity to Liquid Modernity: The Brazilian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracht, Valter; Gomes, Ivan Marcelo; de Almeida, Felipe Quintão

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of the contemporary transition from a solid modernity to a liquid modernity for school physical education, according to the metaphors adopted by the Polish sociologist and English resident Zygmunt Bauman. By leveraging Bauman's sociological theory, this article pursues two aims: (1) to examine how physical…

  9. Cases for the Net Generation: An Empirical Examination of Students' Attitude toward Multimedia Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Michael; Vibert, Conor

    2016-01-01

    Case studies have been an important tool in business, legal, and medical education for generations of students. Traditional text-based cases tend to be self-contained and structured in such a way as to teach a particular concept. The multimedia cases introduced in this study feature unscripted web-hosted video interviews with business owners and…

  10. Double standards and the international trade of pesticides: the Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Milanez, Bruno; Soares, Wagner Lopes; Meyer, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Despite bans on certain pesticides and their replacement by others considered less hazardous, the widespread use of these substances in agriculture continues to threaten the environment and the health of millions of people. This article discusses the current double standard in the international trade of pesticides and focuses on Brazil, one of the main users of pesticides in the world, analyzing the trends in foreign trade (imports and exports) of selected pesticides as a function of changes in legislation in the United States, the European Union, and Brazil from 1989 to 2006. We applied time line analysis to eight organochlorines already banned in Brazil and conducted a case-by-case qualitative and quantitative analysis of nine other pesticides. The results indicate the existence of double standards, as demonstrated by the continued exports to Brazil of some pesticides banned in the United States and Europe. PMID:20166316

  11. Salivary gland tumors in a Brazilian population: a retrospective study of 496 cases.

    PubMed

    Ito, F A; Ito, K; Vargas, P A; de Almeida, O P; Lopes, M A

    2005-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors are uncommon and the microscopical features can be complex. Epidemiological data of these tumors in the various parts of the world can be helpful for a better understanding of its biology and clinical characteristics. In this study, 496 epithelial and mesenchymal tumors of major and minor salivary glands diagnosed at Londrina Cancer Institute during the period from 1972 to 2001 were reviewed. Out of all cases, 335 (67.5%) were classified as benign and 161 (32.5%) as malignant. The majority of the cases occurred in the parotid gland (67.7%), followed by the minor salivary glands (22.8%) and submandibular gland (9.5%). Among the minor salivary gland tumors, the palate was the most frequent location (67%). The tumors affected more commonly adult patients with peak incidence between 40 and 50 years of age and with a slightly predominance in females. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most frequent tumor representing 54.2% of all cases, followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma (13.5%), Warthin's tumor (8.5%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (7.9%).

  12. Salivary gland tumor: a review of 599 cases in a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Flávia Aparecida; Duarte, Eliza Carla Barroso; Taveira, Cláudia Teixeira; Máximo, Aline Abreu; de Aquino, Erica Carvalho; Alencar, Rita de Cássia; Vencio, Eneida Franco

    2009-12-01

    Salivary gland tumors consist of a group of heterogeneous lesions with complex clinicopathological characteristics and distinct biological behaviors. Worldwide series show a contrast in the relative incidence of salivary gland tumors, with some discrepancies in clinicopathological data. The main aim of this study was to describe demographic characteristics of 599 cases in a population from Central Brazil over a 10-year period and compare these with other epidemiological studies. Benign tumors represented 78.3% of the cases. Women were the most affected (61%) and the male:female ratio was 1:1.6. Parotid gland tumors were the most frequent (68.5% of cases) and patient age ranged from 1 to 88 years-old (median of 45 years old). The most frequent tumors were pleomorphic adenomas (68.4%) and benign tumors were significantly more frequent in the parotid (75.9%), while malignant tumors were more frequent in the minor salivary glands (40%) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, women and the parotid gland were the most affected and pleomorphic adenoma was the most frequent lesion, followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma and Warthin's tumor.

  13. A report of 49 cases of cnidarian envenoming from southeastern Brazilian coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Vidal; da Silveira, Fábio Lang; Cardoso, João Luiz Costa; Morandini, André Carrara

    2002-10-01

    Forty-nine accidents caused by jellyfish (Cnidaria) were observed during a period of 5 years on the southeastern coast of Brazil. Most of them involved male patients (65.3%), the injured areas being mainly the legs (71.3%) and the trunk (65.3%). Twenty accidents with Chiropsalmus quadrumanus, four with Physalia physalis and 20 with unidentified jellyfish presented intense pain, linear plaques and systemic symptoms. The five cases with Olindias sambaquiensis caused mild pain, round plaques and no systemic symptoms. There are a few reports on accidents caused by jellyfish, in this country, and scarce clinical or epidemiological data are available up to the present moment. PMID:12368114

  14. Cryptococcosis in non-HIV/non-transplant patients: A Brazilian case series.

    PubMed

    Lomes, Naiane Ribeiro; Melhem, Marcia Souza de Carvalho; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Martins, Marilena Dos Anjos; Buccheri, Renata

    2016-10-01

    Cryptococcosis is a classical systemic opportunistic mycosis, primarily occurring among patients with significant immunologic impairment. However, this disease could also affect patients without any recognized immunologic defects, that is, phenotypically normal patients. The medical records of 29 non-HIV/nontransplant patients with cryptococcal disease during the period 2007-2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The most common site of infection was the central nervous system (n = 25, 86.2%), followed by the pulmonary system (n = 11, 37.9%) and blood (n = 2, 6.8%). Thoracic- and brain-computed tomography demonstrated abnormalities of 81.2% (n = 13) and 62.5% (n = 15), respectively. In sum, 22% (n = 6) of the patients experienced a significant underlying condition. More than one therapeutic regimen was used in 77.8% (n = 21) of the patients. The isolates were identified as being Cryptococcus neoformans species complex (n = 4, 36.4%) and Cryptococcus gattii species complex (n = 7, 63.6%). The overall mortality was 20.7% (n = 6). Herein, we presented the first case series of cryptococcosis in this specific population in São Paulo City, Brazil. The incidence of cryptococcosis in our hospital has not increased in recent years, and 77.8% (n = 21) of cases had no obvious predisposing factor. However, this disease remains associated with high mortality. PMID:27118805

  15. Post-dengue neuromyelitis optica: case report of a Japanese-descendent Brazilian child.

    PubMed

    Miranda de Sousa, Adriano; Puccioni-Sohler, Marzia; Dias Borges, Adalto; Fernandes Adorno, Lhano; Papais Alvarenga, Marcos; Papais Alvarenga, Regina Maria

    2006-12-01

    Monophasic neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare form of post-infection acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Cases occurring after dengue virus infection are rare, despite the high prevalence of this disease in tropical and subtropical countries. We report a female patient, 11 years old, of Japanese ancestry and living in North Brazil, who developed NMO 1 week after having had a benign form of dengue fever. The disease was confirmed by the detection of dengue IgM antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Restricted distribution of the lesions in the optic nerve and spinal cord was confirmed by ophthalmological evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord. Therapeutic intervention with corticotherapy resulted in benign evolution. This is the second report of optic spinal syndrome following dengue virus infection in patients of Japanese ancestry, suggesting an influence of the genetic background in the susceptibility to post-dengue NMO.

  16. Human adenovirus spread, rainfalls, and the occurrence of gastroenteritis cases in a Brazilian basin.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Manoela Tressoldi; Henzel, Andréia; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; de Quevedo, Daniela Muller; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa; do Nascimento, Carlos Augusto; Spilki, Fernando Rosado

    2015-11-01

    Climate variables may interfere with the environmental persistence and spread of pathogenic microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of human adenovirus (HAdV) and total and thermotolerant coliforms in treated and untreated water and report gastroenteritis cases in seven cities located in the hydrographic basin of the Sinos River (HBSR), Southern Brazil. The data on water quality from samples collected at catchment areas of HBSR from March to December 2011 were compared with precipitation records, virus detection rates and viral loads, and information on enteric diseases among residents of the region. There was a marked increase in precipitation intensity in April, July, and August and a decrease in May and November. The number of HAdV genome copies (gc) in untreated water ranged from 2.1×10(8) gc/L in June to 7.8×10(1) gc/L in December, and in treated water, from 6.3×10(4) gc/L in September to 4.1×10(1) gc/L in November. The most probable number (MPN) of total coliforms ranged from 5×10(1) MPN/100 mL in December to 2.4×10(5) MPN/100 mL in July, and thermotolerant coliforms ranged from 1×10(1) MPN/100 mL in August to 6.9×10(4) MPN/100 mL in July. A total of 79 hospital admissions due to gastroenteritis were registered in the cities studied. The results for coliforms in untreated water demonstrate deficits in sanitation and wastewater treatment. These findings also indicate a possible relationship between the occurrence of rainfalls after dry periods and an increase in the number of gastroenteritis cases and in HAdV load quantified in surface water collected for conventional potabilization.

  17. Human adenovirus spread, rainfalls, and the occurrence of gastroenteritis cases in a Brazilian basin.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Manoela Tressoldi; Henzel, Andréia; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; de Quevedo, Daniela Muller; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa; do Nascimento, Carlos Augusto; Spilki, Fernando Rosado

    2015-11-01

    Climate variables may interfere with the environmental persistence and spread of pathogenic microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of human adenovirus (HAdV) and total and thermotolerant coliforms in treated and untreated water and report gastroenteritis cases in seven cities located in the hydrographic basin of the Sinos River (HBSR), Southern Brazil. The data on water quality from samples collected at catchment areas of HBSR from March to December 2011 were compared with precipitation records, virus detection rates and viral loads, and information on enteric diseases among residents of the region. There was a marked increase in precipitation intensity in April, July, and August and a decrease in May and November. The number of HAdV genome copies (gc) in untreated water ranged from 2.1×10(8) gc/L in June to 7.8×10(1) gc/L in December, and in treated water, from 6.3×10(4) gc/L in September to 4.1×10(1) gc/L in November. The most probable number (MPN) of total coliforms ranged from 5×10(1) MPN/100 mL in December to 2.4×10(5) MPN/100 mL in July, and thermotolerant coliforms ranged from 1×10(1) MPN/100 mL in August to 6.9×10(4) MPN/100 mL in July. A total of 79 hospital admissions due to gastroenteritis were registered in the cities studied. The results for coliforms in untreated water demonstrate deficits in sanitation and wastewater treatment. These findings also indicate a possible relationship between the occurrence of rainfalls after dry periods and an increase in the number of gastroenteritis cases and in HAdV load quantified in surface water collected for conventional potabilization. PMID:26514803

  18. Youth knowledge of physical activity health benefits: a Brazilian case study.

    PubMed

    Zieff, Susan Gail; Guedes, Claudia Maria; Wiley, James

    2006-12-28

    This study presents the findings of a questionnaire-based investigation of knowledge about the relationship of physical activity to health among adolescent participants of a community-based physical activity intervention program in São Paulo, Brazil. Qualitative (inductive content analysis) and quantitative methods were applied to examine the participants' responses to two open-ended questions concerning the health benefits of physical activity and the educational goals of the intervention. More than 75% of all participants stated that health benefits (of some type) are attained through participation in physical activity. More than 50% of participants reported that the goal of the intervention was to educate people about the importance of a healthy, active lifestyle. Adolescents understand the relationship of physical activity to health as reflected in their knowledge assessments; their lifestyle choices support these beliefs. These findings offer encouragement for the development and implementation of educationally oriented interventions aimed at providing physical activity information and programming.

  19. Examining Treatment Effects for Single-Case ABAB Designs through Sensitivity Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumbacher, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    Single-case designs (SCDs) are often used to examine the impact of an intervention over brief periods of time (Kratochwill & Stoiber, 2002; Segool, Brinkman, & Carlson, 2007). The majority of SCDs are inspected using visual analysis (Kromrey & Foster-Johnson, 1996; Morgan & Morgan, 2009). Although the single-case literature…

  20. Examining the Stability of Experts' Clinical Case Processing: An Experimental Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruin, Anique B. H.; Van De Wiel, Margaretha W. J.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the hypothesis that the intermediate effect in clinical case recall is partly explained by experts' lower motivation to write down "everything" they remember when asked for free recall. Medical experts and students were presented with two clinical cases, which they had to read, diagnose, and recall.…

  1. A Practice Concepts Symposium on Drug Misuse in the Elderly: Examination of a Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstone, Barbara; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Set of articles consisting of an introduction (Barbara Silverstone, et al.) and case study concerning drug misuse in the elderly, and six papers examining the case from the perspectives of clinical pharmacology (William Simonson); pharmacology (Peter Lamy); psychiatry (Charles Gaitz and Nancy Wilson); nursing (Delores Alford); social work (Janet…

  2. Examining the Contemporary Status of an Education System: The Case of the Republic of South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banraba, Boboya James Edimond

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine the contemporary status of an education system. The paper takes the case of the Republic of South Sudan. The key issues the paper will examine are the education enrollment and completion rates while paying particular attention to inequalities in both access and quality among racial or ethnic groups, males and…

  3. Minor salivary gland tumours. A retrospective study of 164 cases in a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Loyola, A M; de Araújo, V C; de Sousa, S O; de Araújo, N S

    1995-05-01

    One hundred and sixty-four cases of intraoral salivary gland tumours retrieved from the files of the Surgical Oral Pathology laboratory of the University of São Paulo (Brazil), between 1970 and 1993, were studied. Of these, 164 tumours, 62% were classified as benign and 38% malignant. The palate was the main site of occurrence of the tumours followed by the buccal mucosa and upper lip. There was a slight predominance for female patients, with a female to male ratio of 1.3:1. The mean age for benign tumours was 39.9 years (40.8 for females, and 39.7 for males). For malignant tumours the mean age was 43.5 years (42.6 for females and 44.7 for males). Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common of the benign tumours, whereas mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma were the most common malignant tumours. In general, benign tumours presented as an asymptomatic nodule. On the other hand, pain, ulceration and radiographic changes were more frequently associated with malignant lesions.

  4. Off-Pump Triple Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in a Patient with Situs Inversus Totalis: Case Presentation and a Brief Review of the Brazilian and the International Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Karigyo, Carlos Junior Toshiyuki; Batalini, Felipe; Murakami, Alexandre Noboru; Teruya, Rogério Toshio; Gregori Júnior, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    A 76-year-old man with situs inversus totalis underwent a successful off-pump three-vessel coronary artery bypass surgery. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged 8 days later. At 9-month follow-up a coronary computed tomography angiography confirmed the viability of all of the grafts, and one year after the operation the patient remained asymptomatic. It comprises the fifth Brazilian case of a coronary surgery in a patient with situs inversus totalis and the first one of the country of a coronary artery bypass surgery without the use of the cardiopulmonary bypass in this condition. PMID:27556323

  5. Sex offender polygraph examination: an evidence-based case management tool for social workers.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S

    2009-10-01

    This article will review the use of polygraphy in the assessment and treatment of sexual perpetrators. Such information can be utilized by social workers who are involved in the treatment and case management of child sexual abuse cases. First, the controversial literature regarding the validity and reliability of polygraph examination in general will be reviewed. Next, an emerging body of evidence supporting the utility of polygraph testing with sex offenders will be discussed. Finally, ways that social workers can incorporate this knowledge into their case management and clinical roles will be offered.

  6. Sex offender polygraph examination: an evidence-based case management tool for social workers.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S

    2009-10-01

    This article will review the use of polygraphy in the assessment and treatment of sexual perpetrators. Such information can be utilized by social workers who are involved in the treatment and case management of child sexual abuse cases. First, the controversial literature regarding the validity and reliability of polygraph examination in general will be reviewed. Next, an emerging body of evidence supporting the utility of polygraph testing with sex offenders will be discussed. Finally, ways that social workers can incorporate this knowledge into their case management and clinical roles will be offered. PMID:20183683

  7. Micronucleus frequency in children exposed to biomass burning in the Brazilian Legal Amazon region: a control case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Amazon represents an area of 61% of Brazilian territory and is undergoing major changes resulting from disorderly economic development, especially the advance of agribusiness. Composition of the atmosphere is controlled by several natural and anthropogenic processes, and emission from biomass burning is one with the major impact on human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxic potential of air pollutants generated by biomass burning through micronucleus assay in exfoliated buccal cells of schoolchildren in the Brazilian Amazon region. Methods The study was conducted during the dry seasons in two regions of the Brazilian Amazon. The assay was carried out on buccal epithelial cells of 574 schoolchildren between 6-16 years old. Results The results show a significant difference between micronucleus frequencies in children exposed to biomass burning compared to those in a control area. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that in situ biomonitoring using a sensitive and low cost assay (buccal micronucleus assay) may be an important tool for monitoring air quality in remote regions. It is difficult to attribute the increase in micronuclei frequency observed in our study to any specific toxic element integrated in the particulate matters. However, the contribution of the present study lies in the evidence that increased exposure to fine particulate matter generates an increased micronuclei frequency in oral epithelial cells of schoolchildren. PMID:22400801

  8. Using Peer Reviews to Examine Micropolitics and Disciplinary Development of Engineering Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddoes, Kacey

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the peer review process for a feminist article submitted to an engineering education journal. It demonstrates how an examination of peer review can be a useful approach to further understanding the development of feminist thought in education fields. Rather than opposition to feminist thought per se, my…

  9. The Secondary Education Certificate and Matriculation Examinations in Malta: A Case Study. INNODATA1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Ronald G.

    This monograph presents a case study of a significant innovation in Malta: the establishment of an indigenous system of examinations at the secondary school and postsecondary levels. This is an example of a small state setting up its own end-of-cycle certification rather than using what is provided by metropolitan countries. The introductory…

  10. An Examination of Resilience Processes in Context: The Case of Tasha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Tammy A.

    2008-01-01

    This research examined resilience processes in context through a narrative case study of Tasha, a young African-American woman who grew up in a poverty-ridden area of a mid-sized city in the Southeast. Personal and external data are analyzed and interpreted in terms of contextually defined themes of adversity (i.e., intersectionality of social…

  11. A Case for Examining Pre-Service Teacher Preparation for Inquiry Teaching Science with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Chris T.; Yerrick, Randy

    2014-01-01

    Inquiry has been the framework for guiding reform-based science instruction. All too often, the role of technology is treated tacitly without contributions to this framework. This case study examines a collection of pre-service teachers enrolling in two educational technology courses and the role these experiences play in promoting inquiry…

  12. Examining Process Constructs of Narrative Career Counselling: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark; Chetty, Candice; Hoelson, Christopher Norman

    2012-01-01

    The present article examines how the five process constructs of reflection, connectedness, meaning making, learning and agency are operationalised in a constructivist approach to career counselling, specifically a storytelling approach. This article reports on an exploratory case study of a Black South African female university student. The case…

  13. 38 CFR 4.42 - Complete medical examination of injury cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Complete medical examination of injury cases. 4.42 Section 4.42 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.42...

  14. Examination of a Dispositional System in a Teacher Education Program: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Prooyen, Traci L.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods, case study research examined the teacher education program at Illinois State University (ISU-Normal, Illinois) as related to the views and assessment practices of the dispositions of its teacher candidates. Five years of quantitative and qualitative data from ISU's Disposition Concern form was collected and analyzed currently…

  15. Severe acute cholangitis after endoscopic sphincterotomy induced by barium examination: A case report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wu, Ya-Guang; Qin, Cheng-Kun; Su, Zhong-Xue; Xu, Jian; Xian, Guo-Zhe; Wu, Shuo-Dong

    2012-10-21

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is considered as a possible etiological factor for severe cholangitis. We herein report a case of severe cholangitis after endoscopic sphincterotomy induced by barium examination. An adult male patient presented with epigastric pain was diagnosed as having choledocholithiasis by ultrasonography. EST was performed and the stone was completely cleaned. Barium examination was done 3 d after EST and severe cholangitis appeared 4 h later. The patient was recovered after treated with tienam for 4 d. Barium examination may induce severe cholangitis in patients after EST, although rare, barium examination should be chosen cautiously. Cautions should be also used when EST is performed in patients younger than 50 years to avoid the damage to the sphincter of Oddi.

  16. [The illegal market for gender-related drugs as portrayed in the Brazilian news media: the case of misoprostol and women].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Castro, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes how the Brazilian news media covers the illegal market for misoprostol, the main drug used to induce abortion. A total of 1,429 news stories were retrieved from 220 print and electronic media channels from 2004 to 2009. The analysis included 524 stories from 62 regional and national newspapers. Misoprostol appeared repeatedly in the news, but was usually approached from a criminal perspective, unlike abortion as a whole, which the Brazilian media routinely covers as a religious, political, and public health issue. Misoprostol is part of the illegal gender-related drug market, along with drugs for weight loss and erectile dysfunction and anabolic steroids. Sixty-four (12%) of the news stories told life histories of women who had aborted with misoprostol. The women's ages ranged from 13 to 46 years, and socioeconomic status was associated with different experiences with abortion. Three characters appeared in the women's abortion itineraries: girlfriends (confidantes), go-betweens, and physicians. Stories of late-stage abortion are confused with the criminal characterization of infanticide and provide the extreme cases in the media's narrative on abortion. PMID:21340108

  17. "The Police Have Given Up": An Empirical Examination of Covictims' Beliefs About Cold Case Homicide Investigations.

    PubMed

    Stretesky, Paul B; Cope, Kathryn; Shelley, Tara O'Connor; Hogan, Michael J; Unnithan, N Prabha

    2016-01-01

    This work examines the perception by cold case homicide covictims that police have given up trying to solve their loved one's murder. A random sample (n = 65) of cold case homicide covictims is surveyed to determine if, and how, different forms of communication may be important in their perceptions about police. Ordered logistic regression analyses indicate that perceived importance of the information communicated, frequency of police contact, and satisfaction with communication efforts by police are inversely correlated with covictims' perceptions that police have given up on the investigation. These inverse correlations persist despite statistical controls and have important implications for the bereavement of covictims and for crime rates.

  18. Cuts and tears on a paper towel: a case report on an unusual examination of damage.

    PubMed

    Causin, Valerio; Marega, Carla; Schiavone, Sergio

    2005-03-10

    The examination of damage to a paper towel, an item of evidence in a murder case, is described. Simulations performed with selected tools and the observation of the lacerations present on the towel permitted to infer that they were originated by cleaning of a pointed and sharp implement. Some marks, considered characteristic of scissors, were detected on the exhibit. This experimental outcome resulted critical in challenging the declarations of the suspect. A rather significant analogy between damage examination on paper towels and on textiles was established. PMID:15639610

  19. Methadone toxicity fatalities: a review of medical examiner cases in a large metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Shields, Lisa B E; Hunsaker Iii, John C; Corey, Tracey S; Ward, Michael K; Stewart, Donna

    2007-11-01

    Over the past several years, Medical Examiners in Kentucky and around the nation have observed a dramatic rise in drug intoxication deaths involving the prescription medication methadone. This documented rise in methadone-related deaths requires a better understanding of methadone's pathophysiology and the ways it contributes to significantly increase morbidity and mortality. This study reviews 176 fatalities ascribed to methadone toxicity by the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner in Kentucky between 2000 and 2004. Postmortem toxicological analysis recorded a more than 10-fold increase in methadone toxicity fatalities, rising from 6 cases in 2000 to 68 cases in 2003. Of the 176 methadone-related fatalities, methadone was the only drug detected in postmortem blood and urine toxicological analyses in 11 (6.25%) cases. The mean methadone blood concentration of all 176 cases was 0.535 mg / L (0.02-4.0). The following psychoactive medications were detected: antidepressants (39.8%), benzodiazepines (32.4%), and other opioids in addition to methadone (27.8%). Cannabinoids were detected in 44 (28.4%) cases and cocaine or metabolite in 34 (21.9%) cases. Of the 95 cases with a known history of methadone use, 46 (48.4%) involved prescription by private physician. The interpretation of blood methadone concentrations alone or combined with other psychoactive drugs requires consideration of the subject's potential chronic use of and tolerance to the drug. A thorough investigation into the practices of procurement and use/abuse of methadone is essential to arrive at the proper designation of the cause of death.

  20. On matters of causation in personal injury cases: Considerations in forensic examination

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Robert; Klar, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatologists are often called to be independent examiners of injured claimants and to address the question: “What is causing the injured person’s symptoms?” This article deals with the legal principles that arise in these cases, including causation, convenient focus, secondary gain, and thin skull rules. We shall first set out two hypothetical scenarios of personal injury cases that set the scene for a discussion of legal principles in personal injury law. With the same two scenarios of personal injury in mind, we shall review the legal principles and the biopsychosocial models of the illnesses concerned and consider the importance of examiners going beyond diagnostic labels towards a more in-depth analysis of illness factors and mechanisms that in turn assist the trier of facts. PMID:27708902

  1. Examining the Alignment of Chinese National Physics Curriculum Guidelines and 12th-Grade Exit Examinations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ling L.; Yuan, Haiquan

    2008-01-01

    This study reports findings from an analysis of the 2002 Chinese National Physics Curriculum Guidelines and the alignment between the curriculum guidelines and two most recent provincial-level 12th-grade exit examinations in China. Both curriculum guidelines and test content were represented using two-dimensional matrices (i.e., topic by level of…

  2. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version "COPE Breve".

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Sarah V; Orsini, Mara R C A; Cavalcante, Julianna A; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M; Costa, Paulo S S; Costa, Luciane R

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts. PMID:27007646

  3. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version "COPE Breve".

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Sarah V; Orsini, Mara R C A; Cavalcante, Julianna A; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M; Costa, Paulo S S; Costa, Luciane R

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts.

  4. Examining the therapeutic relationship and confronting resistances in psychodynamic psychotherapy: a certified public accountant case.

    PubMed

    Manetta, Christopher T; Gentile, Julie P; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2011-05-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective for a variety of mental health symptoms. This form of psychotherapy uses patient self reflection and self examination, as well as the therapeutic relationship between the patient and psychiatrist, to explore maladaptive coping strategies and relationship patterns of the patient. A thorough understanding of resistance and the core conflictual relationship theme afford the psychiatrist the ability to facilitate this work. In this article, the composite case illustrates some of the psychodynamic psychotherapy techniques that can be employed in a psychotherapy case. In this example, the case is about a certified public accountant that came to treatment because of an acute stressor that put her career goals at risk. An acute episode or event can bring to light chronic and ongoing symptoms, which have had a remitting and relapsing course, and leave the patient unable to compensate on his or her own.

  5. Brazilian gemstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro

    1981-04-01

    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  6. The Validation of a Case-Based, Cumulative Assessment and Progressions Examination

    PubMed Central

    Coker, Adeola O.; Copeland, Jeffrey T.; Gottlieb, Helmut B.; Horlen, Cheryl; Smith, Helen E.; Urteaga, Elizabeth M.; Ramsinghani, Sushma; Zertuche, Alejandra; Maize, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess content and criterion validity, as well as reliability of an internally developed, case-based, cumulative, high-stakes third-year Annual Student Assessment and Progression Examination (P3 ASAP Exam). Methods. Content validity was assessed through the writing-reviewing process. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing student scores on the P3 ASAP Exam with the nationally validated Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA). Reliability was assessed with psychometric analysis comparing student performance over four years. Results. The P3 ASAP Exam showed content validity through representation of didactic courses and professional outcomes. Similar scores on the P3 ASAP Exam and PCOA with Pearson correlation coefficient established criterion validity. Consistent student performance using Kuder-Richardson coefficient (KR-20) since 2012 reflected reliability of the examination. Conclusion. Pharmacy schools can implement internally developed, high-stakes, cumulative progression examinations that are valid and reliable using a robust writing-reviewing process and psychometric analyses. PMID:26941435

  7. Risk and prognostic factors for diarrheal disease in Brazilian infants: a special case-control design application.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Sandra Costa; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, maternal reproductive, dietary, and nutritional variables on diarrhea risk and prognosis using a hierarchical framework. A case-control study of children aged 0-23 months in Greater Metropolitan Porto Alegre was conducted during the peak season for diarrhea in 1987-1988. Three groups were investigated, with 192 children each. The first group included hospitalized children with an episode of acute diarrhea complicated by moderate to severe dehydration. The second group included children with acute mild diarrhea without signs of dehydration who were identified in the same neighborhood as hospitalized cases. The third group consisted of controls without diarrhea. Mothers were interviewed by trained interviewers using a standardized questionnaire. Data analysis included a hierarchical approach to control for confounding, using conditional logistic regression. Comparison of the three groups aimed to identify risk factors for diarrhea complicated by dehydration, prognostic factors for dehydration, and risk factors for mild diarrhea. Low birth weight, stunting, and lack or breastfeeding acted simultaneously as risk and prognostic factors for diarrhea.

  8. Molecular and pedigree analysis applied to conservation of animal genetic resources: the case of Brazilian Somali hair sheep.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Samuel R; Facó, Olivardo; Faria, Danielle A; Lacerda, Thaísa; Barretto, Gabriel B; Carneiro, Paulo L S; Lobo, Raimundo N B; McManus, Concepta

    2011-10-01

    The first registers of Somali sheep in Brazil are from the beginning of the 1900s. This breed, adapted to the dry climate and scarce food supply, is restricted in the northeast region of the country. Molecular marker technologies, especially those based on genotyping microsatellite and mtDNA loci, can be used in conjunction with breeding (pedigree analysis) and consequently the maintenance of genetic variation in herds. Animals from the Brazilian Somali Conservation Nuclei from Embrapa Sheep and Goats in Ceará State were used to validate genetic monitoring by traditional pedigree methods and molecular markers. Nineteen microsatellite markers and 404 base pairs from the control region of mtDNA were used. For total herd diversity, an average 5.32 alleles were found, with expected heterozygosity of 0.5896, observed heterozygosity of 0.6451, 0.4126 for molecular coancestrality, and coefficient of inbreeding (F (IS)) was -0.095. Comparing molecular coancestrality means over the years, there was a consistent increase in this parameter within the herd, increasing from 0.4157 to 0.4769 in 2 years (approx. 12% variation). Sixteen mtDNA haplotypes were identified. Inbreeding and other estimates from genealogical analyses confirm the results from molecular markers. From these results, it is possible to state that microsatellites are useful tools in genetic management of herds, especially when routine herd recording is not carried out, or there were gaps in recent generations. As well as pedigree control, genetic diversity can be optimized. Based on the results, and despite herd recording in the herd of Brazilian Somali of Embrapa Sheep and Goats, additional management measures need to be carried out in this herd to reduce inbreeding and optimize genetic variation.

  9. Polycystic kidney disease in adult Brazilian agoutis (Dasyprocta leporina).

    PubMed

    Müller, D W H; Szentiks, C A; Wibbelt, G

    2009-07-01

    During the last 21 years, 7 adult captive Brazilian agoutis (Dasyprocta leporina) from 4 different zoologic gardens were necropsied and histologically examined at the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany. All animals had polycystic kidney disease as the major pathologic change. Except in 1 case, no clinical signs were recognized prior to death. The animals had macroscopic bilateral alterations of the kidneys ranging from granulated surfaces to severe polycystic changes. Microscopic examination revealed multifocal to generalized, moderate to severe cystic dilatations of Bowman's capsules and renal tubules, moderate mesangial and capsular proliferation of the renal corpuscles, mild interstitial fibrosis, and mild to moderate interstitial lympho-plasmacytic infiltrations. Little information is known about the genetic relationships of these animals, but breeding practice indicates a high possibility of inbred agouti zoo populations in Germany. This is the first report on polycystic kidney disease in Brazilian agoutis with possible genetic background.

  10. Examining the Use of a Visual Analytics System for Sensemaking Tasks: Case Studies with Domain Experts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Youn-Ah; Stasko, J

    2012-12-01

    While the formal evaluation of systems in visual analytics is still relatively uncommon, particularly rare are case studies of prolonged system use by domain analysts working with their own data. Conducting case studies can be challenging, but it can be a particularly effective way to examine whether visual analytics systems are truly helping expert users to accomplish their goals. We studied the use of a visual analytics system for sensemaking tasks on documents by six analysts from a variety of domains. We describe their application of the system along with the benefits, issues, and problems that we uncovered. Findings from the studies identify features that visual analytics systems should emphasize as well as missing capabilities that should be addressed. These findings inform design implications for future systems.

  11. Fatal diving accidents: two case reports and an overview of the role of forensic examinations.

    PubMed

    Lüderwald, Sybille; Zinka, Bettina

    2008-09-18

    During the years 2004-2006, seven divers, who had deadly accidents, underwent post-mortem examination at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the University of Munich. The cause of death in all divers was drowning with typical pathomorphological findings. This should be regarded as separated to the triggering reason for drowning. The trigger for accident was established in four of seven cases by technical analysis and police investigation. High risk-taking, lack of technical service, and deficiency of dive equipment care were main reasons for death. We present two of these cases which showed several problems occurring concurrently. Autopsy always is necessary to look for indices for application of force or to exclude competitive reasons for death. PMID:18706775

  12. Osteological, biomolecular and geochemical examination of an early anglo-saxon case of lepromatous leprosy.

    PubMed

    Inskip, Sarah A; Taylor, G Michael; Zakrzewski, Sonia R; Mays, Simon A; Pike, Alistair W G; Llewellyn, Gareth; Williams, Christopher M; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Minnikin, David E; Besra, Gurdyal S; Stewart, Graham R

    2015-01-01

    We have examined a 5th to 6th century inhumation from Great Chesterford, Essex, UK. The incomplete remains are those of a young male, aged around 21-35 years at death. The remains show osteological evidence of lepromatous leprosy (LL) and this was confirmed by lipid biomarker analysis and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis, which provided evidence for both multi-copy and single copy loci from the Mycobacterium leprae genome. Genotyping showed the strain belonged to the 3I lineage, but the Great Chesterford isolate appeared to be ancestral to 3I strains found in later medieval cases in southern Britain and also continental Europe. While a number of contemporaneous cases exist, at present, this case of leprosy is the earliest radiocarbon dated case in Britain confirmed by both aDNA and lipid biomarkers. Importantly, Strontium and Oxygen isotope analysis suggest that the individual is likely to have originated from outside Britain. This potentially sheds light on the origins of the strain in Britain and its subsequent spread to other parts of the world, including the Americas where the 3I lineage of M. leprae is still found in some southern states of America. PMID:25970602

  13. Osteological, Biomolecular and Geochemical Examination of an Early Anglo-Saxon Case of Lepromatous Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Inskip, Sarah A.; Taylor, G. Michael; Zakrzewski, Sonia R.; Mays, Simon A.; Pike, Alistair W. G.; Llewellyn, Gareth; Williams, Christopher M.; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H. T.; Minnikin, David E.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Stewart, Graham R.

    2015-01-01

    We have examined a 5th to 6th century inhumation from Great Chesterford, Essex, UK. The incomplete remains are those of a young male, aged around 21–35 years at death. The remains show osteological evidence of lepromatous leprosy (LL) and this was confirmed by lipid biomarker analysis and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis, which provided evidence for both multi-copy and single copy loci from the Mycobacterium leprae genome. Genotyping showed the strain belonged to the 3I lineage, but the Great Chesterford isolate appeared to be ancestral to 3I strains found in later medieval cases in southern Britain and also continental Europe. While a number of contemporaneous cases exist, at present, this case of leprosy is the earliest radiocarbon dated case in Britain confirmed by both aDNA and lipid biomarkers. Importantly, Strontium and Oxygen isotope analysis suggest that the individual is likely to have originated from outside Britain. This potentially sheds light on the origins of the strain in Britain and its subsequent spread to other parts of the world, including the Americas where the 3I lineage of M. leprae is still found in some southern states of America. PMID:25970602

  14. Sinus Augmentation by Platelet-Rich Fibrin Alone: A Report of Two Cases with Histological Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Kanayama, Takeo; Maeda, Michinori; Horii, Koichiro; Miyamoto, Hironori; Wada, Keinoshin; Ojima, Yasutaka; Tsuchimochi, Tsukasa; Shibuya, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In sinus floor augmentation of an atrophic posterior maxilla, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has been used as a graft material. We herein report two cases with histological evaluations of PRF after the surgery. The first case was a 28-year-old female with an atrophic right posterior maxilla who was treated with sinus floor augmentation and simultaneous implant placement using PRF as the sole graft material in our hospital. Twenty-four months after surgery, the implant was unfortunately removed because of occlusal overloading by parafunctional habits. During implant replacement, a tissue sample was obtained from the site of augmentation with PRF and was evaluated histologically. The second case was a 58-year-old man with severe alveolar atrophy of the right maxilla who underwent lateral sinus augmentation using only PRF in a two-stage procedure in our hospital. Samples were obtained at the second-stage surgery and histological examinations were performed. As a result, new bone formation was confirmed histologically in both cases. Our findings show that the use of PRF as a graft material during sinus floor augmentation induces natural bone regeneration. PMID:27795860

  15. Older Age and Time to Medical Assistance Are Associated with Severity and Mortality of Snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Feitosa, Esaú L.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Salinas, Jorge L.; Queiroz, Amanda M.; da Silva, Iran Mendonça; Gomes, André A.; Sachett, Jacqueline; Siqueira, André M.; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L.; dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon region reports the highest incidence of snakebite envenomings in Brazil. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of snakebites in the state of Amazonas and to investigate factors associated with disease severity and lethality. We used a nested case-control study, in order to identify factors associated with snakebite severity and mortality using official Brazilian reporting systems, from 2007 to 2012. Patients evolving to severity or death were considered cases and those with non-severe bites were included in the control group. During the study period, 9,191 snakebites were recorded, resulting in an incidence rate of 52.8 cases per 100,000 person/years. Snakebites mostly occurred in males (79.0%) and in rural areas (70.2%). The most affected age group was between 16 and 45 years old (54.6%). Fifty five percent of the snakebites were related to work activities. Age ≤15 years [OR=1.26 (95% CI=1.03-1.52); (p=0.018)], age ≥65 years [OR=1.53 (95% CI=1.09-2.13); (p=0.012)], work related bites [OR=1.39 (95% CI=1.17-1.63); (p<0.001)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=1.73 (95% CI=1.45-2.07); (p<0.001)] were independently associated with the risk of severity. Age ≥65 years [OR=3.19 (95% CI=1.40-7.25); (p=0.006)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=2.01 (95% CI=1.15-3.50); (p=0.013)] were independently associated with the risk of death. Snakebites represent an occupational health problem for rural populations in the Brazilian Amazon with a wide distribution. These results highlight the need for public health strategies aiming to reduce occupational injuries. Most cases of severe disease occurred in the extremes of age, in those with delays in medical attention and those caused by Micrurus bites. These features of victims of snakebite demand adequate management according to well-defined protocols, including prompt referral to tertiary centres when necessary, as well as an effective response from surveillance systems and policy makers for these

  16. A study of amnesia in homicide cases and forensic psychiatric experts' examination of such claims.

    PubMed

    Grøndahl, Pål; Vaerøy, Henning; Dahl, Alv A

    2009-01-01

    About one third of defendants in homicide cases claim amnesia during the time of their alleged act. Examining the authenticity of claimed amnesia is a special challenge for forensic experts. Because the experts' conclusions have legal implications, it is useful to study the characteristics of defendants who claim amnesia regarding a homicidal act and how forensic experts assess these defendants' claims. The forensic psychiatric reports from 2001 to 2007 on 102 Norwegian defendants charged with homicide were assessed quantitatively with a structured rating form. Due to multiple comparisons p of .003 was chosen. Twenty-six defendants claimed partial and 17 claimed total amnesia. No significant differences in the characteristics of the defendants were found between the partial, total, and no amnesia claiming groups. Claims of partial or total amnesia did not change the procedures and content of the forensic experts' examination. A memory test was applied in only one case. Despite the seriousness of the crime and the difficulty of assessing amnesia, the experts did not apply psychological testing of memory function or appropriate tests of possible malingering. Guidelines or standardized procedures for evaluation of defendants who claim amnesia should be developed. This could eventually contribute to more reliable and valid evaluations by forensic experts and increase the probability of just court outcomes.

  17. A Case Controlled Examination of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide in the Second Half of Life.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Kimberly A; Smith, Phillip N; Chen, Tian; Conwell, Yeates

    2016-07-01

    The interpersonal theory of suicide proposes that the most proximal cause of suicide is the combination of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness coupled with a pre-existing vulnerability of reduced fear of death and increased pain tolerance. This pre-existing vulnerability develops in response to painful and provocative life events. According to the theory, empirically demonstrated risk factors for suicide operate by increasing the likelihood of one or more of the theory's constructs. The current study examined the relations of the major constructs of the interpersonal theory with suicide case status compared to living controls in the second half of life. The current study used a pre-existing psychological autopsy database to compare suicide decedents to living controls 50 years and older. Theory constructs were measured by composite scores of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and painful and provocative experiences using an a priori selection of items comprising each construct. Suicide decedents experienced greater levels of all three of the theory's constructs when examined independently compared to living controls. When examined simultaneously while also controlling for Major Depression, greater perceived burdensomeness and painful and provocative experiences were associated with suicide case status (vs. control). The interpersonal theory is a comprehensive framework that may be useful in understanding risk for death by suicide in the second half of life. Clinical management of suicide risk for adults in the second half of life could include a focus on perceived burdensomeness, as the IPTS proposes that this psychological state is amenable to change via therapeutic intervention. PMID:26219512

  18. Pasture evapotranspiration as indicators of degradation in the Brazilian Savanna: a case study for Alto Tocantins watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Sano, Edson E.; Leivas, Janice F.; Victoria, Daniel C.; Nogueira, Sandra F.

    2014-10-01

    The Alto Tocantins watershed, located in the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado biome), is under an intense land use and occupation process, causing increased pressure on natural resources. Pasture areas in the region are highly relevant to the rational use of natural resources in order to achieve economic and environmental sustainability. In this context, remote sensing techniques have been essential for obtaining information relevant to the assessment of vegetation conditions on a large scale. This study aimed to apply this tool in conjunction with field measurements to evaluate evapotranspiration (ET) against pasture degradation indicators. The SAFER algorithm was applied to estimate ET using MODIS images and weather station data from year 2012. Results showed that ET was lower in degraded pastures. It is noteworthy that during low rainfall period, ET values were 22.2% lower in relation to non-degraded pastures. This difference in ET indicates changes in the partition of the energy balance and may impact the microclimate. These results may contribute to public policies that aim to reduce the loss of the productive potential of pastures.

  19. Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck’s Disease) in a 57-Year-Old Brazilian Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Luciano Alberto; de Castro, Joao Gabriel Leite; da Cruz, Alexandre Duarte Lopes; Barbosa, Bruno Henrique de Sousa; de Spindula-Filho, Jose Vieira; Costa, Mauricio Barcelos

    2016-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck’s disease, is a rare disease of the oral mucosa associated with infection by some subtypes of human papilloma virus, especially subtypes 13 or 32. The disease is predominantly found in children and adolescents with indigenous heritage, but other ethnic groups can be affected worldwide. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, it has not been reported in Brazil’s elderly population. This article describes a case of FEH in a 57-year-old Brazilian patient presenting since childhood, with multiple lesions in the lips, buccal mucosa and tongue. The solitary tongue lesion underwent excisional biopsy and the histopathological analysis showed parakeratosis, acanthosis, rete pegs with a club-shaped appearance, koilocytosis and the presence of mitosoid cells. These microscopic findings in conjunction with clinical presentation were sufficient to establish the accurate diagnosis of FEH. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed, but no one human papillomavirus (HPV) subtype could be identified. Clinicians must be aware of this rare oral disease, which can even affect elderly patients, as we described here. Treatment may be indicated in selected cases due to esthetic and/or functional problems. PMID:26985258

  20. Epidemiology of Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick) in the southern Brazilian highlands and the description of human and animal retrospective cases of tick parasitism.

    PubMed

    Reck, José; Marks, Fernanda S; Guimarães, Jorge A; Termignoni, Carlos; Martins, João Ricardo

    2013-02-01

    Ornithodoros brasiliensis, also known as the "mouro" tick, is an argasid tick found exclusively in the southern Brazilian highlands. O. brasiliensis parasitism is frequently associated with severe symptoms directly induced by the tick bite, a condition compatible with the definition of tick toxicosis. The objectives of this work include (i) the determination of the distribution of O. brasiliensis in farms located in the tick-endemic region, (ii) the description of the characteristics of O. brasiliensis habitats, (iii) the analysis of risk factors associated with O. brasiliensis, and (iv) the retrospective description of cases of human and animal parasitism by O. brasiliensis. Of the 30 farms included in this study, O. brasiliensis was identified on 5 farms (frequency 16.7%), in which several ticks found in high density buried in soil were collected. Information regarding the tick habitats and the local population was recorded. The data indicated that O. brasiliensis feeds on humans, dogs, armadillos (Dasypus hybridus), and possibly skunks (Conepatus chinga). The analysis of risk factors indicated that the presence of house basements with an unpaved (natural soil) floor on farms and insufficient sanitary conditions significantly enhanced the probability of identifying O. brasiliensis. Additionally, we describe retrospectively cases of tick parasitism in 28 humans and 11 dogs including the most common symptoms associated with tick toxicosis. This is the first study concerning O. brasiliensis epidemiology, distribution, and habitat, and the report represents the most comprehensive characterization of Ornithodoros bite-associated toxicosis syndrome. PMID:23238249

  1. Embracing Uncertainty: A Case Study Examination of How Climate Change is Shifting Water Utility Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, L.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing water utilities' planning for the future, adding a new source and level of complexity that is forcing many agencies to re-examine their decision-making processes. A significant barrier for many agencies is figuring out how to consider highly uncertain climate information and move away from deterministic thinking to make climate-informed decisions. To provide water professionals with practical and relevant information, the Water Utility Climate Alliance teamed up with the American Water Works Association, in coordination with the Water Research Foundation and Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies, to develop a white paper sharing insights into how and why water agencies are modifying planning and decision-making processes. The 13 case studies presented illustrate the variety of ways in which utilities are incorporating climate change into planning, from immediate operational decisions, to capital planning and asset management, to long-term supply planning.

  2. A Case Study Examination of Structure and Function in a State Health Department Chronic Disease Unit

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. I explored the structural and operational practices of the chronic disease prevention and control unit of a state health department and proposed a conceptual model of structure, function, and effectiveness for future study. Methods. My exploratory case study examined 7 elements of organizational structure and practice. My interviews with staff and external stakeholders of a single chronic disease unit yielded quantitative and qualitative data that I coded by perspective, process, relationship, and activity. I analyzed these for patterns and emerging themes. Results. Chi-square analysis revealed significant correlations among collaboration with goal ambiguity, political support, and responsiveness, and evidence-based decisions with goal ambiguity and responsiveness. Conclusions. Although my study design did not permit conclusions about causality, my findings suggested that some elements of the model might facilitate effectiveness for chronic disease units and should be studied further. My findings might have important implications for identifying levers around which capacity can be built that may strengthen effectiveness. PMID:25689211

  3. Trends in child sexual abuse cases referred for forensic examination in Southern Denmark from 2000 to 2011 - Did the 'Tønder-case' have an impact?

    PubMed

    Skovmand, Sofie; Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt

    2015-11-01

    In 2005 a serious case of child sexual abuse from the region of Southern Denmark was revealed to the Danish public. The case became known as the 'Tønder-case'. It was the first in a series of 4-5 serious cases of child maltreatment in Denmark, cases which spurred heavy public debate. In this study all the cases of child sexual abuse referred for forensic examination in a 12 year period, a total of 368 cases, were systematically evaluated. In order to identify any trends that could be correlated to an impact of the 'Tønder-case', cases from 2000 to 2002 and cases from 2009 to 2011 underwent an in-depth analysis. In the 12 year period there was a significant increase in numbers of cases. In the subgroups, comprised of 113 cases meeting the inclusion criteria, we found a significant increase in the frequency of cases involving incest and systematic abuse, as well as an uncorrelated increase in the frequency of cases where children were placed in foster care prior to the examination. These results were countered by a significant decrease in the number cases police reported child sexual abuse in the same period. The possible impact that cases like the 'Tønder-case' and the following press coverage may have on disclosure and the handling of this type of case by authorities is discussed, as well as further perspectives of extensive press coverage.

  4. Observations about chemical composition of aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon region - Case study: Biomass burning in the subequatorial Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioda, A.; Monteiro, I. L.; Almeida, A. C.; Hacon, S. S.; Dallacort, R.; Ignotti, E.; Godoy, J. M.; Loureiro, A. L.; Morais, F.; Artaxo, P.

    2012-04-01

    The study was carried out in two cities in the Brazilian Amazon region, Tangará da Serra (14 ° 37'10 "S, 57 ° 29'09" W, 427 m asl), located in a transition area between the Amazon biome and the Cerrado and has the characteristics of urban area in Amazon region; and Alta Floresta (9 ° 52 '32 "S, 56 ° 5' 10" W, 283 m asl) situated in the extreme north of the state of Mato Grosso (MT), both in the subequatorial Amazon region. Tangara da Serra has the largest production of sugar cane in the subequatorial Amazon region. They are located 800 km from each other. These two regions are inserted in a region with typical cycles of drought and rain that alter air pollution levels, and lies in the dispersion path of the pollution plume resulting from burnings in the Brazilian Amazon and pollution emanating from neighboring countries. Both cities have wet tropical climate with two well defined seasons: rainy summer (November to May) and dry winter (June to October). During the dry winter, biomass burnings are frequent in these regions. In 2008, the Department of the Environment has banned fires in the period from July 15 to September 15 throughout the State. In this study chemical characterization was performed for approximately 100 aerosol samples collected in each site during 2008. Fine and coarse aerosol samples collected in SFUs were analyzed by ion chromatography for determination of cations (Na+, K+, NH3+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), anions (SO42-, Cl- and NO3-) and organic acids (acetate and formiate) and also measures of black carbon (BC) (Aethalometer). The results showed that for both sites the average concentrations were quite similar for PM2.5 (16 µg/m3), PM10 (11 and 13 µg/m3) and black carbon (1.4 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 1.6 µg/m3 for PM10). Sulfate was the predominant species in fine (45%) and coarse (26%) particles in both sites. The sulfate concentrations ranged from 0.01-1.92 µg/m3 in PM2.5 and 0.01-1.66 µg/m3 in PM10 in Tangará da Serra and 0.01-2.93 µg/m3 in PM2

  5. The Brazilian Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, Charles D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the unusually aggressive Brazilian honeybee, which exhibits many of the attributes of its African antecedants. Describes its abundance and distribution, behaviorial characteristics, future spread, and the potential impact of the Brazilian bee in North America. (JR)

  6. Cave Conservation Priority Index to Adopt a Rapid Protection Strategy: A Case Study in Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza Silva, Marconi; Martins, Rogério Parentoni; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Cave environments are characterized by possessing specialized fauna living in high environmental stability with limited food conditions. These fauna are highly vulnerable to impacts, because this condition can frequently be easily altered. Moreover, environmental determinants of the biodiversity patterns of caves remain poorly understood and protected. Therefore, the main goal of this work is to propose a cave conservation priority index (CCPi) for a rapid assessment for troglobiotic and troglophile protection. Furthermore, the troglobiotic diversity, distribution and threats have been mapped in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. To propose the CCPi, the human impacts and richness of troglobiotic and troglophile species of 100 caves were associated. Data related to troglomorphic/troglobiotic fauna from another 200 caves were used to map the troglobiotic diversity and distribution. The CCPi reveals extremely high conservation priority for 15 % of the caves, high for 36 % and average for 46 % of the caves. Fourteen caves with extremely high priorities should have urgent conservation and management actions. The geographical distribution of the 221 known troglobiotic/troglomorphic species allowed us to select 19 karst areas that need conservation actions. Seven areas were considered to have urgent priority for conservation actions. The two richest areas correspond to the "iron quadrangle" with iron ore caves (67 spp.) and the "Açungui limestone group" (56 spp.). Both areas have several caves and are important aquifers. The use of the CCPi can prevent future losses because it helps assessors to select caves with priorities for conservation which should receive emergency attention in relation to protection, management and conservation actions.

  7. Examining students' graduation issues using data mining techniques - The case of TEI of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalaris, Manolis; Gritzalis, Stefanos; Maragoudakis, Manolis; Sgouropoulou, Cleo; Lykeridou, Katerina

    2015-02-01

    One of the major issues that Greek Higher Education Institutes face is the delayed completion of studies of their students. For example, in the case of the Technological Educational Institute of Athens, in the academic year 2012-2013, the percentage of graduates with a length of studies of more than 6 years was 53%. This "problem" becomes harder if we consider that according to the new legislation, the Greek Higher Education Institutes (HEI) must cut off access to the students who "linger" too long. This means that many of these graduates wouldn't be able to complete their studies. While many institutes have systems to quantify and report the length of studies of all graduates, far less attention is typically paid to each student's reason(s) for delayed graduation. In this paper, we focus on examining the question of why students delay in the completion of their studies using several data mining techniques. Through the application of data mining techniques new knowledge will be provided to the administration of a HEI that could be used for solving this problem. The data used in our case study come from a questionnaire distributed to graduates of the institute but also from educational data stored in the Institute's student database.

  8. A case of Kleine-Levin syndrome examined with SPECT and neuropsychological testing.

    PubMed

    Landtblom, A-M; Dige, N; Schwerdt, K; Säfström, P; Granérus, G

    2002-04-01

    A case of Kleine-Levin syndrome with typical periodic hypersomnia and bulimia was diagnosed. On examination with single photo emission tomography (SPECT) (CERETEC) during a relapse period and 2 weeks later there was marked cortical hypoperfusion of the frontal and temporal lobes, especially on the left side as well as in the right parietal lobe. Neuropsychological testing performed 1 week after a relapse showed a reduction in encoding to memory function of verbal learning indicating neocortical damage of the left fronto-temporal region. A follow-up 2 months later after the patient had spontaneously recovered showed only a slight left fronto-temporal disturbance. CT and MRI of the brain were normal although the MRI showed a large and asymmetric mamillary body. Neuropsychological testing 6 years after recovery showed pronounced reduction in short-time verbal and visual memory. Seven years after recovery SPECT demonstrated a normalized frontal perfusion but still a slight hypoperfusion in the left temporal lobe. Our results correlate to autopsy findings in two cases described previously.

  9. Perceptions of Interns and General Medicine Examiners Regarding Cardiovascular Case Presentation in Practical Exams of General Medicine in Final MBBS Summative Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Nimbal, Naren; Rekha, M C; Patil, Giridhar; Padaki, Samata; Dambal, Amrut; Pise, Gajanan; Kalsad, S T

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Assessment of cardiovascular cases in practical exit exam is limited to simple history taking and physical examination. Standards of assessment are not uniform. This makes assessment less valid and reliable. Aim To explore the perceptions of Internees and General Medicine Examiners about current practices in Cardio Vascular system (CVS) case presentation in final MBBS exit exams and the necessity to change some of the practices. Materials and Methods A set questions pertaining to the preparation for exams, validity, reliability, feasibility and educational impact were prepared to guide in obtaining the perceptions of internees and internal medicine examiners. Focus group discussions were conducted. Data Analysis was done by immersion-crystallization process. Results Most of the internees admitted to feeling concerned because of difficulty in diagnosing murmurs by auscultation. Most of the examiners felt concerned about the logistics involved in arranging practical exams. Both admitted to the lack of uniform standards in assessment. Both agreed that the present system thrived as it was relatively feasible. Some internees suggested that the exam may be conducted in two parts by splitting the syllabus instead of once. Some internees suggested incorporating a student-doctor program to improve practical skills just like the on-going student nurse program. Conclusion There is a need for overhauling the assessment of cardiovascular system in final MBBS summative exams towards one aligned to the competencies as required in an Indian Medical Graduate. Blueprinting of practical assessment with due weightage assigned to epidemiologically important topics is the need of the hour. PMID:26816933

  10. [Theater in Brazilian science museums and centers].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Leonardo Maciel; Marandino, Martha

    2015-12-01

    This qualitative research, based on a descriptive and exploratory study, examines how theater is used as a science communication strategy by Brazilian science museums and centers. Data was collected through a survey emailed to 24 Brazilian institutions identified as science museums and centers. Content analysis was performed, using cross-sectional thematic analysis. It was found that respondents' activities could be classified as approaching theater as an educational support.

  11. Examining Gender Differences in Written Assessment Tasks in Biology: A Case Study of Evolutionary Explanations.

    PubMed

    Federer, Meghan Rector; Nehm, Ross H; Pearl, Dennis K

    2016-01-01

    Understanding sources of performance bias in science assessment provides important insights into whether science curricula and/or assessments are valid representations of student abilities. Research investigating assessment bias due to factors such as instrument structure, participant characteristics, and item types are well documented across a variety of disciplines. However, the relationships among these factors are unclear for tasks evaluating understanding through performance on scientific practices, such as explanation. Using item-response theory (Rasch analysis), we evaluated differences in performance by gender on a constructed-response (CR) assessment about natural selection (ACORNS). Three isomorphic item strands of the instrument were administered to a sample of undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors (Group 1: n = 662 [female = 51.6%]; G2: n = 184 [female = 55.9%]; G3: n = 642 [female = 55.1%]). Overall, our results identify relationships between item features and performance by gender; however, the effect is small in the majority of cases, suggesting that males and females tend to incorporate similar concepts into their CR explanations. These results highlight the importance of examining gender effects on performance in written assessment tasks in biology.

  12. Examining Gender Differences in Written Assessment Tasks in Biology: A Case Study of Evolutionary Explanations

    PubMed Central

    Federer, Meghan Rector; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis K.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding sources of performance bias in science assessment provides important insights into whether science curricula and/or assessments are valid representations of student abilities. Research investigating assessment bias due to factors such as instrument structure, participant characteristics, and item types are well documented across a variety of disciplines. However, the relationships among these factors are unclear for tasks evaluating understanding through performance on scientific practices, such as explanation. Using item-response theory (Rasch analysis), we evaluated differences in performance by gender on a constructed-response (CR) assessment about natural selection (ACORNS). Three isomorphic item strands of the instrument were administered to a sample of undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors (Group 1: n = 662 [female = 51.6%]; G2: n = 184 [female = 55.9%]; G3: n = 642 [female = 55.1%]). Overall, our results identify relationships between item features and performance by gender; however, the effect is small in the majority of cases, suggesting that males and females tend to incorporate similar concepts into their CR explanations. These results highlight the importance of examining gender effects on performance in written assessment tasks in biology. PMID:26865642

  13. The Examination Culture and Its Impact on Literacy Innovations; The Case of Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mee, Cheah Yin

    1998-01-01

    Examines the sociocultural context in Singapore to determine the existence of an examination culture there. Argues that an examination culture has important repercussions for the introduction and implementation of innovative practices into the education system. Examination focuses on the 1991 English-language syllabus and how the introduction of…

  14. Using a Comprehensive Case-Based Examination to Evaluate and Integrate Student Learning in Social Work Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Thomas; Austin, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    While the case method has been used in teaching social work practice for many years, its use as an evaluation tool is less common. This analysis describes the use of the case method in a comprehensive examination for MSW students in an Administration concentration. After a brief review of the issues related to student outcome assessment and the…

  15. A Case Study of a Kindergarten Teacher: Examining Practices and Beliefs That Support the Social-Emotional Classroom Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pech, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This 5-month qualitative case study investigated the social-emotional climate of one half-day kindergarten classroom by examining the role of the teacher in establishing and sustaining a classroom climate that nurtured the social-emotional lives of students. This case study asks: How and why did the teacher establish and sustain a classroom…

  16. Case Study: An Examination of the Decision Making Process for Selecting Simulations for an Online MBA Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Pat; Tucker, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Simulations are designed as activities which imitate real world scenarios and are often used to teach and enhance skill building. The purpose of this case study is to examine the decision making process and outcomes of a faculty committee tasked with examining simulations in the marketplace to determine if the simulations could be used as…

  17. Management of Re-Occurring Cases of Examination Malpractice in Plateau State Collage of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusu, Paul Bot; Gotan, Anthony; Deshi, Jummai M.; Gambo, Barashe

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria's educational system is gradually degenerating, as the sanctity of education process has been affected by malpractice. The purpose of this paper was to assess re-occurring incidence of examination malpractice in Plateau State College of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria. It looked at cases of examination malpractice and students'…

  18. An Examination of the Effectiveness of Public Management Networks (PMNs): Evidence from the Case of the Hurricane Katrina Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Girte Leah

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the performance outcomes of public management networks (PMNs) in the disaster management context. The effectiveness of three disaster response sub-networks in the area of evacuation were examined and compared using the case of the Hurricane Katrina disaster in New Orleans, Louisiana in August 2005: Citizen Protection:…

  19. Hereditary Pancreatitis Associated With the N29T Mutation of the PRSS1 Gene in a Brazilian Family: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Dytz, Marcio Garrison; Mendes de Melo, Julia; de Castro Santos, Olga; da Silva Santos, Isabel Durso; Rodacki, Melanie; Conceição, Flavia Lucia; Ortiga-Carvalho, Tania Maria

    2015-09-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is an autosomal-dominant disease with incomplete penetrance manifesting as early-onset chronic relapsing pancreatitis. A mutation in the PRSS1 gene is present in greater than 70% of HP kindreds and leads to a gain-of-function characterized by the increased autocatalytic conversion of trypsinogen to active trypsin, promoting autodigestion and damage to acinar cells. Other genetic defects observed in the pathogenic mechanism of pancreatitis include mutations in the genes encoding SPINK1, CTRC, and CPA1. There are few reports of HP in Latin America, and no families have been investigated in Brazil. A case-control observational study was conducted at Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital in Brazil. Patients with suspected HP and healthy controls were enrolled in this study, and a detailed questionnaire was administered to patients with HP. PRSS1 and SPINK1 genes were analyzed by DNA sequencing, and a family that fit the HP diagnostic criteria was identified. The neutral polymorphism c.88-352A > G in the SPINK1 gene was found to be prevalent in the individuals studied, but no important alterations were found in this gene. Ten out of 16 individuals in this family carried the N29T mutation in the PRSS1 gene, with 2 clinically unaffected mutation carriers. The median age of HP onset was 6 years. Pancreatic exocrine failure occurred in 6 patients, 5 of whom also had diabetes mellitus. Surgical procedures were performed on 3 affected members, and no cases of pancreatic cancer have been reported thus far. This study identified the first PRSS1 gene mutation in a Brazilian family with HP. PMID:26376395

  20. Online Case-Based Discussions: Examining Coverage of the Afforded Problem Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, Peggy A.; Koehler, Adrie A.

    2014-01-01

    Case studies hold great potential for engaging students in disciplinary content. However, little is known about the extent to which students actually cover the problem space afforded by a particular case study. In this research, we compared the problem space afforded by an instructional design case study with the actual content covered by 16…

  1. Conducting Examinations in Nigerian Polytechnics: A Case Study of Kwara State Polytechnic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olasehinde, Martha O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper posits that the conduct of examinations in any educational institution can make or mar the institution, Kwara State Polytechnic inclusive. This is because examinations constitute the hub of any institution. First, the place of polytechnic education in the growth and development of the country is examined. Next, is a consideration of…

  2. 10 years of 1:1 taping in Belgium - A selection of murder cases involving fibre examination.

    PubMed

    De Wael, K; Lepot, L; Lunstroot, K; Gason, F

    2016-01-01

    Since 2002, the 1:1 tape lifting technique on murder victims has been introduced in Belgium. Thirty-six murder cases for which a fibre examination was carried out in our laboratory between 2002 and 2012 are reviewed. These cases all involved the collection of microtraces on 39 victims using a 1:1 taping or similar technique, called semi 1:1 taping. The degree of "positive outcomes" for investigative and comparative fibre cases is high. Especially in cases where the modus operandi of suspects had to be verified, the examination of the 1:1 tape lifting led to very useful fibre results. The findings from some of these fibre cases are used to illustrate the advantages, drawbacks and points of interest of the two collection techniques. These are also compared with the zonal taping technique, another microtrace collection technique applied on victims at the crime scene.

  3. 10 years of 1:1 taping in Belgium - A selection of murder cases involving fibre examination.

    PubMed

    De Wael, K; Lepot, L; Lunstroot, K; Gason, F

    2016-01-01

    Since 2002, the 1:1 tape lifting technique on murder victims has been introduced in Belgium. Thirty-six murder cases for which a fibre examination was carried out in our laboratory between 2002 and 2012 are reviewed. These cases all involved the collection of microtraces on 39 victims using a 1:1 taping or similar technique, called semi 1:1 taping. The degree of "positive outcomes" for investigative and comparative fibre cases is high. Especially in cases where the modus operandi of suspects had to be verified, the examination of the 1:1 tape lifting led to very useful fibre results. The findings from some of these fibre cases are used to illustrate the advantages, drawbacks and points of interest of the two collection techniques. These are also compared with the zonal taping technique, another microtrace collection technique applied on victims at the crime scene. PMID:26746822

  4. Clinical aspects of envenomation caused by Tityus obscurus (Gervais, 1843) in two distinct regions of Pará state, Brazilian Amazon basin: a prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scorpion envenomations are a major public health problem in Brazil, whose most dangerous cases are attributable to the genus Tityus. This study was designed to compare the clinical and demographic features of envenomations by Tityus obscurus in two areas of the state of Pará located in the Amazon basin. Were compared demographic findings, local and systemic signs and symptoms of human envenomations caused by T. obscurus that occurred in western and eastern areas of the state. Results Forty-eight patients with confirmed envenomation by T. obscurus were evaluated from January 2008 to July 2011. Most of them came from the eastern region, where male and female patients were present in similar numbers, while males predominated in the west. Median age groups were also similar in both areas. Most scorpion stings took place during the day and occurred significantly more frequently on the upper limbs. The time between the sting and admission to the health center was less than three hours in both areas. Most eastern patients had local manifestations while in the west, systemic manifestations predominated. Local symptoms were similar in both areas, but systemic signs and symptoms were more common in the west. Symptoms frequently observed at the sting site were local and radiating pain, paresthesia, edema, erythema, sweating, piloerection and burning. The systemic manifestations were significantly higher in patients from the west. Futhermore, neurological symptoms such as general paresthesia, ataxia, dysarthria, myoclonus, dysmetria, and electric shock-like sensations throughout the body were reported only by patients from the west. Conclusion The present study shows that two regions of Para state differ in the clinical manifestations and severity of confirmed envenomation by T. obscurus which suggests a toxicity variation resulting from the diversity of T. obscurus venom in different areas of the Brazilian Amazon basin, and that T. serrulatus antivenom can be

  5. Examining small "c" creativity in the science classroom: Multiple case studies of five high school teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasky, Dorothea Shawn

    As the US continues to strive toward building capacity for a workforce in STEM fields (NSF, 2006), educational organizations and researchers have constructed frameworks that focus on increasing competencies in creativity in order to achieve this goal (ISTE, 2007; Karoly & Panis, 2004; Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007). Despite these recommendations, many teachers either do not believe in the relevance of nurturing creativity in their students (Kaufman & Sternberg, 2007) or accept the importance of it, but do not know how best to foster it in their classrooms (Kampylis et al., 2009). Researchers conclude that teachers need to revise their ideas about the kind of creativity they can expect from their students to reflect the idea of small 'c' versus large 'C' creativity. There is a dearth of literature that looks closely at teacher practice surrounding creativity in the US and gives teachers a set of practical suggestions they can follow easily. I examined five case studies of teachers as they participated in and implemented a large-scale, NSF-funded project premised on the idea that training teachers in 21 st century pedagogies, (for example, problem-based learning), helps teachers create classrooms that increase science competencies in students. I investigated how teachers' curricular choices affect the amount of student creativity produced in their classrooms. Analysis included determining CAT scores for student products and continua scores along the Small 'c' Creativity Framework. In the study, I present an understanding of how teachers' beliefs influence practice and how creativity is fostered in students through various styles of teacher practice. The data showed a relationship between teachers' CAT scores, framework scores, and school context. Thus, alongside CAT, the framework was determined to be a successful tool for understanding the degree to which teachers foster small 'c' creativity. Other themes emerged, which included teachers' allotment of

  6. Examining Initial Sleep Onset in Primary Insomnia: A Case-Control Study Using 4-Second Epochs

    PubMed Central

    Moul, Douglas E.; Germain, Anne; Cashmere, J. David; Quigley, Michael; Miewald, Jean M.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To explore the sleep onset process in primary insomnia patients, new rules for scoring 4-second epochs were implemented to score sleep and artifacts during initial sleep onset. Conventional scorings in 20-second and 60-second epochs were also obtained. Methods: The start of the initial 60-second epoch of stage 1 was used to define “time zero” (t0). Sleep onset periods from 11 patients and 11 individually age- and sex-matched controls spanned from 5 minutes before t0 through 29 minutes after t0. Using the new rules, the periods were scored blind to group assignment. This t0 time-referenced the data analysis to one plausible midpoint in the sleep onset process. In parallel, latencies were time-referenced from good night time. Results: Reliability in scoring sleep and artifacts was adequate (kappa = 0.68 & 0.63, respectively, p <0.001). Group differences in sleep latencies were marginal in 60-second and 20-second scoring but significant with a definition of 4-second sleep latency. Patients had more 4-second epochs scored as awake (Mantel-Haenszel χ2 = 271, d.f. = 1, p <0.001) and containing artifact (M-H χ2 = 143, p <0.001). Patients took longer to achieve 30 continuous 4-second epochs of NREM sleep (Breslow χ2 = 4.03, d.f. = 1, p = 0.045) after t0. Patients accumulated sleep more slowly with all 3 scoring rules after t0. A slower rate of accumulating sleep after t0 was detected only with the 4-second scoring (p = 0.047). Conclusions: Evidence was present for momentary state-switching instabilities in the patients during the initial sleep onset process. Using rules for scoring small epochs may reveal such instabilities more readily than traditional scoring methods. Citation: Moul DE; Germain A; Cashmere D; Quigley M; Miewald JM; Buysse DJ. Examining initial sleep onset in primary insomnia: a case-control study using 4-second epochs. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(5):479-488. PMID:17803011

  7. Pluralistic etiological systems in their social context: a Brazilian case study. In memory of James S. Coleman.

    PubMed

    Ngokwey, N

    1988-01-01

    The main thesis of this paper is that multifactorial explanations of illness in medically pluralistic settings arise in distinctive interactional contexts. The first part is an overview of the anthropological literature on illness etiologies, specifically on the functions and nature of these etiological notions. The second part is a description of local notions of illness causation in Feira de Santana (Brazil) using an analytical model based upon a holistic view of culture which includes four closely interrelated domains: natural, socio-economic, psychological and religious. This multifactorial nature of the etiological system is examined in light of: (a) the various sources that constitute the popular stock of etiological knowledge; (b) the different aspects of causality that can function as hierarchical levels in causal chains; (c) the process of the social production of etiological knowledge. The third part, an analysis of one informant's account of his illness, serves to illustrate the point developed in the first 2 parts.

  8. Moving beyond Mentoring: A Collective Case Study Examining the Perceived Characteristics of Positive Transformational Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Brent W.; Kroth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collective-case study was to explore the characteristics of transformational figures. This study revealed that interpersonal encounters were seen as a catalyst that assisted study participants through the process of transformation. Ten themes emerged from the cross-case analysis: Imposed and Intentional Influence; Metaphors of…

  9. Examining Technology's Impact on Society: Using Case Studies to Introduce Environmental and Economic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karukstis, Kerry K.

    2003-01-01

    The general chemistry course at Harvey Mudd College presents chemical principles and addresses technology's impact on society. Students consider environmental and economic implications of chemical scenarios in real-world case studies created for team-based analysis and discussion. Case study design, implementation, and assessment are presented.…

  10. Examining Preservice Teachers' Classroom Management Decisions in Three Case-Based Teaching Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cevik, Yasemin Demiraslan; Andre, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the impact of three types of case-based approaches (worked example, faded work example, and case-based reasoning) on preservice teachers' decision making and reasoning skills related to realistic classroom management situations. Participants in this study received a short-term implementation of one of these three…

  11. An Examination of the Leadership Practices of Effective Rural Superintendents: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forner, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the leadership practices of rural superintendents who have led their districts to significant improvement in student academic achievement. The overall research goal was to examine how Waters' and Marzano's six correlates of effective superintendent leadership practice have been applied by school leaders who have successfully…

  12. Exploring Management Strategies to Reduce Cheating in Written Examinations: Case Study of Midlands State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taderera, Ever; Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Mandimika, Elinah

    2014-01-01

    This study was concerned about cheating in written examinations at Midlands State University (MSU). The study revealed that both male and female students cheat in written examination; business studies students cheat more than other faculties, and younger (lower class) students cheat more than (upper class) older students. Factors influencing…

  13. Using death certificates and medical examiner records for adolescent occupational fatality surveillance and research: a case study.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Kimberly J; Runyan, Carol W; Radisch, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Death certificates and medical examiner records have been useful yet imperfect data sources for work-related fatality research and surveillance among adult workers. It is unclear whether this holds for work-related fatalities among adolescent workers who suffer unique detection challenges in part because they are not often thought of as workers. This study investigated the utility of using these data sources for surveillance and research pertaining to adolescent work-related fatalities. Using the state of North Carolina as a case study, we analyzed data from the death certificates and medical examiner records of all work-related fatalities data among 11- to 17-year-olds between 1990-2008 (N = 31). We compared data sources on case identification, of completeness, and consistency information. Variables examined included those on the injury (e.g., means), occurrence (e.g., place), demographics, and employment (e.g., occupation). Medical examiner records (90%) were more likely than death certificates (71%) to identify adolescent work-related fatalities. Data completeness was generally high yet varied between sources. The most marked difference being that in medical examiner records, type of business/industry and occupation were complete in 72 and 67% of cases, respectively, while on the death certificates these fields were complete in 90 and 97% of cases, respectively. Taking the two sources together, each field was complete in upward of 94% of cases. Although completeness was high, data were not always of good quality and sometimes conflicted across sources. In many cases, the decedent's occupation was misclassified as "student" and their employer as "school" on the death certificate. Even though each source has its weaknesses, medical examiner records and death certificates, especially when used together, can be useful for conducting surveillance and research on adolescent work-related fatalities. However, extra care is needed by data recorders to ensure that

  14. Health practices and expectations of Brazilians in the United States.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Teresa Eliot

    2007-01-01

    This ethnographic examination of Brazilian immigrant perspectives regarding healthcare in the U.S. included participant observation and interviews with 42 Brazilian transnationals. Data were analyzed using Agar's approach. Findings show that Brazilians accessed allopathic care only as a last resort after self-treatment strategies failed, that they tended to feel that diagnostic testing, referrals, and symptom-relieving prescriptions were imperative to good care, and that they expected more personal warmth, continuity of care, and more affectionate verbal and nonverbal cues than their U.S. clinicians provided. Recommendations to improve quality of healthcare to Brazilian transnationals in the USA are discussed. PMID:19172985

  15. Unusual noon-time bite-outs in the ionospheric electron density around the anomaly crest locations over the Indian and Brazilian sectors during quiet conditions - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, K.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Pillat, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    The present case study reports the unusual noon-time electron density bite-out events during 12th-18th April 2004 around the anomaly crest locations which are not observed over the geomagnetic equator. These bite-out events at the crest locations occurred on three consecutive days under solar and geomagnetically quiet conditions over the Indian and Brazilian sectors. The bite-out events are observed with a delay of two days over the Brazilian sector when compared with those in the Indian sector. The duration of these TEC bite-outs is found to vary around 5 h in the Indian sector while it is around 3 h in the Brazilian sector. Over Raipur in the Indian sector, the bite-out is found to be very strong (~30 TECU) on 13th April 2004, where the TEC drops to nearly 50% of the corresponding day maximum TEC. The diurnal variations of dTEC have also shown significant differences during the occurrence of noon-time TEC bite-outs. Simultaneous Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ) variations over the Indian and Brazilian sectors have also been studied. The ionosonde data over the equatorial and anomaly crest locations has been analyzed to understand the F-layer behavior during the occurrence of TEC bite-outs. Significant drop in the F-layer peak density and heights are observed during the TEC bite-outs while the minimum height of the bottom side F-layer do not show considerable differences. Further, the variations of vertical electron density profiles are studied to explain the F-layer characteristics that resulted in the noon-time bite-outs over the anomaly crest locations.

  16. Wind turbines and health: An examination of a proposed case definition

    PubMed Central

    McCunney, Robert J.; Morfeld, Peter; Colby, W. David; Mundt, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy demands have increased the need for new wind farms. In turn, concerns have been raised about potential adverse health effects on nearby residents. A case definition has been proposed to diagnose “Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines” (AHE/IWT); initially in 2011 and then with an update in 2014. The authors invited commentary and in turn, we assessed its scientific merits by quantitatively evaluating its proposed application. We used binomial coefficients to quantitatively assess the potential of obtaining a diagnosis of AHE/IWT. We also reviewed the methodology and process of the development of the case definition by contrasting it with guidelines on case definition criteria of the USA Institute of Medicine. The case definition allows at least 3,264 and up to 400,000 possibilities for meeting second- and third-order criteria, once the limited first-order criteria are met. IOM guidelines for clinical case definitions were not followed. The case definition has virtually no specificity and lacks scientific support from peer-reviewed literature. If applied as proposed, its application will lead to substantial potential for false-positive assessments and missed diagnoses. Virtually any new illness that develops or any prevalent illness that worsens after the installation of wind turbines within 10 km of a residence could be considered AHE/IWT if the patient feels better away from home. The use of this case definition in the absence of a thorough medical evaluation with appropriate diagnostic studies poses risks to patients in that treatable disorders would be overlooked. The case definition has significant potential to mislead patients and its use cannot be recommended for application in any health-care or decision-making setting. PMID:26168947

  17. Wind turbines and health: An examination of a proposed case definition.

    PubMed

    McCunney, Robert J; Morfeld, Peter; Colby, W David; Mundt, Kenneth A

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy demands have increased the need for new wind farms. In turn, concerns have been raised about potential adverse health effects on nearby residents. A case definition has been proposed to diagnose "Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines" (AHE/IWT); initially in 2011 and then with an update in 2014. The authors invited commentary and in turn, we assessed its scientific merits by quantitatively evaluating its proposed application. We used binomial coefficients to quantitatively assess the potential of obtaining a diagnosis of AHE/IWT. We also reviewed the methodology and process of the development of the case definition by contrasting it with guidelines on case definition criteria of the USA Institute of Medicine. The case definition allows at least 3,264 and up to 400,000 possibilities for meeting second- and third-order criteria, once the limited first-order criteria are met. IOM guidelines for clinical case definitions were not followed. The case definition has virtually no specificity and lacks scientific support from peer-reviewed literature. If applied as proposed, its application will lead to substantial potential for false-positive assessments and missed diagnoses. Virtually any new illness that develops or any prevalent illness that worsens after the installation of wind turbines within 10 km of a residence could be considered AHE/IWT if the patient feels better away from home. The use of this case definition in the absence of a thorough medical evaluation with appropriate diagnostic studies poses risks to patients in that treatable disorders would be overlooked. The case definition has significant potential to mislead patients and its use cannot be recommended for application in any health-care or decision-making setting. PMID:26168947

  18. Wind turbines and health: An examination of a proposed case definition.

    PubMed

    McCunney, Robert J; Morfeld, Peter; Colby, W David; Mundt, Kenneth A

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy demands have increased the need for new wind farms. In turn, concerns have been raised about potential adverse health effects on nearby residents. A case definition has been proposed to diagnose "Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines" (AHE/IWT); initially in 2011 and then with an update in 2014. The authors invited commentary and in turn, we assessed its scientific merits by quantitatively evaluating its proposed application. We used binomial coefficients to quantitatively assess the potential of obtaining a diagnosis of AHE/IWT. We also reviewed the methodology and process of the development of the case definition by contrasting it with guidelines on case definition criteria of the USA Institute of Medicine. The case definition allows at least 3,264 and up to 400,000 possibilities for meeting second- and third-order criteria, once the limited first-order criteria are met. IOM guidelines for clinical case definitions were not followed. The case definition has virtually no specificity and lacks scientific support from peer-reviewed literature. If applied as proposed, its application will lead to substantial potential for false-positive assessments and missed diagnoses. Virtually any new illness that develops or any prevalent illness that worsens after the installation of wind turbines within 10 km of a residence could be considered AHE/IWT if the patient feels better away from home. The use of this case definition in the absence of a thorough medical evaluation with appropriate diagnostic studies poses risks to patients in that treatable disorders would be overlooked. The case definition has significant potential to mislead patients and its use cannot be recommended for application in any health-care or decision-making setting.

  19. The Absence of CYP3A5*3 Is a Protective Factor to Anticonvulsants Hypersensitivity Reactions: A Case-Control Study in Brazilian Subjects.

    PubMed

    Tanno, Luciana Kase; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; dos Santos, Bernardo; Talib, Leda Leme; Yamaguti, Célia; Rodrigues, Helcio; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Kalil, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Although aromatic anticonvulsants are usually well tolerated, they can cause cutaneous adverse drug reactions in up to 10% of patients. The clinical manifestations of the antiepileptics-induced hypersensitivity reactions (AHR) vary from mild skin rashes to severe cutaneous drug adverse reactions which are related to high mortality and significant morbidity. Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 genes are associated with altered enzymatic activity and may contribute to the risk of AHR. Here we present a case-control study in which we genotyped SNPs of CYP2C19, 2C9 and 3A5 of 55 individuals with varying severities of AHR, 83 tolerant, and 366 healthy control subjects from São Paulo, Brazil. Clinical characterization was based on standardized scoring systems and drug patch test. All in vivo investigation followed the ENDA (European Network of Drug Allergy) recommendations. Genotype was determined by real time PCR using peripheral blood DNA as a template. Of all 504 subjects, 65% were females, 45% self-identified as Afro-American, 38% as Caucasian and 17% as having non-African mixed ascendancy. Amongst 55 subjects with AHR, 44 had severe cutaneous drug adverse reactions. Of the 46 drug patch tests performed, 29 (63%) were positive. We found a strong association between the absence of CYP3A5*3 and tolerant subjects when compared to AHR (p = 0.0002, OR = 5.28 [CI95% 2.09-14.84]). None of our groups presented positive association with CYP2C19 and 2C9 polymorphisms, however, both SNPs contributed to separation of cases and tolerants in a Classification and Regression Tree. Our findings indicate that drug metabolism genes can contribute in the tolerability of antiepileptics. CYP3A5*3 is the most prevalent CYP3A5 allele associated with reduced enzymatic function. The current study provides evidence that normal CYP3A5 activity might be a protective factor to aromatic antiepileptics-induced hypersensitivity reactions in Brazilian subjects. PMID:26291084

  20. 38 CFR 4.42 - Complete medical examination of injury cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... affected by disease or injury, it is impossible to visualize the nature and extent of the service connected disability. Incomplete examination is a common cause of incorrect diagnosis, especially in the...

  1. The Afro-Brazilian Fetish Cults: Religious Syncretism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, B. C.

    1967-01-01

    This paper treats the Afro-Brazilian fetish cults found throughout Brazil and examines the syncretism of these cults with Catholicism. The religious practices of the "macumbas" (deities of the Afro-Brazilian cults), ritual music, and the ethnicity of the Negroes from both southern and northern Brazil are discussed. Frequently, excerpts of songs…

  2. The Use and Perception of English in Brazilian Magazine Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Amanda Lira Gordenstein

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the uses of English in advertising in Brazil and the attitudes of Brazilians towards the use of different difficulty levels of English in advertising. Using a two part, mixed-methods approach, drawing from quantitative and qualitative methods, I utilized a corpus study to examine English uses in Brazilian magazines and a…

  3. A case law survey of the Personality Assessment Inventory: examining its role in civil and criminal trials.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Kacy L; Edens, John F

    2008-05-01

    Although professional surveys suggest that the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) is a popular instrument among forensic and correctional psychologists, relatively little is known about the specific types of legal cases in which it is applied, the particular types of questions it is used to address, or the extent to which its admissibility has been at issue in court cases. Using a comprehensive legal database, we surveyed all published U.S., Canadian, European, and Australian criminal and civil cases in which the PAI was administered. The PAI appears to be introduced by examiners in a wide variety of civil (e.g., child custody, personal injury) and criminal (e.g., insanity, competence) cases to aid in the assessment of a broad range of psychopathology. Additionally, the PAI seems to be used frequently to assess questions concerning potential dissimulation and response styles. Surprisingly, the admissibility of the PAI into evidence was never at issue in any of the cases reviewed.

  4. Brazilian antidoping public policy.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Claudio Bispo de; Rodrigues, Deyvis Nascimento

    2014-07-01

    Doping, used to improve sports performance, is legally prohibited. This paper describes Brazilian regulations, resolutions, and Federal laws addressing the issue of doping and antidoping which were collected in 2012 from official websites. We conclude that Brazilian laws have constrained doping, and have been updated over the years to conform to worldwide legal guidelines. Study limitations are noted. PMID:24799072

  5. The Contribution of Ethnobiology to the Construction of a Dialogue between Ways of Knowing: A Case Study in a Brazilian Public High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptista, Geilsa Costa Santos; El-Hani, Charbel Nino

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports results obtained in pedagogical interventions in a Brazilian public high school which aimed at promoting a dialogue between scientific and traditional knowledge in the context of biology teaching. The interventions were based on the use of a didactic material and teaching sequence elaborated on the grounds of school knowledge…

  6. Assessment and Evaluation of Higher Education in Business Management: An Analysis of the Brazilian Case in the Light of Social Learning Theory for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunstein, Janette; Jaime, Pedro; Curi, Denise Pereira; d'Angelo, Marcia Juliana; Mainardes, Emerson Wagner

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of Brazilian National System of Higher Education Assessment (SINAES) in the light of social learning for sustainability theory. The aim is to contribute to the advancement of debates surrounding education for sustainability and the improvement of public policy evaluation in higher education. The analysis is…

  7. Family Farmers and Major Retail Chains in the Brazilian Organic Sector: Assessing New Development Pathways. A Case Study in a Peri-Urban District of Sao Paulo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the organic sector in Brazil is seen as a leverage for the social emancipation of the small family farmers. Next to the traditional alternatives circuits of organic food and farming, new powerful capitalistic actors, such as supermarket chains, are rapidly entering the Brazilian organic arena. Can family farming benefit from the…

  8. An Examination of Resource Allocation Strategies That Promote Student Achievement: Case Studies of Rural Elementary Schools in Hawaii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acopan-Tuasivi, C. K.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents case studies of rural elementary schools in Hawaii that examine resource allocation strategies that promote student achievement. The combined frame work of the Evidence Based Model (Odden & Picus, 2008) and the 10 Strategies for Doubling Student Performance (Odden, 2009) were utilized to compare actual school resources and…

  9. Brazilian Small Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Himilcon

    Brazilian experience with micro scientific satellites began in 1995 with the SACI project that comprised 2 scientific satellites that carried onboard experiments from Brazil, Japan and US. The first one failed after launch (1998) and the second was lost during the second launch attempt of the Brazilian national launcher, VLS, in1999. Started by 1997, the French-Brazilian Microsatellite Project comprised a set of 9 experiments from French and Brazilian scientists. The project was terminated by the French side in 2002. Currently, there are two ongoing science projects, MIRAX (devoted to X-Ray astronomy) and EQUARS (to study the higher atmosphere). These projects include experiments from US, Netherlands, Japan, Canada, and Brazil, with launch scheduled to 2011 or 2012. This paper presents a brief summary of the history of the development of these satellites along with some highlights on the Brazilian Space Program.

  10. A Case Study Examination of Best Practices of Professional Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akopoff, Tanya M.

    2010-01-01

    A current trend in education is that small teacher groups, called professional learning communities (PLC), are being advocated as a tool to help teachers reach struggling students. Educators planning to use PLC as an intervention strategy can benefit from research-based information about PLC best practices. This multiple case study addressed the…

  11. Seeing Chemistry through the Eyes of the Blind: A Case Study Examining Multiple Gas Law Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harshman, Jordan; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Yezierski, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Adequately accommodating students who are blind or low-vision (BLV) in the sciences has been a focus of recent inquiry, but much of the research to date has addressed broad accommodations rather than devising and testing specific teaching strategies that respond to the unique challenges of BLV students learning chemistry. This case study seeks to…

  12. Examining the Impact of L2 English on L3 Selves: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    In this Swedish case study of four upper secondary students engaged in simultaneous second language (L2; English) and third language (L3; Spanish, French and Russian) learning, a possible selves perspective was used to investigate the impact of English on L3 motivation. Using a maximum variation sampling strategy, participants were selected from a…

  13. Curriculum Diversification Re-examined--A Case Study of Sierra Leone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Cream A. H.

    This paper deals with a case study of secondary curriculum diversification as a vocationalization strategy in Sierra Leone. It explores diversification issues from four crucial standpoints that are distinct but highly interrelated. First, diversification is dealt with as a policy that was adopted and actively pursued by Sierra Leone for over a…

  14. Examining the Role of Reflection in ePortfolios: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, Cynthia M.; Scott, Susan B.; Kahn, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Extended institutional experience with ePortfolios grounded and framed this qualitative case study guided by the research question: Why, how, and with what success is reflection, as a teaching/learning process, employed among ePortfolio projects at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)? Thirty-two representatives of 16 varied…

  15. "I'm Present, 'A' Please": A Case Study Examining Grading Issues in a Recreation Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, H. Joey

    2008-01-01

    Despite extensive research, grading and the potential for grade inflation remain areas of concern within higher education. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to obtain collective understandings regarding grading and pressures to inflate grades from faculty and instructors within a research-intensive university. The study focused on a…

  16. Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Perceptions of Early Childhood Philosophy and Pedagogy: A Case Study Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Alison; McFarland, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of three primary teacher education students participating in early childhood-focused community play sessions, as well as their perceptions of early childhood and primary philosophy and pedagogy. The purpose was to explore perceived differences in primary and early childhood pre-service teacher courses, which may…

  17. Examining Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching in the Mathematics Teaching Cycle: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Margaret Meg Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    The research indicated effective mathematics teaching to be more complex than assuming the best predictor of student achievement in mathematics is the mathematical content knowledge of a teacher. This dissertation took a novel approach to addressing the idea of what it means to examine how a teacher's knowledge of mathematics impacts student…

  18. Evaluation of Final Examination Papers in Engineering: A Case Study Using Bloom's Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swart, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Questions are used to obtain information, stimulate thinking, and redirect reasoning. Academics in higher education use questions on a daily basis to stimulate thinking and reasoning in students. Final examination papers are used by academics to assess the retention and application skills of students. The assumption, however, exists that questions…

  19. Examining Current Beliefs, Practices and Barriers about Technology Integration: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Pi-Sui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the current beliefs, practices and barriers concerning technology integration of Kindergarten through Grade Six teachers in the midwestern United States. The three data collection methods were online surveys with 152 teachers as well as interviews and observations with 8 teachers. The findings…

  20. Examining an Evolution: A Case Study of Organizational Change Accompanying the Community College Baccalaureate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Morris, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the nature and degree of organizational change that occurs when community colleges offer their own baccalaureate degree programs. Utilizing qualitative research methodology, we investigated how executive administrators at two Florida colleges managed this momentous change process and how this transformation has affected their…

  1. A 20-Year Examination of the Perceptions of Business School Interns: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Sherry James; Stokes, Amy; Parker, Richard Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined students' attitudes toward specific elements of an ongoing internship program. The study sample consisted of 816 student interns from 25 different colleges and universities. Results indicate that despite significant changes in instructional design and the incorporation of new technologies into the learning environment,…

  2. An Examination on School Engagement and Metaphorical School Perception: Case of Province of Çankiri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdemir, Murat; Kalayci, Hakki

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, school engagement and metaphorical school perceptions of students were analyzed based on gender, school type and grade. The relationship between school engagement and school perception was also examined. 410 high school students from ten different schools participated in the study. The data were collected through the…

  3. The Road to Change? A Case Study Examining Educational Reform in Sibiu County, Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Stan; Trotman, Dave; Rusu, Horatiu; Mara, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article examines processes of educational reform and change in a post-Communist Eastern European country. Focusing on the experiences and challenges facing one geographical community in Sibiu County, Romania, an attempt is made to understand some of the macro and micro factors, influences and external policy drivers, shaping the organization…

  4. Examining Health Information Technology Implementations: Case of the Patient-Centered Medical Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behkami, Nima A.

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that the use of Health Information Technology (HIT) is associated with reduced cost and increased quality of care. This dissertation examined the use of registries in Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) practices. A survey questionnaire was sent to a nationwide group of clinics certified for being a PCMH. They were asked to…

  5. An Examination of Court Cases Involving Interscholastic Athletics in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    It is imperative that school administrators, athletic directors, and interscholastic/athletic associations become knowledgeable in the area of interscholastic athletics at the secondary level and fully understand its potential for litigation. Thus, the purpose of this research study is to examine issues, outcomes, and legal trends involving…

  6. Examining the Value of Lexical Retrieval Treatment in Primary Progressive Aphasia: Two Positive Cases

    PubMed Central

    Rising, K.; DeMarco, A.T.; Miller, B.L.; Gorno-Tempini, M.L.; Beeson, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) suffer a gradual decline in communication ability as a result of neurodegenerative disease. Language treatment shows promise as a means of addressing these difficulties but much remains to be learned with regard to the potential value of treatment across variants and stages of the disorder. We present two cases, one with semantic variant of PPA and the other with logopenic PPA, each of whom underwent treatment that was unique in its focus on training self-cueing strategies to engage residual language skills. Despite differing language profiles and levels of aphasia severity, each individual benefited from treatment and showed maintenance of gains as well as generalization to untrained lexical items. These cases highlight the potential for treatment to capitalize on spared cognitive and neural systems in individuals with PPA, improving current language function as well as potentially preserving targeted skills in the face of disease progression. PMID:23871425

  7. The importance of soft tissue examination in post-traumatic decision-making: a case report.

    PubMed

    Altundasar, Emre; Demiralp, Burak

    2013-04-01

    Dental and facial traumas involving teeth and supporting tissues are common sports-related injuries. In this case report treatment of a 23-year-old student who had been elbowed by an opponent player during a basketball game, which caused oblique fractures on both maxillary incisor teeth is presented. The patient presented 17 days following trauma having completed full recovery of soft tissues. A fragment of upper incisor tooth had been embedded in lower lip at the time of trauma, which was covered by healing tissues. At the 1 month control the patient complained of a hard structure in his lower lip. The elusive broken fragment was revealed by a radiograph and then removed surgically. This case report is a good example of the importance of the training of general dentists about sports-related traumatic injuries as well as emphasising the importance of the use of mouthguards during contact sports.

  8. Case Report of Autopsy and Placental Examination After Radiofrequency Ablation of an Acardiac Twin.

    PubMed

    Kashireddy, Papreddy; Larson, Alexandra; Minturn, Lucy; Ernst, Linda

    2015-01-01

    We report the autopsy and placental findings in a monochorionic twin gestation complicated by twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was performed at 24 weeks gestation to abort the acardiac fetus, and vaginal delivery of the co-twin and acardiac fetus occurred at 33 weeks gestation. An autopsy of the acardiac fetus revealed multiple congenital anomalies including complete absence of the upper extremities and poor development of the skull and facial structures. In contrast to the upper body, the lower half of the body, although malformed, was more developed. The monochorionic twin placenta showed velamentous, atrophied, proximal artery-artery and vein-vein intertwin vascular connections which essentially bypassed the placental parenchyma for the acardiac fetus. Ink injection and histologic examination confirmed thrombosis of these critical intertwin vascular connections after RFA. This report highlights the fetal and placental anatomy of TRAP sequence and stresses the importance of placental examination after fetal surgical techniques. PMID:26199267

  9. Pulmonary pneumaticity in the postcranial skeleton of extant aves: a case study examining Anseriformes.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick M

    2004-08-01

    Anseriform birds were surveyed to examine how the degree of postcranial pneumaticity varies in a behaviorally and size-diverse clade of living birds. This study attempts to extricate the relative effects of phylogeny, body size, and behavioral specializations (e.g., diving, soaring) that have been postulated to influence the extent of postcranial skeletal pneumaticity. One hundred anseriform species were examined as the focal study group. Methods included latex injection of the pulmonary apparatus followed by gross dissection or direct examination of osteological specimens. The Pneumaticity Index (PI) is introduced as a means of quantifying and comparing postcranial pneumaticity in a number of species simultaneously. Phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs) were used to examine the relationship between body size and the degree of postcranial pneumaticity throughout the clade. There is a high degree of similarity (i.e., clade-specificity) within most anseriform subgroups. As a whole, Anseriformes demonstrate no significant relationship between relative pneumaticity and body size, as indicated by regression analysis of body mass on PI. It is apparent, however, that many clades of diving ducks do exhibit lower PIs than their nondiving relatives. By exclusion of diving taxa from analyses, a significant positive slope is observed and the hypothesis of relatively higher pneumaticity in larger-bodied birds is only weakly supported. However, low correlations indicate that factors other than body size account for much of the variation observed in relative pneumaticity. Pneumaticity profiles were mapped onto existing phylogenetic hypotheses. A reduction in the degree of postcranial pneumaticity occurred independently in at least three anseriform subclades specialized for diving. Finally, enigmatic pneumatic features located in distal forelimb elements of screamers (Anhimidae) result from invasion of bone by a network of subcutaneous air sac diverticula spreading

  10. Police interviewing and interrogation of juvenile suspects: a descriptive examination of actual cases.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Hayley M D

    2014-06-01

    Although empirical attention to police interrogation has gained traction in recent years, comparatively few studies have examined interrogation of juvenile suspects, and virtually none have examined actual interrogations. Despite a growing literature on youths' interrogation-related capacities, we still know very little about what actually transpires when police question youth. The present study examines electronically recorded police interviews with juveniles to describe the characteristics, processes, and outcomes that occur in actual juvenile interrogations, including interview duration, individuals present, and confessions. Fifty-seven electronic recordings from 17 police departments were analyzed using observational research software. The median juvenile interrogation lasted 46 min, though the range was extensive (6 min to nearly 5 hr). Youth frequently submitted to questioning without a parent or advocate present, and disruptions to the interview process were common. Interrogation outcomes varied and included full confessions, partially incriminating admissions, and denials of guilt. Results from this study provide context for interrogation research using other methods and suggest that youth may frequently consent to interrogation in the absence of important legal protections.

  11. Variation of ultrasound findings in the first trimester examination of recurrent cases with trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Daniilidis, Aggelos; Balaouras, Dimitrios; Chitzios, Dimitrios; Balaouras, Georgios; Capilna, Mihai; Asimakopoulos, Efstratios

    2015-06-01

    Increased nuchal translucency (NT) is present in about 50% of cases with trisomy 21. Very often the nuchal edema evolves in hydrops fetalis until the second trimester. Furthermore, a small amount of cases with a normal NT and trisomy 21 exhibit anatomical anomalies. We present a case of a 21-year-old woman, nulliparous, with a history of one termination of pregnancy and a smoking quitter. The prenatal control was negative for TORCH. During the first trimester scan on the 13th week, the NT was found 2.7 mm, the ductus venosus Doppler was normal, and the nasal bone was present. Hydrops fetalis was present though, and the parents were advised for chorionic villus sampling (CVS), but they opted for termination of pregnancy. The molecular control by QF-PCR showed normal karyotype for 13 and 18, a male fetus, but non-dysjunction trisomy 21 was present. Parental karyotype was advised, but they refused to perform it. One year later, the couple had another pregnancy. On the 12th week scan, the NT was found 1.0 mm, the ductus venosus Doppler was normal, and the nasal bone was present, but encephalocele was also found, and the parents consented again for termination of pregnancy. The new molecular control showed the same results. This time parental karyotype was performed. The father had a normal one, whereas the mother showed reversed p11 and q13 zones in chromosome 2. Genetical consulting and prenatal cytological control was advised in before next pregnancy. PMID:25883716

  12. CT Findings of Axillary Tuberculosis Lymphadenitis: A Case Detected by Breast Cancer Screening Examination

    PubMed Central

    Tanada, Yasuko; Yoshida, Kouichi; Adachi, Yasuko; Matsui, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We report the first description of CT findings of axillary tuberculous lymphadenitis confirmed by the pathological specimen. The breast cancer screening examination is one of the prime methods of detection of axillary tuberculous lymphadenitis. The most common site of axillary tuberculous lymphadenitis is the deep axilla. Screening mammography often fails to cover the whole axilla. The presence on the contrast-enhanced CT of unilateral multiple circumscribed dense nodes, some of which have large and dotted calcifications, might suggest tuberculous lymphadenitis in axillary region. PMID:27379192

  13. Examine the patient not the hernia: identification of an asymptomatic giant primary retroperitoneal pseudocyst. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Karim, Lawen; Larkin, David; Sadat, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 70-year-old man with a giant right-sided retroperitoneal pseudocyst, confirmed histologically after resection to be benign with appearances dissimilar to pancreatic and adrenal tissue. The cyst was noted incidentally on table at the time of laparoscopic surgery. Retroperitoneal pseudocysts most commonly arise from the pancreas and adrenal glands occurring as a result of an inflammatory process. Primary retroperitoneal pseudocysts are a rare entity. This case highlights the importance of examining the patient thoroughly and not focusing on the obvious. The mass was not palpated on initial review prior to listing for surgery, and the patient was asymptomatic from the mass. PMID:27190202

  14. Examine the patient not the hernia: identification of an asymptomatic giant primary retroperitoneal pseudocyst. A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Lawen; Larkin, David; Sadat, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 70-year-old man with a giant right-sided retroperitoneal pseudocyst, confirmed histologically after resection to be benign with appearances dissimilar to pancreatic and adrenal tissue. The cyst was noted incidentally on table at the time of laparoscopic surgery. Retroperitoneal pseudocysts most commonly arise from the pancreas and adrenal glands occurring as a result of an inflammatory process. Primary retroperitoneal pseudocysts are a rare entity. This case highlights the importance of examining the patient thoroughly and not focusing on the obvious. The mass was not palpated on initial review prior to listing for surgery, and the patient was asymptomatic from the mass. PMID:27190202

  15. Management of Severe Class II Malocclusion With Sequential Fixed Functional and Orthodontic Appliances: A Case for MOrthRCSEd Examination.

    PubMed

    Li, Larry Cf; Rabie, A Bakr M; Wong, Ricky Wk

    2010-06-01

    Fixed functional appliance is an effective way of treating skeletal Class II malocclusion in children and adolescents. The following case report documented a 13-year-old boy with 15 mm overjet treated by a phase I 12-month growth modification therapy using Herbst appliance with Hyrax palatal expander and high pull headgear in a stepwise mandibular advancement protocol followed by a phase II pre-adjusted edgewise appliance therapy. It is one of the cases submitted for the Membership of Orthodontics Examination of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh.

  16. Examine the patient not the hernia: identification of an asymptomatic giant primary retroperitoneal pseudocyst. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Karim, Lawen; Larkin, David; Sadat, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 70-year-old man with a giant right-sided retroperitoneal pseudocyst, confirmed histologically after resection to be benign with appearances dissimilar to pancreatic and adrenal tissue. The cyst was noted incidentally on table at the time of laparoscopic surgery. Retroperitoneal pseudocysts most commonly arise from the pancreas and adrenal glands occurring as a result of an inflammatory process. Primary retroperitoneal pseudocysts are a rare entity. This case highlights the importance of examining the patient thoroughly and not focusing on the obvious. The mass was not palpated on initial review prior to listing for surgery, and the patient was asymptomatic from the mass.

  17. 'Shell shock' revisited: an examination of the case records of the National Hospital in London.

    PubMed

    Linden, Stefanie Caroline; Jones, Edgar

    2014-10-01

    During the First World War the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic, in Queen Square, London, then Britain's leading centre for neurology, took a key role in the treatment and understanding of shell shock. This paper explores the case notes of all 462 servicemen who were admitted with functional neurological disorders between 1914 and 1919. Many of these were severe or chronic cases referred to the National Hospital because of its acknowledged expertise and the resources it could call upon. Biographical data was collected together with accounts of the patient's military experience, his symptoms, diagnostic interpretations and treatment outcomes. Analysis of the notes showed that motor syndromes (loss of function or hyperkinesias), often combined with somato-sensory loss, were common presentations. Anxiety and depression as well as vegetative symptoms such as sweating, dizziness and palpitations were also prevalent among this patient population. Conversely, psychogenic seizures were reported much less frequently than in comparable accounts from German tertiary referral centres. As the war unfolded the number of physicians who believed that shell shock was primarily an organic disorder fell as research failed to find a pathological basis for its symptoms. However, little agreement existed among the Queen Square doctors about the fundamental nature of the disorder and it was increasingly categorised as functional disorder or hysteria.

  18. Examine Urban Extreme Rainfall Event: A Case Study for Beijing 7.13.2012 Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, M.; Li, Y.; Shepherd, M.; Su, D.

    2013-05-01

    Using satellite remote sensing observations from 1 km MODIS data, this paper examines the clouds, aerosols, water vapor and surface skin temperature over Beijing to understand the heat and hydrological conditions responsible for the extreme rainfall event that occurred in Beijing on July 21, 2012. Remote sensing data, with the advantage of high spatial resolution and coverage, proves three key mechanisms: (a) the urban heat island effect (UHI) may have contributed to strong convection over Beijing, which led to high level cloud cover; (b) urban aerosol amount peaked before the rainfall, which may have "seeded" the clouds and invigorating precipitation; and (c) abundant water vapor was transported from the northwest into Beijing region and enhanced the existing rainfall system. Simply put, the urban canyon effect, aerosol effect, and UHI effect all likely contributed to enhancement of this extreme rainfall. This work proves that urban system is responsible, at least partly, for urban rainfall extremes.;

  19. Re-Examining the Case for Marriage: Union Formation and Changes in Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Musick, Kelly; Bumpass, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses open questions about the nature and meaning of the positive association between marriage and well-being, namely, the extent to which it is causal, shared with cohabitation, and stable over time. We relied on data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 2,737) and a modeling approach that controls for fixed differences between individuals by relating union transitions to changes in well-being. This study is unique in examining the persistence of changes in well-being as marriages and cohabitations progress (and potentially dissolve) over time. The effects of marriage and cohabitation are found to be similar across a range of measures tapping psychological well-being, health, and social ties. Where there are statistically significant differences, marriage is not always more advantageous. Overall, differences tend to be small and appear to dissipate over time, even when the greater instability of cohabitation is taken into account. PMID:22611285

  20. Medical examiners, coroners, and biologic terrorism: a guidebook for surveillance and case management.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Kurt B; Hanzlick, Randy L; Payne, Daniel C; Kroger, Andrew T; Oliver, William R; Baker, Andrew M; McGowan, Dennis E; DeJong, Joyce L; Bell, Micahel R; Guarner, Jeannette; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Zaki, Sherif R

    2004-06-11

    Medical examiners and coroners (ME/Cs) are essential public health partners for terrorism preparedness and response. These medicolegal investigators support both public health and public safety functions and investigate deaths that are sudden, suspicious, violent, unattended, and unexplained. Medicolegal autopsies are essential for making organism-specific diagnoses in deaths caused by biologic terrorism. This report has been created to 1) help public health officials understand the role of ME/Cs in biologic terrorism surveillance and response efforts and 2) provide ME/Cs with the detailed information required to build capacity for biologic terrorism preparedness in a public health context. This report provides background information regarding biologic terrorism, possible biologic agents, and the consequent clinicopathologic diseases, autopsy procedures, and diagnostic tests as well as a description of biosafety risks and standards for autopsy precautions. ME/Cs' vital role in terrorism surveillance requires consistent standards for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating data. Familiarity with the operational, jurisdictional, and evidentiary concerns involving biologic terrorism-related death investigation is critical to both ME/Cs and public health authorities. Managing terrorism-associated fatalities can be expensive and can overwhelm the existing capacity of ME/Cs. This report describes federal resources for funding and reimbursement for ME/C preparedness and response activities and the limited support capacity of the federal Disaster Mortuary Operational Response Team. Standards for communication are critical in responding to any emergency situation. This report, which is a joint collaboration between CDC and the National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME), describes the relationship between ME/Cs and public health departments, emergency management agencies, emergency operations centers, and the Incident Command System.

  1. Ground penetrating radar examination of thin tsunami beds - A case study from Phra Thong Island, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouramanis, Chris; Switzer, Adam D.; Polivka, Peter M.; Bristow, Charles S.; Jankaew, Kruawun; Dat, Pham T.; Pile, Jeremy; Rubin, Charles M.; Yingsin, Lee; Ildefonso, Sorvigenaleon R.; Jol, Harry M.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal overwash deposits from tsunamis and storms have been identified and characterised from many coastal environments. To date, these investigations have utilised ad-hoc time, energy and cost intensive invasive techniques, such as, pits and trenches or taking core samples. Here, we present the application of high-frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) to identify and characterise the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT) and palaeotsunami deposits from Phra Thong Island, Thailand. This site is one of the most intensively studied palaeotsunami sites globally and preserves a series of late-Holocene stacked sandy tsunami deposits within an organic, muddy low-energy backbeach environment. Using 100, 500 and 1000 MHz GPR antennas, 29 reflection profiles were collected from two swales (X and Y) inland of the modern beach, and two common mid-point (CMP) profiles using the 200 MHz antennas were collected from Swale Y. Detailed examination of the CMPs allowed accurate velocity estimates to be applied to each profile. The reflection profiles included across-swale profiles and a high-resolution grid in Swale X, and were collected to investigate the feasibility of GPR to image the palaeotsunami deposits, and two profiles from Swale Y where the tsunami deposits are poorly known. The 500 MHz antennas provided the best stratigraphic resolution which was independently validated from the stratigraphy and sedimentology recovered from 17 auger cores collected along the profiles. It is clear from the augers and GPR data, that the different dielectric properties of the individual layers allow the identification of the IOT and earlier tsunami deposits on Phra Thong Island. Although applied in a coastal setting here, this technique can be applied to other environments where thin sand beds are preserved, in order to prioritise sites for detailed examination.

  2. Exploring Specialized STEM High Schools: Three Dissertation Studies Examining Commonalities and Differences Across Six Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofel-Grehl, Colby

    This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted analyses of a larger investigation into the practices and features of specialized STEM high schools. While educators and policy makers advocate the development of many new specialized STEM high schools, little is known about the unique features and practices of these schools. The results of these manuscripts add to the literature exploring the promise of specialized STEM schools. Manuscript 1¹ is a qualitative investigation of the common features of STEM schools across multiple school model types. Schools were found to possess common cultural and academic features regardless of model type. Manuscript 2² builds on the findings of manuscript 1. With no meaningful differences found attributable to model type, the researchers used grounded theory to explore the relationships between observed differences among programs as related to the intensity of the STEM experience offered at schools. Schools were found to fall into two categories, high STEM intensity (HSI) and low STEM intensity (LSI), based on five major traits. Manuscript 3³ examines the commonalities and differences in classroom discourse and teachers' questioning techniques in STEM schools. It explicates these discursive practices in order to explore instructional practices across schools. It also examines factors that may influence classroom discourse such as discipline, level of teacher education, and course status as required or elective. Collectively, this research furthers the agenda of better understanding the potential advantages of specialized STEM high schools for preparing a future scientific workforce. ¹Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). STEM high school communities: Common and differing features. Manuscript in preparation. ²Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). Variations in the intensity of specialized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) high schools. Manuscript in preparation

  3. Proalcohol: the Brazilian alcohol program

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    Examines the Brazilian National Alcohol Plan - Proalcohol - which has as its immediate aim, 20% replacement of all gasoline with alcohol. Future plans call for replacement of virtually all gasoline by alcohol and a significant fraction of diesel fuels by 1986. Issues which are looked at separately are: agronomic, industrial (alcohol production), utilization, institutional, social, environmental, and scientific. Economic issues pervade all of these and are considered in the conclusions. There is a brief discussion of methanol production and the lessons for the United States.

  4. Resource Mobilization for Health Advocacy: Afro-Brazilian Religious Organizations and HIV Prevention and Control

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G

    2010-01-01

    Brazil’s national response to AIDS has been tied to the ability to mobilize resources from the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and a variety of donor agencies. The combination of favorable political economic opportunities and the bottom-up demands from civil society make Brazil a particularly interesting case. Despite the stabilization of the AIDS epidemic within the general Brazilian population, it continues to grow in pockets of poverty, especially among women and blacks. We use resource mobilization theories to examine the role of Afro-Brazilian religious organizations in reaching these marginalized populations. From December 2006 through November 2008, we conducted ethnographic research, including participant observation and oral histories with religious leaders (N=18), officials from the National AIDS Program (N=12), public health workers from Rio de Janeiro (N=5), and non-governmental organization (NGO) activists who have worked with Afro-Brazilian religions (N=5). The mobilization of resources from international donors, political opportunities (i.e., decentralization of the National AIDS Program), and cultural framings enabled local Afro-Brazilian religious groups to forge a national network. On the micro-level, in Rio de Janeiro, we observed how macro-level structures led to the proliferation of capacity-building and peer educator projects among these religious groups. We found that beyond funding assistance, the interrelation of religious ideologies, leadership, and networks linked to HIV can affect mobilization. PMID:20542364

  5. Resource mobilization for health advocacy: Afro-Brazilian religious organizations and HIV prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G

    2011-06-01

    Brazil's national response to AIDS has been tied to the ability to mobilize resources from the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and a variety of donor agencies. The combination of favorable political economic opportunities and the bottom-up demands from civil society make Brazil a particularly interesting case. Despite the stabilization of the AIDS epidemic within the general Brazilian population, it continues to grow in pockets of poverty, especially among women and blacks. We use resource mobilization theories to examine the role of Afro-Brazilian religious organizations in reaching these marginalized populations. From December 2006 through November 2008, we conducted ethnographic research, including participant observation and oral histories with religious leaders (N = 18), officials from the National AIDS Program (N = 12), public health workers from Rio de Janeiro (N = 5), and non-governmental organization (NGO) activists who have worked with Afro-Brazilian religions (N = 5). The mobilization of resources from international donors, political opportunities (i.e., decentralization of the National AIDS Program), and cultural framings enabled local Afro-Brazilian religious groups to forge a national network. On the micro-level, in Rio de Janeiro, we observed how macro-level structures led to the proliferation of capacity-building and peer educator projects among these religious groups. We found that beyond funding assistance, the interrelation of religious ideologies, leadership, and networks linked to HIV can affect mobilization.

  6. A case study examining classroom instructional practices at a U.S. dental school.

    PubMed

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Mitchell, Gail S; Dolan, Teresa A

    2005-06-01

    A case study is used to illustrate how an evaluation strategy was used to assess classroom instructional practices following a multiyear institutional curriculum revision process. From January through April of 2003, twelve faculty in medicine and three faculty in dentistry who taught in the first- and second-year basic science courses within the dental curriculum participated in a qualitative study. The purpose was to use a formative evaluation process to assess the impact of the curriculum revision at the level of classroom instruction. The observations revealed that seventeen of the twenty classes observed were teacher-centered, passive, and lacked observable effort to help students understand the relationship of the lecture content to the oral health problems. Findings illustrate the importance of using formative evaluation as a mechanism to assess change efforts and how evidence-based study can be used to support initiatives directed toward assessing active student learning and problem solving. Raising faculty awareness about the importance of acquiring evidence-based educational skills, aligning instruction with course goals and objectives, formatively assessing teaching, and providing learning experiences that will actually be used in practice are essential to ensuring that active learning and critical thinking are demonstrated in the curriculum.

  7. Conducted electrical weapons or stun guns: a review of 46 cases examined in casualty.

    PubMed

    Becour, Bertrand

    2013-06-01

    Low-lethality weapons are intended to neutralize a person with maximum security and with minimal risk of injury or death to the user of the weapon, the person arrested, and the witnesses. Under the same circumstances, the use of a firearm is causing mortality of 50%. Marketed since 1974, the Taser X26 is currently staffing services in the French police and gendarmerie. The Taser device has 3 damaging mechanisms: the direct effect of electric current on the tissues, the conversion of electrical energy into thermal energy, and the injuries caused by the general muscle contraction and resulting fall. The study aimed to analyze the specificities of the conducted electrical weapon-related injuries treated in a emergency department on a series of 46 cases. The study population was predominantly middle-aged men. The circumstances of use of the Taser X26 were most often related to an arrest. The frequency of consultation after a shot by Taser X26 was stable. The management is essentially an outpatient because of frequent and benign lesions. The impacts of electrical impulse mainly affect the chest and abdomen. This distribution of impact zones is inhomogeneous, depending on the circumstances of use.

  8. Examining Antecedents and Consequences of Gambling Passion: The Case of Gambling on Horse Races

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Back, Ki-Joon; Hodgins, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the antecedents and consequences of gambling passion using structural equation modeling to examine relationships among gambling motivation, passion, emotion, and behavioral intentions in the horse racing industry. Methods An onsite survey was conducted with 447 patrons at a horseracing park in South Korea. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Gambling Passion Scale was valid and reliable, resulting in two sub-scales: obsessive passion (OP) and harmonious passion (HP). Results Study results indicated that extrinsic motivation influenced OP whereas intrinsic motivation significantly affected HP. Furthermore, OP was correlated with negative emotion, whereas HP was related to positive emotion. Gamblers' satisfaction was found to be influenced positively by positive emotion and negatively by negative emotion. Finally, satisfaction appeared to affect gamblers' behavioral intentions. Conclusion Study results echoed the notion of distinct and separate gambling motivations and passions among horse racing gamblers. Furthermore, results identified specific areas to which horse racing operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling. PMID:24474985

  9. A new binary model for university examination timetabling: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komijan, Alireza Rashidi; Koupaei, Mehrdad Nouri

    2012-12-01

    Examination timetabling problem (ETP) is one of the most important issues in universities. An improper timetable may result in students' dissatisfaction as it may not let them study enough between two sequential exams. In addition, the many exams to be scheduled, the large number of students who have taken different courses, the limited number of rooms, and some constraints such as no conflict in a single student's exams make it very difficult to schedule experimentally. A mathematical programming model is required to formulate such a sophisticated problem. In this paper, a new binary model is developed for ETP. The novelty of the paper can be discussed in two directions. The first one is that a course can be offered more than once in a semester. If a course is requested by a few students, then it is enough to be offered once. If the number of students requesting a course is more than the maximum number of students who are allowed to attend a single class, then the course is multi-offered. The second novelty is that sharing a room for two simultaneous exams is allowed. Also, the model considers some hard and soft constraints, and the objective function is set in such a way that soft constraints are satisfied as much as possible. Finally, the model is applied in a sample department and is solved by GAMS.

  10. Chiropractic and Spinal Manipulation Therapy on Twitter: Case Study Examining the Presence of Critiques and Debates

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Alessandro R; Klostermann, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Background Spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) is a popular though controversial practice. The debates surrounding efficacy and risk of SMT are only partially evident in popular discourse. Objective This study aims to investigate the presence of critiques and debates surrounding efficacy and risk of SMT on the social media platform Twitter. The study examines whether there is presence of debate and whether critical information is being widely disseminated. Methods An initial corpus of 31,339 tweets was compiled through Twitter’s Search Application Programming Interface using the query terms “chiropractic,” “chiropractor,” and “spinal manipulation therapy.” Tweets were collected for the month of December 2015. Post removal of tweets made by bots and spam, the corpus totaled 20,695 tweets, of which a sample (n=1267) was analyzed for skeptical or critical tweets. Additional criteria were also assessed. Results There were 34 tweets explicitly containing skepticism or critique of SMT, representing 2.68% of the sample (n=1267). As such, there is a presence of 2.68% of tweets in the total corpus, 95% CI 0-6.58% displaying explicitly skeptical or critical perspectives of SMT. In addition, there are numerous tweets highlighting the health benefits of SMT for health issues such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), immune system, and blood pressure that receive scant critical attention. The presence of tweets in the corpus highlighting the risks of “stroke” and “vertebral artery dissection” is also minute (0.1%). Conclusions In the abundance of tweets substantiating and promoting chiropractic and SMT as sound health practices and valuable business endeavors, the debates surrounding the efficacy and risks of SMT on Twitter are almost completely absent. Although there are some critical voices of SMT proving to be influential, issues persist regarding how widely this information is being disseminated. PMID:27637456

  11. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  12. Semen collection requirement from multiple-organs brain-dead donors: report of two cases and analysis of the available Brazilian legislation.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, L A C; Dantas Filho, V P; Montone, E B B; Athayde, M V O; Rodrigues, S L L; Panunto, M R; Araújo, S; Zambelli, H J L

    2013-04-01

    Along with developments in transplantation there have been major breakthroughs in the techniques of assisted reproduction. The areas of common interest include requesting semen collection from organ donors with a diagnosis of brain death. After the recent report of two cases in the Search Service of Organs and Tissues, we analyzed legislation in our country, which still lacks specific guidance in such situations. Organ transplantation progressively established itself as an effective therapeutic option in our country since the 1960s. It represents viable alternative to improve both the quality and length of life as well as to decrease long-term costs of patients with severe end-stage organ failure. These programs have specific rules and laws that are necessary to guide all stages of transplantation: donor identification, authorization and execution as well as recipients selection of implantation techniques. Assisted reproduction also needs legislation specific for human infertility, a public health problem that affects medical, psychological, and legitimate desires of people. The World Health Organization estimates that infertility reaches 20% of the population demanding the development and use of techniques for its treatment. Brazilian legislation includes regulations for transplantation of organs and tissues in law no. 9434 of February 04, 1997; it provides for the removal of organs, tissues, and human body parts for transplantation and other treatments. This law is regulated by Decree no. 2268 of June 30, 1997, establishing the National Transplant System, which standardizes these processes. The postmortem organ and tissue provision must be preceded by a diagnosis of via the Brain Death Protocol (Federal Council of Medicine-Brazil). The sole paragraph of Article 1 makes clear that its provisions do not apply to blood, sperm, or ovules as confirmed by the sole paragraph of Article 1 in the Decree 2.268/97 regulation. Since there is no specific legislation, assisted

  13. Semen collection requirement from multiple-organs brain-dead donors: report of two cases and analysis of the available Brazilian legislation.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, L A C; Dantas Filho, V P; Montone, E B B; Athayde, M V O; Rodrigues, S L L; Panunto, M R; Araújo, S; Zambelli, H J L

    2013-04-01

    Along with developments in transplantation there have been major breakthroughs in the techniques of assisted reproduction. The areas of common interest include requesting semen collection from organ donors with a diagnosis of brain death. After the recent report of two cases in the Search Service of Organs and Tissues, we analyzed legislation in our country, which still lacks specific guidance in such situations. Organ transplantation progressively established itself as an effective therapeutic option in our country since the 1960s. It represents viable alternative to improve both the quality and length of life as well as to decrease long-term costs of patients with severe end-stage organ failure. These programs have specific rules and laws that are necessary to guide all stages of transplantation: donor identification, authorization and execution as well as recipients selection of implantation techniques. Assisted reproduction also needs legislation specific for human infertility, a public health problem that affects medical, psychological, and legitimate desires of people. The World Health Organization estimates that infertility reaches 20% of the population demanding the development and use of techniques for its treatment. Brazilian legislation includes regulations for transplantation of organs and tissues in law no. 9434 of February 04, 1997; it provides for the removal of organs, tissues, and human body parts for transplantation and other treatments. This law is regulated by Decree no. 2268 of June 30, 1997, establishing the National Transplant System, which standardizes these processes. The postmortem organ and tissue provision must be preceded by a diagnosis of via the Brain Death Protocol (Federal Council of Medicine-Brazil). The sole paragraph of Article 1 makes clear that its provisions do not apply to blood, sperm, or ovules as confirmed by the sole paragraph of Article 1 in the Decree 2.268/97 regulation. Since there is no specific legislation, assisted

  14. [The case of a solitary pulmonary tumor which could be diagnosed as early gastric cancer recurrence by detailed pathological examinations].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shigeya; Sato, Tsutomu; Yokose, Tomoyuki; Ito, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Segami, Kenki; Kawabe, Taichi; Aoyama, Toru; Makuuchi, Yousuke; Oshima, Takashi; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka; Ogata, Takashi; Cho, Haruhiko; Yoshikawa, Takaki

    2014-11-01

    We report the case of a solitary pulmonary tumor, which was diagnosed as recurrent early gastric cancer by detailed pathological examinations. A 59-year old man initially underwent total gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma located at the esophago-gastric junction. A pathological examination indicated a papillary adenocarcinoma (pap ) that had invaded the submucosal layer (sm²), but had not metastasized to the regional lymph nodes (n0). The final diagnosis was P0H0M0T1bN0, Stage IA. Chest computed tomography (CT) 30 months after primary surgery indicated a solitary tumor with a diameter of 9 mm at S3 of the left lung. A positron emission tomography (PET)-CT scan showed an accumulation of ¹⁸F-fluordeoxy-glucose (FDG18) at the same location. Lung cancer was suspected and the patient was given a left upper lobectomy. The resected tumor was diagnosed as gastric cancer metastatic adenocarcinoma by permanent pathological examination. The tumors showed similar histology and immuno histochemical findings for CK7, CK20, TTF-1, SP-A, CDX-2, and HER2 . Early gastric cancer is an almost curable disease and recurrence is very rare. We report the details of this case and review the literature. PMID:25731547

  15. Using IRT Approach to Detect Gender Biased Items in Public Examinations: A Case Study from the Botswana Junior Certificate Examination in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedoyin, O. O.

    2010-01-01

    This is a quantitative study, which attempted to detect gender bias test items from the Botswana Junior Certificate Examination in mathematics. To detect gender bias test items, a randomly selected sample of 4000 students responses to mathematics paper 1 of the Botswana Junior Certificate examination were selected from 36,000 students who sat for…

  16. Ganglion cyst at the fibular head causing common peroneal neuropathy diagnosed with ultrasound and electrodiagnostic examination: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lawrence P; Chen, Boqing; Kumar, Suneil; Desai, Raj; Mendoza, Justin; Foye, Patrick M; Stitik, Todd P

    2014-09-01

    The common peroneal nerve is a major source of innervation to the lower limb, but it is sometimes compressed or entrapped at the fibular head. The authors present what they believe is the first reported case where peroneal nerve impingement caused by ganglion cyst compression of the nerve at the fibular head was diagnosed using a combination of ultrasound imaging and electrodiagnostic studies. The authors described the history, physical examination, electrodiagnostic findings, and musculoskeletal ultrasound findings of a patient with a left foot drop caused by a ganglion cyst compressing the common peroneal nerve at the fibular head. The increasing role of ultrasound imaging to evaluate musculoskeletal pathology is discussed. PMID:24919081

  17. Examination and treatment of a professional ballet dancer with a suspected acetabular labral tear: A case report.

    PubMed

    Khoo-Summers, Lynnette; Bloom, Nancy J

    2015-08-01

    Dancers are at risk for developing groin pain that is due to acetabular labral tears. Although surgical management of labral tears has been reported extensively, conservative management has been poorly described. This case report describes the examination, diagnosis, and treatment of groin pain in a professional ballet dancer with a suspected acetabular labral tear. Treatment focused on decreasing anterior hip joint stresses and improving the precision of hip motion through correction of alignment and movement impairments noted during functional activities and dance. Successful outcomes included a reduction in pain and return to professional ballet dancing. PMID:25725589

  18. Context, evidence and attitude: the case for photography in medical examinations of asylum seekers in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Park, Rebekah; Oomen, Janus

    2010-07-01

    Can photographs of scars serve as evidence of torture? Amnesty International's Medical Examination Group in the Netherlands (AI-MEG) has, for more than a decade, been photographing torture scars to supplement the testimonies of asylum seekers who have been denied refuge. AI-MEG only intervenes at this point, when asylum seekers face extradition. Proving allegations of torture is of vital importance, as asylum seekers face rising anti-immigrant sentiment in European countries. All victims examined by AI-MEG present a combination of mental, physical and emotional scars. We summarize five cases where AI-MEG used photography in their medical examinations, and consider the ethical role physicians play in helping asylum seekers obtain refuge. Though photographs cannot capture all forms of trauma, as visual documents, they are a compelling form of concrete evidence of torture. In this way, photographs complement verbal testimonies and help doctors and immigration authorities to see and understand physical scars left by various forms of torture. AI-MEG explains in medical terms the connections between the visible late sequelae of torture and victims' testimonies. They then assess whether or not the physical scars are consistent with the forms of torture recounted by victims, using the terminology of the Istanbul Protocol (1999), the United Nations-adopted manual of guidelines that explains how to document torture. This paper outlines the medical examination process and argues for the use of photography as medical evidence on behalf of asylum seekers.

  19. [Factors affecting the adoption of ICT tools in experiments with bioinformatics in biopharmaceutical organizations: a case study in the Brazilian Cancer Institute].

    PubMed

    Pitassi, Claudio; Gonçalves, Antonio Augusto; Moreno Júnior, Valter de Assis

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this article is to identify and analyze the factors that influence the adoption of ICT tools in experiments with bioinformatics at the Brazilian Cancer Institute (INCA). It involves a descriptive and exploratory qualitative field study. Evidence was collected mainly based on in-depth interviews with the management team at the Research Center and the IT Division. The answers were analyzed using the categorical content method. The categories were selected from the scientific literature and consolidated in the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework created for this study. The model proposed made it possible to demonstrate how the factors selected impacted INCA´s adoption of bioinformatics systems and tools, contributing to the investigation of two critical areas for the development of the health industry in Brazil, namely technological innovation and bioinformatics. Based on the evidence collected, a research question was posed: to what extent can the alignment of the factors related to the adoption of ICT tools in experiments with bioinformatics increase the innovation capacity of a Brazilian biopharmaceutical organization?

  20. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version “COPE Breve”

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Mara R. C. A.; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts. PMID:27007646

  1. Histological examination and clinical evaluation of the jawbone of an adult patient with cleidocranial dysplasia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Schnutenhaus, Sigmar; Luthardt, Ralph G; Rudolph, Heike; Götz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare congenital malformation syndrome, inherited autosomal-dominantly. During a course of treatment including surgical, implantological and restorative procedures, an opportunity arose to histologically examine biopsies of the maxilla and mandible of a CCD patient 47 years of age. Case report: The aim of this case report is to present the results of the histological evaluation of the alveolar bone and the surgical pretreatment for and placement of six implants each in the maxilla and the mandible. The implants were inserted in a minimally invasive procedure using 3D template guidance. Following uneventful healing of the implants, ceramically veneered bridges were cemented on individual titanium abutments. Since the patient had not received orthodontic treatment in childhood-which would have been the treatment modality of choice-this implantological and prosthodontic approach was necessary. Biopsies were taken from the maxilla and the mandible before placing the implants. Histological evaluation showed bone with strong, coarsely interconnecting trabeculae, especially in the maxilla. Both the bone and the gingiva otherwise exhibited a normal structure without pathological features or anomalies. Conclusion: The clinical parameters and histological evaluation of this one clinical case suggest that the concepts familiar from general oral implantology in terms of surgical and prosthetic procedures can be adopted for older patients with CCD. PMID:26339428

  2. Quantifying price fluctuations in the Brazilian stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabak, B. M.; Takami, M. Y.; Cajueiro, D. O.; Petitinga, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates price fluctuations in the Brazilian stock market. We employ a recently developed methodology to test whether the Brazilian stock price returns present a power law distribution and find that we cannot reject such behavior. Empirical results for sub-partitions of the time series suggests that for most of the time the power law is not rejected, but that in some cases the data set does not conform with a power law distribution.

  3. Association between dental anomalies and malocclusion in Brazilian orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Pedreira, Fernanda R de O; de Carli, Marina L; Pedreira, Renato do P G; Ramos, Patrícia de S; Pedreira, Marcelo R; Robazza, Carlos Roberto C; Hanemann, João Adolfo C

    2016-01-01

    Developmental dental anomalies have been associated with different malocclusions in various populations. This study verified this association in Brazilian non-syndromic orthodontic patients. The prevalence of dental anomalies was evaluated by examining 2,052 pretreatment records of orthodontic patients. Panoramic radiographs, study designs, intraoral photographs and medical history were collected in order to identify hypodontia, hyperdontia, microdontia, macrodontia, taurodontism, transposition, impaction, and ectopia. Epidemiological data and classification of malocclusion were also obtained. Data were analyzed using chi-square and Fisher's exact test (P < 0.05), and the prevalence ratio was obtained from cases that had a significant association between anomaly and malocclusion. The results showed that 27.4% of the patients evaluated had some dental anomaly, and most of them were white women aged 11-20 years. Ectopia, microdontia, impaction, and hypodontia were more prevalent in patients with Class I malocclusion. Macrodontia was the only anomaly associated with Class II division 1. Impaction was associated with Class III malocclusion, at a 1.84-times higher prevalence. In conclusion, impaction was correlated with Class I malocclusion; macrodontia showed association with Class II division 1; and impaction and ectopia were associated with Class III malocclusion in Brazilian orthodontic patients. (J Oral Sci 58, 75-81, 2016). PMID:27021543

  4. Molecular pathogenesis of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in brazilian patients.

    PubMed

    Maniglia, Maurício Pereira; Ribeiro, Maria Estela Bellini; Costa, Nauyla Miranda da; Jacomini, Marta Lúcia Gabriel; Carvalho, Thiago Bittencourt Ottoni de; Molina, Fernando Drimel; Piatto, Vânia Belintani; Maniglia, José Victor

    2013-10-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a vascular tumor of the nasopharynx that accounts for 0.5% of all cancers of the head and neck. It primarily affects males aged 14-25 years. Of the many genes that mediate the development of JNA, GSTM1 has been most frequently associated with this vascular tumor. The loss of expression of GSTM1 (null genotype) is linked to the development of these tumors. The aim of this cross-sectional case study was to examine the prevalence of the GSTM1-null genotype in Brazilian patients with JNA. DNA was extracted from the leukocytes of blood samples from 10 patients. GSTM1 genotypes were analyzed using a PCR-based assay that was designed to identify the wild-type allele of GSTM1. All 10 patients (100%) were males, with a mean age of 17.8 years. The null genotype for GSTM1 was noted in 4 patients (40%)-1 (10%) at Fisch stage I, 1 (10%) at stage III, and 2 (20%) at stage II. No patient with this genotype had stage IV disease. There was no correlation between Fisch classification and GSTM1 genotype (P = .5695). The correlation between age at diagnosis and GSTM1 genotype was not significant (P = .728). The present findings indicate that there is evidence of an association between the GSTM1-null genotype and JNA in this studied Brazilian population.

  5. A Brazilian Oz?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Both the American author, L. Frank Baum, and his Brazilian counterpart, Jose Monteiro Lobato, created children's books that featured alternative worlds, peopled by characters who fascinated many generations of young readers. The authors were both born in the second half of the nineteenth century into families of privilege, and both enjoyed idyllic…

  6. [Examination of the Prevention of Severe Hand Trauma Injury Cases due to Occupational Accidents--An Expert Opinion Gathering Meeting].

    PubMed

    Zenke, Yukichi; Kajiki, Shigeyuki; Yoshikawa, Toru; Nakao, Toyoki; Yoshikawa, Etsuko; Shoji, Takurou; Fukumoto, Keizo; Sakai, Akinori

    2015-12-01

    We gathered seven specialists from various fields who are interested in worker injury prevention programs, based on cases of patients who had suffered refractory injuries requiring hand surgery because of industrial accidents. The patients were asked to write their thoughts and ideas on the theme, "Measures that must be implemented to prevent arm injuries." The content obtained was classified into different categories, using the KJ method, and was scripted to sort out the items. As a result, the following eleven points were identified as measures to prevent serious hand surgery-related injuries: 1. Purchase safe machinery, 2. Create a list of machines that require caution, 3. Enclose a machine's various rotating parts, 4. Carry out periodic maintenance work on the machines, 5. Indicate dangerous areas by putting up signs that attract attention, 6. Illuminate the rotating parts more brightly and avoid placing objects around them, 7. Systematically carry out safety education that creates a strong impact, 8. Encourage workers to look after their own health, 9. Announce policies on health and safety, 10. Re-examine the operational procedures, and 11. Be prepared in case an accident occurs. A perspective based on the results of this research is deemed important in creating a workplace improvement manual in the future. PMID:26667199

  7. Brazilian women in politics.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  8. Brazilian women in politics.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  9. Brazilian pharmaceutical diplomacy: social democratic principles versus soft power interests.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Current debates concerning the rise of health diplomacy are polarized between competing international relations theories of realism, based on power politics, and constructivist approaches, which emphasize the norms, values, and identities shaping foreign policies. A case study of Brazil's health diplomacy over the past 10 years, focusing on issues related to pharmaceuticals, seeks to provide data to assess these theories. The country's intellectual property disputes, multilateral lobbying efforts, and foreign assistance programs are contrasted with those of the United States, Mexico, and other countries. Instead of viewing Brazilian efforts as a form of soft power, the evidence suggests that the origins of Brazil's involvement and continued efforts in this arena stem more from values based on human rights and social democratic principles. A close examination of domestic political considerations leads to a more nuanced understanding of the drivers behind a country's health diplomacy. PMID:23527455

  10. Brazilian pharmaceutical diplomacy: social democratic principles versus soft power interests.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Current debates concerning the rise of health diplomacy are polarized between competing international relations theories of realism, based on power politics, and constructivist approaches, which emphasize the norms, values, and identities shaping foreign policies. A case study of Brazil's health diplomacy over the past 10 years, focusing on issues related to pharmaceuticals, seeks to provide data to assess these theories. The country's intellectual property disputes, multilateral lobbying efforts, and foreign assistance programs are contrasted with those of the United States, Mexico, and other countries. Instead of viewing Brazilian efforts as a form of soft power, the evidence suggests that the origins of Brazil's involvement and continued efforts in this arena stem more from values based on human rights and social democratic principles. A close examination of domestic political considerations leads to a more nuanced understanding of the drivers behind a country's health diplomacy.

  11. Brazilian impact factor of physics journals--the third side of the coin.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, José R; da Fonseca, Norma E

    2015-01-01

    The lack of correlation between the Journal Impact Factors and the most cited Brazilian papers in physics is statistically demonstrated. The existence of an effective "Brazilian Impact Factor" is observed, being its values, in general, lower than the international Impact Factors. In some cases, discrepancies from the international values are huge, leading to doubts on whether it is appropriate to use this indicator to judge Brazilian scientists.

  12. Possibilities to reduce carbon emissions in Brazilian Amazon region with non timber biomass valorization: The case of biofuels produced by vegetable tropical oils

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, M.A.V. de; Rosa, L.P.; Lascio, M.A. Di |

    1996-12-31

    Brazil`s annual rate of deforestation reached 2.1 million ha or about 13.6% of the total annual rate of deforestation for the whole tropical area in the world during 1981--1990. Today, the extent of gross deforestation is 10.9% of the tropical closed forest area. Relative to Brazilian participation in the greenhouse effect, the changes in forest area and associated biomass burning in Amazon region are responsible for about 25.5% of CO{sub 2} emissions in the tropics. Harvest of the non-timber biomass products may be important as a potentially sustainable use of forest in some areas. An excellent option to promote these biomass products is to provide energy and industrial goods for the Amazon communities and other external markets. In this work, the biofuels produced by vegetable tropical oils and their by-products are analyzed in relation to job creation, economics and environmental impacts, with special regards concerning the limitation of the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases.

  13. [The demographic revolution among Brazilian indigenous peoples: the case of the Kayabí in the Xingu Indian Reservation, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 1970-2007].

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, Heloisa

    2010-03-01

    This paper analyzes the demographic dynamics of the Kayabí, a Tupi people in the Xingu Indian Reservation in Central Brazil, from 1970 to 2007. Data were gathered from vital statistics for the Xingu Indian Reservation at the Federal University in São Paulo. Contact with Brazilian national society from 1920 to 1950 in the Upper Teles Pires River Valley led to a population decrease due to clashes and epidemics. In 1952, part of the Kayabí group gradually began migrating to the Xingu, where they still live. In 1970 there were 204 Kayabí in Xingu villages, and by 2007 there were 1,162, representing a 4.8% annual growth rate. For 2000-2007 the crude birth rate was 51 per thousand inhabitants; total fertility rate 7.8 children per women; crude death crude 3.5 per thousand inhabitants; and infant mortality rate 17.5 per thousand live births. The majority of the population is under 15 years of age (55.9%). The results show a population recovery process, similar to that of some other indigenous group in Brazil.

  14. [The demographic revolution among Brazilian indigenous peoples: the case of the Kayabí in the Xingu Indian Reservation, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 1970-2007].

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, Heloisa

    2010-03-01

    This paper analyzes the demographic dynamics of the Kayabí, a Tupi people in the Xingu Indian Reservation in Central Brazil, from 1970 to 2007. Data were gathered from vital statistics for the Xingu Indian Reservation at the Federal University in São Paulo. Contact with Brazilian national society from 1920 to 1950 in the Upper Teles Pires River Valley led to a population decrease due to clashes and epidemics. In 1952, part of the Kayabí group gradually began migrating to the Xingu, where they still live. In 1970 there were 204 Kayabí in Xingu villages, and by 2007 there were 1,162, representing a 4.8% annual growth rate. For 2000-2007 the crude birth rate was 51 per thousand inhabitants; total fertility rate 7.8 children per women; crude death crude 3.5 per thousand inhabitants; and infant mortality rate 17.5 per thousand live births. The majority of the population is under 15 years of age (55.9%). The results show a population recovery process, similar to that of some other indigenous group in Brazil. PMID:20464076

  15. On slaves and genes: "origins" and "processes" in genetic studies of the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Calvo-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine how contemporary geneticists investigating the history and configuration of the Brazilian population engage with other academic disciplines. To do so I use as a case study some articles published by geneticists researching the presence of hemoglobin S variants in Brazil, in which there is a clear pretension to contribute to the analysis of issues such as slavery or Brazil's ethnic identity. By contrasting these studies with contemporary works from history and the social science, the explanatory centrality of "origin" in the genetic studies analyzed is problematized, as is the lack of interaction with the epistemological characteristics of other areas of knowledge.

  16. On slaves and genes: "origins" and "processes" in genetic studies of the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Calvo-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine how contemporary geneticists investigating the history and configuration of the Brazilian population engage with other academic disciplines. To do so I use as a case study some articles published by geneticists researching the presence of hemoglobin S variants in Brazil, in which there is a clear pretension to contribute to the analysis of issues such as slavery or Brazil's ethnic identity. By contrasting these studies with contemporary works from history and the social science, the explanatory centrality of "origin" in the genetic studies analyzed is problematized, as is the lack of interaction with the epistemological characteristics of other areas of knowledge. PMID:25606720

  17. The political contradictions of incremental innovation: lessons from pharmaceutical patent examination in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Shadlen, Kenneth C

    2011-01-01

    Neodevelopmental patent regimes aim to facilitate local actors’ access to knowledge and also encourage incremental innovations. The case of pharmaceutical patent examination in Brazil illustrates political contradictions between these objectives. Brazil’s patent law includes the Ministry of Health in the examination of pharmaceutical patent applications. Though widely celebrated as a health-oriented policy, the Brazilian experience has become fraught with tensions and subject to decreasing levels of both stability and enforcement. I show how one pillar of the neodevelopmental regime, the array of initiatives to encourage incremental innovations, has fostered the acquisition of innovative capabilities in the Brazilian pharmaceutical sector, and how these new capabilities have altered actors’ policy preferences and thus contributed to the erosion of the coalition in support of the other pillar of the neodevelopmental regime, the health-oriented approach to examining pharmaceutical patents. The analysis of capability-derived preference formation points to an endogenous process of coalitional change.

  18. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II.

    PubMed

    Paprocki, Henrique; França, Diogo

    2014-01-01

    A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region.

  19. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524

  20. Examining the role of voluntary associations in environmental management: the case of the Sam Houston national forest.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiaying; Schuett, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of voluntary associations involved in forest management. The specific areas examined in this study include organizational attributes, membership profile, attitudes toward forest-management priorities, and concerns about forest-management issues. To achieve this purpose, data were collected using a case study approach with mixed-methods (document reviews, personal interviews, and a Web survey) at a national forest in Texas, USA. Overall, the voluntary associations in this study can be described as place-based, small to moderate in scale, activity-oriented, and active groups that are adaptive to sociopolitical and environmental changes. General group members placed high importance on aesthetic, ecological, and recreation management of the national forest. In addition, this study showed five key forest management issues: (1) limited recreation access; (2) financial challenges for forest management; (3) conflict among recreation user groups; (4) inadequate communication by the United States Forest Service to the general public, and (5) sustainability of the forest. Theoretical and managerial implications of the results are discussed. PMID:22005968

  1. Examining angler behavior using contingent behavior modeling: A case study of water quality change at a Wisconsin lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiswerth, Mark E.; Kashian, Russell D.; Skidmore, Mark

    2008-11-01

    We use contingent behavior (CB) analysis to examine the potential impacts of a hypothetical change in the clarity of a lake. We collect and use both CB and revealed preference data to estimate a pooled negative binomial count data travel cost model. From this analysis we calculate the consumer surplus per angling party day for our case study lake to be about $104, or a total annual consumer surplus of $1.4 million. Using this consumer surplus measure and changes in the intended number of visits obtained from the CB survey, we estimate the loss in consumer surplus associated with a decline in water clarity from 10 to 3 feet (1 foot = 0.3048 m) to be about $522,000 annually (a 38% decrease). Since this is the first such application of CB analysis to estimate the effects of a water clarity change, the study may illustrate a method well suited to analyzing changes in water quality attributes that are easily observable and well understood by recreators.

  2. Examining the role of service-learning on development of professionalism in doctor of physical therapy students: a case report.

    PubMed

    Crandell, Catherine E; Wiegand, Mark R; Brosky, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is a pedagogical tool that has several purported benefits. In the health sciences, we have established an integrated curricular SL thread that includes self-contained course experiences and the provision of pro bono physical therapy services in on- and off-campus Service-Learning Clinics (SLC). SL is integrated across the curriculum through four SL courses. Student provision of pro bono services is the centerpiece of the SL course series with students providing patient management in on- and off-campus clinics. The purpose of this case report is to examine how participation in the off-campus SLC may impact the development of professionalism in a sample of eight students. In this project, student perceptions of the role of the off-campus SLC experiences in the development of professionalism and core values were assessed through three methods: student interviews, completion of the physical therapy Core Values Self-Assessment form, and analysis of student reflection papers. Students reported core values compassion/caring and accountability most frequently in the context of their off-campus SL experiences. Student responses suggest SL is a beneficial learning model in providing a framework to the curricular emphasis on professionalism. While the role of SL in the development of professionalism and core values is not entirely clear, this pedagogical model appears to have a positive impact on the professional education of these students. PMID:23471290

  3. Examining the Role of Voluntary Associations in Environmental Management: The Case of the Sam Houston National Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiaying; Schuett, Michael A.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of voluntary associations involved in forest management. The specific areas examined in this study include organizational attributes, membership profile, attitudes toward forest-management priorities, and concerns about forest-management issues. To achieve this purpose, data were collected using a case study approach with mixed-methods (document reviews, personal interviews, and a Web survey) at a national forest in Texas, USA. Overall, the voluntary associations in this study can be described as place-based, small to moderate in scale, activity-oriented, and active groups that are adaptive to sociopolitical and environmental changes. General group members placed high importance on aesthetic, ecological, and recreation management of the national forest. In addition, this study showed five key forest management issues: (1) limited recreation access; (2) financial challenges for forest management; (3) conflict among recreation user groups; (4) inadequate communication by the United States Forest Service to the general public, and (5) sustainability of the forest. Theoretical and managerial implications of the results are discussed.

  4. An empirical case study examining effectiveness of environmental enrichment in two captive Australian Sea Lions (Neophoca cinerea).

    PubMed

    Smith, Bradley P; Litchfield, Carla A

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined the effect of environmental enrichment on the activity budgets of a male and female Australian Sea Lion (Neophoca cinerea) housed together at Adelaide Zoo. Using non-food-related (intrinsic) and food-related (extrinsic) enrichment objects, the study conducted an ABABA (withdrawal) experimental design over a 30-day period (180 hr). The study expected extrinsically reinforcing objects to be more effective than intrinsically reinforcing objects in reducing pattern swimming. The male sea lion spent more than 45% of scans engaged in pattern swimming during the initial baseline, which was reduced by at least 25% when enrichment items were present. However, there was no evidence of stereotypic behavior in the female sea lion, indicating that individual differences may exist. When enrichment was present, the study observed more active behaviors in both nonhuman animals. They spent more time interacting with the non-food-related objects overall. Therefore, introducing simple enrichment devices offers a cheap, practical, and effective method of adding complexity to the environment, which is likely to benefit the animals' welfare and enhance the zoo-visitor experience.

  5. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 2, Greenhouse gas emissions from deforestration in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Fearnside, P.M.

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as ``committed carbon,`` or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil`s use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  6. The Contribution of Ethnobiology to the Construction of a Dialogue Between Ways of Knowing: A Case Study in a Brazilian Public High School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Geilsa Costa Santos; El-Hani, Charbel Niño

    2009-04-01

    This paper reports results obtained in pedagogical interventions in a Brazilian public high school which aimed at promoting a dialogue between scientific and traditional knowledge in the context of biology teaching. The interventions were based on the use of a didactic material and teaching sequence elaborated on the grounds of school knowledge about botany, as presented in biology textbooks, and interviews with students who were also farmers, so as to gather data about their ethnobiological knowledge. Our goal was to develop and test resources that can offer support for teachers who wish to build a dialogue between different ways of knowing in multicultural settings. Our results indicate that the use of the didactic material and teaching sequence indeed created possibilities for a dialogue between the students’ ethnobiological knowledge and biology school knowledge. We observed some shortcomings in classroom practice, partly reflecting our very choice of subject matter to develop the teaching sequence. But the interventions also revealed important limitations that we regard as representative of problems that may generally make multicultural science teaching a hard goal to achieve. It was clear that important shortcomings were related to teachers’ difficulties to conduct a dialogue between ways of knowing in a science classroom, and, thus, called attention to the importance of introducing a multicultural dimension into teacher education. We also observed that the fact that students did not show much sensitivity towards dealing with cultural diversity was a factor constraining the success of the interventions. These results highlight the importance of proposing and testing teacher education initiatives aiming at preparing them to teach science in a culturally sensitive manner, and also managing classroom tensions and conflicts so as to make it possible an effective dialogue between different ways of knowing in a multicultural setting.

  7. Development of normative data for the Brazilian adaptation of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test.

    PubMed

    Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio; dos Santos, Clayson Alan; Bezerra, Thiago Freire Pinto; Pinna, Fábio de Rezende; Voegels, Richard Louis; Doty, Richard L

    2015-02-01

    It is well established that olfactory dysfunction has significant implications for safety, nutrition, and quality of life. The more reliable standardized tests of olfactory function, such as the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), assess odor identification ability. Unfortunately, cultural factors can influence such tests, as a number of odors are not universally recognized. In this study, a Portuguese language version of the UPSIT was administered to an age- and sex-stratified prospective sample of 1820 Brazilian subjects. Normative data were developed for a subset of 1578 subjects who reported having no difficulties smelling or tasting. Individuals with a history of head trauma or, in the case of those over the age of 64 years, Mini-Mental State Examination Scores <24, were excluded from analysis. As in other populations, the test scores were significantly influenced by age and sex. The median overall difference between the North American and Brazilian UPSIT scores was 2.2 points for men and 0.8 points for women, although subtle age-related differences were also apparent. This research represents that largest clinical study of olfaction ever performed in South America. Correction factors based upon age and sex are provided to allow for direct comparisons of Brazilian test scores to those based upon North American norms.

  8. Clinicopathologic and molecular features of 122 Brazilian cases of nodal and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, with EBV subtyping analysis.

    PubMed

    Gualco, Gabriela; Domeny-Duarte, Pollyanna; Chioato, Lucimara; Barber, Glen; Natkunam, Yasodha; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2011-08-01

    Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (NK/TCL) is more prevalent in Asia and in some areas of South and Central America, but it is rarely seen in the United States and Europe. In this study, a series of 122 cases of NK/TCL from Brazil was analyzed with respect to clinicopathologic features. Clinical characteristics and geographic distribution were evaluated in 97 cases of nasal/nasopharyngeal region and 23 cases in extranasal sites including 6 nodal cases. Clinical staging and follow-up information was available in a subset of 21 patients. All cases harbored Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), 95% and 85% expressed cytoplasmic CD3 and CD56, respectively, and all cases were positive for at least 1 marker for cytotoxic granules. The global distribution of EBV subtypes showed predominance of strain subtype A, 89%, and subtype B, 11%. No dual infections were detected. TCR-γ TCR-gene rearrangement was observed in 7 cases; all of them extranodal. Three of TCR-γ(+) cases showed EBV subtype A. Two TCR-γ(+)/CD56(+) cases showed EBV subtype B. Geographic distribution of NK/TCL showed higher frequency in the southeast and northeast regions of Brazil. Striking differences among geographic regions were seen with the vast majority of EBV subtype B (86%) occurring in the south and southeast regions.

  9. Examining the Influence of Seductive Details in Case-Based Instruction on Pre-Service Teachers' Learning and Learning Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The case-based instructional method uses fictionalized or actual narratives as instructional tools to support learning, decision-making, and improved transfer to practical settings. Educational theorists and researchers specializing in case-based instruction have suggested that cases can be made more realistic, engaging, and challenging, thus…

  10. [Abortion and fetal non-viability: the Brazilian debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora

    2005-01-01

    The Case Against Non-Compliance with the Fundamental Principle concerning Anencephaly, under review by the Brazilian Supreme Court, is a milestone in the debate on abortion in Latin America. Since the currently prevailing version of the Brazilian Penal Code was enacted in 1940, there has been fierce resistance to any change in the country's abortion policy. This article discusses the arguments and political strategies used in the anencephaly suit brought before the Supreme Court, particularly the ethical and legal position that interruption of pregnancy in cases of anencephaly does not constitute abortion, but should be considered a therapeutic anticipation of delivery. PMID:15905929

  11. [Abortion and fetal non-viability: the Brazilian debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora

    2005-01-01

    The Case Against Non-Compliance with the Fundamental Principle concerning Anencephaly, under review by the Brazilian Supreme Court, is a milestone in the debate on abortion in Latin America. Since the currently prevailing version of the Brazilian Penal Code was enacted in 1940, there has been fierce resistance to any change in the country's abortion policy. This article discusses the arguments and political strategies used in the anencephaly suit brought before the Supreme Court, particularly the ethical and legal position that interruption of pregnancy in cases of anencephaly does not constitute abortion, but should be considered a therapeutic anticipation of delivery.

  12. Genomic instability at the 13q31 locus and somatic mtDNA mutation in the D-loop site correlate with tumor aggressiveness in sporadic Brazilian breast cancer cases

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Gilson Costa; de Souza Góes, Andréa Carla; de Vitto, Humberto; Moreira, Carla Cristina; Avvad, Elizabeth; Rumjanek, Franklin David; de Moura Gallo, Claudia Vitoria

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Genomic instability is a hallmark of malignant tissues. In this work, we aimed to characterize nuclear and mitochondrial instabilities by determining short tandem repeats and somatic mitochondrial mutations, respectively, in a cohort of Brazilian sporadic breast cancer cases. Furthermore, we performed an association analysis of the molecular findings and the clinical pathological data. METHODS: We analyzed 64 matched pairs of breast cancer and adjacent non-cancerous breast samples by genotyping 13 nuclear short tandem repeat loci (namely, D2S123, TPOX, D3S1358, D3S1611, FGA, D7S820, TH01, D13S317, D13S790, D16S539, D17S796, intron 12 BRCA1 and intron 1 TP53) that were amplified with the fluorescent AmpFlSTR Identifiler Genotyping system (Applied Biosystems, USA) and by silver nitrate staining following 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Somatic mtDNA mutations in the D-loop site were assessed with direct sequencing of the hypervariable HVI and HVII mitochondrial regions. RESULTS: Half of the cancer tissues presented some nuclear instability. Interestingly, the D13S790 locus was the most frequently affected (36%), while the D2S123 locus presented no alterations. Forty-two percent of the cases showed somatic mitochondrial mutations, the majority at region 303-315 poly-C. We identified associations between Elston grade III, instabilities at 13q31 region (p = 0.0264) and mtDNA mutations (p = 0.0041). Furthermore, instabilities at 13q31 region were also associated with TP53 mutations in the invasive ductal carcinoma cases (p = 0.0207). CONCLUSION: Instabilities at 13q31 region and the presence of somatic mtDNA mutations in a D-loop site correlated with tumor aggressiveness. PMID:23070345

  13. [Statistical observations on the cases of unnatural deaths examined at our department during the past 10 years].

    PubMed

    Nagamori, H; Mukai, T; Uchima, E; Tamaki, N; Ohshiro, T; Une, Y

    1993-02-01

    Medicolegal evaluation of 1495 cases of unnatural death of last 10 years was carried out in our department and the data so obtained were statistically analysed. The cases consisted of 260 inspections, 865 judicial autopsies and 370 administrative autopsies. The most frequent category was death from diseases followed by suicide, homicide, traffic accidents, other accidents and self originated accidents. In homicide cases, sharp objects were mainly used. Six cases of accident of scuba diving were included within the group of 28 cases of drowning of self originated variety. Although Okinawa is subtropical 12 cases of death by accidental hypothermia were found. Gangland fight using rifles cost 7 lives, 2 policemen, a high school student and 4 members of locally originated gangsters during last 18 months. Cardiac insufficiency was the most common of sudden unexpected death cases that complied with the data of Tokyo and Osaka. Death from alimentary disorder in Okinawa was 1.5 times more frequent than that in Tokyo and Osaka and liver disorder accounted for about 41%. The 68 cases of death from suckling contained 10 SIDS cases. Complication of medical treatment was encountered in 9 cases during the past 10 years.

  14. The Brazilian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, L. R.; Coutinho, P. N.

    1981-04-01

    The Brazilian continental margin, with its interesting morphology, structure and sediments, has become better known only during the last two decades. Six physiographical provinces can be recognized at the continental margin and the adjacent coast: (1) Cabo Orange-Parnaiba delta; (2) Parnaiba delta-Cabo Sa˜o Roque; (3) Cabo Sa˜o Roque-Belmonte; (4) Belmonte-Cabo Frio; (5) Cabo Frio-Cabo Santa Marta; and (6) Cabo Santa Marta-Chui. The shelf is rather wide near the Amazon Mouth, becoming narrower eastwards, continuing very narrow along the northeastern and eastern coast, and becoming wider again in the south towards the Plate River. Prominent morphological features along the margin are the Amazon cone, the marginal plateaus off northeastern Brazil, the Sa˜o Francisco cone and canyon, the Abrolhos Bank, and the deep-sea plateaus of Pernambuco and Sa˜o Paulo. On the shelf proper a number of relief elements exist, such as sand waves east of the Amazon, submarine terraces at various places, and irregularities of structural origin. The shelf break is rather smooth in the far north and south, more abrupt in the remainder. Surface sediments of the Brazilian shelf show five distinct facies types: littoral quartz sands, mud, transition sand-mud, coralline algae, and biodetrital. The terrigenous elastic fractions dominate off the Amazon and in southern Brazil; between these areas they occupy a very narrow strip near the coast. The carbonate facies, predominantly composed of calcareous algae, is abundant between the Parnaiba delta and Cabo Frio; to the south this facies is more biodetrital and restricted to the outer shelf. Economically important on the Brazilian continental margin besides oil, are sands and gravels, carbonate deposits, evaporites and some subsurface coal. Other possible mineral resources could be phosphate, heavy minerals and clays for ceramics.

  15. Examining the Relationships Between Bone Tissue Composition, Compositional Heterogeneity, and Fragility Fracture: A Matched Case-Controlled FTIRI Study.

    PubMed

    Boskey, Adele L; Donnelly, Eve; Boskey, Elizabeth; Spevak, Lyudmila; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Lappe, Joan; Recker, Robert R

    2016-05-01

    Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) provides information on spatial distribution of the chemical composition of thin tissue specimens at ∼7 µm spatial resolution. This study of 120 age- and bone mineral density (BMD)-matched patients was designed to investigate the association of FTIRI variables, measured in iliac crest biopsies, with fragility fractures at any site. An earlier study of 54 women found hip BMD to be a significant explanatory variable of fracture risk for cortical bone but not for cancellous bone. In the current study, where age and BMD were controlled through matching, no such association was observed, validating the pairing scheme. Our first study of unmatched iliac crest biopsies found increases in collagen maturity (cancellous and cortical bone) and mineral crystal size (cortical bone only) to be a significant explanatory variable of fracture when combined with other covariates. The ratio for collagen maturity has been correlated to the amount of enzymatic collagen cross-links. To assess the impact of other FTIRI variables (acid phosphate substitution, carbonate-to-phosphate ratio, and the pixel distribution [heterogeneity] of all relevant FTIRI variables), we examined biopsies from a matched case-controlled study, in which 60 women with fractures were each paired with an age- and BMD-matched female control. With the matched data set of 120 women, conditional logistic regression analyses revealed that significant explanatory variables of fracture were decreased carbonate-to-phosphate ratio in both cancellous (odds ratio [OR] = 0.580, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.909, p = 0.0176) and cortical bone (OR = 0.519, 95% CI 0.325-0.829, p = 0.0061), and increased heterogeneity (broadened pixel distribution) of collagen maturity for cancellous bone (OR = 1.549, 95% CI 1.002-2.396, p = 0.0491). The observation that collagen maturity was no longer linked to fracture in age- and BMD-matched samples suggests that age

  16. THE DRAINAGE EFFICIENCY INDEX (DEI) AS AN MORPHOLOGIAL INDICATOR OF LANDSLIDE SPATIAL OCCURRENCE IN MOUNTAINOUS CATCHMENTS. A case of study applied in the mountainous region of Brazilian Southeastern.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Muniz Lima, Pedro; Luiza Coelho Netto, Ana; do Couto Fernandes, Manoel

    2016-04-01

    Morphometric parameters, acquired notoriety mainly after the Drainage Density proposition (Horton 1932, 1945) and after they were applied by geomorphologists on the perspective to understand landscape functionalities, quantifying their characteristics through parameters and indexes. After the drainage density, many other parameters which describe the basin characteristics, behavior and dynamics have been proposed. Among them, for example, the DEI was proposed by Coelho Netto and contributors during the 80's, while they were seek to understand the hydrological and erosive dynamics on Bananal river basin (Brazilian Southeastern). Through this investigations the DEI was created, revealing the importance of parameters as hollow and drainage density, conjugated to the topographic gradient (Meis et al. 1982) who prosecute controls on the water flow efficiency along the hollows in order to activate the regressive erosion of the main channel. Later on this index was applied on the basin scale in several works developed in mountainous regions, showing a remarkable correlation with the occurrence of landslides such as showed by Coelho Netto et al. (2007); that posteriorly use this index as one of the components of the landslide susceptibility map for the Tijuca Massif, located in Rio de Janeiro Municipality. This work aims to establish patterns of the DEI index values (applied to mountainous low order basins) and the relationship on the occurrence of Debriflows or shallow translational slides. For this, the DEI index was applied on 4 different study areas located on the Southeastern mountainous region of Brazil to address deeply the connection between the index and the occurrence of landslides of different types applied for first and second order basins. The major study area is the Córrego Dantas Basin, situated in Nova Friburgo municipality (RJ), which is a 53 km² basin was affected by 327 landslides caused by a heavy rainfall on January 2011; Coelho Netto et al. (in

  17. An Examination of Court Cases Relating to the Dismissal of K-12 Teachers for Immorality (1977-2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerville, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    This was a purposeful, qualitative, historical and document-based research study that investigated the trends and outcomes of the legal issues relating to teacher dismissal for "immorality". The study included 114 cases over a 30-year period spanning from 1977-2007. Federal and state level law cases were researched to determine the ruling of…

  18. The Porter Douglass Case: Examining the Impact of Power, Politics, and the Press on Academic Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Audrey J.; Grantham, Ashley; Lynch, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Mixing political appointments and university operations can prove challenging and, in this case, caused the resignation of three senior officials at State University. Bolman and Deal's four frames provide a structure for analyzing this complex case. The political frame and issues of power and coalitions offer a particularly useful lens to…

  19. An Examination of Social Validity within Single-Case Research with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Caitlin F.; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Romer, Natalie; Albin, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we reviewed social validity in single-case research studies that focused on interventions for students who have either been identified as having, or as at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. This review focused on studies from four peer-reviewed journals known to publish single-case research with this population: the…

  20. Comparing Single Case Design Overlap-Based Effect Size Metrics from Studies Examining Speech Generating Device Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mo; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene K.; Reichle, Joe E.; Symons, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Meaningfully synthesizing single case experimental data from intervention studies comprised of individuals with low incidence conditions and generating effect size estimates remains challenging. Seven effect size metrics were compared for single case design (SCD) data focused on teaching speech generating device use to individuals with…

  1. [Medical insurance and forensic aspects of postmortem examination in cases of extra-clinical and accidental death].

    PubMed

    Ebert, B

    1997-12-01

    In general, death of a person--also in cases of a so called "sudden death"--is followed by a certification of death, normally by the physician who attended the patient in his last illness, but doctors in external e.g. extraclinical emergency care systems as well are liable to fill in death certificates concerning these unknown patients whose sudden and in general unexpected cases of death mostly happened under dubious circumstances. Thus, doctors in extraclinical care are highly susceptible to miss cases of homicide, cases with relevant forensic and statistical aspects or claims of relatives concerning insurance premiums of the underwriter. By demonstrating three different case reports of "sudden-death"-incidents, the circumstances of death are illuminated and consequences are shown.

  2. Using a Play-Based Methodology in Qualitative Research: A Case of Using Social Board to Examine School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mankowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Little, if any, examination of using play-based tools to examine children's opinions in research exists in the current literature. Therefore, this paper is meant to address that gap within the literature and showcase the study about the use of a specific play-based methodological tool in qualitative research. This specific tool called social board…

  3. Examination Management as a Way of Achieving Quality Assurance in ODL Institutions: The Case of Zimbabwe Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mafa, Onias; Gudhlanga, Enna Sukutai

    2012-01-01

    An examination is an important component of any institution that educates people. It is a form of assessment used to measure the students' understanding of the concepts and principles they would have learnt. Zimbabwe Open University, an Open and Distance Learning institution has been setting its own examinations for the academic programmes…

  4. Validating the Slovenian National Alignment to CEFR: The Case of the B2 Reading Comprehension Examination in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilc, Gašper; Stopar, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the results of the CEFR alignment project for the Slovenian national examinations in English. The authors aim to validate externally the standard-setting procedures by adopting a socio-cognitive model of validation (Khalifa & Weir, 2009; Weir, 2005) to analyse the scoring, context and cognitive validity of three reading…

  5. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  6. Optic neuromyelitis syndrome in Brazilian patients

    PubMed Central

    Papais-Alvarenga, R; Miranda-Santos, C; Puccioni-Sohler, M; de Almeida, A M V; Oliveira, S; De Oliveira, C A B.; Alvarenga, H; Poser, C

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To report the clinical features and outcome of 24 Brazilian patients with optic neuromyelitis syndrome (ONM); discuss the underlying pathological events associated with the ONM syndrome; review the nosological situation of ONM in the group of inflammatory and demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. Patients and Methods: Patients with ONM treated at the Hospital da Lagoa, Rio de Janeiro were studied. Demographic, clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid, and pathological data were analysed. Results: The study consisted of 20 women, four men of whom 10 were white and 14 Afro-Brazilians. Clinical course was recurrent in 22 cases and monophasic in two. Neurological manifestations at inclusion were: sensory impairment (66%), bilateral (41.6%) or unilateral blindness (20.8%), paraplegia or quadriplegia (37.5%). The EDSS was moderate/severe in 70.8%. The underlying pathological events were respectively pulmonary tuberculosis and upper respiratory infection in the two monophasic cases; in the 22 recurrent ONM patients: pulmonary tuberculosis (3), neurocysticercosis (1), polyarteritis nodosa (1), antinuclear antibody and rheumatoid factor (1), antiphospholipid antibody primary syndrome (1), diabetes mellitus (1), hypothyroidism (1), and amenorrhea-galactorrhea (4). Normal cerebrospinal fluid was found in 52% and an inflammatory profile in 48%. Only four recurrent ONM white patients had brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid findings compatible with the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Large lesions were seen in 62% of spinal magnetic resonance images. Six of 12 recurrent ONM Afro-Brazilian died. There were no statistical differences in the demographic data of the two ethnic groups. Afro-Brazilians were significantly more severely impaired and had a higher mortality rate than the white patients. Conclusion: These cases were classified as follows: two monophasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

  7. Pharmacogenetics in the brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190;million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians: most individuals, irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black - the major categories of the Brazilian Census "race/color" system - have significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx) implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g., CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc) varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV protease inhibitors and non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first-generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen, a nation-wide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact. PMID:21833165

  8. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190;million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians: most individuals, irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black – the major categories of the Brazilian Census “race/color” system – have significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx) implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g., CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc) varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV protease inhibitors and non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first-generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen1, a nation-wide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact. PMID:21833165

  9. A case report of acute dermatitis that developed during an experiment examining the bromination of 3-hexylthiophene.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mikiya; Yoshiki, Hajime; Horie, Masaki; Yano, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Occupational cases with allergic reaction to fragrance substances, which refer to various chemicals providing aroma characteristics, are arising with its recent usage diversification from pharmaceutical, perfume industry to aromatic remedies. However, chemicals responsible for fragrance allergy have hardly been identified because its component is complex and its sensitization is not frequent. This report will present a case of acute allergic dermatitis that is likely induced by 3-hexylthiophene, one of aromatic compounds often contained in fragrance substances. The case, who was a 27-year male researcher engaged in organic chemical synthesis for six years, was exposed to 3-hexylthiophene and its product (2-bromo-3-hexylthiophene) through an experiment in May 2004 and itching, swelling and eczema immediately developed from face to back. This case of sensitization to 3-hexylthiophene suggests that it be a possible allergen for fragrance allergy.

  10. [THE GENETIC EXAMINATION OF BRONCHIAL LAVAGE ENABLES THE PROMPT DIAGNOSIS OF PULMONARY MYCOBACTERIUM KANSASII--A CASE REPORT].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahide; Ageshio, Fumitaka; Kagawa, Hiroyuki; Oshitani, Yohei; Fujikawa, Takeya; Saito, Haruko; Sako, Hajime; Yano, Yukihiro; Kitada, Seigo; Maekura, Ryoji

    2015-08-01

    A 59-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma presented at our hospital with an abnormal shadow on the chest radiograph, which was obtained as part of a routine medical examination. Computed tomography of the chest revealed two nodules in the right upper lung with the longest diameter measuring 29 mm and 10 mm, respectively. A granulomatous disease was strongly suspected based on the histological features of the transbronchial lung biopsy specimen. Results of smear examination for mycobacteria and genetic examination of the bronchial lavage aspirate by the transcription reverse transcription concerted (TRC) reaction method for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium complex (MAC), were both negative. However, three days after the bronchoscopic examination, an additional genetic examination by the TRC method confirmed the diagnosis of M. kansasii infection. About two weeks later, the culture results were positive and M. kansasii infection was re-confirmed with the DNA probe method. The patient responded well to treatment with a combination of isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol. In Japan, among the nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, the prevalence of pulmonary M.kansasii disease is second only to infection with MAC. However, it is often difficult to distinguish this disease from pulmonary tuberculosis. In this patient, a genetic examination with the TRC method enabled a prompt diagnosis of M. kansasii infection. The TRC method appears to be a useful tool for diagnosing nontubercular mycobacterial infections. PMID:26665518

  11. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: Brazilian survey

    PubMed Central

    Cotrim, Helma P.; Oliveira, Claudia P.; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio M.; Alvares-da-Silva, Mario R.; Nabuco, Leticia; Parise, Edison Roberto; Ivantes, Claúdia; Martinelli, Ana LC; Galizzi-Filho, João; Carrilho, Flair J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The majority of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma have been reported in individuals with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholism, but recently, the prevalence has become increasingly related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis around the world. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical and histophatological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazilians' patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at the present time. METHODS: Members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology were invited to complete a survey regarding patients with hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with a history of alcohol intake (>20 g/day) and other liver diseases were excluded. Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis was performed by liver biopsy or imaging methods according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases' 2011 guidelines. RESULTS: The survey included 110 patients with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from nine hepatology units in six Brazilian states (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul). The mean age was 67±11 years old, and 65.5% were male. Obesity was observed in 52.7% of the cases; diabetes, in 73.6%; dyslipidemia, in 41.0%; arterial hypertension, in 60%; and metabolic syndrome, in 57.2%. Steatohepatitis without fibrosis was observed in 3.8% of cases; steatohepatitis with fibrosis (grades 1-3), in 27%; and cirrhosis, in 61.5%. Histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was performed in 47.2% of the patients, with hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis accounting for 7.7%. In total, 58 patients with cirrhosis had their diagnosis by ultrasound confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of these, 55% had 1 nodule; 17%, 2 nodules; and 28%, ≥3 nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a relevant risk factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with and

  12. Risk Factors for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Brazilian Blood Donors; a Multicenter Case-Control Study Using Audio Computer-Assisted Structured-Interviews

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Goncalez, Thelma T.; Birch, Rebecca Jeffries; de Carvalho, Silvia Maia F.; Capuani, Ligia; Leão, Silvana Carneiro; Miranda, Carolina; Rocha, Pedro Capuani; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara; Johnson, Bryce R.; Wright, David J.; Murphy, Edward L.; Custer, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background Although risk factors for HIV infection are known, it is important for blood centers to understand local epidemiology and disease transmission patterns. Current risk factors for HIV infection in blood donors in Brazil were assessed. Methods A case-control study was conducted at large public blood centers located in four major cities between April 2009 – March 2011. Cases were persons whose donations were confirmed positive by enzyme immunoassays followed by Western Blot confirmation. Audio computer-assisted structured-interviews (ACASI) were completed by all cases and controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results There were 341 cases, including 47 with recently-acquired infection, and 791 controls. Disclosed risk factors for both females and males were sex with an HIV-positive person (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 11.3, 95% CI [4.1, 31.7]) and being an IVDU or sexual partner of an IVDU (AOR 4.65 [1.8, 11.7]). For female blood donors, additional risk factors were having male sex partners who also are MSM (AOR 13.5 [3.1, 59.8]), and having unprotected sex with multiple sexual partners (AOR 5.19 [2.1, 12.9]). The primary risk factor for male blood donors was MSM activity (AOR 21.6 [8.8, 52.9.]). Behaviors associated with recently-acquired HIV were being a MSM or sex partner of MSM (13.82, [4.7, 40.3]), and IVDU (11.47, [3.0, 43.2]). Conclusion Risk factors in blood donors parallel those in the general population in Brazil. Identified risk factors suggest that donor compliance with selection procedures at the participating blood centers is inadequate. PMID:23517235

  13. Identification of a microdeletion at the 7q33-q35 disrupting the CNTNAP2 gene in a Brazilian stuttering case.

    PubMed

    Petrin, Aline L; Giacheti, Célia M; Maximino, Luciana P; Abramides, Dagma V M; Zanchetta, Sthella; Rossi, Natalia F; Richieri-Costa, Antônio; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2010-12-01

    Speech and language disorders are some of the most common referral reasons to child development centers accounting for approximately 40% of cases. Stuttering is a disorder in which involuntary repetition, prolongation, or cessation of the sound precludes the flow of speech. About 5% of individuals in the general population have a stuttering problem, and about 80% of the affected children recover naturally. The causal factors of stuttering remain uncertain in most cases; studies suggest that genetic factors are responsible for 70% of the variance in liability for stuttering, whereas the remaining 30% is due to environmental effects supporting a complex cause of the disorder. The use of high-resolution genome wide array comparative genomic hybridization has proven to be a powerful strategy to narrow down candidate regions for complex disorders. We report on a case with a complex set of speech and language difficulties including stuttering who presented with a 10 Mb deletion of chromosome region 7q33-35 causing the deletion of several genes and the disruption of CNTNAP2 by deleting the first three exons of the gene. CNTNAP2 is known to be involved in the cause of language and speech disorders and autism spectrum disorder and is in the same pathway as FOXP2, another important language gene, which makes it a candidate gene for causal studies speech and language disorders such as stuttering. PMID:21108403

  14. An Examination of the Effects of State Level Policy in Changing Professional Preparation: A Case Study of Virginia Principal Preparation Programs and Regulatory Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bost, Dana Nannette

    2009-01-01

    This is a case study of the implementation of 8 VAC 20-542-530(2), a state policy governing the internship component of Virginia principal preparation programs. The purpose of the study was to examine the implementation of the policy and its effectiveness for changing professional practice in Virginia. States hold the responsibility for…

  15. What We Can Learn from the Data: A Multiple-Case Study Examining Behavior Patterns by Students with Different Characteristics in Using a Serious Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; Lee, Jaejin; Kang, Jina; Liu, Sa

    2016-01-01

    Using a multi-case approach, we examined students' behavior patterns in interacting with a serious game environment using the emerging technologies of learning analytics and data visualization in order to understand how the patterns may vary according to students' learning characteristics. The results confirmed some preliminary findings from our…

  16. Examining the Transition to a Four-Day School Week and Investigating Post-Change Faculty/Staff Work-Life Balance: A Community College Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinale, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    This single descriptive embedded case study examined the process of implementing a four-day work/school week at a community college and investigated post-change faculty/staff work-life balance. All of the students attending this college live at home. The change was implemented due to state funding shortfalls, increasing college utility expenses…

  17. Examining the Relationship between Heart Rate and Problem Behavior: A Case Study of Severe Skin Picking in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott S.; Hammond, Jennifer L.; Hustyi, Kristin M.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between heart rate and self-injurious behavior (SIB) shown by individuals with IDD (intellectual and developmental disabilities). In this single-case study, we simultaneously monitored heart rate and activity levels during a functional analysis of severe skin picking behavior exhibited by a young man with…

  18. Reverse logistics in the Brazilian construction industry.

    PubMed

    Nunes, K R A; Mahler, C F; Valle, R A

    2009-09-01

    In Brazil most Construction and Demolition Waste (C&D waste) is not recycled. This situation is expected to change significantly, since new federal regulations oblige municipalities to create and implement sustainable C&D waste management plans which assign an important role to recycling activities. The recycling organizational network and its flows and components are fundamental to C&D waste recycling feasibility. Organizational networks, flows and components involve reverse logistics. The aim of this work is to introduce the concepts of reverse logistics and reverse distribution channel networks and to study the Brazilian C&D waste case. PMID:19481331

  19. Brazilian Adolescents' Conceptions of Autonomy and Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milnitsky-Sapiro, Clary; Turiel, Elliot; Nucci, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-two middle class and 32 lower class southern Brazilian pre-adolescent (M=12.8 years) and adolescent (M=15.7 years) participants were individually interviewed regarding their perceptions of who (adolescent or parent) should determine the adolescent's actions in cases where the parents and adolescent disagree over the action choice.…

  20. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  1. Vowel Harmony: A Variable Rule in Brazilian Portuguese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisol, Leda

    1989-01-01

    Examines vowel harmony in the "Gaucho dialect" of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Informants from four areas of the state were studied: the capital city (Porto Alegre), the border region with Uruguay, and two areas of the interior populated by descendants of nineteenth-century immigrants from Europe, mainly Germans and Italians. (VWL)

  2. Reconceptualizing Educational Transfer: Brazilian Curriculum Field in the Nineties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Antonio Flavio Barbosa; Macedo, Elizabeth

    A study examined the conception of educational transfer, considering the foreign influence in Brazilian curriculum throughout the 1990s. The study criticizes the literature on educational transfer produced in the 1970s, mainly the works of Martin Carnoy (1974) and Philip Altbach and Gail Kelly (1984), arguing that their two theories understress…

  3. Brazilian Higher Education from a Post-Colonial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Denise

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Brazilian higher education (HE) politics from a post-colonial perspective. The term "post-colonial" originally referred to a historical period of colonial empires established by European nations. Nowadays, the term commonly distinguishes a field of contemporary studies of "defamiliarisation of the imperial North" made up of…

  4. A Case Study of Teacher Reflection: Examining Teacher Participation in a Video-Based Professional Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steeg, Susanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Professional learning communities (PLCs) constitute worthwhile spaces in which to study teacher participation in the reflective practices that have potential to shift their teaching. This qualitative case study details the interactions between dual-language and ELL teachers in a grade-level PLC as they met together to confer over video-clips of…

  5. The Philosophical Foundation of the Lecture Method of Instruction and the Case Method of Instruction: Implications for Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardalan, Kavous

    2013-01-01

    Any adequate comparison between the lecture method of instruction and the case method of instruction necessarily requires a comparison of their underlying philosophical foundation and methodology. This is based on the premise that foundational philosophies or world views underlie educational philosophies, and each educational philosophy favors a…

  6. A New Model to Facilitate Individualized Case Conceptualization and Treatment of Social Phobia: An Examination and Reaction to Moscovitch's Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimberg, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Moscovitch's (2009) model of social phobia is put forth as an integration and extension of previous cognitive-behavioral models. The author asserts that his approach overcomes a number of shortcomings of previous models and will serve to better guide case conceptualization, treatment planning, and intervention implementation for clients with…

  7. An Examination into the Factors Leading to Superintendent Longevity in Urban, Southern California School Districts: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remland, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Within a modern context, superintendents walk a fine line in today's reform minded, accountability centered, sociopolitical setting. To many, the position of public school superintendent is perceived as a job where failure is inevitable. The purpose of this comparative case study was to understand the factors that contribute to superintendent…

  8. A Case Study Examining the Influence of Dual Enrollment and High School Advising on Student Persistence in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raia-Taylor, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative,descriptive single case study describes the problem of student persistence in college through the theoretical lens of Alexander Astin's Theory of Student Involvement, and Vincent Tinto's Theory of Student Departure. The decline in the college retention rate in the United States over the last twenty years and the high…

  9. Who Is Responsible for a Fraud: An Exercise Examining Research Misconduct and the Obligations of Authorship through Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niece, Brian K.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of ethical scientific practice to maintain the highest professional standards among graduating students and future scientists is presented as a case study to students. The exercise enhanced the awareness of the importance of ethics in the practice of science among students.

  10. An Examination of How Knowledgeable and Skilled Elementary Principals Lead Special Education Programs in Alabama: Four Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Richard Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 increased the importance of having principals who are not only effective leaders of general education programs but knowledgeable and skilled in special education and able to effectively lead special education programs. The researcher examined four principals of elementary schools (i.e., kindergarten through…

  11. An Examination of the Design, Development, and Implementation of an Internet Protocol Version 6 Network: The ADTRAN Inc. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perigo, Levi

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, the author examined the capabilities of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) in regard to replacing Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) as the internetworking technology for Medium-sized Businesses (MBs) in the Information Systems (IS) field. Transition to IPv6 is inevitable, and, thus, organizations are adopting this protocol…

  12. Student and Principal Perceptions of the California High School Proficiency Examination in Community Schools: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Born, Kimberly B.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to this research, limited research existed on the California High School Proficiency Examination (CHSPE) or perceptions community school student and principals have on alternative high school diploma options, such as the CHSPE. Grounded in the literature, the purpose of this study was to conduct a mixed methodology embedded multiple case…

  13. An Examination of a Virtual Private Network Implementation to Support a Teleworking Initiative: The Marcus Food Company Inc. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Jason W.

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, the author examined the capabilities of virtual private networks (VPNs) in supporting teleworking environments for small businesses in the food marketing sector. The goal of this research was to develop an implementation model for small businesses in the food marketing sector that use a VPN solution to support teleworker…

  14. An Examination of Using Self-, Peer-, and Teacher-Assessment in Higher Education: A Case Study in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiliç, Didem

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the process of implementing self-, peer- and teacher-assessment in teacher education in order to examine the ways of applying these assessment practices and specifically aims at finding out the level of agreement among pre-service teachers' self-, peer- and teacher-assessments of presentation performances. Pre-service…

  15. Examining Behavioral, Relational, and Cognitive Engagement in Smaller Learning Communities: A Case Study of Reform in One Suburban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Heather A.; Chang, Mei-Lin; Andrzejewski, Carey E.; Poirier, Ryan R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine the impact of Smaller Learning Community reform on students' behavioral, relational, and cognitive engagement in a suburban school district experiencing urbanization. We describe a project in which we evaluated the engagement of a cohort of 8th grade students as they transitioned to high school (n = 605).…

  16. Concepts and Skills in High School Calculus: An Examination of a Special Case in Japan and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Thomas W.; Nishimori, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    In this study we investigated above-average high school calculus students from Japan and the United States in order to determine any differences in their conceptual understanding of calculus and their ability to use algebra to solve traditional calculus problems. We examined and interviewed 18 Calculus BC students in the United States and 26…

  17. An Examination of Graduate Theses Related with Guitar in Terms of Methodology and Content: A Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yöndem, Sadik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine post-graduate thesis completed on guitar in Turkey. For this purpose, a total of 89 theses were investigated in terms of selected research topics, study participants, and methods for analysis. For the selection of the thesis included in this study three criteria were used; first, theses from 1990 (beginning time…

  18. Examining Education, Media, and Dialogue under Occupation: The Case of Palestine and Israel. Critical Language and Literacy Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Ilham; Berlin, Lawrence N.; Wong, Shelley

    2011-01-01

    This book is an in-depth examination of education and media under occupation. The contributors to this volume engage dialogue to explore these domains and their roles and functioning under occupation while keeping an eye toward resolution, using the on-going conflict between Palestine and Israel as the focus. The uniqueness of this collection is…

  19. Examining the Effectiveness of Primary Sources during Close Reading in Social Studies: A Case Study of Middle School Resource Rooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Stephen T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of using primary sources to support close reading in social studies among students with disabilities in grade 7 middle school resource rooms. The setting is a middle school in a suburban school district located in Western New York. Two resource rooms of 10 students with reading or writing difficulties were…

  20. Scorpion envenoming caused by Tityus cf. silvestris evolving with severe muscle spasms in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; de Oliveira, Sâmella Silva; Pivoto, Guilherme; Alves, Eliane Campos; de Almeida Gonçalves Sachett, Jacqueline; Alexandre, Cleber Nunes; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Barbosa Guerra, Maria das Graças Vale; da Silva, Iran Mendonça; Tavares, Antonio Magela; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães

    2016-09-01

    Scorpion stings are a public health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. However, detailed clinical characterization with the proper animal identification is scarce. Here we report a confirmed case of envenoming by Tityus cf. silvestris in the Brazilian Amazon. The case evolved with generalized muscle spasms and was treated with antivenom and supportive therapy, requiring intensive care unit admission. The patient evolved favourably and was discharged after 9 days of hospitalization. PMID:27368713

  1. The dynamics of Brazilian protozoology over the past century

    PubMed Central

    Elias, M Carolina; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M; Mena-Chalco, Jesus P

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian scientists have been contributing to the protozoology field for more than 100 years with important discoveries of new species such asTrypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. In this work, we used a Brazilian thesis database (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) covering the period from 1987-2011 to identify researchers who contributed substantially to protozoology. We selected 248 advisors by filtering to obtain researchers who supervised at least 10 theses. Based on a computational analysis of the thesis databases, we found students who were supervised by these scientists. A computational procedure was developed to determine the advisors’ scientific ancestors using the Lattes Platform. These analyses provided a list of 1,997 researchers who were inspected through Lattes CV examination and allowed the identification of the pioneers of Brazilian protozoology. Moreover, we investigated the areas in which researchers who earned PhDs in protozoology are now working. We found that 68.4% of them are still in protozoology, while 16.7% have migrated to other fields. We observed that support for protozoology by national or international agencies is clearly correlated with the increase of scientists in the field. Finally, we described the academic genealogy of Brazilian protozoology by formalising the “forest” of Brazilian scientists involved in the study of protozoa and their vectors over the past century. PMID:26814646

  2. The dynamics of Brazilian protozoology over the past century.

    PubMed

    Elias, M Carolina; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M; Mena-Chalco, Jesus P

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian scientists have been contributing to the protozoology field for more than 100 years with important discoveries of new species such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. In this work, we used a Brazilian thesis database (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) covering the period from 1987-2011 to identify researchers who contributed substantially to protozoology. We selected 248 advisors by filtering to obtain researchers who supervised at least 10 theses. Based on a computational analysis of the thesis databases, we found students who were supervised by these scientists. A computational procedure was developed to determine the advisors' scientific ancestors using the Lattes Platform. These analyses provided a list of 1,997 researchers who were inspected through Lattes CV examination and allowed the identification of the pioneers of Brazilian protozoology. Moreover, we investigated the areas in which researchers who earned PhDs in protozoology are now working. We found that 68.4% of them are still in protozoology, while 16.7% have migrated to other fields. We observed that support for protozoology by national or international agencies is clearly correlated with the increase of scientists in the field. Finally, we described the academic genealogy of Brazilian protozoology by formalising the "forest" of Brazilian scientists involved in the study of protozoa and their vectors over the past century.

  3. The dynamics of Brazilian protozoology over the past century.

    PubMed

    Elias, M Carolina; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M; Mena-Chalco, Jesus P

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian scientists have been contributing to the protozoology field for more than 100 years with important discoveries of new species such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. In this work, we used a Brazilian thesis database (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) covering the period from 1987-2011 to identify researchers who contributed substantially to protozoology. We selected 248 advisors by filtering to obtain researchers who supervised at least 10 theses. Based on a computational analysis of the thesis databases, we found students who were supervised by these scientists. A computational procedure was developed to determine the advisors' scientific ancestors using the Lattes Platform. These analyses provided a list of 1,997 researchers who were inspected through Lattes CV examination and allowed the identification of the pioneers of Brazilian protozoology. Moreover, we investigated the areas in which researchers who earned PhDs in protozoology are now working. We found that 68.4% of them are still in protozoology, while 16.7% have migrated to other fields. We observed that support for protozoology by national or international agencies is clearly correlated with the increase of scientists in the field. Finally, we described the academic genealogy of Brazilian protozoology by formalising the "forest" of Brazilian scientists involved in the study of protozoa and their vectors over the past century. PMID:26814646

  4. The quest for recognition: Brazilian immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zubaran, Carlos

    2008-12-01

    'Hispanic' and 'Latino' are imprecise umbrella terms often used in the United States to designate nationals from Central and South America. The labelling of Brazilians in this manner generates inaccurate demographic information, including a significant undercount of the migrant population. Research data indicates that Brazilians object to being designated Hispanics, since Brazilians speak Portuguese and have no Spanish heritage. The labelling of ethnic groups has been criticized as a stereotypical and racist system, which primarily responds to non-scientific demands. This commentary appeals for reform in the way researchers and institutions refer to minority citizens as well as for continued research to investigate racism and ethnic prejudice. The development of new approaches and methodologies to examine social networks, migration and the geographic concentration of poverty is advocated.

  5. The association of religion and virginity status among Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ogland, Curtis P; Xu, Xiaohe; Bartkowski, John P; Ogland, Emmanuelle G

    2011-06-01

    This study examines the association between religious factors and the virginity status of unmarried Brazilian female adolescents aged 15-19 years. The analysis draws on data from the Brazilian National Demographic and Health Survey (2006) using a sub-sample of unmarried Brazilian female adolescents aged 15-19 years (N = 2,364). Multinomial logistic regression is used to test the association between denominational affiliation, worship service participation, and self-reported virginity status. The findings reveal that adolescents affiliated with Protestant faiths, particularly Pentecostalism, and those who attend worship services often have significantly higher odds of remaining a virgin because of a commitment to not have sex until marriage. This premarital chastity rationale for virginity is most strongly evidenced among frequently attending teens who are affiliated with Protestant and Pentecostal faiths. Similar to patterns observed in the United States, teen involvement with Protestant faiths, particularly strict traditions, such as Pentecostalism, is associated with a commitment to virginity in Brazil.

  6. Treatment of Concurrent Substance Dependence, Child Neglect and Domestic Violence: A Single Case Examination Involving Family Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Valerie; Allen, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Although child neglect and substance abuse co-occur in greater than 60% of child protective service cases, intervention outcome studies are deplorably lacking. Therefore, a home-based Family Behavior Therapy is described in the treatment of a woman evidencing child neglect, substance dependence, domestic violence and other co-occurring problems. Treatment included contingency management, self control, stimulus control, communication and child management skills training exercises, and financial management components. Results indicated improvements in child abuse potential, home hazards, domestic violence, and drug use, which were substantiated by objective urinalysis testing, and tours of her home. Validity checks indicated the participant was being truthful in her responses to standardized questionnaires, and assessors were “blind” to study intent. Limitations (i.e., lack of experimental control and follow-up data collection) of this case example are discussed in light of these results. PMID:23226920

  7. A haplotype-based case-control study examining human extracellular superoxide dismutase gene and essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Naganuma, Takahiro; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Sato, Naoyuki; Fu, Zhenyan; Soma, Masayoshi; Aoi, Noriko; Usami, Ron

    2008-08-01

    It has been reported that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of essential hypertension (EH), which is a multifactorial disorder. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) protects the human body from oxidative stress by converting the toxic superoxide anion (O2-) into less toxic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In EC-SOD knockout mice, blood pressure was reported to be significantly higher than that seen in wild-type mice. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the relationship between EH and the human EC-SOD gene by using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a haplotype-based case-control study. We selected 6 SNPs within the human EC-SOD gene (rs13306703, rs699473, rs699474, rs17881426, rs2536512 and rs1799895), and then performed case-control studies in 243 EH patients and 251 age-matched normotensive (NT) subjects. In Japanese subjects, no heterogeneity was found for rs699474, and no significant differences were observed between the EH and NT groups for the overall distribution of the genotypes or the alleles for each of the SNPs. However, in the haplotype-based case-control study that used rs13306703 and rs2536512, significant differences were observed in the overall distribution (chi2=14.26, p=0.003). The frequency of the T-A haplotype was significantly higher in the EH group than in the NT group (2.4% vs. 0.0%, p<0.001). Based on the results of our haplotype-based case-control study, the T-A haplotype may be a genetic marker for EH, and thus the EC-SOD gene might be a susceptibility gene for EH.

  8. Complete genome characterization of Rocio virus (Flavivirus: Flaviviridae), a Brazilian flavivirus isolated from a fatal case of encephalitis during an epidemic in Sao Paulo state.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Daniele B A; Nunes, Márcio R T; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Kuno, Goro

    2007-08-01

    The flaviviruses of major medical importance in South American countries are yellow fever, dengue, Saint Louis encephalitis, West Nile and Rocio viruses. Rocio virus (ROCV) has been responsible for epidemics of severe encephalitis in Brazil with a case-fatality rate of 10 % and development of sequelae in 20 % of the survivors. We have sequenced and characterized the entire genome of ROCV for the first time, by determining the general traits of the open reading frame and the characteristics of viral genes including the potential cleavage sites, conserved or unique motifs, cysteine residues and potential glycosylation sites. The conserved sequences in the 3'-non-coding region were identified, and the predicted secondary structures during cyclization between 5'- and 3'-non-coding regions were studied. Multiple protein and phylogenetic analyses based on antigenically important and phylogenetically informative genes confirmed a close relationship between ROCV and Ilheus virus (ILHV), together constituting a unique and distinct phylogenetic subgroup as well as the genetic relationship of ROCV with several members of the Japanese encephalitis group. Although ROCV is phylogenetically related to ILHV, our study shows that it is still a virus distinct from the latter virus. This is the first flavivirus uniquely indigenous to Brazil that has been sequenced completely and the genome characterized. The data should be useful for further studies at the molecular level, including construction of infectious clone, identification of gene function, improved disease surveillance based on molecular diagnostic tools and vaccine development.

  9. Ambulatory care groups and the profiling of primary care physician resource use: examining the application of case mix adjustments.

    PubMed

    Greene, B R; Barlow, J; Newman, C

    1996-01-01

    A variety of profiling models and tools is utilized by payers, providers, and regulators to evaluate physician work, performance, and resource utilization. In physician profiling, the provider's pattern of practice is expressed as a rate of service or outcome. The article by Tucker, Weiner, Honigfeld, and Parton (this issue) compares the practice-based norms of primary care physicians by adjusting for case mix using ambulatory care groups (ACGs), a population-based classification method. Once the case mix is adjusted, the actual use of resources, as measured by overall charges, is compared with the expected value of resource use. In the Center for Research in Ambulatory Health Care Administration (CRAHCA) Physician Profiling Project, funded by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, physicians learn which services other physicians in their specialties perform. Physicians are able to compare their profiles with state and national level medians. The profiling project is one of the first demonstration projects in the field to profile ambulatory care practice patterns and collect patient demographics. An aspect of the project is to test the ACG classification system to data selected from 130 nonacademic practices representing over 5,000 physicians.

  10. ‘Shell shock’ Revisited: An Examination of the Case Records of the National Hospital in London

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Stefanie Caroline; Jones, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic, in Queen Square, London, then Britain’s leading centre for neurology, took a key role in the treatment and understanding of shell shock. This paper explores the case notes of all 462 servicemen who were admitted with functional neurological disorders between 1914 and 1919. Many of these were severe or chronic cases referred to the National Hospital because of its acknowledged expertise and the resources it could call upon. Biographical data was collected together with accounts of the patient’s military experience, his symptoms, diagnostic interpretations and treatment outcomes. Analysis of the notes showed that motor syndromes (loss of function or hyperkinesias), often combined with somato-sensory loss, were common presentations. Anxiety and depression as well as vegetative symptoms such as sweating, dizziness and palpitations were also prevalent among this patient population. Conversely, psychogenic seizures were reported much less frequently than in comparable accounts from German tertiary referral centres. As the war unfolded the number of physicians who believed that shell shock was primarily an organic disorder fell as research failed to find a pathological basis for its symptoms. However, little agreement existed among the Queen Square doctors about the fundamental nature of the disorder and it was increasingly categorised as functional disorder or hysteria. PMID:25284893

  11. Nonlinear Heart Rate Variability features for real-life stress detection. Case study: students under stress due to university examination

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study investigates the variations of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) due to a real-life stressor and proposes a classifier based on nonlinear features of HRV for automatic stress detection. Methods 42 students volunteered to participate to the study about HRV and stress. For each student, two recordings were performed: one during an on-going university examination, assumed as a real-life stressor, and one after holidays. Nonlinear analysis of HRV was performed by using Poincaré Plot, Approximate Entropy, Correlation dimension, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, Recurrence Plot. For statistical comparison, we adopted the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and for development of a classifier we adopted the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Results Almost all HRV features measuring heart rate complexity were significantly decreased in the stress session. LDA generated a simple classifier based on the two Poincaré Plot parameters and Approximate Entropy, which enables stress detection with a total classification accuracy, a sensitivity and a specificity rate of 90%, 86%, and 95% respectively. Conclusions The results of the current study suggest that nonlinear HRV analysis using short term ECG recording could be effective in automatically detecting real-life stress condition, such as a university examination. PMID:22059697

  12. Considering the Case for Biodiversity Cycles: Re-Examining the Evidence for Periodicity in the Fossil Record

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Bruce S.; Melott, Adrian L.

    2007-01-01

    We re-examine the evidence for a 62 million year (Myr) periodicity in biodiversity throughout the Phanerozoic history of animal life reported by [1], as well as related questions of periodicity in origination and extinction. We find that the signal is robust against variations in methods of analysis, and is based on fluctuations in the Paleozoic and a substantial part of the Mesozoic. Examination of origination and extinction is somewhat ambiguous, with results depending upon procedure. Origination and extinction intensity as defined by [1] may be affected by an artifact at 27 Myr in the duration of stratigraphic intervals. Nevertheless, when a procedure free of this artifact is implemented, the 27 Myr periodicity appears in origination, suggesting that the artifact may ultimately be based on a signal in the data. A 62 Myr feature appears in extinction, when this same procedure is used. We conclude that evidence for a periodicity at 62 Myr is robust, and evidence for periodicity at approximately 27 Myr is also present, albeit more ambiguous. PMID:17712407

  13. Examining Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in Rural Africa: Six Case Studies from Southern Province, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern Province, Zambia. This version was administered to the parents/caregivers of 114 children (grades 3-7, mean age = 12.94, sd = 2.34). The relationships between these children's adaptive behavior, academic achievement and cognitive ability indicators are compared to those usually observed in US samples. Results reflect no association between adaptive behavior and cognitive ability indicators, but a strong relationship between high adaptive behavior and reading-related measures. Six case studies of children with high and low scores on the Vineland-II are presented to illustrate the possible factors affecting these outcomes. PMID:22391811

  14. Examination of the observed synoptic scale cirrus cloud environment: The December 3-6 FIRE cirrus case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Gerald G.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, Sassen provided evidence for supercooled water droplets in cirrus uncinus cell heads at temperatures between 40 and -50 C. Chemistry related to volcanic aerosol of stratospheric origin was evoked as an explanation for this phenomenon. Sassen speculated that injections of sulfuric acid droplets into the upper troposphere were accomplished by tropopause folds associated with subtropical jet streams. He also postulated global climatic perturbations due to the effect of these cirrus microphysical perturbations on radiative fluxes. Using data processing and objective analysis techniques described by Mace and Ackerman, the synoptic scale environment was examined for evidence of tropopause folds that may have served as a source mechanism of stratospheric aerosol in the upper troposphere.

  15. Does the Graduate Record Examination predict meaningful success in the graduate training of psychologists? A case study.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, R J; Williams, W M

    1997-06-01

    The authors consider the empirical validity of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) as a predictor of various kinds of performance in a graduate psychology program, including 1st- and 2nd-year grades; professors' ratings of students' dissertations; and professors' ratings of students' analytical, creative, practical, research, and teaching abilities. On the basis of the triarchic theory of intelligence, the GRE was predicted to be of some use in predicting graduate grades but of limited or no use in predicting other aspects of performance. In fact, the test was found to be useful in predicting 1st-year grades but not other kinds of performance, with one exception--performance on the GRE Analytical test was predictive, but only for men. The authors conclude that there is a need to develop better theory-based tests. PMID:9174399

  16. Finding the Little 'c' in Physics: A Multiple Case Study Examining the Development of Creative Activities in the Physics Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Christopher

    This study focused on how physics teachers develop and implement activities that promote creative thinking strategies in the standards based physics classroom. A particular focus was placed on every day or little "c", creativity, which can be taught in the high school classroom. The study utilized a multiple case study design, which allows for in-depth study in a variety of settings. Four participants from various high schools were identified utilizing administrator recommendations. Data were then collected via interviews, observations, and documents. The data were coded and analyzed for emerging themes. The themes were then merged to determine findings to the stated research questions. The research demonstrated the importance of modifying activities for student interest and understanding through effective use of scientific inquiry. The past experiences and professional development of the participants served as a vital piece to the development of their educational pedagogy especially concerning inquiry and questioning strategies. It was also established that an unstructured, positive classroom environment is a vital aspect of teaching while supporting creative thinking skills.

  17. Adverse Outcome Pathways for Regulatory Applications: Examination of Four Case Studies With Different Degrees of Completeness and Scientific Confidence.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Edward J; Antczak, Philipp; Burgoon, Lyle; Falciani, Francesco; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gutsell, Steve; Hodges, Geoff; Kienzler, Aude; Knapen, Dries; McBride, Mary; Willett, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) offer a pathway-based toxicological framework to support hazard assessment and regulatory decision-making. However, little has been discussed about the scientific confidence needed, or how complete a pathway should be, before use in a specific regulatory application. Here we review four case studies to explore the degree of scientific confidence and extent of completeness (in terms of causal events) that is required for an AOP to be useful for a specific purpose in a regulatory application: (i) Membrane disruption (Narcosis) leading to respiratory failure (low confidence), (ii) Hepatocellular proliferation leading to cancer (partial pathway, moderate confidence), (iii) Covalent binding to proteins leading to skin sensitization (high confidence), and (iv) Aromatase inhibition leading to reproductive dysfunction in fish (high confidence). Partially complete AOPs with unknown molecular initiating events, such as 'Hepatocellular proliferation leading to cancer', were found to be valuable. We demonstrate that scientific confidence in these pathways can be increased though the use of unconventional information (eg, computational identification of potential initiators). AOPs at all levels of confidence can contribute to specific uses. A significant statistical or quantitative relationship between events and/or the adverse outcome relationships is a common characteristic of AOPs, both incomplete and complete, that have specific regulatory uses. For AOPs to be useful in a regulatory context they must be at least as useful as the tools that regulators currently possess, or the techniques currently employed by regulators. PMID:26500288

  18. Adverse Outcome Pathways for Regulatory Applications: Examination of Four Case Studies With Different Degrees of Completeness and Scientific Confidence.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Edward J; Antczak, Philipp; Burgoon, Lyle; Falciani, Francesco; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gutsell, Steve; Hodges, Geoff; Kienzler, Aude; Knapen, Dries; McBride, Mary; Willett, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) offer a pathway-based toxicological framework to support hazard assessment and regulatory decision-making. However, little has been discussed about the scientific confidence needed, or how complete a pathway should be, before use in a specific regulatory application. Here we review four case studies to explore the degree of scientific confidence and extent of completeness (in terms of causal events) that is required for an AOP to be useful for a specific purpose in a regulatory application: (i) Membrane disruption (Narcosis) leading to respiratory failure (low confidence), (ii) Hepatocellular proliferation leading to cancer (partial pathway, moderate confidence), (iii) Covalent binding to proteins leading to skin sensitization (high confidence), and (iv) Aromatase inhibition leading to reproductive dysfunction in fish (high confidence). Partially complete AOPs with unknown molecular initiating events, such as 'Hepatocellular proliferation leading to cancer', were found to be valuable. We demonstrate that scientific confidence in these pathways can be increased though the use of unconventional information (eg, computational identification of potential initiators). AOPs at all levels of confidence can contribute to specific uses. A significant statistical or quantitative relationship between events and/or the adverse outcome relationships is a common characteristic of AOPs, both incomplete and complete, that have specific regulatory uses. For AOPs to be useful in a regulatory context they must be at least as useful as the tools that regulators currently possess, or the techniques currently employed by regulators.

  19. Examining the side effects of sucrose for pain relief in preterm infants: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Linhares, M B M; Gaspardo, C M; Souza, L O; Valeri, B O; Martinez, F E

    2014-06-01

    Sucrose solution is recommended as relevant pain relief management in neonates during acute painful procedures; however, only a few studies have analyzed the potentially adverse effects of sucrose administration to preterm neonates. The goal of this study was to examine the potential side effects of sucrose for pain relief in preterm infants, assessing feeding and weight gain during hospitalization and their feeding patterns postdischarge. The study sample consisted of 43 preterm neonates divided into two groups: a sucrose group (SG, n=18) and a control group (CG, n=25) in which no sucrose was administered. The SG received 0.5 mL/kg 25% oral sucrose for 2 min prior to all acute painful procedures during three consecutive days. A prospective review of medical charts was performed for all samples. The study was done prior to implementation of the institutional sucrose guidelines as a routine service, and followed all ethical requirements. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of weight gain, length of stay with orogastric tubes, and parenteral feeding. Postdischarge, infant nutritional intake included feeding human milk to 67% of the SG and 74% of the CG. There were no statistically significant differences between groups regarding human milk feeding patterns postdischarge. Neonate feeding patterns and weight gain were unaffected following the short-term use of sucrose for pain relief.

  20. Are receptor concentrations correlated across tissues within individuals? A case study examining glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Lattin, Christine R; Keniston, Daniel E; Reed, J Michael; Romero, L Michael

    2015-04-01

    Hormone receptors are a necessary (although not sufficient) part of the process through which hormones like corticosterone create physiological responses. However, it is currently unknown to what extent receptor concentrations across different target tissues may be correlated within individual animals. In this study, we examined this question using a large dataset of radioligand binding data for glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) in 13 different tissues in the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) (n=72). Our data revealed that individual house sparrows tended to exhibit higher or lower receptor binding across all tissues, which could be part of what creates the physiological and behavioral syndromes associated with different hormonal profiles. However, although statistically significant, the correlations between tissues were very weak. Thus, when each tissue was independently regressed on receptor concentrations in the other tissues, multivariate analysis revealed significant relationships only for sc fat (for GR) and whole brain, hippocampus, kidney, omental fat, and sc fat (for MR). We also found significant pairwise correlations only between receptor concentrations in brain and hippocampus, and brain and kidney (both for MR). This research reveals that although there are generalized individual consistencies in GR and MR concentrations, possibly due to such factors as hormonal regulation and genetic effects, the ability of 2 different tissues to respond to the same hormonal signal appears to be affected by additional factors that remain to be identified.

  1. Beryllium natural background concentration and mobility: a reappraisal examining the case of high Be-bearing pyroclastic rocks.

    PubMed

    Armiento, Giovanna; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Cremisini, Carlo; Della Ventura, Giancarlo; Nardi, Elisa; Pacifico, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Beryllium is widely distributed in soils at low levels, but it can also occur naturally in higher concentrations in a variety of materials exploited for many industrial applications. Beryllium is also one of the most toxic natural elements and is known to be a human carcinogen. A concise account of the literature data on baseline concentrations of Be in soils illustrates the possibility of worldwide presence of areas with a high natural background concentration of Be (up to 300 mg/kg), the crustal abundance of which is generally estimated to be in the range 2-6 mg/kg. Nevertheless, the number of available data is rather limited in comparison with those about other toxic elements such as Pb, Cd and Cr. This has probably caused the choice of low values of concentration level as the reference for the definition of soil contamination: these values are not always realistic and are not applicable to large areas. As a case study, we report and analyse a diffuse, unusually high (up to 80 mg/kg, average approximately 20 mg/kg), natural occurrence of beryllium in loose and poorly consolidated pyroclastic layers related to the Pleistocene activity of the Vico volcano. Additionally, the analysis of Be leachability has been carried out, providing evidence of a not negligible mobility in contrast with the scarce data presented in the literature that usually indicate beryllium as an element with low mobility in oxidising surface environmental conditions. This research marks the beginning of a possible reappraisal of beryllium geochemical behaviour and background levels, providing more realistic reference values for risk assessment and land management.

  2. Beryllium natural background concentration and mobility: a reappraisal examining the case of high Be-bearing pyroclastic rocks.

    PubMed

    Armiento, Giovanna; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Cremisini, Carlo; Della Ventura, Giancarlo; Nardi, Elisa; Pacifico, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Beryllium is widely distributed in soils at low levels, but it can also occur naturally in higher concentrations in a variety of materials exploited for many industrial applications. Beryllium is also one of the most toxic natural elements and is known to be a human carcinogen. A concise account of the literature data on baseline concentrations of Be in soils illustrates the possibility of worldwide presence of areas with a high natural background concentration of Be (up to 300 mg/kg), the crustal abundance of which is generally estimated to be in the range 2-6 mg/kg. Nevertheless, the number of available data is rather limited in comparison with those about other toxic elements such as Pb, Cd and Cr. This has probably caused the choice of low values of concentration level as the reference for the definition of soil contamination: these values are not always realistic and are not applicable to large areas. As a case study, we report and analyse a diffuse, unusually high (up to 80 mg/kg, average approximately 20 mg/kg), natural occurrence of beryllium in loose and poorly consolidated pyroclastic layers related to the Pleistocene activity of the Vico volcano. Additionally, the analysis of Be leachability has been carried out, providing evidence of a not negligible mobility in contrast with the scarce data presented in the literature that usually indicate beryllium as an element with low mobility in oxidising surface environmental conditions. This research marks the beginning of a possible reappraisal of beryllium geochemical behaviour and background levels, providing more realistic reference values for risk assessment and land management. PMID:22392615

  3. Examining the interrelationship between DOC, bromide and chlorine dose on DBP formation in drinking water--a case study.

    PubMed

    Bond, Tom; Huang, Jin; Graham, Nigel J D; Templeton, Michael R

    2014-02-01

    During drinking water treatment aqueous chlorine and bromine compete to react with natural organic matter (NOM). Among the products of these reactions are potentially harmful halogenated disinfection by-products, notably four trihalomethanes (THM4) and nine haloacetic acids (HAAs). Previous research has concentrated on the role of bromide in chlorination reactions under conditions of a given NOM type and/or concentration. In this study different concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from U.K. lowland water were reacted with varying amounts of bromide and chlorine in order to examine the interrelationship between the three reactants in the formation of THM4, dihaloacetic acids (DHAAs) and trihaloacetic acids (THAAs). Results showed that, in general, molar yields of THM4 increased with DOC, bromide and chlorine concentrations, although yields did fluctuate versus chlorine dose. In contrast both DHAA and THAA yields were mainly independent of changes in bromide and chlorine dose at low DOC (1 mg·L(-1)), but increased with chlorine dose at higher DOC concentrations (4 mg·L(-1)). Bromine substitution factors reached maxima of 0.80, 0.67 and 0.65 for the THM4, DHAAs and THAAs, respectively, at the highest bromide/chlorine ratio studied. These results suggest that THM4 formation kinetics depend on both oxidation and halogenation steps, whereas for DHAAs and THAAs oxidation steps are more important. Furthermore, they indicate that high bromide waters may prove more problematic for water utilities with respect to THM4 formation than for THAAs or DHAAs. While mass concentrations of all three groups increased in response to increased bromide incorporation, only the THMs also showed an increase in molar yield. Overall, the formation behaviour of DHAA and THAA was more similar than that of THM4 and THAA.

  4. Geochemistry of Brazilian oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, C.C.

    1983-02-01

    A general survey of the main brazilian oil shale formations presenting their location, oil reserve, age and stratigraphy introduces this paper. It is followed by a comparative survey of the data on chemical composition (elementary, minerals and organic constituents/biological markers) and of thermal alteration indexes in order to define their maturity. The geochemical phenomena involved with a large diabase intrusion in the Irati formation is particularly stressed. The analytical methods of Solid Phase Extraction and Functional Group Marker developed for the analysis of bitumens and kerogens and the results obtained from the application of these methods to brazilian oil shales are discussed. The paper ends with a brief description of a comprehensive analytical bibliography on brazilian oil shales prepared to serve as a data base for these organites.

  5. [Evaluation of Brazilian online pharmacies].

    PubMed

    Gondim, Ana Paula Soares; Falcão, Cláudio Borges

    2007-04-01

    The growing number of Internet users brought forth an increase in the search for Brazilian online pharmacy services. Aiming at evaluating the validity of information disseminated in these websites, a descriptive study was carried out in 18 virtual pharmacies concerning legal aspects, accessibility, sources of information and drug advertising. It was found 15 pharmacies did not have authorization of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency; the manager pharmaceutical officer's name could not be found in 17 of them; 17 pharmacies marketed drugs with no registration, especially herbal medicines, and did not show either information on adverse drug reactions or this agency's alerts and health recommendations. Since health control and drug commerce in Brazilian online pharmacies have not been yet regulated by proper government agencies, these gaps found in the sites can pose risk to the users' health.

  6. Anthropophagy: a singular concept to understand Brazilian culture and psychology as specific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Arthur Arruda Leal

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work is to present the singularity of the concept of anthropophagy in Brazilian culture. This article examines its use in the Modernist Movement of the 1920s and explores the possibilities it creates for thinking about Brazilian culture in nonidentitarian terms. We then use the concept of anthropophagy in a broader, practical sense to understand psychology as a kind of anthropophagical knowledge. We do so because in many ways the discipline of psychology is similar to Brazilian culture in its plurality and complexity. PMID:26348627

  7. Anthropophagy: a singular concept to understand Brazilian culture and psychology as specific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Arthur Arruda Leal

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work is to present the singularity of the concept of anthropophagy in Brazilian culture. This article examines its use in the Modernist Movement of the 1920s and explores the possibilities it creates for thinking about Brazilian culture in nonidentitarian terms. We then use the concept of anthropophagy in a broader, practical sense to understand psychology as a kind of anthropophagical knowledge. We do so because in many ways the discipline of psychology is similar to Brazilian culture in its plurality and complexity.

  8. Configurations of power relations in the Brazilian emergency care system: analyzing a context of visible practices.

    PubMed

    Velloso, Isabela; Ceci, Christine; Alves, Marilia

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we make explicit the changing configurations of power relations that currently characterize the Brazilian Emergency Care System (SAMU) team in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The SAMU is a recent innovation in Brazilian healthcare service delivery. A qualitative case study methodology was used to explore SAMU's current organizational arrangements, specifically the power relations that have developed and that demonstrate internal team struggles over space and defense of particular occupational interests. The argument advanced in this paper is that these professionals are developing their work in conditions of exposure, that is, they are always being observed by someone, and that such observational exposure provides the conditions whereby everyday emergency care practices are enacted such that practice is shaped by, as well as shapes, particular, yet recognizable power relationships. Data were collected through the observation of the SAMU's work processes and through semi-structured interviews. Research materials were analyzed using discourse analysis. In the emergency care process of work, visibility is actually embedded in the disciplinary context and can thus be analyzed as a technique applied to produce disciplined individuals through the simple mechanisms elaborated by Foucault such as hierarchical surveillance, normalizing judgment, and the examination.

  9. Configurations of power relations in the Brazilian emergency care system: analyzing a context of visible practices.

    PubMed

    Velloso, Isabela; Ceci, Christine; Alves, Marilia

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we make explicit the changing configurations of power relations that currently characterize the Brazilian Emergency Care System (SAMU) team in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The SAMU is a recent innovation in Brazilian healthcare service delivery. A qualitative case study methodology was used to explore SAMU's current organizational arrangements, specifically the power relations that have developed and that demonstrate internal team struggles over space and defense of particular occupational interests. The argument advanced in this paper is that these professionals are developing their work in conditions of exposure, that is, they are always being observed by someone, and that such observational exposure provides the conditions whereby everyday emergency care practices are enacted such that practice is shaped by, as well as shapes, particular, yet recognizable power relationships. Data were collected through the observation of the SAMU's work processes and through semi-structured interviews. Research materials were analyzed using discourse analysis. In the emergency care process of work, visibility is actually embedded in the disciplinary context and can thus be analyzed as a technique applied to produce disciplined individuals through the simple mechanisms elaborated by Foucault such as hierarchical surveillance, normalizing judgment, and the examination. PMID:22591246

  10. Bioethics, biolaw, (bio)constitutional interpretation and biopatents under the light of Brazilian law.

    PubMed

    Myszczuk, Ana Paula; de Meirelles, Jussara Maria Leal

    2010-01-01

    The article briefly analyzes the concepts of the Bioethics, the Biolaw, the Bio-Constitution and the Biopatent. In order to do so, we will check some principles of the Bioethics, the newly added term the Biolaw, the concept of the Bio-Constitution or the Constitutional Biolaw, all used as means to solve conflicts of bio-juridical norms. Besides it formulates some questions about biopatents. It is here understood that the 1988 Brazilian Federal Constitution chose the human dignity principle as the core to be used in any Biomedicine related matter and this Law acts to bring some tools into a bio-constitutional interpretation. Among those tools are the fundamental rights and the protection of the environment. Some juridical limits to the private appropriation of the human genome, via patenting, are examined. The article considers the requirements imposed by the Law Act no 9279/96 (novelty, invention and industrial use), as well as some Brazilian constitutional dispositions concerning biopatents. In the conclusion, we argue that the Bioethics and the Biolaw principles are valuable instruments to support juridical decisions and to guide the establishment of possible limits on the use and/or development of the Biomedicine. Consequently when interpreting a concrete case, besides having a multidisciplinary analysis, we have refreshed classic juridical concepts. This is achieved by rethinking juridical fundamentals and opening up the space for the conceptualization of a Bio-Constitution interpretation.

  11. Complex morphological and molecular genetic examination of amelogenesis imperfecta: a case presentation of two Czech siblings with a non-syndrome form of the disease.

    PubMed

    Kripnerova, Tereza; Krulisova, Veronika; Ptakova, Nikola; Macek, Milan; Dostalova, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is an overarching term for a group of rare inherited disorders of hard tooth tissues. It is characterized by various defects in proper enamel formation. AI is a severe disorder that affects both the aesthetics and function of the dentition, with affected teeth increasingly suffering from dental caries. Therefore, early diagnosis and lifelong stomatological interventions are important. Due to the complex nature of AI family history, stomatological, radiographic, and molecular genetic examinations should be part of the diagnostic portfolio. Additionally, we utilized new visualization methods for the assessment of teeth demineralization. We present a case report of two affected Czech sisters (6 and 8 years old) with clinically defined AI. These are the first Czech cases in which comprehensive clinical and genetic analysis had been carried out and reflect the complex clinical nature, positive treatment options, and limitations of candidate-gene molecular genetic testing.

  12. Sustainability in Brazilian Federal Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palma, Lisiane Celia; de Oliveira, Lessandra M.; Viacava, Keitiline R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the number of courses related to sustainability offered in bachelor degree programs of business administration in Brazilian federal universities. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory research was carried out based on a descriptive scope. The process of mapping federal universities in Brazil…

  13. Jorge de Lima: Brazilian Poet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, James H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Jorge de Lima--born in Uniao dos Palmares, Brazil on April 23, 1893, died in Rio de Janeiro on November 15, 1953--who during the Twenties became an important member of the literary movement known as Modernism and wrote both religious and regional poetry constituting the beginnings of a Afro-Brazilian poetry. (Author/JM)

  14. Gramscian Thought and Brazilian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dore, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    In the history of Brazilian education, it is only since the 1980s, during the redemocratization of Brazil, that proposals for public education in a socialist perspective have been presented. The past two decades have been marked by a growing interest in Gramscian thought, mainly in the educational field, making possible the elaboration of…

  15. Patenting bioactive molecules from biodiversity: the Brazilian experience.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Renata Campos; de Cerqueira, Harley Ferreira; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira

    2010-02-01

    The use of natural compounds from biodiversity, as well as ethnobotanical knowledge, for the development of new drugs is the gate leading to support the conservation of natural resources in developing countries. Recent technological advances and the development of new methods are revolutionizing the screening of natural products and offer a unique opportunity to replace natural products as major source of drug leads. Over the past decades, the Brazilian government established a legislation aiming to grant patent protection in all technological fields. The Convention on Biological Diversity, an international agreement that recognizes the sovereign rights of States over their natural resources, and the Brazilian legislation (Decreto n degree 2186-12/01) set for legislative, administrative or policy measures regarding the share of research and product development benefits could be the key for progress in issues related to rational employment of the Brazilian biodiversity and economy, but are far from being effective. Based on literature review, this article provides a brief description of the Brazilian legislation policy regarding intellectual property and biodiversity access, places natural drug discovery in context, analyzes patent cases and highlights critical key issues responsible for the drawback of the whole process that has a direct impact on industrial and research development, nature protection and benefit share with our society.

  16. Citations of Brazilian physical therapy journals in national publications

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Renan K. C.; Yamaki, Vitor N.; Botelho, Nara M.; Teixeira, Renato C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Quotations in Brazilian journals are mainly obtained from national articles (articles from Brazilian journals); thus, it is essential to determine how frequently these articles reference Brazilian journals. Objective This study sought to verify how frequently national papers are cited in the references of three Brazilian physical therapy journals. Method All references for articles published in Fisioterapia em Movimento, Fisioterapia e Pesquisa and Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia between 2010 and 2012 were evaluated. In particular, the numbers of national articles and international articles (articles from international journals) cited in these references were determined. Results A total of 13,009 references cited by 456 articles were analyzed, and 2,924 (22.47%) of the cited works were national articles. There were no significant differences among the three examined years. A total of 36 (7.89%) articles did not cite national articles, whereas 65 (13.25%) articles cited more national articles than international articles. Conclusion On average, 22.47% of the works cited by the evaluated articles were national articles. No significant differences were detected among the three analyzed years. PMID:24675917

  17. Alcohol fuels: the Brazilian experience and its implications for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Nemir, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    Brazil's experience in the use of ethyl alcohol, produced from sugar cane, as a motor fuel in the pure form or in the form of a 20 percent additive to gasoline, is examined. The production of ethanol was 4.2 billion liters from 1981 to 1982 and the plan calls for the production of 5.2 billion liters between 1982 and 1983. The total number of motor vehicles in Brazil which operate on pure alcohol reached 900,000 by the end of 1983 and the expenditure of alcohol in them reached 3 billion liters. The expansion of the use of ethanol as a motor fuel must substantially reduce Brazilian expenditures on the import of oil products, improve the use of agricultural resources and increase the labor force in agriculture. An analogous experience is justified for the U.S.A., but sugar beets must serve as the raw material for the production of ethanol in their case.

  18. [The internationalization of health: contextual elements and institutional frameworks of Brazilian cooperation].

    PubMed

    Pires-Alves, Fernando A; Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção; de Santana, José Paranaguá

    2012-12-01

    The article contextualizes the emergence of an international policy for the Brazilian Unified Health System as the common agenda of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. For this purpose, two contextual axes were explored throughout the work. The first discusses the explicit relationship between the development-cooperation-health triad from an international perspective. The second examines the recent evolution of Brazilian foreign policy, particularly with respect to the role it is playing in South-South cooperation on health matters. The contextual framework that defines Brazilian international cooperation with PAHO is emphasized, above all with regard to the implementation of a specific cooperation agreement. The article concludes that this agreement, within the framework of South-South cooperation, is one of the principal institutional mechanisms established to bring about technical cooperation in health in the current setting.

  19. Exploring the applicability of analysing X chromosome STRs in Brazilian admixed population.

    PubMed

    Auler-Bittencourt, Eloisa; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato; Lima, Maria Jenny Mitraud; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; dos Santos, Sidney Emannuel Batista

    2015-09-01

    Kinship and parentage analyses always involve one sample being compared to another sample or a few samples with a specific relationship question in mind. In most cases, the analysis of autosomal STR markers is sufficient to determine the genetic kinship. However, when genetic profiles are reconstructed from supposed relatives, for whom the family configuration available for analysis is deficient, the examination may be inconclusive. This study reports practical examples of actual cases analysing the efficiency of the chromosome X STR (STR-ChrX) markers. Three cases with different degrees of efficiency and impact were selected as follows: the identification of two charred bodies in a traffic accident, in which the family setting available was not complete, and one filiation analysis resulting from rape. This is the first paper reporting the use of the multiplex STR 12 ChrX in actual cases using the software Familias 1.8 and Brazilian regional frequency data. Our study clarifies the complex analysis using this powerful tool for professionals in the forensic science community, for both civil and criminal justice. We also discuss state-of-the-art ChrX STR markers and its implications and applications for legal procedures. The data presented here should be used in other studies of complex cases to improve the progress of the current justice system.

  20. Exploring the applicability of analysing X chromosome STRs in Brazilian admixed population.

    PubMed

    Auler-Bittencourt, Eloisa; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato; Lima, Maria Jenny Mitraud; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; dos Santos, Sidney Emannuel Batista

    2015-09-01

    Kinship and parentage analyses always involve one sample being compared to another sample or a few samples with a specific relationship question in mind. In most cases, the analysis of autosomal STR markers is sufficient to determine the genetic kinship. However, when genetic profiles are reconstructed from supposed relatives, for whom the family configuration available for analysis is deficient, the examination may be inconclusive. This study reports practical examples of actual cases analysing the efficiency of the chromosome X STR (STR-ChrX) markers. Three cases with different degrees of efficiency and impact were selected as follows: the identification of two charred bodies in a traffic accident, in which the family setting available was not complete, and one filiation analysis resulting from rape. This is the first paper reporting the use of the multiplex STR 12 ChrX in actual cases using the software Familias 1.8 and Brazilian regional frequency data. Our study clarifies the complex analysis using this powerful tool for professionals in the forensic science community, for both civil and criminal justice. We also discuss state-of-the-art ChrX STR markers and its implications and applications for legal procedures. The data presented here should be used in other studies of complex cases to improve the progress of the current justice system. PMID:26385714

  1. Natural radioactivity in Brazilian groundwater.

    PubMed

    Godoy, José Marcus; Godoy, Maria Luiza

    2006-01-01

    More than 220 groundwater samples were analyzed for 228Ra, 226Ra, 222Rn, 210Pb, U(nat), Th(nat), pH, conductivity, fluoride and some additional elements determined by ICP-MS. Since samples from several Brazilian states were taken, involving areas with quite different geologies, no general trend was observed relating the chemical composition and the natural radionuclide content. On the other hand, 210Pb strongly depends on the water content of its progenitor, 222Rn. The values obtained during the present work were compared with those reported by Hainberger et al. [Hainberger, P.L., de Oliveira Paiva, I.R., Salles Andrade, H.A., Zundel, G., Cullen, T.L., 1974. Radioactivity in Brazilian mineral waters. Radiation Data and Reports, 483-488.], when more than 270 groundwater samples were analyzed, mainly, for 226Ra. Based on the results of both works, it was possible to build a database including the results of both works, generating a set with the radium content of circa 350 groundwater sources. It was demonstrated that 228Ra, 226Ra, 222Rn, 210Pb and U(nat) content in Brazilian groundwater follows a lognormal distribution and the obtained geometric mean were 0.045, 0.014, 57.7, 0.040 BqL(-1) and 1.2 microgL(-1), respectively.

  2. Translucent quartz-fiber post luted in vivo with self-curing composite cement: case report and microscopic examination at a two-year clinical follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dallari, Adriano; Rovatti, Laura; Dallari, Beatrice; Mason, Pier Nicola; Suh, Byoung In

    2006-06-01

    A maxillary central incisor with mild periodontitis and extensive loss of coronal tooth structure was endodontically treated and restored with a translucent quartz-fiber post and a composite core. Treatment was completed with the cementation of full-ceramic crowns on teeth 11 and 21. Informed consent was obtained from the patient. Due to the extent of the periodontal disease, tooth 11 was extracted two years later. With the patient's consent, the tooth was used for research. The tooth was sectioned at 11 levels perpendicularly to the long axis and investigated by means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The visual examination showed perfect adhesion between the various interfaces (restoration-dentin-post) at both the coronal and root levels. The adhesion between the post and dentin appeared to be free of gaps, and even where the composite cement showed a nonhomogeneous thickness, voids were not apparent. The tooth under examination allowed the authors to check the effectiveness of the adhesion and the integrity of the hybrid layer after exposure to the oral cavity for two years. The results of this investigation show that there were no gaps between the adhesive resin and dentin and no hydrolysis of the adhesive bond. This case suggests that it is possible to obtain good results in the short term from the cementation of quartz-fiber posts with composite resin cements.

  3. Diagnostic value of ultrastructural nerve examination in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: two CMT 1B cases with pseudo-recessive inheritance.

    PubMed

    Vallat, Jean-Michel; Magy, Laurent; Lagrange, Emmeline; Sturtz, Franck; Magdelaine, Corinne; Grid, Djamel; Tazir, Mériem

    2007-04-01

    We report two sporadic patients of CMT disease in different consanguineous families. The electrophysiological examination led to the diagnosis of a severe demyelinating neuropathy. The nerve biopsies exhibited numerous outfoldings of the myelin sheaths and onion-bulb proliferations. The consanguinity and the histological findings pointed to a diagnosis of CMT 4B. However, the detection of abnormal and regular widenings between the major dense lines of the myelin lamellae by electron microscopy led us to search for a P0 gene mutation. Two heterozygous mutations of this gene were identified: S63F and N131Y. Different aspects of uncompacted myelin lamellae have been described in some cases of P0 mutations and a few now appear to be quite specific to it. More than 30 genes are implicated in CMT and as mutation search is time- and money-consuming, we believe that in some selected patients ultrastructural examination of nerves, among other criteria, helps orientate the molecular diagnosis of CMT.

  4. Work-Family Conflict, Perceived Supervisor Support and Organizational Commitment among Brazilian Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper, Wendy Jean; Harris, Christopher; Taylor-Bianco, Amy; Wayne, Julie Holliday

    2011-01-01

    The current study examines a variety of relationships pertaining to work-family conflict among a sample of Brazilian professionals, in order to shed light on work-family issues in this cultural context. Drawing from the cultural values of Brazil and social identity theory, we examine the relationships of two directions of work-family conflict…

  5. Phylogeny of culturable cyanobacteria from Brazilian mangroves.

    PubMed

    Silva, Caroline Souza Pamplona; Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Vaz, Marcelo Gomes Marçal Vieira; Fiore, Marli Fátima

    2014-03-01

    The cyanobacterial community from Brazilian mangrove ecosystems was examined using a culture-dependent method. Fifty cyanobacterial strains were isolated from soil, water and periphytic samples collected from Cardoso Island and Bertioga mangroves using specific cyanobacterial culture media. Unicellular, homocytous and heterocytous morphotypes were recovered, representing five orders, seven families and eight genera (Synechococcus, Cyanobium, Cyanobacterium, Chlorogloea, Leptolyngbya, Phormidium, Nostoc and Microchaete). All of these novel mangrove strains had their 16S rRNA gene sequenced and BLAST analysis revealed sequence identities ranging from 92.5 to 99.7% when they were compared with other strains available in GenBank. The results showed a high variability of the 16S rRNA gene sequences among the genotypes that was not associated with the morphologies observed. Phylogenetic analyses showed several branches formed exclusively by some of these novel 16S rRNA gene sequences. BLAST and phylogeny analyses allowed for the identification of Nodosilinea and Oxynema strains, genera already known to exhibit poor morphological diacritic traits. In addition, several Nostoc and Leptolyngbya morphotypes of the mangrove strains may represent new generic entities, as they were distantly affiliated with true genera clades. The presence of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, polyketide synthase, microcystin and saxitoxin genes were detected in 20.5%, 100%, 37.5% and 33.3%, respectively, of the 44 tested isolates. A total of 134 organic extracts obtained from 44 strains were tested against microorganisms, and 26% of the extracts showed some antimicrobial activity. This is the first polyphasic study of cultured cyanobacteria from Brazilian mangrove ecosystems using morphological, genetic and biological approaches.

  6. Phylogeny of culturable cyanobacteria from Brazilian mangroves.

    PubMed

    Silva, Caroline Souza Pamplona; Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Vaz, Marcelo Gomes Marçal Vieira; Fiore, Marli Fátima

    2014-03-01

    The cyanobacterial community from Brazilian mangrove ecosystems was examined using a culture-dependent method. Fifty cyanobacterial strains were isolated from soil, water and periphytic samples collected from Cardoso Island and Bertioga mangroves using specific cyanobacterial culture media. Unicellular, homocytous and heterocytous morphotypes were recovered, representing five orders, seven families and eight genera (Synechococcus, Cyanobium, Cyanobacterium, Chlorogloea, Leptolyngbya, Phormidium, Nostoc and Microchaete). All of these novel mangrove strains had their 16S rRNA gene sequenced and BLAST analysis revealed sequence identities ranging from 92.5 to 99.7% when they were compared with other strains available in GenBank. The results showed a high variability of the 16S rRNA gene sequences among the genotypes that was not associated with the morphologies observed. Phylogenetic analyses showed several branches formed exclusively by some of these novel 16S rRNA gene sequences. BLAST and phylogeny analyses allowed for the identification of Nodosilinea and Oxynema strains, genera already known to exhibit poor morphological diacritic traits. In addition, several Nostoc and Leptolyngbya morphotypes of the mangrove strains may represent new generic entities, as they were distantly affiliated with true genera clades. The presence of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, polyketide synthase, microcystin and saxitoxin genes were detected in 20.5%, 100%, 37.5% and 33.3%, respectively, of the 44 tested isolates. A total of 134 organic extracts obtained from 44 strains were tested against microorganisms, and 26% of the extracts showed some antimicrobial activity. This is the first polyphasic study of cultured cyanobacteria from Brazilian mangrove ecosystems using morphological, genetic and biological approaches. PMID:24461713

  7. Implementing the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts

    PubMed Central

    Monlleó, Isabella Lopes; Fontes, Marshall Ítalo Barros; Ribeiro, Erlane Marques; de Souza, Josiane; Leal, Gabriela Ferraz; Félix, Têmis Maria; Fett-Conte, Agnes Cristina; Bueno, Bruna Henrique; Magna, Luis Alberto; Mossey, Peter Anthony; Gil-da Silva-Lopes, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Background. High-quality clinical and genetic descriptions are crucial to improve knowledge of orofacial clefts and support specific healthcare polices. The objective of this study is to discuss the potential and perspectives of the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts. Methods. From 2008 to 2010, clinical and familial information on 370 subjects was collected by geneticists in eight different services. Data was centrally processed using an international system for case classification and coding. Results. Cleft lip with cleft palate amounted to 198 (53.5%), cleft palate to 99 (26.8%), and cleft lip to 73 (19.7%) cases. Parental consanguinity was present in 5.7% and familial history of cleft was present in 26.3% subjects. Rate of associated major plus minor defects was 48% and syndromic cases amounted to 25% of the samples. Conclusions. Overall results corroborate the literature. Adopted tools are user friendly and could be incorporated into routine patient care. The BDOC exemplifies a network for clinical and genetic research. The data may be useful to develop and improve personalized treatment, family planning, and healthcare policies. This experience should be of interest for geneticists, laboratory-based researchers, and clinicians entrusted with OC worldwide. PMID:23577250

  8. [Treatment of epilepsy: consensus of the Brazilian specialists].

    PubMed

    Betting, Luiz Eduardo; Kobayashi, Eliane; Montenegro, Maria Augusta; Min, Li Li; Cendes, Fernando; Guerreiro, Marilisa M; Guerreiro, Carlos A M

    2003-12-01

    Epilepsy is a frequent condition in the world. Recently a study in Brazil showed prevalence of 18/1000 inhabitants in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State. In the last decade, new therapeutic options were discovered or developed. The main therapeutic decision method is based on randomized clinical trials. This method represents the higher level of evidence. However, even these studies have limitations and in some cases the treatment of choice remains controversial. In these instances, the epilepsy experts' opinions become helpful. In 2001 a similar study had been conducted in USA. The aim of this study is to create guidelines for epilepsy treatment based on the opinion of the Brazilian experts. These guidelines can be used to create manuals and strategies for the treatment of some epileptic syndromes according to Brazilian experts. As compared to the North-American guidelines our study better reflects the resources available in our country.

  9. PERSPECTIVE: Learning from the Brazilian biofuel experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the article `The ethanol program in Brazil' [1] José Goldemberg summarizes the key features of Brazil's sugarcane ethanol program—the most successful biofuel program in the world so far. In fact, as of 2005, Brazil was the world's largest producer of fuel ethanol. In addition to providing 40% of its gasoline market with ethanol, Brazil exports a significant amount of ethanol to Europe, Japan, and the United States. The success of the program is attributed to a variety of factors, including supportive governmental policies and favorable natural conditions (such as a tropical climate with abundant rainfall and high temperatures). As the article points out, in the early stages of the Brazilian ethanol program, the Brazilian government provided loans to sugarcane growers and ethanol producers (in most cases, they are the same people) to encourage sugarcane and ethanol production. Thereafter, ethanol prices were regulated to ensure that producers can economically sustain production and consumers can benefit from using ethanol. Over time, Brazil was able to achieve a price for ethanol that is lower than that for gasoline, on the basis of energy content. This lower cost is largely driving the widespread use of ethanol instead of gasoline by consumers in Brazil. In the United States, if owners of E85 flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are expected to use E85 instead of gasoline in their FFVs, E85 will have to be priced competitively against gasoline on an energy-content basis. Compared with corn-based or sugar beet-based ethanol, Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol yields considerably more favorable results in terms of energy balance and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These results are primarily due to (i) the dramatic increase of sugarcane yield in Brazil in the past 25 years and (ii) the use of bagasse instead of fossil fuels in ethanol plants to provide the heat needed for ethanol plant operations and to generate electricity for export to electric grids

  10. Dental age estimation in Brazilian HIV children using Willems' method.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rafael Boschetti; da Silva Assunção, Luciana Reichert; Franco, Ademir; Zaroni, Fábio Marzullo; Holderbaum, Rejane Maria; Fernandes, Ângela

    2015-12-01

    The notification of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Brazilian children was first reported in 1984. Since that time more than 21 thousand children became infected. Approximately 99.6% of the children aged less than 13 years old are vertically infected. In this context, most of the children are abandoned after birth, or lose their relatives in a near future, growing with uncertain identification. The present study aims to estimate the dental age of Brazilian HIV patients in face of healthy patients paired by age and gender. The sample consisted of 160 panoramic radiographs of male (n: 80) and female (n: 80) patients aged between 4 and 15 years (mean age: 8.88 years), divided into HIV (n: 80) and control (n: 80) groups. The sample was analyzed by three trained examiners, using Willems' method, 2001. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was applied to test intra- and inter-examiner agreement, and Student paired t-test was used to determine the age association between HIV and control groups. Intra-examiner (ICC: from 0.993 to 0.997) and inter-examiner (ICC: from 0.991 to 0.995) agreement tests indicated high reproducibility of the method between the examiners (P<0.01). Willems' method revealed discrete statistical overestimation in HIV (2.86 months; P=0.019) and control (1.90 months; P=0.039) groups. However, stratified analysis by gender indicate that overestimation were only concentrated in male HIV (3.85 months; P=0.001) and control (2.86 months; P=0.022) patients. The significant statistical differences are not clinically relevant once only few months of discrepancy are detected applying Willems' method in a Brazilian HIV sample, making this method highly recommended for dental age estimation of both HIV and healthy children with unknown age.

  11. Working conditions of Brazilian immigrants in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Eduardo Siqueira, C; Jansen, Tiago

    2012-06-01

    Brazilian immigration to Massachusetts and other states in the US grew significantly in the last two decades. There is a lack of data about the working conditions and health and safety hazards faced by Brazilian immigrant workers. We surveyed over 500 workers in Eastern Massachusetts through a community-based participatory research project to explore occupational and immigration factors that may represent a risk to the health of Brazilian immigrant workers, who mostly work in the construction, housecleaning, and food services segments of the state labor force. Our pilot study suggests that Brazilian immigrant workers are exposed to chemical, ergonomic, physical, and psychosocial job hazards and have experienced a variety of health symptoms that may be associated with these work environment exposures. Since most Brazilian workers have not received proper training to recognize the hazards, there is an urgent need for the implementation of culturally adequate training programs and enforcement of safety and health regulations to prevent occupational injuries and fatalities.

  12. The first Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Anjos Candeiro, Carlos Roberto; da Silva Marinho, Thiago

    2015-08-01

    The 1st Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium gathered paleontologists, geologists, and paleoartists in the city of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from April 21st to 24th, 2013. The Dinosaur Symposium in the Pontal Campus of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil provided an opportunity to share many new results of dinosaur research being conducted around the world. The symposium coincided with a new dawn of scientific advances in dinosaur paleontology further expanding its importance, interest and credibility worldwide.

  13. Luso-Brazilian Enlightenment and the circulation of Caribbean slavery-related knowledge: the establishment of the Brazilian coffee culture from a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Marquese, Rafael de Bivar

    2009-01-01

    The generation of enlightened Luso-Brazilians saw Caribbean slavery agriculture as the model to be emulated in Portuguese America. To do so, at the turn of the eighteenth to the nineteenth centuries, they translated and published some texts originally elaborated in the Antilles. In this reformist environment, the coffee culture occupied a place of prominence. To understand the role of this knowledge in establishing the Brazilian coffee culture, the Brazilian case is compared with the Cuban. The intent is to demonstrate that in the Spanish colony, the productive coffee plan of Santo Domingo was implanted, while in Brazil a plan was created, supported by new standards of agricultural management that were founded on local knowledge.

  14. Atherosclerosis in young Brazilians suffering violent deaths: a pathological study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke, which can cause sudden death in adulthood. In general, the clinical manifestations of cardiovascular diseases are caused by atherosclerosis, which is a process that starts during middle age. More recent studies indicate that the atherosclerotic process begins during childhood. Methods To evaluate the extent of atherosclerotic disease in young Brazilians, we conducted a study of the pathological alterations in the major arteries of victims of violent death. Samples of the right carotid artery, left coronary artery, and thoracic aorta of young victims of violent death were analyzed and graded in accordance with the histological atherosclerotic lesion types proposed by the American Heart Association. Samples were collected from 100 individuals who had died from external causes, aged from 12 to 33 years. Results The majority of cases (83%) were male, and 66% of deaths were homicides caused by firearms. The median age was 20.0 years and mean body mass index was 20.9 kg/m2. Of the right carotid artery specimens, 3% were normal, 55% had type I, 40% had type II, 1% had type III, and 1% had type IV atherosclerotic lesions. Of the left coronary artery specimens, 5% were normal, 48% had type I, 41% had type II, 3% had type III, and 3% had type IV lesions. Of the thoracic aorta specimens, none were normal, 13% had type I, 64% had type II, 22% had type III, and 1% had type IV lesions. Overall, 97.34% of arteries examined had some degree of atherosclerosis. The most common histological type was type II (foam cells). No thoracic aorta specimens were normal, and the coronary artery specimens had the most atherosclerosis. Conclusions Our results show a high prevalence of atherosclerotic lesions among young people in Brazil. Intervention should be undertaken to decrease the rate of sudden cardiac death in the adult population. PMID:22152277

  15. Reduced Investment in Science: An Examination of the Current Federal Budget and a Case Study on Its Impact on the Scientific Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrock, K.; Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.

    2013-12-01

    Federally funded scientific research is one of the building blocks of technological advancement and economic growth. This research can also lead to transformational ideas and discoveries. In our current fiscal environment, strategies to rein in federal spending have become a priority, although they have proven to be complex. The possible deals and negotiations to reduce federal spending may hinder the work of the scientific community to serve society. Since 2005 federal investment in research and development has slowed. The average annual growth in federal funding for scientific research from 2004 - 2009 was 0.9% as compared to 3.3% over the previous 20 years. What does the current budget situation mean for science? It means reductions in basic and applied research, interruptions in long-term monitoring and data collection, an inability to repair or build infrastructure, and less federal grant support for current and future scientists. I will first provide an update on the current federal budget situation and examples of how current policies are impacting the scientific community. Second, I will present a case study of the effect of reduced federal investment in science. Specifically, I will discuss how investments in research and development have far-reaching impacts on society and examine how reduced funding impairs valuable research efforts.

  16. Examination of forensic entomology evidence using computed tomography scanning: case studies and refinement of techniques for estimating maggot mass volumes in bodies.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Aidan; Archer, Melanie; Leigh-Shaw, Lyndie; Pais, Mike; O'Donnell, Chris; Wallman, James

    2012-09-01

    A new technique has recently been developed for estimating the volume of maggot masses on deceased persons using post-mortem CT scans. This allows volume to be measured non-invasively and factored into maggot mass temperature calculations for both casework and research. Examination of admission scans also allows exploration of entomological evidence in anatomical areas not usually exposed by autopsy (e.g. nasal cavities and facial sinuses), and before autopsy disrupts the maggot distribution on a body. This paper expands on work already completed by providing the x-ray attenuation coefficient by way of Hounsfield unit (HU) values for various maggot species, maggot masses and human tissue adjacent to masses. Specifically, this study looked at the HU values for four forensically important blowfly larvae: Lucilia cuprina, L. sericata, Calliphora stygia and C. vicina. The Calliphora species had significantly lower HU values than the Lucilia species. This might be explained by histological analysis, which revealed a non-significant trend, suggesting that Calliphora maggots have a higher fat content than the Lucilia maggots. It is apparent that the variation in the x-ray attenuation coefficient usually precludes its use as a tool for delineating the maggot mass from human tissue and that morphology is the dominant method for delineating a mass. This paper also includes three case studies, which reveal different applications for interpreting entomological evidence using post-mortem CT scans.

  17. Political Liberalization, Black Consciousness, and Recent Afro-Brazilian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, James H.

    1986-01-01

    Accounts for the surge in Afro-Brazilian literacy production of the late 1970s and early 1980s from the perspective of Brazil's changing political life and a growth of racial consciousness. Presents a broad overview of recent Brazilian political and literary history. Focuses on racial politics and Afro-Brazilians in the Brazilian literary market.…

  18. The association of religion and virginity status among Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ogland, Curtis P; Xu, Xiaohe; Bartkowski, John P; Ogland, Emmanuelle G

    2011-06-01

    This study examines the association between religious factors and the virginity status of unmarried Brazilian female adolescents aged 15-19 years. The analysis draws on data from the Brazilian National Demographic and Health Survey (2006) using a sub-sample of unmarried Brazilian female adolescents aged 15-19 years (N = 2,364). Multinomial logistic regression is used to test the association between denominational affiliation, worship service participation, and self-reported virginity status. The findings reveal that adolescents affiliated with Protestant faiths, particularly Pentecostalism, and those who attend worship services often have significantly higher odds of remaining a virgin because of a commitment to not have sex until marriage. This premarital chastity rationale for virginity is most strongly evidenced among frequently attending teens who are affiliated with Protestant and Pentecostal faiths. Similar to patterns observed in the United States, teen involvement with Protestant faiths, particularly strict traditions, such as Pentecostalism, is associated with a commitment to virginity in Brazil. PMID:21575831

  19. Thermal body patterns for healthy Brazilian adults (male and female).

    PubMed

    Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Fernandes, Alex Andrade; Cano, Sergio Piñonosa; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; da Silva, Fabrício Souza; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Fernandez-Cuevas, Ismael; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the skin temperature (Tsk) thermal profile for the Brazilian population and to compare the differences between female and male Brazilian adults. A total of 117 female and 103 male were examined with a thermographic camera. The Tsk of 24 body regions of interest (ROI) were recorded and analyzed. Male Tsk results were compared to female and 10 ROI were evaluated with respect to the opposite side of the body (right vs. left) to identify the existence of significant contralateral Tsk differences (ΔTsk). When compared right to left, the largest contralateral ΔTsk was 0.3°C. The female vs. male analysis yielded significant differences (p<0.05) in 13 of the 24 ROI. Thigh regions, both ventral and dorsal, had the highest ΔTsk by sex (≈1.0°C). Tsk percentile below P5 or P10 and over P90 or P95 may be used to characterize hypothermia and hyperthermia states, respectively. Thermal patterns and Tsk tables were established for Brazilian adult men and women for each ROI. There is a low Tsk variation between sides of the body and gender differences were only significant for some ROIs.

  20. The Brazilian health system: history, advances, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Paim, Jairnilson; Travassos, Claudia; Almeida, Celia; Bahia, Ligia; Macinko, James

    2011-05-21

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with widespread regional and social inequalities. In this report, we examine the historical development and components of the Brazilian health system, focusing on the reform process during the past 40 years, including the creation of the Unified Health System. A defining characteristic of the contemporary health sector reform in Brazil is that it was driven by civil society rather than by governments, political parties, or international organisations. The advent of the Unified Health System increased access to health care for a substantial proportion of the Brazilian population, at a time when the system was becoming increasingly privatised. Much is still to be done if universal health care is to be achieved. Over the past 20 years, there have been other advances, including investments in human resources, science and technology, and primary care, and a substantial decentralisation process, widespread social participation, and growing public awareness of a right to health care. If the Brazilian health system is to overcome the challenges with which it is presently faced, strengthened political support is needed so that financing can be restructured and the roles of both the public and private sector can be redefined.

  1. Genetic diversity among brazilian isolates of beauveria bassiana: comparisons with non-brazilian isolates and other beauveria species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Moraes, A.M.L.; Pacheco, R.S.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Bittencourt, V.R.E.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana was investigated by comparing isolates of this species to each other (49 from different geographical regions of Brazil and 4 from USA) and to other Beauveria spp. Methods and Results: The isolates were examined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and rDNA sequencing. MLEE and AFLP revealed considerable genetic variability among B. bassiana isolates. Several isolates from South and Southeast Brazil had high similarity coefficients, providing evidence of at least one population with clonal structure. There were clear genomic differences between most Brazilian and USA B. bassiana isolates. A Mantel test using data generated by AFLP provided evidence that greater geographical distances were associated with higher genetic distances. AFLP and rDNA sequencing demonstrated notable genotypic variation between B. bassiana and other Beauveria spp. Conclusion: Geographical distance between populations apparently is an important factor influencing genotypic variability among B. bassiana populations in Brazil. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study characterized many B. bassiana isolates. The results indicate that certain Brazilian isolates are considerably different from others and possibly should be regarded as separate species from B. bassiana sensu latu. The information on genetic variation among the Brazilian isolates, therefore, will be important to comprehending the population structure of B. bassiana in Brazil. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. [Analysis of the implementation of the Tuberculosis Control Program in Brazilian prisons].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luisa Gonçalves Dutra de; Natal, Sonia; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos

    2015-03-01

    Tuberculosis control measures in Brazil's prison population have been regulated for ten years under the National Prison Health System Plan. Brazilian states have different organizational models for the Tuberculosis Control Program (TCP) in their prison systems. This study evaluated TCP implementation in prisons in two Brazilian states, using a multiple case study design with a qualitative approach and a log-frame analysis and assessment. According to predefined criteria, two state cases were selected, with two analytical units for each case and one prison hospital in Case 2. We identified partial program implementation in the Case 1 prisons and prison hospital and low implementation in non-hospital prison health services in Case 2. Lack of financial investment and resources, lack of integration between the courts and law enforcement system and health institutions, and poor access to health services in prisons were adverse factors for program implementation.

  3. [Analysis of the implementation of the Tuberculosis Control Program in Brazilian prisons].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luisa Gonçalves Dutra de; Natal, Sonia; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos

    2015-03-01

    Tuberculosis control measures in Brazil's prison population have been regulated for ten years under the National Prison Health System Plan. Brazilian states have different organizational models for the Tuberculosis Control Program (TCP) in their prison systems. This study evaluated TCP implementation in prisons in two Brazilian states, using a multiple case study design with a qualitative approach and a log-frame analysis and assessment. According to predefined criteria, two state cases were selected, with two analytical units for each case and one prison hospital in Case 2. We identified partial program implementation in the Case 1 prisons and prison hospital and low implementation in non-hospital prison health services in Case 2. Lack of financial investment and resources, lack of integration between the courts and law enforcement system and health institutions, and poor access to health services in prisons were adverse factors for program implementation. PMID:25859721

  4. Drug addict deaths in the Nordic countries: a study based on medicolegally examined cases in the five Nordic countries in 1991.

    PubMed

    Steentoft, A; Teige, B; Holmgren, P; Vuori, E; Kristinsson, J; Kaa, E; Wethe, G; Ceder, G; Pikkarainen, J; Simonsen, K W

    1996-01-12

    The study includes medicolegally examined deaths among drug addicts in 1991 in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. A common definition of 'drug addict' was applied by the participating countries. The greatest number of drug addict deaths per 10(5) inhabitants was observed in Denmark followed, in descending order by Norway, Sweden, Finland and finally Iceland with only four deaths. The main difference between the countries was found in the number of fatal poisonings. The distribution according to geographical regions showed that about half of all drug addict deaths occurred in the metropolitan areas. Of the capitals, the greatest number of fatal poisonings per 10(5) inhabitants was seen in Oslo, followed by Copenhagen with a similar number, Stockholm with only the half, and Helsinki with a quarter. Heroin/morphine dominated as cause of death in fatal poisonings in Norway and Sweden. In Denmark, heroin/morphine caused about half of the fatal poisonings only, and nearly one third of the fatal poisonings was caused by methadone. Except for two cases in Sweden, methadone deaths were not seen in the other Nordic countries. Amphetamine caused one tenth of the fatal poisonings in Sweden. In Finland only one tenth of the deaths were caused by heroin/morphine and more by codeine, ethylmorphine and different drugs and poisons not classified in Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961 or the International Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971. A widespread use of alcohol, cannabis and benzodiazepines, diazepam especially, was seen in all the countries. PMID:8675131

  5. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    PubMed

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment.

  6. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    PubMed

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment. PMID:27627071

  7. Schistosomiasis mansoni presenting as a cerebellar tumor: case report.

    PubMed

    Silva, Joacil Carlos da; Lima, Frederico de Melo Tavares de; Vidal, Cláudio Henrique; Azevedo Filho, Hildo Cirne Rocha de

    2007-09-01

    The Manson's schistosomiasis tumoral form rarely affects the brain. There are only 12 cases prior related with a mean age of 25 years and a male predominance. We describe a 16-year-old Brazilian Northeastern boy with a cerebellar mass lesion. The radiological aspect was considered compatible with glioma and a gross total resection was performed. Microscopic examination disclosed intraparenchymal granulomas surrounding Schistosoma mansoni eggs. The case is compared with the literature findings and some peculiar aspects of this trematode infection are reviewed. PMID:17952294

  8. Learning experience in endodontics: Brazilian students' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Seijo, Marilia O S; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio P; Paiva, Saul M; Martins, Renata C

    2013-05-01

    Including students' perceptions in the educational process is considered a key component in monitoring the quality of academic programs. This study aimed to evaluate the concept of one's learning experience in endodontic teaching from the perspective of a group of Brazilian students. A total of 126 self-administered, structured questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate dental students enrolled in endodontics courses during the second semester of the 2009 academic year. The questionnaires were administered during final examinations and focused on students' opinions concerning learning during endodontic treatments, time spent during endodontic treatments, difficulties found during endodontic treatments, quality of endodontic treatments performed, characteristics of the technique employed, and suggestions to improve endodontic teaching. Ninety-one percent of the questionnaires were returned for evaluation. The obtained answers were discussed and analyzed, thereby generating quantitative and qualitative data showing students' perceptions of their experiences in endodontics courses. The main points that can affect the teaching of endodontics, according to the undergraduate students, included patients' absences and delays, selection of patients, preclinical and clinical training, difficulties found, type of technique employed, and teachers' orientation during endodontic treatment. The students' perceptions provided valuable information about the development of the course and the teacher-student relationship, together with the added intention of enhancing the teaching of endodontics as well as other courses. PMID:23658412

  9. Analysis of four Brazilian seismic areas using a nonextensive approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, T. M.; França, G. S.; Silva, R.; de Freitas, D. B.; Vilar, C. S.

    2015-02-01

    We analyse four seismic areas in Brazil using a nonextensive model and the data from the Brazilian Seismic Bulletin between 1720 and 2013. Two of those regions are contrasting zones, while the other two are dominated by seismic active faults. We notice that intraplate seismic zones present q-values similar to others fault zones, but the adjustment in contrast areas results in higher values for this parameter. The results reveal the nonextensive approach adjusts robustly also in case of intraplate earthquakes, showing that the Tsallis formalism is unquestionably a powerful tool to the analysis of this phenomenon.

  10. The Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Brum, J. A.; Tavares, P. F.

    2007-01-19

    The Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory has been operating the only light source in the southern hemisphere since July 1997. During this period, approximately 28000 hours of beam time were delivered reaching more than 1000 users per year from all over Brazil as well as from 10 other countries. In this paper, we briefly recall the history of the project and describe the present configuration of the machine and associated instrumentation, focusing on improvements and upgrades of the various light source subsystems and beamlines implemented in recent years. Finally, we report on the use of the facility by the national and international scientific communities, its impact on the scientific and technological scene in Brazil and present perspectives for future improvements of the machine.

  11. Organizational Learning and Power Dynamics: A Study in a Brazilian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Jane Lucia Silva; Steil, Andrea Valéria

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe and analyze organizational learning processes and power dynamics during the adoption and use of an information system (IS) at a Brazilian public organization. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was chosen as the research method. Data were gathered from documents and interviews with key informants.…

  12. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  13. [The concept of racial democracy in Brazilian intellectual history].

    PubMed

    Brochier, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to reconstruct the history of the term "racial democracy" in Brazilian sociological literature. This term, usually associated with the idea of "myth", is used in many studies of race relations without little definition or clarity. This article retraces its origins, in particular by showing that the concept is not the invention of Gilberto Freyre. It then examines the evolution of its use with particular emphasis on Unesco's research in the 1950s and the texts of Florestan Fernandes in the 1960s.

  14. Not Just Racial Quotas: Affirmative Action in Brazilian Higher Education 10 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Luisa Farah; Paiva, Angela Randolpho

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how affirmative action in Brazilian public universities has evolved from the start of the new millennium up to recent years. After an overview of the existing policies in public universities, we explain these patterns based on an analysis of the processes internal and external to the universities. Although these policies were…

  15. Buttercups and Daisies: Building a Community of Practice amongst Teachers in a Brazilian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    do Nascimento Botelho, Marcel; Kowalski, Robert; Bartlett, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the promotion and adoption of action research as an instrument of institutional change by academic staff in a Brazilian rural university. The results of the research are presented showing the mobilisation of a group of volunteers, the implementation of their action research projects and the sustainability of the process.…

  16. Are Local Teachers or Nutrition Experts Perceived as More Effective among Brazilian High School Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Eva I.; Feldman, Robert H. L.

    1994-01-01

    A study of 322 Brazilian high school students examined whether locally trained teachers (high similarity/low expertise) or outside nutrition experts (high expertise/low similarity) would more effectively influence students' food choice attitudes and behavior. Data analysis revealed only perceived teacher similarity significantly influenced student…

  17. Overt vs. Null Direct Objects in Spoken Brazilian Portuguese: A Semantic/Pragmatic Account.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwenter, Scott A.; Silva, Glaucia

    2002-01-01

    Examines the semantic/pragmatic constraints on null objects spoken in Brazilian Portuguese (BP) in detail, and situates BP null objects in the broader crosslinguistic perspective of differential object marking. Demonstrates that semantic/pragmatic dimensions of animacy and specificity, and in particular their interaction, must be taken into…

  18. The effect of Brazilian Propolis on leg health in broilers reared under heat stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposing broiler chickens to heat stress increases leg abnormalities and Gait Score, also it reduced the time of Latency to Lie Test. This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplemention with green Brazilian propolis on Latency to Lie Test for leg strength and leg abnormaliti...

  19. A Comparison of Managerial Communication Strategies between Brazilian and American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Ana; Todd-Mancillas, Wm. R.

    A study was conducted to examine and compare the managerial communication strategies of 40 Brazilian and American female managers. Subjects read four scripts describing various problems that a manager might encounter with an employee or another manager of equal status, and explained how they would resolve the problem. Four versions of each script…

  20. ASTER: A Brazilian Mission to an Asteroid.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, O. C.; Macau, E. E. N.; de Campos Velho, H.; Carruba, V.

    2012-05-01

    The first Brazilian mission to an asteroid is being planned. The target is the asteroid 2001 SN263, which has a NEA orbit of class AMOR. The mission is scheduled to be launched in 2015, reaching the asteroid in 2019.

  1. [Identification of Psychotropic Drugs Attributed to Fatal Overdose--A Case-control Study by Data from the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office and Prescriptions].

    PubMed

    Hikiji, Wakako; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Suzuki, Hideto; Takeshima, Tadashi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2016-01-01

    Drug overdose is a serious public health issue and fatal cases have been reported from various fields of medicine. This case-control analysis assessed the comparison between fatal overdose cases in the special wards of Tokyo Metropolitan area and prescribed psychotropic drugs in Tokyo in 2009-2010. It was suggested that the prescribed drugs serve as a direct cause of death in overdose cases. Furthermore, pentobarbital calcium, chlorpromazine-promethazine-phenobarbital, levomepromazine and flunitrazepam were identified as drugs with a high risk of fatal overdose. It is encouraged to prudently verify the intended application and usage of such psychotropic drugs in each case upon their prescription. This is the first study in Japan to identify psychotropic drugs with a high risk of fatal overdose by case-control study. PMID:27192786

  2. [Identification of Psychotropic Drugs Attributed to Fatal Overdose--A Case-control Study by Data from the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office and Prescriptions].

    PubMed

    Hikiji, Wakako; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Tanifuji, Takanobu; Suzuki, Hideto; Takeshima, Tadashi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2016-01-01

    Drug overdose is a serious public health issue and fatal cases have been reported from various fields of medicine. This case-control analysis assessed the comparison between fatal overdose cases in the special wards of Tokyo Metropolitan area and prescribed psychotropic drugs in Tokyo in 2009-2010. It was suggested that the prescribed drugs serve as a direct cause of death in overdose cases. Furthermore, pentobarbital calcium, chlorpromazine-promethazine-phenobarbital, levomepromazine and flunitrazepam were identified as drugs with a high risk of fatal overdose. It is encouraged to prudently verify the intended application and usage of such psychotropic drugs in each case upon their prescription. This is the first study in Japan to identify psychotropic drugs with a high risk of fatal overdose by case-control study.

  3. Hallux amputation after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Oliveira, Sâmella Silva de; Sachett, Jacqueline de Almeida Gonçalves; Silva, Iran Mendonça da; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater stingray injuries are a common problem in the Brazilian Amazon, affecting mostly riverine and indigenous populations. These injuries cause severe local and regional pain, swelling and erythema, as well as complications, such as local necrosis and bacterial infection. Herein, we report a case of bacterial infection and hallux necrosis, after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon, which eventually required amputation. Different antimicrobial regimens were administered at different stages of the disease; however, avoiding amputation through effective treatment was not achieved. PMID:27384843

  4. 3rd Brazilian Consensus on Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga; Maguinilk, Ismael; Zaterka, Schlioma; Parente, José Miguel; do Carmo Friche Passos, Maria; Moraes-Filho, Joaquim Prado P

    2013-04-01

    Signicant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  5. Effects of the Deregulation on the Concentration of the Brazilian Air Transportation Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guterres, Marcelo Xavier; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the effects of the deregulation of the Brazilian air transportation industry in terms of the concentration of the market. We will show some metrics that are commonly used to study the concentration of the industry. This paper uses the Herfindhal- Hirschman Index. This index tends to zero in the competitive scenario, with a large number of small firms, and to one in case of a monopolistic scenario. The paper analyses the dynamics of the concentration of the Brazilian domestic air transportation market, in order to evaluate the effects of deregulation. We conclude that the Brazilian market presents oligopoly characteristics and aspects in its current structure that maintain the market concentrated in spite of the Deregulation measures adopted by the aeronautical authority. Keywords: Herfindhal-Hirschman Index, concentration, Deregulation

  6. A Case Study of Online Instructional Collaborative Discussion Activities for Problem-Solving Using Situated Scenarios: An Examination of Content and Behavior Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Huei-Tse

    2011-01-01

    In some higher education courses that focus on case studies, teachers can provide situated scenarios (such as business bottlenecks and medical cases) and problem-solving discussion tasks for students to promote their cognitive skills. There is limited research on the content, performance, and behavioral patterns of teaching using online…

  7. Modelling in Action. Examining How Students Approach Modelling Real Life Situations. Three Case Studies. Model of the Movement of an Elevator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivas, Eugenia Marmolejo

    2015-01-01

    By means of three case studies, we will present two mathematical modelling activities that are suitable for students enrolled in senior high school and the first year of mathematics at university level. The activities have been designed to enrich the learning process and promote the formation of vital modelling skills. In case studies one and two,…

  8. Ischaemic heart disease and the proportions of hydrogenated fat and ruminant-animal fat in adipose tissue at post-mortem examination: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, L H; Scott, R G

    1981-01-01

    Fatty acids characteristic of ruminant-animal fat have been found to be present in significantly lower proportions in samples from the depot fat of persons dying of ischaemic heart disease (cases) than in specimens from persons dying of unrelated causes (controls). Although such acids are also present, in lesser amounts, in hydrogenated marine oils, this case-versus-control difference is difficult to explain other than on the basis that controls consumed a higher proportion of ruminant-animal fat in their total dietary fat than did the cases. The proportions of polyunsaturated acids and of certain higher (C20 and C22 mostly mono-enoic) acids in the depot fat of cases and controls are virtually identical. There is also no indication of any difference in degrees of saturation of fats between the case and control specimens. PMID:7338699

  9. The Securitisation of Refugee Flows and the Schooling of Refugees: Examining the Cases of North Koreans in South Korea and Iraqis in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collet, Bruce A.; Bang, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data collected in South Korea, Jordan and the USA, this paper examines the degree to which security concerns impact the schooling of North Korean refugees in South Korea and Iraqi refugees in Jordan. Operating from a framework examining the intersection of migration and securitisation, the authors find that accounts of negative images…

  10. Assessing Chemistry-Learning Competencies of Students in Isolated Rural Senior High Schools by Using the National Examination: A Case Study of Simeulue Island, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlim, M-; Soewarno, S.; Ali, Hasbi; Ibrahim, Armia; Umar, Hasmunir; Ismail, Khairil; Gani, Usman A.; Hasan, Ishak; Yasin, Burhanuddin

    2014-01-01

    This study explored learning competency based on the Indonesian National Examination focusing especially on chemistry performance and the circumstances of senior high school students and teachers in rural areas of Simeulue Island, Indonesia. The National Examination total score and chemistry score for students in rural areas were consistently…

  11. [Access to early breast cancer diagnosis in the Brazilian Unified National Health System: an analysis of data from the Health Information System].

    PubMed

    Azevedo E Silva, Gulnar; Bustamante-Teixeira, Maria Teresa; Aquino, Estela M L; Tomazelli, Jeane Glaucia; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    The recent reduction in breast cancer mortality in high-income countries resulted from improvements in early detection and treatment. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Brazilian women. Since 2004, the government has recommended annual clinical breast examination for women aged ≥ 40 years and biannual mammograms for those aged 50-69. This article investigates the degree of implementation of these guidelines using data from the Brazilian Unified National Health System for 2010 according to major geographic region and age group. The findings showed low national mammogram coverage in the target population (32% in the 50-59-year group; 25% from 60 to 69 years). The percentage of women with abnormal radiological findings who underwent biopsy was also low (27% for 50-59 years; 63% for 60-69 years). The number of breast cancer surgeries exceeded the number of cases detected by mammography but was well below the estimated number of incident breast cancer cases in 2010. There are striking regional inequalities in access to early detection and surgery, being the lowest access in the North Region and the highest in the South Region.

  12. An unusual homicidal stab wound of the cervical spinal cord: A single case examined by post-mortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA).

    PubMed

    Savall, Frederic; Dedouit, Fabrice; Mokrane, Fatima-Zohra; Rougé, Daniel; Saint-Martin, Pauline; Telmon, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    We report an unusual case of homicidal stab wound of the cervical spinal cord, which illustrates the value of post-mortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA) in cases of vascular injury. First, we noted a posterior and horizontal trajectory to the neck with complete section of the cervical spinal cord between the first and second cervical vertebrae. This lesion was accompanied by section of the right vertebral and right deep cervical arteries. We also noted an anterior cervical trajectory with an injury to the right internal jugular vein and an anterior right chest wound with a lung trajectory and section of the internal mammary vessels. Cases of spinal cord injuries secondary to stab wounds are rare in the literature. Only one large series has been published from Cape Town. Complete section of the cervical spinal cord accounts for only 4.5% of all cases. Furthermore, lethal cases are rare and classically victims survive and present neurological sequelae. We found only one similar case but despite the transection of the cervical spinal cord the patient survived. Some studies suggest that PMCTA may be very helpful in visualizing vascular system injuries. Our observations are consistent with this proposal. The use of different-time acquisitions was essential for detection of the injured vessels.

  13. Brazilian Cerrado soil Actinobacteria ecology.

    PubMed

    Suela Silva, Monique; Naves Sales, Alenir; Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes, Karina; Ribeiro Dias, Disney; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah) soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora) and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry). The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production. PMID:23555089

  14. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  15. Brazilian Cerrado Soil Actinobacteria Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Suela Silva, Monique; Naves Sales, Alenir; Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes, Karina; Ribeiro Dias, Disney; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah) soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora) and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry). The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production. PMID:23555089

  16. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M )

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  17. Brazilian Cerrado soil Actinobacteria ecology.

    PubMed

    Suela Silva, Monique; Naves Sales, Alenir; Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes, Karina; Ribeiro Dias, Disney; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah) soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora) and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry). The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  18. Therapeutic Horseback Riding Outcomes of Parent-Identified Goals for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An ABA' Multiple Case Design Examining Dosing and Generalization to the Home and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Margo B.; Baird, Joanne M.; Kim, Young Joo; Rajora, Kuwar B.; D'Silva, Delma; Podolinsky, Lin; Mazefsky, Carla; Minshew, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6-8 years…

  19. The Brazilian "Indian Emancipation Decree": Emancipation or Genocide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shand, Hope

    1978-01-01

    Reviewing the proposed Brazilian "Indian Emancipation Decree," a recent development in Brazilian Indian policy, this article asserts there is no evidence that this legislation was either proposed or petitioned by Indian people in their own self-interest. (RTS)

  20. Timing of the Medical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Cindy W.

    2011-01-01

    The medical examination of the sexually abused child may have evidentiary, medical, and therapeutic purposes, and the timing of the examination requires consideration of each of these objectives. In cases of acute sexual assault, emergent examinations may be needed to identify injury, collect forensic evidence, and provide infection and pregnancy…

  1. Factors Affecting Student Engagement: A Case Study Examining Two Cohorts of Students Attending a Post-1992 University in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Mark; Sellars, Christopher; Smith, Julian; Barber, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Issues relating to student retention and student engagement remain high on the agendas of higher education institutions worldwide. This case study considers the factors that impact on student engagement within a sample of first year undergraduate sports students attending a post 1992 university in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom.…

  2. A Case Study Examining How Students Make Meaning out of Using Facebook as a Virtual Learning Community at a Midwestern University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilscher, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore how peer mentors make meaning out of using Facebook as a virtual learning community. With the prevalence of Facebook usage by college students, and the introduction of Facebook into academic settings by educators, program facilitators, administrators, and recruiters, researchers have begun…

  3. Examination-Related Anxiety in Students Diagnosed with AD/HD and the Case for an Allocation of Extra Time: Perspectives of Teachers, Mothers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Myra; Houghton, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This study details the perspectives of Western Australian teachers, students and mothers on the case for an allocation of extra exam time to students diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). Eighteen teachers of students with AD/HD (14 high and four primary), 15 students with AD/HD (10 high and 5 primary), and their mothers…

  4. The Historical Scene Investigation (HSI) Project: Examining the Use of Case Based Historical Instruction in the Fifth Grade Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Kathleen Owings; Hofer, Mark; Lacascio, David

    2008-01-01

    The Historical Scene Investigation (HSI) project is designed to help teachers integrate historical investigations into their K-12 history instruction. The HSI project materials provide streamlined and aesthetically engaging Web-based historical investigation exercises. Each case exercise engages students in a historical investigation using rich…

  5. A Case Study Examining the Influence of Black Greek Letter Fraternal Presence, Policies, and Practices on African American Male Student Success at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Stanley Duane

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative case study was conducted at a mid-sized university in the southeastern United States to determine if a nexus existed among BGLF presence, policies, and practices at a PWI that influences the student success of African American males. This research focused on the analysis of two direct associations--the association between the BGLF…

  6. Equatorial ionization anomaly variability over the Brazilian region during boreal sudden stratospheric warming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paes, R. R.; Batista, I. S.; Candido, C. M. N.; Jonah, O. F.; Santos, P. C. P.

    2014-09-01

    This study refers to the connection between the stratosphere and ionosphere, investigating, specifically, the behavior of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) and ionospheric effects over the Brazilian region during sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. We studied three major warmings that occurred in the Northern Hemisphere winter 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2009-2010 and a minor warming that occurred in 2010-2011. The solar activity was low for the first two cases and relatively moderate for the last two. In this study the EIA behavior was investigated using the ΔTEC (total electron content) parameter, which expresses the EIA relative intensity for the Brazilian sector. The results for the Brazilian region show, mainly after SSW temperature peak, an increase in the EIA intensity in the morning, followed by a decrease in the afternoon. As identified through ΔTEC signatures and consistently confirmed through wavelet power spectra analysis, this semidiurnal behavior is preserved for a number of days equal to the polar region thermal stabilization phase and it is very similar to the results obtained in pioneer studies in the Peruvian sector, in which TEC data was also used. In some cases the TEC negative variation is stronger than the positive, being noticeably more intense around the prereversal enhancement time, when the EIA is strongly suppressed in the Brazilian sector.

  7. How They Decide: A Case Study Examining the Decision Making Process for Keeping or Cutting Music Education in a K-12 Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Marci L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and understand the decision making process for keeping or cutting music programs in one selected public school district. Berkley School District, in the Detroit suburb of Berkley, Michigan, has not made extreme cuts to the music program in over ten years, nor have they specifically targeted their music…

  8. Examination of the Relationship between Internet Attitudes and Internet Addictions of 13-18-Year-Old Students: The Case of Kahramanmaras

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilhan, Aziz; Çelik, H. Coskun; Gemcioglu, Muharrem; Çiftaslan, Malik Ejder

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine internet attitudes and internet addiction levels of 13-18-year-old students and examine the relationship between these variables. The "internet attitude scale", developed by Tavsancil and Keser (2002) and the "internet addiction scale", developed by Hahn and Jerusalem and adapted into Turkish by…

  9. Colonoscopy and Colorectal Cancer Screening in Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Review of a Series of Cases and Recommendations for Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Leonard S.; Becker, Andrew; Paraguya, Maria; Chukwu, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) frequently have comorbidities that might interfere with colonoscopy preparation and examination. In this article, the authors review their experience with colonoscopies performed from 2002 through 2010 on adults with IDD at a state institution to evaluate quality and safety of…

  10. Elementary Preservice Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching: Using Situated Case Studies and Educative Experiences to Examine and Improve the Development of MKT in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tracy L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined pre-service teachers' development of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) over their final year in a university based teacher education program. This was done through analyzing written reflections, focus group interviews, individual interviews, teaching observations, and post-observation interviews as well as through the…

  11. Examining the Effectiveness of the In-Service Training Program for the Education of the Academically Gifted Students in Turkey: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2014-01-01

    In this study, examining the effectiveness of in-service training for gifted education has been conducted. In the study, 30 Classroom, Science, Mathematics and Preschool teachers working at schools in different cities of Turkey, took part as volunteer participants. Moreover, some criteria were specified for determining the participants. In this…

  12. An Assessment of the Management of KCSE Examination and Its Influence on Irregularities among Students: A Case of Secondary Schools in Mandera County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adow, Issak Maalim; Alio, Abdikadir Adan; Thinguri, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Irregularities in examinations at all levels including internationally, regionally and locally have become a major concern for all the major stakeholders in education including the policy makers, students, teachers, political leaders and the general society. A number of mitigation measures and strategies have been put in place in the past…

  13. How They Decide: A Case Study Examining the Decision-Making Process for Keeping or Cutting Music in a K-12 Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Marci L.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the decision-making process for keeping or cutting the music program in one selected public school district. Lekbery School District, in the Detroit suburb of Lekbery, Michigan, had not made extreme cuts to the music program in over 10 years, nor had it specifically targeted the music program when budgets cuts…

  14. Standard Setting in Relation to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: The Case of the State Examination of Dutch as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechger, Timo M.; Kuijper, Henk; Maris, Gunter

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on two related studies carried out to link the State examination of Dutch as a second language to the Common European Framework of Reference for languages (CEFR). In the first study, key persons from institutions for higher education were asked to determine the minimally required language level of beginning students. In the…

  15. Improving clinical examination in acute tibial fractures by enhancing visual cues: the case for always 'cutting back' a tibial back-slab and marking the dorsalis pedis pulse.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Alasdair; Kimber, Cheryl; Bramwell, Donald; Jaarsma, Ruurd

    2016-08-01

    Look, feel, move is a simple and widely taught sequence to be followed when undertaking a clinical examination in orthopaedics (Maher et al., 1994; McRae, 1999; Solomon et al., 2010). The splinting of an acute tibial fracture with a posterior back-slab is also common practice; with the most commonly taught design involving covering the dorsum of the foot with bandaging (Charnley, 1950; Maher et al., 1994; McRae, 1989). We investigated the effect of the visual cues provided by exposing the dorsum of the foot and marking the dorsalis pedis pulse. We used a clinical simulation in which we compared the quality of the recorded clinical examination undertaken by 30 nurses. The nurses were randomly assigned to assess a patient with either a traditional back-slab or one in which the dorsal bandaging had been cut back and the dorsalis pedis pulse marked. We found that the quality of the recorded clinical examination was significantly better in the cut-back group. Previous studies have shown that the cut-back would not alter the effectiveness of the back-slab as a splint (Zagorski et al., 1993). We conclude that all tibial back-slabs should have the bandaging on the dorsum of the foot cut back and the location of the dorsalis pedis pulse marked. This simple adaptation will improve the subsequent clinical examinations undertaken and recorded without reducing the back-slab's effectiveness as a splint.

  16. A University--School Partnership to Examine the Adoption and Implementation of the Ohio Community Collaboration Model in One Urban School District: A Mixed-Method Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Iachini, Aidyn L.; Ball, Annahita; Barke, Susan; Martin, Lloyd D.

    2016-01-01

    School improvement models are expanding to incorporate priorities around positive youth development, safe and supportive school climates, school mental health, and school-family community partnerships. A partnership was formed between researchers and district/school leaders to examine the 3-year adoption and implementation of 1 such exemplary…

  17. Cheating Tendency in Examinations among Secondary School Students in Nigeria: A Case Study of Schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area, Cross River State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisong, Nonso Ngozika; Akpama, Felicia; Edet, Pauline B.

    2009-01-01

    This study is designed to examine cheating tendency among secondary school students in Nigeria, with evidence from schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State. A total of 331 respondents in Senior Secondary 3 classes were randomly selected from 10 post-primary schools in the area. A survey questionnaire was used to elicit…

  18. Examining Participation in Relation to Students' Development of Health-Related Action Competence in a School Food Setting: LOMA Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruge, Dorte; Nielsen, Morten Kromann; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Bruun-Jensen, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how students' participation in an integrated school food program was related to the development of components of food and health-related action competence (F & HRAC). These components were understood to be the knowledge, insight, motivation, ownership and social skills that made students able to…

  19. Thermal windows on Brazilian free-tailed bats facilitate thermoregulation during prolonged flight.

    PubMed

    Reichard, Jonathan D; Prajapati, Suresh I; Austad, Steven N; Keller, Charles; Kunz, Thomas H

    2010-09-01

    The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) experiences challenging thermal conditions while roosting in hot caves, flying during warm daylight conditions, and foraging at cool high altitudes. Using thermal infrared cameras, we identified hot spots along the flanks of free-ranging Brazilian free-tailed bats, ventral to the extended wings. These hot spots are absent in syntopic cave myotis (Myotis velifer), a species that forages over relatively short distances, and does not engage in long-distance migration. We hypothesized that the hot spots, or "radiators," on Brazilian free-tailed bats may be adaptations for migration, particularly in this long-distance, high-flying species. We examined the vasculature of radiators on Brazilian free-tailed bats with transillumination to characterize the unique arrangements of arteries and veins that are positioned perpendicular to the body in the proximal region of the wing. We hypothesized that these radiators aid in maintaining heat balance by flushing the uninsulated thermal window with warm blood, thereby dissipating heat while bats are flying under warm conditions, but shunting blood away and conserving heat when they are flying in cooler air at high altitudes. We also examined fluid-preserved specimens representing 122 species from 15 of 18 chiropteran families and radiators appeared present only in species in the family Molossidae, including both sedentary and migratory species and subspecies. Thus, the radiator appears to be a unique trait that may facilitate energy balance and water balance during sustained dispersal, foraging, and long-distance migration. PMID:20811514

  20. A review of cardiopulmonary research in Brazilian medical journals: clinical, surgical and epidemiological data.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Carlos; Rocha e Silva, Mauricio

    2010-04-01

    Research in the field of cardiopulmonary disease in Brazil has been very active in recent decades. The combination of PUBMED, SCieLO, open access and online searching has provided a significant increase in the visibility of Brazilian journals. This newly acquired international visibility has in turn resulted in the appearance of more original research reports in the Brazilian scientific press. This review is intended to highlight part of this work for the benefit of the readers of "Clinics." We searched through PUBMED for noteworthy articles published in Brazilian medical journals included in the Journal of Citation Reports of the Institute of Scientific Information to better expose them to our readership. The following journals were examined: "Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia," "Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia," "Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Reviews," "Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia," "Jornal de Pediatria," "Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular," "Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira," Revista da Escola de Enfermagem U.S.P." and "São Paulo Medical Journal." These journals publish original investigations in the field of cardiopulmonary disease. The search produced 71 references, which are briefly examined.

  1. Thermal windows on Brazilian free-tailed bats facilitate thermoregulation during prolonged flight.

    PubMed

    Reichard, Jonathan D; Prajapati, Suresh I; Austad, Steven N; Keller, Charles; Kunz, Thomas H

    2010-09-01

    The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) experiences challenging thermal conditions while roosting in hot caves, flying during warm daylight conditions, and foraging at cool high altitudes. Using thermal infrared cameras, we identified hot spots along the flanks of free-ranging Brazilian free-tailed bats, ventral to the extended wings. These hot spots are absent in syntopic cave myotis (Myotis velifer), a species that forages over relatively short distances, and does not engage in long-distance migration. We hypothesized that the hot spots, or "radiators," on Brazilian free-tailed bats may be adaptations for migration, particularly in this long-distance, high-flying species. We examined the vasculature of radiators on Brazilian free-tailed bats with transillumination to characterize the unique arrangements of arteries and veins that are positioned perpendicular to the body in the proximal region of the wing. We hypothesized that these radiators aid in maintaining heat balance by flushing the uninsulated thermal window with warm blood, thereby dissipating heat while bats are flying under warm conditions, but shunting blood away and conserving heat when they are flying in cooler air at high altitudes. We also examined fluid-preserved specimens representing 122 species from 15 of 18 chiropteran families and radiators appeared present only in species in the family Molossidae, including both sedentary and migratory species and subspecies. Thus, the radiator appears to be a unique trait that may facilitate energy balance and water balance during sustained dispersal, foraging, and long-distance migration.

  2. A review of cardiopulmonary research in Brazilian medical journals: clinical, surgical and epidemiological data.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Carlos; Rocha e Silva, Mauricio

    2010-04-01

    Research in the field of cardiopulmonary disease in Brazil has been very active in recent decades. The combination of PUBMED, SCieLO, open access and online searching has provided a significant increase in the visibility of Brazilian journals. This newly acquired international visibility has in turn resulted in the appearance of more original research reports in the Brazilian scientific press. This review is intended to highlight part of this work for the benefit of the readers of "Clinics." We searched through PUBMED for noteworthy articles published in Brazilian medical journals included in the Journal of Citation Reports of the Institute of Scientific Information to better expose them to our readership. The following journals were examined: "Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia," "Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia," "Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Reviews," "Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia," "Jornal de Pediatria," "Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular," "Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira," Revista da Escola de Enfermagem U.S.P." and "São Paulo Medical Journal." These journals publish original investigations in the field of cardiopulmonary disease. The search produced 71 references, which are briefly examined. PMID:20454503

  3. Trends in water balance components across the Brazilian Cerrado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna) is considered one of the most important biomes for Brazilian water resources; however, little is known about the components of the water balance in this biome. In this study, we reviewed the available literature on the water balance components in the Brazilian Cerrado...

  4. Indoor air quality in Brazilian universities.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Sonia R; Bankoff, Antônia D P; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-07-11

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3) in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively). The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  5. Scrupulous Monitoring of Physician-Assisted Dying: The Case for Mandatory Reporting to Coroners and Medical Examiners of All Physician-Assisted Deaths in Canada.

    PubMed

    Guichon, Juliet; Alakija, Pauline; Doig, Christopher; Mitchell, Jan; Thibeault, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Although the practice of physician-assisted dying (hereinafter "PAD") will soon be lawful in Canada, opponents of PAD claim that it might result in involuntary deaths. The Supreme Court of Canada in Carter v. Canada (Attorney General) rejected such arguments holding that involuntary deaths are preventable provided that jurisdictions devise stringent limits to the practice of PAD and that these stringent limits are "scrupulously monitored and enforced". This article examines the question of how best to engage in scrupulous monitoring of physician-assisted dying. At present, the province of Quebec has legislated, and three expert groups have proposed the creation of new administrative offices to monitor the practice of PAD (these groups are the Provincial-Territorial Expert Advisory Group on Physician-Assisted Dying, the External Panel on Options for a Legislative Response to Carter v. Canada, and the Canadian Medical Association). This article argues that scrupulous monitoring can be better achieved by requiring explicit mandatory notification of all physician-assisted deaths to coroners and medical examiners, rather than by creating new administrative offices. It is more effective, efficient and prudent to use already existing coroner and medical examiner death reporting and investigative frameworks to report physician-assisted deaths than to create new, untried, parallel and potentially more expensive administrative offices. In Canada, almost all provincial and territorial statutes that govern the official actions of coroners and medical examiners currently require the reporting of non-natural deaths, which include those that will be attributable to PAD. To achieve the scrupulous monitoring of PAD required by the Supreme Court, provincial and territorial governments, in collaboration with the federal government, should. 1. review their coroner and fatality statutes to clarify that physician-assisted deaths (as non-natural deaths) are mandatorily notifiable; 2

  6. Scrupulous Monitoring of Physician-Assisted Dying: The Case for Mandatory Reporting to Coroners and Medical Examiners of All Physician-Assisted Deaths in Canada.

    PubMed

    Guichon, Juliet; Alakija, Pauline; Doig, Christopher; Mitchell, Jan; Thibeault, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Although the practice of physician-assisted dying (hereinafter "PAD") will soon be lawful in Canada, opponents of PAD claim that it might result in involuntary deaths. The Supreme Court of Canada in Carter v. Canada (Attorney General) rejected such arguments holding that involuntary deaths are preventable provided that jurisdictions devise stringent limits to the practice of PAD and that these stringent limits are "scrupulously monitored and enforced". This article examines the question of how best to engage in scrupulous monitoring of physician-assisted dying. At present, the province of Quebec has legislated, and three expert groups have proposed the creation of new administrative offices to monitor the practice of PAD (these groups are the Provincial-Territorial Expert Advisory Group on Physician-Assisted Dying, the External Panel on Options for a Legislative Response to Carter v. Canada, and the Canadian Medical Association). This article argues that scrupulous monitoring can be better achieved by requiring explicit mandatory notification of all physician-assisted deaths to coroners and medical examiners, rather than by creating new administrative offices. It is more effective, efficient and prudent to use already existing coroner and medical examiner death reporting and investigative frameworks to report physician-assisted deaths than to create new, untried, parallel and potentially more expensive administrative offices. In Canada, almost all provincial and territorial statutes that govern the official actions of coroners and medical examiners currently require the reporting of non-natural deaths, which include those that will be attributable to PAD. To achieve the scrupulous monitoring of PAD required by the Supreme Court, provincial and territorial governments, in collaboration with the federal government, should. 1. review their coroner and fatality statutes to clarify that physician-assisted deaths (as non-natural deaths) are mandatorily notifiable; 2

  7. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, S T; Lombardi Junior, I; Berg, K O; Ramos, L R; Natour, J

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65). The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments) and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001) and 0.98 (P < 0.001), respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001) and 0.97 (P < 0.001), respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  8. Examining the prevalence, role and impact of evidence regarding Antisocial Personality, sociopathy and psychopathy in capital cases: a survey of defense team members.

    PubMed

    Edens, John F; Cox, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Although anecdotal case accounts suggest that evidence concerning Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD), sociopathy and psychopathy is frequently introduced by the prosecution in capital murder trials, to date there has been no systematic research to determine the actual prevalence, role, or perceived impact of such evidence in these cases. Survey data collected from attendees at a national capital mitigation conference (n=41) indicated that prosecution evidence concerning APD was quite prevalent, with "sociopath" and "psychopath" labels being introduced less frequently. Evidence concerning these disorders, which were assessed primarily via DSM criteria and self-report personality inventories, was most often introduced by the prosecution in the sentencing phase to address a defendant's ostensible risk of future dangerousness and/or to rebut mitigating evidence-although it was also introduced frequently in the guilt/innocence phase of these trials to rebut mental health evidence offered by the defense. Survey respondents believed that evidence concerning APD, sociopathy, and psychopathy had a considerable impact on trial outcomes. Also, although defense objections were common, such evidence was rarely ruled to be inadmissible in these cases.

  9. Economic and social characteristics of the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1982-01-01

    The question of whether Brazilians have improved their economic situation since 1970 is controversial. A number of questions on the Brazilian census of 1980 dealt with the economic and social characteristics of the population. The usefulness of census data lies in their capacity to indicate trends every 10 years. Consequently, one can get some idea of whether Brazil is making progress in certain aspects of modernization or in improving the skills and living conditions of the people. Census data have limitations. They indicate averages, not specific cases. They fail to raise a number of questions about economic and social conditions that would improve understanding. Discussion is focused on population structure and the economy, income, housing, education, and health. Brazil is continuing the process of modernization by which population shifts from the primary sector (agriculture and mining) into other sectors of the economy. The 14.88% of the work force in agriculture, livestock, and fishing represent about 30% of the potentially economically active (PEA) population. 1/3 of the population is still rural, but the trend since 1940 is striking. The momentum of decline intensified in both 1960-70 and 1970-80, reflecting a process of abandoning small farms, mechanizing larger farms, and a general flow of population to the cities. All other sectors of the economy have increased the proportion of people working in them. The data of 1980 reflect a period of sustained economic growth that culminated in that year with an increase of 8%. In 1981 and 1982, Brazil had been in a recession so that in 1983 some of these figures might have changed. The dispute began when the results of the 1970 census were used to show that income was becoming more concentrated, i.e., the top percentages, in comparison with 1960, received a larger share of national income, while the lowest percentages received less. The differences in income between men and women is particularly strong in the

  10. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  11. [The Brazilian Drug Information System--SISMED].

    PubMed

    Vidotti, C C; Hoefler, R; Silva, E V; Bergsten-Mendes, G

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the professional profile of pharmacists as specialists in drug information. Drug Information (DI) and Drug Information Centers (DIC) are defined. The fundamental activity of a DIC should be that of providing passive information or answering questions. The advantage of a DIC network is discussed, and strategies to implement the Brazilian Drug Information System (SISMED) are presented: investment in professional specialization and regular meetings of DIC coordinators to exchange experiences. The different DICs work within a cooperative protocol. Four training courses have been held, resulting in the rapid development of Brazil's national DIC network. Two national meetings of DIC professionals have helped strengthen the Brazilian Drug Information System. PMID:11175535

  12. PERSPECTIVE: Learning from the Brazilian biofuel experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the article `The ethanol program in Brazil' [1] José Goldemberg summarizes the key features of Brazil's sugarcane ethanol program—the most successful biofuel program in the world so far. In fact, as of 2005, Brazil was the world's largest producer of fuel ethanol. In addition to providing 40% of its gasoline market with ethanol, Brazil exports a significant amount of ethanol to Europe, Japan, and the United States. The success of the program is attributed to a variety of factors, including supportive governmental policies and favorable natural conditions (such as a tropical climate with abundant rainfall and high temperatures). As the article points out, in the early stages of the Brazilian ethanol program, the Brazilian government provided loans to sugarcane growers and ethanol producers (in most cases, they are the same people) to encourage sugarcane and ethanol production. Thereafter, ethanol prices were regulated to ensure that producers can economically sustain production and consumers can benefit from using ethanol. Over time, Brazil was able to achieve a price for ethanol that is lower than that for gasoline, on the basis of energy content. This lower cost is largely driving the widespread use of ethanol instead of gasoline by consumers in Brazil. In the United States, if owners of E85 flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are expected to use E85 instead of gasoline in their FFVs, E85 will have to be priced competitively against gasoline on an energy-content basis. Compared with corn-based or sugar beet-based ethanol, Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol yields considerably more favorable results in terms of energy balance and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These results are primarily due to (i) the dramatic increase of sugarcane yield in Brazil in the past 25 years and (ii) the use of bagasse instead of fossil fuels in ethanol plants to provide the heat needed for ethanol plant operations and to generate electricity for export to electric grids

  13. Thunderstorm Tracking Using Data from the Brazilian Lightning Detection Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourscheidt, V.; Pinto, O.; Naccarato, K.

    2011-12-01

    Severe weather has been noticed as an increasing environmental hazard in the last years. In the same way, pronounced improvements have been made in the forecast and tracking of extreme weather by integrating the meteorological information with lightning data. Thunderstorm tracking software/algorithms using integrated meteorological information and lightning data are nowadays a useful tool to the government and civil defense agencies, with several examples of those systems around the world. Thunderstorm tracking systems that use only lightning data are also available for different regions and give reliable results in general. On the other hand, storm tracking based on lightning data depends on the system characteristics (system performance, number of sensors, detection technology etc.). In the Brazilian case, with a hybrid network with different technologies, a careful analysis is necessary to determine the tracking boundary conditions (distinction of thunderstorm cell, cell life cycle, flash rate, prevailing displacement direction etc). Thus, our goal is to evaluate, based on the already available tracking algorithms, these boundary conditions to find the best approach for a Brazilian lightning-based thunderstorm tracking algorithm/system. This tracking system might help (mainly) on the severe weather forecast/warning, reducing the human/economic damages related to it.

  14. Gathering Occupational Health Data from Informal Workers: The Brazilian Experience.

    PubMed

    Santana, Vilma Sousa; Ferrite, Silvia; Galdino, Adriana; Peres Moura, Maria Cláudia; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet

    2016-08-01

    This study describes how occupational health data have been gathered by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) to provide morbidity and mortality estimates for formal and informal workers. In 2007, data on work-related diseases and injuries was incorporated into the compulsory notification system (SINAN) and analyzed by the SUS occupational health service network, which covers all Brazilian states. However, this work has not been fully implemented, resulting in the large-scale undercounting and underreporting of cases, particularly in relation to informal workers. This is suggestive of barriers that prevent access to services and good quality health care. The inclusion of work-related diseases and injuries in SINANs appears to be a feasible strategy for the collection of useful data for the surveillance of the entire universe of workers, particularly in countries where informal workers prevail within the labor force. Attention needs to be paid to the disparities in access and quality that affect low-paid, informal workers. PMID:27235998

  15. Profile of the Brazilian scientific production in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Araujo, C R; Moreira, M A; Lana-Peixoto, M A

    2006-09-01

    This paper analyzes the profile of the Brazilian output in the field of multiple sclerosis from 1981 to 2004. The search was conducted through the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, selecting papers in which the term "multiple sclerosis" was defined as the main topic and "Brazil" or "Brasil" as others. The data were analyzed regarding the themes, the state in Brazil and institution where the papers were produced, the journals where the papers were published, journal's impact factor, and language. The search disclosed 141 documents (91 from MEDLINE and LILACS, and 50 from LILACS only) published in 44 different journals (23 of them MEDLINE-indexed). A total of 111 documents were produced by 17 public universities, 29 by 3 private medical schools and 1 by a non-governmental organization. There were 65 original contributions, 37 case reports, 20 reviews, 6 PhD dissertations, 5 guidelines, 2 validation studies, 2 clinical trials, 2 chapters in textbooks, 1 Master of Science thesis, and 1 patient education handout. The journal impact factor ranged from 0.0217 to 6.039 (median 3.03). Of 91 papers from MEDLINE, 65 were published by Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. More than 90% of the papers were written in Portuguese. São Paulo was the most productive state in the country, followed by Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Paraná. Eighty-two percent of the Brazilian output came from the Southeastern region.

  16. [Food and nutrition in the Family Health Strategy in five Brazilian cities].

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Viviane Rangel de Muros; de Sousa, Maria Fátima; Hamann, Edgar Merchán; Mendonça, Ana Valéria Machado

    2014-01-01

    This work is part of a national study seeking to understand the difficulties and the potential for overcoming the challenges faced in the quest to improve food and nutrition campaigns developed under the aegis of the Family Health Strategy. It is examined from the standpoint of professional teams of the Family Health Strategy and Family Health Support Centers of five major Brazilian cities. A qualitative approach was used to design a multiple case approach and the technique of focus groups was conducted to collect data. The instrument used was a semi-structured pre-tested and validated script with two leading questions. The Collective Subject Discourse technique was used for data analysis, based on which the synthesized discourses were created using the Qualiquantisoft program. Sixty health professionals from various training areas were interviewed, including dietitians, nurses and physicians. The results showed that the difficulties encountered for the provision of food and nutrition campaigns and the lack of professionals in this area have hampered compliance with the principles of comprehensiveness, universality and resolubility of health care.

  17. Examining Implementation of Tobacco Control Policy at the District Level: A Case Study Analysis from a High Burden State in India

    PubMed Central

    Persai, Divya; Panda, Rajmohan; Gupta, Adyya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. While extensive scientific evidence exists on the tobacco epidemic, a lack of understanding of both policies and their appropriate way of implementation continues to hinder effective tobacco control. This is especially so in the developing countries such as India. The present study aims to understand current implementation practices and the challenges faced in mainstreaming tobacco control policy and program. Methods. We chose a qualitative study design to conduct the case analysis. A total of 42 in-depth interviews were undertaken with seven district officials in six districts of Andhra Pradesh. A conceptual framework was developed by applying grounded theory for analysis. Analysis was undertaken using case analysis approach. Results and Discussion. Our study revealed that most program managers were unfamiliar with the comprehensive tobacco control policy. Respondents have an ambiguous opinion regarding integration of tobacco control program into existing health and development programs. Respondents perceive lack of resources, low prioritization of tobacco control, and lack of monitoring and evaluation of smoke-free laws as limiting factors affecting implementation of tobacco control policy. Conclusion. The findings of this study highlighted the need for a systematic, organized action plan for effective implementation of tobacco control policy and program. PMID:26933512

  18. [Two Cases of Primary Intracranial Solitary Fibrous Tumor:Genetic Examination of NAB2-STAT6 Fusion and Its Association with Hemangiopericytoma].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Asami; Fujita, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Yuichi; Yokosako, Suguru; Yoshimura, Chika; Akagawa, Hiroyuki; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Kubo, Osami; Onda, Hideaki; Kasuya, Hidetoshi

    2015-07-01

    Using whole exome and transcriptome sequencing, NAB2-STAT6 gene fusions have recently been identified in patients with solitary fibrous tumors (SFT). We report two cases of SFT in which NAB2-STAT6 fusions were identified. The patients were a 32-year-old man with a parasagittal tumor involving the superior sagittal sinus, and a 40-year-old man with a cerebellar convexity tumor partially involving the transverse sinus. Their tumors were gross totally resected and diagnosed to be SFT according to the following pathological findings:the tumors were composed of spindle cells with a patternless architecture, with prominent stromal collagen and staghorn vessels. An immunohistochemical study yielded positive results for CD34, CD99, and Bcl-2 and negative results for EMA, GFAP, and S100. The MIB-1 indexes were 13 and 7%, respectively. NAB2-STAT6 fusions were detected in both cases with a common fusion variant, NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16/17. We also identified NAB2-STAT6 fusions in two hemangiopericytomas diagnosed in the past with a common variant of NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16/17. These findings suggest that solitary fibrous tumor and hemangiopericytoma may be diagnosed based on the presence of NAB2-STAT6 fusion, and not classified separately because of the same genetic background.

  19. [Two Cases of Primary Intracranial Solitary Fibrous Tumor:Genetic Examination of NAB2-STAT6 Fusion and Its Association with Hemangiopericytoma].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Asami; Fujita, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Yuichi; Yokosako, Suguru; Yoshimura, Chika; Akagawa, Hiroyuki; Fujibayashi, Mariko; Kubo, Osami; Onda, Hideaki; Kasuya, Hidetoshi

    2015-07-01

    Using whole exome and transcriptome sequencing, NAB2-STAT6 gene fusions have recently been identified in patients with solitary fibrous tumors (SFT). We report two cases of SFT in which NAB2-STAT6 fusions were identified. The patients were a 32-year-old man with a parasagittal tumor involving the superior sagittal sinus, and a 40-year-old man with a cerebellar convexity tumor partially involving the transverse sinus. Their tumors were gross totally resected and diagnosed to be SFT according to the following pathological findings:the tumors were composed of spindle cells with a patternless architecture, with prominent stromal collagen and staghorn vessels. An immunohistochemical study yielded positive results for CD34, CD99, and Bcl-2 and negative results for EMA, GFAP, and S100. The MIB-1 indexes were 13 and 7%, respectively. NAB2-STAT6 fusions were detected in both cases with a common fusion variant, NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16/17. We also identified NAB2-STAT6 fusions in two hemangiopericytomas diagnosed in the past with a common variant of NAB2ex6-STAT6ex16/17. These findings suggest that solitary fibrous tumor and hemangiopericytoma may be diagnosed based on the presence of NAB2-STAT6 fusion, and not classified separately because of the same genetic background. PMID:26136329

  20. The functional EGF+61 polymorphism and nonsyndromic oral clefts susceptibility in a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Falagan-Lotsch, Priscila; Lopes, Talíria Silva; Küchler, Erika Calvano; Tannure, Patrícia Nivoloni; Costa, Marcelo de Castro; Amorim, Lidia Maria da Fonte de; Granjeiro, José Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Nonsyndromic oral clefts are considered a problem of public health in Brazil, presenting a multifactorial etiology that involves genetic and environmental components, such as maternal alcohol consumption. Several candidate genes have been investigated to identify some association with nonsyndromic clefts risk. The epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene is implicated in the normal craniofacial development and its functional +61 A>G polymorphism has been related to cancer susceptibility. It has been suggested that cancer and oral clefts may share the same molecular pathways.Objective Our goal was to evaluate the association between the EGF+61 A>G polymorphism and nonsyndromic oral clefts susceptibility.Material and Methods The case-control study included 218 cleft cases and 253 controls from Brazil. The control group was comprised of individuals without congenital malformations, dental anomalies and family history of clefts. The cleft phenotypes and subphenotypes were determined based on clinical examination. Genomic DNA was extracted from oral mucosa cells obtained by mouthwash. The EGF+61 A>G polymorphism genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.Results We noticed the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cleft occurrence. The A allele and AA genotype were over-represented in cleft cases compared with control group when we considered the bilateral cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P) cases, cleft cases with tooth agenesis and cleft cases presenting family history of cleft, but the differences were not statistically significant. Contradictorily, the G allele was higher in cleft palate only (CP) cases than in control group, showing a borderline p value. Comparing the different cleft phenotypes, we observed statistical differences between CP and CL±P cases. Our data suggest the EGF+61 A>G polymorphism was not related with nonsyndromic oral clefts susceptibility in a Brazilian

  1. Using path analysis to examine causal relationships among balanced scorecard performance indicators for general hospitals: the case of a public hospital system in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Chin; Tung, Yu-Chi

    2006-01-01

    Examining whether the causal relationships among the performance indicators of the balanced scorecard (BSC) framework exist in hospitals is the aim of this article. Data were collected from all twenty-one general hospitals in a public hospital system and their supervising agency for the 3-year period, 2000-2002. The results of the path analyses identified significant causal relationships among four perspectives in the BSC model. We also verified the relationships among indicators within each perspective, some of which varied as time changed. We conclude that hospital administrators can use path analysis to help them identify and manage leading indicators when adopting the BSC model. However, they should also validate causal relationships between leading and lagging indicators periodically because the management environment changes constantly.

  2. Using path analysis to examine causal relationships among balanced scorecard performance indicators for general hospitals: the case of a public hospital system in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Chin; Tung, Yu-Chi

    2006-01-01

    Examining whether the causal relationships among the performance indicators of the balanced scorecard (BSC) framework exist in hospitals is the aim of this article. Data were collected from all twenty-one general hospitals in a public hospital system and their supervising agency for the 3-year period, 2000-2002. The results of the path analyses identified significant causal relationships among four perspectives in the BSC model. We also verified the relationships among indicators within each perspective, some of which varied as time changed. We conclude that hospital administrators can use path analysis to help them identify and manage leading indicators when adopting the BSC model. However, they should also validate causal relationships between leading and lagging indicators periodically because the management environment changes constantly. PMID:17077702

  3. The Evolution of Brazilian Portuguese: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoge, Henry W., Comp.

    This third section of the research project, "The Syntax of Contemporary Brazilian Portuguese," presents a descriptive and historical survey of the evolution of the language. Included in the work are: (1) a summary of historical concern with this subject reflecting literary and linguistic interest, (2) classification and discussion of language…

  4. Motor Acquisition Rate in Brazilian Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Virlaine Bardella; de Lima, Carolina Daniel; Tudella, Eloisa

    2009-01-01

    This study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) with the aim of characterizing motor acquisition rate in 70 healthy 0-6-month-old Brazilian infants, as well as comparing both emergence (initial age) and establishment (final age) of each skill between the study sample and the AIMS normative data. New motor skills were continuously acquired…

  5. Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Flavia C.; Amado, Roberto C.; Lambertucci, José R.; Rocha, Jorge; Antunes, Carlos M.; Pena, Sérgio D. J.

    2003-01-01

    This work was undertaken to ascertain to what degree the physical appearance of a Brazilian individual was predictive of genomic African ancestry. Using a panel of 10 population-specific alleles, we assigned to each person an African ancestry index (AAI). The procedure was able to tell apart, with no overlaps, 20 males from northern Portugal from 20 males from São Tomé Island on the west coast of Africa. We also tested 10 Brazilian Amerindians and observed that their AAI values fell in the same range as the Europeans. Finally, we studied two different Brazilian population samples. The first consisted of 173 individuals from a rural Southeastern community, clinically classified according to their Color (white, black, or intermediate) with a multivariate evaluation based on skin pigmentation in the medial part of the arm, hair color and texture, and the shape of the nose and lips. In contrast to the clear-cut results with the African and European samples, our results showed large variances and extensive overlaps among the three Color categories. We next embarked on a study of 200 unrelated Brazilian white males who originated from cosmopolitan centers of the four major geographic regions of the country. The results showed AAI values intermediate between Europeans and Africans, even in southern Brazil, a region predominantly peopled by European immigrants. Our data suggest that in Brazil, at an individual level, color, as determined by physical evaluation, is a poor predictor of genomic African ancestry, estimated by molecular markers. PMID:12509516

  6. Brazilian cuts put projects in peril

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Lopes, Reinaldo

    2015-10-01

    The soap opera surrounding Brazil's participation in the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has taken another twist after the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation said that the government is still “considering” what to do, even though physicist Sérgio Rezende - a former science minister - was behind the push for Brazilian membership.

  7. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Fabio; Salles, João; Hamdy, Osama; Coutinho, Walmir; Regina Baptista, Deise; Benchimol, Alexander; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy) and regular physical activity (structured exercise) represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained. PMID:26340638

  8. Internet Implementation in Brazilian K-12 Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joia, Luiz Antonio

    1997-01-01

    Presents a framework for implementing the Internet in Brazilian elementary and secondary schools. Topics include schools as assembly lines in the information society; pedagogical uses of the Internet, including research, educational projects, and video conferences; and obstacles to implementing the Internet, including cost, cultural differences,…

  9. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application.

    PubMed

    Moura, Fabio; Salles, João; Hamdy, Osama; Coutinho, Walmir; Baptista, Deise Regina; Benchimol, Alexander; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy) and regular physical activity (structured exercise) represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  10. Translating Ovide Decroly's Ideas to Brazilian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hai, Alessandra Arce; Simon, Frank; Depaepe, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to analyse, comprehend and apprehend the appropriation processes of Ovide Decroly's ideas in Brazil through the translation of his books and that of Amélie Hamaïde into Portuguese. The article discusses the following questions. Why did Brazilian intellectuals and teachers need to import Decroly's ideas to be applied in Brazilian…

  11. Evaluating Legal Compliance in Brazilian Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastos, Lilia da Rocha; And Others

    1980-01-01

    By 1976, compliance of 13 Brazilian teacher education institutions in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo with the Educational Reform Law of 1971 was judged as poor. The law demanded radical institutional change and created a teacher profile which was too comprehensive and complex. (CP)

  12. Bullying in Brazilian Schools and Restorative Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossi, Patricia Krieger; dos Santos, Andreia Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread phenomenon that affects many children and adolescents in Brazilian schools. A pilot research study was carried out in four schools (one private and three public) located in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. A combination of self-administered questionnaires and focus groups with students as well as interviews with teachers were…

  13. Effects of Brazilian Schools on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, José Francisco; Alves, Maria Teresa Gonzaga; Xavier, Flavia Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Brazilian elementary schools on the chances of their students achieving at different levels of mathematics proficiency. Since student proficiency is classified at three levels--Insufficient, Basic and Proficient--the chosen model of analysis was the hierarchical multinomial model. The…

  14. Acrocallosal syndrome: report of a Brazilian girl.

    PubMed

    Guion-Almeida, M L; Richieri-Costa, A

    1992-08-01

    We report on a Brazilian girl born to nonconsanguineous parents and presenting with frontonasal dysostosis, callosal agenesis, abnormal upper lids, cleft lip/palate, redundant skin in the neck, grooved chin, and bifid thumbs. Major diagnostic criteria present in this patient are related to the acrocallosal syndrome. The clinical and major nosologic aspects of this condition are discussed.

  15. A case of Exophiala spinifera infection in Southern Brazil: Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Daboit, Tatiane Caroline; Duquia, Rodrigo Pereira; Magagnin, Cibele Massotti; Mendes, Sandra Denise Camargo; Castrillón, Mauricio Ramírez; Steglich, Raquel; Dos Santos, Inajara Silveira; Vettorato, Gerson; Valente, Patrícia; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of an 80-year-old Brazilian man, farmer, with lesions on the dorsum of the hand. A direct mycological examination, cultivation and microculture slide observation was performed. The sequencing of ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region was carried out and the etiological agent confirmed as Exophiala spinifera. The in vitro susceptibility of this isolate to antifungal agents alone and in combination was evaluated. This is the third case of phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spinifera in Brazil. PMID:24371743

  16. Enabling international communication among Brazilian occupational therapists: seeking consensus on occupational terminology.

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Lilian; Galheigo, Sandra Maria

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how key occupational therapy terminologies are used by Brazilian occupational therapists. A nominal group approach combined with a Delphi technique involving 31 Brazilian occupational therapists was applied. A sociolinguistic approach was adopted since it broadens our understanding of the social and cultural determinants of terminology consolidation. Brazilian occupational therapists were found to adopt the term activity more often than human action or doing. Even less often were praxis and occupation applied. No consensus was reached regarding which of the terms is most preferred. While Brazilian occupational therapists have been developing their profession from international standards, it is still embedded in local demands and policies. Additionally, the political context must be considered when building an international dialogue between members of a professional body. Such a dialogue could engage professionals from different countries in meaningful exchanges about their practices. These exchanges may lead to the development of solid professional communities that can contribute meaningfully to social change. PMID:20564687

  17. Validity of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire for use on Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Paula Mendes; Gonçalves, Alcides Ricardo; Marega, Tatiane

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) is a multi-item psychometric instrument used to assess patients' perspective of the impact specifically related to Orthodontics. The cross-culturally adapted Brazilian version of the PIDAQ has demonstrated good reliability, validity and acceptability. Objective: The aim of the present study was to test the validity and reliability of the Brazilian version of the PIDAQ for use among adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old. Methods: Having established the possibility of maintaining the operational characteristics of the Brazilian version of PIDAQ for the target age group, 194 individuals in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, completed the questionnaire. The subjects were examined for the presence/absence of malocclusion based on the criteria of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) to test discriminant validity. Internal consistency was measured by means of Cronbach's alpha coefficient which ranged from 0.59 to 0.86 for the subscales. Test-retest reliability was assessed by means of intraclass correlation coefficient which ranged from 0.54 to 0.89 for aesthetic concern and psychological impact. Results: Discriminant validity revealed that subjects without malocclusion had different PIDAQ scores in comparison to those with malocclusion. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the Brazilian version of PIDAQ for adolescents has satisfactory psychometric properties and is applicable to this age group in Brazil. PMID:27409655

  18. Examining uncertainties in the linkage between global climate change and potential human health impacts in the western USA -- Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) as a case study

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.; Daniels, J.I.; Goldman, M.

    1994-09-30

    Industrial societies have altered the earth`s environment in ways that could have important, long-term ecological, economic, and health implications. In this paper the authors define, characterize, and evaluate parameter and outcome uncertainties using a model that links global climate change with predictions of chemical exposure and human health risk in the western region of the US. They illustrate the impact of uncertainty about global climate change on such potential secondary outcomes using as a case study the public health consequences related to the behavior environmentally of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), an ubiquitous multimedia pollutant. They begin by constructing a matrix that reveals the linkage between global environmental change and potential regional human-health effects that might be induced directly and/or indirectly by HCB released into the air and water. This matrix is useful for translating critical uncertainties into terms that can be understood and used by policy makers to formulate strategies against potential adverse irreversible health and economic consequences. Specifically, the authors employ a combined uncertainty/sensitivity analysis to investigate how the HCB that has been released is affected by increasing atmospheric temperature and the accompanying climate alterations that are anticipated and how such uncertainty propagates to affect the expected magnitude and calculational precision of estimates of associated potential human exposures and health effects.

  19. Ancestral state reconstructions require biological evidence to test evolutionary hypotheses: A case study examining the evolution of reproductive mode in squamate reptiles.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Oliver W; Blackburn, Daniel G; Brandley, Matthew C; Van Dyke, James U; Whittington, Camilla M; Thompson, Michael B

    2015-09-01

    To understand evolutionary transformations it is necessary to identify the character states of extinct ancestors. Ancestral character state reconstruction is inherently difficult because it requires an accurate phylogeny, character state data, and a statistical model of transition rates and is fundamentally constrained by missing data such as extinct taxa. We argue that model based ancestral character state reconstruction should be used to generate hypotheses but should not be considered an analytical endpoint. Using the evolution of viviparity and reversals to oviparity in squamates as a case study, we show how anatomical, physiological, and ecological data can be used to evaluate hypotheses about evolutionary transitions. The evolution of squamate viviparity requires changes to the timing of reproductive events and the successive loss of features responsible for building an eggshell. A reversal to oviparity requires that those lost traits re-evolve. We argue that the re-evolution of oviparity is inherently more difficult than the reverse. We outline how the inviability of intermediate phenotypes might present physiological barriers to reversals from viviparity to oviparity. Finally, we show that ecological data supports an oviparous ancestral state for squamates and multiple transitions to viviparity. In summary, we conclude that the first squamates were oviparous, that frequent transitions to viviparity have occurred, and that reversals to oviparity in viviparous lineages either have not occurred or are exceedingly rare. As this evidence supports conclusions that differ from previous ancestral state reconstructions, our paper highlights the importance of incorporating biological evidence to evaluate model-generated hypotheses.

  20. Predicted and measured concentrations of pharmaceuticals in hospital effluents. Examination of the strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches through the analysis of a case study.

    PubMed

    Verlicchi, Paola; Zambello, Elena

    2016-09-15

    This study deals with the chemical characterization of hospital effluents in terms of the predicted and measured concentrations of 38 pharmaceuticals belonging to 11 different therapeutic classes. The paper outlines the strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches through an analysis of a case study referring to a large hospital. It highlights the observed (and expected) ranges of variability for the parameters of the adopted model, presents the results of an uncertainty analysis of direct measurements (due to sampling mode and frequency and chemical analysis) and a sensitivity analysis of predicted concentrations (based on the annual consumption of pharmaceuticals, their excretion rate and annual wastewater volume generated by the hospital). Measured concentrations refer to two sampling campaigns carried out in summer and winter in order to investigate seasonal variability of the selected compounds. Predicted concentrations are compared to measured ones in the three scenarios: summer, winter and the whole year. It was found that predicted and measured concentrations are in agreement for a limited number of compounds (namely atenolol, atorvastatin and hydrochlorothiazide), and for most compounds the adoption of the model leads to a large overestimation in all three periods. Uncertainties in predictions are mainly due to the wastewater volume and excretion factor, whereas for measured concentrations, uncertainties are mainly due to sampling mode. PMID:27161130

  1. The low prevalence of weight-for-height deficits in Brazilian children is related to body proportions.

    PubMed

    Post, C L; Victora, C G

    2001-04-01

    Compared with children from other regions, Latin American children living in poverty have much lower prevalences of weight-for-height deficits than would be expected given the observed rates of stunting. This study was aimed at investigating whether variations in body proportions, particularly abdominal circumference, could explain this paradoxical finding. In a cross-sectional study, children aged 12-35 mo (n = 197) were studied in Southern Brazil. Half of these children were from a high socioeconomic status (SES) group whose growth closely resembled that of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO reference; the other half were from low income families. The following 11 anthropometric measurements were collected: weight, height, sitting height/crown-rump length, head, chest, upper arm and abdominal circumference, triceps, biceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds. These measures were compared between the two groups of children and with values for North American children [mostly from Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II)]. For nearly all measures, low SES Brazilian children tended to be smaller than both high SES and North American children. However, when body proportionality was assessed by dividing the measurements by the child's height, these differences tended to disappear or even to change direction, as was the case for head, chest and abdominal circumferences. Mean abdominal circumference was virtually identical between low and high SES children, and the former had larger abdomens for a given height. Despite slight differences in measuring techniques, Brazilian children had larger abdomens than North Americans. These findings may explain in part why deprived Latin American children have higher weights for their height compared with the NCHS/WHO reference.

  2. Land reform policies, the sources of violent conflict, and implications for deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Alston, L.J.; Libecap, G.D.; Mueller, B.

    2000-03-01

    The authors examine land reform policies and their implications for violent conflict and resource use in the Brazilian Amazon. They identify the protagonists (land owners and squatters), derive their incentives to use violence, and show the role of legal inconsistencies as a basis for conflict. The authors describe the government agency involved in land reform, INCRA, and show that its intervention critically affects the actions of both squatters and land owners. Further, they point out the incentives for deforestation under land reform and associated insecure property rights to land. Forested lands are vulnerable to invasion by squatters and redistribution by INCRA. Using data from the Brazilian census and the Pastoral Land Commission, the authors examine the characteristics of regions where violent conflict predominates.

  3. Using the Community Readiness Model to Examine the Built and Social Environment: A Case Study of the High Point Neighborhood, Seattle, Washington, 2000–2010

    PubMed Central

    Sharify, Denise Tung; Blake, Bonita; Phillips, Tom; Whitten, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Background Residents of many cities lack affordable, quality housing. Economically disadvantaged neighborhoods often have high rates of poverty and crime, few institutions that enhance the quality of its residents’ lives, and unsafe environments for walking and other physical activity. Deteriorating housing contributes to asthma-related illness. We describe the redevelopment of High Point, a West Seattle neighborhood, to improve its built environment, increase neighborhood physical activity, and reduce indoor asthma triggers. Community Context High Point is one of Seattle’s most demographically diverse neighborhoods. Prior to redevelopment, it had a distressed infrastructure, rising crime rates, and indoor environments that increased asthma-related illness in children and adolescents. High Point residents and partners developed and implemented a comprehensive redevelopment plan to create a sustainable built environment to increase outdoor physical activity and improve indoor environments. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of the High Point redevelopment, organized by the different stages of change in the Community Readiness Model. We also examined the multisector partnerships among government and community groups that contributed to the success of the High Point project. Outcome Overall quality of life for residents improved as a result of neighborhood redevelopment. Physical activity increased, residents reported fewer days of poor physical or mental health, and social connectedness between neighbors grew. Asthma-friendly homes significantly decreased asthma-related illness among children and adolescents. Interpretation Providing affordable, quality housing to low-income families improved individual and neighborhood quality of life. Efforts to create social change and improve the health outcomes for entire populations are more effective when multiple organizations work together to improve neighborhood health. PMID:25376016

  4. Forensic psychiatric examinations: competency.

    PubMed

    Koson, D F

    1982-01-01

    The many definitions of competency in civil, criminal, and domestic relations law are discussed with emphasis on the various legal criteria for competency and the different classes of psychiatric information required to apply the criteria to a given case. Within the context of a general discussion of forensic examinations, techniques for gathering the right kind of information are systematically related to the exigencies of evaluating past, present, or future mental states by selectively altering the focus of mental status evaluations and history-taking. In addition, special investigative techniques such as hypnosis, Amytal sodium interview, stress interview, psychological testing, and others are discussed.

  5. Dental anthropology of a Brazilian sample: Frequency of nonmetric traits.

    PubMed

    Tinoco, Rachel Lima Ribeiro; Lima, Laíse Nascimento Correia; Delwing, Fábio; Francesquini, Luiz; Daruge, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Dental elements are valuable tools in a study of ancient populations and species, and key-features for human identification; among the dental anthropology field, nonmetric traits, standardized by ASUDAS, are closely related to ancestry. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of six nonmetric traits in a sample from Southeast Brazil, composed by 130 dental casts from individuals aged between 18 and 30, without foreign parents or grandparents. A single examiner observed the presence or absence of shoveling, Carabelli's cusp, fifth cusp, 3-cusped UM2, sixth cusp, and 4-cusped LM2. The frequencies obtained were different from the ones shown by other researches to Amerindian and South American samples, and related to European and sub-Saharan frequencies, showing the influence of this groups in the current Brazilian population. Sexual dimorphism was found in the frequencies of Carabelli's cusp, 3-cusped UM2, and sixth cusp.

  6. Forensic facial reconstruction: Nasal projection in Brazilian adults.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi-Oliveira, Silvia Virginia; Beaini, Thiago Leite; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff

    2016-09-01

    The nose has a marked cognitive influence on facial image; however, it loses its shape during cadaveric decomposition. The known methods of estimating nasal projection using Facial Reconstruction are lacking in practicality and reproducibility. We attempted to relate the points Rhinion, Pronasale and Prosthion by studying the angle formed by straight lines that connect them. Two examiners measured this angle with the help of analysis and image-processing software, Image J, directly from cephalometric radiographs. The sample consisted of 300 males, aged between 24 and 77 years, and 300 females, aged 24 to 69 years. The proposed angle ranged from 80° to 100° in both sexes and all ages. It was considered possible to use a 90° angle from projections of the Rhinion and Prosthion points in order to determine the Pronasale position, as well as to estimate the nasal projection of Brazilian adults.

  7. [Variations on the "scientific culture" in four Brazilian authors].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Marina Assis; Oliveira, Bernardo Jefferson de

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "scientific culture" varies historically, and the examination of its continuities and transformations can help us understand the relationship between the scientific community and society. The views on the role of science in society go far beyond the advancement of a particular form of knowledge and its possible or promising fruit. They involve values, postures and practices to be disseminated and reveal expectations of social and cultural advancement. This article discusses four expressive visions of different moments in Brazilian history. The formulations of four influential authors in scientific and educational policies of the country at different times are presented and analyzed: Miguel Ozorio de Almeida, Anísio Teixeira, Maurício Rocha e Silva and Carlos Vogt. PMID:26038856

  8. The Effect of Instruction on Musicians' and Non-Musicians' Aesthetic Response to Brazilian and African Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKaney, Elisa M.; Coggiola, John C.; Macedo, Elizeu C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined aesthetic response to Brazilian and African music experienced with and without instruction received prior to the listening session. In addition, there was an attempt to determine if there was a difference in response between musicians (music therapy majors) and non-musicians (psychology majors). The participants (N = 44) were…

  9. Approaches and Methodologies for a Course on History and Epistemology of Physics: Analyzing the Experience of a Brazilian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Katemari; Martins, Maria Cristina

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of inserting history and philosophy of science (HPS) in a physics undergraduate program at a Brazilian university. It is an examination of the approaches and methodologies adopted by professors of a History and Epistemology course. The course aims to have an explicit approach to HPS. The results suggest a concern of the…

  10. Self-Perceptions of Competence in Brazilian, Canadian, Chinese and Italian Children: Relations with Social and School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinyin; Zappulla, Carla; Coco, Alida Lo; Schneider, Barry; Kaspar, Violet; De Oliveira, Ana Maria; He, Yunfeng; Li, Dan; Li, Boshu; Bergeron, Natasha; Tse, Hennis Chi-Hang; DeSouza, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relations between self-perceptions of competence and social, behavioural, and school adjustment in Brazilian, Canadian, Chinese, and Italian children. Self-perception data were collected through children's self-reports. Information about social behaviours, peer acceptance, and school achievement was…

  11. Evidences of Validity of a Scale for Mapping Professional as Defining Competences and Performance by Brazilian Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Francisco Antonio, Jr.; Ferreira, Rodrigo Rezende; Paschoal, Tatiane; Faiad, Cristiane; Meneses, Paulo Murce

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to assess evidences of construct validity of the Brazilian Scale of Tutors Competences in the field of Open and Distance Learning and to examine if variables such as professional experience, perception of the student´s learning performance and prior experience influence the development of technical and…

  12. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    PubMed

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  13. Making tenofovir accessible in the brazilian public health system: patent conflicts and generic production.

    PubMed

    Veras, Juliana

    2014-08-01

    In May 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health announced the distribution of the first batch of locally produced generic tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to support its program of universal and free access for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. The inclusion of TDF in the public health program illustrates what has been considered the 'Brazilian model' of HIV/AIDS response, as it illustrates the current phase of the Brazilian pharmaceutical economy. Brazil is known for having managed to control the expansion of HIV/AIDS through a unique initiative combining the public health and the industrial production of generics. But, if at first local manufacturers could freely copy ARVs and produce cheaper generic versions that were delivered to the Ministry of Health, since the country started to grant patents on drugs in 1996, the sustainability of this policy has been challenged by the high cost of patented second-line HIV/AIDS treatments. In order to assure continuity of the local production of ARVs, and keep the program of public health alive, Brazilians are now forced to deal with conflicts of drugs' intellectual property rights in order to open the path to generic production. This article aims to describe the experiences surrounding TDF in Brazil and the unprecedented conflicts and challenges it has brought for our different interviewees. Blurring the frontier between the public and the private, the TDF case was driven at the same time by an ethic of drug access and regulation of drug quality, which has inspired Brazilians to intervene and transform the world they live in.

  14. Making tenofovir accessible in the brazilian public health system: patent conflicts and generic production.

    PubMed

    Veras, Juliana

    2014-08-01

    In May 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health announced the distribution of the first batch of locally produced generic tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to support its program of universal and free access for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. The inclusion of TDF in the public health program illustrates what has been considered the 'Brazilian model' of HIV/AIDS response, as it illustrates the current phase of the Brazilian pharmaceutical economy. Brazil is known for having managed to control the expansion of HIV/AIDS through a unique initiative combining the public health and the industrial production of generics. But, if at first local manufacturers could freely copy ARVs and produce cheaper generic versions that were delivered to the Ministry of Health, since the country started to grant patents on drugs in 1996, the sustainability of this policy has been challenged by the high cost of patented second-line HIV/AIDS treatments. In order to assure continuity of the local production of ARVs, and keep the program of public health alive, Brazilians are now forced to deal with conflicts of drugs' intellectual property rights in order to open the path to generic production. This article aims to describe the experiences surrounding TDF in Brazil and the unprecedented conflicts and challenges it has brought for our different interviewees. Blurring the frontier between the public and the private, the TDF case was driven at the same time by an ethic of drug access and regulation of drug quality, which has inspired Brazilians to intervene and transform the world they live in. PMID:24889312

  15. Bibliometric analysis of scientific articles published in Brazilian and international orthodontic journals over a 10-year period

    PubMed Central

    Primo, Neudí Antonio; Gazzola, Vivian Bertoglio; Primo, Bruno Tochetto; Tovo, Maximiano Ferreira; Faraco Junior, Italo Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed at describing the profiles of Brazilian and international studies published in orthodontic journals. Methods The sample comprised 635 articles selected from two scientific journals, i.e., Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics and American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, which were analyzed at three different intervals over a 10-year period (1999 - 2004 - 2009). Articles were described in terms of knowledge domain, study design, and country of origin (or state of origin for Brazilian papers). Results The most frequent study designs adopted in international studies were cohort (23.9%) and cross-sectional (21.7%) designs. Among Brazilian papers, cross-sectional studies (28.9%) and literature reviews (24.6%) showed greater frequency. The topics most often investigated were dental materials (17%) and treatment devices (12.4%) in international articles, with the latter topic being addressed by 16% of the Brazilian publications, followed by malocclusion, with 12.6%. In all cases, the most frequent countries of origin coincided with the countries of origin of each journal. Conclusions The majority of the studies analyzed featured a low level of scientific evidence. Moreover, the findings showed that journals tend to publish studies produced in their own country of origin, and that there are marked discrepancies in the number of papers published by different Brazilian states. PMID:24945515

  16. [Semantic, item, and conceptual equivalence of the Brazilian version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth (NEWS-Y)].

    PubMed

    Lima, Alex Vieira; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the process of translation and cultural adaptation of the Brazilian version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth (NEWS-Y). The original and the Portuguese versions were independently translated and back-translated into English. An expert panel performed semantic analysis and conceptual adaptations. The translated version of the NEWS-Y was applied to a sample of eight adolescents and showed adequate understanding. After minor changes identified in the translation processes, the expert panel considered the Brazilian version of the NEWS-Y semantically and conceptually equivalent. The translated version of the NEWS-Y required a few adjustments to ensure conceptual, item, and semantic adaptation. Further studies are recommended to examine other steps in the cross-cultural adaptation of the Portuguese-language NEWS-Y version in the Brazilian context. PMID:24356699

  17. Brazilian Amazon Roads and Parks: Temporal & Spatial Deforestation Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, A.; Robalino, J.

    2011-12-01

    Heterogeneous Forest Impacts of Transport Infrastructure: spatial frontier dynamics & impacts of Brazilian Amazon road changes Prior research on road impacts has almost completely ignored heterogeneity of impacts and as a result both empirically understated potential impact and missed policy potential. We note von Thunen's model suggests not only heterogeneity with distance from market but also specifically road impacts rising then falling with distance ('non-monoThunicity') Endogenous development and partial adjustment dynamics support this for the short run. Causal effects result from studying Brazilian Amazon deforestation (1976-87, 2000-04) using matching for short-run responses to lagged new roads changes (1968-75, 1985-00). We show the critical role of prior development, proxied by 1968 and 1985 road distances, for which exact matching addresses development trends and transforms impact estimates. Splitting the sample on this measure finds confirmation of the nonmonotonic predictions: new road impacts are relatively low if a prior road was close, such that prior transport access and endogenous development dynamics compete with the new road for influence, but also if a prior road was far, since first-decade adjustment in pristine areas is limited; yet in between these bounds, investments immediately raise deforestation significantly. This pattern helps to explain lower estimates within research on a single average impact. It suggests potential for REDD if a country chooses to shift its spatial transport networks. Protected Areas & Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: modeling and testing the impacts of varied PA strategies We model and then estimate the impacts of multiple types of protected areas upon 2000 - 2004 deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Our modeling starts with federal versus state objectives and predicts differences in both choice and implementation of each PA strategy that we examine. Our empirical examination brings not only breakdowns sufficient

  18. Modal survey of the Brazilian launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, S. H. S.; Teixeira, H. S., Jr.; Pirk, R.; Arruda, J. R. F.

    This paper describes the Brazilian satellite launch vehicle modal analysis program being currently performed. A full scale mock-up of the solid propellant four-stage launcher will be tested in five different configurations. To simulate free-free boundary conditions, a pneumatic suspension system was developed, and its influence in the mock-up dynamic behavior was investigated. The theoretical FEM models and preliminary results of the modal test are shown, along with theoretical/experimental correlation discussions.

  19. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Sonia R.; Bankoff, Antônia D. P.; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 μg/m3) in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively). The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem. PMID:25019268

  20. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  1. Examining Text Environments in Elementary Chilean Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orellana-Garcia, Pelusa; Sailors, Misty

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the social practices related to literacy in classrooms in Chile in order to examine school-based literacy practices. We also examined the constraints and affordances literacy learning offered Chilean students. Through our case study and cross-case analysis, we discovered that although the classrooms contained an…

  2. CASE STUDIES EXAMINING LCA STREAMLINING TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pressure is mounting for more streamlined Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methods that allow for evaluations that are quick and simple, but accurate. As part of an overall research effort to develop and demonstrate streamlined LCA, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has funded ...

  3. Evaluation of the breeding behavior of Brazilian Pony stallions.

    PubMed

    Rua, Miguel Alejandro Silva; Quirino, Celia Raquel; Bartholazzi Junior, Aylton; Santoro, Paula Nascimento; Bastos, Rosemary; Ribeiro, Mariana da Silva; Matos, Luis Fonseca; Vega, Wilder Hernando Ortiz

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the breeding behavior of Brazilian Pony stallions during semen collection to examine the effect of age category (AC) and month of evaluation on the characteristics of breeding behavior. Nine stallions were evaluated during the breeding and non-breeding season, 5-8 (AC1) and 9-13 years (AC2) of age. The variables evaluated were reaction time (RT), mount time one (MT1) and two (MT2), mount and ejaculation time (MEjT), mounting without erection (MWEr), mounting without ejaculation (MWEj), flehmen, kicks, bites, smells, vocalizations and serum testosterone concentration. Analyses of variance and correlation were performed. The average scores were RT: 56.2±92.9s, MT1: 115.0±122.4s, MT2: 196.4±160.7s, MEjT: 21.8±3.2s, MWEr: 0.8±1.3s, MWEj: 2.1±3.5s, flehmen: 3.8±3.0s, kicks: 0.3±1.2s, bites: 1.0±2.0s, smells: 5.7±3.5s, vocalizations: 6.4±6.3s and testosterone: 0.89±0.52ng/mL. The AC affected the RT (P<0.05) but not the other traits. Month of evaluation did not affect most variables (P>0.05). The correlations between age and RT and between age and MT1 and MT2 were significant. The correlation between testosterone and MEjT was moderate and negative. The breeding behavior of Brazilian Pony stallions was similar across different months of evaluation and different age categories. The month of evaluation and age category also did not affect testosterone concentrations, meaning that semen collection is feasible throughout the year. PMID:27461953

  4. Laxative effects and mechanism of action of Brazilian green propolis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Brazilian green propolis is reported to have wide range of biological properties including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-influenza, and antioxidant activities. In the digestive system, a protective effect of propolis on gastric ulcer has been reported, but a laxative effect has not yet been reported. We investigated the effect and the mechanism of action of water and ethanol extracts of Brazilian green propolis. Methods We examined the laxative effect of propolis on stool frequency by administering orally an ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) or a water extract of propolis (WEP) at 10, 50, 100, or 500 mg/kg to normal mice. We then investigated the effects of propolis using constipation model mice induced by two types of drugs, loperamide (a μ opioid receptor agonist) and clonidine (an α-2 adrenergic receptor agonist). We also investigated the effects of WEP on gastrointestinal transit and contractional tension of the ileum to uncover the mechanism of action of WEP. Results Treatment with WEP, but not with EEP, significantly increased the weight of stools (p<0.01 at 500 mg/kg). WEP treatment significantly restored stool frequency and stool weight in clonidine-induced constipation model mice, but not in loperamide-induced constipation model mice. WEP treatment did not affect gastro-intestinal transit, but significantly increased the contractional tension of the isolated ileum of guinea pigs. This increase was inhibited by an acetylcholine receptor antagonist (atropine), but not by a 5-HT receptor antagonist (GR113808). Conclusion These findings indicate that WEP has laxative effects both in normal mice and in clonidine-induced constipation model mice. The laxative effects of WEP might be mediated by increased contractional tension of the ileum exerted at least in part via activation of an acetylcholine receptor. PMID:23088672

  5. Negotiating sex and sexualities: the use of sexual tags in the Brazilian sex trade workplace.

    PubMed

    Phua, Voon Chin

    2010-08-01

    Based on data from participant observation and interviews with Brazilian sex workers and their clients, I examined the intersections of sexual and gender identities with sexual behaviors. Specifically, I was interested in how sex workers managed and negotiated their sexualities in the workplace. First, I described the layout and the social actors at a popular termas in a major Brazilian city. Then, I examined the interactions in the termas and how Brazilian sex workers use sexual identity terms to describe themselves. I argued that the use of these terms do not necessarily indicate sex workers' adoption of that sexual identity. Critical to them are the symbolic presentation of gender identity and the presentation of self at the work place. I developed a theoretical construct, sexual tags, which contributes to the literature by suggesting that sexual identity is situational and, more importantly, that the terms may not mean as much to the individuals or to be consistent with our understanding of what they ought to imply, especially when individuals are importing western terms to relate to their foreign clients. While using sexual tags does not preclude sex workers from eventually adopting that identity, it could also mean that some sex workers are claiming a sexual identity simply for strategic purposes. Another possible scenario is that sexual tags reflect the diverse interpretations of sexuality because of the available choices created by the situational manipulation of sexual meanings within a local context. PMID:19308714

  6. Implementation contexts of a Tuberculosis Control Program in Brazilian prisons

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Luisa Gonçalves Dutra; Natal, Sonia; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence from context characteristics in the control of tuberculosis in prisons, and the influence from the program implementation degrees in observed effects. METHODS A multiple case study, with a qualitative approach, conducted in the prison systems of two Brazilian states in 2011 and 2012. Two prisons were analyzed in each state, and a prison hospital was analyzed in one of them. The data were submitted to a content analysis, which was based on external, political-organizational, implementation, and effect dimensions. Contextual factors and the ones in the program organization were correlated. The independent variable was the program implementation degree and the dependent one, the effects from the Tuberculosis Control Program in prisons. RESULTS The context with the highest sociodemographic vulnerability, the highest incidence rate of tuberculosis, and the smallest amount of available resources were associated with the low implementation degree of the program. The results from tuberculosis treatment in the prison system were better where the program had already been partially implemented than in the case with low implementation degree in both cases. CONCLUSIONS The implementation degree and its contexts – external and political-organizational dimensions – simultaneously contribute to the effects that are observed in the control of tuberculosis in analyzed prisons. PMID:26465668

  7. Implementation contexts of a Tuberculosis Control Program in Brazilian prisons.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Luisa Gonçalves Dutra; Natal, Sonia; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence from context characteristics in the control of tuberculosis in prisons, and the influence from the program implementation degrees in observed effects.METHODS A multiple case study, with a qualitative approach, conducted in the prison systems of two Brazilian states in 2011 and 2012. Two prisons were analyzed in each state, and a prison hospital was analyzed in one of them. The data were submitted to a content analysis, which was based on external, political-organizational, implementation, and effect dimensions. Contextual factors and the ones in the program organization were correlated. The independent variable was the program implementation degree and the dependent one, the effects from the Tuberculosis Control Program in prisons.RESULTS The context with the highest sociodemographic vulnerability, the highest incidence rate of tuberculosis, and the smallest amount of available resources were associated with the low implementation degree of the program. The results from tuberculosis treatment in the prison system were better where the program had already been partially implemented than in the case with low implementation degree in both cases.CONCLUSIONS The implementation degree and its contexts - external and political-organizational dimensions - simultaneously contribute to the effects that are observed in the control of tuberculosis in analyzed prisons.

  8. Haemochromatosis in a Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris) in an Australian zoo.

    PubMed

    Peters, A; Raidal, S R; Blake, A H; Atkinson, M M; Atkinson, P R; Eggins, G P

    2012-01-01

    A 23-year-old Brazilian, or lowland, tapir with a 6-month history of loss of body condition developed clinical signs and laboratory findings consistent with liver failure. The animal was euthanased and a diagnosis of hepatic haemochromatosis was made based on histopathology. Two other healthy tapirs in the same collection had chronically elevated serum and tissue iron concentrations. The excessive accumulation of iron in tissues with resultant tissue damage (i.e. haemochromatosis) has been reported in a range of captive species. This and other reported cases of haemochromatosis in the Brazilian tapir would suggest that this condition is an important consideration in the management of this species in zoos. Further research into the endogenous regulation of iron metabolism, especially the role of hepcidin, in tapirs and other species at risk of iron storage disorders may be helpful in the prevention of this condition. PMID:22256982

  9. Haemochromatosis in a Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris) in an Australian zoo.

    PubMed

    Peters, A; Raidal, S R; Blake, A H; Atkinson, M M; Atkinson, P R; Eggins, G P

    2012-01-01

    A 23-year-old Brazilian, or lowland, tapir with a 6-month history of loss of body condition developed clinical signs and laboratory findings consistent with liver failure. The animal was euthanased and a diagnosis of hepatic haemochromatosis was made based on histopathology. Two other healthy tapirs in the same collection had chronically elevated serum and tissue iron concentrations. The excessive accumulation of iron in tissues with resultant tissue damage (i.e. haemochromatosis) has been reported in a range of captive species. This and other reported cases of haemochromatosis in the Brazilian tapir would suggest that this condition is an important consideration in the management of this species in zoos. Further research into the endogenous regulation of iron metabolism, especially the role of hepcidin, in tapirs and other species at risk of iron storage disorders may be helpful in the prevention of this condition.

  10. Road impacts in Brazilian Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Barbieri, Alisson; Ludewigs, Thomas; Merry, Frank; Perz, Stephen; Reis, Eustaquio

    We examine the evidence on Amazonian road impacts with a strong emphasis on context. Impacts of a new road, on either deforestation or socioeconomic outcomes, depend upon the conditions into which roads are placed. Conditions that matter include the biophysical setting, such as slope, rainfall, and soil quality, plus externally determined socioeconomic factors like national policies, exchange rates, and the global prices of beef and soybeans. Influential conditions also include all prior infrastructural investments and clearing rates. Where development has already arrived, with significant economic activity and clearing, roads may decrease forest less and raise output more than where development is arriving, while in pristine areas, short-run clearing may be lower than immense long-run impacts. Such differences suggest careful consideration of where to invest further in transport.

  11. Mutational screening of 320 Brazilian patients with autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia.

    PubMed

    Cintra, Vívian Pedigone; Lourenço, Charles Marques; Marques, Sandra Elisabete; de Oliveira, Luana Michelli; Tumas, Vitor; Marques, Wilson

    2014-12-15

    Autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a clinical and genetically heterogeneous group of debilitating neurodegenerative diseases that are related to at least 36 different genetic loci; they are clinically characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia and are frequently accompanied by other neurological and non-neurological manifestations. The relative frequency of SCA varies greatly among different regions, presumably because of a founder effect or local ethnicities. Between July 1998 and May 2012, we investigated 320 Brazilian patients with an SCA phenotype who belonged to 150 unrelated families with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern and 23 sporadic patients from 13 Brazilian states. A total of 265 patients (82.8%) belonging to 131 unrelated families (87.3%) were found to have a definite mutation, and SCA3 accounted for most of the familial cases (70.7%), followed by SCA7 (6%), SCA1 (5.3%), SCA2 (2.7%), SCA6 (1.3%), SCA8 (0.7%) and SCA10 (0.7%). In the Ribeirão Preto mesoregion, which is located in the northeast part of São Paulo State, the prevalence of SCA3 was approximately 5 per 100,000 inhabitants, which is the highest prevalence found in Brazil. No mutation was found in the SCA12, SCA17 and DRPLA genes, and all the sporadic cases remained without a molecular diagnosis. This study further characterizes the spectrum of SCA mutations found in Brazilian patients, which suggests the existence of regional differences and demonstrates the expansion of the SCA8 locus in Brazilian families.

  12. Thermal Windows on Brazilian Free-tailed Bats Facilitate Thermoregulation during Prolonged Flight

    PubMed Central

    Reichard, Jonathan D.; Prajapati, Suresh I.; Austad, Steven N.; Keller, Charles; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) experiences challenging thermal conditions while roosting in hot caves, flying during warm daylight conditions, and foraging at cool high altitudes. Using thermal infrared cameras, we identified hot spots along the flanks of free-ranging Brazilian free-tailed bats, ventral to the extended wings. These hot spots are absent in syntopic cave myotis (Myotis velifer), a species that forages over relatively short distances, and does not engage in long-distance migration. We hypothesized that the hot spots, or “radiators,” on Brazilian free-tailed bats may be adaptations for migration, particularly in this long-distance, high-flying species. We examined the vasculature of radiators on Brazilian free-tailed bats with transillumination to characterize the unique arrangements of arteries and veins that are positioned perpendicular to the body in the proximal region of the wing. We hypothesized that these radiators aid in maintaining heat balance by flushing the uninsulated thermal window with warm blood, thereby dissipating heat while bats are flying under warm conditions, but shunting blood away and conserving heat when they are flying in cooler air at high altitudes. We also examined fluid-preserved specimens representing 122 species from 15 of 18 chiropteran families and radiators appeared present only in species in the family Molossidae, including both sedentary and migratory species and subspecies. Thus, the radiator appears to be a unique trait that may facilitate energy balance and water balance during sustained dispersal, foraging, and long-distance migration. PMID:20811514

  13. Rabies in humans and non-human in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Marcus Emanuel Barroncas; Costa, Lanna Jamile Corrêa da; Andrade, Fernanda Atanaena Gonçalves de; Silva, Lucila Pereira

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the relationship of positive cases of rabies with the continuing expansion of livestock production, and analyse the trends of this zoonosis in human population in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon. The distribution of rabies cases was recorded between 1999 and 2004. Of 148 cases of rabies, 21% were in humans and 79% in non-human mammals. The rapid growth in livestock numbers seems to be associated with the increase of positive cases in bovine livestock transmitted by vampire bats. This idea is supported by positive and significant relationship of both events in time (p<0.01), but failed when spatial distribution among regions of the state was considered. However, rabies cases tend to occur toward the northeastern of the state of Pará, where rabies cases are proportionally five times greater than other mesoregions, suggesting that increased livestock production may influence the increase of this zoonosis. PMID:23477765

  14. Selective abortion in Brazil: the anencephaly case.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora

    2007-08-01

    This paper discusses the Brazilian Supreme Court ruling on the case of anencephaly. In Brazil, abortion is a crime against the life of a fetus, and selective abortion of non-viable fetuses is prohibited. Following a paradigmatic case discussed by the Brazilian Supreme Court in 2004, the use of abortion was authorized in the case of a fetus with anencephaly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the ethical arguments of the case, in particular the strategy of avoiding the moral status of the fetus, the cornerstone thesis of the Catholic Church. PMID:17614991

  15. Examining how land surface effects modulate rainfall in the eastern Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzjarrald, D.; Cohen, J. P.

    2009-05-01

    In the Amazon, it is important to apportion rainfall by storm type. In the eastern Amazon (approximately from Belém to Santarém) rainfall associated with large instability lines produces nearly half of the total, and this is complemented by that produced by rainfall from local convective systems. Our recent observational studies in the indicate that the relative importance of the nocturnal squall lines is exaggerated if one relies solely on data from the climate stations along the Amazon River channel. River breezes inhibit convective rainfall near the main channel, but in some areas river proximity effects lead to enhanced nocturnal rainfall of squall origin. Moreover, enhanced rainfall to the north of the Amazon main channel could be the result of orographic uplift. In this study we complement a limited climatological study of instability lines with two mesoscale model (Brazilian version of RAMS, B-RAMS) case studies to examine the effects of topography and river proximity on rain producing mechanisms in the eastern Amazon Basin. Two numerical experiments were done to examine the relative importance of these two rain-producing mechanisms in the region. In each, three nested grids were used. Results from the prototype simulation for the propagating squall line were compared with GOES images, NCEP reanalyses, and data from the LBA-ECO surface station network near Santarém (approximately 55°W). In this case we also examined the role of topography on squall line development by performing a sensitivity test of the case study squall development with and without topography. The locally-dominated convection study was based on a case of slack easterlies during cold frontal penetration into the western Amazon region.

  16. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  17. An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Codas in Brazilian Portuguese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese allows only /s, N, l, r/ syllable finally, and of these, only /s/ is realized faithfully (as well as /r/ for some speakers). In order to avoid unacceptable codas, dialects of Brazilian Portuguese employ such strategies as epenthesis, nasal absorption, debucalization, and gliding. The current analysis argues that codas in…

  18. Partnerships for Lifelong Learning Policies: A Brazilian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Brazilian inequality is the result of multiple complex determinations but the heterogeneity with which quality education is distributed among the population remains at its core. When we consider the Brazilian labour market we see that the heterogeneity in the levels of schooling of the workforce is the principle determinant for wage inequality…

  19. [Scholar mobility and international circulation of ideas. The brazilian's case].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Afrânio

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil, considerable changes have affected the fields of social sciences and humanities. The growing number of advanced students studying abroad after the 1960s and later the creation of PhD programs have turned the road to national political power into an international one. As a result, academic fields have evolved and Elite formation has largely been transformed. Using these elements as a contextual framework, this article seeks to analyze the recent dynamics of the debate over the political and economic evolution of Brazil. PMID:22109089

  20. Social license to operate: case from brazilian mining industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, Ana Lúcia F.; Demajorovic, Jacques; Aledo, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The approach of the Social License to Operate (SLO) emerges as an important element in academic discussions and business practices related to extractive industries. It appears that in productive activities with great potential to produce economic, social and environmental impacts, conventional approaches based on legal compliance no longer sufficient to legitimize the actions of companies and engagement stakeholders. Studies highlight the need of mining activities receiving a SLO "issued" by companies stakeholders, including society, government, non-governmental organizations, media and communities. However, local communities appears as major stakeholders in governance arrangements, by virtue of its proximity to extractive areas and ability to affect the company's results. Stakeholders with unmet expectations can generate conflicts and risks to the company, the knowledge of these expectations and an awareness of company managers of the importance of Social License to Operate (SLO), can generate strategies and mitigating actions to prevent and or minimize possible conflicts. The concept of SLO arises in engineering extractive industry, when you need to respond to social challenges, beyond the usual environmental challenges, technological and management. According to Franks and Cohen (2012) there is a tendency of engineering sectors, sustainability, environmental, safety and especially in risk mappings, treat the technological issues in a neutral manner, separating the technological research projects of social influences. I want to contribute to the advancement of the debate on stakeholder engagement and adopting as focus on the company's relationship with the community, the aim of this study was to understand how a social project held by one of the largest mining companies in Brazil contributed to the process of SLO. This methodological procedure adopted was a qualitative, descriptive, and exploratory interviews with the communities located in rural areas of direct influence of the company's approach. The results show that the strategy adopted by the company contributed to the process of SLO, furthermore it is necessary adopt strong methodologies that facilitate the engagement processes of the other company's stakeholders, as well as the challenge to keep on local legitimacy earned. Key words: Mining, social license to operate (SLO), social impact, corporate social responsibility, stakeholders. References: * FRANKS, DANIEL M.; COHEN, TAMAR. Social Licence in Design: Constructive technology assessment within a mineral research and development institution. Centre for Social Responsibility in Mining, Sustainable Minerals Institute, University of Queensland, Australia. 79 122 Technological Forecasting & Social Change. 2012.