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Sample records for brazilian case examined

  1. "Tupy or not Tupy?" Examining Hybridity in Contemporary Brazilian Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastos, Flavia M. C.

    2006-01-01

    Updating the 1920s notion of Anthropophagy developed to symbolize through cannibalistic ritual the process of cultural assimilation that influences art, this article examines issues of naming, describing, and representing contemporary Brazilian art. In the first part of the article, the work of four contemporary Brazilian artists recently…

  2. Paediatric short case examination.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, David

    2014-11-01

    The short case is a highly artificial scenario, in which the examination candidate is given little or no history and instructed to examine one system or one aspect of a patient and draw conclusions. Despite their artificiality, short cases test clinical skills which senior paediatricians value and consider essential qualities of a competent physician. This article presents some general suggestions on an approach to doing short case examinations.

  3. Brazilian version of the body dysmorphic disorder examination.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Renata Trajano Borges; Sabino Neto, Miguel; Natour, Jamil; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Jones, Anamaria; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2008-03-06

    Body image improvement is considered to be the main reason for undergoing plastic surgery. The objective was to translate the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination (BDDE) into Brazilian Portuguese and to adapt and validate this questionnaire for use in Brazil. Cross-sectional survey, at the Department of Plastic Surgery of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. The BDDE was first translated into Portuguese and then back-translated into English. These translations were then discussed by healthcare professionals in order to establish the final Brazilian version. In a second stage, the validity and reliability of the BDDE were assessed. For this, patients were initially interviewed by two interviewers and subsequently, by only one of these interviewers. On the first occasion, in addition to the BDDE, the body shape questionnaire (BSQ) and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale were also applied. These questionnaires were applied to 90 patients. Six questions were modified during the assessment of cultural equivalence. Cronbach's alpha was 0.89 and the intraclass correlation coefficients for interobserver and test-retest reliability were 0.91 and 0.87, respectively. Pearson's coefficient showed no correlation between the BDDE and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (0.22), whereas there was a moderate correlation between the BDDE and the BSQ (0.64). The BDDE was successfully translated and adapted, with good internal consistency, reliability and construct validity.

  4. Lucio's phenomenon: exuberant case report and review of Brazilian cases*

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Rafael Henrique; Emerich, Paulo Sergio; Diniz, Lucia Martins; de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Cabral, Aline Neves Freitas; do Amaral, Ana Cristina Vervloet

    2016-01-01

    Lucio’s phenomenon is an uncommon reaction characterized by severe necrotizing cutaneous lesions that occurs in patients with Lucio’s leprosy and lepromatous leprosy. It is considered by some authors as a variant of type 2 or 3 reaction. Death can occur because of blood dyscrasia or sepsis. Precipitating factors include infections, drugs and pregnancy. We report a 31-year-old female patient exhibiting both clinical and histopathological features of lepromatous leprosy and Lucio’s phenomenon presenting favorable response to treatment. We complement our report with a literature review of the Brazilian cases of Lucio’s phenomenon published in Portuguese and English. PMID:28300896

  5. Emotion and Language Politics: The Brazilian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to make a case for the claim that exclusive focus on the rational has only helped isolate linguists and prevented them from having a say on important political issues relating to language. One important feature of the ordinary person's view of and involvement with language is that emotions play an important role in…

  6. Universality, correlations, and rankings in the Brazilian universities national admission examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Roberto; Lamb, Luis C.; Barbosa, Marcia C.

    2016-09-01

    We analyze the scores obtained by students who have taken the ENEM examination, The Brazilian High School National Examination which is used in the admission process at Brazilian universities. The average high schools scores from different disciplines are compared through the Pearson correlation coefficient. The results show a very large correlation between the performance in the different school subjects. Even though the students' scores in the ENEM form a Gaussian due to the standardization, we show that the high schools' scores form a bimodal distribution that cannot be used to evaluate and compare students performance over time. We also show that this high schools distribution reflects the correlation between school performance and the economic level (based on the average family income) of the students. The ENEM scores are compared with a Brazilian non standardized exam, the entrance examination from the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. The analysis of the performance of the same individuals in both tests shows that the two tests not only select different abilities, but also lead to the admission of different sets of individuals. Our results indicate that standardized tests might be an interesting tool to compare performance of individuals over the years, but not of institutions.

  7. Brazilian young dental practitioners' use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations.

    PubMed

    Rovaris, Karla; de Faria Vasconcelos, Karla; do Nascimento, Eduarda Helena Leandro; Oliveira, Matheus Lima; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations by Brazilian dental practitioners in daily practice and to evaluate the advances that have occurred over the past 5 years. Dental practitioners enrolled in extension courses at the Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Brazil, responded to a self-administered questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. They were asked about sociodemographic factors and their knowledge and use of digital radiographic examinations. Descriptive analysis was performed, as well as the chi-square and Fisher exact tests, with a significance level of 5% (α=0.05). A total of 181 participants responded to the questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. Most of the respondents worked in private practice, had graduated within the last 5 years, and were between 20 and 30 years old. In 2011, 55.6% of respondents reported having ever used digital radiographic examinations, while in 2015 this number increased significantly to 85.4% (p<.0001), out of which 71.4% preferred it to conventional images. Moreover, 21.4% of respondents reported having used digital radiographic examinations for more than 3 years. A significant increase in use of intraoral digital radiography (p=0.0316) was observed in 2015. In both years, image quality and high cost were indicated, respectively, as the main advantage and disadvantage of digital radiographic examinations. This study showed that digital radiology has become more common in Brazil over the past 5 years. Most of the Brazilian dental practitioners evaluated in 2015 used digital radiographic examinations.

  8. Brazilian young dental practitioners' use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations

    PubMed Central

    de Faria Vasconcelos, Karla; do Nascimento, Eduarda Helena Leandro; Oliveira, Matheus Lima; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations by Brazilian dental practitioners in daily practice and to evaluate the advances that have occurred over the past 5 years. Materials and Methods Dental practitioners enrolled in extension courses at the Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Brazil, responded to a self-administered questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. They were asked about sociodemographic factors and their knowledge and use of digital radiographic examinations. Descriptive analysis was performed, as well as the chi-square and Fisher exact tests, with a significance level of 5% (α=0.05). Results A total of 181 participants responded to the questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. Most of the respondents worked in private practice, had graduated within the last 5 years, and were between 20 and 30 years old. In 2011, 55.6% of respondents reported having ever used digital radiographic examinations, while in 2015 this number increased significantly to 85.4% (p<.0001), out of which 71.4% preferred it to conventional images. Moreover, 21.4% of respondents reported having used digital radiographic examinations for more than 3 years. A significant increase in use of intraoral digital radiography (p=0.0316) was observed in 2015. In both years, image quality and high cost were indicated, respectively, as the main advantage and disadvantage of digital radiographic examinations. Conclusion This study showed that digital radiology has become more common in Brazil over the past 5 years. Most of the Brazilian dental practitioners evaluated in 2015 used digital radiographic examinations. PMID:28035301

  9. Delivering Online Examinations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, Jason; Messing, John; Altas, Irfan

    2004-01-01

    This paper represents a brief case study of delivering online examinations to a worldwide audience. These examinations are delivered in partnership with a commercial online testing company as part of the Industry Master's degree at Charles Sturt University (CSU). The Industry Master's degree is an academic program for students currently employed…

  10. The Case for Common Examinations. Carnegie Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    Through an examination of one institution's efforts to strengthen teaching and learning on campus, the author makes a strong case for the use of common examinations as a powerful form of assessment as well as a fruitful context for faculty deliberations. Providing a continuing occasion for faculty inquiry and discussion, insuring grade…

  11. The challenges for solid waste management in accordance with Agenda 21: a Brazilian case review.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Gisele de Lorena Diniz; dos Santos, Jorge Luiz; Rocha, Sandra Mara Santana

    2014-09-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the suitability of the Brazilian solid waste policy (BSWP) with global Agenda 21 and the challenges of implementing the BSWP in municipalities. For this, a review of the principles that guided the creation of this policy was performed to demonstrate that international pressures were important in determining its effectiveness. The contradictory relationship between the satisfactory legal framework that established the Brazilian waste management policy and its weakened implementation in the municipalities is also examined . To illustrate the difficulties faced at the local level, a case study involving municipalities that compose the state of Espírito Santowe was undertaken. In this state, the municipalities signed terms of environmental commitment with supervisory agencies who undertook, within a pre-established schedule, to implement a set of actions to shape the proper management of solid waste, adapted to the requirements of national policy and the guidelines of Agenda 21. Finally, the various difficulties in meeting the requirements are discussed. It is necessary and urgent that Brazil finds a way to coordinate the mechanisms of an innovative and well formulated legal instrument to ensure the successful implementation of solid waste management at the local level to achieve the environmental, economic and social objectives.

  12. [Examination reports on survived strangulation cases].

    PubMed

    Jänisch, Stefanie; Heine, Josephin; Günther, Detlef; Germerott, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Clinical-forensic examination of strangulation victims is an increasing part of the routine of many forensic pathology institutes. The cases examined between 2004 and 2008 at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the Hanover Medical School were retrospectively analysed. In total, the study material comprised 218 victims (175 females and 43 males). In 80.7 %, the clinical-forensic examination was performed within 24 hours after the incident. In the overwhelming number of cases, the alleged perpetrator was no stranger. 128 victims (58.7 %) had strangulation marks, 32 victims (14.7 %) ligature marks and 65 victims (29.8 %) nail marks. Four victims showed injuries of the laryngeal and pharyngeal structures (reddening, hematomas, swelling and in one case a fracture of the cricoid cartilage on both sides). Extensive petechiae were predominantly seen in the conjunctivae, the buccal mucosa and the skin of the face in cases where the victims suffered a loss of consciousness. 87 cases (39.9% were classified as potentially life-threatening and 30 cases (13.8 %) as acute life-threatening events. This classification is of legal relevance for the penalty. In addition, 60 victims experienced sexual violence. These results suggest that early clinical-forensic examination is crucial for documenting forensic evidence in support of police investigations and may deliver significant details relevant in court.

  13. Explanatory analyses in internal migration: the Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Abreu, J F

    1980-01-01

    This paper 1) performs an exploratory analysis of internal migration in Brazil, 2) estimates rough migration flows from 1950-1970, and 3) posits hypotheses about internal migration and economic growth. The Brazilian population censuses, which include questions on migration by region, are the main data source for this study. Tobler's gravity model incorporating "wind", or general migration tendencies, is used to show Brazil's internal migration patterns. The basic patterns for 1950 and 1970 are virtually identical. The Cordey-Hayes approach is used to analyze the migration data from an economic point of view. This approach posits a strong positive correlation between directional components of migration and per capita rates. The author hypothesizes that a migration pattern is very much correlated with the stage of development of a country or region. Migration flows are strongly rural to rural in the 1st stage. The 2nd stage shows take-off and the acceleration of development; migrants are drawn to the bright lights of the city at this point. In the 3rd stage, urban predominance leads to a positive correlation between in-migration and out-migration. Migration flows are mostly urban to urban. This theory fits the Brazilian data very well; Brazil's 1960 and 1970 data suggest that it fits into the 2nd stage of take-off and development. These preliminary results effectively delimit the Brazilian migration system.

  14. The Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale: initial examination of its factor structure and correlates among Brazilian adults.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Campana, Angela Nogueira Neves Betanho; Ferreira, Lucilene; Barrett, Seishin; Harris, Amy Sunshine; Tavares, Maria da Consolação Gomes Cunha Fernandes

    2011-03-01

    The present study conducted a preliminary examination of the psychometric properties of a recently developed Portuguese translation of the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale (ACSS; Henderson-King & Henderson-King, 2005). A total of 311 Brazilian adults completed the ACSS along with Portuguese translations of measures of actual-ideal body weight discrepancy, body appreciation, sociocultural attitudes toward appearance, and demographics. Results showed that the Portuguese ACSS reduced to a three-factor solution consisting of the Intrapersonal, Social, and Consider factors uncovered in the original work using the ACSS. Moreover, there were only small sex differences on these subscales. In addition, the Portuguese ACSS showed a good pattern of convergent validity. The availability of the Portuguese ACSS is expected to stimulate more in-depth, quantitative research on attitudes toward cosmetic surgery within the Brazilian context.

  15. Clinical and oral findings in an Afro-Brazilian family with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome: case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    da Silva Pierro, Viviane Santos; Marins, Marcello Roter; Borges de Oliveira, Renata Cabral; Cortezzi, Wladimir; Janini, Maria Elisa; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2015-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS) seems to be unusual in black persons. The authors present an Afro-Brazilian family case report of GGS. The main complaint of the index case was a painless swelling of the left mandible, which was diagnosed as an odontogenic keratocyst. Further classical features of the Syndrome were present in this patient. Other two family members were diagnosed as cases of GGS and one of them presented 11 clinical findings characteristic of the syndrome. From the three cases reported, two of them presented five major diagnostic criteria for the GGS, and the diagnosis was only made because of an oral complaint. This case series emphasizes the importance of carefully examining the patient and close relatives for signs of GGS, even if they belong to an ethnic group in which this diagnosis is unusual.

  16. Brazilian spotted fever: description of a fatal clinical case in the State of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio; Rozental, Tatiana; Villela, Cid Leite

    2002-01-01

    We describe a case of Brazilian spotted fever in a previously healthy young woman who died with petechial rash associated to acute renal and respiratory insufficiency 12 days following fever, headache, myalgia, and diarrhea. Serologic test in a serum sample, using an immunofluorescence assay, revealed reactive IgM/IgG.

  17. Work for sustainability: Case studies of Brazilian companies.

    PubMed

    Bolis, Ivan; Brunoro, Claudio M; Sznelwar, Laerte I

    2016-11-01

    The introduction of strategic corporate sustainability policies is expected to result in the improvement of several issues in companies. One of these issues is work, which should involve greater well-being for workers. Within the context of production engineering, this research connects sustainability and work-related issues, the latter seen in light of the discipline of ergonomics. Based on case studies conducted at four companies considered sustainability benchmarks, we examined how the introduction of the theme of sustainability has influenced work-related issues. The elements analyzed here were the corporate sustainability strategy, organizational practices for deploying the strategy, and the work design phase. The last element is the moment in which work is prescribed in the organization. The results show that, despite the announcement of the inclusion of changes in work, there is not any explicit evidence confirming that such changes are considered as a requirement for corporate sustainability projects.

  18. Is the Cambridge Cognitive Examination - revised a good tool for detection of dementia in illiterate Brazilian older adults?

    PubMed

    Paradela, Emylucy Martins Paiva; Lourenço, Roberto Alves

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have been published on the use of the Cambridge Cognitive Examination Test - Revised (CAMCOG-R) for cognitive assessment of low educational level older adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the accuracy of the Brazilian version of the CAMCOG-R (Br-CAMCOG-R) within a sample of low educational level and illiterate older adults. The Br-CAMCOG-R was administered to outpatients in a public geriatric clinic. The diagnosis of dementia was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition criteria. The receiving operator characteristic curves were plotted, and the best trade-offs between sensitivities and specificities were calculated. A total of 189 participants were evaluated. The mean age was 77 ± 6.9 years. The mean educational level was 3.1 ± 2.2 years. The mean test score was 66.5 ± 13.1 points; there were 56 (29.6%) participants with dementia. The best cut-off score for illiterate participants was 50/51; sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC) were 69%, 69% and 0.75, respectively; for participants with a low educational level, the best cut-off point was 60/61; the sensitivity, specificity and AUC were 83%, 85%, and 0.93, respectively; for participants with a middle educational level, the best cut-off point was 69/70; the sensitivity, specificity and AUC were 90%, 76% and 0.91, respectively. The Br-CAMCOG-R was useful for identifying cases of dementia among older adults with middle and low levels of literacy, but inadequate for the illiterate individuals. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  19. Death by dengue fever in a Brazilian child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sacramento, Rafael Henrique Machado; de Melo Braga, Deborah Nunes; Sacramento, Franciane Fardin; de Carvalho Araújo, Fernanda Montenegro; Lima, Antônio Afonso Bezerra; de Lima Pompeu, Margarida Maria; Lima, Danielle Malta; de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona

    2014-11-27

    Dengue is an important worldwide public health problem, and continues to spread in Brazil. This article presents the first Brazilian case report of the death of an indigenous child by dengue fever. In August 2013, a child aged 2 years and from the Tremembé ethnic group, who was previously healthy with no complaints, suddenly presented intense crying, precordial pain, and general malaise. A few minutes after these non-specific symptoms, the patient started tonic-clonic convulsions and had cyanosis, a substantial increase in body temperature to the touch, cold sudoresis, sphincter relaxation, and unconsciousness. This situation remained for 15 minutes, progressing to respiratory insufficiency, with consequent absence of peripheral pulses. Death was confirmed approximately 40 minutes after the first symptoms. An autopsy was performed using the usual techniques. Immunohistochemistry was positive for dengue, and microscopic examination indicated micro perivascular edema and cerebral hemorrhage. Considering that the death occurred during the major endemic seasonal period for dengue fever, primary clinical evidence suggestive of viral infection presenting with sudden and quick death, and positive immunohistochemistry results, the case was closed as severe dengue fever. Clinicians must consider dengue as a diagnostic hypothesis among the indigenous population in Brazil.

  20. Trichosporon inkin: an uncommon agent of scalp white piedra. Report of four cases in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Fischman, Olga; Bezerra, Fabiane Castilho; Francisco, Elaine Cristina; da Silva, Flávia Cristina; Nishikaku, Angela Satie; Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; de Azevedo Melo, Analy Salles; Bentubo, Henri Donnarumma Levy; Petri, Valéria

    2014-08-01

    We report four cases of scalp white piedra (SWP) in Brazilian female children. Morphological and physiological approaches gave inconsistent results for identifying Trichosporon to species level, while the sequencing of the intergenic spacer 1 region of ribosomal DNA accurately identified the agent of SWP as T. inkin. These cases emphasize the occurrence of this species causing this type of infection. The molecular identification of the suspected agent is needed for appropriate epidemiological surveillance of superficial mycoses caused by Trichosporon species.

  1. [Forensic medical examinations and teaching: disagreements and discussions within the Brazilian Society of Neurology, Psychiatry, and Forensic Medicine].

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Ede

    2015-01-01

    In order to observe the influence wielded by forensic medicine in the development of the field of psychiatry in Brazil, this research note analyzes the debates that took place from May to July 1918 within the Brazilian Society of Neurology, Psychiatry, and Forensic Medicine over the use of forensic medical examinations as course material in the study of Public Medicine at the Rio de Janeiro School of Medicine. The focus is on how the controversy unfolded within the Society and how this scientific organization influenced the institution of the theoretical and practical training of medical experts.

  2. Scedosporium apiospermum eumycetoma successfully treated with oral voriconazole: report of a case and review of the Brazilian reports on scedosporiosis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flávio de Mattos; Unis, Gisela; Hochhegger, Bruno; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We describe a case of white-grain eumycetoma caused by Scedosporium apiospermum in an immunocompetent host that was successfully treated with oral voriconazole, and we review the Brazilian reports on scedosporiosis.

  3. Production flush of Agaricus blazei on Brazilian casing layers

    PubMed Central

    Colauto, Nelson Barros; da Silveira, Adriano Reis; da Eira, Augusto Ferreira; Linde, Giani Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the biological efficiency and production flushes of Agaricus blazei strains on different casing layers during 90 cultivation days. Four casing layers were used: mixture of subsoil and charcoal (VCS), lime schist (LSC), São Paulo peat (SPP) and Santa Catarina peat (SCP); and two genetically distant A. blazei strains. The fungus was grown in composted substratum and, after total colonization, a pasteurized casing layer was added over the substratum, and fructification was induced. Mushrooms were picked up daily when the basidiocarp veil was stretched, but before the lamella were exposed. The biological efficiency (BE) was determined by the fresh basidiocarp mass divided by the substratum dry mass, expressed in percentage. The production flushes were also determined over time production. The BE and production flushes during 90 days were affected by the strains as well as by the casing layers. The ABL26 and LSC produced the best BE of 60.4%. Although VCS is the most used casing layer in Brazil, it is inferior to other casing layers, for all strains, throughout cultivation time. The strain, not the casing layer, is responsible for eventual variations of the average mushroom mass. In average, circa 50% of the mushroom production occurs around the first month, 30% in the second month, and 20% in third month. The casing layer water management depends on the casing layer type and the strain. Production flush responds better to water reposition, mainly with ABL26, and better porosity to LSC and SCP casing layers. PMID:24031673

  4. Weismann-Netter-Stuhl syndrome: first Brazilian case reports.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, A V; Filardi, S; Fernandes, S R; Marques-Neto, J F; Samara, A M

    2000-01-01

    Weismann-Netter-Stuhl syndrome was first described in 1954 and is defined by an anterior curvature of the bones of the lower limbs, usually bilateral and symmetrical. Since its initial description, 82 cases were reported, including only 14 pediatric patients. The authors report two cases of this syndrome. One patient was an adult who presented with almost all the characteristic features of the disease. The second case was a 12-year-old girl who also presented with severe bone deformities of the upper limbs. Weismann-Netter-Stuhl syndrome is probably more common than previously reported and must be included in the differential diagnosis of rickets/osteomalacia, congenital syphilis and some cases of Paget's disease.

  5. Gender differences: examination of the 12-item bem sex role inventory (BSRI-12) in an older Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Carver, Lisa F; Vafaei, Afshin; Guerra, Ricardo; Freire, Aline; Phillips, Susan P

    2013-01-01

    Although gender is often acknowledged as a determinant of health, measuring its components, other than biological sex, is uncommon. The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) quantifies self-attribution of traits, indicative of gender roles. The BSRI has been used with participants across cultures and countries, but rarely in an older population in Brazil, as we have done in this study. Our primary objective was to determine whether the BSRI-12 can be used to explore gender in an older Brazilian population. The BSRI was completed by volunteer participants, all community dwelling adults aged 65+ living in Natal, Brazil. Exploratory factor analysis was performed, followed by a varimax rotation (orthogonal solution) for iteration to examine the underlying gender roles of feminine, masculine, androgynous and undifferentiated, and to validate the BSRI in older adults in Brazil. The 278 participants, (80 men, 198 women) were 65-99 years old (average 73.6 for men, 74.7 for women). Age difference between sexes was not significant (p = 0.22). A 12 item version of the BSRI (BSRI-12) previously validated among Spanish seniors was used and showed validity with 5 BSRI-12 items (Cronbach=0.66) loading as feminine, 6 items (Cronbach=0.51) loading onto masculine roles and neither overlapping with the category of biological sex of respondent. Although the BSRI-12 appears to be a valid indicator of gender among elderly Brazilians, the gender role status identified with the BSRI-12 was not correlated with being male or female.

  6. The Kangaroo Program at a Brazilian maternity hospital: the preterm/low-weight babies' health-care under examination.

    PubMed

    Véras, Renata Meira; Traverso-Yépez, Martha

    2011-03-01

    The Kangaroo Program, originally developed in Colombia, was adopted as a public policy by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) in 2000, in an effort to improve maternal and infant health in the country. This article aims to examine the Kangaroo Program as it is practiced and carried out at a maternity hospital in the northeastern Brazilian region. Through an institutional ethnographic approach, research demonstrates that the Kangaroo Program has been effective in saving lives and improving some of the infants' health outcomes. However, research also demonstrates that: (i) the socioeconomic profile of mothers in the Kangaroo Program, (ii) conflicting relationships between healthcare workers and users, and (iii) lack of socioeconomic and emotional support are impairing the adequate implementation of the program. Due to the low literacy level of most of these mothers, institutional power is used as a form of social control to keep mothers uninformed about the possibility of leaving the maternity wards. In a two-tier health system, this controlling behavior is part of existing social inequities, as the Kangaroo Program is a choice in the private health system but tends to be mandatory at SUS maternity hospitals across Brazil.

  7. Scales of Political Action and Social Movements in Education: The Case of the Brazilian Black Movement and Law 10.639

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Renato Emerson Nascimento; Soeterik, Inti Maya

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines social coordination by the Brazilian Black Movement in the area of Brazilian education. It explains how these developments relate to the construction of race-based public education policies in the country. Focus goes to the process of creation and implementation of law 10.639 in Brazilian Basic education. Using the concept…

  8. Scales of Political Action and Social Movements in Education: The Case of the Brazilian Black Movement and Law 10.639

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Renato Emerson Nascimento; Soeterik, Inti Maya

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines social coordination by the Brazilian Black Movement in the area of Brazilian education. It explains how these developments relate to the construction of race-based public education policies in the country. Focus goes to the process of creation and implementation of law 10.639 in Brazilian Basic education. Using the concept…

  9. External Evaluation of Education and Teacher Work: The Brazilian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothen, José Carlos; da Cunha Malheiros Santana, Andréia

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to discuss whether external evaluations are instruments to ensure increased quality of public school education. It is part of a research that investigated how evaluation results and the resulting indices were used in two schools in the state of São Paulo (Brazil). The methodology adopted was the case study, using different…

  10. A Case for Open-Book Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, John

    1982-01-01

    Research into the effectiveness of open-book examinations has shown that they reduce test anxiety and the need to memorize factual information. An investigation into the effect of using open books in an English literature examination showed that students acquired higher levels of attainment than those who took a traditional test. (SK)

  11. Circumscribed palmoplantar hypokeratosis: report of two Brazilian cases.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Lilian Kelly; Nico, Marcello Menta Simonsen

    2013-01-01

    Circumscribed palmoplantar hypokeratosis is a recently recognized dermatosis and rarely reported. It was first described in 2002 and is characterized by localized loss of the horny layer in the palmoplantar area. This dermatosis is clinically presented with a sharply circumscribed, reddish and asymptomatic plaque with slightly depressed surface localized on the palms or the soles. The clinical differential diagnosis includes mainly porokeratosis and Bowen's disease. Its pathogenesis remains unknown, but studies have proposed a human papillomavirus induced disease or a localized keratinization disorder in the palmoplantar area. We report herein two cases of patients with lesions clinically and microscopically compatible with the diagnosis of circumscribed palmoplantar hypokeratosis. We also present a brief literature review of the etiopathogenic hyphoteses of this dermatosis.

  12. Gender Differences: Examination of the 12-Item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI-12) in an Older Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Lisa F.; Vafaei, Afshin; Guerra, Ricardo; Freire, Aline; Phillips, Susan P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although gender is often acknowledged as a determinant of health, measuring its components, other than biological sex, is uncommon. The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) quantifies self-attribution of traits, indicative of gender roles. The BSRI has been used with participants across cultures and countries, but rarely in an older population in Brazil, as we have done in this study. Our primary objective was to determine whether the BSRI-12 can be used to explore gender in an older Brazilian population. Methods The BSRI was completed by volunteer participants, all community dwelling adults aged 65+ living in Natal, Brazil. Exploratory factor analysis was performed, followed by a varimax rotation (orthogonal solution) for iteration to examine the underlying gender roles of feminine, masculine, androgynous and undifferentiated, and to validate the BSRI in older adults in Brazil. Results The 278 participants, (80 men, 198 women) were 65–99 years old (average 73.6 for men, 74.7 for women). Age difference between sexes was not significant (p = 0.22). A 12 item version of the BSRI (BSRI-12) previously validated among Spanish seniors was used and showed validity with 5 BSRI-12 items (Cronbach=0.66) loading as feminine, 6 items (Cronbach=0.51) loading onto masculine roles and neither overlapping with the category of biological sex of respondent. Conclusions Although the BSRI-12 appears to be a valid indicator of gender among elderly Brazilians, the gender role status identified with the BSRI-12 was not correlated with being male or female. PMID:24098482

  13. Education in health administration: an assessment of the Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Kisil, M

    1985-01-01

    This discussion presents an overview of the health service system and its programs in Brazil, emphasizing current policies; sketches out what is being done about education in health administration; and examines some of the more innovative programs and activities within this field. Brazil's bealth service system is characterized by a multiplicity of public agencies that often compete and overlap, and by concentration of its resources in high-income urban core areas. 3 main groups of health care providers exist in Brazil. These work within the private subsector, which covers about 23 million people or 20% of the population; the official subsector, which covers about 25 million people; and the social security system, which covers about 50 million people. About 20 million people are not covered by any institutional health care services. There is no effective agency planning, despite the existence of planning units in all agencies, and, consequently, there is no national health development planning in Brazil. The negative impact of this on health care is compounded by a lack of managerially oriented information systems and a lack of monitoring and evaluation agencies. At present there are essentially 3 types of health administration education in Brazil -- one emphasizing the health component, one emphasizing the administrative component, and one seeking to balance these 2 elements. Historically, the health dominated type of health administration education emerged first, followed by the administration-dominated type, and then by the more balanced type. Regarding innovative developments, since 1975 the National School of Public Health in Rio de Janeiro has been working with state health agencies and local universities in many parts of the country in an effort to decentralize its basic public health course. Another program has promoted teaching and research in health administration and has provided technical assistance to promote the delivery of health administration

  14. Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst: a complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt in a Brazilian Amazon woman. Case report.

    PubMed

    Sena, F Gonçalves; Sousa, R Maia de; Meguins, L Crociati

    2010-01-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) is the most common treatment for hydrocephalus, however it is not free of complications. Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst (ACP) is an uncommon, but potentially life-threatening, complication of VPS. It is characterized by a fluid filled collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the peritoneal cavity containing the distal end of the VPS catheter and is surrounded by a wall composed of fibrous tissues without an epithelial lining. We report the case a Brazilian Amazon woman that presented ACP fifteen years after the placement of a VPS. Physicians should be aware of this possible complication once early diagnosis would improve outcome and reduce patient's suffering and distress.

  15. Severity of Scorpion Stings in the Western Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Amanda M.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Mendonça, Iran; Fé, Nelson F.; Sachett, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L.; Feitosa, Esaú; Wen, Fan Hui; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    Background Scorpion stings are a major public health problem in Brazil, with an increasing number of registered cases every year. Affecting mostly vulnerable populations, the phenomenon is not well described and is considered a neglected disease. In Brazil, the use of anti-venom formulations is provided free of charge. The associate scorpion sting case is subject to compulsory reporting. This paper describes the epidemiology and identifies factors associated with severity of scorpions stings in the state of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings This study included all cases of scorpion stings in the state of Amazonas reported to the Brazilian Diseases Surveillance System from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2014. A case-control study was conducted to identify factors associated with scorpions sting severity. A total of 2,120 cases were reported during this period. The mean incidence rate in the Amazonas was 7.6 per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Scorpion stings showed a large spatial distribution in the state and represent a potential occupational health problem for rural populations. There was a positive correlation between the absolute number of cases and the altimetric river levels in the Central (p<0.001; Rs = 0.479 linear) and Southwest (p = 0.032; linear Rs = 0.261) regions of the state. Cases were mostly classified as mild (68.6%), followed by moderate (26.8%), and severe (4.6%). The overall lethality rate was 0.3%. Lethality rate among children ≤10 years was 1.3%. Age <10 years [OR = 2.58 (95%CI = 1.47–4.55; p = 0.001)], stings occurring in the rural area [OR = 1.97 (95%CI = 1.18–3.29; p = 0.033) and in the South region of the state [OR = 1.85 (95%CI = 1.17–2.93; p = 0.008)] were independently associated with the risk of developing severity. Conclusions/Significance Scorpion stings show an extensive distribution in the Western Brazilian Amazon threatening especially rural populations, children ≤10 in particular. Thus

  16. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease): report of a case in a girl of Brazilian Indian descent.

    PubMed

    Martins, W D; de Lima, A A S; Vieira, S

    2006-01-01

    Summary. Background. This report describes the case of a patient with focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), a rare but distinctive entity of viral aetiology with characteristic clinical and histopathological features. Case report. The condition is usually seen in children and adolescents of American Indian and Eskimo background. Surgical removal of papillomatous lesions is the treatment of choice, either for aesthetic reasons, or when the lesions interfere with function or are readily traumatized. Recurrence and the site of new lesions are unpredictable, and continued review of the patient is often necessary. The patient described here has been followed for 24 months without recurrences or changes in the aspect of the remaining lesions. Conclusion. This case highlights a possible genetic predilection for FEH, since the patient is a descent of a Brazilian Xavante Indian.

  17. Benzene poisoning, clinical and blood abnormalities in two Brazilian female gas station attendants: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Fábio; Lima, Simone; Pinheiro, Tayná; Silvestre, Rafaele Tavares; Otero, Ubirani Barros; Tabalipa, Marianne Medeiros; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Ornellas, Maria Helena; Liehr, Thomas; Alves, Gilda

    2017-01-18

    Brazilian gas station workers are chronically exposed to benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) during their working time. Describe below two cases of latin female gas station workers with benzene poisoning symptoms and miscarriage history. In both cases were identified complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCR) with fluorescence in situ hybridization, applied to whole chromosome paints by chromosomes 1, 2 and 4. The lower natural killer cell (NK) cells have also been observed in cases correspondents, especially the rare type of NK (NKbright) in their peripheral blood cells. It is known that acquired chromosomal aberrations are positively correlated with cancer and reproductive risk. In concordance, lower NK cytotoxicity increases the risk for cancer, as well. Thus, this is the first study providing hints on a possible causative relation of lower NK cytotoxicity and increase rates of chromosomal rearrangements including CCRs.

  18. Techno-economic analysis for brewer's spent grains use on a biorefinery concept: the Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Mussatto, Solange I; Moncada, Jonathan; Roberto, Inês C; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-11-01

    A techno-economic analysis for use of brewer's spent grains (BSG) on a biorefinery concept for the Brazilian case is presented. Four scenarios based on different levels of heat and mass integration for the production of xylitol, lactic acid, activated carbon and phenolic acids are shown. A simulation procedure using the software Aspen Plus and experimental yields was used. Such procedure served as basis for the techno-economic and environmental assessment according to the Brazilian conditions. Full mass integration on water and full energy integration was the configuration with the best economic and environmental performance. For this case, the obtained economic margin was 62.25%, the potential environmental impact was 0.012 PEI/kg products, and the carbon footprint of the processing stage represented 0.96 kg CO2-e/kg of BSG. This result served as basis to draw recommendations on the technological, economic and environmental feasibility for implementation of such type of biorefinery in Brazil.

  19. Questing one Brazilian query: reporting 16 cases of Q fever from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Paulo Sérgio Gonçalves da; Brigatte, Marco Emilio; Greco, Dirceu Bartolomeu

    2006-01-01

    Q fever has been considered non-existing in Brazil where reports of clinical cases still cannot be found. This case-series of 16 patients is a result of a systematic search for such illness by means of clinical and serologic criteria. Serologic testing was performed by the indirect microimmunofluorescence technique using phase I/II C. burnetii antigens. Influenza-like syndrome was the most frequent clinical form (eight cases--50%), followed by pneumonia, FUO (fever of unknown origin), mono-like syndrome (two cases--12.5% each), lymphadenitis (one case--6.3%) and spondylodiscitis associated with osteomyelitis (one case--6.3%). The ages varied from four to 67 years old with a median of 43.5. All but one patient had positive serologic tests for phase II IgG whether or not associated with IgM positivity compatible with acute infection. One patient had both phase I and phase II IgG antibodies compatible with chronic Q fever. Seroconvertion was detected in 10 patients. Despite the known limitations of serologic diagnosis, the cases here reported should encourage Brazilian doctors to include Q fever as an indigenous cause of febrile illness.

  20. Diversification of Bromelioideae (Bromeliaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest: A case study in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia.

    PubMed

    Goetze, Márcia; Schulte, Katharina; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Zanella, Camila M; Büttow, Miriam V; Capra, Fernanda; Bered, Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia comprises ca. 20 species distributed in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay, with a center of diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We examined interspecific relationships of Ortgiesia based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP). Ninety-six accessions belonging to 14 species of Ortgiesia were sampled, and genotyped with 11 AFLP primer combinations. The neighbor joining (NJ) tree depicted two main genetic groups within Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia, and four subgroups. The NJ tree showed short internal branches, indicating an overall shallow genetic divergence among Ortgiesia species as expected for the recently radiated subfamily Bromelioideae. Our results suggest that hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting may have hampered the reconstruction of interspecific relationships in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia. The mapping of petal color (yellow, blue, pink, or white), inflorescence type (simple or compound), and inflorescence shape (ellipsoid, subcylindric, cylindric, or pyramidal) against the NJ tree indicated that these characters are of limited taxonomic use in Aechmea subgenus Ortgiesia due to homoplasy. An analysis of the current distribution of Ortgiesia identified the southern region of the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, between latitudes of 26° and 27°S, as the center of diversity for the subgenus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Twentieth-century astronomical heritage: the case of the Brazilian National Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboza, Christina Helena

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the UNESCO-IAU Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative's discussions by presenting the case study of a 20th-century observatory located in a South American country. In fact, the National Observatory of Brazil was created in the beginning of the 19th century, but its present facilities were inaugurated in 1921. Through this paper a brief description of the heritage associated with the Brazilian observatory is given, focused on its main historical instruments and the scientific and social roles it performed along its history. By way of conclusion, the paper suggests that the creation of the Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences with its multidisciplinary team of academic specialists and technicians was decisive for the preservation of that expressive astronomical heritage.

  2. Discussion on the Criterion for the Safety Certification Basis Compilation - Brazilian Space Program Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, M.; Alves, N. C.; Caetano, A. O.; Andrade, N. S. O.

    2012-01-01

    The recent advent of the commercial launch and re- entry activities, for promoting the expansion of human access to space for tourism and hypersonic travel, in the already complex ambience of the global space activities, brought additional difficulties over the development of a harmonized framework of international safety rules. In the present work, with the purpose of providing some complementary elements for global safety rule development, the certification-related activities conducted in the Brazilian space program are depicted and discussed, focusing mainly on the criterion for certification basis compilation. The results suggest that the composition of a certification basis with the preferential use of internationally-recognized standards, as is the case of ISO standards, can be a first step toward the development of an international safety regulation for commercial space activities.

  3. Are natural reservoirs important for cholera surveillance? The case of an outbreak in a Brazilian estuary.

    PubMed

    Martinelli Filho, J E; Lopes, R M; Rivera, I N G; Colwell, R R

    2016-09-01

    Paranaguá Bay is one of the largest estuarine systems on the Southern Brazilian coast. The only recorded cholera outbreak in this region since the early 20th century occurred in 1999 and resulted in 467 cases and at least three reported deaths in a population of approx. 150 000 people. This short communication reports historical, unpublished data related to that outbreak. Water, zooplankton and bivalve samples were collected and evaluated using direct fluorescence assay to determine whether Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 were present in the estuarine system at that time. Most of the water (83%) and zooplankton samples (75%) were positive for V. cholerae O1, while V. cholerae O139 was not detected. Shellfish (Mytella sp.) were also positive for V. cholerae O1. These results indicate that the estuary, including biological vectors such as copepods and bivalves, comprise an important reservoir of V. cholerae O1 and a probable waterborne pathway for the disease, in addition to contamination with untreated sewage. Despite most of the cholera cases that occurred in Brazil during the 7th pandemic were located in the northern areas of the country, a significant outbreak in Paranaguá, an estuary in the south coast, resulted in at least three deaths in 1999. We report here the detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 in water, zooplankton and bivalve samples during the outbreak, using direct fluorescence assay as an alternative method for the traditional plate culture employed at the time by the Brazilian Sanitary Agency. Results demonstrate that aquatic natural reservoirs comprise a potential route of transmission of cholera, in addition to untreated sewage and routine monitoring is recommended. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Strategies for reducing carbon emissions on the tropical rain forest: The case of the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, M.A.V. de; Rosa, L.P.

    1995-11-01

    Forests systems are renewable resources that can be used by present generations and that should be available to future generations if they are exploited on a sustainable basis. The tropical forest is still an immense and unknown field. The issues are: What means a sustainable basis in the tropical rain forests? What are the means of harmonising an economic development with an environmental equilibrium in tropical regions? One way to meet this requirement is to analyse the potentially {open_quotes}no regrets{close_quotes} options on which it is possible to agree upon despite controversies about what will be the true long run costs and benefits of various courses of actions. In the case of the Brazilian Amazon, in the last thirty years, the use of biomass and land has increased rapidly. Therefore, environmental and social problems have emerged with some intensity and have had repercussions on local and global scales. In relation to the recent global environmental changes, the Brazilian Amazon is considered as a key region for biodiversity conservation and preserving a carbon sink. In this paper, the main methodological option is to conceive a set of {open_quotes}no-regret{close_quotes} options, related with the land uses and biomass valorisation, which are analysed through the same framework. The options considered here are: decrease of the great cattle ranching and of the predatory timber extraction; the increase of forest management (harvest of timber and nontimber extractive products) and forest plantations in the degraded lands. The aims to focus on three elements: job creation, technico-economic adequation and environmental impacts, with special regards concerning the limitation of the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon flow).

  5. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma in a Brazilian population: clinico-pathological analysis of 38 cases.

    PubMed

    Mariano, F V; Noronha, A L F; Gondak, R O; Altemani, A M de A M; de Almeida, O P; Kowalski, L P

    2013-06-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is a rare tumour, with different prevalence rates reported among studies. Epidemiological studies of large series of CXPAs in developing countries are scarce. The aim of the present study was to describe Brazilian patients with CXPA; this was a retrospective study of 38 patients. Demographic and clinico-pathological features were evaluated. No preferential gender was found, and the mean age at diagnosis was 57.6 years. The most commonly involved site was the parotid, followed by the submandibular and the minor salivary glands. A prevalence of clinical stages III and IV was observed at diagnosis. The most common histological subtypes were salivary duct carcinoma, adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, myoepithelial carcinoma, and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. Moreover, by invasive phase, most were frankly invasive carcinoma. Recurrence was observed in seven out of 24 patients with outcome information available, and all were invasive cases. All seven patients died of causes related to the disease. The distributions of cases according to age, gender, tumour location, and clinical stage were similar to those reported in the literature. Frankly invasive cases presented a worse prognosis. More information is needed to further our understanding of the clinico-pathological aspects of CXPA.

  6. Detection of medical examiner cases from review of cremation requests.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Craig L; Winston, David C

    2006-06-01

    Title 9, Chapter 19, Article 3 of the Arizona Administrative Code requires all bodies that are to be cremated must have the death certificate reviewed by a county medical examiner. In Tucson, AZ, and surrounding Pima County, all cremation requests are submitted to the Forensic Science Center, where the death certificates are reviewed by one of 5 board-certified forensic pathologists. In 2002, there were 5557 cremation requests, and in 2003 there were 5662 cremation requests. Of these requests, 670 (12.1%) and 447 (7.9%) death certificates were flagged for further investigation in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Eventually, 47 cases (0.8% of total, 7.0% of flagged cases) were accepted as medical examiner cases in 2002, and 43 cases (0.8% of total, 9.6% of flagged cases) were accepted as medical examiner cases in 2003. In 2002, the majority of cases were handled as a records review; however, 4 cases were brought in for autopsy and 1 was certified after an external examination only. In 2003, all cases were certified via a records review. The manner of death in all but 3 of these deaths was certified as accident, with complications of remote trauma being the most common proximate cause of death. The 3 most common injuries were complications of fractured pelvis or femur (15 in 2002, 22 in 2003), head injury due to fall (18 in 2002, 8 in 2003), and complications of remote motor vehicle accident (3 in 2002, 6 in 2003). The other 3 deaths included 2 homicides, 1 in each year, and 1 suicide in 2003.

  7. A Case of Hydranencephaly in Which Ophthalmic Examinations Were Performed

    PubMed Central

    Eda, Shohei; Terai, Tomoko; Nishikawa, Yuko; Tonari, Masahiro; Kida, Teruyo; Oku, Hidehiro; Sugasawa, Jun; Shimakawa, Shuichi; Hasegawa, Masashi; Ogihara, Tohru; Ikeda, Tsunehiko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We performed ophthalmic examinations, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), on a case diagnosed with hydranencephaly. Case Report This case involved a female infant born at the gestational age of 35 weeks and 4 days, with the birth weight of 2,152 g, who was one of monochorionic diamniotic twins, and the identical twin died in utero at the gestational age of 24 weeks. After that, examination by fetal echo indicated that she had microcephaly and ventriculomegaly. Postnatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her head indicated microcephaly and significant enlargement of the lateral ventricle on both sides, with no obvious signs of elevated intracranial pressure. The brain parenchyma of both sides of the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and occipital lobe had marked thinning, yet that of the temporal lobe, basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum had been maintained. Moreover, no obvious hematoma or neoplastic lesions were observed. Ophthalmic examinations indicated that both of her eyes had slight light reflex, attributed to optic nerve atrophy. Examination by use of a hand-held OCT system indicated a layered structure of the retina and thinning of the ganglion cell layer. Flicker electroretinogram (ERG) examination by use of a hand-held ERG system indicated an almost normal wave. However, no clear visual reaction was observed when she was 10 months old. Conclusion Our findings in this case of hydranencephaly revealed that even though the outer layer functions of the patient's retina were maintained, extensive damage to her cerebral cortex resulted in poor visual function. PMID:27790130

  8. A nested case-control study of fatal work related injuries among Brazilian steel workers.

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, S M; Swerdlow, A J; Smith, P G; Higgins, C D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the relative risk of death from work related injury in a steelworks, associated with exposure to various occupational hazards, sociodemographic factors, and medical history. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a nested case-control design. It was based on a cohort of men employed in the steel plant of USIMINAS, Brazil between January 1977 and August 1990, who were followed up to November 1992. The cases were defined as all workers in the cohort who died from injury in the study period and whose death had been notified to the Brazilian Ministry of Labour as being related to work. Four controls per case, matched to cases on year of birth, were randomly selected from among workers employed in the plant at the time of death of the matching case. Data on potential risk factors for occupational injury were extracted from company records; for the controls these data were abstracted for the period preceding the death of the matching case. RESULTS: There were 37 deaths related to work injuries during the study period. Four surviving workers were selected as controls for each case, but for eight the personnel records were incomplete, leaving 140 controls in all. Significantly increased risk of fatal injury related to work was associated with exposure to noise, heat, dust and fumes, gases and vapours, rotating shift work, being a manual worker, and working in the steel mill, coke ovens, blast furnaces, and energy and water supply areas. Risk of fatal injury related to work increased with intensity of exposure to noise (P (trend) = 0.004) and heat (P < 0.001), and increased greatly with a hazard score that combined information on noise, heat, dust, and gas exposure (P < 0.001). Number of years of schooling (P = 0.03) and salary level (P = 0.03) were both negatively associated with risk. In a multivariate analysis including all these significant factors, only hazard score and area of work remained associated with death from injury related to work. The

  9. A nested case-control study of fatal work related injuries among Brazilian steel workers.

    PubMed

    Barreto, S M; Swerdlow, A J; Smith, P G; Higgins, C D

    1997-08-01

    To estimate the relative risk of death from work related injury in a steelworks, associated with exposure to various occupational hazards, sociodemographic factors, and medical history. The study was a nested case-control design. It was based on a cohort of men employed in the steel plant of USIMINAS, Brazil between January 1977 and August 1990, who were followed up to November 1992. The cases were defined as all workers in the cohort who died from injury in the study period and whose death had been notified to the Brazilian Ministry of Labour as being related to work. Four controls per case, matched to cases on year of birth, were randomly selected from among workers employed in the plant at the time of death of the matching case. Data on potential risk factors for occupational injury were extracted from company records; for the controls these data were abstracted for the period preceding the death of the matching case. There were 37 deaths related to work injuries during the study period. Four surviving workers were selected as controls for each case, but for eight the personnel records were incomplete, leaving 140 controls in all. Significantly increased risk of fatal injury related to work was associated with exposure to noise, heat, dust and fumes, gases and vapours, rotating shift work, being a manual worker, and working in the steel mill, coke ovens, blast furnaces, and energy and water supply areas. Risk of fatal injury related to work increased with intensity of exposure to noise (P (trend) = 0.004) and heat (P < 0.001), and increased greatly with a hazard score that combined information on noise, heat, dust, and gas exposure (P < 0.001). Number of years of schooling (P = 0.03) and salary level (P = 0.03) were both negatively associated with risk. In a multivariate analysis including all these significant factors, only hazard score and area of work remained associated with death from injury related to work. The highest risks were for men exposed to all

  10. Bioethics, culture and infanticide in Brazilian indigenous communities: the Zuruahá case.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Saulo Ferreira; Garrafa, Volnei; Cornelli, Gabriele; Tardivo, Carla; Carvalho, Samuel José de

    2010-05-01

    This article analyzes the practice of infanticide in indigenous communities in Brazil. Taking as a reference point a specific case involving two children of the Zuruahá people, it takes a broader look at the issue and discusses how infanticide is understood among other indigenous peoples. A debate focusing specifically on this topic that took place during a public hearing held in the Brazilian National Congress in December 2005 has also been taken into consideration in this discussion. In view of the positions adopted as a result of the hearing, this paper seeks to identify the ethical problems and moral dilemmas relating to the subject, by putting them into context and analyzing them in the light of respect for cultural pluralism. Seeking to contribute to the debate, the authors analyze the possibilities for intervention in the traditional practices of infanticide, while rejecting those positions that are not anchored in an attitude of profound respect for other people's cultures or that do not create conditions for dialogue between individuals or groups with different moralities.

  11. Where is sugarcane cropping expanding in the brazilian cerrado, and why? A case study.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Murilo R DE; Giller, Ken E; Slingerland, Maja

    2017-08-14

    Sugarcane growing area in Brazil sharply expanded between 2000 and 2010 due to the increasing world demand for sugar and ethanol. Since this expansion of sugarcane is said to occur in areas covered by degraded pastures, it is likely not threatening the environment or food production. In order to verify this assumption, we investigate at farm and field levels which types of land use sugarcane cropping replaced between 2005 and 2010 and the reasons for farmers shifting or not shifting to sugarcane, as a case study in two counties in the state of Goiás. Within the studied period, sugarcane cropping expansion was related to large farms, lower risk perceived by farmers, and higher profitability compared with soybean and beef cattle-raising. For smallholders, particularly dairy farmers, the need to comply with the set-aside rules under Brazilian Forest Code (Código Florestal Brasileiro) made a shift to sugarcane less attractive, as it would have forced them to reduce farm cultivable area, with loss of incomes. From 30,408 ha under sugarcane surveyed, 45.7% had used to be pastures, 31% had previously been pastures rotated with soybean and maize, and 23.3% had been cropped exclusively with soybean or maize.

  12. The discourse of ethics in nursing education: experience and reflections of Brazilian teachers - case study.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires; Brehmer, Laura Cavalcanti de Farias; Gelbcke, Francine Lima; Schmoeller, Soraia Dornelles; Lorenzetti, Jorge

    2013-10-01

    From a scenario of political and technological changes in work and health education, the purpose of this study was to understand the ethics discourse in nurses' education process in Brazilian nursing schools. A research was performed with a qualitative approach, characterized as a case study, involving six schools of a region in the south of Brazil. The data were collected by focal groups involving 50 teachers. The results were organized in three categories: (1) experience and motivation to teach ethics and bioethics, (2) indicators of change identified in global and local contexts and (3) challenges in the education of ethics, values and related themes. The teachers have highlighted complex elements related to scientific, educational and professional contexts, and pointed out the need for a critical perspective on the professional scenario and on their own situations as nurses and educators. The analyzed discourse brings to light the topic of ethics, seen as peculiar to the present day and in intimate connection with the daily routine of clinical, pedagogical and political professional practices. The findings suggest that the reflections on nurses' ethics education should not be limited to discussing content and pedagogical strategies but should be extended to include a commitment to the adoption of values in professional practice and to the process of the construction of a professional identity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The relative frequency of odontogenic tumors: A study of 376 cases in a Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Verde-Osterne, Rafael; Turatti, Eveline; Cordeiro-Teixeira, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Background Odontogenic tumors (OTs) are rare lesions, exclusive of the jaws, that are derived from epithelial and/or ectomesenchymal elements of the tooth-forming apparatus. Their biological behavior is heterogeneous, including hamartomatous tissue proliferation, benign nonaggressive and aggressive neoplasms, and malignant tumors with metastatic capacity. The aim of this study was to describe the relative frequency of odontogenic tumors in a Brazilian population. In addition, a review of the literature identified studies on odontogenic tumors that follow the 2005 World Health Organization. Material and Methods A total of 376 cases of odontogenic tumors from an oral pathology service were reviewed about age, gender, anatomic site and histologic diagnosis. Results Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (31.6%) were the most common, followed by ameloblastoma (28.5%), and odontoma (22.6%). The mean age was 32.2 years, and more than half the patients (52.1%) were in the second and third decades of life. The male to female ratio was 1:1.37, with a maxilla to mandible ratio of 1:2.08. Conclusions The variation in relative frequency of tumors observed among the several series, including the present study, is probably due in part to cultural differences between geographic areas but also to the study design. Key words:Pathology, epidemiology, odontogenic tumors. PMID:28160576

  14. Leprosy incidence, characterization of cases and correlation with household and cases variables of the Brazilian states in 2010*

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Shamyr Sulyvan; Santos, Juliana Pereira Pontes; Abreu, Graziela Basílio; Oliveira, Vanessa Rossato; Fernandes, Luciane Fernanda Rodrigues Martinho

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leprosy is millenary disease and still persists in several countries. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of leprosy in the Brazilian states and for the country in the year 2010; to describe the cases reported according to the studied variables; to verify the correlation between the overall incidence and the studied variables. METHODS: Ecological descriptive study, with population data from the 27 states, 2010. Information about reported cases were collected: gender, race, percentage of patients younger than 15 years old and living conditions. The analysis was performed using percentages, means, incidence rates and the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: The states of Mato Grosso and Tocantins recorded the highest incidence rates; Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, the lowest; there was a higher incidence of leprosy among men; the incidence of leprosy increases proportionally with the nonwhites among the inhabitants; patients younger than 15 years; the average number of residents per household; and a decrease in coverage of water supply and presence of bathrooms. CONCLUSION: The incidence of leprosy is related to factors as gender, race and house conditions (p<0,05 for all). PMID:26982775

  15. Testicular Adrenal Rests Tumors and Testicular Microlithiasis in a Brazilian Case Series with Classic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ohana Marques Coelho de Carvalho, Laura; Miguel Garcia Lora, Raymundo; Renata Rezende Penna, Claudia; Calland Ricarte Beserra, Izabel

    2016-01-01

    Background Testicular adrenal rest tumors are a benign condition characterized by the presence of remnants of adrenal tissue within the testes that can lead to infertility. Testicular microlithiasis are calculus deposits within the seminiferous tubules. Both are described in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Objectives Describe the frequency of testicular adrenal rest tumors and testicular microlithiasis in a Brazilian case series of patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia and to also relate these changes to disease control and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis disorders. Methods Case series study. An ultrasound examination of the scrotum was performed on 12 patients between the ages of 5.33 to 22 (14.72 ± 5.26) years. Testicular adrenal rest tumors were classified according to the degree of testicular infiltration in stages by adapting the Grinten’s classification, ranging from the absence of testicular adrenal rests visible by ultrasound (stage ≤ 1) to chronic obstruction of the testicular parenchyma with irreversible damage of the testicle (stage 5). Results Six patients (5 salt wasting and 1 simple virilizing) with an average age of 17.27 ± 3.09 years and have gone through puberty showed testicular adrenal rest tumors (Grinten stage ≥ 3). In 2 of the patients there was a coincidence with testicular microlithiasis. The frequency of testicular adrenal rest tumors did not relate with the levels of serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione. In 3 patients with testicular adrenal rest tumors, gonadotropin levels were suggestive of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and one of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Conclusions Testicular adrenal rest tumors were found in greater frequency during puberty and was not related to hormonal control in this group. Some of them happened with testicular microlithiasis. PMID:28835760

  16. Interpretation of automotive light bulb examination results: an intriguing case.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    During the examination of light bulbs from a vehicle involved in a road accident, the headlights did not reveal any evidence regarding whether they were energized or not. Additionally, a police officer turned the lights on after the accident to verify their functioning, thus damaging some of the evidence. By examining the vehicle, it was determined that the park lights could provide answers regarding the conditions of the headlights. After observations, it was concluded that the park lights and headlights were off at the time of the impact. This case report demonstrates how important it is to integrate the circumstances surrounding the case into the interpretation of the results. Nevertheless, it also demonstrates the necessity for examining both the vehicle and all light bulbs in order to reach the most pertinent and proper conclusion.

  17. (Case studies examining energy policies and strategies for water resources development): Foreign trip report, May 7--13, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1989-05-24

    The traveler met with colleagues involved with Project 12.2 of the IHP of UNESCO to discuss and finalize case studies that are being prepared for a report entitled ''Case Studies Examining Energy Policies and Strategies for Water Resources Development.'' Draft case studies from the United States, Brazil, Norway, and Czechoslovakia were reviewed and discussed. The traveler was appointed editor of the final report. The traveler met with staff of the National Department of Water and Electrical Energy of the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the Secretary General of the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the Executive Secretary to the National Energy Commission of Brazil, and the newly created Brazilian Institute of the Environment. The traveler was briefed on the functions of these departments, and he briefed them on water resource activities conducted at ORNL. The traveler presented a seminar at Eletrobras (national electric utility) in Brazil on environmental research at ORNL.

  18. Mycobacterium bovis in a European bison (Bison bonasus) raises concerns about tuberculosis in Brazilian captive wildlife populations: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Brum, Juliana Sperotto; de Souza Filho, Antônio Francisco; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Perotta, João Henrique; Dib, Cristina Corsi; Bonat, Marcelo; Neto, José Soares Ferreira; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa

    2017-02-10

    Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is an important worldwide zoonosis and has been reported to cause clinical disease in several animal species, including captive wildlife. This report describes a case of M. bovis infection in a European bison from a Brazilian zoo and compiles a number of literature reports that raise concern regarding tuberculosis among captive wildlife in Brazil. A 13 year-old captive-born male bison (Bison bonasus) from a Brazilian zoo began presenting weight loss, diarrhea and respiratory symptoms, which inevitably led to his death. At the animal's necropsy, inspection of the thoracic and abdominal cavities revealed multiple enlarged lymph nodes, ranging from 4 to 10 cm, and pulmonary nodules containing caseous masses with firm white materials consistent with mineralization. Histopathology findings showed a significant amount of acid-alcohol resistant bacilli compatible with Mycobacterium spp. Specimens from lymph nodes and lungs were cultured on Petragnani and Stonebrink media, and specific PCR assays of the bacterial isolate identified it as M. bovis. The European bison reported herein died from a severe form of disseminated tuberculosis caused by M. bovis. A review of the available literature indicates possible widespread occurrence of clinical disease caused by M. bovis or M. tuberculosis affecting multiple animal species in Brazilian wildlife-related institutions. These likely underestimated numbers raise concern regarding the control of the disease in captive animal populations from Brazil.

  19. Transformational change in healthcare: an examination of four case studies.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Kate; Jamieson, Maggie; Davey, Rachel; Butler, Colin D

    2016-04-01

    Objectives Healthcare leaders around the world are calling for radical, transformational change of our health and care systems. This will be a difficult and complex task. In this article, we examine case studies in which transformational change has been achieved, and seek to learn from these experiences. Methods We used the case study method to investigate examples of transformational change in healthcare. The case studies were identified from preliminary doctoral research into the transition towards future sustainable health and social care systems. Evidence was collected from multiple sources, key features of each case study were displayed in a matrix and thematic analysis was conducted. The results are presented in narrative form. Results Four case studies were selected: two from the US, one from Australia and one from the UK. The notable features are discussed for each case study. There were many common factors: a well communicated vision, innovative redesign, extensive consultation and engagement with staff and patients, performance management, automated information management and high-quality leadership. Conclusions Although there were some notable differences between the case studies, overall the characteristics of success were similar and collectively provide a blueprint for transformational change in healthcare. What is known about the topic? Healthcare leaders around the world are calling for radical redesign of our systems in order to meet the challenges of modern society. What does this paper add? There are some remarkable examples of transformational change in healthcare. The key factors in success are similar across the case studies. What are the implications for practitioners? Collectively, these key factors can guide future attempts at transformational change in healthcare.

  20. Off-Farm Work among Rural Households: A Case Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWey, Leah; Vithayathil, Trina

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes off-farm work among subsistence-level farmers in the Santarem region of the Brazilian Amazon. We build on the literature on rural livelihoods in the Global South by exploring how the opportunity to work off the farm is embedded in social relationships. We additionally differentiate our analysis by type of off-farm work, and…

  1. Female Educators, Development, and Human Capital: A Brazilian Case. Working Paper #35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Linda

    The role of female educators in the Brazilian Amazon community of Itaituba (population in 1970: 12,690) has fallen short of that envisioned by the policymakers and social scientists in the early 1970s, as indicated by research conducted in 1976-77. Based on the "human capital" theory, better-trained local teachers were to train the local…

  2. Sustainability and Local Knowledge: The Case of the Brazilian ESP Project 1980-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, John; Celani, Maria Antonieta A.

    2006-01-01

    On the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the Brazilian ESP Project, this paper discusses why it has been able to sustain itself and develop over such a long period. The analysis focuses on two main areas of decision-making which led to this success: the structure of the project itself and the ESP methodology which was developed. Comparing the…

  3. Off-Farm Work among Rural Households: A Case Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWey, Leah; Vithayathil, Trina

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes off-farm work among subsistence-level farmers in the Santarem region of the Brazilian Amazon. We build on the literature on rural livelihoods in the Global South by exploring how the opportunity to work off the farm is embedded in social relationships. We additionally differentiate our analysis by type of off-farm work, and…

  4. Examining Racial Disproportionality in Child Protective Services Case Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Font, Sarah A.; Berger, Lawrence M.; Slack, Kristen S.

    2012-01-01

    Using a national sample of 1,461 child protective services (CPS) investigations in the United States, we examine differences between black and white families with regard to caseworker ratings of risk and harm to the child, as well as the probability that a case is substantiated for maltreatment. We employ difference-in-difference methods to identify whether gaps in outcomes for black and white families are equivalent when black and white CPS workers conduct the investigation, and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition methods to identify the portion of the black-white difference in outcomes that is attributable to differences in case characteristics (risk factors) versus differences in associations between these characteristics and the outcomes by race (differential treatment). We find no differences in outcomes by child race after adjusting for case characteristics. At the same time, we find that relative to white caseworkers, black caseworkers are more likely to rate black children at subjectively higher risk of harm than white children and are also more likely to substantiate black families for maltreatment. The decomposition results suggest that—even after accounting for caseworker race—differences in outcomes for black and white children are primarily explained by differences in family and case circumstances rather than differential treatment. Thus, our analyses suggest that interventions addressing maltreatment-related risk factors that disproportionately affect black families may have greater utility for reducing racial disparities in CPS involvement than current emphases on cultural competence training. PMID:22984321

  5. A Case of Anaphylaxis to Chlorhexidine during Digital Rectal Examination

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Yun-Jeong; Park, Chan Sun; Lee, Jae Keun; Jeong, Eunheui; Cho, You Sook; Moon, Hee-Bom

    2008-01-01

    Chlorhexidine is widely used as an antiseptic and disinfectant in medical and non-medical environments. Although the sensitization rate seems to be low, its ubiquitous use raises the possibility of sensitization in many patients and medical care workers. We describe a patient with anaphylaxis during digital rectal examination with chlorhexidine jelly. Urticaria, angioedema, dyspnea, and hypotension developed within a few minutes of the rectal examination. The patient fully recovered after treatment with epinephrine and corticosteroids. Skin tests for chlorhexidine were undertaken 5 weeks later, showing positive prick and intradermal skin tests. Within 30 min of the skin test, the patient complained of febrile sensation, chest tightness, angioedema, and urticaria on the face and trunk. An enzyme allergosorbent test for latex was negative. We present this case to alert clinicians about hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine that could potentially be life-threatening. We suggest that chlorhexidine should be recognized as a causative agent of anaphylaxis during procedural interventions. PMID:18583893

  6. A case of anaphylaxis to chlorhexidine during digital rectal examination.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yun-Jeong; Park, Chan Sun; Lee, Jae Keun; Jeong, Eunheui; Kim, Tae-Bum; Cho, You Sook; Moon, Hee-Bom

    2008-06-01

    Chlorhexidine is widely used as an antiseptic and disinfectant in medical and nonmedical environments. Although the sensitization rate seems to be low, its ubiquitous use raises the possibility of sensitization in many patients and medical care workers. We describe a patient with anaphylaxis during digital rectal examination with chlorhexidine jelly. Urticaria, angioedema, dyspnea, and hypotension developed within a few minutes of the rectal examination. The patient fully recovered after treatment with epinephrine and corticosteroids. Skin tests for chlorhexidine were undertaken 5 weeks later, showing positive prick and intradermal skin tests. Within 30 min of the skin test, the patient complained of febrile sensation, chest tightness, angioedema, and urticaria on the face and trunk. An enzyme allergosorbent test for latex was negative. We present this case to alert clinicians about hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine that could potentially be life-threatening. We suggest that chlorhexidine should be recognized as a causative agent of anaphylaxis during procedural interventions.

  7. Effect of the Brazilian conditional cash transfer and primary health care programs on the new case detection rate of leprosy.

    PubMed

    Nery, Joilda Silva; Pereira, Susan Martins; Rasella, Davide; Penna, Maria Lúcia Fernandes; Aquino, Rosana; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Penna, Gerson Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Social determinants can affect the transmission of leprosy and its progression to disease. Not much is known about the effectiveness of welfare and primary health care policies on the reduction of leprosy occurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Brazilian cash transfer (Bolsa Família Program-BFP) and primary health care (Family Health Program-FHP) programs on new case detection rate of leprosy. We conducted the study with a mixed ecological design, a combination of an ecological multiple-group and time-trend design in the period 2004-2011 with the Brazilian municipalities as unit of analysis. The main independent variables were the BFP and FHP coverage at the municipal level and the outcome was new case detection rate of leprosy. Leprosy new cases, BFP and FHP coverage, population and other relevant socio-demographic covariates were obtained from national databases. We used fixed-effects negative binomial models for panel data adjusted for relevant socio-demographic covariates. A total of 1,358 municipalities were included in the analysis. In the studied period, while the municipal coverage of BFP and FHP increased, the new case detection rate of leprosy decreased. Leprosy new case detection rate was significantly reduced in municipalities with consolidated BFP coverage (Risk Ratio 0.79; 95% CI  =0.74-0.83) and significantly increased in municipalities with FHP coverage in the medium (72-95%) (Risk Ratio 1.05; 95% CI  =1.02-1.09) and higher coverage tertiles (>95%) (Risk Ratio 1.12; 95% CI  =1.08-1.17). At the same time the Family Health Program had been effective in increasing the new case detection rate of leprosy in Brazil, the Bolsa Família Program was associated with a reduction of the new case detection rate of leprosy that we propose reflects a reduction in leprosy incidence.

  8. An inconclusive digital audio authenticity examination: a unique case.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Bruce E; Lacey, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    This case report sets forth an authenticity examination of 35 encrypted, proprietary-format digital audio files containing recorded telephone conversations between two codefendants in a criminal matter. The codefendant who recorded the conversations did so on a recording system he developed; additionally, he was both a forensic audio authenticity examiner, who had published and presented in the field, and was the head of a professional audio society's writing group for authenticity standards. The authors conducted the examination of the recordings following nine laboratory steps of the peer-reviewed and published 11-step digital audio authenticity protocol. Based considerably on the codefendant's direct involvement with the development of the encrypted audio format, his experience in the field of forensic audio authenticity analysis, and the ease with which the audio files could be accessed, converted, edited in the gap areas, and reconstructed in such a way that the processes were undetected, the authors concluded that the recordings could not be scientifically authenticated through accepted forensic practices.

  9. Reduction of incidence and relapse or recrudescence cases of malaria in the western region of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Gabriel de Deus; Gim, Karla Nayma Mundt; Zaqueo, Guilherme Mendes; Alves, Thaianne da Cunha; Katsuragawa, Tony Hiroshi; Basano, Sergio de Almeida; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha; Maciel de Sousa, Camila

    2014-09-12

    Malaria is one of the major parasitic diseases in the State of Rondônia, located in the western Brazilian Amazon. The basic treatment scheme for this disease is chloroquine and primaquine. This study evaluated the epidemiological profile of malaria in Rondônia between 2008 and 2012. The epidemiological data were provided by the Health Surveillance Agency from the State of Rondônia, and socioeconomic indicators were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, Department of Informatics of the Unified Health System, and from the National Institute for Space Research. The analyzed variables included year of diagnosis, gender, age group, main activity performed in the 15 days previous to the diagnosis, parasite species, level of parasitemia, number of relapse/recrudescence cases, and socioeconomic and environmental data for Rondônia. A total of 238,626 cases of malaria were recorded in Rondônia during the study period. Of this total, 65.6% were men and the most prevalent age group was 20-39 years. Plasmodium vivax was the most common parasite (89.8%), followed by Plasmodium   falciparum (9.4%). An average of 30.9% of the individuals who were tested presented with relapse/recrudescence malaria. The API value was highest in 2008 and lowest in 2012, corresponding to 42.3 cases and 19.2 cases per 1,000 inhabitants, respectively. A 58% reduction in the number of malaria cases and a 36.2% reduction in the number of relapse/recrudescence malaria cases were observed, due to increases in the economy, improvements in the health system, and reduction of deforestation in this region.

  10. [Documents make a difference: the case of Brazilian domestic workers in Massachusetts, USA].

    PubMed

    Siqueira, C Eduardo; Soares, Gabriella Barreto; Araújo, Pedro Luiz de; Tracy, Maria Natalicia

    2016-07-21

    Brazilian immigrants in the United States experience various social, labor, and health challenges. This study aimed to analyze the profile of female Brazilian domestic workers in Massachusetts, USA, through a description of their working conditions and self-rated health. This was a cross-sectional study of 198 domestic workers in Massachusetts, recruited with "snowball" sampling. The instrument addressed participants' demographic characteristics, work conditions, and self-rated health. Data were analyzed with SPSS 21.0. Among the interviewees, 95.5% were women, 62.1% were 30 to 49 years of age, and 55.6% were undocumented. Documented and undocumented participants showed statistically significant differences in demographics, work conditions, and health. Irregular immigrant status appears to have a negative impact on domestic workers' living and health conditions.

  11. [Programa de saúde: a case of book censorship during the Brazilian military dictatorship].

    PubMed

    Reimão, Sandra

    2013-11-30

    Some documents produced by the government during the Brazilian military dictatorship have been made available for reference, including censors' reports on television and radio programs, plays, films, songs, advertisements and printed matter. Of the 500 or so reports on books, there is one that vetoes Programa de saúde: projetos e temas de higiene e saúde, an educational work that proposed actions to help students understand their sanitary conditions and acquire knowledge about health and health-promoting habits in this area. The argument for vetoing it was that the information could fall into the hands of poorly trained teachers, who could distort its content, causing serious damage to Brazilian youth. In this report we see evidence of the obscurantist, elitist posture adopted by the Department of Censorship of Public Entertainment, which aimed to restrict the circulation of information and curb debate.

  12. Panic disorder cases in Japanese-Brazilians in Japan: their ethnic and cultural confusion.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, K; Miyasaka, L S; Otsuka, K; Honda, G; Kato, S; Abe, Y

    2001-04-01

    The comparatively high salaries made in Japan are attractive to many Japanese-Brazilians. The number of individuals from this ethnic group being treated in Japanese mental hospitals has increased. We hypothesized that Japanese-Brazilian patients with panic disorders adjusted better to Japanese society and culture than those with other mental disorders. The subjects in the present study are 40 Japanese-Brazilian patients undergoing treatment at the Department of Psychiatry at Jichi Medical School, Japan, from May 1990 to September 1998. Patients were divided into a panic disorder group, a schizophrenic group, a mood disorder group and a neurosis group. Demographic data (Japanese language ability, duration of residence in Japan etc.) were collected. A comparison was made among the four groups. Patients in the panic disorder group showed a significant tendency to be fluent speakers of Japanese. Patients in the panic disorder group also had been in Japan for a significantly longer period of time than those in the other three groups. Japanese ability and length of residence in Japan rule out exacerbating factors due to a foreign living environment. Panic disorder patients usually have resolved the problems inherent in living and working in a foreign country. In general, Japanese-Brazilians are more comfortable both financially and socially in Japan than other foreign laborers because of their cultural and family background. The emotional conflict experienced by such patients may result from concern over whether to live in Brazil or Japan in the future. Their ethnic and cultural identity may be confused, fluctuating between identifying with Brazil and with Japan, and this may cause vague feelings of anxiety.

  13. Time trends and changes in the distribution of malaria cases in the Brazilian Amazon Region, 2004-2013

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Isac da SF; Lapouble, Oscar MM; Duarte, Elisabeth C

    2016-01-01

    Recent efforts to reduce malaria incidence have had some successes. Nevertheless, malaria persists as a significant public health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. The objective of this study was to describe changes in malaria case characteristics and to identify trends in malaria incidence in the Brazilian Amazon. This study used data from the Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance and Case Notification Information System from 2004 to 2013. The annual parasite incidence (API) was calculated and joinpoint regression was used to assess the trends in API over time. There was a sharp increase in API in the state of Acre, followed by two periods of decrease. Pará also presented inconsistent decreases over the study period. Amapá, Amazonas, Rondônia, and Roraima showed statistically significant decreases over the period. The sharpest decrease occurred in Rondônia, with a reduction of 21.7% in the average annual percent change (AAPC) (AAPC: -21.7%; 95% confidence interval: -25.4%, -17.8%; p < 0.05). This panorama of malaria incidence highlights the importance of integrating evidence-based malaria surveillance and control. Malaria is highly preventable, and eliminating its transmission should be a goal in coming decades. PMID:27925018

  14. Umbanda healers as effective AIDS educators: case-control study in Brazilian urban slums (favelas).

    PubMed

    Nations, M K; de Souza, M A

    1997-01-01

    During a 12-month period (November 1994-October 1995), Afro-Brazilian Umbanda healers (Pais-de-Santo) taught 126 fellow healers from 51 Umbanda centres (terreiros) located in seven overcrowded slums (favelas) (population 104-343) in Brazil's northeast, the biomedical prevention of AIDS, including safe sex practices, avoidance of ritual blood behaviours and sterilization of cutting instruments. A face-to-face educational intervention by healers, marginalized in society yet respected by devotees, which blended traditional healing-its language, codes, symbols and images- and scientific medicine and addressed social injustices and discrimination was utilized in this project supported by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, National Program in STDs/AIDS. Significant increases (P < 0.001) in AIDS awareness, knowledge about risky HIV behaviour, information about correct condom use, and acceptance of lower-risk, alternative ritual blood practices and decreases (P < 0.001) in prejudicial attitudes related to HIV transmission were found among mobilized healers as compared to 100 untrained controls. Respected Afro-Brazilian Pais-de-Santo can be creative and effective partners in national HIV prevention programmes when they are equipped with biomedical information about AIDS.

  15. A Qualitative Case Study Examining Intervention Tailoring for Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Mier, Nelda; Ory, Marcia G.; Toobert, Deborah; Smith, Matthew Lee; Osuna, Diego; McKay, James; Villarreal, Edna K.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rimer, Barbara K.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To explore issues of intervention tailoring for ethnic minorities based on information and experiences shared by researchers affiliated with the Health Maintenance Consortium (HMC). Methods A qualitative case study methodology was used with the administration of a survey (n=17 principal investigators) and follow-up telephone interviews. Descriptive and content analyses were conducted, and a synthesis of the findings was developed. Results: A majority of the HMC projects used individual tailoring strategies regardless of the ethnic background of participants. Follow-up interview findings indicated that key considerations in the process of intervention tailoring for minorities included formative research; individually oriented adaptations; and intervention components that were congruent with participants’ demographics, cultural norms, and social context. Conclusions Future research should examine the extent to which culturally tailoring long-term maintenance interventions for ethnic minorities is efficacious and should be pursued as an effective methodology to reduce health disparities. PMID:20604705

  16. Intelligent image capture of cartridge cases for firearms examiners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brett C.; Guerci, Joseph R.

    1997-02-01

    The FBI's DRUGFIRETM system is a nationwide computerized networked image database of ballistic forensic evidence. This evidence includes images of cartridge cases and bullets obtained from both crime scenes and controlled test firings of seized weapons. Currently, the system is installed in over 80 forensic labs across the country and has enjoyed a high degree of success. In this paper, we discuss some of the issues and methods associated with providing a front-end semi-automated image capture system that simultaneously satisfies the often conflicting criteria of the many human examiners visual perception versus the criteria associated with optimizing autonomous digital image correlation. Specifically, we detail the proposed processing chain of an intelligent image capture system (IICS), involving a real- time capture 'assistant,' which assesses the quality of the image under test utilizing a custom designed neural network.

  17. Polymorphisms of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in idiopathic, infertile Brazilian men: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Bianca; Peluso, Carla; Gava, Marcello Machado; Ghirelli-Filho, Milton; Lipay, Monica Vannucci Nunes; Lipay, Marco Aurélio; Christofolini, Denise Maria; Barbosa, Caio Parente

    2011-09-01

    Estrogen plays an important role in the human reproductive system and its action is mediated mainly by two specific receptors: α (ERα) and β (ERβ). There are polymorphic variants in both ER genes, and studies showed their association with reproductive outcomes. We aimed to determine the distribution of ERα and ERβ gene polymorphisms in idiopathic, infertile Brazilian patients in a case-control study comprising 187 idiopathic, infertile Brazilian men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA, n = 78) or severe oligozoospermia (SO, n = 109) and 216 fertile men. Detection of ERα (PvuII and XbaI) and ERβ (AluI and RsaI) gene polymorphisms were performed using TaqMan PCR. The results were analyzed statically, and a P-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Single-marker analysis revealed that neither PvuII nor XbaI polymorphisms of the ERα gene were associated either with NOA group (P = 0.662 and P = 0.527, respectively) or SO group (P = 0.777 and P = 1.0, respectively). Regarding ERβ polymorphisms, no statistical difference was observed between the AluI polymorphism and NOA group compared to controls (P = 1.0) or between SO group and controls (P = 0.423). We found similar results with the RsaI polymorphism. Statistical analysis did not reveal a difference between NOA (P = 0.740) and SO (P = 0.920) groups compared to controls. Combined genotypes of ERα and ERβ polymorphisms did not identify a haplotype associated with idiopathic infertility. Thus, in the Brazilian population, genetic variations in both estrogen receptors alpha (PvuII and XbaI) and beta (AluI and RsaI) were not relevant to idiopathic infertility. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. A study of the abilities in oral language comprehension of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination -- Portuguese version: a reference guide for the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Mansur, L L; Radanovic, M; Taquemori, L; Greco, L; Araújo, G C

    2005-02-01

    We analyzed the performance of 162 normal subjects, subdivided into groups according to age and schooling, in the oral comprehension tasks of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination translated and adapted to Brazilian Portuguese to obtain a profile of performance for the Brazilian population, as well as cut-off scores for each task, and to determine the best combination of tasks that distinguish normal from aphasic subjects, as a guide for clinicians. The normal subjects were compared to 69 aphasics. Age alone influenced the performance in the designation of actions (subjects above 70 years showing the worst performance); schooling alone influenced the comprehension of forms, colors and numbers (subjects with less than four years of education showing a poorer performance). Both age and schooling influenced the performance in Body Part Identification (BPI) and Complex Ideational Material (CIM) with mean values of 70.5 +/- 3.3 (Word Discrimination, WD), 18.9 +/- 1.4 (BPI), 14.7 +/- 0.9 (Commands), and 10.3 +/- 1.7 (CIM) for the whole sample; the cut-off scores obtained were 65 (WD), 17.5 (BPI), 14 (Commands), and 9.5 (CIM) for the whole sample. Logistic regression showed that the combination of BPI + Commands + CIM was the most efficient in differentiating normal subjects from aphasics, with 72.5% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity. However, for low-education subjects, BPI and Commands were sufficient for this differentiation (75.7% sensitivity and 84.7% specificity). The main contribution of this study was to provide reference values that are far more representative of our population to be used by health professionals in Brazil, taking into account cultural differences.

  19. Risk factors for hospital admission of Brazilian children with non-rotavirus diarrhoea: a case control-study.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Maria Yury T; Rodrigues, Laura C; Santos, Carlos A S T; Teixeira, Maria da Glória L C; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2015-07-01

    Rotavirus has been the leading cause of severe cases of acute diarrhoea (AD) among children worldwide; however, in the same areas, a large reduction in AD related to rotavirus has been observed after the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine. In Brazil, where there is a high rotavirus vaccine coverage, AD caused by pathogens other than rotavirus is still a frequent cause of outpatient visits and hospitalisations among children under 5 years. A hospital-based case-control study enrolled children aged 4 to 24 months admitted to 10 hospitals from all five Brazilian Regions. Cases (n=1178) were children admitted with diarrhoea who tested negative for rotavirus in a stool sample. Controls (n=2515) were children admitted without diarrhoea, frequency matched to cases by sex and age group. We estimated odds ratios using logistic regression, in a hierarchical approach according to a previously defined conceptual framework. Population-attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated for each variable, each block and for all significant variables in the latter model adjusted. The factors studied accounted for 41% of the non-rotavirus AD hospital admissions and the main risk factors included lack of adequate excreta disposal (PAF=12%), untreated drinking water (PAF=11%) and a history of previous hospitalization due to AD (PAF=21%). Low socio-economic conditions, no public water supply, crowding and low weight-for-age made smaller contributions. These findings further our knowledge of risk factors associated with severe AD in the post-rotavirus vaccination era. We recommend further increase in coverage of basic sanitation, improvements in water quality and further expansion of primary healthcare coverage to reduce the occurrence of non-rotavirus severe diarrhoea and subsequent hospitalization of Brazilian children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  20. [Healthcare and daily needs of expectant Brazilian women residing in Japan. Analysis of fieldwork conducted during prenatal examinations and home visits].

    PubMed

    Uemura, Naoko; Martinez, Makiko; Hatashita, Hiroyo

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the everyday lives and public healthcare needs of Brazilian nursing mothers and pregnant women residing in Japan, during the pregnancy and postpartum period, and the difficulties experienced in using or accessing the Japanese public healthcare system. The participants included 10 Brazilian expectant mothers who were residing in Prefecture A, but did not understand Japanese well, and those who were delivering for the first time in Japan. From August 2007 to July 2009, the researcher and interpreter conducted fieldwork by accompanying participants to medical examinations and making home visits. Analysis of the findings of this field study was carried out by labeling the relevant field note descriptions of each participant's thoughts and feelings concerning pregnancy and childbirth, the state of their everyday lives, and any additional public health-related difficulties encountered during this time. Additionally, individuals with common occurrences were again grouped and categorized for performing the analysis. Among the 10 participants, 8 were in their twenties and 2 were in their thirties; 8 participants had lived in Japan for less than 3 years and 2 of them for less than 10 years. Eight participants had had no prior experience with childbirth, whereas 2 had experienced childbirth. All 10 had resigned from work before entering into the late pregnancy stage, rendering their economic conditions solely dependent upon their husbands' income. In fact, many participants were in a difficult financial state. 6 women lived with their husbands, 2 others lived with husbands and had children, and 2 others were living with their husbands and parents in the same house. Six participants had families nearby that could provide support. However, none of the 10 participants maintained interactions with friends after having resigned from work. Participants were organized into the following 4 major categories based on the state of their everyday lives and the difficulties

  1. Differentiation of African components of ancestry to stratify groups in a case-control study of a Brazilian urban population.

    PubMed

    Silbiger, Vivian N; Hirata, Mario H; Luchessi, Andre D; Genvigir, Fabiana D V; Cerda, Alvaro; Rodrigues, Alice C; Willrich, Maria A V; Arazi, Simone S; Dorea, Egidio L; Bernik, Marcia M S; Faludi, Andre A; Bertolami, Marcelo C; Santos, Carla; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio; Freire, Ana; Lareu, Maria Victoria; Phillips, Christopher; Porras-Hurtado, Liliana; Fondevila, Manuel; Hirata, Rosario D C

    2012-06-01

    Balancing the subject composition of case and control groups to create homogenous ancestries between each group is essential for medical association studies. We explored the applicability of single-tube 34-plex ancestry informative markers (AIM) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the African Component of Ancestry (ACA) to design a future case-control association study of a Brazilian urban sample. One hundred eighty individuals (107 case group; 73 control group) self-described as white, brown-intermediate or black were selected. The proportions of the relative contribution of a variable number of ancestral population components were similar between case and control groups. Moreover, the case and control groups demonstrated similar distributions for ACA <0.25 and >0.50 categories. Notably a high number of outlier values (23 samples) were observed among individuals with ACA <0.25. These individuals presented a high probability of Native American and East Asian ancestral components; however, no individuals originally giving these self-described ancestries were observed in this study. The strategy proposed for the assessment of ancestry and adjustment of case and control groups for an association study is an important step for the proper construction of the study, particularly when subjects are taken from a complex urban population. This can be achieved using a straight forward multiplexed AIM-SNPs assay of highly discriminatory ancestry markers.

  2. Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma in a southern Brazilian population: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gon, Airton; Minelli, Lorivaldo

    2011-10-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer to occur in Caucasian populations, and its incidence is increasing. Despite its frequency, there is a paucity of data on risk factors for BCC in some regions. This study investigated the association between pigmentary characteristics, distinctive patterns of solar exposure, habits and lifestyle, and risk for BCC among patients attending a dermatology center in a region in southern Brazil. We conducted a hospital-based, case-control study that included 127 case patients with histologically confirmed BCC and 280 cancer-free control subjects with other dermatologic conditions, observed between January 2006 and December 2007. The study was conducted using a questionnaire and physical examination by a dermatologist. Relative risks were estimated using exposure odds ratios generated by cross-tabulation and logistic regression models. Risk for BCC was associated with family history of skin cancer, Fitzpatrick skin type I, and the presence of actinic keratoses, solar lentigines, leukoderma, and elastosis romboidalis nuchae. No effect was found for different patterns of solar exposure, eye, hair or skin color, exposure to non-solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), or lifestyle-related habits such as sunscreen use and cigarette smoking. The results of this study suggest that skin type and family history of skin cancer may be important in establishing risk for developing BCC. Additionally, the detection by clinical examination of skin markers related to UVR action is important in establishing which patients are more likely to develop BCC. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  3. Examining an ethical dilemma: a case study in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Narrigan, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    When clients and health care providers differ in their understanding of what is right or wrong, an ethical dilemma may arise. Such dilemmas occur in everyday clinical practice. Health care providers have the professional responsibility to analyze these dilemmas. A clinical case study of an ethical dilemma that occurred in a cross-cultural context is examined. The language of the client and provider differed, and no interpreter service was available. Given these conditions, the provider's ethical dilemma was whether, and if so how, to give safe, satisfying care that respected the needs of a client with limited English proficiency. Measuring the morality of the provider's decisions and actions using Rawls' ethical theory of social justice finds deficits. A 10-step Bioethical Decision-Making Model by Thompson is used to demonstrate one method for analyzing the moral dimension of a clinical scenario focusing on the decisions and actions taken by a midwife. Scrutinizing ethically challenging clinical encounters will result in better understanding of the moral dimensions of practice.

  4. Atypical disseminated leishmaniasis similar to post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in a Brazilian AIDS patient infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi: a case report.

    PubMed

    Carnaúba, Dimas; Konishi, Cassiana Tami; Petri, Valéria; Martinez, Isabel Cristina Pedro; Shimizu, Laura; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2009-11-01

    We report the case of an atypical disseminated leishmaniasis with similar clinical characteristics to post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis, an uncommon disease in South America. This occurred in a Brazilian patient with AIDS, 3 years after the first episode of American visceral leishmaniasis.

  5. Effect of the Brazilian Conditional Cash Transfer and Primary Health Care Programs on the New Case Detection Rate of Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Joilda Silva; Pereira, Susan Martins; Rasella, Davide; Penna, Maria Lúcia Fernandes; Aquino, Rosana; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Penna, Gerson Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Background Social determinants can affect the transmission of leprosy and its progression to disease. Not much is known about the effectiveness of welfare and primary health care policies on the reduction of leprosy occurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Brazilian cash transfer (Bolsa Família Program-BFP) and primary health care (Family Health Program-FHP) programs on new case detection rate of leprosy. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted the study with a mixed ecological design, a combination of an ecological multiple-group and time-trend design in the period 2004–2011 with the Brazilian municipalities as unit of analysis. The main independent variables were the BFP and FHP coverage at the municipal level and the outcome was new case detection rate of leprosy. Leprosy new cases, BFP and FHP coverage, population and other relevant socio-demographic covariates were obtained from national databases. We used fixed-effects negative binomial models for panel data adjusted for relevant socio-demographic covariates. A total of 1,358 municipalities were included in the analysis. In the studied period, while the municipal coverage of BFP and FHP increased, the new case detection rate of leprosy decreased. Leprosy new case detection rate was significantly reduced in municipalities with consolidated BFP coverage (Risk Ratio 0.79; 95% CI  = 0.74–0.83) and significantly increased in municipalities with FHP coverage in the medium (72–95%) (Risk Ratio 1.05; 95% CI  = 1.02–1.09) and higher coverage tertiles (>95%) (Risk Ratio 1.12; 95% CI  = 1.08–1.17). Conclusions At the same time the Family Health Program had been effective in increasing the new case detection rate of leprosy in Brazil, the Bolsa Família Program was associated with a reduction of the new case detection rate of leprosy that we propose reflects a reduction in leprosy incidence. PMID:25412418

  6. Cytogenetic studies of Brazilian pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome cases: challenges and difficulties in a large and emerging country

    PubMed Central

    Velloso, E.D.R.P.; Chauffaille, M.L.; Peliçario, L.M.; Tanizawa, R.S.S.; Toledo, S.R.C.; Gaiolla, R.D.; Lopes, L.F.

    2013-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) are rare hematopoietic stem cell diseases affecting children. Cytogenetics plays an important role in the diagnosis of these diseases. We report here the experience of the Cytogenetic Subcommittee of the Brazilian Cooperative Group on Pediatric Myelodysplastic Syndromes (BCG-MDS-PED). We analyzed 168 cytogenetic studies performed in 23 different cytogenetic centers; 84 of these studies were performed in patients with confirmed MDS (primary MDS, secondary MDS, JMML, and acute myeloid leukemia/MDS+Down syndrome). Clonal abnormalities were found in 36.9% of the MDS cases and cytogenetic studies were important for the detection of constitutional diseases and for differential diagnosis with other myeloid neoplasms. These data show the importance of the Cooperative Group for continuing education in order to avoid a late or wrong diagnosis. PMID:23314345

  7. A 57-year-old Brazilian woman with a giant mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Giant cystadenocarcinomas of the ovary are rarely described conditions. Case presentation The authors describe a 57-year-old Brazilian woman who presented with an increase in abdominal girth in February 2003. Imaging studies showed a giant abdominal pelvic mass with probable origin in the right ovary. Cancer antigen-125 was elevated, while carcinoembrionic antigen and alpha-fetoprotein were normal. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingoophorectomy and omentectomy were done. The mass weighed 40Kg, and the histopathology study revealed a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. She underwent chemotherapy with paclitaxel and cisplatin with no side effects. Under follow-up for more than 10 years, she is asymptomatic and with normal imaging and laboratory parameters, including the cancer antigen-125 marker. Conclusion This huge tumor evolved for a long time unsuspected and without metastases in a patient from a developing region. The diagnostic and management challenges posed by this unexpected and unusual presentation of an ovarian cystadenocarcinoma are discussed. PMID:24594205

  8. Characterization of rickettsia rickettsii in a case of fatal Brazilian spotted fever in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Cristiane; Favacho, Alexsandra; Rozental, Tatiana; Bóia, Márcio N; Kirsten, Andrei H; Guterres, Alexandro; Barreira, Jairo; de Lemos, Elba Regina S

    2008-04-01

    A lethal case of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) is presented. Clinical features were initially of gastrointestinal involvement and evolved with progression to septic shock, meningoencephalitis and death on the 6th day of illness. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for spotted fever group rickettsia (SFGR) was non-reactive. Diagnosis was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the nucleotide sequencing of a fragment of the ompA gene showed 100% homology to Rickettsia rickettsii. BSF has not been reported in the city of Rio de Janeiro in the last three decades, and the present description should alert the clinicians to its presence in urban Rio de Janeiro, and to the differential diagnosis with dengue fever, gastroenteritis, leptospirosis and bacterial septic shock, among others.

  9. Educational bias in the assessment of severe dementia: Brazilian cutoffs for severe Mini-Mental State Examination.

    PubMed

    Wajman, José Roberto; Oliveira, Fabricio Ferreira de; Schultz, Rodrigo Rizek; Marin, Sheilla de Medeiros Correia; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira

    2014-04-01

    Cognitive assessment in advanced stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is limited by the imprecision of most instruments. To determine objective cognitive responses in moderate and severe AD patients by way of the Severe Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE), and to correlate performances with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores. Consecutive outpatients in moderate and severe stages of AD (Clinical Dementia Rating 2.0 or 3.0) were evaluated and compared according to MMSE and SMMSE scores. Overall 400 patients were included, 67.5% females, mean age 76.6±6.7 years-old. There was no significant impact of age or gender over MMSE or SMMSE scores. Mean schooling was 4.4±2.5 years, impacting SMMSE scores (p=0.008). Scores on MMSE and SMMSE were significantly correlated (F-ratio=690.6325, p<0.0001). The SMMSE is influenced by schooling, but not by age or gender, and is an accurate test for assessment of moderate and severe AD.

  10. Uncomplicated malaria among pregnant women in the Brazilian Amazon: local barriers to prompt and effective case management.

    PubMed

    Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecília; Miranda, Elaine Silva; Moritz, Angela Fernandes Esher; Freitas, Letícia Figueira; Brasil, Juliana de Castro; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2013-02-01

    Malaria in pregnancy is associated with increased risks of maternal anemia, spontaneous abortion, low birth weight, premature delivery and other adverse effects on health. In Brazil, disease transmission is highly concentrated in the multi-state region that constitutes the Brazilian Amazon (more than 99% of all cases). This study, conducted between the first bimesters of 2007 and 2008, aims to identify the local barriers to prompt and effective case management of malaria in pregnancy and was carried out in health facilities located in three endemic municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon (Manaus, Presidente Figueiredo and Porto Velho). The study design combined both qualitative and quantitative descriptive methods. The qualitative design involved semi-structured interviews with health personnel who routinely deal with malaria care. The quantitative design involved a review of medical records of pregnant women in the visited health facilities. Additionally, data were abstracted from SIVEP-Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance Information System (Brasil, 2007) and Primary Care Information System (SIAB) databases. Flaws were detected in diagnosis (only 6.8% of women tested for malaria) and treatment (for Plasmodium falciparum infections, only 44.8% of patients received recommended first-line therapy; 10.2% of prescription presented treatments were not found in national guideline and 7.3% of the prescriptions for Plasmodium vivax and 17.9% of the prescriptions for P. falciparum were not sanctioned by the official guidelines). Training (only 37.3% had had some training), knowledge and counseling were also sub-optimal. These results indicated the need to improve the health-worker performance through training. Close supervision and feedback on the health-worker performance are also needed. These findings also highlighted the need to put into practice a series of government recommendations that encourage close collaboration between the National Malaria Control Program and

  11. Polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and cystathionine beta-synthase in oral cancer - a case-control study in southeastern Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Andressa; Dos Santos, Marcelo; de Podestá, José Roberto Vasconcelos; Gouvêa, Sônia Alves; Von Zeidler, Sandra Ventorin; Louro, Iúri Drumond; Cordeiro-Silva, Melissa de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a serious public health problem, due to its high mortality rate and worldwide rising incidence. OSCC susceptibility is mediated by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Studies suggest that genetic variants encoding enzymes involved in folate metabolism may modulate OSCC risk by altering DNA synthesis/repair and methylation process. The goals of this study were to evaluate the association of three genotypic polymorphism (MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C and CBS 844ins68) and oral cancer risk in southeastern Brazilians and evaluate the interactions between polymorphisms and clinical histopathological parameters. This case-control study included 101 cases and 102 controls in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. MTHFR genotyping was done by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism) and CBS genotyping by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) analysis. MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with lymph node involvement. Genotype CT+TT acted as a protective factor. MTHFR A1298C AC+CC genotype was associated with tumor differentiation, and possibly with a better prognosis. In risk analysis, no correlation was observed between genotypes and OSCC. We concluded that MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C and CBS 844ins68 polymorphisms were not associated with OSCC risk in southeastern Brazilians; however, we suggest a prognosis effect associated with MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in OSCC. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. [Brazilian physician José Pinto de Azeredo (1766?-1810) and the chemical examination of Rio de Janeiro's atmosphere].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Manuel Serrano; Cecchini, Marco Antonio G; Malaquias, Isabel Maria; Moreira-Nordemann, Lycia Maria; Pita, João Rui

    2005-01-01

    José Pinto de Azeredo, of Rio de Janeiro, studied medicine and conducted notable experimental research in Edinburgh (1786-88), presenting his graduate thesis on gout in Leiden. Already appointed surgeon-general of Angola, he returned to Rio in 1789 and practiced medicine in Brazil. In 1790 he moved to Luanda, where he practiced at the Hospital Real and founded a medical school that did not survive his departure for Portugal in 1797. He worked at Lisbon's main military hospital and as a private physician until his death. His written works (some ten manuscripts and five publications) warrant an examination from the perspective of the history of medicine. In an article published in 1790 on Rio de Janeiro's air quality, he reveals the skills of an analytical chemist, his interest in the effects of different air components on organisms, and his concern with air quality in Brazil and Europe.

  13. Ergonomics work analysis applied to dentistry--a Brazilian case study.

    PubMed

    Custódio, R A R; Silva, C E S; Brandão, J G T

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the Ergonomic Work Analysis method in a Brazilian Dentist's office. Through the study, the constraints and the strategies in avoiding them were identified. It was found that dentists hardly use the position most indicated by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the Federation Dentaire Internacionale (FDI) for both the patient and the dentist, which is respectively supine and 9 o'clock, due to the limited space and layout. Five types of treatments performed by the professional have been studied. The frequency and duration of actions in these treatments were accounted for and the standard positions adopted were identified. The AET was found to be a very suitable method to grasp the dentist's activity and build a point of view of the profession, which is characterized as: stressful, perfectionist and restrictive. Time management is presented as an important strategy to control the tension arising from performing the treatments.

  14. A scientific survey on 1550 cases of oral lesions diagnosed in a Brazilian referral center.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Artur C; Aburad, Carlos; Lima, Igor F P; Santos, Sheila M M; Freitas, Silas Antonio J DE; Franco, Ademir; Rode, Sigmar M; Paranhos, Luiz R

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to perform an epidemiological survey on the prevalence rate of oral lesions diagnosed in a referral center in Brazil and to establish association between the lesions and the age and gender of the affected patients. This analytical observational study analyzed 3521 medical records of anatomopathological exams of the Pathological Anatomy and Cytopathology Laboratory of the Cancer Hospital of the state of Mato Grosso (Brazil), from December 2011 to September 2015. A total of 1550 relevant medical records was detected. Patients aging between 41 and 60 consisted of 42.84% of the sample. Males were more affected than females (60.13%). Inflammatory processess consisted of the most prevalent diagnosis (43.29%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (6.06%), and periapical granuloma (5.23%). Oral health public policies must give major attention to Brazilian males aged between the fourth and sixth decades of life in order to improve their quality of life.

  15. 38 CFR 4.42 - Complete medical examination of injury cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... examination of injury cases. 4.42 Section 4.42 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... medical examination of injury cases. The importance of complete medical examination of injury cases at the... possible, this should include complete neurological and psychiatric examination, and other...

  16. Can the DSM-5 differentiate between nonpathological possession and dissociative identity disorder? A case study from an Afro-Brazilian religion.

    PubMed

    Delmonte, Romara; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Moreira-Almeida, Alexander; Farias, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine whether the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), are able to differentiate between nonpathological religious possession and dissociative identity disorder (DID). We use the case study of an individual who leads an Afro-Brazilian religious group (Umbanda), focusing on her personal development and possession experiences from early childhood to the present, spanning a period of more than 40 years, and examine these data following DSM-5 criteria for DID (300.14). Her experiences of possession can be broken into 2 distinct stages. In the 1st stage (childhood and early adulthood), she displayed intrusive thoughts and a lack of control over possession states, which were associated with a heightened state of anxiety, loneliness, amnesia, and family conflict (meeting all 5 criteria for DID). In the 2nd stage (late 20s up to the present), she regularly experienced possession states but felt in control of their onset and found them religiously meaningful. In this 2nd stage, she only fulfilled 3 criteria for DID. We question the accuracy of diagnosing this individual with DID in her earlier life and suggest that the DSM-5 criteria fail to address the ambiguity of affect surrounding possession experiences (positive at the individual level, negative at the interpersonal level) and lack a clearer acknowledgment of the prevalence of possession and other unusual experiences in general populations.

  17. A Case for Re-Evaluating Dictionary Availability in Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The Qualifications and Curriculum Authority's (QCA) radical decision to allow bilingual dictionaries in GCSE modern languages examinations from 1998 was subsequently reversed, and by 2003 dictionaries were no longer allowed in any public examinations at any level. The removal of dictionaries appeared to be based on one study that concluded that…

  18. Nosocomial Bloodstream Infections in Brazilian Hospitals: Analysis of 2,563 Cases from a Prospective Nationwide Surveillance Study▿

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Alexandre R.; Camargo, Luis Fernando Aranha; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos; Sukiennik, Teresa; Behar, Paulo Renato Petersen; Medeiros, Eduardo Alexandrino Servolo; Ribeiro, Julival; Girão, Evelyne; Correa, Luci; Guerra, Carla; Brites, Carlos; Pereira, Carlos Alberto Pires; Carneiro, Irna; Reis, Marise; de Souza, Marta Antunes; Tranchesi, Regina; Barata, Cristina U.; Edmond, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    Nosocomial bloodstream infections (nBSIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Data from a nationwide, concurrent surveillance study, Brazilian SCOPE (Surveillance and Control of Pathogens of Epidemiological Importance), were used to examine the epidemiology and microbiology of nBSIs at 16 Brazilian hospitals. In our study 2,563 patients with nBSIs were included from 12 June 2007 to 31 March 2010. Ninety-five percent of BSIs were monomicrobial. Gram-negative organisms caused 58.5% of these BSIs, Gram-positive organisms caused 35.4%, and fungi caused 6.1%. The most common pathogens (monomicrobial) were Staphylococcus aureus (14.0%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (12.6%), Klebsiella spp. (12.0%), and Acinetobacter spp. (11.4%). The crude mortality was 40.0%. Forty-nine percent of nBSIs occurred in the intensive-care unit (ICU). The most frequent underlying conditions were malignancy, in 622 patients (24.3%). Among the potential factors predisposing patients to BSI, central venous catheters were the most frequent (70.3%). Methicillin resistance was detected in 157 S. aureus isolates (43.7%). Of the Klebsiella sp. isolates, 54.9% were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins. Of the Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, 55.9% and 36.8%, respectively, were resistant to imipenem. In our multicenter study, we found high crude mortality and a high proportion of nBSIs due to antibiotic-resistant organisms. PMID:21411591

  19. Flood Frequency Analysis Under Non-stationarity Conditions: the Case of Southern Brazilian Hydroelectric Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartiko, Daniel; Chaffe, Pedro; Bonumá, Nadia

    2017-04-01

    Floods may be strongly affected by climate, land-use, land-cover and water infrastructure changes. However, it is common to model this process as stationary. This approach has been questioned, especially when it involves estimate of the frequency and magnitude of extreme events for designing and maintaining hydraulic structures, as those responsible for flood control and dams safety. Brazil is the third largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world and many of the country's dams are located in the Southern Region. So, it seems appropriate to investigate the presence of non-stationarity in the affluence in these plants. In our study, we used historical flood data from the Brazilian National Grid Operator (ONS) to explore trends in annual maxima in river flow of the 38 main rivers flowing to Southern Brazilian reservoirs (records range from 43 to 84 years). In the analysis, we assumed a two-parameter log-normal distribution a linear regression model was applied in order to allow for the mean to vary with time. We computed recurrence reduction factors to characterize changes in the return period of an initially estimated 100 year-flood by a log-normal stationary model. To evaluate whether or not a particular site exhibits positive trend, we only considered data series with linear regression slope coefficients that exhibit significance levels (p<0,05). The significance level was calculated using the one-sided Student's test. The trend model residuals were analyzed using the Anderson-Darling normality test, the Durbin-Watson test for the independence and the Breusch-Pagan test for heteroscedasticity. Our results showed that 22 of the 38 data series analyzed have a significant positive trend. The trends were mainly in three large basins: Iguazu, Uruguay and Paranapanema, which suffered changes in land use and flow regularization in the last years. The calculated return period for the series that presented positive trend varied from 50 to 77 years for a 100 year

  20. Twentieth-century astronomical heritage: the case of the Brazilian National Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboza, Christina Helena

    2015-08-01

    The National Observatory of Brazil was created in 1827. It was initially focused on the practical teaching of Astronomy to the students of military and naval academies. Since the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth century it was installed over the ruins of a Jesuit church located in the center of Rio de Janeiro, capital of the Brazilian Empire.Due to the constant complaints of its successive directors, the search for a new site to house the Observatory began in 1911. The new headquarters of the institution were located on the hill of São Januário, a little further but still around the city center of Rio de Janeiro. Its inauguration took place in 1921.The main building of the new Observatory was based on one of the Brazilian pavilions of the Turin Exhibition of 1911, and its architecture can be characterized as eclectic. The pavilions intended to house the many telescopes were scattered in a large wooded area. Since 1985 all these facilities are protected by the Federal government, as a consequence of the same initiative that gave birth to the Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences, which has the custody also of the Observatory’s former instruments, furniture, and documents.Although built in the early twentieth century the National Observatory new facilities reveal astronomical practices typical of the previous century. One of its most important activities was the determination of the legal time, a task that justifies its location in the urban environment. It was also responsible for the organization of expeditions destined to determine the geographical positions of railroads and the borders of Brazil. For this reason, the Museum of Astronomy has currently more than 3,000 portable instruments. Moreover, these instruments belong to the domain of Astronomy, but also to Geodesy, Meteorology, Electricity. Due to the creation of the Museum of Astronomy, this rich collection is now open to public visitation, and has become the object of scholarly

  1. "Arubaito," or Short-Term Working Abroad in Japan: A Case Study of Brazilian University Students of Japanese Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    International migration between Japan and Brazil dates back to 1908, when the first group of Japanese migrated to Brazil. However, in the 1980s, a reverse flow occurred, as thousands of Brazilians of Japanese descent traveled to Japan to work in manufacturing and construction factories ("dekasegi" workers). Japanese Brazilians up until…

  2. "Arubaito," or Short-Term Working Abroad in Japan: A Case Study of Brazilian University Students of Japanese Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasaki, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    International migration between Japan and Brazil dates back to 1908, when the first group of Japanese migrated to Brazil. However, in the 1980s, a reverse flow occurred, as thousands of Brazilians of Japanese descent traveled to Japan to work in manufacturing and construction factories ("dekasegi" workers). Japanese Brazilians up until…

  3. Policy Implications of Achievement Testing Using Multilevel Models: The Case of Brazilian Elementary Schools.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Igor G; Duran, Victor R; Mendonça Filho, Euclides J; Veloso, Tainã J; Sarmento, Stella M S; Paget, Christine L; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale educational assessment has been established as source of descriptive, evaluative and interpretative information that influence educational policies worldwide throughout the last third of the twentieth century. In the 1990s the Brazilian Ministry of Education developed the National Basic Education Assessment System (SAEB) that regularly measures management, resource and contextual school features and academic achievement in public and private institutions. In 2005, after significant piloting and review of the SAEB, a new sampling strategy was taken and Prova Brasil became the new instrument used by the Ministry to assess skills in Portuguese (reading comprehension) and Mathematics (problem solving), as well as collecting contextual information concerning the school, principal, teacher, and the students. This study aims to identify which variables are predictors of academic achievement of fifth grade students on Prova Brasil. Across a large sample of students, multilevel models tested a large number of variables relevant to student achievement. This approach uncovered critical variables not commonly seen as significant in light of other achievement determinants, including student habits, teacher ethnicity, and school technological resources. As such, this approach demonstrates the value of MLM to appropriately nuanced educational policies that reflect critical influences on student achievement. Its implications for wider application for psychology studies that may have relevant impacts for policy are also discussed.

  4. DNA sampling from eggshells and microsatellite genotyping in rare tropical birds: Case study on Brazilian Merganser.

    PubMed

    Maia, Thais Augusta; Vilaça, Sibelle Torres; Silva, Luciana Resende da; Santos, Fabricio Rodrigues; Dantas, Gisele Pires de Mendonça

    2017-10-02

    This study shows that sampling maternal DNA from hatched and abandoned eggshells is a viable noninvasive strategy for studying the genetics of rare or endangered tropical birds, as exemplified here by the Brazilian Merganser (Mergus octosetaceus). Eighteen microsatellites were isolated from enriched libraries and nine heterologous loci from related species were tested. Seven loci were amplified successfully, with five of them being polymorphic. These loci exhibited amplicons ranging from 110 to 254 bp for 132 samples, with 60 from eggshells and 72 from blood or muscle samples. The number of alleles for M. octosetaceus ranged from one to six (mean = 3.71), which is low compared to M. merganser (1-15 alleles), a 'least concern' species. Genetic diversity did not differ significantly between noninvasive and invasive samples (Z(u) = 0.31, p = 0.37). Thus, noninvasive sampling, as demonstrated here with eggshells, provides an efficient means to assess genetic diversity in tropical birds without the need to capture and handle them.

  5. A National Residue Control Plan from the analytical perspective--the Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Angelo de Q; Lins, Erick S; Alvarenga, Marcelo B

    2009-04-01

    Food safety is a strategic topic entailing not only national public health aspects but also competitiveness in international trade. An important component of any food safety program is the control and monitoring of residues posed by certain substances involved in food production. In turn, a National Residue Control Plan (NRCP) relies on an appropriate laboratory network, not only to generate analytical results, but also more broadly to verify and co-validate the controls built along the food production chain. Therefore laboratories operating under a NRCP should work in close cooperation with inspection bodies, fostering the critical alignment of the whole system with the principles of risk analysis. Beyond producing technically valid results, these laboratories should arguably be able to assist in the prediction and establishment of targets for official control. In pursuit of analytical excellence, the Brazilian government has developed a strategic plan for Official Agricultural Laboratories. Inserted in a national agenda for agricultural risk analysis, the plan has succeeded in raising laboratory budget by approximately 200%, it has started a rigorous program for personnel capacity-building, it has initiated strategic cooperation with international reference centres, and finally, it has completely renewed instrumental resources and rapidly triggered a program aimed at full laboratory compliance with ISO/IEC 17025 requirements.

  6. Policy Implications of Achievement Testing Using Multilevel Models: The Case of Brazilian Elementary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Igor G.; Duran, Victor R.; Mendonça Filho, Euclides J.; Veloso, Tainã J.; Sarmento, Stella M. S.; Paget, Christine L.; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale educational assessment has been established as source of descriptive, evaluative and interpretative information that influence educational policies worldwide throughout the last third of the twentieth century. In the 1990s the Brazilian Ministry of Education developed the National Basic Education Assessment System (SAEB) that regularly measures management, resource and contextual school features and academic achievement in public and private institutions. In 2005, after significant piloting and review of the SAEB, a new sampling strategy was taken and Prova Brasil became the new instrument used by the Ministry to assess skills in Portuguese (reading comprehension) and Mathematics (problem solving), as well as collecting contextual information concerning the school, principal, teacher, and the students. This study aims to identify which variables are predictors of academic achievement of fifth grade students on Prova Brasil. Across a large sample of students, multilevel models tested a large number of variables relevant to student achievement. This approach uncovered critical variables not commonly seen as significant in light of other achievement determinants, including student habits, teacher ethnicity, and school technological resources. As such, this approach demonstrates the value of MLM to appropriately nuanced educational policies that reflect critical influences on student achievement. Its implications for wider application for psychology studies that may have relevant impacts for policy are also discussed. PMID:27933004

  7. 5 CFR 316.601 - Appointment without competitive examination in rare cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... examination in rare cases. 316.601 Section 316.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TEMPORARY AND TERM EMPLOYMENT Appointment Without Competitive Examination in Rare Cases § 316.601 Appointment without competitive examination in rare cases. (a) An agency may make...

  8. 5 CFR 316.601 - Appointment without competitive examination in rare cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... examination in rare cases. 316.601 Section 316.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TEMPORARY AND TERM EMPLOYMENT Appointment Without Competitive Examination in Rare Cases § 316.601 Appointment without competitive examination in rare cases. (a) An agency may make...

  9. Examining Effective Teaching via a Social Constructivist Pedagogy "Case Study"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Steven; Grenier, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    As students engage in pre-service teacher (PT) activities, they take a number of courses that help prepare them to teach in schools. During that time, they must also form their own understanding of what teaching and learning means for them (Kroll, 2004). In many cases, this can conflict with their view of teaching as a command approach to…

  10. Women in the Maharaj libel case: a re-examination.

    PubMed

    Shodhan, A

    1997-01-01

    This article applies a gender perspective to the history of social reform efforts in mid-19th century Bombay to help illuminate the origins of Indian modernism. In the Maharaj Libel Case, two social reformers successfully defended a libel suit after they published charges of sexual misconduct against the religious priests of the Pushtimarga Vaishnava sect. The paper contextualizes the discussion with a brief review of the rise of British education in Bombay, a note that the social reformers considered the ideal woman to be a domestic helpmate, and a sketch of the history of the devotional religious sect that worships Krishna. The libel case attracted immense public attention, and the reformers based their defense on charges that the Maharajs (priests) were immoral and exploited female devotees sexually. The priests were described as ignorant and blind while the women were considered merely passive objects subordinate to males. No woman was called to give evidence, but evidence shows that the women willingly visited the priests for sexual acts. The reformers' solution to the problem was for the women they regarded as infantilized and/or degraded to be more firmly controlled by their male kin. The conclusion that the reformers were patriarchal and not concerned about the well-being of women is supported by three cases. The reformers ignored the two in which women brought charges against priests and only urged action in the case of a rape/murder by a priest.

  11. Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck's Disease) in a 57-Year-Old Brazilian Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Luciano Alberto; de Castro, Joao Gabriel Leite; da Cruz, Alexandre Duarte Lopes; Barbosa, Bruno Henrique de Sousa; de Spindula-Filho, Jose Vieira; Costa, Mauricio Barcelos

    2016-04-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is a rare disease of the oral mucosa associated with infection by some subtypes of human papilloma virus, especially subtypes 13 or 32. The disease is predominantly found in children and adolescents with indigenous heritage, but other ethnic groups can be affected worldwide. To the best of the authors' knowledge, it has not been reported in Brazil's elderly population. This article describes a case of FEH in a 57-year-old Brazilian patient presenting since childhood, with multiple lesions in the lips, buccal mucosa and tongue. The solitary tongue lesion underwent excisional biopsy and the histopathological analysis showed parakeratosis, acanthosis, rete pegs with a club-shaped appearance, koilocytosis and the presence of mitosoid cells. These microscopic findings in conjunction with clinical presentation were sufficient to establish the accurate diagnosis of FEH. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed, but no one human papillomavirus (HPV) subtype could be identified. Clinicians must be aware of this rare oral disease, which can even affect elderly patients, as we described here. Treatment may be indicated in selected cases due to esthetic and/or functional problems.

  12. Factors associated with obesity in brazilian children enrolled in the school health program: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Honório, Renata Félix; Costa Monteiro Hadler, Maria Claret

    2014-09-01

    Case-control studies evaluating the factors associated with childhood obesity are scarce in Brazil. We aimed to analyze the factors associated with obesity in Brazilian schoolchildren enrolled in the School Health Program.A case-control study was conducted on 80 schoolchildren aged 7 to 9 years, 40 of them obese and 40 of normal weight according to the cut-off points established by the World Health Organization (2007). Weight, height and waist circumference were obtained. Socioeconomic, demographic, health, eating behavior and lifestyle data were collected by applying a questionnaire to the person responsible and by determining his/her nutritional status. A binary unconditional logistic regression model (univariate and multivariate) was used for data analysis. The prevalence of obesity was 7.21%. The final model showed that duration of breast-feeding ≥ 6 months of age (OR 5.3; 95% CI: 1.3-22.1), excess weight of the person responsible (OR 7.1; 95% CI: 1.2-40.2), a sedentary level of physical activity (OR 4.1; 95% CI: 1.1- 15.5), and fast chewing (OR 7.4; 95% CI: 2.1-26.9) were significantly associated with childhood obesity. The factors associated with obesity in schoolchildren were duration of breast-feeding ≥ 6 months, persons responsible with excess weight, and sedentary children who chew fast. The present study contributes information to be used for the health actions planned by the School Health Program.

  13. Mandibular ceramic veneers: an examination of complex cases.

    PubMed

    Nixon, R L

    1995-05-01

    The indications for mandibular anterior ceramic veneers, tooth preparation design, provisionalization considerations, and placement procedures were presented in a previous article by the author. The functional utility, tissue biocompatibility, and dissimilarities of mandibular veneers, in comparison to maxillary anterior ceramic veneers, were explored, along with indications and contraindications for this form of treatment. This article demonstrates the aesthetic range of these restorations in the context of more complex cases. The learning objective of this article is to illustrate the viability of mandibular ceramic veneers in realigning teeth nonorthodontically, while sustaining the biologic health of the periodontium, stability of the occlusion, and aesthetic parameters of each case. The importance of wax mock-ups is outlined for visualization of the final result, as well as the evaluation of root proximity to avoid subgingival ledging of the teeth and subsequent periodontal disease. Orthodontics and other methods for the correction of anterior crowding are discussed.

  14. Lean diesel technology and human health: a case study in six Brazilian metropolitan regions

    PubMed Central

    de André, Paulo Afonso; Veras, Mariana Matera; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Due to their toxicity, diesel emissions have been submitted to progressively more restrictive regulations in developed countries. However, in Brazil, the implementation of the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy (Euro IV standards for vehicles produced in 2009 and low-sulfur diesel with 50 ppm of sulfur) was postponed until 2012 without a comprehensive analysis of the effect of this delay on public health parameters. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy on health indicators and monetary health costs in Brazil. METHODS: The primary estimator of exposure to air pollution was the concentration of ambient fine particulate matter (particles with aerodynamic diameters <2.5 µm, [PM2.5]). This parameter was measured daily in six Brazilian metropolitan areas during 2007-2008. We calculated 1) the projected reduction in the PM2.5 that would have been achieved if the Euro IV standards had been implemented in 2009 and 2) the expected reduction after implementation in 2012. The difference between these two time curves was transformed into health outcomes using previous dose-response curves. The economic valuation was performed based on the DALY (disability-adjusted life years) method. RESULTS: The delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy will result in an estimated excess of 13,984 deaths up to 2040. Health expenditures are projected to be increased by nearly US$ 11.5 billion for the same period. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that a significant health burden will occur because of the postponement in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy. These results also reinforce the concept that health effects must be considered when revising fuel and emission policies. PMID:22760904

  15. Lean diesel technology and human health: a case study in six Brazilian metropolitan regions.

    PubMed

    André, Paulo Afonso de; Veras, Mariana Matera; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Due to their toxicity, diesel emissions have been submitted to progressively more restrictive regulations in developed countries. However, in Brazil, the implementation of the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy (Euro IV standards for vehicles produced in 2009 and low-sulfur diesel with 50 ppm of sulfur) was postponed until 2012 without a comprehensive analysis of the effect of this delay on public health parameters. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy on health indicators and monetary health costs in Brazil. The primary estimator of exposure to air pollution was the concentration of ambient fine particulate matter (particles with aerodynamic diameters <2.5 μm, [PM2.5]). This parameter was measured daily in six Brazilian metropolitan areas during 2007-2008. We calculated 1) the projected reduction in the PM2.5 that would have been achieved if the Euro IV standards had been implemented in 2009 and 2) the expected reduction after implementation in 2012. The difference between these two time curves was transformed into health outcomes using previous dose-response curves. The economic valuation was performed based on the DALY (disability-adjusted life years) method. The delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy will result in an estimated excess of 13,984 deaths up to 2040. Health expenditures are projected to be increased by nearly US$ 11.5 billion for the same period. The present results indicate that a significant health burden will occur because of the postponement in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy. These results also reinforce the concept that health effects must be considered when revising fuel and emission policies.

  16. Re-examine the business case for metro optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ted D.

    2004-04-01

    Ethernet is the next big thing in the telecom industry. In the metro network, access capacity is always an issue - not enough bandwidth to offer broadband services which will generate new revenue for service providers. Ethernet has been identified as one of the technologies that can break this spell in the next few years. Then why have we not seen large scale metro Ethernet deployment from any carriers? This article examines the issues in optical Ethernet technology, and the strengths and weakness of works in progress trying to solve them.

  17. Examining sustainability in a hospital setting: Case of smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Ottawa Model of Smoking Cessation (OMSC) is a hospital-based smoking cessation program that is expanding across Canada. While the short-term effectiveness of hospital cessation programs has been documented, less is known about long-term sustainability. The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand how hospitals using the OMSC were addressing sustainability and determine if there were critical factors or issues that should be addressed as the program expanded. Methods Six hospitals that differed on OMSC program activities (identify and document smokers, advise quitting, provide medication, and offer follow-up) were intentionally selected, and two key informants per hospital were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Key informants were asked to reflect on the initial decision to implement the OMSC, the current implementation process, and perceived sustainability of the program. Qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted and themes related to problem definition, stakeholder influence, and program features emerged. Results Sustainability was operationalized as higher performance of OMSC activities than at baseline. Factors identified in the literature as important for sustainability, such as program design, differences in implementation, organizational characteristics, and the community environment did not explain differences in program sustainability. Instead, key informants identified factors that reflected the interaction between how the health problem was defined by stakeholders, how priorities and concerns were addressed, features of the program itself, and fit within the hospital context and resources as being influential to the sustainability of the program. Conclusions Applying a sustainability model to a hospital smoking cessation program allowed for an examination of how decisions made during implementation may impact sustainability. Examining these factors during implementation may provide insight

  18. Examining sustainability in a hospital setting: case of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sharon; Pieters, Karen; Mullen, Kerri-Anne; Reece, Robin; Reid, Robert D

    2011-09-14

    The Ottawa Model of Smoking Cessation (OMSC) is a hospital-based smoking cessation program that is expanding across Canada. While the short-term effectiveness of hospital cessation programs has been documented, less is known about long-term sustainability. The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand how hospitals using the OMSC were addressing sustainability and determine if there were critical factors or issues that should be addressed as the program expanded. Six hospitals that differed on OMSC program activities (identify and document smokers, advise quitting, provide medication, and offer follow-up) were intentionally selected, and two key informants per hospital were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Key informants were asked to reflect on the initial decision to implement the OMSC, the current implementation process, and perceived sustainability of the program. Qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted and themes related to problem definition, stakeholder influence, and program features emerged. Sustainability was operationalized as higher performance of OMSC activities than at baseline. Factors identified in the literature as important for sustainability, such as program design, differences in implementation, organizational characteristics, and the community environment did not explain differences in program sustainability. Instead, key informants identified factors that reflected the interaction between how the health problem was defined by stakeholders, how priorities and concerns were addressed, features of the program itself, and fit within the hospital context and resources as being influential to the sustainability of the program. Applying a sustainability model to a hospital smoking cessation program allowed for an examination of how decisions made during implementation may impact sustainability. Examining these factors during implementation may provide insight into issues affecting program

  19. Envenomation by Micrurus coral snakes in the Brazilian Amazon region: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Pardal, Pedro Pereira de Oliveira; Pardal, Joseana Silva de Oliveira; Gadelha, Maria Apolônia da Costa; Rodrigues, Líliam da Silva; Feitosa, Darlan Tavares; Prudente, Ana Lúcia da Costa; Fan, Hui Wen

    2010-01-01

    Two cases of proven coral snake bites were reported in Belém, Pará State, Brazil. The first case was a severe one caused by Micrurus surinamensis. The patient required mechanical ventilation due to acute respiratory failure. The second case showed just mild signs of envenomation caused by Micrurus filiformis. Both patients received specific Micrurus antivenom and were discharged without further complications. Coral snake bites are scarcely reported in the Amazon region and there is a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, varying from extremely mild to those which may rapidly lead to death if the patient is not treated as soon as possible.

  20. Charcot arthropathy in ultrasound examination – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska-Płaza, Anna; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta; Chojnowski, Marek; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a patient with a long history of type 1 diabetes mellitus complicated with neuropathy and Charcot disease. The most common cause of neuropathic osteoarthropathy, called Charcot osteoarthropathy, is poorly controlled diabetes. The clinical picture is characterized by considerable edema, redness and increased skin temperature with relatively slight pain due to injury to nerve fibers responsible for pain sensation. The differential diagnosis should include bacterial or autoimmune arthritis, arthritis associated with gout as well as venous thrombosis and injury. The contribution of a local inflammatory reaction and abnormal bone turnover with excessive osteoclast activity might play a role in the etiopathogenesis of this disease. As a result, osseous and articular destruction progresses rapidly leading to irreversible deformity of the foot. Avoiding weight-bearing and resting the foot in a specially selected plaster cast is the most important part of treatment. Patients with the aforementioned complaints are referred to radiologists for imaging examinations. An ultrasonographer should pay attention to changes typical of Charcot arthropathy, such as: inflammatory and destructive changes in joints of the foot, uneven contour of bones with thickening and periosteal hyperemia as well as soft tissue swelling. PMID:27446605

  1. Charcot arthropathy in ultrasound examination - a case report.

    PubMed

    Płaza, Mateusz; Nowakowska-Płaza, Anna; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta; Chojnowski, Marek; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2016-06-01

    This article presents a patient with a long history of type 1 diabetes mellitus complicated with neuropathy and Charcot disease. The most common cause of neuropathic osteoarthropathy, called Charcot osteoarthropathy, is poorly controlled diabetes. The clinical picture is characterized by considerable edema, redness and increased skin temperature with relatively slight pain due to injury to nerve fibers responsible for pain sensation. The differential diagnosis should include bacterial or autoimmune arthritis, arthritis associated with gout as well as venous thrombosis and injury. The contribution of a local inflammatory reaction and abnormal bone turnover with excessive osteoclast activity might play a role in the etiopathogenesis of this disease. As a result, osseous and articular destruction progresses rapidly leading to irreversible deformity of the foot. Avoiding weight-bearing and resting the foot in a specially selected plaster cast is the most important part of treatment. Patients with the aforementioned complaints are referred to radiologists for imaging examinations. An ultrasonographer should pay attention to changes typical of Charcot arthropathy, such as: inflammatory and destructive changes in joints of the foot, uneven contour of bones with thickening and periosteal hyperemia as well as soft tissue swelling.

  2. Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Treatment Default in an Endemic Area of the Brazilian Amazon: A Case Control-Study

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Marlucia da Silva; Penna, Maria Lucia; Perez-Porcuna, Tomàs M.; de Souza, Alexandra Brito; Marreiro, Leni da Silva; Albuquerque, Bernardino Claudio; Martínez-Espinosa, Flor Ernestina; Bührer-Sékula, Samira

    2012-01-01

    Setting Treatment default is a serious problem in tuberculosis control because it implies persistence of infection source, increased mortality, increased relapse rates and facilitates the development of resistant strains. Objective This study analyzed tuberculosis treatment default determinants in the Amazonas State to contribute in planning appropriate control interventions. Design Observational study with a retrospective cohort using Brazilian Disease Notification System data from 2005 to 2010. A nested case control study design was used. Patients defaulting from treatment were considered as ‘cases’ and those completing treatment as ‘controls’. In the analysis, 11,312 tuberculosis patients were included, 1,584 cases and 9,728 controls. Results Treatment default was observed to be associated to previous default (aOR 3.20; p<0.001), HIV positivity (aOR 1.62; p<0.001), alcoholism (aOR 1.51; p<0.001), low education level (aOR 1.35; p<0.001) and other co-morbidities (aOR 1.31; p = 0.05). Older patients (aOR 0.98; p = 0.001) and DOT (aOR 0,72; p<0.01) were considered as protective factor for default. Conclusions Associated factors should be considered in addressing care and policy actions to tuberculosis control. Information on disease and treatment should be intensified and appropriate to the level of education of the population, in order to promote adherence to treatment and counter the spread of multidrug resistance to anti-TB drugs. PMID:22720052

  3. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma among Brazilian agricultural workers: A death certificate case-control study.

    PubMed

    Boccolini, Patricia de Moraes Mello; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira; Chrisman, Juliana de Rezende; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Meyer, Armando

    2017-05-04

    To estimate the non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) mortality risk among agricultural workers in Brazil's southern states, we used death certificates to identify cases of NHL between the ages of 20 and 69 years from residents of nonurban municipalities between 1996 and 2005 (n = 1,317). Controls were randomly selected from those whose underlying cause of death did not include neoplasm or hematological diseases and paired with cases by sex, age, year of death, and state of residence (n = 2,634). Odds of being an agricultural worker among cases and controls were estimated by conditional logistic regression, stratified and adjusted by sex, state, education, and race. An increased risk of death by NHL was observed among agricultural workers 20-39 years old (ORadj = 2.06; 95% CI 95%, 1.20-3.14). Our results suggest that the young agricultural workers from southern Brazil were more likely to die of NHL compared to nonagricultural workers.

  4. Nursing Case Management and Glycemic Control Among Brazilians With Type 2 Diabetes: Pragmatic Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ricardo Castanho; Mantovani, Maria de Fátima; Soriano, José Verdú

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that requires ongoing, life-long care in order to be controlled. The aims of the study were to assess the effect of nursing case management on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels compared to usual care in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to determine if effects of nursing case management varied by gender, age, duration of disease, education, and income. This is a pragmatic clinical trial, conducted in the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná, Brazil, in 2011 and 2012. Eighty individuals were recruited and randomized equally to receive nursing case management or usual care. Covariates were sociodemographic and clinical factors. The outcome was HbA1c measured at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. The sample consisted predominately of women; most had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus within the previous 5 years. Mean age was 50.14 (SD = 7.00), with 5.27 (SD = 4.39) years of schooling and an average HbA1c of 9.90% (SD = 2.49). Hemoglobin A1c was reduced from an average of 10.33% to 9.0% (p < .01) in the nursing case management group and from 9.57% to 8.93% (p = .05) in the usual care group; the group by time effect was not significant. Case management effects varied by younger age (p = .05), duration of type 2 diabetes less than 5 years (p = .03), up to 4 years of schooling (p = .04), and being in the lowest-income stratum (p = .02). Both groups showed a statistically significant reduction of HbA1c at 6 and 12 months following baseline. The difference in proportional reduction of HbA1c between groups was not statistically significant.

  5. School Physical Education in the Transition from Solid Modernity to Liquid Modernity: The Brazilian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracht, Valter; Gomes, Ivan Marcelo; de Almeida, Felipe Quintão

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of the contemporary transition from a solid modernity to a liquid modernity for school physical education, according to the metaphors adopted by the Polish sociologist and English resident Zygmunt Bauman. By leveraging Bauman's sociological theory, this article pursues two aims: (1) to examine how physical…

  6. School Physical Education in the Transition from Solid Modernity to Liquid Modernity: The Brazilian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracht, Valter; Gomes, Ivan Marcelo; de Almeida, Felipe Quintão

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of the contemporary transition from a solid modernity to a liquid modernity for school physical education, according to the metaphors adopted by the Polish sociologist and English resident Zygmunt Bauman. By leveraging Bauman's sociological theory, this article pursues two aims: (1) to examine how physical…

  7. Adaptation of migrants or survival of the fittest? A Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Martine, G

    1979-01-01

    The author attempts "to interpret the evolution of socioeconomic characteristics among internal migrants in Brazil with increasing duration of residence in destination areas." The relationship between the observed improvement in the socioeconomic conditions of migrants with increasing length of residence and return migration of the poorer, less successful migrants is examined

  8. Double standards and the international trade of pesticides: the Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Porto, Marcelo Firpo; Milanez, Bruno; Soares, Wagner Lopes; Meyer, Armando

    2010-01-01

    Despite bans on certain pesticides and their replacement by others considered less hazardous, the widespread use of these substances in agriculture continues to threaten the environment and the health of millions of people. This article discusses the current double standard in the international trade of pesticides and focuses on Brazil, one of the main users of pesticides in the world, analyzing the trends in foreign trade (imports and exports) of selected pesticides as a function of changes in legislation in the United States, the European Union, and Brazil from 1989 to 2006. We applied time line analysis to eight organochlorines already banned in Brazil and conducted a case-by-case qualitative and quantitative analysis of nine other pesticides. The results indicate the existence of double standards, as demonstrated by the continued exports to Brazil of some pesticides banned in the United States and Europe.

  9. Esophageal cancer among Brazilian agricultural workers: case-control study based on death certificates.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Armando; Alexandre, Pedro Celso Braga; Chrisman, Juliana de Rezende; Markowitz, Steven B; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Koifman, Sergio

    2011-03-01

    Several studies suggest that agricultural workers are at higher risk to develop and die by certain types of cancer. Esophageal cancer is not commonly listed among these types. However, some recent studies indicated that if there is an association between agricultural working and esophageal cancer, it s more likely to be observed among workers highly exposed to pesticides. In the present study, the magnitude of the association between agricultural working and esophageal cancer mortality was evaluated in a high pesticide use area in Brazil, through a death certificate-based case-control study. Cases were individuals from both genders, 30-59 years old, for whom basic cause of death was ascertained as cancer of the esophagus. For each case, one control was randomly selected from all possible controls for which the basic cause of death was ascertained as different from neoplasm and diseases of the digestive system. In addition, controls matched their cases by sex, age, year of death, and state of residence. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were then calculated to estimate the magnitude of the risk. Results showed that, in general, agricultural workers were at significantly higher risk to die by esophageal cancer, when compared to non-agricultural workers. Stratified analysis also revealed that the magnitude of such risk was slightly higher among illiterate agricultural workers, and simultaneous adjustment for several covariates showed that the risk was quantitatively higher among younger southern agricultural workers. These results suggest the esophageal cancer may be included among those types of cancer etiologically associated to agricultural working. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral health conditions in leprosy cases in hyperendemic area of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Zilanda Martins de; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Raposo, Marcos Túlio; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Vasconcellos, Cidia

    2017-08-24

    Leprosy is a hyperendemic chronic condition in the Rondônia State . Despite the significant impact of oral health on the quality of life and clinical evolution of leprosy patients, systematic evaluation of oral health status has been neglected. To analyze the dental-clinical profile, self-perceived oral health and dental health service access of leprosy cases in the municipality of Cacoal in Rondônia State , North Brazil, from 2001 to 2012. A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was performed based on dental evaluation and standardized structured instruments. We investigated clinically assessed and self-perceived oral health status, as well as dental health service access. A total of 303 leprosy cases were included; 41.6% rated their oral health as good, and 42.6% reported being satisfied with their oral health. Self-reported loss of upper teeth was 45.5%. The clinical evaluation revealed that 54.5% had active caries. Most (97.7%) cases reported having been to the dentist at least once in their life and 23.1% used public health services. The poor standard of oral health in this population may increase the risk for leprosy reactions, consequently reducing quality of life. Low access to public health dental services and poor self-perceived oral health reinforce the need to achieve comprehensive health care in this population.

  11. Salivary Gland Tumor: A Review of 599 Cases in a Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Flávia Aparecida; Duarte, Eliza Carla Barroso; Taveira, Cláudia Teixeira; Máximo, Aline Abreu; de Aquino, Érica Carvalho; Alencar, Rita de Cássia

    2009-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors consist of a group of heterogeneous lesions with complex clinicopathological characteristics and distinct biological behaviors. Worldwide series show a contrast in the relative incidence of salivary gland tumors, with some discrepancies in clinicopathological data. The main aim of this study was to describe demographic characteristics of 599 cases in a population from Central Brazil over a 10-year period and compare these with other epidemiological studies. Benign tumors represented 78.3% of the cases. Women were the most affected (61%) and the male:female ratio was 1:1.6. Parotid gland tumors were the most frequent (68.5% of cases) and patient age ranged from 1 to 88 years-old (median of 45 years old). The most frequent tumors were pleomorphic adenomas (68.4%) and benign tumors were significantly more frequent in the parotid (75.9%), while malignant tumors were more frequent in the minor salivary glands (40%) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, women and the parotid gland were the most affected and pleomorphic adenoma was the most frequent lesion, followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma and Warthin’s tumor. PMID:20596844

  12. Cornelia De Lange syndrome: a case report of a Brazilian boy.

    PubMed

    Scarpelli, Ana C; Pordeus, Isabela A; Resende, Vera L; Castilho, Lia S; Marques, Leandro S; Paiva, Saul M

    2011-07-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, delayed growth and psychomotor skills, behavioral problems, malformation of the upper limbs, and impairment on the quality of life of affected subjects. This article reports a case of a child with the syndrome, emphasizing the orofacial manifestations. Knowledge on the etiopathological aspects and characteristic features of this condition is essential so that professionals can provide health care and help improve the quality of life of affected individuals and their families.

  13. Cases of violence involving transvestites and transsexuals in a northeastern Brazilian city.

    PubMed

    Silva, Glauber Weder Dos Santos; Souza, Emanoel Fhilipe Leite; Sena, Romeika Carla Ferreira de; Moura, Izabella Bezerra de Lima; Sobreira, Maura Vanessa Silva; Miranda, Francisco Arnoldo Nunes de

    2016-06-01

    Objective To analyze cases of violence against transvestites and transsexuals based on their sociodemographic profile. Method Cross-sectional, descriptive research performed in Cajazeiras / Paraíba, consisting of 16 transvestites and transsexuals. Data collection took place in April 2014 and was analyzed descriptively. Results The typology of violence that victimized transvestites and transsexuals were: verbal (91.96%), psychological (58.33%) and physical (33.33%), often between 24 hours and six months preceding the survey. Regarding the spatiality: the street, school and health services were all scenarios of aggression. With respect to the offending agent, the findings point towards neighbors, family members and health professionals. All forms of violence happened between agents and spaces of aggression. Conclusions Violence among this population, silence around the situations of abuse became more pronounced as did its invisibility in the social and institutional context, reflecting the inhibition of human rights and concealment of reality.

  14. Cryptococcosis in non-HIV/non-transplant patients: A Brazilian case series.

    PubMed

    Lomes, Naiane Ribeiro; Melhem, Marcia Souza de Carvalho; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Martins, Marilena Dos Anjos; Buccheri, Renata

    2016-10-01

    Cryptococcosis is a classical systemic opportunistic mycosis, primarily occurring among patients with significant immunologic impairment. However, this disease could also affect patients without any recognized immunologic defects, that is, phenotypically normal patients. The medical records of 29 non-HIV/nontransplant patients with cryptococcal disease during the period 2007-2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The most common site of infection was the central nervous system (n = 25, 86.2%), followed by the pulmonary system (n = 11, 37.9%) and blood (n = 2, 6.8%). Thoracic- and brain-computed tomography demonstrated abnormalities of 81.2% (n = 13) and 62.5% (n = 15), respectively. In sum, 22% (n = 6) of the patients experienced a significant underlying condition. More than one therapeutic regimen was used in 77.8% (n = 21) of the patients. The isolates were identified as being Cryptococcus neoformans species complex (n = 4, 36.4%) and Cryptococcus gattii species complex (n = 7, 63.6%). The overall mortality was 20.7% (n = 6). Herein, we presented the first case series of cryptococcosis in this specific population in São Paulo City, Brazil. The incidence of cryptococcosis in our hospital has not increased in recent years, and 77.8% (n = 21) of cases had no obvious predisposing factor. However, this disease remains associated with high mortality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Severe Hemorrhagic Syndrome After Lonomia Caterpillar Envenomation in the Western Brazilian Amazon: How Many More Cases Are There?

    PubMed

    Santos, João Hugo A; Oliveira, Sâmella S; Alves, Eliane C; Mendonça-da-Silva, Iran; Sachett, Jacqueline A G; Tavares, Antonio; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos; Fan, Hui Wen; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Monteiro, Wuelton M

    2017-03-01

    Contact with Lonomia caterpillars can cause a hemorrhagic syndrome. In Brazil, Lonomia obliqua and Lonomia achelous are known to cause this venom-induced disease. In the Brazilian Amazon, descriptions of this kind of envenomation are scarce. Herein, we report a severe hemorrhagic syndrome caused by Lonomia envenomation in the Amazonas state, Western Brazilian Amazon. The patient showed signs of hemorrhage lasting 8 days and required Lonomia antivenom administration, which resulted in resolution of hemorrhagic syndrome. Thus, availability of Lonomia antivenom as well as early antivenom therapy administration should be addressed across remote areas in the Amazon.

  16. Framing community forestry challenges with a broader lens: case studies from the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Hajjar, Reem; McGrath, David G; Kozak, Robert A; Innes, John L

    2011-09-01

    Community forestry initiatives have been shown to reduce rural poverty while promoting the conservation and sustainable use of forests. However, a number of challenges face communities wanting to initiate or maintain formal, community-based forest management. Through a grounded theory approach, this paper uses three case studies of community forest management models in the eastern Amazon to create a framework showing challenges faced by communities at different phases of formal management. The framework shows that, in the development phase, four root problems (land ownership, knowledge acquisition, community organization, and adequate capital) need to be addressed to obtain legal management permission. With this permission in hand, further challenges to operationalization are presented (deterring illegal loggers, maintaining infrastructure, obtaining necessary managerial skills and accessing markets). The interrelatedness of these challenges emphasizes that all challenges need to be addressed in a holistic manner for communities to maintain a profitable and self-sufficient operation. This contradicts current development approaches that only address part of this framework. The framework proposed here can be used as a starting point for community forestry initiatives in other regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Brazilian cases and the debate about risk communication and governance in areas contaminated by lead].

    PubMed

    Di Giulio, Gabriela Marques; Figueiredo, Bernardino Ribeiro; Ferreira, Lúcia da Costa; Dos Anjos, José Ângelo Sebastião Araújo

    2012-02-01

    This investigation focused on lead contamination case studies in Brazil. The situations studied involve communities living in Santo Amaro da Purificação and Adrianópolis, in the north-east and south of Brazil, respectively. These communities have all had to live with environmental contamination and human exposure to lead as a consequence of industrial, mining and processing activities that were conducted by the same company for decades in a manner inconsistent with modern mining and industrial standards, with little control of environmental and human health impacts. The investigation sought to analyze the strategies of risk communication to local people, and to evaluate their engagement in risk management. The methodological approach included the analysis of newspaper articles, and interviews conducted with different stakeholders, such as residents, journalists, researchers and authorities. The results indicated the need to promote public involvement in the debate and in the decision-making process. The results also confirmed the hypothesis that associative models (represented by local neighborhood associations, for instance) are important for promoting and eliciting public participation in risk management.

  18. The Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescents--ERICA: rationale, design and sample characteristics of a national survey examining cardiovascular risk factor profile in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Klein, Carlos Henrique; de Vasconcelos, Maurício T L; da Veiga, Glória Valéria; Figueiredo, Valeska C; Dias, Adriano; Moraes, Ana Julia Pantoja; Souza, Ana Luiza Lima; de Oliveira, Ana Mayra Andrade; Schaan, Beatriz D'Argord; Tavares, Bruno Mendes; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; Giannini, Denise Tavares; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; Ribas, Dulce Lopes Barboza; Santos, Eduardo Lima; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Azevedo, George Dantas; Brunken, Gisela Soares; Dias, Glauber Monteiro; Filho, Heleno R Correa; Monteiro, Maria Inês; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Faria Neto, José Rocha; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; de Carvalho, Kenia Mara B; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Santos, Marize M; Muniz, Pascoal Torres; Jardim, Paulo César B Veiga; Ferreira, Pedro Antônio Muniz; Montenegro, Renan Magalhães; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Vianna, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary; da Matta, Sandro Silva; Martins, Stella Maris Seixas; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira

    2015-02-07

    The Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescents (Portuguese acronym, "ERICA") is a multicenter, school-based country-wide cross-sectional study funded by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, which aims at estimating the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, including those included in the definition of the metabolic syndrome, in a random sample of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. Approximately 85,000 students were assessed in public and private schools. Brazil is a continental country with a heterogeneous population of 190 million living in its five main geographic regions (North, Northeast, Midwest, South and Southeast). ERICA is a pioneering study that will assess the prevalence rates of cardiovascular risk factors in Brazilian adolescents using a sample with national and regional representativeness. This paper describes the rationale, design and procedures of ERICA. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire using an electronic device, in order to obtain information on demographic and lifestyle characteristics, including physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, sleeping hours, common mental disorders and reproductive and oral health. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. Anthropometric measures (weight, height and waist circumference) and blood pressure were also be measured. Blood was collected from a subsample of approximately 44,000 adolescents for measurements of fasting glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin. The study findings will be instrumental to the development of public policies aiming at the prevention of obesity, atherosclerotic diseases and diabetes in an adolescent population.

  19. Total electron content disturbances during minor sudden stratospheric warming, over the Brazilian region: A case study during January 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, F.; Fagundes, P. R.; Venkatesh, K.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Pillat, V. G.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) on ionosphere have been investigated by several scientists, using different observational techniques and model simulations. However, the minor SSW event during January 2012 is one of those that are less studied. Influences of several types of possible drivers—minor SSW event, changing solar flux, moderate geomagnetic storm on 22-25 January, and one of the largest solar proton events on 23-30 January—make it a challenging period to interpret. In the present study, the GPS-total electron content (TEC) measurements from a network of 72 receivers over the Brazilian region are considered. This network of 72 GPS-TEC locations lies between 5°N and 30°S (35°) latitudes and 35°W and 65°W (30°) longitudes. Further, two chains of GPS receivers are used to study the response of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) in the Brazilian eastern and western sectors, as well as its day-to-day variability before and during the SSW-2012. It was noted that the TEC is depleted to the order of 30% all over the Brazilian region, from equator to beyond the EIA regions and from east to west sectors. It is also noticed that the EIA strengths at the east and west sectors were weakened during the SSW-2012. However, the Brazilian eastern sector was found to be more disturbed compared to the western sector during this SSW-2012 event.

  20. Are community-based forest enterprises in the tropics financially viable? Case studies from the Brazilian Amazon

    Treesearch

    Shoana Humphries; Thomas P. Holmes; Karen Kainer; Carlos Gabriel Goncalves Koury; Edson Cruz; Rosana de Miranda Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Community-based forest management is an integral component of sustainable forest management and conservation in the Brazilian Amazon, where it has been heavily subsidized for the last ten years. Yet knowledge of the financial viability and impact of community-based forest enterprises (CFEs) is lacking. This study evaluates the profitability of three CFEs in the...

  1. Cases for the Net Generation: An Empirical Examination of Students' Attitude toward Multimedia Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Michael; Vibert, Conor

    2016-01-01

    Case studies have been an important tool in business, legal, and medical education for generations of students. Traditional text-based cases tend to be self-contained and structured in such a way as to teach a particular concept. The multimedia cases introduced in this study feature unscripted web-hosted video interviews with business owners and…

  2. The Business Case Method: An Examination of a 2009 Case Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menna, Agostino

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare, contrast and analyze the business case formats of college students involved in a business case competition. The authors observed and documented teams of business students from 6 colleges in Ontario, Canada. The teams had 20 minutes to prepare a solution from a given business case using their own case…

  3. Cases for the Net Generation: An Empirical Examination of Students' Attitude toward Multimedia Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Michael; Vibert, Conor

    2016-01-01

    Case studies have been an important tool in business, legal, and medical education for generations of students. Traditional text-based cases tend to be self-contained and structured in such a way as to teach a particular concept. The multimedia cases introduced in this study feature unscripted web-hosted video interviews with business owners and…

  4. The Business Case Method: An Examination of a 2009 Case Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menna, Agostino

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare, contrast and analyze the business case formats of college students involved in a business case competition. The authors observed and documented teams of business students from 6 colleges in Ontario, Canada. The teams had 20 minutes to prepare a solution from a given business case using their own case…

  5. In Brief: Validity of Case Summaries in Written Examinations of Clinical Reasoning.

    PubMed

    Dory, Valérie; Gagnon, Robert; Charlin, Bernard; Vanpee, Dominique; Leconte, Sophie; Duyver, Corentin; Young, Meredith; Loye, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Construct: The purpose of this study was to provide initial evidence of the validity of written case summaries as assessments of clinical problem representation in a classroom setting. To solve clinical problems, clinicians must gain a clear representation of the issues. In the clinical setting, oral case presentations-or summaries-are used to assess learners' ability to gather, synthesize, and "translate" pertinent case information. This ability can be assessed in Objective Structured Clinical Examination and Virtual Patient settings using oral or written case summaries. Evidence of their validity in these settings includes adequate interrater agreement and moderate correlation with other assessments of clinical reasoning. We examined the use of written case summaries in a classroom setting as part of an examination designed to assess clinical reasoning. We developed and implemented written examinations for 2 preclerkship general practice courses in Years 4 and 5 of a 7-year curriculum. Examinations included 8 case summary questions in Year 4 and 5 in Year 5. Seven hundred students participated. Cases were scored using 3 criteria: extraction of pertinent findings, semantic quality, and global ratings. We examined the item parameters (using classical test theory) and generalizability of case summary items. We computed correlations between case summary scores and scores on other questions within the examination. Item parameters were acceptable (average item difficulty = 0.49-0.73 and 0.59-0.68 in Years 4 and 5; average point-biserials = 0.21-0.24 and 0.18-0.21). Scores were moderately generalizable (G coefficients = 0.40-0.50), with case-specificity a substantial source of measurement error (10.2%-19.5% of variance). Scoring and rater had small effects. Correlations with related constructs were low to moderate. There is good evidence regarding the scoring and generalizability of written case summaries for assessment of clinical problem representation. Further

  6. A Tale of Three Cases: Examining Accuracy, Efficiency, and Process Differences in Diagnosing Virtual Patient Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doleck, Tenzin; Jarrell, Amanda; Poitras, Eric G.; Chaouachi, Maher; Lajoie, Susanne P.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical reasoning is a central skill in diagnosing cases. However, diagnosing a clinical case poses several challenges that are inherent to solving multifaceted ill-structured problems. In particular, when solving such problems, the complexity stems from the existence of multiple paths to arriving at the correct solution (Lajoie, 2003). Moreover,…

  7. A Tale of Three Cases: Examining Accuracy, Efficiency, and Process Differences in Diagnosing Virtual Patient Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doleck, Tenzin; Jarrell, Amanda; Poitras, Eric G.; Chaouachi, Maher; Lajoie, Susanne P.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical reasoning is a central skill in diagnosing cases. However, diagnosing a clinical case poses several challenges that are inherent to solving multifaceted ill-structured problems. In particular, when solving such problems, the complexity stems from the existence of multiple paths to arriving at the correct solution (Lajoie, 2003). Moreover,…

  8. [Forensic medical examination of a medical malpractice case as a form of situational expertise].

    PubMed

    Leonov, S V; Kozlov, S V

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose to divide the process of forensic medical examination of a medical malpractice case into several stages and substantiate the possibility of their realization as a form of situational forensic medical expertise.

  9. Micronucleus frequency in children exposed to biomass burning in the Brazilian Legal Amazon region: a control case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Amazon represents an area of 61% of Brazilian territory and is undergoing major changes resulting from disorderly economic development, especially the advance of agribusiness. Composition of the atmosphere is controlled by several natural and anthropogenic processes, and emission from biomass burning is one with the major impact on human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxic potential of air pollutants generated by biomass burning through micronucleus assay in exfoliated buccal cells of schoolchildren in the Brazilian Amazon region. Methods The study was conducted during the dry seasons in two regions of the Brazilian Amazon. The assay was carried out on buccal epithelial cells of 574 schoolchildren between 6-16 years old. Results The results show a significant difference between micronucleus frequencies in children exposed to biomass burning compared to those in a control area. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that in situ biomonitoring using a sensitive and low cost assay (buccal micronucleus assay) may be an important tool for monitoring air quality in remote regions. It is difficult to attribute the increase in micronuclei frequency observed in our study to any specific toxic element integrated in the particulate matters. However, the contribution of the present study lies in the evidence that increased exposure to fine particulate matter generates an increased micronuclei frequency in oral epithelial cells of schoolchildren. PMID:22400801

  10. Examining Treatment Effects for Single-Case ABAB Designs through Sensitivity Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumbacher, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    Single-case designs (SCDs) are often used to examine the impact of an intervention over brief periods of time (Kratochwill & Stoiber, 2002; Segool, Brinkman, & Carlson, 2007). The majority of SCDs are inspected using visual analysis (Kromrey & Foster-Johnson, 1996; Morgan & Morgan, 2009). Although the single-case literature…

  11. A Practice Concepts Symposium on Drug Misuse in the Elderly: Examination of a Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstone, Barbara; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Set of articles consisting of an introduction (Barbara Silverstone, et al.) and case study concerning drug misuse in the elderly, and six papers examining the case from the perspectives of clinical pharmacology (William Simonson); pharmacology (Peter Lamy); psychiatry (Charles Gaitz and Nancy Wilson); nursing (Delores Alford); social work (Janet…

  12. A Practice Concepts Symposium on Drug Misuse in the Elderly: Examination of a Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstone, Barbara; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Set of articles consisting of an introduction (Barbara Silverstone, et al.) and case study concerning drug misuse in the elderly, and six papers examining the case from the perspectives of clinical pharmacology (William Simonson); pharmacology (Peter Lamy); psychiatry (Charles Gaitz and Nancy Wilson); nursing (Delores Alford); social work (Janet…

  13. Examining the Stability of Experts' Clinical Case Processing: An Experimental Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruin, Anique B. H.; Van De Wiel, Margaretha W. J.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the hypothesis that the intermediate effect in clinical case recall is partly explained by experts' lower motivation to write down "everything" they remember when asked for free recall. Medical experts and students were presented with two clinical cases, which they had to read, diagnose, and recall.…

  14. Examining Treatment Effects for Single-Case ABAB Designs through Sensitivity Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumbacher, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    Single-case designs (SCDs) are often used to examine the impact of an intervention over brief periods of time (Kratochwill & Stoiber, 2002; Segool, Brinkman, & Carlson, 2007). The majority of SCDs are inspected using visual analysis (Kromrey & Foster-Johnson, 1996; Morgan & Morgan, 2009). Although the single-case literature…

  15. Examining the Contemporary Status of an Education System: The Case of the Republic of South Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banraba, Boboya James Edimond

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine the contemporary status of an education system. The paper takes the case of the Republic of South Sudan. The key issues the paper will examine are the education enrollment and completion rates while paying particular attention to inequalities in both access and quality among racial or ethnic groups, males and…

  16. False-Negative Cases on Confocal Microscopy Examination: A Retrospective Evaluation and Critical Reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Coco, Valeria; Farnetani, Francesca; Cesinaro, Anna Maria; Ciardo, Silvana; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Peris, Ketty; Pellacani, Giovanni; Longo, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Confocal microscopy is a second-level examination for dermoscopically equivocal melanocytic lesions. However, the number of false-negative cases on confocal microscopy and the scenarios in which confocal microscopy may fail have not been fully elucidated. To calculate the percentage of false-negative melanomas upon reflectance confocal microscopy examination in a large series of cases. A retrospective analysis on 201 melanomas, evaluated for dermoscopic/confocal criteria of melanoma, was carried out. Twenty-three melanomas out of 201 cases (11.4%) revealed a low 7-point checklist score. On confocal examination, 22 out of 23 lesions have been diagnosed correctly as melanomas. Only 1 lesion did not display melanoma features, neither upon dermoscopy nor upon confocal microscopy examination. Seven lesions out of 201 cases (3.5%) were judged as negative on confocal examination, even if 6 of them were diagnosed as melanomas by clinical and/or dermoscopic evaluation. After histopathological revision, these cases were grouped into 5 categories: (1) amelanotic melanoma (n = 1), (2) hyperkeratotic melanomas (n = 2), (3) lentiginous melanomas (n = 2), (4) melanoma with small pagetoid cells (n = 1), (5) spitzoid melanoma (n = 1). Confocal and dermoscopic examination, along with patient-related information and clinical history, can lead to an optimal patient management. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The Value of Outsourcing Selected Cases in a Medical Examiner Population: A 10-Year Experience.

    PubMed

    McCleskey, Brandi C; Reilly, Stephanie D; Atherton, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing caseloads and inadequate staffing, the burden on Coroner/Medical Examiner Offices to comply with recommended autopsy limits for forensic pathologists (FPs) has been difficult. Since 2006, pathologists at the University of Alabama at Birmingham have performed select autopsies for the Alabama Department of Forensic Sciences. Each case was reviewed by a state FP and scene investigator to determine appropriateness for referral. All referred cases received full postmortem examination including microscopic examination and collection of toxicological samples, and toxicology was ordered by the referring FP as appropriate. The final cause and manner of death were determined by the referring state FP after review of all findings. A majority of the 421 cases were ruled accidental deaths (233), most due to drug toxicity. Of the 178 natural deaths, 118 were attributed to cardiovascular disease. Outsourcing select forensic cases can be educational and an effective tool to manage workflow without compromising quality. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. A survey of 165 sporotrichosis cases examined in Nagasaki prefecture from 1951 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Motoi; Yoshizaki, Asako; Utani, Atushi; Nishimoto, Katsutaro

    2014-05-01

    A total of 165 sporotrichosis cases occurring in Nagasaki prefecture, and examined at Nagasaki University Hospital, were evaluated. Both males and females were equally affected, with no significant differences in the affected body regions. Lesions were frequently seen on the face (49 cases, 29.5%) and upper limbs (101 cases, 60.9%). The localised cutaneous type of sporotrichosis (105 cases, 62.9%) was much more frequent than the lymphocutaneous type (62 cases, 37.1%). The infection rate in patients over 50 years of age was 73.1%. The most frequent occupation among the patients was farming (52 cases, 37.4%), and 34 patients had a history of injury. Regarding the geographical distribution of sporotrichosis, 48 cases occurred in the Shimabara peninsula (31.2%) and this is much higher than expected for the population size. Before 1994, almost all sporotrichosis cases (112 cases, 96.5%) were treated with potassium iodide (KI). After 1995, the number of patients treated with KI decreased (nine cases, 23.1%), and itraconazole (ITZ) was used in 21 cases (59.0%) and terbinafine in six cases (15.3%). The time between ITZ and KI treatment and cure was 13.8 weeks and 12.5 weeks, respectively. All 116 cases, for which the outcome was known, were cured or improved.

  19. Microbiological and pathological examination of fatal calf pneumonia cases induced by bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Szeredi, Levente; Jánosi, Szilárd; Pálfi, Vilmos

    2010-09-01

    The infectious origin of fatal cases of calf pneumonia was studied in 48 calves from 27 different herds on postmortem examination. Lung tissue samples were examined by pathological, histological, bacterial culture, virus isolation and immunohistochemical methods for the detection of viral and bacterial infections. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 47/48 cases and infectious agents were found in 40/47 (85%) of those cases. The presence of multiple respiratory pathogens in 23/40 (57.5%) cases indicated the complex origin of fatal calf pneumonia. The most important respiratory pathogens were Mannheimia-Pasteurella in 36/40 (90%) cases, followed by Arcanobacterium pyogenes in 16/40 (40%) cases, Mycoplasma bovis in 12/40 (30%) cases, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in 4/40 (10%) cases. Histophilus somni was detected in 2/40 (5%) cases, while bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and parainfluenza virus-3 were each found in 1/40 (2.5%) case. Mastadenovirus, bovine coronavirus, influenza A virus or Chlamydiaceae were not detected.

  20. [The illegal market for gender-related drugs as portrayed in the Brazilian news media: the case of misoprostol and women].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Castro, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes how the Brazilian news media covers the illegal market for misoprostol, the main drug used to induce abortion. A total of 1,429 news stories were retrieved from 220 print and electronic media channels from 2004 to 2009. The analysis included 524 stories from 62 regional and national newspapers. Misoprostol appeared repeatedly in the news, but was usually approached from a criminal perspective, unlike abortion as a whole, which the Brazilian media routinely covers as a religious, political, and public health issue. Misoprostol is part of the illegal gender-related drug market, along with drugs for weight loss and erectile dysfunction and anabolic steroids. Sixty-four (12%) of the news stories told life histories of women who had aborted with misoprostol. The women's ages ranged from 13 to 46 years, and socioeconomic status was associated with different experiences with abortion. Three characters appeared in the women's abortion itineraries: girlfriends (confidantes), go-betweens, and physicians. Stories of late-stage abortion are confused with the criminal characterization of infanticide and provide the extreme cases in the media's narrative on abortion.

  1. Association between resilience and posttraumatic stress disorder among Brazilian victims of urban violence: a cross-sectional case-control study.

    PubMed

    Teche, Stefania Pigatto; Barros, Alcina Juliana Soares; Rosa, Regis Goulart; Guimarães, Luciano Pinto; Cordini, Kariny Larissa; Goi, Julia Domingues; Hauck, Simone; Freitas, Lucia Helena

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the association between resilience and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Brazilian victims of urban violence. It also compared defense mechanisms, parental bonding, and childhood trauma between those who developed PTSD and those who did not. This cross-sectional case-control study included 66 adult subjects exposed to recent urban violence in southern Brazil - 33 with PTSD and 33 healthy controls matched by sex and age - who were administered the Resilience Scale, Defense Style Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The statistical tests used were the McNemar test for categorical variables, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for continuous asymmetric variables, and the paired Student t-test for continuous symmetric variables. The PTSD group showed lower total Resilience Scale scores compared with controls (128.4±20.7 vs. 145.8±13.1, respectively; p = 0.01), along with a lower ability to solve situations and lower personal values that give meaning to life (p = 0.019). They also had lower rates of mature defense mechanisms (p < 0.001) and higher rates of emotional (p = 0.001) and physical (p = 0.003) abuse during childhood. Lower levels of resilience, especially the ability to solve situations and having personal values that give meaning to life, immature defense mechanisms, and emotional and physical abuse in childhood are associated with PTSD in adult Brazilian victims of urban violence.

  2. Sociocultural Influences on Brazilian Children's Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Reports on insights about sociocultural influences on Brazilian children's drawings, using visual anthropology to examine children's drawings that depicted what they like to do. Discusses visual anthropology, provides information on Brazilian educational influences, and presents the context and findings of the study. (CMK)

  3. Sociocultural Influences on Brazilian Children's Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Reports on insights about sociocultural influences on Brazilian children's drawings, using visual anthropology to examine children's drawings that depicted what they like to do. Discusses visual anthropology, provides information on Brazilian educational influences, and presents the context and findings of the study. (CMK)

  4. Brazilian gemstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro

    1981-04-01

    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  5. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version "COPE Breve".

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Sarah V; Orsini, Mara R C A; Cavalcante, Julianna A; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M; Costa, Paulo S S; Costa, Luciane R

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts.

  6. 5 CFR 315.702 - Employees serving without competitive examination in rare cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... examination in rare cases. 315.702 Section 315.702 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Conversion to Career or Career... career or career-conditional employment. (b) Tenure on approval of recommendation. When OPM approves the...

  7. The Social Construction of a Digital Library: A Case Study Examining Implications for Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilker, Julian; Gay, Geri

    1998-01-01

    Describes the social construction of technology (SCOT) framework which encourages a focus on the multiple perspectives inherent in the development and evaluation of digital libraries. Relevant social groups, interpretive flexibility, and closure are used to examine an evaluation case study of the "Making of America" (MOA) digital library…

  8. An Examination of Resilience Processes in Context: The Case of Tasha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Tammy A.

    2008-01-01

    This research examined resilience processes in context through a narrative case study of Tasha, a young African-American woman who grew up in a poverty-ridden area of a mid-sized city in the Southeast. Personal and external data are analyzed and interpreted in terms of contextually defined themes of adversity (i.e., intersectionality of social…

  9. Examination of a Dispositional System in a Teacher Education Program: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Prooyen, Traci L.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods, case study research examined the teacher education program at Illinois State University (ISU-Normal, Illinois) as related to the views and assessment practices of the dispositions of its teacher candidates. Five years of quantitative and qualitative data from ISU's Disposition Concern form was collected and analyzed currently…

  10. Using Peer Reviews to Examine Micropolitics and Disciplinary Development of Engineering Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddoes, Kacey

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the peer review process for a feminist article submitted to an engineering education journal. It demonstrates how an examination of peer review can be a useful approach to further understanding the development of feminist thought in education fields. Rather than opposition to feminist thought per se, my…

  11. A Case for Examining Pre-Service Teacher Preparation for Inquiry Teaching Science with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shively, Chris T.; Yerrick, Randy

    2014-01-01

    Inquiry has been the framework for guiding reform-based science instruction. All too often, the role of technology is treated tacitly without contributions to this framework. This case study examines a collection of pre-service teachers enrolling in two educational technology courses and the role these experiences play in promoting inquiry…

  12. A Constructivist Case Study Examining the Leadership Development of Undergraduate Students in Campus Recreational Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Stacey L.; Forrester, Scott; Borsz, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    This constructivist case study examined undergraduate student leadership development. Twenty-one student leaders, 13 females and 8 males, in a campus recreational sports department were interviewed using a semi-structured interview protocol. Seven broad themes: organizing, planning, and delegating; balancing academic, personal and professional…

  13. Using Peer Reviews to Examine Micropolitics and Disciplinary Development of Engineering Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddoes, Kacey

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the peer review process for a feminist article submitted to an engineering education journal. It demonstrates how an examination of peer review can be a useful approach to further understanding the development of feminist thought in education fields. Rather than opposition to feminist thought per se, my…

  14. The Social Construction of a Digital Library: A Case Study Examining Implications for Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilker, Julian; Gay, Geri

    1998-01-01

    Describes the social construction of technology (SCOT) framework which encourages a focus on the multiple perspectives inherent in the development and evaluation of digital libraries. Relevant social groups, interpretive flexibility, and closure are used to examine an evaluation case study of the "Making of America" (MOA) digital library…

  15. An Examination of Resilience Processes in Context: The Case of Tasha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Tammy A.

    2008-01-01

    This research examined resilience processes in context through a narrative case study of Tasha, a young African-American woman who grew up in a poverty-ridden area of a mid-sized city in the Southeast. Personal and external data are analyzed and interpreted in terms of contextually defined themes of adversity (i.e., intersectionality of social…

  16. Immunohistochemical examination of the lungs in infant death cases using antibodies against milk components.

    PubMed

    Iwadate, K; Doy, M; Nishimaki, Y; Liang, F; Takatori, T; Hasekura, H

    2000-05-08

    To examine the use of immunohistochemical staining with antibodies against milk components for detection of aspirated milk on lung sections, eighteen infant death cases were investigated. Immunostaining was performed with anti-human alpha lactalbumin, anti-human IgA, anti-human milk fat globulin 1, and anti-cow whey antibody. Reactivity with each antibody was examined, and semi-quantitative examinations were performed to compare the amount of aspirated milk using anti-human alpha lactalbumin antibody. Materials in the alveoli or bronchioli on lung sections suspected to be aspirated milk showed the most sensitive and clearest reaction with anti-human alpha lactalbumin antibody. Of the eighteen cases, ten cases showed positive reaction with this antibody. The amount of aspirated milk varied widely in each case. In conclusion, immunohistochemical staining with antibodies against human milk components, especially anti-human alpha lactalbumin antibody, can detect small amounts of milk. Using this method, we were able to compare the relative amount of aspirated milk among cases.

  17. Application of dye analysis in forensic fibre and textile examination: Case examples.

    PubMed

    Schotman, Tom G; Xu, Xiaoma; Rodewijk, Nicole; van der Weerd, Jaap

    2017-09-01

    Seven cases and a quality assurance test are presented. In these cases, fibres or textiles submitted for investigation were analysed by HPLC-DAD-MS to identify the dyes present. The cases presented illustrate that it is possible to identify textile dyes in fibre traces recovered for forensic analysis. The results show that a mixture of dyes is present in all textiles investigated, except one sample that was taken from a manufacturer dye shade card. It is concluded that dye analyses improves the evidential value of forensic fibre examinations, as it becomes possible to distinguish textiles that are different in dye chemistry, but have a similar colour. In addition dye analysis makes the examination more robust, as it becomes possible to attribute colour differences between samples to identical dyes (mixed in different ratios) or to chemically different dyes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular and pedigree analysis applied to conservation of animal genetic resources: the case of Brazilian Somali hair sheep.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Samuel R; Facó, Olivardo; Faria, Danielle A; Lacerda, Thaísa; Barretto, Gabriel B; Carneiro, Paulo L S; Lobo, Raimundo N B; McManus, Concepta

    2011-10-01

    The first registers of Somali sheep in Brazil are from the beginning of the 1900s. This breed, adapted to the dry climate and scarce food supply, is restricted in the northeast region of the country. Molecular marker technologies, especially those based on genotyping microsatellite and mtDNA loci, can be used in conjunction with breeding (pedigree analysis) and consequently the maintenance of genetic variation in herds. Animals from the Brazilian Somali Conservation Nuclei from Embrapa Sheep and Goats in Ceará State were used to validate genetic monitoring by traditional pedigree methods and molecular markers. Nineteen microsatellite markers and 404 base pairs from the control region of mtDNA were used. For total herd diversity, an average 5.32 alleles were found, with expected heterozygosity of 0.5896, observed heterozygosity of 0.6451, 0.4126 for molecular coancestrality, and coefficient of inbreeding (F (IS)) was -0.095. Comparing molecular coancestrality means over the years, there was a consistent increase in this parameter within the herd, increasing from 0.4157 to 0.4769 in 2 years (approx. 12% variation). Sixteen mtDNA haplotypes were identified. Inbreeding and other estimates from genealogical analyses confirm the results from molecular markers. From these results, it is possible to state that microsatellites are useful tools in genetic management of herds, especially when routine herd recording is not carried out, or there were gaps in recent generations. As well as pedigree control, genetic diversity can be optimized. Based on the results, and despite herd recording in the herd of Brazilian Somali of Embrapa Sheep and Goats, additional management measures need to be carried out in this herd to reduce inbreeding and optimize genetic variation.

  19. Renal transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected recipients: a case-control study from the Brazilian experience.

    PubMed

    Vicari, A R; Spuldaro, F; Sandes-Freitas, T V; Cristelli, M P; Requião-Moura, L R; Reusing, J O; Pierrotti, L C; Oliveira, M L; Girão, C M; Gadonski, G; Kroth, L V; Deboni, L M; Ferreira, G F; Tedesco-Silva, H; Esmeraldo, R; David-Neto, E; Saitovitch, D; Keitel, E; Garcia, V D; Pacheco-Silva, A; Medina-Pestana, J O; Manfro, R C

    2016-10-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy has turned human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with end-stage renal disease into suitable candidates for renal transplantation. We present the Brazilian experience with kidney transplantation in HIV-infected recipients observed in a multicenter study. HIV-infected kidney transplant recipients and matched controls were evaluated for the incidence of delayed graft function (DGF), acute rejection (AR), infections, graft function, and survival of patients and renal grafts. Fifty-three HIV-infected recipients and 106 controls were enrolled. Baseline characteristics were similar, but a higher frequency of pre-transplant positivity for hepatitis C virus and cytomegalovirus infections was found in the HIV group. Immunosuppressive regimens did not differ, but a trend was observed toward lower use of anti-thymocyte globulin in the group of HIV-infected recipients (P = 0.079). The HIV-positive recipient group presented a higher incidence of treated AR (P = 0.036) and DGF (P = 0.044). Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration estimated that glomerular filtration rate was similar at 6 months (P = 0.374) and at 12 months (P = 0.957). The median number of infections per patient was higher in the HIV-infected group (P = 0.018). The 1-year patient survival (P < 0.001) and graft survival (P = 0.004) were lower, but acceptable, in the group of HIV-infected patients. In the Brazilian experience, despite somewhat inferior outcomes, kidney transplantation is an adequate therapy for selected HIV-infected recipients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Risk factors for surgical site infection following cesarean section in a Brazilian Women's Hospital: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Farret, Túlio Cícero Franco; Dallé, Jessica; Monteiro, Vinícius da Silva; Riche, Cezar Vinícius Würdig; Antonello, Vicente Sperb

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated patients with diagnosis of surgical site infection (SSI) following cesarean section and their controls to determinate risk factors and impact of antibiotic prophylaxis on this condition. All cesareans performed from January 2009 to December 2012 were evaluated for SSI, based on criteria established by CDC/NHSN. Control patients were determined after inclusion of case patients. Medical records of case and control patients were reviewed and compared regarding sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Our study demonstrated an association following univariate analysis between post-cesarean SSI and number of internal vaginal examinations, time of membrane rupture, emergency cesarean and improper use of antibiotic prophylaxis. This same situation did not repeat itself in multivariate analysis with adjustment for risk factors, especially with regard to antibiotic prophylaxis, considering the emergency cesarean factor only. The authors of the present study not only question surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis use based on data presented here and in literature, but suggest that the prophylaxis is perhaps indicated primarily in selected groups of patients undergoing cesarean section. Further research with greater number of patients and evaluated risk factors are fundamental for better understanding of the causes and evolution of surgical site infection after cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  1. Severe acute cholangitis after endoscopic sphincterotomy induced by barium examination: A case report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wu, Ya-Guang; Qin, Cheng-Kun; Su, Zhong-Xue; Xu, Jian; Xian, Guo-Zhe; Wu, Shuo-Dong

    2012-10-21

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is considered as a possible etiological factor for severe cholangitis. We herein report a case of severe cholangitis after endoscopic sphincterotomy induced by barium examination. An adult male patient presented with epigastric pain was diagnosed as having choledocholithiasis by ultrasonography. EST was performed and the stone was completely cleaned. Barium examination was done 3 d after EST and severe cholangitis appeared 4 h later. The patient was recovered after treated with tienam for 4 d. Barium examination may induce severe cholangitis in patients after EST, although rare, barium examination should be chosen cautiously. Cautions should be also used when EST is performed in patients younger than 50 years to avoid the damage to the sphincter of Oddi.

  2. "The Police Have Given Up": An Empirical Examination of Covictims' Beliefs About Cold Case Homicide Investigations.

    PubMed

    Stretesky, Paul B; Cope, Kathryn; Shelley, Tara O'Connor; Hogan, Michael J; Unnithan, N Prabha

    2016-01-01

    This work examines the perception by cold case homicide covictims that police have given up trying to solve their loved one's murder. A random sample (n = 65) of cold case homicide covictims is surveyed to determine if, and how, different forms of communication may be important in their perceptions about police. Ordered logistic regression analyses indicate that perceived importance of the information communicated, frequency of police contact, and satisfaction with communication efforts by police are inversely correlated with covictims' perceptions that police have given up on the investigation. These inverse correlations persist despite statistical controls and have important implications for the bereavement of covictims and for crime rates.

  3. Older Age and Time to Medical Assistance Are Associated with Severity and Mortality of Snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Esaú L; Sampaio, Vanderson S; Salinas, Jorge L; Queiroz, Amanda M; da Silva, Iran Mendonça; Gomes, André A; Sachett, Jacqueline; Siqueira, André M; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L; Dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon region reports the highest incidence of snakebite envenomings in Brazil. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of snakebites in the state of Amazonas and to investigate factors associated with disease severity and lethality. We used a nested case-control study, in order to identify factors associated with snakebite severity and mortality using official Brazilian reporting systems, from 2007 to 2012. Patients evolving to severity or death were considered cases and those with non-severe bites were included in the control group. During the study period, 9,191 snakebites were recorded, resulting in an incidence rate of 52.8 cases per 100,000 person/years. Snakebites mostly occurred in males (79.0%) and in rural areas (70.2%). The most affected age group was between 16 and 45 years old (54.6%). Fifty five percent of the snakebites were related to work activities. Age ≤15 years [OR=1.26 (95% CI=1.03-1.52); (p=0.018)], age ≥65 years [OR=1.53 (95% CI=1.09-2.13); (p=0.012)], work related bites [OR=1.39 (95% CI=1.17-1.63); (p<0.001)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=1.73 (95% CI=1.45-2.07); (p<0.001)] were independently associated with the risk of severity. Age ≥65 years [OR=3.19 (95% CI=1.40-7.25); (p=0.006)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=2.01 (95% CI=1.15-3.50); (p=0.013)] were independently associated with the risk of death. Snakebites represent an occupational health problem for rural populations in the Brazilian Amazon with a wide distribution. These results highlight the need for public health strategies aiming to reduce occupational injuries. Most cases of severe disease occurred in the extremes of age, in those with delays in medical attention and those caused by Micrurus bites. These features of victims of snakebite demand adequate management according to well-defined protocols, including prompt referral to tertiary centres when necessary, as well as an effective response from surveillance systems and policy makers for these

  4. Older Age and Time to Medical Assistance Are Associated with Severity and Mortality of Snakebites in the Brazilian Amazon: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Feitosa, Esaú L.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Salinas, Jorge L.; Queiroz, Amanda M.; da Silva, Iran Mendonça; Gomes, André A.; Sachett, Jacqueline; Siqueira, André M.; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos L.; dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Lacerda, Marcus; Monteiro, Wuelton

    2015-01-01

    The Amazon region reports the highest incidence of snakebite envenomings in Brazil. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of snakebites in the state of Amazonas and to investigate factors associated with disease severity and lethality. We used a nested case-control study, in order to identify factors associated with snakebite severity and mortality using official Brazilian reporting systems, from 2007 to 2012. Patients evolving to severity or death were considered cases and those with non-severe bites were included in the control group. During the study period, 9,191 snakebites were recorded, resulting in an incidence rate of 52.8 cases per 100,000 person/years. Snakebites mostly occurred in males (79.0%) and in rural areas (70.2%). The most affected age group was between 16 and 45 years old (54.6%). Fifty five percent of the snakebites were related to work activities. Age ≤15 years [OR=1.26 (95% CI=1.03-1.52); (p=0.018)], age ≥65 years [OR=1.53 (95% CI=1.09-2.13); (p=0.012)], work related bites [OR=1.39 (95% CI=1.17-1.63); (p<0.001)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=1.73 (95% CI=1.45-2.07); (p<0.001)] were independently associated with the risk of severity. Age ≥65 years [OR=3.19 (95% CI=1.40-7.25); (p=0.006)] and time to medical assistance >6 hours [OR=2.01 (95% CI=1.15-3.50); (p=0.013)] were independently associated with the risk of death. Snakebites represent an occupational health problem for rural populations in the Brazilian Amazon with a wide distribution. These results highlight the need for public health strategies aiming to reduce occupational injuries. Most cases of severe disease occurred in the extremes of age, in those with delays in medical attention and those caused by Micrurus bites. These features of victims of snakebite demand adequate management according to well-defined protocols, including prompt referral to tertiary centres when necessary, as well as an effective response from surveillance systems and policy makers for these

  5. Cuts and tears on a paper towel: a case report on an unusual examination of damage.

    PubMed

    Causin, Valerio; Marega, Carla; Schiavone, Sergio

    2005-03-10

    The examination of damage to a paper towel, an item of evidence in a murder case, is described. Simulations performed with selected tools and the observation of the lacerations present on the towel permitted to infer that they were originated by cleaning of a pointed and sharp implement. Some marks, considered characteristic of scissors, were detected on the exhibit. This experimental outcome resulted critical in challenging the declarations of the suspect. A rather significant analogy between damage examination on paper towels and on textiles was established.

  6. On matters of causation in personal injury cases: Considerations in forensic examination

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Robert; Klar, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatologists are often called to be independent examiners of injured claimants and to address the question: “What is causing the injured person’s symptoms?” This article deals with the legal principles that arise in these cases, including causation, convenient focus, secondary gain, and thin skull rules. We shall first set out two hypothetical scenarios of personal injury cases that set the scene for a discussion of legal principles in personal injury law. With the same two scenarios of personal injury in mind, we shall review the legal principles and the biopsychosocial models of the illnesses concerned and consider the importance of examiners going beyond diagnostic labels towards a more in-depth analysis of illness factors and mechanisms that in turn assist the trier of facts. PMID:27708902

  7. Review of systems, physical examination, and routine tests for case-finding in ambulatory patients.

    PubMed

    Boland, B J; Wollan, P C; Silverstein, M D

    1995-04-01

    The screening value of the comprehensive review of systems and the complete physical examination in detecting unsuspected diseases for which therapeutic interventions are initiated has not been formally studied in ambulatory patients. The medical records of 100 randomly selected adult patients who had an ambulatory general medical evaluation at the Mayo Clinic in 1990-1991 were surveyed to compare review of systems and physical examination with routine laboratory tests, chest radiography, and electrocardiography as case-finding maneuvers. The main outcome measure was the therapeutic yield of each case-finding maneuver, defined as the proportion of maneuvers leading to a new therapy for a new clinically important diagnosis. The utilization rate of routine tests in the 100 patients (mean age: 59 +/- 16 years; 58% women) was high, ranging from 77 to 98%. Overall, the case-finding maneuvers led to 36 unsuspected clinically important diagnoses and resulted in 25 new therapeutic interventions. Higher therapeutic yield was observed for review of systems (7%), physical examination (5%), and lipid screening (9.2%) than for chemistry group (2.2%), complete blood count (1.8%), thyroid tests (1.5%), urinalysis (1.1%), electrocardiography (0%), or chest radiography (0%). The number of therapeutic interventions was not associated with patient's age (P = 0.55), sex (P = 0.88), comorbidity (P = 0.30) or with the time interval since the last general medical evaluation (P = 0.12). Based on therapeutic yield, these data suggest that review of systems and physical examination are valuable case-finding maneuvers in the periodic medical evaluation of ambulatory patients.

  8. Examination of brains of AIDS cases for human immunodeficiency virus and human cytomegalovirus nucleic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, D G; Itagaki, S; Berry, K; McGeer, P L

    1989-01-01

    The role of direct virus infection as a determining factor in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia was investigated using in situ hybridisation for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Four of the five AIDS dementia patients in this series demonstrated HIV infected cells distributed in widely different parts of the brain, but only one case showed HCMV infected cells. The greater abundance of HIV was in subcortical white matter in nodular areas consisting of monocyte/macrophage infiltrates. The cells were occasionally arranged as a multinucleated syncitium. In two cases, a few large cells with the appearance of neurons were positive for HIV hybridisation. By appropriate treatment with ribonuclease, it was shown that hybridisation was primarily to HIV RNA. HCMV infected cells were observed in small numbers in only one of the positive cases, suggesting that HCMV is not a determining factor in AIDS dementia. HCMV positive cells were located in the grey matter, with an appearance suggestive of neurons. Cells expressing the MHC-class II antigen HLA-DR, a marker of reactive microglia and macrophages, were observed to be extensive in affected brain sections in the one case examined. These cells were present in greater number than HIV infected cells. In this case, extensive numbers of HIV infected cells were noticed along the peripheral margin of the substantia innominata. This could indicate infection in this case of a critical brain region from the cerebrospinal fluid. Images PMID:2543795

  9. [The possibility of medico-legal opinionating on medical error in cases of waived postmortem examination].

    PubMed

    Kunz, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    For several years now, with the introduction of the health care sector reform we have been observing a considerable drop in the number of postmortem examinations performed in patients who died in hospitals. The decrease amounts to as much as 50 to 70%. This is undoubtedly a consequence of financial restrictions imposed on the management of these inpatient facilities. On the other hand, Departments of Forensic Medicine established to evaluate the so-called medical errors are swamped with an increasing avalanche of complaints concerning the appropriateness of therapeutic management. This leads to a growing number of orders from penal prosecution and jurisdiction agencies with requests for assessment whether a medical error has been committed in a particular case. The result of a postmortem examination is practically the only basis for a factual evaluation of a given case. When no autopsy has been performed, the experts are virtually helpless, and in the majority of such instances, they are forced to refuse passing an expert opinion. The report presents basic principles of medico-legal opinionating in criminal cases (including proceedings pertaining to medical errors), the rules governing the medical error assessment, as well as problems encountered in evaluating the appropriate course of treatment when a post mortem examination has been waived.

  10. Quality Assurance of Post-Graduate Education: The Case of CAPES, the Brazilian Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida Guimarães, Jorge; Chaves Edler de Almeida, Elenara

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss the CAPES Foundation, the Brazilian Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education. They also present and discuss the current data and status of the Brazilian venture for developing human resources and for the formation of an active community dedicated to Science and Technology, giving a general vision of its…

  11. Examining the therapeutic relationship and confronting resistances in psychodynamic psychotherapy: a certified public accountant case.

    PubMed

    Manetta, Christopher T; Gentile, Julie P; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2011-05-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective for a variety of mental health symptoms. This form of psychotherapy uses patient self reflection and self examination, as well as the therapeutic relationship between the patient and psychiatrist, to explore maladaptive coping strategies and relationship patterns of the patient. A thorough understanding of resistance and the core conflictual relationship theme afford the psychiatrist the ability to facilitate this work. In this article, the composite case illustrates some of the psychodynamic psychotherapy techniques that can be employed in a psychotherapy case. In this example, the case is about a certified public accountant that came to treatment because of an acute stressor that put her career goals at risk. An acute episode or event can bring to light chronic and ongoing symptoms, which have had a remitting and relapsing course, and leave the patient unable to compensate on his or her own.

  12. Computer-aided combined movement examination of the lumbar spine and manual therapy implications: Case report.

    PubMed

    Monie, A P; Barrett, C J; Price, R I; Lind, C R P; Singer, K P

    2016-02-01

    Combined movement examination (CME) of the lumbar spine has been recommended for clinical examination as it confers information about mechanical pain patterns. However, little quantitative study has been undertaken to validate its use in manual therapy practice. This study used computer aided CME to develop a normal reference range, and to guide provisional diagnosis and management. Two cases were assessed, before and after manual therapy using CME, a pain Visual Analogue Scale, the Roland Morris Low Back Pain and Disability Questionnaire and the Short Form (SF-12) Health Survey. Diagnosis and management were guided by comparing each CME pattern with the age and gender matched reference range. Self-reports data and CME total change scores were markedly improved for both cases, particularly for the most painful and restricted CME directions. This report describes how computer-aided CME and a normal reference range may be used objectively to inform a diagnosis and as an outcome measure in cases of mechanical LBP. Future investigations of cases with specific lumbar pathologies are required to validate this concept. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Validation of a Case-Based, Cumulative Assessment and Progressions Examination

    PubMed Central

    Coker, Adeola O.; Copeland, Jeffrey T.; Gottlieb, Helmut B.; Horlen, Cheryl; Smith, Helen E.; Urteaga, Elizabeth M.; Ramsinghani, Sushma; Zertuche, Alejandra; Maize, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess content and criterion validity, as well as reliability of an internally developed, case-based, cumulative, high-stakes third-year Annual Student Assessment and Progression Examination (P3 ASAP Exam). Methods. Content validity was assessed through the writing-reviewing process. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing student scores on the P3 ASAP Exam with the nationally validated Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA). Reliability was assessed with psychometric analysis comparing student performance over four years. Results. The P3 ASAP Exam showed content validity through representation of didactic courses and professional outcomes. Similar scores on the P3 ASAP Exam and PCOA with Pearson correlation coefficient established criterion validity. Consistent student performance using Kuder-Richardson coefficient (KR-20) since 2012 reflected reliability of the examination. Conclusion. Pharmacy schools can implement internally developed, high-stakes, cumulative progression examinations that are valid and reliable using a robust writing-reviewing process and psychometric analyses. PMID:26941435

  14. The Brazilian Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, Charles D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the unusually aggressive Brazilian honeybee, which exhibits many of the attributes of its African antecedants. Describes its abundance and distribution, behaviorial characteristics, future spread, and the potential impact of the Brazilian bee in North America. (JR)

  15. The Brazilian Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, Charles D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the unusually aggressive Brazilian honeybee, which exhibits many of the attributes of its African antecedants. Describes its abundance and distribution, behaviorial characteristics, future spread, and the potential impact of the Brazilian bee in North America. (JR)

  16. Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck’s Disease) in a 57-Year-Old Brazilian Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Luciano Alberto; de Castro, Joao Gabriel Leite; da Cruz, Alexandre Duarte Lopes; Barbosa, Bruno Henrique de Sousa; de Spindula-Filho, Jose Vieira; Costa, Mauricio Barcelos

    2016-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck’s disease, is a rare disease of the oral mucosa associated with infection by some subtypes of human papilloma virus, especially subtypes 13 or 32. The disease is predominantly found in children and adolescents with indigenous heritage, but other ethnic groups can be affected worldwide. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, it has not been reported in Brazil’s elderly population. This article describes a case of FEH in a 57-year-old Brazilian patient presenting since childhood, with multiple lesions in the lips, buccal mucosa and tongue. The solitary tongue lesion underwent excisional biopsy and the histopathological analysis showed parakeratosis, acanthosis, rete pegs with a club-shaped appearance, koilocytosis and the presence of mitosoid cells. These microscopic findings in conjunction with clinical presentation were sufficient to establish the accurate diagnosis of FEH. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed, but no one human papillomavirus (HPV) subtype could be identified. Clinicians must be aware of this rare oral disease, which can even affect elderly patients, as we described here. Treatment may be indicated in selected cases due to esthetic and/or functional problems. PMID:26985258

  17. Adult-onset opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome as a manifestation of brazilian lyme disease-like syndrome: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Spera, Raphael Ribeiro; de Campos, Fernando Peixoto Ferraz; Freitas, Christian Henrique de Andrade; Garcia, Márcio Ricardo Taveira; Lopes, Leonardo da Costa; Prokopowitsch, Aleksander Snioka

    2014-01-01

    Described in 1962, the opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome (OMAS) is a rare, neurologically debilitating disorder with distinct characteristics that may begin in childhood or adult life. Although many cases remain without etiological diagnosis, others are related to neoplasms and infectious diseases. We report a 41-year-old previously healthy male with an 8-day history of headache, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, and nystagmus. After a normal brain computed tomography and lymphocytic pleocytosis in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), intravenous acyclovir therapy was initiated in the emergency room. On the third day of hospitalization, the diagnosis of OMAS was made based on the presence of chaotic and irregular eye movements, dysarthric speech, gait instability, generalized tremor, and myoclonic jerks. In the face of his neurological worsening, ampicillin followed by nonspecific immunotherapy (methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin) was prescribed, with mild clinical improvement. After a thorough laboratory workup, the definite diagnosis of neuroborreliosis was established and ceftriaxone (4 g/daily/3 wks) and doxycycline (200 mg/day/2 mo) was administered. Toward the end of the ceftriaxone regimen, the neurologic signs substantially improved. We believe this to be the first case description of OMAS as clinical presentation of Brazilian Lyme disease-like syndrome (Baggio-Yoshinari syndrome). PMID:28652990

  18. Deep barcode divergence in Brazilian freshwater fishes: the case of the São Francisco River basin.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Daniel C; Oliveira, Denise A A; Pompeu, Paulo S; Leal, Cecília Gontijo; Oliveira, Claudio; Hanner, Robert

    2011-10-01

    The application of DNA barcoding as a global standard for fish identification is probing diverse worldwide realms (Nearctic, Australian and the Neotropics) and environments (e.g. marine and freshwater). Comparing the patterns of sequence divergence among conspecific and congeneric taxa between realms can provide valuable information on recent evolutionary histories of lineages as barcode data accumulates. Herein, we have analyzed over 100 species (around 50%) of the Neotropical fish fauna from the São Francisco River, in southeast Brazil. Our aims were to test the performance of DNA barcoding in this biodiversity-rich region, and to compare patterns of genetic divergence with previous studies. The mean Kimura two-parameter distances within species, genera, families, orders, and classes were 0.5, 10.6, 21.0, 22.7, and 24.4%, respectively, with 100% of the species examined successfully differentiated by barcoding. With the exception of Astyanax bimaculatus lacustris, Piabina argentea, and Bryconamericus stramineus, all other species yield a single, cohesive cluster of barcode sequences. The average 'nearest-neighbor distance' was 11.12%, 21-fold higher than the mean within species distance of around 0.54%. In a few instances, deep lineage divergences among conspecifics (up to 10%) and congenerics (up to 22.9%) taxa were revealed. Reflecting possible cases of cryptic speciation and the deeper phylogeographic history of São Francisco fish fauna, with some higher clades extending back into the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic (90 mya), when much of the diversification of the Neotropical region apparently took place. In addition, barcodes also highlighted misidentifications and helped to document range extensions for known species.

  19. Web platform using digital image processing and geographic information system tools: a Brazilian case study on dengue.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Lourdes M; Gomes, Marília M F; Miosso, Cristiano J; da Silva, Marlete M; Amvame-Nze, Georges D

    2015-07-16

    the following steps: i. Obtain images from the eggs on an ovitrap's cardboards, with a microscope. ii. Apply a proposed image-processing-based semi-automatic counting system. The system we developed uses the Java programming language and the Java Server Faces technology. This is a framework suite for web applications development. This approach will allow a simple migration to any Operating System platform and future applications on mobile devices. iii. Collect and store all data into a Database (DB) and then georeference them in a GIS. The Database Management System used to develop the DB is based on PostgreSQL. The GIS will assist in the visualization and spatial analysis of digital maps, allowing the location of Dengue outbreaks in the region of study. This will also facilitate the planning, analysis, and evaluation of temporal and spatial epidemiology, as required by the Brazilian Health Care Control Center. iv. Deploy the SCSA-WEB, DB and GIS on a single Web platform. The statistical results obtained by DIP were satisfactory when compared with the SCSA-WEB's semi-automated eggs count. The results also indicate that the time spent in manual counting has being considerably reduced when using our fully automated DIP algorithm and semi-automated SCSA-WEB. The developed georeferencing Web platform proves to be of great support for future visualization with statistical and trace analysis of the disease. The analyses suggest the efficiency of our algorithm for automatic eggs counting, in terms of expediting the work of the laboratory technician, reducing considerably its time and error counting rates. We believe that this kind of integrated platform and tools can simplify the decision making process of the Brazilian Health Care Control Center.

  20. Cave conservation priority index to adopt a rapid protection strategy: a case study in Brazilian Atlantic rain forest.

    PubMed

    Souza Silva, Marconi; Martins, Rogério Parentoni; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Cave environments are characterized by possessing specialized fauna living in high environmental stability with limited food conditions. These fauna are highly vulnerable to impacts, because this condition can frequently be easily altered. Moreover, environmental determinants of the biodiversity patterns of caves remain poorly understood and protected. Therefore, the main goal of this work is to propose a cave conservation priority index (CCPi) for a rapid assessment for troglobiotic and troglophile protection. Furthermore, the troglobiotic diversity, distribution and threats have been mapped in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. To propose the CCPi, the human impacts and richness of troglobiotic and troglophile species of 100 caves were associated. Data related to troglomorphic/troglobiotic fauna from another 200 caves were used to map the troglobiotic diversity and distribution. The CCPi reveals extremely high conservation priority for 15% of the caves, high for 36% and average for 46% of the caves. Fourteen caves with extremely high priorities should have urgent conservation and management actions. The geographical distribution of the 221 known troglobiotic/troglomorphic species allowed us to select 19 karst areas that need conservation actions. Seven areas were considered to have urgent priority for conservation actions. The two richest areas correspond to the "iron quadrangle" with iron ore caves (67 spp.) and the "Açungui limestone group" (56 spp.). Both areas have several caves and are important aquifers. The use of the CCPi can prevent future losses because it helps assessors to select caves with priorities for conservation which should receive emergency attention in relation to protection, management and conservation actions.

  1. Cave Conservation Priority Index to Adopt a Rapid Protection Strategy: A Case Study in Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza Silva, Marconi; Martins, Rogério Parentoni; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Cave environments are characterized by possessing specialized fauna living in high environmental stability with limited food conditions. These fauna are highly vulnerable to impacts, because this condition can frequently be easily altered. Moreover, environmental determinants of the biodiversity patterns of caves remain poorly understood and protected. Therefore, the main goal of this work is to propose a cave conservation priority index (CCPi) for a rapid assessment for troglobiotic and troglophile protection. Furthermore, the troglobiotic diversity, distribution and threats have been mapped in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. To propose the CCPi, the human impacts and richness of troglobiotic and troglophile species of 100 caves were associated. Data related to troglomorphic/troglobiotic fauna from another 200 caves were used to map the troglobiotic diversity and distribution. The CCPi reveals extremely high conservation priority for 15 % of the caves, high for 36 % and average for 46 % of the caves. Fourteen caves with extremely high priorities should have urgent conservation and management actions. The geographical distribution of the 221 known troglobiotic/troglomorphic species allowed us to select 19 karst areas that need conservation actions. Seven areas were considered to have urgent priority for conservation actions. The two richest areas correspond to the "iron quadrangle" with iron ore caves (67 spp.) and the "Açungui limestone group" (56 spp.). Both areas have several caves and are important aquifers. The use of the CCPi can prevent future losses because it helps assessors to select caves with priorities for conservation which should receive emergency attention in relation to protection, management and conservation actions.

  2. Pre-examination factors affecting molecular diagnostic test results and interpretation: A case-based approach.

    PubMed

    Payne, Deborah A; Baluchova, Katarina; Peoc'h, Katell H; van Schaik, Ron H N; Chan, K C Allen; Maekawa, Masato; Mamotte, Cyril; Russomando, Graciela; Rousseau, François; Ahmad-Nejad, Parviz

    2017-04-01

    Multiple organizations produce guidance documents that provide opportunities to harmonize quality practices for diagnostic testing. The International Organization for Standardization ISO 15189 standard addresses requirements for quality in management and technical aspects of the clinical laboratory. One technical aspect addresses the complexities of the pre-examination phase prior to diagnostic testing. The Committee for Molecular Diagnostics of the International Federation for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (also known as, IFCC C-MD) conducted a survey of international molecular laboratories and determined ISO 15189 to be the most referenced guidance document. In this review, the IFCC C-MD provides case-based examples illustrating the value of select pre-examination processes as these processes relate to molecular diagnostic testing. Case-based examples in infectious disease, oncology, inherited disease and pharmacogenomics address the utility of: 1) providing information to patients and users, 2) designing requisition forms, 3) obtaining informed consent and 4) maintaining sample integrity prior to testing. The pre-examination phase requires extensive and consistent communication between the laboratory, the healthcare provider and the end user. The clinical vignettes presented in this paper illustrate the value of applying select ISO 15189 recommendations for general laboratory to the more specialized area of Molecular Diagnostics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Case Controlled Examination of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide in the Second Half of Life.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Kimberly A; Smith, Phillip N; Chen, Tian; Conwell, Yeates

    2016-07-02

    The interpersonal theory of suicide proposes that the most proximal cause of suicide is the combination of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness coupled with a pre-existing vulnerability of reduced fear of death and increased pain tolerance. This pre-existing vulnerability develops in response to painful and provocative life events. According to the theory, empirically demonstrated risk factors for suicide operate by increasing the likelihood of one or more of the theory's constructs. The current study examined the relations of the major constructs of the interpersonal theory with suicide case status compared to living controls in the second half of life. The current study used a pre-existing psychological autopsy database to compare suicide decedents to living controls 50 years and older. Theory constructs were measured by composite scores of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and painful and provocative experiences using an a priori selection of items comprising each construct. Suicide decedents experienced greater levels of all three of the theory's constructs when examined independently compared to living controls. When examined simultaneously while also controlling for Major Depression, greater perceived burdensomeness and painful and provocative experiences were associated with suicide case status (vs. control). The interpersonal theory is a comprehensive framework that may be useful in understanding risk for death by suicide in the second half of life. Clinical management of suicide risk for adults in the second half of life could include a focus on perceived burdensomeness, as the IPTS proposes that this psychological state is amenable to change via therapeutic intervention.

  4. Asthma Cases Attributable to Atopy: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Arbes, Samuel J.; Gergen, Peter J.; Vaughn, Ben; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2008-01-01

    Background The percentage of asthma cases attributable to atopy is the subject of debate. Objectives The objectives were to estimate the percentage of asthma cases in the U.S. population attributable to atopy and to examine associations between allergen-specific skin tests and asthma. Methods Data were obtained from NHANES III in which subjects aged 6–59 years were skin tested with 10 allergens. Atopy was defined as at least one positive allergen-specific test. Doctor-diagnosed current asthma was assessed by questionnaire. Results In the U.S., 56.3% of the asthma cases were attributable to atopy, and that percentage was greater among males than females, among persons in the highest education category than in lower education categories, and among persons living in highly populated metropolitan areas than in all other areas. Each allergen-specific test was strongly associated with asthma before adjustment (odds ratios varied from 2.1 to 4.5); however, after adjustment by all the allergens, only tests to cat, Alternaria, white oak, and perennial rye were independently associated with asthma. Perennial rye was inversely associated with asthma. Of the 10 allergens, a positive response to cat accounted for the highest percentage of asthma cases (29.3%). Conclusions About half of the current asthma cases in the U.S. population represented by NHANES III were attributable to atopy. Some allergen-specific skin tests were not independently associated with asthma. Clinical Implications If atopy could be prevented or reversed, or its effect on asthma blocked, then a large percentage of asthma cases in the U.S. population could be prevented. PMID:17889931

  5. Fatal diving accidents: two case reports and an overview of the role of forensic examinations.

    PubMed

    Lüderwald, Sybille; Zinka, Bettina

    2008-09-18

    During the years 2004-2006, seven divers, who had deadly accidents, underwent post-mortem examination at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the University of Munich. The cause of death in all divers was drowning with typical pathomorphological findings. This should be regarded as separated to the triggering reason for drowning. The trigger for accident was established in four of seven cases by technical analysis and police investigation. High risk-taking, lack of technical service, and deficiency of dive equipment care were main reasons for death. We present two of these cases which showed several problems occurring concurrently. Autopsy always is necessary to look for indices for application of force or to exclude competitive reasons for death.

  6. Predicting sexual assault kit submission among adolescent rape cases treated in forensic nurse examiner programs.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jessica; Campbell, Rebecca

    2013-12-01

    Following a sexual assault, victims are usually advised to have a medical forensic exam and sexual assault forensic exam kit (SAK). Once completed, the SAK is to be transported by law enforcement to the crime lab for analysis. However, many kits are never transported to the crime lab, thereby preventing forensic evidence obtained in the kit to be used during the prosecutorial process. The current study examined rates of SAK submission for 393 adolescent sexual assault cases in two Midwestern communities and explored what factors predicted law enforcement officers' submission of SAKs to the crime lab for analysis. Findings reveal that more than 40% of the adolescent cases did not have their SAK submitted, and several factors, including the age and race of the victim, the number of perpetrators in the assault, and the number of assaultive acts, predicted SAK submission. Implications for SAK community protocols are discussed.

  7. Differentiating between physically violent and nonviolent stalkers: an examination of Canadian cases.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Kimberley A

    2008-05-01

    This study is one of a few that empirically investigated factors that differentiated the physically violent stalker from the nonviolent stalker. Using discriminant analysis, 103 Canadian cases of "simple obsessional" stalking were examined. Overall, the success of the model for classifying cases into one of two groups was 81%. Results revealed that the physically violent stalker is more likely to: (a) have a stronger previous emotional attachment toward their victim; (b) be more highly fixated/obsessed with their victim; (c) have a higher degree of perceived negative affect towards their victim; (d) engage in more verbal threats toward the victim; and (e) have a history of battering/domestic abuse towards the victim. Overall, the variables that best differentiate the physically violent stalker from the nonviolent one appear to characterize underlying themes of anger, vengeance, emotional arousal, humiliation, projection of blame, and insecure attachment pathology.

  8. Forced double suicide by fire revealed by autopsy and toxicological examination: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, H; Ijiri, I; Ameno, S; Fuke, C; Tanaka, N; Kubota, T; Tsujinaka, M; Ameno, K

    1997-12-01

    We report here a forced double suicide by fire. Two burned bodies discovered in the debris of a house fire were identified as a father and his son by odontological findings. In the father, the concentration of carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) in the left ventricle was over 90% and endrin, an organochlorine pesticide, was also detected in the stomach contents. However, 30.5% of CO-Hb in left ventricular blood and gasoline traces from an intratracheal puncture were detected in the son who had been undergoing treatment at a neuropsychiatric clinic. From these results, we determined this case to be a double suicide forced by the father in which the father set a fire with gasoline, thus burning his son to death, and then died in the fire himself after ingestion of Endrin. This case suggests the importance of integration of the results from the detailed forensic pathological and toxicological examinations and the scene investigation.

  9. Histological examination of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene artificial dura mater at 14 years after craniotomy: case report.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Aikawa, Hiroshi; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Narita, Sumito; Yoshida, Hidenori; Etou, Housei; Sakamoto, Kimiya; Kazekawa, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) porous material (GORE(®) PRECLUDE(®) Dura Substitute) does not degenerate or deteriorate in vivo, and is currently used as artificial dura mater. This material does not adhere well to the surrounding tissues, but cerebrospinal fluid leakage along the suture line has been observed in several cases. We describe a case of craniotomy for tumor resection performed 14 years after dural repair with ePTFE sheet. Histological examination of the ePTFE sheet revealed that the sheet was structurally intact, with no evidence of tissue adhesion or cellular infiltration. However, collagen deposition was observed around the suture thread. When the suture thread was removed the collagen was also removed, and the original needle hole appeared again. No significant changes were observed in the features of the ePTFE sheet even 14 years postoperatively. The formation of fibrous tissue around the needle hole was important in preventing cerebrospinal fluid leakage.

  10. Osteological, Biomolecular and Geochemical Examination of an Early Anglo-Saxon Case of Lepromatous Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Inskip, Sarah A.; Taylor, G. Michael; Zakrzewski, Sonia R.; Mays, Simon A.; Pike, Alistair W. G.; Llewellyn, Gareth; Williams, Christopher M.; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H. T.; Minnikin, David E.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Stewart, Graham R.

    2015-01-01

    We have examined a 5th to 6th century inhumation from Great Chesterford, Essex, UK. The incomplete remains are those of a young male, aged around 21–35 years at death. The remains show osteological evidence of lepromatous leprosy (LL) and this was confirmed by lipid biomarker analysis and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis, which provided evidence for both multi-copy and single copy loci from the Mycobacterium leprae genome. Genotyping showed the strain belonged to the 3I lineage, but the Great Chesterford isolate appeared to be ancestral to 3I strains found in later medieval cases in southern Britain and also continental Europe. While a number of contemporaneous cases exist, at present, this case of leprosy is the earliest radiocarbon dated case in Britain confirmed by both aDNA and lipid biomarkers. Importantly, Strontium and Oxygen isotope analysis suggest that the individual is likely to have originated from outside Britain. This potentially sheds light on the origins of the strain in Britain and its subsequent spread to other parts of the world, including the Americas where the 3I lineage of M. leprae is still found in some southern states of America. PMID:25970602

  11. Sinus Augmentation by Platelet-Rich Fibrin Alone: A Report of Two Cases with Histological Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Kanayama, Takeo; Maeda, Michinori; Horii, Koichiro; Miyamoto, Hironori; Wada, Keinoshin; Ojima, Yasutaka; Tsuchimochi, Tsukasa; Shibuya, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In sinus floor augmentation of an atrophic posterior maxilla, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has been used as a graft material. We herein report two cases with histological evaluations of PRF after the surgery. The first case was a 28-year-old female with an atrophic right posterior maxilla who was treated with sinus floor augmentation and simultaneous implant placement using PRF as the sole graft material in our hospital. Twenty-four months after surgery, the implant was unfortunately removed because of occlusal overloading by parafunctional habits. During implant replacement, a tissue sample was obtained from the site of augmentation with PRF and was evaluated histologically. The second case was a 58-year-old man with severe alveolar atrophy of the right maxilla who underwent lateral sinus augmentation using only PRF in a two-stage procedure in our hospital. Samples were obtained at the second-stage surgery and histological examinations were performed. As a result, new bone formation was confirmed histologically in both cases. Our findings show that the use of PRF as a graft material during sinus floor augmentation induces natural bone regeneration. PMID:27795860

  12. Electron microscopic examination of the anterior lens capsule in a case of Alport's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Citirik, Mehmet; Batman, Cosar; Men, Gamze; Tuncel, Murvet; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2007-09-01

    To report a case of Alport's syndrome and to present electronmicroscopic examination findings of the anterior lens capsule of this patient. A 21-year-old man was referred for low visual acuity and retinal pigment epithelial changes in the left eye. The patient and his relatives underwent detailed ophthalmological examination, including electrophysiological testing. The patient also underwent electronmicroscopic examination of the anterior lens capsule. His visual acuity was 6/18 OD and 6/15 OS. Anterior lenticonus and subcapsular opacities were observed in the left eye. Cataract extraction by phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation was performed for his poor visual performance. During the capsulorhexis, the remarkably thin and fragile anterior capsule was noted and removed. Ultrastructural analysis of the anterior lens capsule showed a thinner central zone compared with the periphery. The course of Alport's syndrome can be ameliorated by early diagnosis. Therefore, the ophthalmological examination of a patient with anterior lenticonus must be combined with a detailed medical evaluation. Ultrastructural analysis of the lens capsule can support the diagnosis of Alport's syndrome.

  13. Determination of Cu, Cd, Pb and Cr in yogurt by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: A case study for Brazilian yogurt.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Camila Kulek; de Brito, Patrícia Micaella Klack; Dos Anjos, Vanessa Egéa; Quináia, Sueli Pércio

    2018-02-01

    A slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric method is proposed for the determination of trace elements such as Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb in yogurt. The main factors affecting the slurry preparation were optimized: nature and concentration of acid solution and sonication time. The analytical method was validated in-house by calibration, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, precision and accuracy test obtaining satisfactory results in all cases. The proposed method was applied for the determination of Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb in some Brazilian yogurt samples. For these samples, the concentrations ranged from 2.5±0.2 to 12.4±0.2ngg(-1); 34±3 to 899±7ngg(-1); <8.3 to 12±1ngg(-1); and <35.4 to 210±16ngg(-1) for Cd, Cu, Cr and Pb, respectively. The daily intake of Cd, Cu, Cr and Pb via consumption of these samples was estimated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rare case of acute toxoplasmosis in a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Brazil associated with the type BrIII Brazilian clonal lineage of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Lismara Castro; Pena, Hilda Fátima Jesus; Leite Filho, Ronaldo Viana; Argenta, Fernando Froner; Alves, Bruna Farias; Oliveira, Solange; Gennari, Solange Maria; Driemeier, David

    2017-08-28

    Toxoplasmosis is a widely distributed disease that infects birds and mammals, including humans. Acute clinical course of toxoplasmosis is considered to be rare among domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The aim of this study was to present the first report of fatal acute disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii type BrIII genotype, a typical Brazilian clonal lineage, in a domestic rabbit. T. gondii was identified in histological sections of spleen and liver tissue, and these tissues were also immunohistochemically positive for T. gondii. After the histopathological and immunohistochemical confirmation of T. gondii, the genotype of this pathogen was determined via PCR-RFLP with 11 markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico, and CS3) and via microsatellite (MS) analysis with 15 markers (TUB2, W35, TgMA, B18, B17, M33, IV.1, X1.1, M48, M102, N60, N82, AA, N61, and N83). This study shows that type BrIII genotype, circulating in Brazil in different hosts, can cause acute disease in a naturally infected animal host. The described case also involves the first reported occurrence of the 291 allele for the typing marker TUB2 in a type BrIII strain, emphasizing the genetic diversity of T. gondii in Brazil.

  15. Reassessing "Jacob's case": a serial killer re-examined after ten years.

    PubMed

    Kalian, M; Birger, M; Witztum, E

    2004-01-01

    The current study re-examines an exceptional case of a serial killer incarcerated since a decade ago. "Jacob" is the first serial killer apprehended in Israel. His known actions were committed during the eighties of the last century, and continued for eleven years. The victims were elderly individuals, including both his parents. Shortly after incarceration he became overtly schizophrenic and underwent five hospitalisations. The case is re-examined in view of changes, both in the perpetrator's diagnosis and criminal legislation. Was Jacob doomed to become a serial killer, or could his fate be avoided through early professional intervention? Were the killings presenting symptoms of a psychotic or pre-psychotic phase? Should he be eligible for a retrial? What would have been his position with the current law in view of the new 300A(a) clause ("Reduced Punishment") of the Israeli Criminal Code? Could he ever be released back to the community? These are some of the questions to be addressed.

  16. [Brazilian migration to North America].

    PubMed

    Goza, F

    1992-01-01

    "This article is a comparative study of Brazilian immigration to Canada and the United States. Analyses of recently collected data, in Toronto, Ontario, as well as in a medium sized U.S. community permit this study to examine the adaptation and adjustment experiences of a new group of immigrants to North America. This article begins with a discussion of the origins of this recent immigrant group, and its rapid expansion. Next, this study focuses on the labor force activities of Brazilian immigrants and compares and contrasts their experiences in the U.S. and Canada. A final section examines social adaptation in North America by exploring linguistic and cultural dimensions." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  17. Brazilian immigration to North America.

    PubMed

    Goza, F

    1994-01-01

    "This article is a comparative study of Brazilian immigration to Canada and the United States. Analysis of recently collected data in Toronto, Ontario and in a medium-size U.S. community facilitated the examination of the adaptation and adjustment experiences of a new group of immigrants to North America. This article begins with a discussion of the origins of this recent immigrant group and its rapid expansion. Next, it focuses on the labor force activities of Brazilian immigrants and compares and contrasts their experiences in the United States and Canada. A final section examines social adaptation in North America by exploring linguistic and cultural dimensions. This article closes with a section on the future aspirations of these immigrants."

  18. A case of dual malignancy: Presenting the necessity for extensive sampling for pathologic examination

    PubMed Central

    Bishen, Kundendu Arya; Singh, Atul

    2011-01-01

    A patient diagnosed with early squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) with microinvasion was treated by surgical excision followed by histopathologic evaluation. During surgery, all the nodes appeared free of tumor other than a single level-3 node which looked suspicious and enlarged. Surprisingly, the node, instead of showing SCC showed features suggestive of “etastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.” The characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), their usual histopathologic features and treatment are discussed. The aim of this paper is to present the case of a patient with dual malignancy—oral SCC and PTC in an adult male, which was diagnosed accidently because the protocol of complete surgery and extensive sampling for pathologic examination was followed and thus emphasizes on the necessity for the same. PMID:22144835

  19. Embracing Uncertainty: A Case Study Examination of How Climate Change is Shifting Water Utility Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaatz, L.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing water utilities' planning for the future, adding a new source and level of complexity that is forcing many agencies to re-examine their decision-making processes. A significant barrier for many agencies is figuring out how to consider highly uncertain climate information and move away from deterministic thinking to make climate-informed decisions. To provide water professionals with practical and relevant information, the Water Utility Climate Alliance teamed up with the American Water Works Association, in coordination with the Water Research Foundation and Association of Metropolitan Water Agencies, to develop a white paper sharing insights into how and why water agencies are modifying planning and decision-making processes. The 13 case studies presented illustrate the variety of ways in which utilities are incorporating climate change into planning, from immediate operational decisions, to capital planning and asset management, to long-term supply planning.

  20. A Case Study Examination of Structure and Function in a State Health Department Chronic Disease Unit

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. I explored the structural and operational practices of the chronic disease prevention and control unit of a state health department and proposed a conceptual model of structure, function, and effectiveness for future study. Methods. My exploratory case study examined 7 elements of organizational structure and practice. My interviews with staff and external stakeholders of a single chronic disease unit yielded quantitative and qualitative data that I coded by perspective, process, relationship, and activity. I analyzed these for patterns and emerging themes. Results. Chi-square analysis revealed significant correlations among collaboration with goal ambiguity, political support, and responsiveness, and evidence-based decisions with goal ambiguity and responsiveness. Conclusions. Although my study design did not permit conclusions about causality, my findings suggested that some elements of the model might facilitate effectiveness for chronic disease units and should be studied further. My findings might have important implications for identifying levers around which capacity can be built that may strengthen effectiveness. PMID:25689211

  1. [The subrenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. An examination of case histories and comments].

    PubMed

    Galati, G; Montone, G; Gazzanelli, S; Caragemi, V; Cavallaro, A; Piat, G

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the search has stayed that of verify the evolution of the approach to the patient carrier of MA and of the treatment pre-intra-post-operatorio. The study has stayed effected on sheltered patients in our Institute from the January 1988 to the January 1997. They are about to be examined the data regarding 282 patients of which 215 cases in election and 67 in urgency. The analysis of the data has shown that the sex masculine are stricken more than female one with a relationship of 8.4: 1; the range more stricken the inclusive one in 65-79 years, the mortality in election has stayed almost unchanged while that in urgency has suffered a clean decrement. The amelioration of the diagnostics techniques of the preparation preoperative of the technical anesthesiologic and surgical has allowed to get good person results in election and above all in urgency. From the comparison with the world literature result that the incidence of the MA is in increase in the population, but we have not given univocal for define the entity of this pathology, common datum is the small badger of mortality. In conclusion the MA stays a serious pathology, diagnosed for case burdened from the mortality still elevated (40%).

  2. Dog bite-related fatalities: a 15-year review of Kentucky medical examiner cases.

    PubMed

    Shields, Lisa B E; Bernstein, Mark L; Hunsaker, John C; Stewart, Donna M

    2009-09-01

    A human dog bite-related fatality generally refers to death proximately caused by trauma from a dog's teeth and jaws. According to The Humane Society of the United States, more than 300 individuals died of dog attacks in the United States between 1979 and 1996. Children <12 and elders >70 years represent the typical victims. Pit bull-type dogs, Rottweilers, and German Shepherds constitute the majority of canines implicated in these fatalities.This is a 15-year (1991-2005) retrospective review of dog bite-related fatalities undergoing medicolegal investigation in Kentucky. Of the 11 deaths, 10 consisted of multiple bite marks and blunt force injuries of the head and neck, trunk, and extremities. In 1 case, an asplenic victim's immediate cause of death was bacterial sepsis secondary to a dog bite. Individuals ranged between 14 months and 87 years; 7 (63.6%) were < or =6 years; 10 (90.9%) individuals were white, and 8 (72.7%) were male. Forensic odontological examinations were performed on the dogs in 4 cases. The requisite multidisciplinary investigation includes a detailed assessment of the scene, the victim, and dog or dogs suspected in the attack.

  3. Death as a result of asthma in Wayne County Medical Examiner cases, 1975-1987.

    PubMed

    Campbell, S; Hood, I; Ryan, D; Biedrzycki, L; Mirchandani, H

    1990-03-01

    All deaths ascribed to asthma in the 5-to-40-year age group at the Wayne County Medical Examiners' Office were reviewed from 1975 to 1987 inclusive. Fifty-eight deaths were attributed solely to asthma, and the annual number increased fivefold in the 1980s to a rate of approximately 0.5 per 100,000 per year when extrapolated to the Wayne County population. Blacks were overrepresented to double their proportion in the general population. Almost all cases were known asthmatics, and many had received previous emergency care. Most fatalities occurred at night and did not demonstrate any seasonal variation. The onset of the fatal attack was apparently very rapid in most cases, with many engaged in routine activities and few surviving any length of time in hospital or having sought treatment earlier. Our data reveal a significant increase in sudden death in previously well asthmatics in Wayne County in the 1980s. Similar increases in deaths as a result of asthma have been noted previously in other countries for reasons that remain unclear.

  4. Examining students' graduation issues using data mining techniques - The case of TEI of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalaris, Manolis; Gritzalis, Stefanos; Maragoudakis, Manolis; Sgouropoulou, Cleo; Lykeridou, Katerina

    2015-02-01

    One of the major issues that Greek Higher Education Institutes face is the delayed completion of studies of their students. For example, in the case of the Technological Educational Institute of Athens, in the academic year 2012-2013, the percentage of graduates with a length of studies of more than 6 years was 53%. This "problem" becomes harder if we consider that according to the new legislation, the Greek Higher Education Institutes (HEI) must cut off access to the students who "linger" too long. This means that many of these graduates wouldn't be able to complete their studies. While many institutes have systems to quantify and report the length of studies of all graduates, far less attention is typically paid to each student's reason(s) for delayed graduation. In this paper, we focus on examining the question of why students delay in the completion of their studies using several data mining techniques. Through the application of data mining techniques new knowledge will be provided to the administration of a HEI that could be used for solving this problem. The data used in our case study come from a questionnaire distributed to graduates of the institute but also from educational data stored in the Institute's student database.

  5. [Case report: positive signals from automated blood-culture system with negative direct Gram examination].

    PubMed

    Cecille, A; Garcia, B; Abi Khalil, C; Iranzo, A; Azencott, N

    2007-12-01

    Detection of positive haemoculture is usually managed by an automated system. When a bottle is detected positive but that the Gram coloration does not reveal germs by direct examination, transfer onto chocolate blood agar generally allows to confirm or infirm bacteraemia. In light of a case of Fusobacterium nucleatum bacteraemia, we discuss the opportunity of pairing it with an enrichment broth. M. N, hospitalized in the hepatogastroenterology department, runs a fever of undetermined origin. Three pairs of blood samples are collected on May 7th, 2004, another pair on May 9th, 2004 and a last pair on May 10th, 2004. They are incubated in a Bactec 9120 analyzer. A positive signal is detected in the two last anaerobic haemocultures pairs after four days of incubation, but in both cases, the Gram coloration does not bring germs to light. A systematic transfer of the broth onto chocolate blood agar with incubation under CO2 enriched atmosphere and anaerobiosis is carried out. After 24 hours, the solid media remain sterile. The samples found positive by the Bactec(TM) are then transferred onto Schaedler broth in order to favour a potential growth of fastidious germs. The culture will prove to be positive only in this enrichment medium, allowing the identification of F. nucleatum. An hepatic abscess will then be revealed in the patient. It thus appears judicious to associate an enrichment medium with transplanted solid medium when the context is evocative of a real infection (clinic, positivity delays...).

  6. [Adaptability of Brazilian strains of Agaricus subrufescens Peck to fruiting on various casing materials in commercial crops].

    PubMed

    Pardo-Giménez, Arturo; Pardo González, José Emilio; de Figueirêdo, Vinícius Reis; Zied, Diego Cunha

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus subrufescens Peck is a mushroom whose cultivation has aroused great interest worldwide in recent years, and is becoming increasingly popular. A rapid expansion of culture throughout the world is foreseen because of its medicinal and culinary properties. This work assesses the effect of 5 different casing layers on the production of 3 strains of Agaricus subrufescens. A growth cycle of Agaricus subrufescens under controlled conditions has been carried out. The main production parameters were evaluated. The best results were provided by the ABL 99/30 strain. Peat-based casings have a better yield than those based on mineral soil. The highest yield (6.75kg/m(2), biological efficiency 27.57kg/dt) was provided by the combination ABL 99/30-Euroveen. Our results suggest that the combination of the strain ABL 99/30 using a peat-based casing layer (Euroveen) offers a high potential for use on a commercial scale by the edible mushroom production sector. The availability of alternatives to the usually cultivated species can make better use of resources, and increase the profitability of this activity. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. [The social representations theory in Brazilian nursing research].

    PubMed

    Silva, Sílvio Éder Dias da; Camargo, Brigido Vizeu; Padilha, Maria Itayra

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine methodological issues in the theses and dissertations that used social representations theory (SRT) in Brazilian nursing. Twenty-two dissertations and 44 theses were considered. Categorical content analysis was applied, based on five aspects: objects studied, place of SRT, the number of study participants, data collection techniques and data analysis. The predominance of case studies and use, especially of semi-structured interviews, although relevant to the study of SR, do not sufficiently consider the extent of suck knowledge sharing in society. One must take into account lay knowledge to understand health care contextualized studies on health care.

  8. Clinical aspects of envenomation caused by Tityus obscurus (Gervais, 1843) in two distinct regions of Pará state, Brazilian Amazon basin: a prospective case series

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scorpion envenomations are a major public health problem in Brazil, whose most dangerous cases are attributable to the genus Tityus. This study was designed to compare the clinical and demographic features of envenomations by Tityus obscurus in two areas of the state of Pará located in the Amazon basin. Were compared demographic findings, local and systemic signs and symptoms of human envenomations caused by T. obscurus that occurred in western and eastern areas of the state. Results Forty-eight patients with confirmed envenomation by T. obscurus were evaluated from January 2008 to July 2011. Most of them came from the eastern region, where male and female patients were present in similar numbers, while males predominated in the west. Median age groups were also similar in both areas. Most scorpion stings took place during the day and occurred significantly more frequently on the upper limbs. The time between the sting and admission to the health center was less than three hours in both areas. Most eastern patients had local manifestations while in the west, systemic manifestations predominated. Local symptoms were similar in both areas, but systemic signs and symptoms were more common in the west. Symptoms frequently observed at the sting site were local and radiating pain, paresthesia, edema, erythema, sweating, piloerection and burning. The systemic manifestations were significantly higher in patients from the west. Futhermore, neurological symptoms such as general paresthesia, ataxia, dysarthria, myoclonus, dysmetria, and electric shock-like sensations throughout the body were reported only by patients from the west. Conclusion The present study shows that two regions of Para state differ in the clinical manifestations and severity of confirmed envenomation by T. obscurus which suggests a toxicity variation resulting from the diversity of T. obscurus venom in different areas of the Brazilian Amazon basin, and that T. serrulatus antivenom can be

  9. Secure E-Examination Systems Compared: Case Studies from Two Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluck, Andrew; Adebayo, Olawale S.; Abdulhamid, Shafi'i M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: Electronic examinations have some inherent problems. Students have expressed negative opinions about electronic examinations (e-examinations) due to a fear of, or unfamiliarity with, the technology of assessment, and a lack of knowledge about the methods of e-examinations. Background: Electronic examinations are now a viable…

  10. Does Making the Numerical Values of Verbal Anchors on a Rating Scale Available to Examiners Inflate Scores on a Long Case Examination?

    PubMed

    Devine, Luke A; Stroud, Lynfa; Gupta, Rajesh; Lorens, Edmund; Robertson, Sumitra; Panisko, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Rating scales are frequently used for scoring assessments in medical education. The effect of changing the structural elements of a rating scale on students' examination scores has received little attention in the medical education literature. This study assessed the impact of making the numerical values of verbal anchors on a rating scale available to examiners in a long case examination (LCE). During the 2011-2012 academic year, the numerical values of verbal anchors on a rating scale for an internal medicine clerkship LCE were made available to faculty examiners. Historically, and specifically in the control year of 2010-2011, examiners only saw the scale's verbal anchors and were blinded to the associated numerical values. To assess the impact of this change, the authors compared students' LCE scores between the two cohort years. To assess for differences between the two cohorts, they compared students' scores on other clerkship assessments, which remained the same between the two cohorts. From 2010-2011 (n = 226) to 2011-2012 (n = 218), the median LCE score increased significantly from 82.11% to 85.02% (P < .01). Students' performance on the other clerkship assessments was similar between cohorts. Providing examiners with the numerical values of verbal anchors on a rating scale, in addition to the verbal anchors themselves, led to a significant increase in students' scores on an internal medicine clerkship LCE. When constructing or changing rating scales, educators must consider the potential impact of the rating scale structure on students' scores.

  11. Perceptions of Interns and General Medicine Examiners Regarding Cardiovascular Case Presentation in Practical Exams of General Medicine in Final MBBS Summative Examinations.

    PubMed

    Dambal, Archana; Nimbal, Naren; Rekha, M C; Patil, Giridhar; Padaki, Samata; Dambal, Amrut; Pise, Gajanan; Kalsad, S T

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of cardiovascular cases in practical exit exam is limited to simple history taking and physical examination. Standards of assessment are not uniform. This makes assessment less valid and reliable. To explore the perceptions of Internees and General Medicine Examiners about current practices in Cardio Vascular system (CVS) case presentation in final MBBS exit exams and the necessity to change some of the practices. A set questions pertaining to the preparation for exams, validity, reliability, feasibility and educational impact were prepared to guide in obtaining the perceptions of internees and internal medicine examiners. Focus group discussions were conducted. Data Analysis was done by immersion-crystallization process. Most of the internees admitted to feeling concerned because of difficulty in diagnosing murmurs by auscultation. Most of the examiners felt concerned about the logistics involved in arranging practical exams. Both admitted to the lack of uniform standards in assessment. Both agreed that the present system thrived as it was relatively feasible. Some internees suggested that the exam may be conducted in two parts by splitting the syllabus instead of once. Some internees suggested incorporating a student-doctor program to improve practical skills just like the on-going student nurse program. There is a need for overhauling the assessment of cardiovascular system in final MBBS summative exams towards one aligned to the competencies as required in an Indian Medical Graduate. Blueprinting of practical assessment with due weightage assigned to epidemiologically important topics is the need of the hour.

  12. Perceptions of Interns and General Medicine Examiners Regarding Cardiovascular Case Presentation in Practical Exams of General Medicine in Final MBBS Summative Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Nimbal, Naren; Rekha, M C; Patil, Giridhar; Padaki, Samata; Dambal, Amrut; Pise, Gajanan; Kalsad, S T

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Assessment of cardiovascular cases in practical exit exam is limited to simple history taking and physical examination. Standards of assessment are not uniform. This makes assessment less valid and reliable. Aim To explore the perceptions of Internees and General Medicine Examiners about current practices in Cardio Vascular system (CVS) case presentation in final MBBS exit exams and the necessity to change some of the practices. Materials and Methods A set questions pertaining to the preparation for exams, validity, reliability, feasibility and educational impact were prepared to guide in obtaining the perceptions of internees and internal medicine examiners. Focus group discussions were conducted. Data Analysis was done by immersion-crystallization process. Results Most of the internees admitted to feeling concerned because of difficulty in diagnosing murmurs by auscultation. Most of the examiners felt concerned about the logistics involved in arranging practical exams. Both admitted to the lack of uniform standards in assessment. Both agreed that the present system thrived as it was relatively feasible. Some internees suggested that the exam may be conducted in two parts by splitting the syllabus instead of once. Some internees suggested incorporating a student-doctor program to improve practical skills just like the on-going student nurse program. Conclusion There is a need for overhauling the assessment of cardiovascular system in final MBBS summative exams towards one aligned to the competencies as required in an Indian Medical Graduate. Blueprinting of practical assessment with due weightage assigned to epidemiologically important topics is the need of the hour. PMID:26816933

  13. Senior medical student perceived ability and experience in giving peer feedback in formative long case examinations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Learning to provide feedback on a peer’s performance in formative clinical assessments can be a valuable way of enriching the students’ own learning experience. Students are often reluctant to provide honest, critical feedback to their peers. Nevertheless, it is an area of practice that is important to develop as students report feeling ill prepared in feedback techniques when entering the medical workforce. We sought to investigate students’ perceptions of their ability to provide feedback to their peers using the positive critique method, and their perceived benefits and challenges during the experience. Methods Over a two year period (2011 to 2012), senior medical students assessed and gave feedback to their peers alongside academic examiners during formative long case clinical examinations. Rating scales, open ended questions and focus group discussions were used to evaluate student perceptions. Results Of the 94 participants, 89/94 (95%) completed the questionnaire, and 39/94 (41%) participated in focus groups. Students found the positive critique method provided a useful framework. Some students raised concerns about the accuracy of their feedback, and felt that further training was required. A substantial number of respondents (42%) did not report feeling confident providing negative feedback to their peers, and qualitative analysis indicated concerns around potential impacts on social relationships. Despite these concerns, the majority (90%) of respondents found the exercise useful, identifying several benefits, including development in the understanding of knowledge content; development of professionalism skills, and increased responsibility. Conclusion Students identified several challenging aspects to providing feedback to their peers. While the experience of giving feedback to peers was perceived by students to provide a valuable learning experience, further training in this area may help to improve the learning experience for students

  14. Use of the SIRS in compensation cases: an examination of its validity and generalizability.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Richard; Payne, Joshua W; Berry, David T R; Granacher, Robert P

    2009-06-01

    The Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers et al., Structured interview of reported symptoms (SIRS) and professional manual, 1992) is a well-validated psychological measure for the assessment of feigned mental disorders (FMD) in clinical, forensic, and correctional settings. Comparatively little work has evaluated its usefulness in compensation and disability contexts. The present study examined SIRS data from 569 individuals undergoing forensic neuropsychiatric examinations for the purposes of workers' compensation, personal injury, or disability proceedings. Using bootstrapping comparisons, three primary groups were identified: FMD, feigned cognitive impairment (FCI), genuine-both (GEN-Both) that encompasses both genuine disorders (GEN-D) and genuine-cognitive presentation (GEN-C). Consistent with the SIRS main objective, very large effect sizes (M Cohen's d = 1.94) were observed between FMD and GEN-Both groups. Although not intended for this purpose, moderate to large effect sizes (M d = 1.13) were found between FCI and GEN-Both groups. An important consideration is whether SIRS results are unduly affected by common diagnoses or clinical conditions. Systematic comparisons were performed based on common disorders (major depressive disorder, PTSD, and other anxiety disorders), presence of a cognitive disorder (dementia, amnestic disorder, or cognitive disorder NOS), or intellectual deficits (FSIQ < 80). Generally, the magnitude of differences on the SIRS primary scales was small and nonsignificant, providing evidence of the SIRS generalizability across these diagnostic categories. Finally, the usefulness of the SIRS improbable failure-revised (IF-R) scale was tested as a FCI screen. Although it has potential in ruling out genuine cases, the IF-R should not be used as a feigning screen.

  15. Designing and examining e-waste recycling process: methodology and case studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; He, Xin; Zeng, Xianlai

    2017-03-01

    Increasing concerns on resource depletion and environmental pollution have largely obliged electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) should be tackled in an environmentally sound manner. Recycling process development is regarded as the most effective and fundamental to solve the e-waste problem. Based on global achievements related to e-waste recycling in the past 15 years, we first propose a theory to design an e-waste recycling process, including measuring e-waste recyclability and selection of recycling process. And we summarize the indicators and tools in terms of resource dimension, environmental dimension, and economic dimension, to examine the e-waste recycling process. Using the sophisticated experience and adequate information of e-waste management, spent lithium-ion batteries and waste printed circuit boards are chosen as case studies to implement and verify the proposed method. All the potential theory and obtained results in this work can contribute to future e-waste management toward best available techniques and best environmental practices.

  16. Examination of the variations of lateral femoral cutaneous nerves: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Erbil, Kadriye Mine; Sargon, Fevzi Mustafa; Sen, Fikret; Oztürk, Hakan; Taşcioğlu, Beliz; Yener, Nuran; Ozozan, Vefik Omer

    2002-12-01

    The origins, courses and relations of lateral femoral cutaneous nerves (LFCNs) were examined bilaterally in 28 cadavers, and the variations were observed in two. On the right side of one cadaver, the ventral rami of the first and second lumbar spinal nerves were united and then this nerve was divided into four branches. From medial to lateral, these branches were the obturator nerve, the femoral nerve, the medially located LFCN and the laterally located LFCN. On the left side of another cadaver, there were three LFCNs. All of these nerves pierced the psoas major muscle anterolaterally. Two of these nerves, which pierced the psoas major muscle more proximally than the third, united with each other by a communicating branch anterior to the iliacus muscle. These types of variations are very important, especially in the presence of paresthesias or pain in the anterior thigh, lateral thigh and gluteal region. In these cases, surgeons must always remember the possible variations of the LFCN during surgical procedures in order to prevent injury and the occurrence of meralgia paresthetica.

  17. Examining Gender Differences in Written Assessment Tasks in Biology: A Case Study of Evolutionary Explanations

    PubMed Central

    Federer, Meghan Rector; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis K.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding sources of performance bias in science assessment provides important insights into whether science curricula and/or assessments are valid representations of student abilities. Research investigating assessment bias due to factors such as instrument structure, participant characteristics, and item types are well documented across a variety of disciplines. However, the relationships among these factors are unclear for tasks evaluating understanding through performance on scientific practices, such as explanation. Using item-response theory (Rasch analysis), we evaluated differences in performance by gender on a constructed-response (CR) assessment about natural selection (ACORNS). Three isomorphic item strands of the instrument were administered to a sample of undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors (Group 1: n = 662 [female = 51.6%]; G2: n = 184 [female = 55.9%]; G3: n = 642 [female = 55.1%]). Overall, our results identify relationships between item features and performance by gender; however, the effect is small in the majority of cases, suggesting that males and females tend to incorporate similar concepts into their CR explanations. These results highlight the importance of examining gender effects on performance in written assessment tasks in biology. PMID:26865642

  18. Understanding lesbians' healthcare behaviour: the case of breast self-examination.

    PubMed

    Fish, J; Wilkinson, S

    2003-01-01

    Lesbians' risk of breast cancer is a much-debated issue in health research because lesbians are believed to be at higher risk of the disease than are heterosexual women. This belief is based upon particular risk factors for breast cancer, which are said to be more prevalent in lesbians; and upon differences in preventive health behaviours: in particular, lesbians are said to be less likely to practise breast self-examination (BSE). This paper presents data collected as part of the UK Lesbians and Healthcare Survey (n = 1066) focusing on lesbians who report never practising BSE (n = 218, 20%) and the explanations they offer for their healthcare behaviours. It identifies six types of explanation for not practising BSE: (i) "I don't know what I'm looking for"; (ii) "I've never got into the habit"; (iii) "I'm frightened in case I find something"; (iv) "I don't think I'm at much risk"; (v) "I'm uncomfortable with my body"; and (vi) "My partner does it for me". These findings are important for increasing understanding of lesbians' healthcare behaviour and for developing health promotion materials relevant to their needs.

  19. The Afro-Brazilian Fetish Cults: Religious Syncretism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, B. C.

    1967-01-01

    This paper treats the Afro-Brazilian fetish cults found throughout Brazil and examines the syncretism of these cults with Catholicism. The religious practices of the "macumbas" (deities of the Afro-Brazilian cults), ritual music, and the ethnicity of the Negroes from both southern and northern Brazil are discussed. Frequently, excerpts…

  20. The Use and Perception of English in Brazilian Magazine Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Amanda Lira Gordenstein

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the uses of English in advertising in Brazil and the attitudes of Brazilians towards the use of different difficulty levels of English in advertising. Using a two part, mixed-methods approach, drawing from quantitative and qualitative methods, I utilized a corpus study to examine English uses in Brazilian magazines and a…

  1. The Use and Perception of English in Brazilian Magazine Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Amanda Lira Gordenstein

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the uses of English in advertising in Brazil and the attitudes of Brazilians towards the use of different difficulty levels of English in advertising. Using a two part, mixed-methods approach, drawing from quantitative and qualitative methods, I utilized a corpus study to examine English uses in Brazilian magazines and a…

  2. The Absence of CYP3A5*3 Is a Protective Factor to Anticonvulsants Hypersensitivity Reactions: A Case-Control Study in Brazilian Subjects

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Bernardo; Talib, Leda Leme; Yamaguti, Célia; Rodrigues, Helcio; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Kalil, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Although aromatic anticonvulsants are usually well tolerated, they can cause cutaneous adverse drug reactions in up to 10% of patients. The clinical manifestations of the antiepileptics-induced hypersensitivity reactions (AHR) vary from mild skin rashes to severe cutaneous drug adverse reactions which are related to high mortality and significant morbidity. Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 genes are associated with altered enzymatic activity and may contribute to the risk of AHR. Here we present a case-control study in which we genotyped SNPs of CYP2C19, 2C9 and 3A5 of 55 individuals with varying severities of AHR, 83 tolerant, and 366 healthy control subjects from São Paulo, Brazil. Clinical characterization was based on standardized scoring systems and drug patch test. All in vivo investigation followed the ENDA (European Network of Drug Allergy) recommendations. Genotype was determined by real time PCR using peripheral blood DNA as a template. Of all 504 subjects, 65% were females, 45% self-identified as Afro-American, 38% as Caucasian and 17% as having non-African mixed ascendancy. Amongst 55 subjects with AHR, 44 had severe cutaneous drug adverse reactions. Of the 46 drug patch tests performed, 29 (63%) were positive. We found a strong association between the absence of CYP3A5*3 and tolerant subjects when compared to AHR (p = 0.0002, OR = 5.28 [CI95% 2.09–14.84]). None of our groups presented positive association with CYP2C19 and 2C9 polymorphisms, however, both SNPs contributed to separation of cases and tolerants in a Classification and Regression Tree. Our findings indicate that drug metabolism genes can contribute in the tolerability of antiepileptics. CYP3A5*3 is the most prevalent CYP3A5 allele associated with reduced enzymatic function. The current study provides evidence that normal CYP3A5 activity might be a protective factor to aromatic antiepileptics-induced hypersensitivity reactions in Brazilian subjects. PMID:26291084

  3. The Absence of CYP3A5*3 Is a Protective Factor to Anticonvulsants Hypersensitivity Reactions: A Case-Control Study in Brazilian Subjects.

    PubMed

    Tanno, Luciana Kase; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; dos Santos, Bernardo; Talib, Leda Leme; Yamaguti, Célia; Rodrigues, Helcio; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Kalil, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Although aromatic anticonvulsants are usually well tolerated, they can cause cutaneous adverse drug reactions in up to 10% of patients. The clinical manifestations of the antiepileptics-induced hypersensitivity reactions (AHR) vary from mild skin rashes to severe cutaneous drug adverse reactions which are related to high mortality and significant morbidity. Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 genes are associated with altered enzymatic activity and may contribute to the risk of AHR. Here we present a case-control study in which we genotyped SNPs of CYP2C19, 2C9 and 3A5 of 55 individuals with varying severities of AHR, 83 tolerant, and 366 healthy control subjects from São Paulo, Brazil. Clinical characterization was based on standardized scoring systems and drug patch test. All in vivo investigation followed the ENDA (European Network of Drug Allergy) recommendations. Genotype was determined by real time PCR using peripheral blood DNA as a template. Of all 504 subjects, 65% were females, 45% self-identified as Afro-American, 38% as Caucasian and 17% as having non-African mixed ascendancy. Amongst 55 subjects with AHR, 44 had severe cutaneous drug adverse reactions. Of the 46 drug patch tests performed, 29 (63%) were positive. We found a strong association between the absence of CYP3A5*3 and tolerant subjects when compared to AHR (p = 0.0002, OR = 5.28 [CI95% 2.09-14.84]). None of our groups presented positive association with CYP2C19 and 2C9 polymorphisms, however, both SNPs contributed to separation of cases and tolerants in a Classification and Regression Tree. Our findings indicate that drug metabolism genes can contribute in the tolerability of antiepileptics. CYP3A5*3 is the most prevalent CYP3A5 allele associated with reduced enzymatic function. The current study provides evidence that normal CYP3A5 activity might be a protective factor to aromatic antiepileptics-induced hypersensitivity reactions in Brazilian subjects.

  4. A Case Study of a Kindergarten Teacher: Examining Practices and Beliefs That Support the Social-Emotional Classroom Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pech, Sandra L.

    2010-01-01

    This 5-month qualitative case study investigated the social-emotional climate of one half-day kindergarten classroom by examining the role of the teacher in establishing and sustaining a classroom climate that nurtured the social-emotional lives of students. This case study asks: How and why did the teacher establish and sustain a classroom…

  5. Management of Re-Occurring Cases of Examination Malpractice in Plateau State Collage of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusu, Paul Bot; Gotan, Anthony; Deshi, Jummai M.; Gambo, Barashe

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria's educational system is gradually degenerating, as the sanctity of education process has been affected by malpractice. The purpose of this paper was to assess re-occurring incidence of examination malpractice in Plateau State College of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria. It looked at cases of examination malpractice and students'…

  6. An Examination of the Effectiveness of Public Management Networks (PMNs): Evidence from the Case of the Hurricane Katrina Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Girte Leah

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the performance outcomes of public management networks (PMNs) in the disaster management context. The effectiveness of three disaster response sub-networks in the area of evacuation were examined and compared using the case of the Hurricane Katrina disaster in New Orleans, Louisiana in August 2005: Citizen Protection:…

  7. Case Study: An Examination of the Decision Making Process for Selecting Simulations for an Online MBA Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Pat; Tucker, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Simulations are designed as activities which imitate real world scenarios and are often used to teach and enhance skill building. The purpose of this case study is to examine the decision making process and outcomes of a faculty committee tasked with examining simulations in the marketplace to determine if the simulations could be used as…

  8. An Examination of the Effectiveness of Public Management Networks (PMNs): Evidence from the Case of the Hurricane Katrina Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Girte Leah

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the performance outcomes of public management networks (PMNs) in the disaster management context. The effectiveness of three disaster response sub-networks in the area of evacuation were examined and compared using the case of the Hurricane Katrina disaster in New Orleans, Louisiana in August 2005: Citizen Protection:…

  9. Case Study: An Examination of the Decision Making Process for Selecting Simulations for an Online MBA Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Pat; Tucker, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Simulations are designed as activities which imitate real world scenarios and are often used to teach and enhance skill building. The purpose of this case study is to examine the decision making process and outcomes of a faculty committee tasked with examining simulations in the marketplace to determine if the simulations could be used as…

  10. The Contribution of Ethnobiology to the Construction of a Dialogue between Ways of Knowing: A Case Study in a Brazilian Public High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptista, Geilsa Costa Santos; El-Hani, Charbel Nino

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports results obtained in pedagogical interventions in a Brazilian public high school which aimed at promoting a dialogue between scientific and traditional knowledge in the context of biology teaching. The interventions were based on the use of a didactic material and teaching sequence elaborated on the grounds of school knowledge…

  11. Assessment and Evaluation of Higher Education in Business Management: An Analysis of the Brazilian Case in the Light of Social Learning Theory for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunstein, Janette; Jaime, Pedro; Curi, Denise Pereira; d'Angelo, Marcia Juliana; Mainardes, Emerson Wagner

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of Brazilian National System of Higher Education Assessment (SINAES) in the light of social learning for sustainability theory. The aim is to contribute to the advancement of debates surrounding education for sustainability and the improvement of public policy evaluation in higher education. The analysis is…

  12. Family Farmers and Major Retail Chains in the Brazilian Organic Sector: Assessing New Development Pathways. A Case Study in a Peri-Urban District of Sao Paulo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the organic sector in Brazil is seen as a leverage for the social emancipation of the small family farmers. Next to the traditional alternatives circuits of organic food and farming, new powerful capitalistic actors, such as supermarket chains, are rapidly entering the Brazilian organic arena. Can family farming benefit from the…

  13. The Contribution of Ethnobiology to the Construction of a Dialogue between Ways of Knowing: A Case Study in a Brazilian Public High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptista, Geilsa Costa Santos; El-Hani, Charbel Nino

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports results obtained in pedagogical interventions in a Brazilian public high school which aimed at promoting a dialogue between scientific and traditional knowledge in the context of biology teaching. The interventions were based on the use of a didactic material and teaching sequence elaborated on the grounds of school knowledge…

  14. Family Farmers and Major Retail Chains in the Brazilian Organic Sector: Assessing New Development Pathways. A Case Study in a Peri-Urban District of Sao Paulo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the organic sector in Brazil is seen as a leverage for the social emancipation of the small family farmers. Next to the traditional alternatives circuits of organic food and farming, new powerful capitalistic actors, such as supermarket chains, are rapidly entering the Brazilian organic arena. Can family farming benefit from the…

  15. Assessment and Evaluation of Higher Education in Business Management: An Analysis of the Brazilian Case in the Light of Social Learning Theory for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunstein, Janette; Jaime, Pedro; Curi, Denise Pereira; d'Angelo, Marcia Juliana; Mainardes, Emerson Wagner

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of Brazilian National System of Higher Education Assessment (SINAES) in the light of social learning for sustainability theory. The aim is to contribute to the advancement of debates surrounding education for sustainability and the improvement of public policy evaluation in higher education. The analysis is…

  16. Online Case-Based Discussions: Examining Coverage of the Afforded Problem Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, Peggy A.; Koehler, Adrie A.

    2014-01-01

    Case studies hold great potential for engaging students in disciplinary content. However, little is known about the extent to which students actually cover the problem space afforded by a particular case study. In this research, we compared the problem space afforded by an instructional design case study with the actual content covered by 16…

  17. Examining Gender Differences in Written Assessment Tasks in Biology: A Case Study of Evolutionary Explanations.

    PubMed

    Federer, Meghan Rector; Nehm, Ross H; Pearl, Dennis K

    2016-01-01

    Understanding sources of performance bias in science assessment provides important insights into whether science curricula and/or assessments are valid representations of student abilities. Research investigating assessment bias due to factors such as instrument structure, participant characteristics, and item types are well documented across a variety of disciplines. However, the relationships among these factors are unclear for tasks evaluating understanding through performance on scientific practices, such as explanation. Using item-response theory (Rasch analysis), we evaluated differences in performance by gender on a constructed-response (CR) assessment about natural selection (ACORNS). Three isomorphic item strands of the instrument were administered to a sample of undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors (Group 1: n = 662 [female = 51.6%]; G2: n = 184 [female = 55.9%]; G3: n = 642 [female = 55.1%]). Overall, our results identify relationships between item features and performance by gender; however, the effect is small in the majority of cases, suggesting that males and females tend to incorporate similar concepts into their CR explanations. These results highlight the importance of examining gender effects on performance in written assessment tasks in biology. © 2016 M. R. Federer et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. Examining the impact of case management in Vancouver's downtown community court: a quasi-experimental design.

    PubMed

    Somers, Julian M; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Rezansoff, Stefanie N; Patterson, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Problem solving courts (PSC) have been implemented internationally, with a common objective to prevent reoffending by addressing criminogenic needs and strengthening social determinants of health. There has been no empirical research on the effectiveness of community courts, which are a form of PSC designed to harness community resources and inter-disciplinary expertise to reduce recidivism in a geographic catchment area. We used the propensity score matching method to examine the effectiveness of Vancouver's Downtown Community Court (DCC). We focused on the subset of DCC participants who were identified as having the highest criminogenic risk and were assigned to a case management team (CMT). A comparison group was derived using one-to-one matching on a large array variables including static and dynamic criminogenic factors, geography, and time. Reductions in offences (one year pre minus one year post) were compared between CMT and comparison groups. Compared to other DCC offenders, those triaged to CMT (9.5% of the DCC population) had significantly higher levels of healthcare, social service use, and justice system involvement over the ten years prior to the index offence. Compared to matched offenders who received traditional court outcomes, those assigned to CMT (n=249) exhibited significantly greater reductions in overall offending (p<0.001), primarily comprised of significant reductions in property offences (p<0.001). Our findings indicate that CMT achieved significantly greater reductions in recidivism than traditional court among offenders with complex needs and high numbers of previous offences. Limitations of this research include a non-experimental design and one year follow up. Strengths include a robust matching process and extensive client level data spanning multiple sectors. Further research is needed to replicate the observed outcomes, to investigate the extension of community courts to settings with divergent offender needs and local resources

  19. Conducting Examinations in Nigerian Polytechnics: A Case Study of Kwara State Polytechnic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olasehinde, Martha O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper posits that the conduct of examinations in any educational institution can make or mar the institution, Kwara State Polytechnic inclusive. This is because examinations constitute the hub of any institution. First, the place of polytechnic education in the growth and development of the country is examined. Next, is a consideration of…

  20. 10 years of 1:1 taping in Belgium - A selection of murder cases involving fibre examination.

    PubMed

    De Wael, K; Lepot, L; Lunstroot, K; Gason, F

    2016-01-01

    Since 2002, the 1:1 tape lifting technique on murder victims has been introduced in Belgium. Thirty-six murder cases for which a fibre examination was carried out in our laboratory between 2002 and 2012 are reviewed. These cases all involved the collection of microtraces on 39 victims using a 1:1 taping or similar technique, called semi 1:1 taping. The degree of "positive outcomes" for investigative and comparative fibre cases is high. Especially in cases where the modus operandi of suspects had to be verified, the examination of the 1:1 tape lifting led to very useful fibre results. The findings from some of these fibre cases are used to illustrate the advantages, drawbacks and points of interest of the two collection techniques. These are also compared with the zonal taping technique, another microtrace collection technique applied on victims at the crime scene.

  1. Seasonal allergic rhinitis is associated with a detrimental effect on examination performance in United Kingdom teenagers: case-control study.

    PubMed

    Walker, Samantha; Khan-Wasti, Saba; Fletcher, Monica; Cullinan, Paul; Harris, Jessica; Sheikh, Aziz

    2007-08-01

    Seasonal allergic rhinitis is common globally, and symptoms have been shown to impair learning ability in children in laboratory conditions. Critical examinations in children are often held in the summer during the peak grass pollen season. To investigate whether seasonal allergic rhinitis adversely impacts examination performance in United Kingdom teenagers. Case-control analysis of 1,834 students (age 15-17 years; 50% girls) sitting for national examinations. Cases were those who dropped 1 or more grades in any of 3 core subjects (mathematics, English, and science) between practice (winter) and final (summer) examinations; controls were those whose grades were either unchanged or improved. Associations between allergic rhinitis symptoms, clinician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis, and allergic rhinitis-related medication use, recorded on examination days immediately before the examination, were assessed using multilevel regression models. Between 38% and 43% of students reported symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis on any 1 of the examination days. There were 662 cases (36% of students) and 1,172 controls. After adjustment, cases were significantly more likely than controls to have had allergic rhinitis symptoms during the examination period (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8; P = .002), to have taken any allergic rhinitis medication (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7; P = .01), or to have taken sedating antihistamines (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.8; P = .03). Current symptomatic allergic rhinitis and rhinitis medication use are associated with a significantly increased risk of unexpectedly dropping a grade in summer examinations. This is the first time the relationship between symptomatic allergic rhinitis and poor examination performance has been demonstrated, which has significant implications for clinical practice.

  2. Examining small "c" creativity in the science classroom: Multiple case studies of five high school teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasky, Dorothea Shawn

    As the US continues to strive toward building capacity for a workforce in STEM fields (NSF, 2006), educational organizations and researchers have constructed frameworks that focus on increasing competencies in creativity in order to achieve this goal (ISTE, 2007; Karoly & Panis, 2004; Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007). Despite these recommendations, many teachers either do not believe in the relevance of nurturing creativity in their students (Kaufman & Sternberg, 2007) or accept the importance of it, but do not know how best to foster it in their classrooms (Kampylis et al., 2009). Researchers conclude that teachers need to revise their ideas about the kind of creativity they can expect from their students to reflect the idea of small 'c' versus large 'C' creativity. There is a dearth of literature that looks closely at teacher practice surrounding creativity in the US and gives teachers a set of practical suggestions they can follow easily. I examined five case studies of teachers as they participated in and implemented a large-scale, NSF-funded project premised on the idea that training teachers in 21 st century pedagogies, (for example, problem-based learning), helps teachers create classrooms that increase science competencies in students. I investigated how teachers' curricular choices affect the amount of student creativity produced in their classrooms. Analysis included determining CAT scores for student products and continua scores along the Small 'c' Creativity Framework. In the study, I present an understanding of how teachers' beliefs influence practice and how creativity is fostered in students through various styles of teacher practice. The data showed a relationship between teachers' CAT scores, framework scores, and school context. Thus, alongside CAT, the framework was determined to be a successful tool for understanding the degree to which teachers foster small 'c' creativity. Other themes emerged, which included teachers' allotment of

  3. 38 CFR 4.42 - Complete medical examination of injury cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... possible, this should include complete neurological and psychiatric examination, and other special... and psychiatric fields, and frequently leaves the Department of Veterans Affairs in doubt as to...

  4. 38 CFR 4.42 - Complete medical examination of injury cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... possible, this should include complete neurological and psychiatric examination, and other special... and psychiatric fields, and frequently leaves the Department of Veterans Affairs in doubt as to...

  5. 38 CFR 4.42 - Complete medical examination of injury cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... possible, this should include complete neurological and psychiatric examination, and other special... and psychiatric fields, and frequently leaves the Department of Veterans Affairs in doubt as to...

  6. 38 CFR 4.42 - Complete medical examination of injury cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... possible, this should include complete neurological and psychiatric examination, and other special... and psychiatric fields, and frequently leaves the Department of Veterans Affairs in doubt as to...

  7. Examining Technology's Impact on Society: Using Case Studies to Introduce Environmental and Economic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karukstis, Kerry K.

    2003-01-01

    The general chemistry course at Harvey Mudd College presents chemical principles and addresses technology's impact on society. Students consider environmental and economic implications of chemical scenarios in real-world case studies created for team-based analysis and discussion. Case study design, implementation, and assessment are presented.…

  8. Moving beyond Mentoring: A Collective Case Study Examining the Perceived Characteristics of Positive Transformational Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Brent W.; Kroth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this collective-case study was to explore the characteristics of transformational figures. This study revealed that interpersonal encounters were seen as a catalyst that assisted study participants through the process of transformation. Ten themes emerged from the cross-case analysis: Imposed and Intentional Influence; Metaphors of…

  9. Examining Preservice Teachers' Classroom Management Decisions in Three Case-Based Teaching Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demiraslan-Çevik, Yasemin; Andre, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the impact of three types of case-based approaches (worked example, faded work example, and case-based reasoning) on preservice teachers' decision making and reasoning skills related to realistic classroom management situations. Participants in this study received a short-term implementation of one of these three…

  10. Examining Preservice Teachers' Decision Behaviors and Individual Differences in Three Online Case-Based Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cevik, Yasemin Demiraslan; Andre, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the impact of three types of case-based methods (case-based reasoning, worked example, and faded worked example) on preservice teachers' (n = 71) interaction with decision tasks and whether decision related measures (task difficulty, mental effort, decision making performance) were associated with the differences in student…

  11. Examining Elementary Preservice Teachers' Perspectives Concerning Curriculum Themes for Video Case Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.; Batarelo, Ivana; Middleton, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Video cases are becoming more and more prevalent throughout the United States to assist in the development and growth of preservice teachers' instruction. This research investigates the perspectives of preservice teachers and their naive understandings of the kinds of learning and assistance video cases can provide in their methodology courses.…

  12. In utero early suspicion of superfetation by ultrasound examination: a case report.

    PubMed

    Soudre, G; Guettier, X; Marpeau, L; Larue, L; Jault, T; Barrat, J

    1992-01-01

    We report the case of a dichorionic and diamniotic pregnancy with the unique feature of an early ultrasound diagnosis of a 4-week size difference, which persisted throughout pregnancy. At birth, the twins had a 1-month difference in physical and neurological maturity. We believe that only the phenomenon of a superfetation can explain this difference. We report the cases found in the literature.

  13. Examining Technology's Impact on Society: Using Case Studies to Introduce Environmental and Economic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karukstis, Kerry K.

    2003-01-01

    The general chemistry course at Harvey Mudd College presents chemical principles and addresses technology's impact on society. Students consider environmental and economic implications of chemical scenarios in real-world case studies created for team-based analysis and discussion. Case study design, implementation, and assessment are presented.…

  14. Exploring Management Strategies to Reduce Cheating in Written Examinations: Case Study of Midlands State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taderera, Ever; Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Mandimika, Elinah

    2014-01-01

    This study was concerned about cheating in written examinations at Midlands State University (MSU). The study revealed that both male and female students cheat in written examination; business studies students cheat more than other faculties, and younger (lower class) students cheat more than (upper class) older students. Factors influencing…

  15. An Examination of the Leadership Practices of Effective Rural Superintendents: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forner, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the leadership practices of rural superintendents who have led their districts to significant improvement in student academic achievement. The overall research goal was to examine how Waters' and Marzano's six correlates of effective superintendent leadership practice have been applied by school leaders who have successfully…

  16. Reliability of the ADI-R: Multiple Examiners Evaluate a Single Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Lord, Catherine; Koenig, Kathy; Klin, Ami; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the reliability of the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R). Seven Clinical Examiners evaluated a three and one half year old female toddler suspected of being on the Autism Spectrum. Examiners showed agreement levels of 94-96% across all items, with weighted kappa (K[subscript w]) between 0.80 and 0.88. They were in 100%…

  17. An Examination of the Leadership Practices of Effective Rural Superintendents: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forner, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the leadership practices of rural superintendents who have led their districts to significant improvement in student academic achievement. The overall research goal was to examine how Waters' and Marzano's six correlates of effective superintendent leadership practice have been applied by school leaders who have successfully…

  18. Using death certificates and medical examiner records for adolescent occupational fatality surveillance and research: a case study.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Kimberly J; Runyan, Carol W; Radisch, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Death certificates and medical examiner records have been useful yet imperfect data sources for work-related fatality research and surveillance among adult workers. It is unclear whether this holds for work-related fatalities among adolescent workers who suffer unique detection challenges in part because they are not often thought of as workers. This study investigated the utility of using these data sources for surveillance and research pertaining to adolescent work-related fatalities. Using the state of North Carolina as a case study, we analyzed data from the death certificates and medical examiner records of all work-related fatalities data among 11- to 17-year-olds between 1990-2008 (N = 31). We compared data sources on case identification, of completeness, and consistency information. Variables examined included those on the injury (e.g., means), occurrence (e.g., place), demographics, and employment (e.g., occupation). Medical examiner records (90%) were more likely than death certificates (71%) to identify adolescent work-related fatalities. Data completeness was generally high yet varied between sources. The most marked difference being that in medical examiner records, type of business/industry and occupation were complete in 72 and 67% of cases, respectively, while on the death certificates these fields were complete in 90 and 97% of cases, respectively. Taking the two sources together, each field was complete in upward of 94% of cases. Although completeness was high, data were not always of good quality and sometimes conflicted across sources. In many cases, the decedent's occupation was misclassified as "student" and their employer as "school" on the death certificate. Even though each source has its weaknesses, medical examiner records and death certificates, especially when used together, can be useful for conducting surveillance and research on adolescent work-related fatalities. However, extra care is needed by data recorders to ensure that

  19. [The evaluation of the physiological workload in the Brazilian legislation should be revised! The case of garbage collectors in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Anjos, L A; Ferreira, J A

    2000-01-01

    The physiological workload (PW) involved in garbage collection was assessed in a probabilistic sample of 70 Rio de Janeiro city garbage collectors to determine the adequacy of Brazilian labor legislation regarding classification of work. PW was measured as energy expenditure (EE) and heart rate (HR) during total work time (TT) and actual time (AT) in garbage collection on 4 consecutive days. Median EE values were 288.4 and 319.1 kcal.h-1 during TT and AT, respectively, indicating moderately intense work according to Brazilian legislation. However, PW was considered heavy when work classifications based on individual response to work were used: 1) ratio of EE and resting metabolic rate was above 5.0, indicating heavy workload according to the WHO; 2) mean percentage of maximal EE was higher (36.2 and 41.1% for TT and AT, respectively) than the limit for garbage collection (30%) suggested as maximal for Dutch workers; and 3) percentage of maximal HR reserve was also higher than 30% (32.2 and 37.5% for TT and AT, respectively). These results indicate the need for a revision of the workload classification in the Brazilian legislation to take individual workers' characteristics into account.

  20. [Three cases of enteroenteric intussusception examined by three-dimensional computed tomography enteroclysis].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Tomoyo; Kurokami, Takafumi; Sato, Shinsuke; Hazama, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Makoto; Arai, Kazumori; Kikuyama, Masataka

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) enteroclysis or virtual enteroscopy is a novel technique to explore the entire small bowel using a modified protocol of virtual colonoscopy by inflating the small bowel with air. In our hospital, the procedure is performed routinely for cases with suspected gross lesions. We performed 3D CT enteroclysis for three cases with enteroenteric intussusception bowel. The lesions associated with intussusception were identified, single-incision laparoscopic surgery was performed, and diagnoses of lipoma and Peutz-Jeghers polyp were made in two cases. 3D CT enteroclysis did not reveal any associated lesion in the third case. This was followed by an intraoperative exploration during gastrectomy for stomach cancer, but no intestinal lesion was found. A diagnosis of idiopathic intussusception and its spontaneous release was made, and no recurrence was observed during the follow-up period. 3D CT enteroclysis seems to be an appropriate modality for the evaluation of enteroenteric intussusception.

  1. Wind turbines and health: An examination of a proposed case definition.

    PubMed

    McCunney, Robert J; Morfeld, Peter; Colby, W David; Mundt, Kenneth A

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy demands have increased the need for new wind farms. In turn, concerns have been raised about potential adverse health effects on nearby residents. A case definition has been proposed to diagnose "Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines" (AHE/IWT); initially in 2011 and then with an update in 2014. The authors invited commentary and in turn, we assessed its scientific merits by quantitatively evaluating its proposed application. We used binomial coefficients to quantitatively assess the potential of obtaining a diagnosis of AHE/IWT. We also reviewed the methodology and process of the development of the case definition by contrasting it with guidelines on case definition criteria of the USA Institute of Medicine. The case definition allows at least 3,264 and up to 400,000 possibilities for meeting second- and third-order criteria, once the limited first-order criteria are met. IOM guidelines for clinical case definitions were not followed. The case definition has virtually no specificity and lacks scientific support from peer-reviewed literature. If applied as proposed, its application will lead to substantial potential for false-positive assessments and missed diagnoses. Virtually any new illness that develops or any prevalent illness that worsens after the installation of wind turbines within 10 km of a residence could be considered AHE/IWT if the patient feels better away from home. The use of this case definition in the absence of a thorough medical evaluation with appropriate diagnostic studies poses risks to patients in that treatable disorders would be overlooked. The case definition has significant potential to mislead patients and its use cannot be recommended for application in any health-care or decision-making setting.

  2. Wind turbines and health: An examination of a proposed case definition

    PubMed Central

    McCunney, Robert J.; Morfeld, Peter; Colby, W. David; Mundt, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy demands have increased the need for new wind farms. In turn, concerns have been raised about potential adverse health effects on nearby residents. A case definition has been proposed to diagnose “Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines” (AHE/IWT); initially in 2011 and then with an update in 2014. The authors invited commentary and in turn, we assessed its scientific merits by quantitatively evaluating its proposed application. We used binomial coefficients to quantitatively assess the potential of obtaining a diagnosis of AHE/IWT. We also reviewed the methodology and process of the development of the case definition by contrasting it with guidelines on case definition criteria of the USA Institute of Medicine. The case definition allows at least 3,264 and up to 400,000 possibilities for meeting second- and third-order criteria, once the limited first-order criteria are met. IOM guidelines for clinical case definitions were not followed. The case definition has virtually no specificity and lacks scientific support from peer-reviewed literature. If applied as proposed, its application will lead to substantial potential for false-positive assessments and missed diagnoses. Virtually any new illness that develops or any prevalent illness that worsens after the installation of wind turbines within 10 km of a residence could be considered AHE/IWT if the patient feels better away from home. The use of this case definition in the absence of a thorough medical evaluation with appropriate diagnostic studies poses risks to patients in that treatable disorders would be overlooked. The case definition has significant potential to mislead patients and its use cannot be recommended for application in any health-care or decision-making setting. PMID:26168947

  3. Proalcohol: the Brazilian alcohol program

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    Examines the Brazilian National Alcohol Plan - Proalcohol - which has as its immediate aim, 20% replacement of all gasoline with alcohol. Future plans call for replacement of virtually all gasoline by alcohol and a significant fraction of diesel fuels by 1986. Issues which are looked at separately are: agronomic, industrial (alcohol production), utilization, institutional, social, environmental, and scientific. Economic issues pervade all of these and are considered in the conclusions. There is a brief discussion of methanol production and the lessons for the United States.

  4. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  5. Brazilian consensus on photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; Cunha, José Antônio Jabur da; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva dos; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection.

  6. Resource mobilization for health advocacy: Afro-Brazilian religious organizations and HIV prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G

    2011-06-01

    Brazil's national response to AIDS has been tied to the ability to mobilize resources from the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and a variety of donor agencies. The combination of favorable political economic opportunities and the bottom-up demands from civil society make Brazil a particularly interesting case. Despite the stabilization of the AIDS epidemic within the general Brazilian population, it continues to grow in pockets of poverty, especially among women and blacks. We use resource mobilization theories to examine the role of Afro-Brazilian religious organizations in reaching these marginalized populations. From December 2006 through November 2008, we conducted ethnographic research, including participant observation and oral histories with religious leaders (N = 18), officials from the National AIDS Program (N = 12), public health workers from Rio de Janeiro (N = 5), and non-governmental organization (NGO) activists who have worked with Afro-Brazilian religions (N = 5). The mobilization of resources from international donors, political opportunities (i.e., decentralization of the National AIDS Program), and cultural framings enabled local Afro-Brazilian religious groups to forge a national network. On the micro-level, in Rio de Janeiro, we observed how macro-level structures led to the proliferation of capacity-building and peer educator projects among these religious groups. We found that beyond funding assistance, the interrelation of religious ideologies, leadership, and networks linked to HIV can affect mobilization.

  7. Resource Mobilization for Health Advocacy: Afro-Brazilian Religious Organizations and HIV Prevention and Control

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Richard G

    2010-01-01

    Brazil’s national response to AIDS has been tied to the ability to mobilize resources from the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and a variety of donor agencies. The combination of favorable political economic opportunities and the bottom-up demands from civil society make Brazil a particularly interesting case. Despite the stabilization of the AIDS epidemic within the general Brazilian population, it continues to grow in pockets of poverty, especially among women and blacks. We use resource mobilization theories to examine the role of Afro-Brazilian religious organizations in reaching these marginalized populations. From December 2006 through November 2008, we conducted ethnographic research, including participant observation and oral histories with religious leaders (N=18), officials from the National AIDS Program (N=12), public health workers from Rio de Janeiro (N=5), and non-governmental organization (NGO) activists who have worked with Afro-Brazilian religions (N=5). The mobilization of resources from international donors, political opportunities (i.e., decentralization of the National AIDS Program), and cultural framings enabled local Afro-Brazilian religious groups to forge a national network. On the micro-level, in Rio de Janeiro, we observed how macro-level structures led to the proliferation of capacity-building and peer educator projects among these religious groups. We found that beyond funding assistance, the interrelation of religious ideologies, leadership, and networks linked to HIV can affect mobilization. PMID:20542364

  8. A case law survey of the Personality Assessment Inventory: examining its role in civil and criminal trials.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Kacy L; Edens, John F

    2008-05-01

    Although professional surveys suggest that the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) is a popular instrument among forensic and correctional psychologists, relatively little is known about the specific types of legal cases in which it is applied, the particular types of questions it is used to address, or the extent to which its admissibility has been at issue in court cases. Using a comprehensive legal database, we surveyed all published U.S., Canadian, European, and Australian criminal and civil cases in which the PAI was administered. The PAI appears to be introduced by examiners in a wide variety of civil (e.g., child custody, personal injury) and criminal (e.g., insanity, competence) cases to aid in the assessment of a broad range of psychopathology. Additionally, the PAI seems to be used frequently to assess questions concerning potential dissimulation and response styles. Surprisingly, the admissibility of the PAI into evidence was never at issue in any of the cases reviewed.

  9. Noun Case Suffix Use by Children with Specific Language Impairment: An Examination of Finnish.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Laurence B; Kunnari, Sari; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula; Tolonen, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Leena; Luotonen, Mirja; Leinonen, Eeva

    2014-07-01

    Finnish-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI, N = 15, M age = 5;2), a group of same-age typically developing peers (TD-A, N = 15, M age = 5;2) and a group of younger typically developing children (TD-Y, N = 15, M age = 3;8) were compared in their use of accusative, partitive, and genitive case noun suffixes. The children with SLI were less accurate than both groups of TD children in case marking, suggesting that their difficulties with agreement extend to grammatical case. However, these children were also less accurate in making the phonological changes in the stem needed for suffixation. This second type of error suggests that problems in morphophonology may constitute a separate problem in Finnish SLI.

  10. Noun Case Suffix Use by Children with Specific Language Impairment: An Examination of Finnish

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Kunnari, Sari; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula; Tolonen, Anna-Kaisa; Mäkinen, Leena; Luotonen, Mirja; Leinonen, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    Finnish-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI, N = 15, M age = 5;2), a group of same-age typically developing peers (TD-A, N = 15, M age = 5;2) and a group of younger typically developing children (TD-Y, N = 15, M age = 3;8) were compared in their use of accusative, partitive, and genitive case noun suffixes. The children with SLI were less accurate than both groups of TD children in case marking, suggesting that their difficulties with agreement extend to grammatical case. However, these children were also less accurate in making the phonological changes in the stem needed for suffixation. This second type of error suggests that problems in morphophonology may constitute a separate problem in Finnish SLI. PMID:25995529

  11. Attitudes and Examination Performance of Female and Male Medical Students in an Active, Case-Based Learning Programme in Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peplow, Philip

    1998-01-01

    An active, case-based project (CBP) learning program in anatomy was evaluated to measure differences between male and female students in perception of the initial discussion sessions as developing deep learning skills, and also in performance on CBP and essay components of the written examination. Females responded more positively to discussion…

  12. Perceptions of Critical Thinking, Task Value, Autonomy and Science Lab Self-Efficacy: A Longitudinal Examination of Students' CASE Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Jonathan J.; Lambert, Misty D.; Elliott, Kristopher M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to begin examining the impact of the Curriculum for Agricultural Science Education (CASE). Under development since 2008, the curriculum is intended to integrate core academics and Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) into agricultural education programs. This longitudinal descriptive correlational study…

  13. A Case Study of a Turnaround High School: An Examination of the Maryland State Department of Education Breakthrough Center Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galindo, Claudia; Stein, Kathleen; Schaffer, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the Maryland State Department of Education Breakthrough Center (BTC) engagement in a Baltimore City turnaround high school. Utilizing a case-study design and mixed-methods research, data were collected through interviews, informal observations, and review of administrative and achievement documents. Beginning in the 2011-2012…

  14. A Case Study of a Turnaround High School: An Examination of the Maryland State Department of Education Breakthrough Center Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galindo, Claudia; Stein, Kathleen; Schaffer, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the Maryland State Department of Education Breakthrough Center (BTC) engagement in a Baltimore City turnaround high school. Utilizing a case-study design and mixed-methods research, data were collected through interviews, informal observations, and review of administrative and achievement documents. Beginning in the 2011-2012…

  15. Examination of Case Law (2007-2008) regarding Autism Spectrum Disorder and Violations of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Doris Adams; Martin, E. Davis, Jr.; Nelson-Head, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Using the LexisNexis database, the authors examined 99 court cases on students--who were 3-21 years of age and with various forms of autism spectrum disorder--between 2007 and 2008. The authors coded and analyzed procedural and substantive violations to the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act and the provision of a Free and Appropriate…

  16. Examination of Case Law (2007-2008) regarding Autism Spectrum Disorder and Violations of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Doris Adams

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-nine court cases from the "LexisNexis" database regarding students, ages 3-21, with various forms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were examined for the years 2007-2008. Procedural and substantive violations to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the provision of a Free and Appropriate Public Education…

  17. Examining the Role of Reflection in ePortfolios: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, Cynthia M.; Scott, Susan B.; Kahn, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Extended institutional experience with ePortfolios grounded and framed this qualitative case study guided by the research question: Why, how, and with what success is reflection, as a teaching/learning process, employed among ePortfolio projects at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI)? Thirty-two representatives of 16 varied…

  18. A Qualitative Multi-Site Case Study: Examining Principals' Leadership Styles and School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preyear, Loukisha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative multi-site case study was to explore the impact of principals' leadership styles on student academic achievement in a high-poverty low-performing school district in Louisiana. A total of 17 participants, principals and teachers, from this school district were used in this study. Data source triangulation of…

  19. Examining Success and Sustainability of Academic Writing: A Case Study of Two Writing-Group Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewska, Kinga; Lock, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary higher education there is a growing demand for academics to increase their publication output. This requirement raises the question of how institutions can best support a sustainable academic writing culture, which is needed to challenge the assumption that all academics know how to write for publication. This case study examines…

  20. Quality Standards Matter: A Comparative Case Study Examining Interactive Writing in the Preschool Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Anna H.

    2017-01-01

    Interactive writing is a research-based early literacy strategy that has been found effective at increasing young children's oral language skills, alphabet knowledge, phonemic awareness, concepts of print, and early writing skills. This paper reports on a case study which explored the feasibility and fidelity of implementing interactive writing in…

  1. "I'm Present, 'A' Please": A Case Study Examining Grading Issues in a Recreation Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, H. Joey

    2008-01-01

    Despite extensive research, grading and the potential for grade inflation remain areas of concern within higher education. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to obtain collective understandings regarding grading and pressures to inflate grades from faculty and instructors within a research-intensive university. The study focused on a…

  2. A Qualitative Multi-Site Case Study: Examining Principals' Leadership Styles and School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preyear, Loukisha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative multi-site case study was to explore the impact of principals' leadership styles on student academic achievement in a high-poverty low-performing school district in Louisiana. A total of 17 participants, principals and teachers, from this school district were used in this study. Data source triangulation of…

  3. Priming for letters and pseudoletters in mid-fusiform cortex: examining letter selectivity and case invariance.

    PubMed

    Burgund, E Darcy; Guo, Yi; Aurbach, Elyse L

    2009-03-01

    A large body of research indicates a critical role for the left mid-fusiform cortex in reading, however, the extent to which this area is dedicated exclusively to the processing of words and letters has been debated. Two questions regarding left mid-fusiform function are critical to this debate: (1) Are letters stored preferentially compared to visually equivalent non-letters (letter selectivity)? (2) Are letter representations abstract with respect to changes in letter case (e.g., A/a; case invariance)? The present study addressed these questions by comparing priming for letters and pseudoletters in left and right mid-fusiform regions using functional magnetic resonance imaging while subjects performed a same/different matching task. Results revealed priming for letters but not pseudoletters in the left mid-fusiform region, suggesting that representations are letter selective. However, no priming for different-case-primed letters was observed in this region, indicating that representations are not case invariant. In addition, priming for pseudoletters but not letters was observed in the homologous right mid-fusiform region. Overall, findings contradict strongly modular theories of letter/word processing and suggest that left and right mid-fusiform regions support generic object processes that are differentially effective for representing disparate types of visual stimuli.

  4. A Case Study Examination of Best Practices of Professional Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akopoff, Tanya M.

    2010-01-01

    A current trend in education is that small teacher groups, called professional learning communities (PLC), are being advocated as a tool to help teachers reach struggling students. Educators planning to use PLC as an intervention strategy can benefit from research-based information about PLC best practices. This multiple case study addressed the…

  5. A Case Study Examination of Best Practices of Professional Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akopoff, Tanya M.

    2010-01-01

    A current trend in education is that small teacher groups, called professional learning communities (PLC), are being advocated as a tool to help teachers reach struggling students. Educators planning to use PLC as an intervention strategy can benefit from research-based information about PLC best practices. This multiple case study addressed the…

  6. Examining the Impact of L2 English on L3 Selves: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    In this Swedish case study of four upper secondary students engaged in simultaneous second language (L2; English) and third language (L3; Spanish, French and Russian) learning, a possible selves perspective was used to investigate the impact of English on L3 motivation. Using a maximum variation sampling strategy, participants were selected from a…

  7. Seeing Chemistry through the Eyes of the Blind: A Case Study Examining Multiple Gas Law Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harshman, Jordan; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Yezierski, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Adequately accommodating students who are blind or low-vision (BLV) in the sciences has been a focus of recent inquiry, but much of the research to date has addressed broad accommodations rather than devising and testing specific teaching strategies that respond to the unique challenges of BLV students learning chemistry. This case study seeks to…

  8. Seeing Chemistry through the Eyes of the Blind: A Case Study Examining Multiple Gas Law Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harshman, Jordan; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Yezierski, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Adequately accommodating students who are blind or low-vision (BLV) in the sciences has been a focus of recent inquiry, but much of the research to date has addressed broad accommodations rather than devising and testing specific teaching strategies that respond to the unique challenges of BLV students learning chemistry. This case study seeks to…

  9. Comparison of peak muscle power between Brazilian and French girls.

    PubMed

    Nanci Maria, França; Eric, Doré; Mario, Bedu; Emmanuel, Van Praagh

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the muscle power of Brazilian circumpubertal girls and extended the analysis to a cross-cultural dimension. A total of 462 children, 123 Brazilian girls and 339 French girls, 9-18 years, participated in this investigation. Anthropometric data included body mass (BM), height, skinfold thicknesses, and estimated lean leg volume (LLV). All subjects completed a physical activity questionnaire. Cycling peak power was measured including the flywheel inertia of the device (CPPi). Brazilian girls self-assessed their maturation using pubic hair development. CPPi and optimal velocity (v(opt) = velocity at CPPi) increased with stages of puberty. A multiple stepwise regression with anthropometric variables as explanatory factors showed only LLV and age explaining the variance of CPPi (R2 = 0.40, P < 0.001). Therefore, 60% of the variance of CPPi in Brazilian girls was related to undetermined qualitative individual factors, which may be related to cycling skill. Even when normalized for anthropometric variables, the anaerobic performance (CPPi and v(opt)) of Brazilian girls was significantly lower than a cohort of French girls. The latter demonstrated a high participation in sport and training activities, while 50% of the Brazilian girls had only physical education classes in the form of regular physical activity. Moreover, most of the Brazilian girls demonstrated an ineffective sprint cycling skill. The data suggest that motor learning is an important issue in muscle power assessment and might, therefore, partially explain peak power differences in Brazilian compared with French girls.

  10. The Case for Curriculum-Based, External Examinations that Have Significant Consequences for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    State-mandated systems of comprehensive examinations to be taken prior to high school graduation would focus the attention of students in high school, motivate them to higher levels of performance, provide guidance to teachers as to the appropriate material to be covered, and reduce antieducational pressures within peer groups, all of whose…

  11. Examining an Evolution: A Case Study of Organizational Change Accompanying the Community College Baccalaureate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Morris, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the nature and degree of organizational change that occurs when community colleges offer their own baccalaureate degree programs. Utilizing qualitative research methodology, we investigated how executive administrators at two Florida colleges managed this momentous change process and how this transformation has affected their…

  12. Examining the Landscape of Teacher Learning for Data Use: The Case of Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Todd D.; Summers, Kelly H.; Grove, Evan

    2016-01-01

    The use of data to inform instructional and educational decisions is an increasingly important facet of teachers' professional practice. However, little is presently known about the best teacher learning mechanisms by which to promote data use. This study (N = 329) examined the nature and distribution of both Illinois public teacher data use…

  13. Examining Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching in the Mathematics Teaching Cycle: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Margaret Meg Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    The research indicated effective mathematics teaching to be more complex than assuming the best predictor of student achievement in mathematics is the mathematical content knowledge of a teacher. This dissertation took a novel approach to addressing the idea of what it means to examine how a teacher's knowledge of mathematics impacts student…

  14. A 20-Year Examination of the Perceptions of Business School Interns: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Sherry James; Stokes, Amy; Parker, Richard Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined students' attitudes toward specific elements of an ongoing internship program. The study sample consisted of 816 student interns from 25 different colleges and universities. Results indicate that despite significant changes in instructional design and the incorporation of new technologies into the learning environment,…

  15. Examining Health Information Technology Implementations: Case of the Patient-Centered Medical Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behkami, Nima A.

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that the use of Health Information Technology (HIT) is associated with reduced cost and increased quality of care. This dissertation examined the use of registries in Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) practices. A survey questionnaire was sent to a nationwide group of clinics certified for being a PCMH. They were asked to…

  16. A Content Analysis of the TEFL M.A. Entrance Examinations (Case Study: Majors Courses)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah; Heydari Tabrizi, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    The MA Entrance Examinations (MAEE) held in Iran since 1990 are frequently criticized as being invalid, unstandardized exams with lots of problem in terms of principles of testing in general and test construction in particular (for instance, Jafarpur, 1996). To make sound judgments about such objections, the present study dealt with a content…

  17. Evaluation of Final Examination Papers in Engineering: A Case Study Using Bloom's Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swart, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Questions are used to obtain information, stimulate thinking, and redirect reasoning. Academics in higher education use questions on a daily basis to stimulate thinking and reasoning in students. Final examination papers are used by academics to assess the retention and application skills of students. The assumption, however, exists that questions…

  18. Examining Health Information Technology Implementations: Case of the Patient-Centered Medical Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behkami, Nima A.

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that the use of Health Information Technology (HIT) is associated with reduced cost and increased quality of care. This dissertation examined the use of registries in Patient Centered Medical Home (PCMH) practices. A survey questionnaire was sent to a nationwide group of clinics certified for being a PCMH. They were asked to…

  19. An Examination of Court Cases Involving Interscholastic Athletics in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    It is imperative that school administrators, athletic directors, and interscholastic/athletic associations become knowledgeable in the area of interscholastic athletics at the secondary level and fully understand its potential for litigation. Thus, the purpose of this research study is to examine issues, outcomes, and legal trends involving…

  20. Examining Students' Affective Commitment toward Country: A Case Study of a Singapore Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon; Cheung, Wing Sum

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine students' affective commitment toward Singapore. Affective commitment refers to the sense of attachment to the nation state. The sample was taken from 286 students in a primary school. In the first section of the paper, we described the design of a Likert-type Affective Commitment to Country questionnaire.…

  1. The Physical Examination Does Matter: A Case of Spontaneous Aortocaval Fistula.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rupak; Akbashev, Mikhail; Rubinsztain, Leon; Kacharava, Andro G

    2017-07-11

    A spontaneous aortocaval fistula is a rare complication of abdominal aortic aneurysms. In 50 percent of the patients, it presents with the classic signs of a pulsatile abdominal mass, continuous bruit, and low back pain. A high degree of clinical suspicion and a well-performed physical examination are important for its timely diagnosis.

  2. Examining Current Beliefs, Practices and Barriers about Technology Integration: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Pi-Sui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the current beliefs, practices and barriers concerning technology integration of Kindergarten through Grade Six teachers in the midwestern United States. The three data collection methods were online surveys with 152 teachers as well as interviews and observations with 8 teachers. The findings…

  3. The Road to Change? A Case Study Examining Educational Reform in Sibiu County, Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Stan; Trotman, Dave; Rusu, Horatiu; Mara, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article examines processes of educational reform and change in a post-Communist Eastern European country. Focusing on the experiences and challenges facing one geographical community in Sibiu County, Romania, an attempt is made to understand some of the macro and micro factors, influences and external policy drivers, shaping the organization…

  4. Examining Boyer's Scholarship of Engagement: A Case Study of a Faculty Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Miriam F.

    2009-01-01

    In response to significant changes in the global economic, social, and cultural context over the past decade, the teaching, research, and public service missions of public universities and colleges are being reshaped significantly. Faculty professional development programs are a vital but under-examined resource for institutional and academic…

  5. Examining Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching in the Mathematics Teaching Cycle: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Margaret Meg Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    The research indicated effective mathematics teaching to be more complex than assuming the best predictor of student achievement in mathematics is the mathematical content knowledge of a teacher. This dissertation took a novel approach to addressing the idea of what it means to examine how a teacher's knowledge of mathematics impacts student…

  6. Using Computers to Support Children as Authors: An Examination of Three Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kervin, Lisa; Mantei, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    The changing nature of literacy is well documented within the literature, challenging educators to examine their pedagogies in light of the needs of learners in the current climate. The development and creation of non-linear texts within primary classrooms is of current interest as they reflect the types of texts accessed and created by users of…

  7. Examining Current Beliefs, Practices and Barriers about Technology Integration: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Pi-Sui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the current beliefs, practices and barriers concerning technology integration of Kindergarten through Grade Six teachers in the midwestern United States. The three data collection methods were online surveys with 152 teachers as well as interviews and observations with 8 teachers. The findings…

  8. Why CBI? An Examination of the Case for Computer-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Peter M.

    1977-01-01

    Discussion of the use of computers in instruction includes the relationship of theory to practice, the interactive nature of computer instruction, an overview of the Keller Plan, cost considerations, strategy for use of computers in instruction and training, and a look at examination procedure. (RAO)

  9. Examining an Evolution: A Case Study of Organizational Change Accompanying the Community College Baccalaureate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Morris, Phillip A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the nature and degree of organizational change that occurs when community colleges offer their own baccalaureate degree programs. Utilizing qualitative research methodology, we investigated how executive administrators at two Florida colleges managed this momentous change process and how this transformation has affected their…

  10. Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Perceptions of Early Childhood Philosophy and Pedagogy: A Case Study Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Alison; McFarland, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of three primary teacher education students participating in early childhood-focused community play sessions, as well as their perceptions of early childhood and primary philosophy and pedagogy. The purpose was to explore perceived differences in primary and early childhood pre-service teacher courses, which may…

  11. A 20-Year Examination of the Perceptions of Business School Interns: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Sherry James; Stokes, Amy; Parker, Richard Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined students' attitudes toward specific elements of an ongoing internship program. The study sample consisted of 816 student interns from 25 different colleges and universities. Results indicate that despite significant changes in instructional design and the incorporation of new technologies into the learning environment,…

  12. Examining Facilitators' Habits of Mind in an Asynchronous Online Discussion Environment: A Two Cases Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Wing Sum; Hew, Khe Foon

    2010-01-01

    Asynchronous online discussion has been widely used by faculty members and students in schools and universities. Previous research has examined how factors such as the discussion activity, knowledge about the discussion topic, and the behaviour of other participants can affect learner participation. This study explored student facilitators'…

  13. Examining the Value of Lexical Retrieval Treatment in Primary Progressive Aphasia: Two Positive Cases

    PubMed Central

    Rising, K.; DeMarco, A.T.; Miller, B.L.; Gorno-Tempini, M.L.; Beeson, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) suffer a gradual decline in communication ability as a result of neurodegenerative disease. Language treatment shows promise as a means of addressing these difficulties but much remains to be learned with regard to the potential value of treatment across variants and stages of the disorder. We present two cases, one with semantic variant of PPA and the other with logopenic PPA, each of whom underwent treatment that was unique in its focus on training self-cueing strategies to engage residual language skills. Despite differing language profiles and levels of aphasia severity, each individual benefited from treatment and showed maintenance of gains as well as generalization to untrained lexical items. These cases highlight the potential for treatment to capitalize on spared cognitive and neural systems in individuals with PPA, improving current language function as well as potentially preserving targeted skills in the face of disease progression. PMID:23871425

  14. Examining the value of lexical retrieval treatment in primary progressive aphasia: two positive cases.

    PubMed

    Henry, M L; Rising, K; DeMarco, A T; Miller, B L; Gorno-Tempini, M L; Beeson, P M

    2013-11-01

    Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) suffer a gradual decline in communication ability as a result of neurodegenerative disease. Language treatment shows promise as a means of addressing these difficulties but much remains to be learned with regard to the potential value of treatment across variants and stages of the disorder. We present two cases, one with semantic variant of PPA and the other with logopenic PPA, each of whom underwent treatment that was unique in its focus on training self-cueing strategies to engage residual language skills. Despite differing language profiles and levels of aphasia severity, each individual benefited from treatment and showed maintenance of gains as well as generalization to untrained lexical items. These cases highlight the potential for treatment to capitalize on spared cognitive and neural systems in individuals with PPA, improving current language function as well as potentially preserving targeted skills in the face of disease progression.

  15. The role of spatial mobility in malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon: The case of Porto Velho municipality, Rondônia, Brazil (2010-2012).

    PubMed

    Angelo, Jussara Rafael; Katsuragawa, Tony Hiroshi; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; de Carvalho, Lino Augusto Sander; Silva, Luiz Hildebrando Pereira da; Nobre, Carlos Afonso

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe the role of mobility in malaria transmission by discussing recent changes in population movements in the Brazilian Amazon and developing a flow map of disease transmission in this region. This study presents a descriptive analysis using an ecological approach on regional and local scales. The study location was the municipality of Porto Velho, which is the capital of Rondônia state, Brazil. Our dataset was obtained from the official health database, the population census and an environmental database. During 2000-2007 and 2007-2010, the Porto Velho municipality had an annual population growth of 1.42% and 5.07%, respectively. This population growth can be attributed to migration, which was driven by the construction of the Madeira River hydroelectric complex. From 2010 to 2012, 63,899 malaria-positive slides were reported for residents of Porto Velho municipality; 92% of the identified samples were autochthonous, and 8% were allochthonous. The flow map of patients' movements between residential areas and areas of suspected infection showed two patterns of malaria transmission: 1) commuting between residential areas and the Jirau hydropower dam reservoir, and 2) movements between urban areas and farms and resorts in rural areas. It was also observed that areas with greater occurrences of malaria were characterized by a low rate of deforestation. The Porto Velho municipality exhibits high malaria endemicity and plays an important role in disseminating the parasite to other municipalities in the Amazon and even to non-endemic areas of the country. Migration remains an important factor for the occurrence of malaria. However, due to recent changes in human occupation of the Brazilian Amazon, characterized by intense expansion of transportation networks, commuting has also become an important factor in malaria transmission. The magnitude of this change necessitates a new model to explain malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon.

  16. The role of spatial mobility in malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon: The case of Porto Velho municipality, Rondônia, Brazil (2010-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; de Carvalho, Lino Augusto Sander; Nobre, Carlos Afonso

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aims to describe the role of mobility in malaria transmission by discussing recent changes in population movements in the Brazilian Amazon and developing a flow map of disease transmission in this region. Methodology/Principal findings This study presents a descriptive analysis using an ecological approach on regional and local scales. The study location was the municipality of Porto Velho, which is the capital of Rondônia state, Brazil. Our dataset was obtained from the official health database, the population census and an environmental database. During 2000–2007 and 2007–2010, the Porto Velho municipality had an annual population growth of 1.42% and 5.07%, respectively. This population growth can be attributed to migration, which was driven by the construction of the Madeira River hydroelectric complex. From 2010 to 2012, 63,899 malaria-positive slides were reported for residents of Porto Velho municipality; 92% of the identified samples were autochthonous, and 8% were allochthonous. The flow map of patients' movements between residential areas and areas of suspected infection showed two patterns of malaria transmission: 1) commuting between residential areas and the Jirau hydropower dam reservoir, and 2) movements between urban areas and farms and resorts in rural areas. It was also observed that areas with greater occurrences of malaria were characterized by a low rate of deforestation. Conclusions The Porto Velho municipality exhibits high malaria endemicity and plays an important role in disseminating the parasite to other municipalities in the Amazon and even to non-endemic areas of the country. Migration remains an important factor for the occurrence of malaria. However, due to recent changes in human occupation of the Brazilian Amazon, characterized by intense expansion of transportation networks, commuting has also become an important factor in malaria transmission. The magnitude of this change necessitates a new model to

  17. Pulmonary pneumaticity in the postcranial skeleton of extant aves: a case study examining Anseriformes.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Patrick M

    2004-08-01

    Anseriform birds were surveyed to examine how the degree of postcranial pneumaticity varies in a behaviorally and size-diverse clade of living birds. This study attempts to extricate the relative effects of phylogeny, body size, and behavioral specializations (e.g., diving, soaring) that have been postulated to influence the extent of postcranial skeletal pneumaticity. One hundred anseriform species were examined as the focal study group. Methods included latex injection of the pulmonary apparatus followed by gross dissection or direct examination of osteological specimens. The Pneumaticity Index (PI) is introduced as a means of quantifying and comparing postcranial pneumaticity in a number of species simultaneously. Phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs) were used to examine the relationship between body size and the degree of postcranial pneumaticity throughout the clade. There is a high degree of similarity (i.e., clade-specificity) within most anseriform subgroups. As a whole, Anseriformes demonstrate no significant relationship between relative pneumaticity and body size, as indicated by regression analysis of body mass on PI. It is apparent, however, that many clades of diving ducks do exhibit lower PIs than their nondiving relatives. By exclusion of diving taxa from analyses, a significant positive slope is observed and the hypothesis of relatively higher pneumaticity in larger-bodied birds is only weakly supported. However, low correlations indicate that factors other than body size account for much of the variation observed in relative pneumaticity. Pneumaticity profiles were mapped onto existing phylogenetic hypotheses. A reduction in the degree of postcranial pneumaticity occurred independently in at least three anseriform subclades specialized for diving. Finally, enigmatic pneumatic features located in distal forelimb elements of screamers (Anhimidae) result from invasion of bone by a network of subcutaneous air sac diverticula spreading

  18. Accountability Policy Implementation and the Case of Smaller School District Capacity: Three Contrasting Cases that Examine the Flow and Use of NCLB Accountability Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act increases pressure on schools and districts to use standardized state test data. Seeking to learn about the process of turning accountability data into actionable information, this paper presents findings from three case studies of small to medium sized school districts. The study examines the flow of state science…

  19. A Team, Case-based Examination and Its Impact on Student Performance in a Patient Safety and Informatics Course.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Robert D; Etheridge, Kierstan; DeLellis, Teresa

    2017-08-01

    Objective. To describe the redesigned assessment plan for a patient safety and informatics course and assess student pharmacist performance and perceptions. Methods. The final examination of a patient safety course was redesigned from traditional multiple choice and short answer to team-based, open-ended, and case-based. Faculty for each class session developed higher level activities, focused on developing key skills or attitudes deemed essential for practice, for a progressive patient case consisting of nine activities. Student performance and perceptions were analyzed with pre- and post-surveys using 5-point scales. Results. Mean performance on the examination was 93.6%; median scores for each assessed course outcome ranged from 90% to 100%. Eighty-five percent of students completed both surveys. Confidence performing skills and demonstrating attitudes improved for each item on post-survey compared with pre-survey. Eighty-one percent of students indicated the experience of taking the examination was beneficial for their professional development. Conclusion. A team, case-based examination was associated with high student performance and improved self-confidence in performing medication safety-related skills.

  20. Laparoscopic examination and resection for giant lipoma of the omentum: a case report and review of related literature.

    PubMed

    Shiroshita, Hidefumi; Komori, Yoko; Tajima, Masaaki; Bandoh, Toshio; Arita, Tsuyoshi; Shiraishi, Norio; Kitano, Seigo

    2009-10-01

    We report herein the case of a giant lipoma of the greater omentum that was treated by laparoscopic surgery. A 71-year-old male patient was admitted with a diagnosis of sigmoid colon cancer. During preoperative examination, a gallbladder stone and an intra-abdominal giant lipoma were accidentally diagnosed. Laparoscopic examination revealed a smooth-surfaced, giant yellow tumor at the lower border of the greater omentum that was unattached to the surrounding organs. After laparoscopic resection of the tumor and cholecystectomy, a 10-cm midline incision was made in the lower abdomen to remove the tumor and the gallbladder. We then performed a sigmoidectomy for sigmoid colon cancer through the same laparotomy. The resected tumor measured 29 x 19 x 3 cm and weighed 1250 g, and a histopathologic examination revealed a benign lipoma. Laparoscopic examination and resection of a giant lipoma of the omentum are particularly useful.

  1. Recurrent anencephaly: a case report and examination of the VANGL1 and FOXN1 genes.

    PubMed

    Sergi, Consolato; Gekas, Jean; Kamnasaran, Deepak

    2013-07-01

    We report a new and rare case of recurrent anencephaly in a family with no other apparent abnormalities. The karyotypes of the family and all affected subjects were normal. Thorough mutational analyses of VANGL1 of chromosome 1p13.1 and FOXN1 of chromosome 17q11-q12, genes that are associated with phenotypes of the anencephaly spectrum, unfortunately did not disclose any DNA variations in an affected fetus of this family. The etiology of recurrent anencephaly in this family is therefore due to mutations in genes yet to be discovered, perhaps of the planar cell polarity pathway, or to possible environmental gestational factors during development.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in epileptic cats with a normal interictal neurological examination: 188 cases.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, F; Shihab, N; Gutierrez-Quintana, R; Smith, A; Trevail, R; Sanchez-Masian, D; Smith, P M

    2017-06-24

    Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in dogs and cats. Although an increased likelihood of significant brain lesions with age has been identified in neurologically normal dogs with epileptic seizures, the underlying aetiology of epileptic seizures in cats that present with normal physical and neurological examinations remains unknown. In this cross-sectional study, the authors examined MRI findings in a large population of cats with a normal interictal physical and neurological examination. They hypothesised that age would have an impact on the prevalence of detectable lesions. First, following the guidelines for dogs and in accordance with previous studies, the authors divided the cats into three age groups (aged one year or younger, between one and six, and older than six) and calculated the proportion of cats with a detectable lesion on MRI in these groups. In the first group, 3/32 cats (9.4 per cent) had significant MRI abnormalities that were all consistent with congenital malformation; in the second group, only 5/92 (5.4 per cent) MRI scans were abnormal and in the third group, 15/ 65 (23.1 per cent) cats showed abnormal findings that were predominantly lesions of neoplastic origin. Second, to investigate the impact of age further, data were investigated as a continuous variable using receiver operating characteristic analysis. This indicated an optimal cut-off age of five years, above which MRI abnormalities were more likely, with an increase in the odds of a significant structural lesion increasing by 14 per cent per year. British Veterinary Association.

  3. [Factors affecting the adoption of ICT tools in experiments with bioinformatics in biopharmaceutical organizations: a case study in the Brazilian Cancer Institute].

    PubMed

    Pitassi, Claudio; Gonçalves, Antonio Augusto; Moreno Júnior, Valter de Assis

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this article is to identify and analyze the factors that influence the adoption of ICT tools in experiments with bioinformatics at the Brazilian Cancer Institute (INCA). It involves a descriptive and exploratory qualitative field study. Evidence was collected mainly based on in-depth interviews with the management team at the Research Center and the IT Division. The answers were analyzed using the categorical content method. The categories were selected from the scientific literature and consolidated in the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework created for this study. The model proposed made it possible to demonstrate how the factors selected impacted INCA´s adoption of bioinformatics systems and tools, contributing to the investigation of two critical areas for the development of the health industry in Brazil, namely technological innovation and bioinformatics. Based on the evidence collected, a research question was posed: to what extent can the alignment of the factors related to the adoption of ICT tools in experiments with bioinformatics increase the innovation capacity of a Brazilian biopharmaceutical organization?

  4. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version “COPE Breve”

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Mara R. C. A.; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts. PMID:27007646

  5. Examination of triage nurse text narratives to identify sports injury cases in emergency department presentations.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Finch, Caroline; Boufous, Soufiane; Browne, Gary

    2009-09-01

    Narrative text can be a useful means of identifying injury in routine data collections. An analysis of data from a near real-time emergency department surveillance system (NREDSS) in New South Wales (NSW, Australia) was conducted to determine if sports injuries can be identified from routine narrative text recorded in emergency departments. Around one-third of all emergency department (ED) presentations during 1 September 2003 to 15 February 2007 were identified as injury-related. Narrative text searching of triage nursing assessments using keywords identified between 282 (i.e. football) and 26,944 (i.e. play) potential sports injury presentations depending on the selected sports-related keyword used. Routine narrative text descriptions from triage nurse assessments show promise for the identification of sports injury presentations to EDs. Further work is required regarding in-depth assessment of case detection capabilities and the likelihood of improving the quality of narrative text recorded.

  6. A case study analysis to examine motorcycle crashes in Bogota, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Adriana; Bocarejo, Juan Pablo; Zarama, Roberto; Yerpez, Joël

    2015-02-01

    Contributory factors to motorcycle crashes vary among populations depending on several aspects such as the users' profiles, the composition and density of traffic, and the infrastructure features. A better understanding of local motorcycle crashes can be reached in those places where a comprehensive analysis is performed. This paper presents the results obtained from a case study analysis of 400 police records of accidents involving motorcycles in Bogota. To achieve a deeper level of understanding of how these accidents occur, we propose a systemic approach that uses available crash data. The methodology is inspired by accident prototypical scenarios, a tool for analysis developed in France. When grouping cases we identified three categories: solo motorcycle accidents, motorcyclist and pedestrian accidents, and accidents involving a motorcycle and another vehicle. Within these categories we undertook in-depth analyses of 32 groups of accidents obtaining valuable information to better comprehend motorcyclists' road crashes in a local context. Recurrent contributory factors in the groups of accidents include: inexperienced motorcyclists, wide urban roads that incite speeding and risky overtaking maneuvers, flowing urban roads that encourage high speed and increased interaction between vehicles, and lack of infrastructure maintenance. The results obtained are a valuable asset to define measures that will be conveniently adapted to the group of accident on which we want to act. The methodology exposed in this paper is applicable to the study of road crashes that involve all types of actors, not only the motorcyclists, and in contexts different than those presented in Bogota. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Examining the Dynamics and Evolution of Scientist-Teacher Partnerships Using Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, B. A.; Hall, M. K.

    2004-12-01

    Partnerships between scientists and teachers bring individuals from different work cultures together to share information, make mutual decisions, achieve common goals, and contribute resources and skills (Gomez et al., 1990.) Because of differences between the cultures of science and teaching, building productive, durable partnerships is a challenge. CATTS (Collaboration to Advance Teaching Technology and Science) is an NSF GK-12 fellowship program that establishes partnerships between graduate and undergraduate CATTS fellows and K-12 teachers. Ideally, these sustainable relationships will increase each partner's knowledge and skill in inquiry-based teaching, the quality and quantity of math and science taught, and the likelihood of initiating future partnerships. We used a case study approach to investigate the dynamics of partnership development in the context of CATTS and why some partnerships evolve successfully and others do not. Data were obtained using classroom observations, journals, surveys, and interviews with fellows and teachers. We found commonalities among case studies that allowed us to identify patterns in partnership evolution, attributes of successful and unsuccessful partnerships, and barriers to their formation. Specific shared goals and expectations were essential, but flexibility was also important as the goals and expectations evolved over time. Role definition was an iterative process that required frequent communication and feedback between partners. Establishing hierarchical roles resulted in intimidation and breakdown of communication. The best partnerships involved a division of labor in the classroom and in planning and collaboration in which each partner's strengths were utilized to supply scientific and pedagogical resources. Investment in the partnership varied as the partnership progressed but was strongest when both partners felt as though their individual contributions were welcomed and appreciated. Successful partnership

  8. Re-Examining the Case for Marriage: Union Formation and Changes in Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Musick, Kelly; Bumpass, Larry

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses open questions about the nature and meaning of the positive association between marriage and well-being, namely, the extent to which it is causal, shared with cohabitation, and stable over time. We relied on data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 2,737) and a modeling approach that controls for fixed differences between individuals by relating union transitions to changes in well-being. This study is unique in examining the persistence of changes in well-being as marriages and cohabitations progress (and potentially dissolve) over time. The effects of marriage and cohabitation are found to be similar across a range of measures tapping psychological well-being, health, and social ties. Where there are statistically significant differences, marriage is not always more advantageous. Overall, differences tend to be small and appear to dissipate over time, even when the greater instability of cohabitation is taken into account. PMID:22611285

  9. Ground penetrating radar examination of thin tsunami beds - A case study from Phra Thong Island, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouramanis, Chris; Switzer, Adam D.; Polivka, Peter M.; Bristow, Charles S.; Jankaew, Kruawun; Dat, Pham T.; Pile, Jeremy; Rubin, Charles M.; Yingsin, Lee; Ildefonso, Sorvigenaleon R.; Jol, Harry M.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal overwash deposits from tsunamis and storms have been identified and characterised from many coastal environments. To date, these investigations have utilised ad-hoc time, energy and cost intensive invasive techniques, such as, pits and trenches or taking core samples. Here, we present the application of high-frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) to identify and characterise the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT) and palaeotsunami deposits from Phra Thong Island, Thailand. This site is one of the most intensively studied palaeotsunami sites globally and preserves a series of late-Holocene stacked sandy tsunami deposits within an organic, muddy low-energy backbeach environment. Using 100, 500 and 1000 MHz GPR antennas, 29 reflection profiles were collected from two swales (X and Y) inland of the modern beach, and two common mid-point (CMP) profiles using the 200 MHz antennas were collected from Swale Y. Detailed examination of the CMPs allowed accurate velocity estimates to be applied to each profile. The reflection profiles included across-swale profiles and a high-resolution grid in Swale X, and were collected to investigate the feasibility of GPR to image the palaeotsunami deposits, and two profiles from Swale Y where the tsunami deposits are poorly known. The 500 MHz antennas provided the best stratigraphic resolution which was independently validated from the stratigraphy and sedimentology recovered from 17 auger cores collected along the profiles. It is clear from the augers and GPR data, that the different dielectric properties of the individual layers allow the identification of the IOT and earlier tsunami deposits on Phra Thong Island. Although applied in a coastal setting here, this technique can be applied to other environments where thin sand beds are preserved, in order to prioritise sites for detailed examination.

  10. Examining the Saskatchewan health drug database for antidepressant use: the case of fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Joffe, R T; Iskedjian, M; Einarson, T R; O'Brien, B J; Stang, M R

    2001-01-01

    To examine the use of fluoxetine in an adult population in Saskatchewan. All adults in the Saskatchewan health care databases who had begun fluoxetine therapy between January 1992 and June 1996 and had not received an antidepressant in the six months before the index fluoxetine prescription were identified. Fluoxetine use for the subsequent six-month period was examined. The rates of completion of six months of fluoxetine, rates of stopping, switching to another serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or other class of antidepressant, resumption of fluoxetine, as well as average dosages taken and mean duration of therapy were determined. Rates were summarized as means with standard deviation. Data were obtained for 11,322 subjects, of whom 68.2% were women; 17.4% were 65 years of age or older. The average prescribed daily dose of fluoxetine was 22.5 mg (SD=21.7) and the average duration was 88.1 days (SD=57.2). Only 18.9% of patients filled prescriptions for six months, 7049 (62.3%) stopped fluoxetine at least once for one month or more, and 17.3% were titrated to a higher dose, on average 71 days (SD=44) after the initiation of fluoxetine. The proportion of patients switching to another antidepressant was 13.6% (3.3% to another SSRI, 10.3% to other classes), after a mean of 69 days (SD=51) of fluoxetine treatment. The authors' data suggest that there is a potential underutilization of fluoxetine in the study population. Further research may be warranted to determine the proportion of depressed patients in this population and to better understand the stop-switch-resume pattern of antidepressant use.

  11. Exploring Specialized STEM High Schools: Three Dissertation Studies Examining Commonalities and Differences Across Six Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofel-Grehl, Colby

    This dissertation is comprised of three independently conducted analyses of a larger investigation into the practices and features of specialized STEM high schools. While educators and policy makers advocate the development of many new specialized STEM high schools, little is known about the unique features and practices of these schools. The results of these manuscripts add to the literature exploring the promise of specialized STEM schools. Manuscript 1¹ is a qualitative investigation of the common features of STEM schools across multiple school model types. Schools were found to possess common cultural and academic features regardless of model type. Manuscript 2² builds on the findings of manuscript 1. With no meaningful differences found attributable to model type, the researchers used grounded theory to explore the relationships between observed differences among programs as related to the intensity of the STEM experience offered at schools. Schools were found to fall into two categories, high STEM intensity (HSI) and low STEM intensity (LSI), based on five major traits. Manuscript 3³ examines the commonalities and differences in classroom discourse and teachers' questioning techniques in STEM schools. It explicates these discursive practices in order to explore instructional practices across schools. It also examines factors that may influence classroom discourse such as discipline, level of teacher education, and course status as required or elective. Collectively, this research furthers the agenda of better understanding the potential advantages of specialized STEM high schools for preparing a future scientific workforce. ¹Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). STEM high school communities: Common and differing features. Manuscript in preparation. ²Tofel-Grehl, C., Callahan, C., & Gubbins, E. (2012). Variations in the intensity of specialized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) high schools. Manuscript in preparation

  12. A case study examining classroom instructional practices at a U.S. dental school.

    PubMed

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Mitchell, Gail S; Dolan, Teresa A

    2005-06-01

    A case study is used to illustrate how an evaluation strategy was used to assess classroom instructional practices following a multiyear institutional curriculum revision process. From January through April of 2003, twelve faculty in medicine and three faculty in dentistry who taught in the first- and second-year basic science courses within the dental curriculum participated in a qualitative study. The purpose was to use a formative evaluation process to assess the impact of the curriculum revision at the level of classroom instruction. The observations revealed that seventeen of the twenty classes observed were teacher-centered, passive, and lacked observable effort to help students understand the relationship of the lecture content to the oral health problems. Findings illustrate the importance of using formative evaluation as a mechanism to assess change efforts and how evidence-based study can be used to support initiatives directed toward assessing active student learning and problem solving. Raising faculty awareness about the importance of acquiring evidence-based educational skills, aligning instruction with course goals and objectives, formatively assessing teaching, and providing learning experiences that will actually be used in practice are essential to ensuring that active learning and critical thinking are demonstrated in the curriculum.

  13. Nursing Service Innovation: a case study examining emergency nurse practitioner service sustainability.

    PubMed

    Fox, Amanda; Gardner, Glenn; Osborne, Sonya

    2017-09-14

    This research aimed to explore factors that influence sustainability of health service innovation, specifically emergency nurse practitioner service. Planning for cost effective provision of healthcare services is a concern globally. Reform initiatives are implemented often incorporating expanding scope of practice for health professionals and innovative service delivery models. Introducing new models is costly in both human and financial resources and therefore understanding factors influencing sustainability is imperative to viable service provision. This research used case study methodology (Yin, 2014). Data were collected during 2014 from emergency nurse practitioners, emergency department multidisciplinary team members and documents related to nurse practitioner services. Collection methods included telephone and semi-structured interviews, survey and document analysis. Pattern matching techniques were used to compare findings with study propositions. In this study, emergency nurse practitioner services did not meet factors that support health service sustainability. Multidisciplinary team members were confident that emergency nurse practitioner services were safe and helped to meet population health needs. Organizational support for integration of nurse practitioner services was marginal and led to poor understanding of service capability and underuse. This research provides evidence informing sustainability of nursing service models but more importantly raises questions about this little explored field. The findings highlight poor organizational support, excessive restrictions and underuse of the service. This is in direct contrast to contemporary expanding practice reform initiatives. Organizational support for integration is imperative to future service sustainability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Conducted electrical weapons or stun guns: a review of 46 cases examined in casualty.

    PubMed

    Becour, Bertrand

    2013-06-01

    Low-lethality weapons are intended to neutralize a person with maximum security and with minimal risk of injury or death to the user of the weapon, the person arrested, and the witnesses. Under the same circumstances, the use of a firearm is causing mortality of 50%. Marketed since 1974, the Taser X26 is currently staffing services in the French police and gendarmerie. The Taser device has 3 damaging mechanisms: the direct effect of electric current on the tissues, the conversion of electrical energy into thermal energy, and the injuries caused by the general muscle contraction and resulting fall. The study aimed to analyze the specificities of the conducted electrical weapon-related injuries treated in a emergency department on a series of 46 cases. The study population was predominantly middle-aged men. The circumstances of use of the Taser X26 were most often related to an arrest. The frequency of consultation after a shot by Taser X26 was stable. The management is essentially an outpatient because of frequent and benign lesions. The impacts of electrical impulse mainly affect the chest and abdomen. This distribution of impact zones is inhomogeneous, depending on the circumstances of use.

  15. Examining Proteasome Assembly with Recombinant Archaeal Proteasomes and Nondenaturing PAGE: The Case for a Combined Approach.

    PubMed

    Panfair, Dilrajkaur; Kusmierczyk, Andrew R

    2016-12-17

    Proteasomes are found in all domains of life. They provide the major route of intracellular protein degradation in eukaryotes, though their assembly is not completely understood. All proteasomes contain a structurally conserved core particle (CP), or 20S proteasome, containing two heptameric β subunit rings sandwiched between two heptameric α subunit rings. Archaeal 20S proteasomes are compositionally simpler compared to their eukaryotic counterparts, yet they both share a common assembly mechanism. Consequently, archaeal 20S proteasomes continue to be important models for eukaryotic proteasome assembly. Specifically, recombinant expression of archaeal 20S proteasomes coupled with nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) has yielded many important insights into proteasome biogenesis. Here, we discuss a means to improve upon the usual strategy of coexpression of archaeal proteasome α and β subunits prior to nondenaturing PAGE. We demonstrate that although rapid and efficient, a coexpression approach alone can miss key assembly intermediates. In the case of the proteasome, coexpression may not allow detection of the half-proteasome, an intermediate containing one complete α-ring and one complete β-ring. However, this intermediate is readily detected via lysate mixing. We suggest that combining coexpression with lysate mixing yields an approach that is more thorough in analyzing assembly, yet remains labor nonintensive. This approach may be useful for the study of other recombinant multiprotein complexes.

  16. Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors of the maxillary sinus: a case report of multidisciplinary examination enabling prompt diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Shogo; Ohkubo, Aki; Yoshida, Matsumi; Koda, Kenji; Nameki, Ichirota

    2015-01-01

    There have been approximately 10 reports in English literature of cases of Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (EFT) arising in the maxillary sinus. In this location, some tumors mimic EFT, and are more frequently encountered. Herein, we present an additional case of an EFT originating in the maxillary sinus. The patient was a 15-year-old boy complaining of a non-tender swelling of the left cheek. Laboratory tests showed no abnormalities. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass centered in the maxillary sinus with degeneration of the surrounding bones. Pathological examination along with flow cytometry and G-banding enabled the prompt diagnosis of EFT with the EWS/FLI1 fusion gene. The patient is planned to undergo chemotherapy. An origin in the head and neck and the presence of the typical EWS/FLI1, in conjunction with an opportunity for immediate treatment, may predict a relatively better prognosis for EFT in our case.

  17. [Examination of dynamic body balance using the body tracking test in cases of vestibular neuronitis].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tomoe; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Nomura, Toshiyuki; Ohwada, Satoko; Takazawa, Rio; Ikemiyagi, Yoshihiro; Shigeta, Fuyuko

    2008-09-01

    Body Tracking Test (BTT) is a testing method of the dynamic body balance function wherein movement of the center of gravity in accordance with a moving visual target stimulus is examined to evaluate the tracking function of the body. The objects were the patients who were diagnosed as having vestibular neuronitis at the Department of Otolaryngology in Toho University medical center Sakura hospital, and were undergoing hospital treatment. Lateral BTT was performed in 31 subjects, and antero-posterior (A-P) BTT in 45 subjects. Although gaze nystagmus was noted, inspection was enforced when a standing position posture was possible. In lateral BTT, the average (cm/second) horizontal direction body sway speed was compared, however, no clear lateral difference was noted. In the antero-posterior (A-P) BTT, it inquired using the direction body sway average center displacement (cm) of X. Deviation was seen by the affected side in stabilometry. Deviation was seen by the unaffected side in the antero-posterior (A-P) BTT. This phenomenon differs from the deviation pattern until now and is considered to involve participation of the higher centers.

  18. Examining antecedents and consequences of gambling passion: the case of gambling on horse races.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Back, Ki-Joon; Hodgins, David C; Lee, Tae Kyung

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the antecedents and consequences of gambling passion using structural equation modeling to examine relationships among gambling motivation, passion, emotion, and behavioral intentions in the horse racing industry. An onsite survey was conducted with 447 patrons at a horseracing park in South Korea. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Gambling Passion Scale was valid and reliable, resulting in two sub-scales: obsessive passion (OP) and harmonious passion (HP). Study results indicated that extrinsic motivation influenced OP whereas intrinsic motivation significantly affected HP. Furthermore, OP was correlated with negative emotion, whereas HP was related to positive emotion. Gamblers' satisfaction was found to be influenced positively by positive emotion and negatively by negative emotion. Finally, satisfaction appeared to affect gamblers' behavioral intentions. Study results echoed the notion of distinct and separate gambling motivations and passions among horse racing gamblers. Furthermore, results identified specific areas to which horse racing operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling.

  19. A new binary model for university examination timetabling: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komijan, Alireza Rashidi; Koupaei, Mehrdad Nouri

    2012-12-01

    Examination timetabling problem (ETP) is one of the most important issues in universities. An improper timetable may result in students' dissatisfaction as it may not let them study enough between two sequential exams. In addition, the many exams to be scheduled, the large number of students who have taken different courses, the limited number of rooms, and some constraints such as no conflict in a single student's exams make it very difficult to schedule experimentally. A mathematical programming model is required to formulate such a sophisticated problem. In this paper, a new binary model is developed for ETP. The novelty of the paper can be discussed in two directions. The first one is that a course can be offered more than once in a semester. If a course is requested by a few students, then it is enough to be offered once. If the number of students requesting a course is more than the maximum number of students who are allowed to attend a single class, then the course is multi-offered. The second novelty is that sharing a room for two simultaneous exams is allowed. Also, the model considers some hard and soft constraints, and the objective function is set in such a way that soft constraints are satisfied as much as possible. Finally, the model is applied in a sample department and is solved by GAMS.

  20. An examination of some safety issues among commercial motorcyclists in Nigeria: a case study.

    PubMed

    Arosanyin, Godwin Tunde; Olowosulu, Adekunle Taiwo; Oyeyemi, Gafar Matanmi

    2013-01-01

    The reduction of road crashes and injuries among motorcyclists in Nigeria requires a system inquiry into some safety issues at pre-crash, crash and post-crash stages to guide action plans. This paper examines safety issues such as age restriction, motorcycle engine capacity, highway code awareness, licence holding, helmet usage, crash involvement, rescue and payment for treatment among commercial motorcyclists. The primary data derived from a structured questionnaire administered to 334 commercial motorcyclists in Samaru, Zaria were analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression technique. There was total compliance with age restriction and motorcycle engine capacity. About 41.8% of the operators were not aware of the existence of the highway code. The odds of licence holding increased with highway code awareness, education with above senior secondary as the reference category and earnings. The odds of crash involvement decreased with highway code awareness, earnings and mode of operation. About 84% of the motorcyclists did not use crash helmet, in spite of being aware of the benefit, and 65.4% of motorcycle crashes was found to be with other road users. The promotion of safety among motorcyclists therefore requires strict traffic law enforcement and modification of road design to segregate traffic and protect pedestrians.

  1. An Examination of the Past Behaviour-Intention Relationship in the Case of Brushing Children's Teeth.

    PubMed

    Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Makvandi, Zeinab; Faradmal, Javad; Bashirian, Saeid; Hazavehei, Mohammad M

    The present study sought to apply the expanded theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to the prediction of mothers' intention to brush their children's teeth and examine the mediating role of the variables of the TPB on the relationship between past behaviour and the intention. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 211 mothers with children ages 2 to 5 years. Participants completed measures of the TPB (i.e. attitude, subjective norm, perceived control and intention) and past behaviour in relation to brushing. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the predictors of mothers' intention. Mediation was assessed using Preacher and Hayes' INDIRECT.SPSS macro. The TPB explained 25% of the variance in brushing intention, with attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control making significant contributions. Past behaviour explained an additional 3% of the variance in intention. Analysis showed that TPB variables only partially mediate the effect of past behaviour on intention. Our findings revealed that mothers' intention to brush their children's teeth is under the control of both past behaviour and psychological factors. Accordingly, interventions to improve children's toothbrushing should focus on the motivational (e.g. attitude) as well as the habitual determinants (e.g. environmental cues). However, given the low explanatory power of our model, it may be necessary to incorporate other psychological and environmental variables into an explanation of the mothers' intention to brush their children's teeth.

  2. Childhood fatalities in new Mexico: medical examiner-investigated cases, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Lathrop, Sarah L

    2013-05-01

    To better understand risk factors and populations at risk of childhood fatalities, a review of all records of childhood deaths (≤19 years) between 2000 and 2010 from New Mexico's statewide medical examiner was conducted. Annually, 313-383 childhood deaths were investigated (3820 total). Males and American Indians were overrepresented (62% and 20.4% of deaths, respectively). The most common manner of death was natural (44.8%), followed by accidental (31.4%), homicide (8.8%), suicide (8.8%), and undetermined (4.1%). Infants under 1 year of age accounted for 41.4% of deaths. Motor vehicle crashes were responsible for the majority of accidental deaths (69%), followed by unintentional overdoses (6.9%), and drowning (5.3%). Gunshot wounds, either intentional or unintentional, caused 10.7% of childhood deaths. Complete medico-legal investigation of childhood fatalities is needed to provide public health agencies with adequate data to evaluate and prevent childhood deaths.

  3. Examining Antecedents and Consequences of Gambling Passion: The Case of Gambling on Horse Races

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Back, Ki-Joon; Hodgins, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the antecedents and consequences of gambling passion using structural equation modeling to examine relationships among gambling motivation, passion, emotion, and behavioral intentions in the horse racing industry. Methods An onsite survey was conducted with 447 patrons at a horseracing park in South Korea. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Gambling Passion Scale was valid and reliable, resulting in two sub-scales: obsessive passion (OP) and harmonious passion (HP). Results Study results indicated that extrinsic motivation influenced OP whereas intrinsic motivation significantly affected HP. Furthermore, OP was correlated with negative emotion, whereas HP was related to positive emotion. Gamblers' satisfaction was found to be influenced positively by positive emotion and negatively by negative emotion. Finally, satisfaction appeared to affect gamblers' behavioral intentions. Conclusion Study results echoed the notion of distinct and separate gambling motivations and passions among horse racing gamblers. Furthermore, results identified specific areas to which horse racing operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling. PMID:24474985

  4. International synthesis and case study examination of promising caregiver-friendly workplaces.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Shruti; Ireson, Rachelle; Williams, Allison

    2017-03-01

    The nature of unpaid caregiving is changing significantly in response to the changing nature of families, increased average life expectancy, and the rise in elderly populations. In order to adapt to these challenges, there is an increased focus on the workplace as a source of support for caregiver-employees (CEs), or employees providing unpaid care to a family member or friend while also working in paid employment. As demonstrated by Ireson et al. (2016), a number of workplaces in Canada and abroad are currently showing leadership with respect to the provision of caregiver-friendly workplace policies (CFWPs). The purpose of this study was to explore what is currently being offered to caregiver-employees by Canadian and international workplaces, as well as how these strategies have been defined, developed, introduced, integrated and sustained within the workplace. For the purposes of this study, CEs are defined as individuals engaged in paid employment, while simultaneously serving as an unpaid elder-care provider. To achieve the aims of this paper, a qualitative comparative case study of 21 workplaces was conducted. Participants were recruited via strategies such as snowball sampling, cold-calling and social media blasts. These workplaces, which operate as exemplars in meeting the needs of caregiver-employees, are pivotal to understanding the process which takes place in the implementation and success of CFWPs across various sectors/industries. The results of this study will be used to inform the wide gap in our knowledge about CFWPs while providing the evidence needed to workplaces and other organizations to introduce CFWPs into their employment practices.

  5. Chiropractic and Spinal Manipulation Therapy on Twitter: Case Study Examining the Presence of Critiques and Debates.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Alessandro R; Klostermann, Philip; Caulfield, Timothy

    2016-09-16

    Spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) is a popular though controversial practice. The debates surrounding efficacy and risk of SMT are only partially evident in popular discourse. This study aims to investigate the presence of critiques and debates surrounding efficacy and risk of SMT on the social media platform Twitter. The study examines whether there is presence of debate and whether critical information is being widely disseminated. An initial corpus of 31,339 tweets was compiled through Twitter's Search Application Programming Interface using the query terms "chiropractic," "chiropractor," and "spinal manipulation therapy." Tweets were collected for the month of December 2015. Post removal of tweets made by bots and spam, the corpus totaled 20,695 tweets, of which a sample (n=1267) was analyzed for skeptical or critical tweets. Additional criteria were also assessed. There were 34 tweets explicitly containing skepticism or critique of SMT, representing 2.68% of the sample (n=1267). As such, there is a presence of 2.68% of tweets in the total corpus, 95% CI 0-6.58% displaying explicitly skeptical or critical perspectives of SMT. In addition, there are numerous tweets highlighting the health benefits of SMT for health issues such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), immune system, and blood pressure that receive scant critical attention. The presence of tweets in the corpus highlighting the risks of "stroke" and "vertebral artery dissection" is also minute (0.1%). In the abundance of tweets substantiating and promoting chiropractic and SMT as sound health practices and valuable business endeavors, the debates surrounding the efficacy and risks of SMT on Twitter are almost completely absent. Although there are some critical voices of SMT proving to be influential, issues persist regarding how widely this information is being disseminated.

  6. Chiropractic and Spinal Manipulation Therapy on Twitter: Case Study Examining the Presence of Critiques and Debates

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Alessandro R; Klostermann, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Background Spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) is a popular though controversial practice. The debates surrounding efficacy and risk of SMT are only partially evident in popular discourse. Objective This study aims to investigate the presence of critiques and debates surrounding efficacy and risk of SMT on the social media platform Twitter. The study examines whether there is presence of debate and whether critical information is being widely disseminated. Methods An initial corpus of 31,339 tweets was compiled through Twitter’s Search Application Programming Interface using the query terms “chiropractic,” “chiropractor,” and “spinal manipulation therapy.” Tweets were collected for the month of December 2015. Post removal of tweets made by bots and spam, the corpus totaled 20,695 tweets, of which a sample (n=1267) was analyzed for skeptical or critical tweets. Additional criteria were also assessed. Results There were 34 tweets explicitly containing skepticism or critique of SMT, representing 2.68% of the sample (n=1267). As such, there is a presence of 2.68% of tweets in the total corpus, 95% CI 0-6.58% displaying explicitly skeptical or critical perspectives of SMT. In addition, there are numerous tweets highlighting the health benefits of SMT for health issues such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), immune system, and blood pressure that receive scant critical attention. The presence of tweets in the corpus highlighting the risks of “stroke” and “vertebral artery dissection” is also minute (0.1%). Conclusions In the abundance of tweets substantiating and promoting chiropractic and SMT as sound health practices and valuable business endeavors, the debates surrounding the efficacy and risks of SMT on Twitter are almost completely absent. Although there are some critical voices of SMT proving to be influential, issues persist regarding how widely this information is being disseminated. PMID:27637456

  7. A Case Study Examining Egypt, Nigeria, and Venezuela and their Flaring Behavior Utilizing VIIRS Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englander, J. G.; Austin, A. T.; Brandt, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    The need to quantify flaring by oil and gas fields is receiving more scrutiny, as there has been scientific and regulatory interest in quantifying the greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of oil and gas production. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has developed a method to track flaring activity using a Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellite.[1] This reports data on the average size, power, and light intensity of each flare. However, outside of some small studies, the flaring intensity has generally been estimated at the country level.[2]While informative, country-level assessments cannot provide guidance about the sustainability of particular crude streams or products produced. In this work we generate detailed oil-field-level flaring intensities for a number of global oilfield operations. We do this by merging the VIIRS dataset with global oilfield atlases and other spatial data sources. Joining these datasets together with production data allows us to provide better estimates for the GHG intensity of flaring at the field level for these countries.[3]First, we compute flaring intensities at the field level for 75 global oil fields representing approximately 25% of global production. In addition, we examine in detail three oil producing countries known to have high rates of flaring: Egypt, Nigeria, and Venezuela. For these countries we compute the flaring rate for all fields in the country and explore within-and between-country variation. The countries' fields will be analyzed to determine the correlation of flare activity to a certain field type, crude type, region, or production method. [1] Cao, C. "Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)." NOAA NPP VIIRS. NOAA, 2013. Web. 30 July 2016. [2] Elvidge, C. D. et al., "A Fifteen Year Record of Global Natural Gas Flaring Derived from Satellite Data," Energies, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 595-622, Aug. 2009. [3] World Energy Atlas. 6th ed. London: Petroleum Economist, 2011. Print.

  8. The primary eye care examination: opening the case history and the patient's uninterrupted initial talking time.

    PubMed

    Pointer, Jonathan S

    2014-01-01

    The uninterrupted initial talking time (UITT) of optometric patients was measured in response to the clinician's opening question: "Do you have any problems with your eyes or your sight?" UITT was measured surreptitiously by the optometrist. Also noted was whether an eye/sight problem was claimed by the patient and whether or not this was subsequently confirmed by the examination. Data were collected from 822 adults, mean age 59.1yrs (SD 17.6), range 16.0-92.0yrs. UITT data were positively skewed; median value 28.87s (IQR 19.81-43.03s) and no statistically significant difference between genders (p=0.9). 53% of patients had completed their opening statement by 30s, and 90% after 1min. 75% of these individuals (age range 26-75yrs) had a median UITT 27.82s; younger patients (16-25yrs) spoke for a significantly shorter time (18.39s: p=0.002) and elderly patients (≥76yrs) a significantly longer time (37.27s: p=0.003) than the majority value. Previously unexamined patients, habitual spectacle wearers, and individuals presenting with an eye/sight problem all recorded a significantly longer UITT (p≤0.006) than their peers. The practitioner's opening question had a sensitivity of 0.54/specificity of 0.95, and a positive predictive value (PV) of 0.78/negative PV of 0.87: with a calculated value of κ=0.53, the strength of agreement between subjective claim and objective outcome could be regarded as 'moderate'. These data suggest that an optometric patient's UITT of <30s is unlikely to prove disruptive to the clinical routine. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Examining the Tails of Probability Distributions Created Using Uncertainty Methods: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Thomson, N. R.; Sykes, J. F.

    2006-12-01

    and weights based on contaminant level and distance to other observations are used to increase the number of solutions satisfying the criteria. The first arrival times at specified locations are compared to those obtained using PEST and Monte Carlo methods for the case study of the Lockformer site.

  10. Error cascade in taxonomy: The case of Cardiomya perrostrata (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Cuspidariidae) in Brazilian waters.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cléo D C; Sartori, André F; Absalão, Ricardo S

    2017-03-27

    Successions of erroneous taxonomic identifications in biodiversity studies are an undesirable but not rare phenomenon. Such cascades of errors frequently involve taxa with few, polymorphic diagnostic characters, such as representatives of the cuspidariid genus Cardiomya. Four species of the genus are believed to live in Brazilian waters: C. cleryana (d'Orbigny, 1842), C. ornatissima (d'Orbigny, 1853), C. striata (Jeffreys, 1876) and C. perrostrata (Dall, 1881). Many reported occurrences of these species are based on misidentifications, but the error cascade of incorrect records of C. perrostrata is by far the most extensive. Although the species has been reported to live in Brazilian waters for about half a century, all previous records seem to be based on a succession of mistaken identifications. This paper redescribes C. perrostrata based on an analysis of the type series, several lots of museum vouchers and new material collected in the Campos Basis (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Ontogenetic changes in shell outline and ultrastructural details of the hinge plate, periostracal surface and larval shell are described and illustrated for the first time. Based on a critical appraisal of the literature, we present an updated geographic and bathymetric distribution of the species. Cardiomya perrostrata displays a gradual increase in the relative length of the rostrum during its ontogeny and in larger specimens the rostrum is more prominently curved upwards. The larval shell is of type 2D, measuring about 215-235 μm in length. The periostracum is minutely pitted and a lithodesma is present. Its distribution is Western Atlantic, ranging from 42°N to 30°S, in depths of 18 to 1646-1829 m. Cardiomya knudseni (Allen & Morgan, 1981), a possibly related amphi-Atlantic species whose type material has been lost, is regarded herein as a nomen dubium.

  11. A Brazilian Oz?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Both the American author, L. Frank Baum, and his Brazilian counterpart, Jose Monteiro Lobato, created children's books that featured alternative worlds, peopled by characters who fascinated many generations of young readers. The authors were both born in the second half of the nineteenth century into families of privilege, and both enjoyed idyllic…

  12. A Brazilian Oz?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Both the American author, L. Frank Baum, and his Brazilian counterpart, Jose Monteiro Lobato, created children's books that featured alternative worlds, peopled by characters who fascinated many generations of young readers. The authors were both born in the second half of the nineteenth century into families of privilege, and both enjoyed idyllic…

  13. Association between dental anomalies and malocclusion in Brazilian orthodontic patients.

    PubMed

    Pedreira, Fernanda R de O; de Carli, Marina L; Pedreira, Renato do P G; Ramos, Patrícia de S; Pedreira, Marcelo R; Robazza, Carlos Roberto C; Hanemann, João Adolfo C

    2016-01-01

    Developmental dental anomalies have been associated with different malocclusions in various populations. This study verified this association in Brazilian non-syndromic orthodontic patients. The prevalence of dental anomalies was evaluated by examining 2,052 pretreatment records of orthodontic patients. Panoramic radiographs, study designs, intraoral photographs and medical history were collected in order to identify hypodontia, hyperdontia, microdontia, macrodontia, taurodontism, transposition, impaction, and ectopia. Epidemiological data and classification of malocclusion were also obtained. Data were analyzed using chi-square and Fisher's exact test (P < 0.05), and the prevalence ratio was obtained from cases that had a significant association between anomaly and malocclusion. The results showed that 27.4% of the patients evaluated had some dental anomaly, and most of them were white women aged 11-20 years. Ectopia, microdontia, impaction, and hypodontia were more prevalent in patients with Class I malocclusion. Macrodontia was the only anomaly associated with Class II division 1. Impaction was associated with Class III malocclusion, at a 1.84-times higher prevalence. In conclusion, impaction was correlated with Class I malocclusion; macrodontia showed association with Class II division 1; and impaction and ectopia were associated with Class III malocclusion in Brazilian orthodontic patients. (J Oral Sci 58, 75-81, 2016).

  14. Brazilian women in politics.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  15. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Rufino, R; Costa, C H; Lopes, A J; Maiworm, A I; Maynard, K; Silva, L M R A; Dias, R M

    2017-03-02

    The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%), 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%), and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT). This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index). From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method). Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9). The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5), and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  16. Seismicity around Brazilian dam reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Coelho, P.E.F.P. )

    1987-01-01

    More than 30 cases of seismicity associated with dam reservoir sites are known throughout the world. Despite the lack of data in some areas, where seismicity occurred after reservoir impounding, there have been distinct seismic patterns observed in seismic areas after dam projects implantation. This has demonstrated that reservoir loading can trigger earthquakes. A mechanism of earthquake generation by reservoir impounding is proposed here with particular application to the Brazilian cases and to areas subject to low confining stress conditions in stable regions. Six artificial lakes are described and the associated earthquake sources are discussed in terms of natural or induced seismicity. Earthquake monitoring in Brazil up to 1967, when Brasilia's seismological station started operation, was mainly based in personal communications to the media. Therefore, there is a general lack of seismic records in relatively uninhabited areas, making it difficult to establish a seismic risk classification for the territory and to distinguish natural from induced seismicity. Despite this, cases reported here have shown an alteration of the original seismic stability in dam sites after reservoir loading, as observed by the inhabitants or records from Brasilia's seismological station. All cases appear to be related to an increase in pore pressure in permeable rocks or fracture zones which are confined between impermeable rock slabs or more competent rock. It is apparent that some cases show some participation of high residual stress conditions in the area.

  17. Using IRT Approach to Detect Gender Biased Items in Public Examinations: A Case Study from the Botswana Junior Certificate Examination in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedoyin, O. O.

    2010-01-01

    This is a quantitative study, which attempted to detect gender bias test items from the Botswana Junior Certificate Examination in mathematics. To detect gender bias test items, a randomly selected sample of 4000 students responses to mathematics paper 1 of the Botswana Junior Certificate examination were selected from 36,000 students who sat for…

  18. Brazilian impact factor of physics journals--the third side of the coin.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, José R; da Fonseca, Norma E

    2015-01-01

    The lack of correlation between the Journal Impact Factors and the most cited Brazilian papers in physics is statistically demonstrated. The existence of an effective "Brazilian Impact Factor" is observed, being its values, in general, lower than the international Impact Factors. In some cases, discrepancies from the international values are huge, leading to doubts on whether it is appropriate to use this indicator to judge Brazilian scientists.

  19. Examination and treatment of a professional ballet dancer with a suspected acetabular labral tear: A case report.

    PubMed

    Khoo-Summers, Lynnette; Bloom, Nancy J

    2015-08-01

    Dancers are at risk for developing groin pain that is due to acetabular labral tears. Although surgical management of labral tears has been reported extensively, conservative management has been poorly described. This case report describes the examination, diagnosis, and treatment of groin pain in a professional ballet dancer with a suspected acetabular labral tear. Treatment focused on decreasing anterior hip joint stresses and improving the precision of hip motion through correction of alignment and movement impairments noted during functional activities and dance. Successful outcomes included a reduction in pain and return to professional ballet dancing.

  20. Brazilian pharmaceutical diplomacy: social democratic principles versus soft power interests.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Current debates concerning the rise of health diplomacy are polarized between competing international relations theories of realism, based on power politics, and constructivist approaches, which emphasize the norms, values, and identities shaping foreign policies. A case study of Brazil's health diplomacy over the past 10 years, focusing on issues related to pharmaceuticals, seeks to provide data to assess these theories. The country's intellectual property disputes, multilateral lobbying efforts, and foreign assistance programs are contrasted with those of the United States, Mexico, and other countries. Instead of viewing Brazilian efforts as a form of soft power, the evidence suggests that the origins of Brazil's involvement and continued efforts in this arena stem more from values based on human rights and social democratic principles. A close examination of domestic political considerations leads to a more nuanced understanding of the drivers behind a country's health diplomacy.

  1. Context, evidence and attitude: the case for photography in medical examinations of asylum seekers in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Park, Rebekah; Oomen, Janus

    2010-07-01

    Can photographs of scars serve as evidence of torture? Amnesty International's Medical Examination Group in the Netherlands (AI-MEG) has, for more than a decade, been photographing torture scars to supplement the testimonies of asylum seekers who have been denied refuge. AI-MEG only intervenes at this point, when asylum seekers face extradition. Proving allegations of torture is of vital importance, as asylum seekers face rising anti-immigrant sentiment in European countries. All victims examined by AI-MEG present a combination of mental, physical and emotional scars. We summarize five cases where AI-MEG used photography in their medical examinations, and consider the ethical role physicians play in helping asylum seekers obtain refuge. Though photographs cannot capture all forms of trauma, as visual documents, they are a compelling form of concrete evidence of torture. In this way, photographs complement verbal testimonies and help doctors and immigration authorities to see and understand physical scars left by various forms of torture. AI-MEG explains in medical terms the connections between the visible late sequelae of torture and victims' testimonies. They then assess whether or not the physical scars are consistent with the forms of torture recounted by victims, using the terminology of the Istanbul Protocol (1999), the United Nations-adopted manual of guidelines that explains how to document torture. This paper outlines the medical examination process and argues for the use of photography as medical evidence on behalf of asylum seekers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An integrated remote sensing and GIS approach for monitoring areas affected by selective logging: A case study in northern Mato Grosso, Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecchi, Rosana Cristina; Beuchle, René; Shimabukuro, Yosio Edemir; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Arai, Egidio; Simonetti, Dario; Achard, Frédéric

    2017-09-01

    Forest cover disturbances due to processes such as logging and forest fires are a widespread issue especially in the tropics, and have heavily affected forest biomass and functioning in the Brazilian Amazon in the past decades. Satellite remote sensing has played a key role for assessing logging activities in this region; however, there are still remaining challenges regarding the quantification and monitoring of these processes affecting forested lands. In this study, we propose a new method for monitoring areas affected by selective logging in one of the hotspots of Mato Grosso state in the Brazilian Amazon, based on a combination of object-based and pixel-based classification approaches applied on remote sensing data. Logging intensity and changes over time are assessed within grid cells of 300 m × 300 m spatial resolution. Our method encompassed three main steps: (1) mapping forest/non-forest areas through an object-based classification approach applied to a temporal series of Landsat images during the period 2000-2015, (2) mapping yearly logging activities from soil fraction images on the same Landsat data series, and (3) integrating information from previous steps within a regular grid-cell of 300 m × 300 m in order to monitor disturbance intensities over this 15-years period. The overall accuracy of the baseline forest/non-forest mask (year 2000) and of the undisturbed vs disturbed forest (for selected years) were 93% and 84% respectively. Our results indicate that annual forest disturbance rates, mainly due to logging activities, were higher than annual deforestation rates during the whole period of study. The deforested areas correspond to circa 25% of the areas affected by forest disturbances. Deforestation rates were highest from 2001 to 2005 and then decreased considerably after 2006. In contrast, the annual forest disturbance rates show high temporal variability with a slow decrease over the 15-year period, resulting in a significant increase of the

  3. Possibilities to reduce carbon emissions in Brazilian Amazon region with non timber biomass valorization: The case of biofuels produced by vegetable tropical oils

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, M.A.V. de; Rosa, L.P.; Lascio, M.A. Di |

    1996-12-31

    Brazil`s annual rate of deforestation reached 2.1 million ha or about 13.6% of the total annual rate of deforestation for the whole tropical area in the world during 1981--1990. Today, the extent of gross deforestation is 10.9% of the tropical closed forest area. Relative to Brazilian participation in the greenhouse effect, the changes in forest area and associated biomass burning in Amazon region are responsible for about 25.5% of CO{sub 2} emissions in the tropics. Harvest of the non-timber biomass products may be important as a potentially sustainable use of forest in some areas. An excellent option to promote these biomass products is to provide energy and industrial goods for the Amazon communities and other external markets. In this work, the biofuels produced by vegetable tropical oils and their by-products are analyzed in relation to job creation, economics and environmental impacts, with special regards concerning the limitation of the atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases.

  4. The use of an integrated molecular-, chemical- and biological-based approach for promoting the better use and conservation of medicinal species: a case study of Brazilian quinas.

    PubMed

    Palhares, Rafael M; Drummond, Marcela G; Brasil, Bruno S A F; Krettli, Antoniana U; Oliveira, Guilherme C; Brandão, Maria G L

    2014-08-08

    Quina is a popular name originally attributed to Cinchona pubescens Vahl (=Cinchona succirubra) and Cinchona. calisaya Wedd., species native from Peru that have the antimalarial alkaloid quinine. In Brazil, bitter barks substitutes for the Peruvian species began to be used centuries ago, and they still are sold in popular markets. To assess the authenticity and the conditions on which samples of quinas have been commercialized, using the DNA barcode, chemical and biological assays. Starting with 28 samples of barks acquired on a popular market, 23 had their DNA extracted successfully. The regions matK and rbcL were amplified and sequenced for 15 and 23 samples, respectively. Phytochemical analyses were performed by chromatographic methods, and biological essays were done by antimalarial tests in vitro. The identified species belonged to six different families, many of them endangered or with no correlation with use in traditional medicine as a Brazilian quina. The absence of typical bitter chemical substances indicated that barks have been collected from other species or from very young trees. The results of biological essays confirm the lack of standardization of the sold materials. The integrated approaches proved to be efficient to evaluate medicinal plants sold in popular markets and can be useful for promoting their better use and conservation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [The demographic revolution among Brazilian indigenous peoples: the case of the Kayabí in the Xingu Indian Reservation, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 1970-2007].

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, Heloisa

    2010-03-01

    This paper analyzes the demographic dynamics of the Kayabí, a Tupi people in the Xingu Indian Reservation in Central Brazil, from 1970 to 2007. Data were gathered from vital statistics for the Xingu Indian Reservation at the Federal University in São Paulo. Contact with Brazilian national society from 1920 to 1950 in the Upper Teles Pires River Valley led to a population decrease due to clashes and epidemics. In 1952, part of the Kayabí group gradually began migrating to the Xingu, where they still live. In 1970 there were 204 Kayabí in Xingu villages, and by 2007 there were 1,162, representing a 4.8% annual growth rate. For 2000-2007 the crude birth rate was 51 per thousand inhabitants; total fertility rate 7.8 children per women; crude death crude 3.5 per thousand inhabitants; and infant mortality rate 17.5 per thousand live births. The majority of the population is under 15 years of age (55.9%). The results show a population recovery process, similar to that of some other indigenous group in Brazil.

  6. Relevance of ultrasound examination in general practice. A case report of a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Cwojdzińska-Jankowska, Izabela; Plewa, Anna

    2013-09-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a genetic disorder which results in the development of multiple cysts in the kidneys and other parenchymal organs. The two genes in which mutations are known to cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease are PKD1 and PKD2. Approximately 50% of individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease will develop end-stage renal disease by the age of 60. Early stages of the disease are usually asymptomatic and at the moment of establishing a definitive diagnosis, complications and associated disorders, including end-stage renal disease, occur frequently. About 95% of individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease have an affected parent and about 5% have a de novo mutation. Each child of an affected individual has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutation. The first symptoms of disease usually develop in the third or fourth decades of life. Imaging examinations of relatives at risk allow for an early detection when no clinical symptoms are present as well as enable treatment of complications and associated disorders. Ultrasound examination as a basic and minimally invasive imaging technique can be easily used in general practice. In the majority of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, sonography allows for a certain and reliable diagnosis of this disease. Additionally, it enables to perform follow-up examinations both of the patient and their family. The possibility of ultrasound imaging in general practice broadens clinical examination and facilitates establishing a proper diagnosis. The paper presents a case report of a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Its aim was to present the relevance of ultrasound examination in general practice.

  7. A case matched study examining the reliability of using ImPACT to assess effects of multiple concussions.

    PubMed

    Barker, Trevor; Russo, Stephen A; Barker, Gaytri; Rice, Mark A; Jeffrey, Mary G; Broderick, Gordon; Craddock, Travis J A

    2017-04-28

    Approximately 3.8 million sport and recreational concussions occur per year, creating a need for accurate diagnosis and management of concussions. Researchers and clinicians are exploring the potential dose-response cumulative effects of concussive injuries using computerized neuropsychological exams, however, results have been mixed and/or contradictory. This study starts with a large adolescent population and applies strict inclusion criteria to examine how previous mild traumatic brain injuries affect symptom reports and neurocognitive performance on the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) computerized tool. After applying exclusion criteria and case matching, 204 male and 99 female participants remained. These participants were grouped according to sex and the number of previous self-reported concussions and examined for overall differences on symptoms reported and scores obtained on the ImPACT neurocognitive battery composites. In an effort to further reduce confounding factors due to the varying group sizes, participants were then case matched on age, sex, and body mass index and analyzed for differences on symptoms reported and scores obtained on the ImPACT neurocognitive battery composites. Case matched analysis demonstrated males with concussions experience significantly higher rates of dizziness (p = .027, η(2) = .035), fogginess (p = .038, η(2) = .032), memory problems (p = .003, η(2) = .055), and concentration problems (p = .009, η(2) = .046) than males with no reported previous concussions. No significant effects were found for females, although females reporting two concussions demonstrated a slight trend for experiencing higher numbers of symptoms than females reporting no previous concussions. The results suggest that male adolescent athletes reporting multiple concussions have lingering concussive symptoms well after the last concussive event; however, these symptoms were found to

  8. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524

  9. Brief Report: A Case of Chromosome 22 Alteration Associated with Autistic Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assumpcao, F. B., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    A case study is presented of a Brazilian adolescent with a behavioral profile meeting the criteria of autism. After clinical and laboratory examinations, it was found that he had an abnormal karyotype. The need for case studies to develop data for defining an etiological basis for diagnosis is emphasized. (CR)

  10. Histological examination and clinical evaluation of the jawbone of an adult patient with cleidocranial dysplasia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Schnutenhaus, Sigmar; Luthardt, Ralph G; Rudolph, Heike; Götz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare congenital malformation syndrome, inherited autosomal-dominantly. During a course of treatment including surgical, implantological and restorative procedures, an opportunity arose to histologically examine biopsies of the maxilla and mandible of a CCD patient 47 years of age. Case report: The aim of this case report is to present the results of the histological evaluation of the alveolar bone and the surgical pretreatment for and placement of six implants each in the maxilla and the mandible. The implants were inserted in a minimally invasive procedure using 3D template guidance. Following uneventful healing of the implants, ceramically veneered bridges were cemented on individual titanium abutments. Since the patient had not received orthodontic treatment in childhood-which would have been the treatment modality of choice-this implantological and prosthodontic approach was necessary. Biopsies were taken from the maxilla and the mandible before placing the implants. Histological evaluation showed bone with strong, coarsely interconnecting trabeculae, especially in the maxilla. Both the bone and the gingiva otherwise exhibited a normal structure without pathological features or anomalies. Conclusion: The clinical parameters and histological evaluation of this one clinical case suggest that the concepts familiar from general oral implantology in terms of surgical and prosthetic procedures can be adopted for older patients with CCD. PMID:26339428

  11. The Brazilian Twin Registry.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Junqueira, Daniela R; Cisneros, Lígia C; Ferreira, Lucas C; Murphy, Kate; Ordoñana, Juan R; Hopper, John L; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.

  12. Brazilian minister sets global goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    Marco Antonio Raupp, the mathematical physicist who is now Brazil's minister of science, technology and innovation, talks to Physics World about the challenges and opportunities for Brazilian research.

  13. On slaves and genes: "origins" and "processes" in genetic studies of the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Calvo-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine how contemporary geneticists investigating the history and configuration of the Brazilian population engage with other academic disciplines. To do so I use as a case study some articles published by geneticists researching the presence of hemoglobin S variants in Brazil, in which there is a clear pretension to contribute to the analysis of issues such as slavery or Brazil's ethnic identity. By contrasting these studies with contemporary works from history and the social science, the explanatory centrality of "origin" in the genetic studies analyzed is problematized, as is the lack of interaction with the epistemological characteristics of other areas of knowledge.

  14. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 2, Greenhouse gas emissions from deforestration in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Fearnside, P.M.

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as ``committed carbon,`` or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil`s use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  15. The Contribution of Ethnobiology to the Construction of a Dialogue Between Ways of Knowing: A Case Study in a Brazilian Public High School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Geilsa Costa Santos; El-Hani, Charbel Niño

    2009-04-01

    This paper reports results obtained in pedagogical interventions in a Brazilian public high school which aimed at promoting a dialogue between scientific and traditional knowledge in the context of biology teaching. The interventions were based on the use of a didactic material and teaching sequence elaborated on the grounds of school knowledge about botany, as presented in biology textbooks, and interviews with students who were also farmers, so as to gather data about their ethnobiological knowledge. Our goal was to develop and test resources that can offer support for teachers who wish to build a dialogue between different ways of knowing in multicultural settings. Our results indicate that the use of the didactic material and teaching sequence indeed created possibilities for a dialogue between the students’ ethnobiological knowledge and biology school knowledge. We observed some shortcomings in classroom practice, partly reflecting our very choice of subject matter to develop the teaching sequence. But the interventions also revealed important limitations that we regard as representative of problems that may generally make multicultural science teaching a hard goal to achieve. It was clear that important shortcomings were related to teachers’ difficulties to conduct a dialogue between ways of knowing in a science classroom, and, thus, called attention to the importance of introducing a multicultural dimension into teacher education. We also observed that the fact that students did not show much sensitivity towards dealing with cultural diversity was a factor constraining the success of the interventions. These results highlight the importance of proposing and testing teacher education initiatives aiming at preparing them to teach science in a culturally sensitive manner, and also managing classroom tensions and conflicts so as to make it possible an effective dialogue between different ways of knowing in a multicultural setting.

  16. Development of normative data for the Brazilian adaptation of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test.

    PubMed

    Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio; dos Santos, Clayson Alan; Bezerra, Thiago Freire Pinto; Pinna, Fábio de Rezende; Voegels, Richard Louis; Doty, Richard L

    2015-02-01

    It is well established that olfactory dysfunction has significant implications for safety, nutrition, and quality of life. The more reliable standardized tests of olfactory function, such as the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), assess odor identification ability. Unfortunately, cultural factors can influence such tests, as a number of odors are not universally recognized. In this study, a Portuguese language version of the UPSIT was administered to an age- and sex-stratified prospective sample of 1820 Brazilian subjects. Normative data were developed for a subset of 1578 subjects who reported having no difficulties smelling or tasting. Individuals with a history of head trauma or, in the case of those over the age of 64 years, Mini-Mental State Examination Scores <24, were excluded from analysis. As in other populations, the test scores were significantly influenced by age and sex. The median overall difference between the North American and Brazilian UPSIT scores was 2.2 points for men and 0.8 points for women, although subtle age-related differences were also apparent. This research represents that largest clinical study of olfaction ever performed in South America. Correction factors based upon age and sex are provided to allow for direct comparisons of Brazilian test scores to those based upon North American norms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A Case Study Examining Fixed Versus Randomized Criteria for Treating a Child With Conduct Problems and Callous-Unemotional Traits

    PubMed Central

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Bernstein, Melissa D.; Mazzant, Jessica Robb; Willoughby, Michael T.; Haas, Sarah; Coles, Erica; Pelham, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Children with conduct problems and callous unemotional traits (CPCU) seem to show a decreased response to behavioral treatment (Hawes, Price, & Dadds, 2014). It was hypothesized that children with CPCU may respond differently to behavior therapy when the target behavior criteria are fixed a priori versus when the target behavior criteria are randomly determined post hoc. A single-case study experiment was conducted as an initial step toward investigating this hypothesis. The study was conducted using a daily report card implemented in the context of an intensive behavioral summer treatment program. Results indicated that rates of negative behaviors were higher when rewards were delivered using randomly determined levels of target behaviors as compared to using fixed levels of target behaviors. Results suggest the importance of providing children with CPCU specific and predictable treatment goals when using contingency management procedures. Additional research that examines how children with CPCU react to components of behavioral treatment may help improve their response to behavior therapy. PMID:28653037

  18. Low testosterone in non-responsive coeliac disease: A case series, case-control study with comparisons to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Kurada, Satya; Veeraraghavan, Gopal; Kaswala, Dharmesh; Hansen, Josh; Cohen, David; Kelly, Ciaran; Leffler, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Adults with coeliac disease (CD) often report persistent fatigue, even when CD appears well controlled for unknown reasons. To evaluate common indications for testosterone panel (TP) testing and prevalence of low testosterone (T) in CD. In our case series, we determined common indications for checking TP in CD. Next, we conducted a case-control study to compare TP in CD vs. healthy controls (HC). We compared mean total T (TT), free T (FT) based on serologic, histologic disease activity. Finally, we assessed TT in tissue transglutaminase (tTG)+ vs. tTG- subjects and CD vs. HC obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). 53 coeliac males had TP tested. Common indications included osteoporosis and fatigue. Low FT was observed in 7/13 men with osteoporosis and 5/6 with fatigue. In our case-control study (n=26 each), there was no difference in mean TT or FT between CD vs. HC, tTG+ vs tTG- or Marsh 0 vs. Marsh 3 groups. NHANES data showed no difference in mean TT between tTG+ vs tTG- (n=16 each) or CD vs. HC subjects (n=5 each). Low T occurs in CD patients at a similar rate as the general population. Common presentations of low T may mimic non-responsive CD symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Histological examination and clinical evaluation of the jawbone of an adult patient with cleidocranial dysplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Schnutenhaus, Sigmar; Luthardt, Ralph G; Rudolph, Heike; Götz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare congenital malformation syndrome, inherited autosomal-dominantly. During a course of treatment including surgical, implantological and restorative procedures, an opportunity arose to histologically examine biopsies of the maxilla and mandible of a CCD patient 47 years of age. The aim of this case report is to present the results of the histological evaluation of the alveolar bone and the surgical pretreatment for and placement of six implants each in the maxilla and the mandible. The implants were inserted in a minimally invasive procedure using 3D template guidance. Following uneventful healing of the implants, ceramically veneered bridges were cemented on individual titanium abutments. Since the patient had not received orthodontic treatment in childhood-which would have been the treatment modality of choice-this implantological and prosthodontic approach was necessary. Biopsies were taken from the maxilla and the mandible before placing the implants. Histological evaluation showed bone with strong, coarsely interconnecting trabeculae, especially in the maxilla. Both the bone and the gingiva otherwise exhibited a normal structure without pathological features or anomalies. The clinical parameters and histological evaluation of this one clinical case suggest that the concepts familiar from general oral implantology in terms of surgical and prosthetic procedures can be adopted for older patients with CCD.

  20. [Examination of the Prevention of Severe Hand Trauma Injury Cases due to Occupational Accidents--An Expert Opinion Gathering Meeting].

    PubMed

    Zenke, Yukichi; Kajiki, Shigeyuki; Yoshikawa, Toru; Nakao, Toyoki; Yoshikawa, Etsuko; Shoji, Takurou; Fukumoto, Keizo; Sakai, Akinori

    2015-12-01

    We gathered seven specialists from various fields who are interested in worker injury prevention programs, based on cases of patients who had suffered refractory injuries requiring hand surgery because of industrial accidents. The patients were asked to write their thoughts and ideas on the theme, "Measures that must be implemented to prevent arm injuries." The content obtained was classified into different categories, using the KJ method, and was scripted to sort out the items. As a result, the following eleven points were identified as measures to prevent serious hand surgery-related injuries: 1. Purchase safe machinery, 2. Create a list of machines that require caution, 3. Enclose a machine's various rotating parts, 4. Carry out periodic maintenance work on the machines, 5. Indicate dangerous areas by putting up signs that attract attention, 6. Illuminate the rotating parts more brightly and avoid placing objects around them, 7. Systematically carry out safety education that creates a strong impact, 8. Encourage workers to look after their own health, 9. Announce policies on health and safety, 10. Re-examine the operational procedures, and 11. Be prepared in case an accident occurs. A perspective based on the results of this research is deemed important in creating a workplace improvement manual in the future.

  1. A case-cohort study examining lifetime exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    James, Katherine A; Marshall, Julie A; Hokanson, John E; Meliker, Jaymie R; Zerbe, Gary O; Byers, Tim E

    2013-05-01

    Consumption of drinking water with high levels of inorganic arsenic (over 500 μg/L) has been associated with type II diabetes mellitus (DM), but previous studies have been inconclusive about risks at lower levels (<100 μg/L). We present a case-cohort study based on individual estimates of lifetime arsenic exposure to examine the relationship between chronic low-level arsenic exposure and risk of DM. This case-cohort study included 141 cases of DM diagnosed between 1984 and 1998 as part of the prospective San Luis Valley Diabetes Study. A comparison sub-cohort of 488 participants was randomly sampled from 936 eligible participants who were disease free at baseline. Individual lifetime arsenic exposure estimates were determined using a methodology that incorporates the use of a structured interview to determine lifetime residence and employment history, geospatial modeling of arsenic concentrations in drinking water, and urine arsenic concentrations. A Cox proportional hazards model with known DM risk factors as time-dependent covariates was used to assess the association between lifetime exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water and incident DM. Our findings show a significant association between inorganic arsenic exposure and DM risk (hazard ratio [HR]=1.27, 95%=1.01, 1.59 per 15 μg/L) while adjusting for ethnicity and time varying covariates age, body mass index and physical activity level. Exposure to low-level inorganic arsenic in drinking water is associated with increased risk for type II DM in this population based on a comprehensive lifetime exposure assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  3. Continued experience with physical examination alone for evaluation and management of penetrating zone 2 neck injuries: results of 145 cases.

    PubMed

    Sekharan, J; Dennis, J W; Veldenz, H C; Miranda, F; Frykberg, E R

    2000-09-01

    Our preliminary experience with physical examination alone in the evaluation of penetrating zone 2 neck injuries for vascular trauma was previously reported in 28 patients over a 2-year period (1991-1993). The purpose of the current study was to examine the results of this approach in a much larger group of patients over an 8-year period. The medical records for all patients admitted to our level I trauma center (all of them entered into our prospective protocol) between December 1991 and April 1999 with penetrating zone 2 neck trauma were reviewed for their initial presentation and any documented vascular injury. A total of 145 patients made up the study group; in 30 of these patients, the penetrating trajectory also traversed zone 1 or 3. Thirty-one patients (21%) had hard signs of vascular injury (active bleeding, expanding hematoma, bruit/thrill, pulse deficit, central neurologic deficit) and were taken immediately to the operating room; 28 (90%) of these 30 patients had either major arterial or venous injuries requiring operative repair (the false-positive rate for physical examination thus being 10%). Of the 114 patients with no hard signs, 23 underwent arteriography because of proximity of the injury to the vertebral arteries or because the trajectory included another zone. Of these 23 arteriograms, three showed abnormalities, but only one required operative repair. This case had no complications relating to the initial delay. The remaining 91 patients with no hard signs were observed without imaging or surgery for a minimum of 23 hours, and none had any evidence of vascular injury during hospitalization or during the initial 2-week follow-up period (1/114; false-negative rate for physical examination, 0.9%). This series confirms the earlier report indicating that patients with zone 2 penetrating neck wounds can be safely and accurately evaluated by physical examination alone to confirm or exclude vascular injury. The missed-injury rate is 0.7% (1/145) with

  4. Distribution and outcome of ocular lesions in snakes examined at a veterinary teaching hospital: 67 cases (1985-2010).

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Hollingsworth, Steven R; Hawkins, Michelle G; Kass, Philip H; Maggs, David J

    2013-07-15

    To determine the distribution and clinical outcome of ocular lesions in snakes. Retrospective case series. 67 snakes with ocular lesions. Signalment, lesion duration, diagnosis, treatment, and clinical outcome were recorded for all snakes with ocular lesions that were examined at a veterinary teaching hospital from 1985 to 2010. 71 ocular lesions were detected in 67 of 508 (13%) snakes examined. Affected snakes were of the families Boidae, Pythonidae, Colubridae, and Viperidae. The distribution of ocular lesions did not vary by taxonomic family, age, or sex; however, snakes from the genus Epicrates with ocular lesions were overrepresented in the population. The most commonly diagnosed ocular lesions were retained spectacle (n = 41), pseudobuphthalmos or subspectacular abscess (13), trauma (8), and cataracts (4). Pseudobuphthalmos or subspectacular abscess developed more frequently in Colubridae than in non-Colubridae snakes. Of the 16 snakes with retained spectacles for which data were available, the lesion recurred once in 4 snakes and multiple times in 5 snakes. Results indicated that retained spectacle was the most common ocular lesion diagnosed in snakes. Compared with other snakes with ocular lesions, snakes of the genus Epicrates had a higher than expected frequency of ocular lesions in general and snakes of the family Colubridae had a higher than expected frequency of pseudobuphthalmos or subspectacular abscess.

  5. Clinicopathologic and molecular features of 122 Brazilian cases of nodal and extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, with EBV subtyping analysis.

    PubMed

    Gualco, Gabriela; Domeny-Duarte, Pollyanna; Chioato, Lucimara; Barber, Glen; Natkunam, Yasodha; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2011-08-01

    Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (NK/TCL) is more prevalent in Asia and in some areas of South and Central America, but it is rarely seen in the United States and Europe. In this study, a series of 122 cases of NK/TCL from Brazil was analyzed with respect to clinicopathologic features. Clinical characteristics and geographic distribution were evaluated in 97 cases of nasal/nasopharyngeal region and 23 cases in extranasal sites including 6 nodal cases. Clinical staging and follow-up information was available in a subset of 21 patients. All cases harbored Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), 95% and 85% expressed cytoplasmic CD3 and CD56, respectively, and all cases were positive for at least 1 marker for cytotoxic granules. The global distribution of EBV subtypes showed predominance of strain subtype A, 89%, and subtype B, 11%. No dual infections were detected. TCR-γ TCR-gene rearrangement was observed in 7 cases; all of them extranodal. Three of TCR-γ(+) cases showed EBV subtype A. Two TCR-γ(+)/CD56(+) cases showed EBV subtype B. Geographic distribution of NK/TCL showed higher frequency in the southeast and northeast regions of Brazil. Striking differences among geographic regions were seen with the vast majority of EBV subtype B (86%) occurring in the south and southeast regions.

  6. Examination and treatment of patients with unilateral vestibular damage, with focus on the musculoskeletal system: a case series.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmsen, Kjersti; Kvåle, Alice

    2014-07-01

    Persistent dizziness and balance problems have been reported in some patients with unilateral vestibular pathology. The purpose of this case series was to address the examination and treatment of musculoskeletal dysfunction in patients with unilateral vestibular hypofunction. The musculoskeletal system was evaluated with the Global Physiotherapy Examination, dynamic balance was measured during walking with triaxial accelerometers positioned on the lower and upper trunk, and symptoms and functional limitations were assessed with standardized self-report measures. The 4 included patients had symptoms of severe dizziness that had lasted more than 1 year after the onset of vestibular dysfunction and a moderate level of perceived disability. Musculoskeletal abnormalities typically included postural misalignment, restricted abdominal respiration, restricted trunk movements, and tense muscles of the upper trunk and neck. The patients attended a modified vestibular rehabilitation program consisting of body awareness exercises addressing posture, movements, and respiration. After the intervention, self-reported symptoms and perceived disability improved. Improvements in mobility and positive physical changes were found in the upper trunk and respiratory movements. The attenuation of mediolateral accelerations (ie, body oscillations) in the upper trunk changed; a relatively more stable upper trunk and a concomitantly more flexible lower trunk were identified during walking in 3 patients. The recovery process may be influenced by self-inflicted rigid body movements and behavior strategies that prevent compensation. Addressing physical dysfunction and enhancing body awareness directly and dizziness indirectly may help patients with unilateral vestibular hypofunction break a self-sustaining cycle of dizziness and musculoskeletal problems. Considering the body as a functional unit and including both musculoskeletal and vestibular systems in examination and treatment may be

  7. [Abortion and fetal non-viability: the Brazilian debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora

    2005-01-01

    The Case Against Non-Compliance with the Fundamental Principle concerning Anencephaly, under review by the Brazilian Supreme Court, is a milestone in the debate on abortion in Latin America. Since the currently prevailing version of the Brazilian Penal Code was enacted in 1940, there has been fierce resistance to any change in the country's abortion policy. This article discusses the arguments and political strategies used in the anencephaly suit brought before the Supreme Court, particularly the ethical and legal position that interruption of pregnancy in cases of anencephaly does not constitute abortion, but should be considered a therapeutic anticipation of delivery.

  8. The political contradictions of incremental innovation: lessons from pharmaceutical patent examination in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Shadlen, Kenneth C

    2011-01-01

    Neodevelopmental patent regimes aim to facilitate local actors’ access to knowledge and also encourage incremental innovations. The case of pharmaceutical patent examination in Brazil illustrates political contradictions between these objectives. Brazil’s patent law includes the Ministry of Health in the examination of pharmaceutical patent applications. Though widely celebrated as a health-oriented policy, the Brazilian experience has become fraught with tensions and subject to decreasing levels of both stability and enforcement. I show how one pillar of the neodevelopmental regime, the array of initiatives to encourage incremental innovations, has fostered the acquisition of innovative capabilities in the Brazilian pharmaceutical sector, and how these new capabilities have altered actors’ policy preferences and thus contributed to the erosion of the coalition in support of the other pillar of the neodevelopmental regime, the health-oriented approach to examining pharmaceutical patents. The analysis of capability-derived preference formation points to an endogenous process of coalitional change.

  9. Dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, genetic polymorphism of related enzymes, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Brazilian women

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Several studies have determined that dietary intake of B vitamins may be associated with breast cancer risk as a result of interactions between 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase (MTR) in the one-carbon metabolism pathway. However, the association between B vitamin intake and breast cancer risk in Brazilian women in particular has not yet been investigated. Methods A case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil, with 458 age-matched pairs of Brazilian women. Energy-adjusted intakes of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 were derived from a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Genotyping was completed for MTHFR A1298C and C677T, and MTR A2756G polymorphisms. A logistical regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results Neither dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, or vitamin B12 nor MTHFR polymorphisms were independently associated with breast cancer risk. Analysis stratified by menopausal status showed a significant association between placement in the highest tertile of folate intake and risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.23–3.83; Ptrend = 0.010). The MTR 2756GG genotype was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer than the 2756AA genotype (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.01–3.92; Ptrend = 0.801), and statistically significant interactions with regard to risk were observed between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and folate (P = 0.024) or vitamin B6 (P = 0.043), and between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and folate (P = 0.043) or vitamin B12 (P = 0.022). Conclusion MTHFR polymorphisms and dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 had no overall association with breast cancer risk. However, increased risk was observed in total women with the MTR 2756GG genotype and in premenopausal women with high folate intake. These findings, as well as significant interactions between MTHFR polymorphisms and B vitamins

  10. [Profile of clinical trials enrolling Brazilian children].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Jean Mendes de Lucena; Lima, Elisangela da Costa; Land, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot; Ventura, Miriam; Coelho, Helena Lutescia Luna

    2017-06-12

    This study aimed to characterize the clinical trials with medicines enrolling Brazilian children and adolescents, registered in the databases of Clinical Trials and the Brazilian Clinical Trials Network (ReBEC) from 1994 to 2014. Only 462 clinical trials enrolled Brazilian children and adolescents. There was an increase in registrations beginning in 2003, with an important drop in 2011. Among these trials, 35.5% were hosted in Brazil. The international clinical trials were mostly conducted by North American companies. In both cases, multinational industry was the principal source of funding. The clinical trials were predominantly phase III with injectable and solid oral pharmaceutical forms of antiviral drugs. Domestic clinical trials showed wider variation in the pharmaceutical forms and higher percentage of liquid formulations, when compared to the international trials. In addition to heavy external dependence for conducting clinical trials, the study emphasized the challenge for pediatric care in Brazil, which presents epidemiological peculiarities in an environment prone to the use of unlicensed medicines for children.

  11. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  12. THE DRAINAGE EFFICIENCY INDEX (DEI) AS AN MORPHOLOGIAL INDICATOR OF LANDSLIDE SPATIAL OCCURRENCE IN MOUNTAINOUS CATCHMENTS. A case of study applied in the mountainous region of Brazilian Southeastern.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Muniz Lima, Pedro; Luiza Coelho Netto, Ana; do Couto Fernandes, Manoel

    2016-04-01

    Morphometric parameters, acquired notoriety mainly after the Drainage Density proposition (Horton 1932, 1945) and after they were applied by geomorphologists on the perspective to understand landscape functionalities, quantifying their characteristics through parameters and indexes. After the drainage density, many other parameters which describe the basin characteristics, behavior and dynamics have been proposed. Among them, for example, the DEI was proposed by Coelho Netto and contributors during the 80's, while they were seek to understand the hydrological and erosive dynamics on Bananal river basin (Brazilian Southeastern). Through this investigations the DEI was created, revealing the importance of parameters as hollow and drainage density, conjugated to the topographic gradient (Meis et al. 1982) who prosecute controls on the water flow efficiency along the hollows in order to activate the regressive erosion of the main channel. Later on this index was applied on the basin scale in several works developed in mountainous regions, showing a remarkable correlation with the occurrence of landslides such as showed by Coelho Netto et al. (2007); that posteriorly use this index as one of the components of the landslide susceptibility map for the Tijuca Massif, located in Rio de Janeiro Municipality. This work aims to establish patterns of the DEI index values (applied to mountainous low order basins) and the relationship on the occurrence of Debriflows or shallow translational slides. For this, the DEI index was applied on 4 different study areas located on the Southeastern mountainous region of Brazil to address deeply the connection between the index and the occurrence of landslides of different types applied for first and second order basins. The major study area is the Córrego Dantas Basin, situated in Nova Friburgo municipality (RJ), which is a 53 km² basin was affected by 327 landslides caused by a heavy rainfall on January 2011; Coelho Netto et al. (in

  13. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    Rufino, R.; Costa, C.H.; Lopes, A.J.; Maiworm, A.I.; Maynard, K.; Silva, L.M.R.A.; Dias, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%), 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%), and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT). This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index). From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method). Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9). The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5), and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used. PMID:28273211

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS mutations in Brazilian lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Bacchi, Carlos E.; Ciol, Heloísa; Queiroga, Eduardo M.; Benine, Lucimara C.; Silva, Luciana H.; Ojopi, Elida B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Epidermal growth factor receptor is involved in the pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer and has recently emerged as an important target for molecular therapeutics. The KRAS oncogene also plays an important role in the development of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS mutations in a population of Brazilian patients with non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: A total of 207 specimens from Brazilian patients with non-small cell lung cancer were analyzed for activating epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS somatic mutations, and their associations with clinicopathological characteristics (including age, gender, ethnicity, smoking habits, and histological subtype) were examined. RESULTS: We identified 63 cases (30.4%) with epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and 30 cases (14.6%) with KRAS mutations. The most frequent epidermal growth factor receptor mutation we detected was a deletion in exon 19 (60.3%, 38 patients), followed by an L858R amino acid substitution in exon 21 (27%, 17 patients). The most common types of KRAS mutations were found in codon 12. There were no significant differences in epidermal growth factor receptor or KRAS mutations by gender or primary versus metastatic lung cancer. There was a higher prevalence of KRAS mutations in the non-Asian patients. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations were more prevalent in adenocarcinomas than in non-adenocarcinoma histological types. Being a non-smoker was significantly associated with the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations, but the prevalence of KRAS mutations was significantly associated with smoking. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to examine the prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor and KRAS mutations in a Brazilian population sample with non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:22666783

  15. Examining the role of voluntary associations in environmental management: the case of the Sam Houston national forest.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiaying; Schuett, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of voluntary associations involved in forest management. The specific areas examined in this study include organizational attributes, membership profile, attitudes toward forest-management priorities, and concerns about forest-management issues. To achieve this purpose, data were collected using a case study approach with mixed-methods (document reviews, personal interviews, and a Web survey) at a national forest in Texas, USA. Overall, the voluntary associations in this study can be described as place-based, small to moderate in scale, activity-oriented, and active groups that are adaptive to sociopolitical and environmental changes. General group members placed high importance on aesthetic, ecological, and recreation management of the national forest. In addition, this study showed five key forest management issues: (1) limited recreation access; (2) financial challenges for forest management; (3) conflict among recreation user groups; (4) inadequate communication by the United States Forest Service to the general public, and (5) sustainability of the forest. Theoretical and managerial implications of the results are discussed.

  16. Examining the role of service-learning on development of professionalism in doctor of physical therapy students: a case report.

    PubMed

    Crandell, Catherine E; Wiegand, Mark R; Brosky, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is a pedagogical tool that has several purported benefits. In the health sciences, we have established an integrated curricular SL thread that includes self-contained course experiences and the provision of pro bono physical therapy services in on- and off-campus Service-Learning Clinics (SLC). SL is integrated across the curriculum through four SL courses. Student provision of pro bono services is the centerpiece of the SL course series with students providing patient management in on- and off-campus clinics. The purpose of this case report is to examine how participation in the off-campus SLC may impact the development of professionalism in a sample of eight students. In this project, student perceptions of the role of the off-campus SLC experiences in the development of professionalism and core values were assessed through three methods: student interviews, completion of the physical therapy Core Values Self-Assessment form, and analysis of student reflection papers. Students reported core values compassion/caring and accountability most frequently in the context of their off-campus SL experiences. Student responses suggest SL is a beneficial learning model in providing a framework to the curricular emphasis on professionalism. While the role of SL in the development of professionalism and core values is not entirely clear, this pedagogical model appears to have a positive impact on the professional education of these students.

  17. Examining angler behavior using contingent behavior modeling: A case study of water quality change at a Wisconsin lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiswerth, Mark E.; Kashian, Russell D.; Skidmore, Mark

    2008-11-01

    We use contingent behavior (CB) analysis to examine the potential impacts of a hypothetical change in the clarity of a lake. We collect and use both CB and revealed preference data to estimate a pooled negative binomial count data travel cost model. From this analysis we calculate the consumer surplus per angling party day for our case study lake to be about $104, or a total annual consumer surplus of $1.4 million. Using this consumer surplus measure and changes in the intended number of visits obtained from the CB survey, we estimate the loss in consumer surplus associated with a decline in water clarity from 10 to 3 feet (1 foot = 0.3048 m) to be about $522,000 annually (a 38% decrease). Since this is the first such application of CB analysis to estimate the effects of a water clarity change, the study may illustrate a method well suited to analyzing changes in water quality attributes that are easily observable and well understood by recreators.

  18. Examining the Role of Voluntary Associations in Environmental Management: The Case of the Sam Houston National Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jiaying; Schuett, Michael A.

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of voluntary associations involved in forest management. The specific areas examined in this study include organizational attributes, membership profile, attitudes toward forest-management priorities, and concerns about forest-management issues. To achieve this purpose, data were collected using a case study approach with mixed-methods (document reviews, personal interviews, and a Web survey) at a national forest in Texas, USA. Overall, the voluntary associations in this study can be described as place-based, small to moderate in scale, activity-oriented, and active groups that are adaptive to sociopolitical and environmental changes. General group members placed high importance on aesthetic, ecological, and recreation management of the national forest. In addition, this study showed five key forest management issues: (1) limited recreation access; (2) financial challenges for forest management; (3) conflict among recreation user groups; (4) inadequate communication by the United States Forest Service to the general public, and (5) sustainability of the forest. Theoretical and managerial implications of the results are discussed.

  19. Brazilian Space Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilha, Antonio; Takahashi, Hisao; de Paula, Eurico; Sawant, Hanumant; de Campos Velho, Haroldo; Vitorello, Icaro; Costa, Joaquim; Souza, Jonas; Cecatto, José; Mendes, Odim; Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter Demétrio

    A space weather program is being initiated at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) to study events from their initiation on the sun to their impacts on the earth, including their effects on space-based and ground-based technological systems. The program is built on existing capabilities at INPE, which include scientists with a long tradition and excellence in the observation, analysis and modeling of solar and solar-terrestrial phenomena and an array of geophysical instruments that spans all over the Brazilian territory from the north to south of the magnetic dip equator. Available sensors include solar radio frequency receivers and telescopes, optical instruments and solar imagers, GNSS receivers, ionosondes, radars, allsky imagers, magnetometers and cosmic ray detectors. In the equatorial region, ionosphere and thermosphere constitute a coupled system with electrodynamical and plasma physical processes being responsible for a variety of peculiar phenomena. The most important of them are the equatorial electrojet current system and its instabilities, the equatorial ionization anomaly, and the plasma instabilities/irregularities of the night-time ionosphere (associated with the plasma bubble events). In addition, space weather events modify the equatorial ionosphere in a complex and up to now unpredictable manner. Consequently, a main focus of the program will be on monitoring the low, middle and upper atmosphere phenomena and developing a predictive model of the equatorial ionosphere through data assimilation, that could help to mitigate against the deleterious effects on radio communications and navigation systems. The technological, economic and social importance of such activities was recognized by the Brazilian government and a proposal for funding was approved for the period 2008-2011. New ground instruments will be installed during this period allowing us to extend our current capability to provide space weather observations, accurate

  20. Reform Theory into Practice: A Case Study Examination of West Virginia's Efforts To Promote Inclusive Schooling through Site-Based Partnership Decision-Making Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Holly

    A study examined the extent to which faculty senate involvement in strategic planning for inclusion influenced the implementation of inclusive practices in schools. Case studies in four West Virginia middle schools included examination of school strategic plans, observation, and teacher surveys and interviews. Analysis of findings across cases…

  1. The Assimilation of Beginning Teachers into an Established School Improvement Project: A Qualitative Case Study Examining Formats of Job-Embedded Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Lynn A.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examined formats of job-embedded professional development that were experienced by beginning teachers at a high-poverty, high-mobility elementary school in the third year of a School Improvement Grant. A qualitative case study was conducted to examine formats of job-embedded professional development that were most useful to help…

  2. The Assimilation of Beginning Teachers into an Established School Improvement Project: A Qualitative Case Study Examining Formats of Job-Embedded Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Lynn A.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation examined formats of job-embedded professional development that were experienced by beginning teachers at a high-poverty, high-mobility elementary school in the third year of a School Improvement Grant. A qualitative case study was conducted to examine formats of job-embedded professional development that were most useful to help…

  3. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: Brazilian survey

    PubMed Central

    Cotrim, Helma P.; Oliveira, Claudia P.; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio M.; Alvares-da-Silva, Mario R.; Nabuco, Leticia; Parise, Edison Roberto; Ivantes, Claúdia; Martinelli, Ana LC; Galizzi-Filho, João; Carrilho, Flair J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The majority of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma have been reported in individuals with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholism, but recently, the prevalence has become increasingly related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis around the world. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical and histophatological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazilians' patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at the present time. METHODS: Members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology were invited to complete a survey regarding patients with hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with a history of alcohol intake (>20 g/day) and other liver diseases were excluded. Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis was performed by liver biopsy or imaging methods according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases' 2011 guidelines. RESULTS: The survey included 110 patients with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from nine hepatology units in six Brazilian states (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul). The mean age was 67±11 years old, and 65.5% were male. Obesity was observed in 52.7% of the cases; diabetes, in 73.6%; dyslipidemia, in 41.0%; arterial hypertension, in 60%; and metabolic syndrome, in 57.2%. Steatohepatitis without fibrosis was observed in 3.8% of cases; steatohepatitis with fibrosis (grades 1-3), in 27%; and cirrhosis, in 61.5%. Histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was performed in 47.2% of the patients, with hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis accounting for 7.7%. In total, 58 patients with cirrhosis had their diagnosis by ultrasound confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of these, 55% had 1 nodule; 17%, 2 nodules; and 28%, ≥3 nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a relevant risk factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with and

  4. The Brazilian mineral resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beurlen, Hartmut; Cassedanne, Jacques Pierre

    1981-04-01

    The activity of the first generation of Brazilian geologists began in the early sixties. Systematic exploration work since then has evidenced some important new mineral reserves in Brazil. The most important examples are the 18 × 10 9 tons of high-grade iron ore (Carajás District), formed by supergene enrichment on iron formations older than 1800 m.y., the 2.5 × 10 9 tons of bauxite and similar reserves of kaolinite as residual enrichment in Cenozoic sediments in the Amazonas Basin (Oriximina, Capim); the potash and magnesium-rich evaporites near Aracajú(Sergipe); the large residual concentrations of phosphate, anatase, pyrochlore and rare earths related to Cretaceous alkaline complexes with carbonatites; and some garnierite and asbestos deposits related to ultramafic rocks in the states of Goiás and Piauí.

  5. Reverse logistics in the Brazilian construction industry.

    PubMed

    Nunes, K R A; Mahler, C F; Valle, R A

    2009-09-01

    In Brazil most Construction and Demolition Waste (C&D waste) is not recycled. This situation is expected to change significantly, since new federal regulations oblige municipalities to create and implement sustainable C&D waste management plans which assign an important role to recycling activities. The recycling organizational network and its flows and components are fundamental to C&D waste recycling feasibility. Organizational networks, flows and components involve reverse logistics. The aim of this work is to introduce the concepts of reverse logistics and reverse distribution channel networks and to study the Brazilian C&D waste case.

  6. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  7. Examining the Influence of Seductive Details in Case-Based Instruction on Pre-Service Teachers' Learning and Learning Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The case-based instructional method uses fictionalized or actual narratives as instructional tools to support learning, decision-making, and improved transfer to practical settings. Educational theorists and researchers specializing in case-based instruction have suggested that cases can be made more realistic, engaging, and challenging, thus…

  8. Examining the Influence of Seductive Details in Case-Based Instruction on Pre-Service Teachers' Learning and Learning Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The case-based instructional method uses fictionalized or actual narratives as instructional tools to support learning, decision-making, and improved transfer to practical settings. Educational theorists and researchers specializing in case-based instruction have suggested that cases can be made more realistic, engaging, and challenging, thus…

  9. Brazilian Adolescents' Conceptions of Autonomy and Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milnitsky-Sapiro, Clary; Turiel, Elliot; Nucci, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-two middle class and 32 lower class southern Brazilian pre-adolescent (M=12.8 years) and adolescent (M=15.7 years) participants were individually interviewed regarding their perceptions of who (adolescent or parent) should determine the adolescent's actions in cases where the parents and adolescent disagree over the action choice.…

  10. Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus infection among Brazilian blood donors: a multicentre case-control study using audio computer-assisted structured interviews.

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Neto, C; Goncalez, T T; Birch, R J; de Carvalho, S M F; Capuani, L; Leão, S C; Miranda, C; Rocha, P C; Carneiro-Proietti, A B; Johnson, B R; Wright, D J; Murphy, E L; Custer, B

    2013-08-01

    Although risk factors for HIV infection are known, it is important for blood centres to understand local epidemiology and disease transmission patterns. Current risk factors for HIV infection in blood donors in Brazil were assessed. A case-control study was conducted at large public blood centres located in four major cities between April 2009 and March 2011. Cases were persons whose donations were confirmed positive by enzyme immunoassays followed by Western blot confirmation. Audio computer-assisted structured interviews (ACASI) were completed by all cases and controls. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There were 341 cases, including 47 with recently acquired infection, and 791 controls. Disclosed risk factors for both females and males were sex with an HIV-positive person AOR 11.3, 95% CI (4.1, 31.7) and being an IVDU or sexual partner of an IVDU [AOR 4.65 (1.8, 11.7)]. For female blood donors, additional risk factors were having male sex partners who also are MSM [AOR 13.5 (3.1, 59.8)] and having unprotected sex with multiple sexual partners [AOR 5.19 (2.1, 12.9)]. The primary risk factor for male blood donors was MSM activity [AOR 21.6 (8.8, 52.9)]. Behaviours associated with recently acquired HIV were being a MSM or sex partner of MSM [13.82, (4.7, 40.3)] and IVDU [11.47, (3.0, 43.2)]. Risk factors in blood donors parallel those in the general population in Brazil. Identified risk factors suggest that donor compliance with selection procedures at the participating blood centres is inadequate. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  11. Examining the Impact of Case Management in Vancouver’s Downtown Community Court: A Quasi-Experimental Design

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Julian M.; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Rezansoff, Stefanie N.; Patterson, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Problem solving courts (PSC) have been implemented internationally, with a common objective to prevent reoffending by addressing criminogenic needs and strengthening social determinants of health. There has been no empirical research on the effectiveness of community courts, which are a form of PSC designed to harness community resources and inter-disciplinary expertise to reduce recidivism in a geographic catchment area. Method We used the propensity score matching method to examine the effectiveness of Vancouver’s Downtown Community Court (DCC). We focused on the subset of DCC participants who were identified as having the highest criminogenic risk and were assigned to a case management team (CMT). A comparison group was derived using one-to-one matching on a large array variables including static and dynamic criminogenic factors, geography, and time. Reductions in offences (one year pre minus one year post) were compared between CMT and comparison groups. Results Compared to other DCC offenders, those triaged to CMT (9.5% of the DCC population) had significantly higher levels of healthcare, social service use, and justice system involvement over the ten years prior to the index offence. Compared to matched offenders who received traditional court outcomes, those assigned to CMT (n = 249) exhibited significantly greater reductions in overall offending (p<0.001), primarily comprised of significant reductions in property offences (p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings indicate that CMT achieved significantly greater reductions in recidivism than traditional court among offenders with complex needs and high numbers of previous offences. Limitations of this research include a non-experimental design and one year follow up. Strengths include a robust matching process and extensive client level data spanning multiple sectors. Further research is needed to replicate the observed outcomes, to investigate the extension of community courts to settings with

  12. Are extra-pair males different from cuckolded males? A case study and a meta-analytic examination.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Hsun; Schroeder, Julia; Winney, Isabel; Burke, Terry; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2015-04-01

    Traditional models for female extra-pair matings assume that females benefit indirectly from extra-pair mating behaviour. Under these so-called adaptive models, extra-pair males are hypothesized to have more compatible genotypes, larger body size, exaggerated ornaments or to be older than cuckolded males. Alternatively, ('nonadaptive') models that consider female extra-pair matings to be a by-product posit that female extra-pair mating can be maintained even if there is no benefit to females. This could happen if, for example, males gained fitness benefits from extra-pair mating, while female and male extra-pair mating behaviours were genetically correlated. Extra-pair males are also expected to be older and larger if this improves their ability to convince or coerce females to mate. We investigated whether a female's extra-pair mates differed from her cuckolded mate in both genetic and phenotypic traits by analysing data from an insular house sparrow population. We found that extra-pair males were older than cuckolded males, consistent with both models. However, in contrast to the expectations from from adaptive models, extra-pair and cuckolded males were of similar genetic relatedness, and hence expected compatibility, with the female, and had comparable body size and secondary sexual traits. We also updated previous meta-analyses examining differences between extra-pair and cuckolded males. The meta-analytic results matched results from our house sparrow case study. Although we cannot completely exclude indirect benefits for females, nonadaptive models may better explain female extra-pair matings. These neglected alternative models deserve more research attention, and this should improve our understanding of the evolution of mating systems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Examination and Public Speaking Anxiety Case Studies: A Learning-Performance Discrepancy Issue for CB/PBTE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trzasko, Joseph A.

    This study was undertaken to examine the possibility of controlling examination and public speaking anxiety through behavior therapy techniques. It was assumed that a reduction of examination and public speaking anxiety through such techniques would improve student performance. Three subjects participated in the study--all female, 30 years old,…

  14. Vowel Harmony: A Variable Rule in Brazilian Portuguese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisol, Leda

    1989-01-01

    Examines vowel harmony in the "Gaucho dialect" of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Informants from four areas of the state were studied: the capital city (Porto Alegre), the border region with Uruguay, and two areas of the interior populated by descendants of nineteenth-century immigrants from Europe, mainly Germans and…

  15. Vowel Harmony: A Variable Rule in Brazilian Portuguese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisol, Leda

    1989-01-01

    Examines vowel harmony in the "Gaucho dialect" of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Informants from four areas of the state were studied: the capital city (Porto Alegre), the border region with Uruguay, and two areas of the interior populated by descendants of nineteenth-century immigrants from Europe, mainly Germans and…

  16. Brazilian Higher Education from a Post-Colonial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Denise

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Brazilian higher education (HE) politics from a post-colonial perspective. The term "post-colonial" originally referred to a historical period of colonial empires established by European nations. Nowadays, the term commonly distinguishes a field of contemporary studies of "defamiliarisation of the imperial…

  17. Controversial Suicide Case Using a Submachine Gun with a Sound Suppressor-The Need of Team Work of Forensic Chemistry and Firearm Examiners.

    PubMed

    Brożek-Mucha, Zuzanna; Zdeb, Krzysztof

    2017-09-20

    Evidence materials in a presumed suicide case were studied by a firearm examiner and a forensic chemist. The victim's body with double gunshot wounding in his forehead, a machine gun in the sustained fire mode with a silencer, and four cartridge cases were found. Examinations of the evidence, the case file studies, and experiments dedicated to the case were carried out. Relationships between the placement of cartridge cases and the gun were established using a fast camera. The distributions of gunshot residues on the evidence materials and within the comparative gunshot patterns were studied by means of optical and electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and infrared spectroscopy. The shooting distance was assessed to be 30 cm or more, whereas the greatest distance that could have been achieved by the victim himself was about 11-13 cm. The obtained results supported the version of homicide rather than suicide. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Best-fit model of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the 2010 Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I clinical decision-making cases.

    PubMed

    Champlain, André F De

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the fit of a number of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis models to the 2010 Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I (MCCQE1) clinical decision-making (CDM) cases. The outcomes of this study have important implications for a range of domains, including scoring and test development. The examinees included all first-time Canadian medical graduates and international medical graduates who took the MCCQE1 in spring or fall 2010. The fit of one- to five-factor exploratory models was assessed for the item response matrix of the 2010 CDM cases. Five confirmatory factor analytic models were also examined with the same CDM response matrix. The structural equation modeling software program Mplus was used for all analyses. Out of the five exploratory factor analytic models that were evaluated, a three-factor model provided the best fit. Factor 1 loaded on three medicine cases, two obstetrics and gynecology cases, and two orthopedic surgery cases. Factor 2 corresponded to pediatrics, and the third factor loaded on psychiatry cases. Among the five confirmatory factor analysis models examined in this study, three- and four-factor lifespan period models and the five-factor discipline models provided the best fit. The results suggest that knowledge of broad disciplinary domains best account for performance on CDM cases. In test development, particular effort should be placed on developing CDM cases according to broad discipline and patient age domains; CDM testlets should be assembled largely using the criteria of discipline and age.

  19. The dynamics of Brazilian protozoology over the past century.

    PubMed

    Elias, M Carolina; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M; Mena-Chalco, Jesus P

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian scientists have been contributing to the protozoology field for more than 100 years with important discoveries of new species such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. In this work, we used a Brazilian thesis database (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) covering the period from 1987-2011 to identify researchers who contributed substantially to protozoology. We selected 248 advisors by filtering to obtain researchers who supervised at least 10 theses. Based on a computational analysis of the thesis databases, we found students who were supervised by these scientists. A computational procedure was developed to determine the advisors' scientific ancestors using the Lattes Platform. These analyses provided a list of 1,997 researchers who were inspected through Lattes CV examination and allowed the identification of the pioneers of Brazilian protozoology. Moreover, we investigated the areas in which researchers who earned PhDs in protozoology are now working. We found that 68.4% of them are still in protozoology, while 16.7% have migrated to other fields. We observed that support for protozoology by national or international agencies is clearly correlated with the increase of scientists in the field. Finally, we described the academic genealogy of Brazilian protozoology by formalising the "forest" of Brazilian scientists involved in the study of protozoa and their vectors over the past century.

  20. The dynamics of Brazilian protozoology over the past century

    PubMed Central

    Elias, M Carolina; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M; Mena-Chalco, Jesus P

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian scientists have been contributing to the protozoology field for more than 100 years with important discoveries of new species such asTrypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. In this work, we used a Brazilian thesis database (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) covering the period from 1987-2011 to identify researchers who contributed substantially to protozoology. We selected 248 advisors by filtering to obtain researchers who supervised at least 10 theses. Based on a computational analysis of the thesis databases, we found students who were supervised by these scientists. A computational procedure was developed to determine the advisors’ scientific ancestors using the Lattes Platform. These analyses provided a list of 1,997 researchers who were inspected through Lattes CV examination and allowed the identification of the pioneers of Brazilian protozoology. Moreover, we investigated the areas in which researchers who earned PhDs in protozoology are now working. We found that 68.4% of them are still in protozoology, while 16.7% have migrated to other fields. We observed that support for protozoology by national or international agencies is clearly correlated with the increase of scientists in the field. Finally, we described the academic genealogy of Brazilian protozoology by formalising the “forest” of Brazilian scientists involved in the study of protozoa and their vectors over the past century. PMID:26814646

  1. Examining the Relationships between Bone Tissue Composition, Compositional Heterogeneity and Fragility Fracture: A Matched Case Controlled FTIRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Boskey, Adele L; Donnelly, Eve; Boskey, Elizabeth; Spevak, Lyudmila; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Lappe, Joan; Recker, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) provides information on spatial distribution of the chemical composition of thin tissue specimens at ~7um spatial resolution. This study of 120 age-and BMD-matched patients was designed to investigate the association of FTIRI variables, measured in iliac crest biopsies, with fragility fractures at any site. An earlier study of 54 different women found hip BMD to be a significant explanatory variable of fracture risk for cortical bone, but not for cancellous bone. In the current study, where age and BMD were controlled through matching, no such association is seen, validating the pairing scheme. Our first study of un-matched iliac crest biopsies found increases in collagen maturity (cancellous and cortical bone) and mineral crystal size (cortical bone only) to be a significant explanatory variable of fracture when combined with other covariates. The ratio for collagen maturity has been correlated to the amount of enzymatic collagen cross-links. To assess the impact of other FTIRI variables (acid phosphate substitution, carbonate-to-phosphate ratio, and the pixel-distribution (heterogeneity) of all relevant FTIRI variables), we examined biopsies from a matched case-controlled study, in which 60 women with fractures, were each paired with an age-and BMD-matched female control. With the matched data set of 120 women, conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that significant explanatory variables of fracture were decreased carbonate-to-phosphate ratio in both cancellous (Odds Ratio =0.580, 95% confidence interval (CI)=[0.37, 0.909], p= 0.0176) and cortical bone (Odds Ratio= 0.519, 95% CI=[0.325, 0.829], p= 0.0061), and increased heterogeneity (broadened pixel distribution) of collagen maturity for cancellous bone (Odds Ratio = 1.549, 95% CI= [1.002, 2.396], p=0.0491). The observation that collagen maturity was no longer linked to fracture in age-and BMD-matched samples suggests that age-dependent variation in collagen

  2. Using robots in "Hands-on" academic activities: a case study examining speech-generating device use and required skills.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kim; Cook, Al

    2016-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl, Emily, with complex communication needs and severe physical limitations, controlled a Lego robot from a speech-generating device (SGD) to do various "hands-on" academic activities. Emily's teacher and assistive technology (AT) team thought that controlling a robot would motivate Emily to "use her SGD more". A descriptive case study was used because the integration of communication and manipulation technologies is not yet understood. Target activities and goals were chosen by Emily's teacher and AT team. Emily performed several manipulative math activities and engaged in an "acting" activity aimed at increasing her message length. The competency skills needed to control a robot from the SGD were examined, as well as stakeholder satisfaction with the robot system. Emily generated up to 0.4 communication events and 7 robot commands per minute in the activities. Her length of utterance was usually one-word long, but she generated two- and three-word utterances during some activities. Observations of Emily informed a framework to describe the competency skills needed to use SGDs to control robots. Emily and her teacher expressed satisfaction with robot use. Robot use could motivate students to build SGD operational skills and learn educational concepts. Implications for Rehabilitation Controlling a robot from a speech-generating device (SGD) could increase students' motivation, engagement and understanding in learning educational concepts, because of the hands-on enactive approach. The robot and SGD system was acceptable to the participant and teacher and elicited positive comments from classmates. Thus, it may provide a way for children with disabilities to link with the curriculum and with other students in the classroom. Controlling a robot via SGD presents opportunities to improve augmentative and alternative communication operational, linguistic, social and strategic skills. Careful choice of activities will ensure that the activity requirements

  3. An Examination of Court Cases Relating to the Dismissal of K-12 Teachers for Immorality (1977-2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerville, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    This was a purposeful, qualitative, historical and document-based research study that investigated the trends and outcomes of the legal issues relating to teacher dismissal for "immorality". The study included 114 cases over a 30-year period spanning from 1977-2007. Federal and state level law cases were researched to determine the ruling of…

  4. An Examination of Court Cases Relating to the Dismissal of K-12 Teachers for Immorality (1977-2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerville, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    This was a purposeful, qualitative, historical and document-based research study that investigated the trends and outcomes of the legal issues relating to teacher dismissal for "immorality". The study included 114 cases over a 30-year period spanning from 1977-2007. Federal and state level law cases were researched to determine the ruling of…

  5. Comparing Single Case Design Overlap-Based Effect Size Metrics from Studies Examining Speech Generating Device Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mo; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene K.; Reichle, Joe E.; Symons, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Meaningfully synthesizing single case experimental data from intervention studies comprised of individuals with low incidence conditions and generating effect size estimates remains challenging. Seven effect size metrics were compared for single case design (SCD) data focused on teaching speech generating device use to individuals with…

  6. An Examination of Social Validity within Single-Case Research with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Caitlin F.; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Romer, Natalie; Albin, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we reviewed social validity in single-case research studies that focused on interventions for students who have either been identified as having, or as at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. This review focused on studies from four peer-reviewed journals known to publish single-case research with this population: the…

  7. The Porter Douglass Case: Examining the Impact of Power, Politics, and the Press on Academic Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Audrey J.; Grantham, Ashley; Lynch, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Mixing political appointments and university operations can prove challenging and, in this case, caused the resignation of three senior officials at State University. Bolman and Deal's four frames provide a structure for analyzing this complex case. The political frame and issues of power and coalitions offer a particularly useful lens to…

  8. Comparing Single Case Design Overlap-Based Effect Size Metrics from Studies Examining Speech Generating Device Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mo; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene K.; Reichle, Joe E.; Symons, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Meaningfully synthesizing single case experimental data from intervention studies comprised of individuals with low incidence conditions and generating effect size estimates remains challenging. Seven effect size metrics were compared for single case design (SCD) data focused on teaching speech generating device use to individuals with…

  9. The Porter Douglass Case: Examining the Impact of Power, Politics, and the Press on Academic Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Audrey J.; Grantham, Ashley; Lynch, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Mixing political appointments and university operations can prove challenging and, in this case, caused the resignation of three senior officials at State University. Bolman and Deal's four frames provide a structure for analyzing this complex case. The political frame and issues of power and coalitions offer a particularly useful lens to…

  10. Using a Play-Based Methodology in Qualitative Research: A Case of Using Social Board to Examine School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mankowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Little, if any, examination of using play-based tools to examine children's opinions in research exists in the current literature. Therefore, this paper is meant to address that gap within the literature and showcase the study about the use of a specific play-based methodological tool in qualitative research. This specific tool called social board…

  11. Examination Management as a Way of Achieving Quality Assurance in ODL Institutions: The Case of Zimbabwe Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mafa, Onias; Gudhlanga, Enna Sukutai

    2012-01-01

    An examination is an important component of any institution that educates people. It is a form of assessment used to measure the students' understanding of the concepts and principles they would have learnt. Zimbabwe Open University, an Open and Distance Learning institution has been setting its own examinations for the academic programmes…

  12. Validating the Slovenian National Alignment to CEFR: The Case of the B2 Reading Comprehension Examination in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilc, Gašper; Stopar, Andrej

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the results of the CEFR alignment project for the Slovenian national examinations in English. The authors aim to validate externally the standard-setting procedures by adopting a socio-cognitive model of validation (Khalifa & Weir, 2009; Weir, 2005) to analyse the scoring, context and cognitive validity of three reading…

  13. Intersectorial health-related policies: the use of a legal and theoretical framework to propose a typology to a case study in a Brazilian municipality.

    PubMed

    Tess, Beatriz Helena; Aith, Fernando Mussa Abujamra

    2014-11-01

    This article analyzes intersectorial health-related policies (IHRP) based on a case study performed in 2008-2009 that mapped the social policies of the city of Piracicaba, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The research strategy comprised quantitative and qualitative methodologies and converging information sources. Legal and theoretical conceptual frameworks were applied to the Piracicaba study results and served as the basis for proposing a typology of IHRP. Three types of IHRP were identified: health policies where the health sector is coordinator but needs non-health sectors to succeed; policies with a sector other than health as coordinator, but which needs health sector collaboration to succeed; and thirdly, genuine intersectorial policies, not led by any one sector but by a specifically-appointed intersectorial coordinator. The authors contend that political commitment of local authorities alone may not be enough to promote efficient intersectorial social policies. Comprehension of different types of IHRP and their interface mechanisms may contribute to greater efficiency and coverage of social policies that affect health equity and its social determinants positively. In the final analysis,, this will lead to more equitable health outcomes.

  14. [A comparative study on severity of tuberculosis cases between those found by periodical chest X-ray examination and those found by symptomatic visit to OPD in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yoshiyama, Takashi; Kato, Jinichi; Wada, Masako; Ogata, Hideo; Ito, Kunihiko

    2003-06-01

    Japanese national tuberculosis control program (NTP) has included indiscriminate chest X-ray examination for adult population. A comparative study on the severity of pulmonary tuberculosis cases in a hospital in Tokyo by the mode of detection (between cases found by periodical check and cases found by symptomatic visit) and previous history of X-ray examination (among cases detected by periodical check, cases detected by symptomatic visit but with previous history of periodical check and cases without history of chest X-ray examination during the past 3 years). The comparison between patients found by symptomatic visit with and without previous history of periodical check showed that there was no difference in the grade of sputum smear positivity at the time of diagnosis but that those without previous history of periodical check were more serious as to chest X-ray findings. The comparison between patients found by symptomatic visit with previous history of periodical check and those detected by the periodical check showed that the grade of smear positivity was less among those found by the periodical check but no difference as to chest X-ray findings, however, comparing cases of these two categories in the age group of 40-59, those detected by the periodical check were less serious as to both X-ray findings and smear result. There were 21 persons who were indicated requiring further investigation but actually were not examined. The severity of tuberculosis among these 21 persons were more serious as to the grade of smear positivity than those detected by periodical X-ray examination.

  15. Evaluation of the level of difficulty of patient cases for veterinary problem-solving examination: a preliminary comparison of three taxonomies of learning.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Heli

    2007-01-01

    An important issue that has received insufficient attention in the use of problem-based learning in the medical curriculum is the mode of assessing the level of difficulty of patient cases. In the present study, the level of difficulty of case-based questions in a veterinary degree final examination in reproduction was evaluated. First, cognitive taxonomies were evaluated to clarify whether qualitative methods such as Bloom's taxonomy, the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy, and the Amsterdam Clinical Challenge Scale (ACCS) differed from each other as evaluation tools for problem-based cases. Using these taxonomies, 30 case-based questions from the final examination in reproduction in the Helsinki veterinary program were initially evaluated to determine which one was best suited to the evaluation of the difficulty of cases. In follow-up, the same cases were also evaluated by an experienced veterinary instructor in reproduction, with the aim of gaining insight into using these approaches to evaluating difficulty. It would appear, from this preliminary assessment, that the SOLO taxonomy may be the most suitable for evaluating the difficulty of patient cases, since the instructor's quality rating resembled more closely the SOLO than the Bloom taxonomy or the ACCS. It is to be emphasized that the purpose of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of possible approaches that might be used to assess patient-case difficulty. Resolving all issues will require a greater number of evaluations of all components.

  16. [Plastic bolting device for the temporomandibular joint for treatment of hypermobility (Re-examination results of the first 28 cases)].

    PubMed

    Schmoker, R; Spiessl, B; Trzeciak, W

    1979-03-01

    Hypermobility of the mandibular condyle may only slightly be influenced by conservative treatment. On the other hand, all surgical methods, except the one described here include a risk factor concerning nerve or blood vessel damage. The present method limits, by plastic surgery, the joint mobility. 28 such operations were checked for results. The cases with recidivating luxation with trismus and blocking of the mandible reacted very favourably. The cases with habitual subluxation without trismus, and the cases with myofacial pain syndrome were not as favorable, objectively seen. Subjectively, however, the patients feel the operation is a success. Further investigation by control checking on late results is indicated.

  17. Certification Examination Cases of Candidates for Certification by the American Board of Plastic Surgery: Trends in Practice Profiles Spanning a Decade (2000–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kevin C.; Song, Jae W.; Shauver, Melissa J.; Cullison, Terry M.; Noone, R. Barrett

    2011-01-01

    Background To evaluate the case mix of plastic surgeons in their early years of practice by examining candidate case-logs submitted for the Oral Examination. Methods De-identified data from 2000–2009 consisting of case-logs submitted by young plastic surgery candidates for the Oral Examination were analyzed. Data consisted of exam year, CPT (Current Procedural Terminology) Codes and the designation of each CPT code as cosmetic or reconstructive by the candidate, and patient age and gender. Subgroup analyses for comprehensive, cosmetic, craniomaxillofacial, and hand surgery modules were performed by using the CPT code list designated by the American Board of Plastic Surgery Maintenance of Certification in Plastic Surgery ( ) module framework. Results We examined case-logs from a yearly average of 261 candidates over 10 years. Wider variations in yearly percent change in median cosmetic surgery case volumes (−62.5% to 30%) were observed when compared to the reconstructive surgery case volumes (−18.0% to 25.7%). Compared to cosmetic surgery cases per candidate, which varied significantly from year-to-year (p<0.0001), reconstructive surgery cases per candidate did not vary significantly (p=0.954). Subgroup analyses of proportions of types of surgical procedures based on CPT code categories, revealed hand surgery to be the least performed procedure relative to comprehensive, craniomaxillofacial, and cosmetic surgery procedures. Conclusions Graduates of plastic surgery training programs are committed to performing a broad spectrum of reconstructive and cosmetic surgical procedures in their first year of practice. However, hand surgery continues to have a small presence in the practice profiles of young plastic surgeons. PMID:21788850

  18. The Effect of Examiner Variation in Cartridge Case Acquisition on IBISreg Correlation Scores and the Ability of the System to Return a True Positive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scicchitano, Kristine M.

    When entering cartridge case exhibits into the Integrated Ballistics Identification System (IBISRTM), examiners have the ability to manually manipulate three parameters: lighting intensity, ring selection and exhibit orientation. User guidelines for these settings are subjective, and the effect of examiner variation is largely unknown. If examiner variation negatively affects the returned correlation scores, the ability of the system to return true positives will be compromised. By entering cartridge cases into IBISRTM 88 separate times, using 88 different combinations of parameter settings, the effect of these variables was determined. Analysis of variance testing revealed that no variable has a statistically significant effect on average true positive combined correlation scores or results list position. This did not change when the parameters were tested individually or in combination. Results indicate that examiner variability of cartridge case image acquisition has no effect on the outcome of IBIS RTM. The system's matching algorithm is robust enough to handle exhibit entry and data collection without the intervention of human input. For this reason, acquisition could be completely automated, allowing examiners to focus on the decision making stage of cartridge case comparison.

  19. A case report of acute dermatitis that developed during an experiment examining the bromination of 3-hexylthiophene

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Occupational cases with allergic reaction to fragrance substances, which refer to various chemicals providing aroma characteristics, are arising with its recent usage diversification from pharmaceutical, perfume industry to aromatic remedies. However, chemicals responsible for fragrance allergy have hardly been identified because its component is complex and its sensitization is not frequent. This report will present a case of acute allergic dermatitis that is likely induced by 3-hexylthiophene, one of aromatic compounds often contained in fragrance substances. The case, who was a 27-year male researcher engaged in organic chemical synthesis for six years, was exposed to 3-hexylthiophene and its product (2-bromo-3-hexylthiophene) through an experiment in May 2004 and itching, swelling and eczema immediately developed from face to back. This case of sensitization to 3-hexylthiophene suggests that it be a possible allergen for fragrance allergy. PMID:20187972

  20. [Comparison of prenatal ultrasound examination, post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and autopsy (a case report--schizencephaly)].

    PubMed

    Vanĕcková, M; Seidl, Z; Goldová, B; Vítková, I; Baxová, A; Calda, P

    2009-06-01

    To improve prenatal diagnostic with a feedback of autopsy, complemented by post mortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is important for malformations of CNS, where autopsy can be insufficient. Case report. MR unit of the Department of radiology, Department of obstetrics and gynaecology and Department of pathology, 1st medical school, Charles University in Prague, General Teaching Hospital. To compare prenatal ultrasound, post mortem MRI and autopsy. Case report documented complementarity of all three method; full agreement in brain malformation type was found.

  1. [Failure to Attend Child Preventive Examination as a Possible Indication of Risk to Children's Welfare: Retrospective Analysis of 605 Cases Reported to the Child Protection Services].

    PubMed

    Hock, S; Graul, C; Herb, S; Nötzel, G; Kieslich, M

    2017-04-01

    Objective: The extent to which childrens's welfare is compromised when they do not attend compulsory prevention medical check-ups is yet to be determined. Together with the Hessen Prevention Center for Children (Hessisches Kindervorsorgezentrum), the Child Protection Services in the Main-Taunus district have conducted a study to investigate failure to attend child preventive examinations as a possible indication of risk to the welfare of such children. Method: 605 notifications of child preventive examinations that were not carried out, sent in 2012 to the Child Protection Services by the Hessen Prevention Center for Children, were analyzed retrospectively. Each case was recorded using a standardized questionnaire and, cases that were passed on to General Social Services within Child Protection Services were investigated with an additional interview with the employee responsible. Results: In 60 (10%) cases there was no certificate to show that the check-up had been conducted, while in 165 (27%) cases the check-up was conducted late, i. e. only after being contacted by the Child Protection Services. In 9 of the 605 cases (1.5%), the families involved were already known to Child Protection Services due to previous proceedings against them under endangering children's welfare act (known as § 8a cases). No new case of a risk to children's welfare was detected. In 58 cases, families gave reasons for the missed or late check-up. Reasons included being abroad and moving house (20 cases), forgetting (14 cases) and illness (11 cases), as well as lack of knowledge of the law (6 cases), lack of health insurance (4 cases), lack of language skills (2 cases) and objection to the law in principle (1 case). It was notable that, in 57% of the cases notified, documentary evidence could be provided by the end of the case work that the check-up had taken place within the recommended period (including additional discretionary period). The majority of these notifications of failure

  2. Informing the Content and Composition of the CCM Certification Examination: A National Study From the Commission for Case Manager Certification: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Tahan, Hussein M; Watson, Annette C; Sminkey, Patrice V

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this national role and function study was to identify the essential activities and necessary knowledge areas of case management practice, meaning the work performed by case managers in various care settings and across diverse professional disciplines. The national study covered case management practices and work settings across the full continuum of health care. This cross-sectional descriptive study used the practice analysis method and online survey research design. The study employed a purposive sample of case managers, in which 52,370 individuals received an invitation to volunteer to participate. Data collection completed over a 4-week period resulted in 7,668 useable survey responses (nearly a 15% response rate). The study identified the common activities and knowledge areas necessary for competent and effective performance of case managers, as was highlighted in Part I of the two-part article series on the role and function study. The results of the study informed the needed update of the test specifications for the Certified Case Manager (CCM) certification examination. This work assures the CCM continues to be substantiated in current practice. Of special note are the emergence of specific activity and knowledge domains in the area of case management ethical, legal, and practice standards, and an increase in the number of employers requiring certified case managers to fill vacant positions and compensating them financially for such qualifications. The role and function study keeps the CCM credentialing examination evidence-based and maintains its validity for evaluating competency of case managers. Findings can be used to develop programs and curricula for the training and education of case managers. The study instrument also can be used for further research of case management practice.

  3. Evaluation of MRI acquisition workflow with lean six sigma method: case study of liver and knee examinations.

    PubMed

    Roth, Christopher J; Boll, Daniel T; Wall, Lisa K; Merkle, Elmar M

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess workflow for medical imaging studies, specifically comparing liver and knee MRI examinations by use of the Lean Six Sigma methodologic framework. The hypothesis tested was that the Lean Six Sigma framework can be used to quantify MRI workflow and to identify sources of inefficiency to target for sequence and protocol improvement. Audio-video interleave streams representing individual acquisitions were obtained with graphic user interface screen capture software in the examinations of 10 outpatients undergoing MRI of the liver and 10 outpatients undergoing MRI of the knee. With Lean Six Sigma methods, the audio-video streams were dissected into value-added time (true image data acquisition periods), business value-added time (time spent that provides no direct patient benefit but is requisite in the current system), and non-value-added time (scanner inactivity while awaiting manual input). For overall MRI table time, value-added time was 43.5% (range, 39.7-48.3%) of the time for liver examinations and 89.9% (range, 87.4-93.6%) for knee examinations. Business value-added time was 16.3% of the table time for the liver and 4.3% of the table time for the knee examinations. Non-value-added time was 40.2% of the overall table time for the liver and 5.8% for the knee examinations. Liver MRI examinations consume statistically significantly more non-value-added and business value-added times than do knee examinations, primarily because of respiratory command management and contrast administration. Workflow analyses and accepted inefficiency reduction frameworks can be applied with use of a graphic user interface screen capture program.

  4. Examining HIV, drug use and risk behaviours: A case study in the custodial settings of Thailand and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Nicholas; Reid, Gary; Dolan, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Custodial settings are high-risk environments for HIV. This paper examines publicly available data about the drug use and risk behaviours of Thai and Indonesian prisoners and outlines a process used to collect new data. In 2005, the Departments of Corrections in Thailand and Indonesia requested researchers examine HIV and drug use issues but the findings are too sensitive to publish. The Departments of Corrections in Thailand and Indonesia are using the results to develop public health responses.

  5. Oak woodland restoration in the Missouri Ozarks: two case studies examining responses of ground flora vegetation to prescribed fire

    Treesearch

    Aaron P. Stevenson

    2016-01-01

    Prescribed fire and thinning are two primary tools for restoring overgrown oak and oak-pine woodlands in Missouri. We wanted to examine woodland restoration efforts and determine if we were meeting our goals of promoting herbaceous ground flora cover and richness. We examined herbaceous responses to fire at two restoration sites in the Missouri Ozarks. At the first...

  6. The diagnostic value of history and physical examination for COPD in suspected or known cases: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Broekhuizen, Berna D L; Sachs, Alfred P E; Oostvogels, Rimke; Hoes, Arno W; Verheij, Theo J M; Moons, Karel G M

    2009-08-01

    According to current guidelines, spirometry should be performed in patients suspected of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by the results of history taking and physical examination. However, little is known about the diagnostic value of patient history and physical examination for COPD. To review the existing evidence on the diagnostic value of history taking and physical examination in recognizing COPD in patients suspected of COPD. A systematic literature search was performed in electronic medical databases. Studies were included after using defined inclusion and exclusion criteria and judged on their methodological quality by using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies criteria. A formal meta-analysis was not performed because all studied items of history and physical examination were investigated in only in a maximum of three studies. Six studies were included. The history items dyspnoea, wheezing, previous consultation for wheezing or cough, self-reported COPD, age and smoking and the physical examination items wheezing, forced expiratory time, laryngeal height and prolonged expiration were found to have diagnostic value for COPD. These items were studied in maximally three studies and study population studies were heterogenic. The reference test for COPD in five of the six studies concerned obstructive lung disease in general and not COPD. There is insufficient evidence to assess the value of history taking and physical examination for diagnosing COPD.

  7. Metabolic and infectious pathologies in Brazilian medical literature: a review.

    PubMed

    Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio

    2010-06-01

    This review of original reports on metabolic and infectious diseases that were recently published in Brazilian journals is designed to inform the readership of CLINICS about their content. I conducted a search in PubMed for original research articles (clinical or basic research) recently published (2008-2009) by Brazilian medical and biological periodicals. Papers on metabolic pathologies were retrieved by searching for appropriate keywords such as metabolic syndrome and obesity. Papers on infectious disease were obtained by entering 15 different keywords for the most commonly occurring pathologies. Review articles, editorials, letters to the editor, and case reports were manually excluded. Selected titles were then categorized into appropriate sub-categories. This search produced a total of 123 articles, which filtered down to 72 articles after eliminating editorials, review articles, letters to the Editor and case reports. Reviewed periodicals were Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Brazilian Journal of Biological and Medical Research, Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Jornal de Pediatria, Jornal de Pneumologia, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade de São Paulo, and São Paulo Medical Journal. The articles were then briefly summarized.

  8. Metabolic and infectious pathologies in Brazilian medical literature: a review

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review of original reports on metabolic and infectious diseases that were recently published in Brazilian journals is designed to inform the readership of CLINICS about their content. METHODS: I conducted a search in PubMed for original research articles (clinical or basic research) recently published (2008–2009) by Brazilian medical and biological periodicals. Papers on metabolic pathologies were retrieved by searching for appropriate keywords such as metabolic syndrome and obesity. Papers on infectious disease were obtained by entering 15 different keywords for the most commonly occurring pathologies. Review articles, editorials, letters to the editor, and case reports were manually excluded. Selected titles were then categorized into appropriate sub-categories. RESULTS: This search produced a total of 123 articles, which filtered down to 72 articles after eliminating editorials, review articles, letters to the Editor and case reports. Reviewed periodicals were Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Brazilian Journal of Biological and Medical Research, Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Jornal de Pediatria, Jornal de Pneumologia, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade de São Paulo, and São Paulo Medical Journal. The articles were then briefly summarized. PMID:20835560

  9. Geochemistry of Brazilian oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, C.C.

    1983-02-01

    A general survey of the main brazilian oil shale formations presenting their location, oil reserve, age and stratigraphy introduces this paper. It is followed by a comparative survey of the data on chemical composition (elementary, minerals and organic constituents/biological markers) and of thermal alteration indexes in order to define their maturity. The geochemical phenomena involved with a large diabase intrusion in the Irati formation is particularly stressed. The analytical methods of Solid Phase Extraction and Functional Group Marker developed for the analysis of bitumens and kerogens and the results obtained from the application of these methods to brazilian oil shales are discussed. The paper ends with a brief description of a comprehensive analytical bibliography on brazilian oil shales prepared to serve as a data base for these organites.

  10. Examining the Relationship between Heart Rate and Problem Behavior: A Case Study of Severe Skin Picking in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott S.; Hammond, Jennifer L.; Hustyi, Kristin M.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between heart rate and self-injurious behavior (SIB) shown by individuals with IDD (intellectual and developmental disabilities). In this single-case study, we simultaneously monitored heart rate and activity levels during a functional analysis of severe skin picking behavior exhibited by a young man with…

  11. An Examination of the Effects of State Level Policy in Changing Professional Preparation: A Case Study of Virginia Principal Preparation Programs and Regulatory Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bost, Dana Nannette

    2009-01-01

    This is a case study of the implementation of 8 VAC 20-542-530(2), a state policy governing the internship component of Virginia principal preparation programs. The purpose of the study was to examine the implementation of the policy and its effectiveness for changing professional practice in Virginia. States hold the responsibility for…

  12. Examining Struggling Male Adolescent Readers' Responses to Graphic Novels: A Multiple Case Study of Four, Eighth-Grade Males in a Graphic Novel Book Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavigan, Karen W.

    2010-01-01

    Although graphic novels are an increasingly popular literary format, there is currently little empirical research that documents their use with struggling male adolescent readers in school settings. The purpose of this multiple case study was to examine the ways in which four struggling, eighth-grade, male readers responded to graphic novels…

  13. Examining the Transition to a Four-Day School Week and Investigating Post-Change Faculty/Staff Work-Life Balance: A Community College Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinale, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    This single descriptive embedded case study examined the process of implementing a four-day work/school week at a community college and investigated post-change faculty/staff work-life balance. All of the students attending this college live at home. The change was implemented due to state funding shortfalls, increasing college utility expenses…

  14. A Case Study Exploring Whether Undergraduate GPA Is Predictive of First-Time Score on the School Leaders Licensure Assessment Examination for Nontraditional Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swatek, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    This case study focused on nontraditional students in a graduate higher education program at a private Midwestern university to determine whether or not undergraduate grade point average (GPA) was a predictor of success. Success was defined as the first score earned on the School Leaders Licensure Assessment (SLLA) examination. A linear regression…

  15. An Examination of the Effects of State Level Policy in Changing Professional Preparation: A Case Study of Virginia Principal Preparation Programs and Regulatory Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bost, Dana Nannette

    2009-01-01

    This is a case study of the implementation of 8 VAC 20-542-530(2), a state policy governing the internship component of Virginia principal preparation programs. The purpose of the study was to examine the implementation of the policy and its effectiveness for changing professional practice in Virginia. States hold the responsibility for…

  16. Examining the Relationship between Heart Rate and Problem Behavior: A Case Study of Severe Skin Picking in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott S.; Hammond, Jennifer L.; Hustyi, Kristin M.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between heart rate and self-injurious behavior (SIB) shown by individuals with IDD (intellectual and developmental disabilities). In this single-case study, we simultaneously monitored heart rate and activity levels during a functional analysis of severe skin picking behavior exhibited by a young man with…

  17. What We Can Learn from the Data: A Multiple-Case Study Examining Behavior Patterns by Students with Different Characteristics in Using a Serious Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; Lee, Jaejin; Kang, Jina; Liu, Sa

    2016-01-01

    Using a multi-case approach, we examined students' behavior patterns in interacting with a serious game environment using the emerging technologies of learning analytics and data visualization in order to understand how the patterns may vary according to students' learning characteristics. The results confirmed some preliminary findings from our…

  18. Examining Struggling Male Adolescent Readers' Responses to Graphic Novels: A Multiple Case Study of Four, Eighth-Grade Males in a Graphic Novel Book Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavigan, Karen W.

    2010-01-01

    Although graphic novels are an increasingly popular literary format, there is currently little empirical research that documents their use with struggling male adolescent readers in school settings. The purpose of this multiple case study was to examine the ways in which four struggling, eighth-grade, male readers responded to graphic novels…

  19. What We Can Learn from the Data: A Multiple-Case Study Examining Behavior Patterns by Students with Different Characteristics in Using a Serious Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; Lee, Jaejin; Kang, Jina; Liu, Sa

    2016-01-01

    Using a multi-case approach, we examined students' behavior patterns in interacting with a serious game environment using the emerging technologies of learning analytics and data visualization in order to understand how the patterns may vary according to students' learning characteristics. The results confirmed some preliminary findings from our…

  20. Examining the Transition to a Four-Day School Week and Investigating Post-Change Faculty/Staff Work-Life Balance: A Community College Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinale, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    This single descriptive embedded case study examined the process of implementing a four-day work/school week at a community college and investigated post-change faculty/staff work-life balance. All of the students attending this college live at home. The change was implemented due to state funding shortfalls, increasing college utility expenses…

  1. Anthropophagy: a singular concept to understand Brazilian culture and psychology as specific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Arthur Arruda Leal

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work is to present the singularity of the concept of anthropophagy in Brazilian culture. This article examines its use in the Modernist Movement of the 1920s and explores the possibilities it creates for thinking about Brazilian culture in nonidentitarian terms. We then use the concept of anthropophagy in a broader, practical sense to understand psychology as a kind of anthropophagical knowledge. We do so because in many ways the discipline of psychology is similar to Brazilian culture in its plurality and complexity.

  2. A New Model to Facilitate Individualized Case Conceptualization and Treatment of Social Phobia: An Examination and Reaction to Moscovitch's Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimberg, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Moscovitch's (2009) model of social phobia is put forth as an integration and extension of previous cognitive-behavioral models. The author asserts that his approach overcomes a number of shortcomings of previous models and will serve to better guide case conceptualization, treatment planning, and intervention implementation for clients with…

  3. Diverse Aims, Challenges and Opportunities for Assessing Outdoor Learning: A Critical Examination of Three Cases from Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Sue; Rutter, Orlando; Fowle, Adrian; Edwards-Jones, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we consider the term "assessment", its relationship to "evaluation" and the implications for outdoor learning in the light of changing educational policy on assessment in England. A small-scale empirical study of how assessment was practised by two primary teachers on a residential trip and two further cases in…

  4. A Case Study Examining the Influence of Dual Enrollment and High School Advising on Student Persistence in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raia-Taylor, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative,descriptive single case study describes the problem of student persistence in college through the theoretical lens of Alexander Astin's Theory of Student Involvement, and Vincent Tinto's Theory of Student Departure. The decline in the college retention rate in the United States over the last twenty years and the high…

  5. A Case Study of Teacher Reflection: Examining Teacher Participation in a Video-Based Professional Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steeg, Susanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Professional learning communities (PLCs) constitute worthwhile spaces in which to study teacher participation in the reflective practices that have potential to shift their teaching. This qualitative case study details the interactions between dual-language and ELL teachers in a grade-level PLC as they met together to confer over video-clips of…

  6. The Philosophical Foundation of the Lecture Method of Instruction and the Case Method of Instruction: Implications for Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardalan, Kavous

    2013-01-01

    Any adequate comparison between the lecture method of instruction and the case method of instruction necessarily requires a comparison of their underlying philosophical foundation and methodology. This is based on the premise that foundational philosophies or world views underlie educational philosophies, and each educational philosophy favors a…

  7. An Examination into the Factors Leading to Superintendent Longevity in Urban, Southern California School Districts: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remland, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Within a modern context, superintendents walk a fine line in today's reform minded, accountability centered, sociopolitical setting. To many, the position of public school superintendent is perceived as a job where failure is inevitable. The purpose of this comparative case study was to understand the factors that contribute to superintendent…

  8. Response to Intervention: Using Single-Case Design to Examine the Impact of Tier 2 Mathematics Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenzuela, Vanessa V.; Gutierrez, Gabriel; Lambros, Katina M.

    2014-01-01

    An A-B single-case design assessed at-risk students' responsiveness to mathematics interventions. Four culturally and linguistically diverse second-grade students were given a Tier 2 standard protocol mathematics intervention that included number sense instruction, modeling procedures, guided math drill and practice of addition and subtraction…

  9. A Case Study Examining the Influence of Dual Enrollment and High School Advising on Student Persistence in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raia-Taylor, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative,descriptive single case study describes the problem of student persistence in college through the theoretical lens of Alexander Astin's Theory of Student Involvement, and Vincent Tinto's Theory of Student Departure. The decline in the college retention rate in the United States over the last twenty years and the high…

  10. A Case Study to Examine Student Retention at a Less Selective University with a High Rate of Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmisano, Victoria M.

    2012-01-01

    This case study sheds light on successful matriculation practices which emerge from the combination of institutional efforts and student needs. In order to discern successful matriculation data was collected in the form of interviews, observations, and documents at a less selective college with a high rate of retention. Mortimer Adler College…

  11. Examining the Epistemology of Impact and Success of Educational Interventions Using a Reflective Case Study of University Bursaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil; McCaig, Colin

    2017-01-01

    This paper engages with the continuing emphasis given to evidence-based policy and "what works" approaches in educational research, highlighting some of the continuing epistemological challenges from a post-positivist perspective. To illustrate these, it uses the case of bursaries awarded by universities to improve outcomes for students…

  12. A New Model to Facilitate Individualized Case Conceptualization and Treatment of Social Phobia: An Examination and Reaction to Moscovitch's Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimberg, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Moscovitch's (2009) model of social phobia is put forth as an integration and extension of previous cognitive-behavioral models. The author asserts that his approach overcomes a number of shortcomings of previous models and will serve to better guide case conceptualization, treatment planning, and intervention implementation for clients with…

  13. Diverse Aims, Challenges and Opportunities for Assessing Outdoor Learning: A Critical Examination of Three Cases from Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Sue; Rutter, Orlando; Fowle, Adrian; Edwards-Jones, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we consider the term "assessment", its relationship to "evaluation" and the implications for outdoor learning in the light of changing educational policy on assessment in England. A small-scale empirical study of how assessment was practised by two primary teachers on a residential trip and two further cases in…

  14. Examining the relationship between fire history and sudden oak death patterns: a case study in Sonoma County

    Treesearch

    Max A. Moritz; Dennis C. Odion

    2006-01-01

    Fire is often integral to forest ecology and can affect forest disease dynamics. Sudden oak death has spread across a large, fire-prone portion of California, killing large numbers of oaks and tanoaks and infecting most associated woody plants. Building on our earlier study of fire-disease dynamics, we examined spatial patterns of confirmed infections in relation to...

  15. Examining the Effectiveness of Primary Sources during Close Reading in Social Studies: A Case Study of Middle School Resource Rooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Stephen T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of using primary sources to support close reading in social studies among students with disabilities in grade 7 middle school resource rooms. The setting is a middle school in a suburban school district located in Western New York. Two resource rooms of 10 students with reading or writing difficulties were…

  16. An Examination of a Virtual Private Network Implementation to Support a Teleworking Initiative: The Marcus Food Company Inc. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Jason W.

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, the author examined the capabilities of virtual private networks (VPNs) in supporting teleworking environments for small businesses in the food marketing sector. The goal of this research was to develop an implementation model for small businesses in the food marketing sector that use a VPN solution to support teleworker…

  17. Examining Education, Media, and Dialogue under Occupation: The Case of Palestine and Israel. Critical Language and Literacy Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Ilham; Berlin, Lawrence N.; Wong, Shelley

    2011-01-01

    This book is an in-depth examination of education and media under occupation. The contributors to this volume engage dialogue to explore these domains and their roles and functioning under occupation while keeping an eye toward resolution, using the on-going conflict between Palestine and Israel as the focus. The uniqueness of this collection is…

  18. Examining Education, Media, and Dialogue under Occupation: The Case of Palestine and Israel. Critical Language and Literacy Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasser, Ilham; Berlin, Lawrence N.; Wong, Shelley

    2011-01-01

    This book is an in-depth examination of education and media under occupation. The contributors to this volume engage dialogue to explore these domains and their roles and functioning under occupation while keeping an eye toward resolution, using the on-going conflict between Palestine and Israel as the focus. The uniqueness of this collection is…

  19. An Examination of the Design, Development, and Implementation of an Internet Protocol Version 6 Network: The ADTRAN Inc. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perigo, Levi

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, the author examined the capabilities of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) in regard to replacing Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) as the internetworking technology for Medium-sized Businesses (MBs) in the Information Systems (IS) field. Transition to IPv6 is inevitable, and, thus, organizations are adopting this protocol…

  20. An Examination of a Virtual Private Network Implementation to Support a Teleworking Initiative: The Marcus Food Company Inc. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Jason W.

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, the author examined the capabilities of virtual private networks (VPNs) in supporting teleworking environments for small businesses in the food marketing sector. The goal of this research was to develop an implementation model for small businesses in the food marketing sector that use a VPN solution to support teleworker…