Science.gov

Sample records for brazilian codling urophycis

  1. Redescription of Urophycis brasiliensis (Kaup 1858), a senior synonym of Urophycis latus Miranda Ribeiro 1903 (Gadiformes: Phycidae).

    PubMed

    Lemes, Paola C R; Loeb, Marina V; Santificetur, César; Melo, Marcelo R S

    2016-02-29

    Urophycis Gill 1864 is a genus of demersal fish composed by eight valid species with anti-tropical distributions in the western Atlantic. Only two species occur in the South Atlantic: U. brasiliensis (Kaup 1858) and U. mystacea Miranda Ribeiro 1903. These species have similar ranges from southeastern Brazil to northern Argentina, but U. brasiliensis occurs in more shallow waters than U. mystacea. Both species are important fishery resources in southern Brazil and Uruguay. Herein, we redescribe U. brasiliensis based on comparison of types and additional specimens, including the description of the Sagitta otolith, formerly place U. latus Miranda Ribeiro 1903 as a junior synonym of U. brasiliensis, and provide an updated map of distribution.

  2. Codling moth management and chemical ecology.

    PubMed

    Witzgall, Peter; Stelinski, Lukasz; Gut, Larry; Thomson, Don

    2008-01-01

    Lepidopteran insects use sex pheromones to communicate for mating. Olfactory communication and mate-finding can be prevented by permeating the atmosphere with synthetic pheromone. Pheromone-mediated mating disruption has become a commercially viable pest management technique and is used to control the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, a key insect pest of apple, on 160,000 ha worldwide. The codling moth sex pheromone, codlemone, is species specific and nontoxic. Orchard treatments with up to 100 grams of synthetic codlemone per hectare effectively control codling moth populations over the entire growing season. Practical implementation of the mating disruption technique has been realized at an opportune time, as codling moth has become resistant to many insecticides. We review codling moth chemical ecology and factors underlying the behavioral mechanisms and practical implementation of mating disruption. Area-wide programs are the result of collaborative efforts between academic research institutions, extension, chemical industries, and grower organizations, and they demonstrate the environmental and economic relevance of pheromone research.

  3. Parasites of Urophycis brasiliensis (Gadiformes: Phycidae) as indicators of marine ecoregions in coastal areas of the South American Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Aldenice N; Pantoja, Camila; Luque, José L; Timi, Juan T

    2014-11-01

    The potential value of parasites as ecosystem markers was tested by analyzing the metazoan assemblages of Urophycis brasiliensis caught in four locations distributed in three ecoregions of the Warm Temperate Southwestern Atlantic. A total of 5,001 metazoan parasites belonging to 33 species were found. The identified parasites varied across locations in terms of presence, prevalence, and abundance, and their multivariate analyses resulted in clear similarity patterns. No differences were observed between two locations of the same ecoregion, whereas an evident separation of samples was observed across ecoregions in support of the existing hypotheses regarding the ecoregional division of the southwestern Atlantic. We proposed that parasite assemblages, which are composed of several metazoan phyla, are potentially useful as ecosystem indicators. This suggestion is derived from the combined evidence of the evolutionary history and biogeography of multiple lineages, which is expected to be more efficient in capturing recurrent patterns in overall biodiversity than individual lineages. Furthermore, as many parasites have complex life cycles, their distribution patterns are dependent not only on environmental conditions but also on the distribution and population density of all hosts involved in their life cycles, adding further sources of distributional variability that act synergistically to define robust geographical patterns. The selection of long-lived parasites and their comparative analysis provided evidence supporting the existence of three different stocks in the four sampled areas. The best parasite tags were those with low specificity in fish hosts, constituting promising biological tags for the stock discrimination of other fish species in the region.

  4. Codling Moth has a New Calendar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted in 10 apple orchards in Washington State from 2003-2006 to characterize the seasonal cumulative curves of codling moth flight and the occurrence of fruit injury. Data from each generation were fit to logistic curves and these data were compared to a current widely-used model. ...

  5. Effects of short photoperiod on codling moth diapause and survival

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential presence of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in apples shipped to countries within the 30th latitudes has raised concerns that this pest could establish and spread in these countries. Previous research demonstrated that codling moth in apples handled under simulated commercial cold st...

  6. Effects of short photoperiod on codling moth diapause and survival.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2013-02-01

    The potential presence of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in apples shipped to countries within the 30th latitudes has raised concerns that this pest could establish and spread in these countries. Previous research demonstrated that codling moth in apples handled under simulated commercial cold storage conditions and held under short day lengths could not break diapause and emerge in sufficient numbers to establish a minimum viable population. This study expands the in-fruit work by examining the ability of codling moth to establish a laboratory population under a short photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, as compared with a long photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. Codling moth larvae were collected from field infested fruits in 2010 and 2011. Moths were collected from the infested fruits and separated into two groups representing the two daylength conditions. In total, 1,004 larvae were monitored for adult emergence and ability to generate a subsequent population. Larvae held under the photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h generated only one moth in the 2 yr period, whereas larvae held under the photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h generated 186 females and 179 males, that sustained subsequent generations on artificial diet under laboratory conditions. These results indicate that under controlled environmental conditions, codling moth cannot complete diapause and emerge in sufficient numbers to sustain a viable population when held under a short photoperiod.

  7. Worldwide Variability of Insecticide Resistance Mechanisms in the Codling Moth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Known resistance mechanisms including the action of detoxifying enzymes and insensitive variants of target proteins were examined in individual male and female moths from 29 populations of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L collected in 11 countries in Africa, Europe, North America and the Australian c...

  8. Monitoring and Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted in two ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with sex pheromone in southern Oregon to implement the use of site-specific management practices for codling moth. The density of monitoring traps was increased and insecticide sprays were applied based on moth catch thresholds. Only porti...

  9. Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely with Semiochemicals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Site-specific management practices for codling moth were implemented in ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with aerosol puffers releasing sex pheromone in southern Oregon during 2008 and 2009. The density of monitoring traps baited with sex pheromone and pear ester was increased and insecticide sprays w...

  10. Combining Pear Ester with Codlemone Improves Management of Codling Moth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several management approaches utilizing pear ester combined with codlemone have been developed in the first 10 years after the discovery of this ripe pear fruit volatile’s kairomonal activity for larvae and both sexes of codling moth. These include a lure that consistently outperforms other high loa...

  11. Rapid Assessment of the Sex of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two different methods were tested to identify the sex of the early developmental stages of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with a WZ/ZZ (female/male) sex chromosome system. Firstly, it was shown that the sex of all larval stages can be easily determined by the ...

  12. Effects of Temperature and Controlled Atmospheres on Codling Moth Metabolism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although controlled atmosphere temperature treatments are effective in controlling codling moth in fruit, the mechanism by which this combination treatment kills the larvae is unknown. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the effects of elevated temperatures, low oxygen, and high ...

  13. Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Establishment in China: Stages of Invasion and Potential Future Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongyu; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) is an internal feeding pest of apples and can cause substantial economic losses to fruit growers due to larval feeding which in turn degrades fruit quality and can result in complete crop loss if left uncontrolled. Although this pest originally developed in central Asia, it was not known to occur in China until 1953. For the first three decades the spread of codling moth within China was slow. Within the last three decades, addition of new commercial apple orchards and improved transportation, this pest has spread to over 131 counties in seven provinces in China. We developed regional (China) and global ecological niche models using MaxEnt to identify areas at highest potential risk of codling moth establishment and spread. Our objectives were to 1) predict the potential distribution of codling moth in China, 2) identify the important environmental factors associated with codling moth distribution in China, and 3) identify the different stages of invasion of codling moth in China. Human footprint, annual temperature range, precipitation of wettest quarter, and degree days ≥10 °C were the most important predictors associated with codling moth distribution. Our analysis identified areas where codling moth has the potential to establish, and mapped the different stages of invasion (i.e., potential for population stabilization, colonization, adaptation, and sink) of codling moth in China. Our results can be used in effective monitoring and management to stem the spread of codling moth in China.

  14. “This is not an apple”–yeast mutualism in codling moth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    1. The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes lar...

  15. Gut content analysis of arthropod predators of codling moth in Washington apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    More than 70% of pome fruits in the USA are produced in central Washington State. The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) is consistently the most damaging pest. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify codling moth DNA in 2591 field-collected arthropod predators to estimate predation in s...

  16. Combining mutualistic yeast and pathogenic virus - a novel method for control for codling moth control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies evaluated the lethal effectiveness of combining yeasts isolated from larvae of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) with the codling moth granulosis virus (CpGV). Apples were treated with CpGV and three yeast species, including Metschnikowia pulcherrima Pitt and Miller, Cryptococcus tephrensis...

  17. Evaluating dispensers loaded with codlemone and pear ester for disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were compared with similar dispensers and a commercial dispenser (Isomate®-C Plus) loaded with codle...

  18. The chemosensory receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella – expression in larvae and adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide key pest of apple and pear. Behavior-modifying semiochemicals are successfully used and are being further developed for environmentally safe control of codling moth. The chemical senses, olfaction and gustation, play critically important role...

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment on development of codling moth larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffitt, H.R.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-03-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to gamma radiation at doses upto 160 Gy. Following irradiation the larvae were permited further development, pupation and adult emergence. The number of adults emerging, mature larvae and pupae present were determined. Data from these studies will be used to predict doses of gamma irradiation required as a quarantine treatment to prevent emergence of codling moth adults from fruit infested by larvae. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Reduced egg viability in codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) following adult exposure to novaluron.

    PubMed

    Gökçe, Ayhan; Kim, Soo-Hoon S; Wise, John C; Whalon, Mark E

    2009-03-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is one of the principal pests of pome fruits in the world. The effects of novaluron, a benzoylurea chitin synthesis inhibitor insecticide registered for use on apples in the USA, on fecundity and egg viability in codling moth were studied under laboratory conditions. Three different exposure methods were investigated: ingestion, contact and topical spray. Additionally, the duration of novaluron sublethal effects was measured subsequent to the three modes of exposure. The fecundity of codling moth adults was not significantly affected by novaluron with any of the exposure methods. However, novaluron did cause significant reductions in the proportion of egg hatch with all three exposure methods. The duration of sublethal effects was 9 days or more for all modes of exposure, but with the topical spray these effects began to diminish after 6 days. Novaluron does not affect fecundity in codling moth, but has significant sublethal activity by reducing egg viability subsequent to adult exposure. The topical, contact and ingestion exposures all induce sublethal effects after exposure, and these persist to various degrees throughout codling moth oviposition. A more complete understanding of novaluron's lethal and sublethal activities will help IPM practitioners optimize its use for management of the codling moth. 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Development of a rapid resistance monitoring bioassay for codling moth larvae.

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Van Kretschmar, Jaap B; Barlow, Vonny M; Roe, R Michael; Walgenbach, James F

    2012-06-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is one of the most important pests of apple worldwide. Use of insecticides for management of this insect has been extensive and has resulted in resistance development. There are a number of different bioassay methods to monitor for codling moth resistance; however, many are not applicable to new insecticides and most are time consuming. A novel 16-well plasticware bioassay plate containing lyophilized diet was developed for rapid resistance monitoring of codling moth. The contact insecticides acetamiprid and azinphosmethyl were significantly more toxic to neonates than to fourth instars. However, there was no significant difference in LC(50) values between neonates and fourth instars to the ingestion insecticides chlorantraniliprole, methoxyfenozide, novaluron and spinetoram. Field colonies of codling moth were significantly more resistant to methoxyfenozide than susceptible populations. A diagnostic dose of 20 µg mL(-1) (LC(99) ) was established to monitor for codling moth resistance to methoxyfenozide. The results presented here demonstrate that a novel and rapid bioassay can be used to monitor for codling moth resistance to methoxyfenozide. The bioassay method is relevant to both ingestion and contact insecticides, but a single diagnostic dose, regardless of larval age, is only relevant to ingestion insecticides. Age-dependent diagnostic doses are likely necessary for contact insecticides. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Comparison of delayed female mating on reproductive biology of codling moth and obliquebanded leafroller.

    PubMed

    Jones, Vincent P; Wiman, Nik G; Brunner, Jay F

    2008-06-01

    Delay of mating was examined as a possible mechanism for population decreases associated with mating disruption for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., and obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). We examined the effect of delaying female mating 0, 2, 4, or 6 d while holding male age constant on life table parameters of both species. We found that increasing delays in mating were accompanied by two responses: (1) an increase in the percentage of sterile pairs and (2) a reduction in net reproductive rate and population growth unrelated to sterility. On a percentage basis, obliquebanded leafroller population growth was more strongly affected than codling moth. However, the net fertility rate of obliquebanded leafroller was nearly eight-fold higher than that of codling moth, so that obliquebanded leafroller females that experienced a 4-d delay in mating had nearly the same reproductive rate as codling moth females that experienced no delay. Leslie matrix simulations using life tables with field-based adult longevity estimates showed that codling moth females experiencing >2-d delay in mating resulted in decreases in population density or extinction within two generations. In contrast, obliquebanded leafroller females delayed <6 d showed rapid population growth that decreased as female age at mating increased; only the 6-d delay treatment resulted in decreased population levels. Our results indicate that obliquebanded leafroller females must on average experience a much longer delay in mating to significantly reduce population growth compared with codling moth females, suggesting that delay of mating likely plays a greater role in codling moth mating disruption than for obliquebanded leafroller.

  3. Apple volatiles synergize the response of codling moth to pear ester.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Cole, Lyn; Revell, John; Manning, Lee-Anne; Twidle, Andrew; Knight, Alan L; Bus, Vincent G M; Suckling, David M

    2013-05-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major cosmopolitan pest of apple and other pome fruits. Ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) has been identified as a host-derived kairomone for female and male codling moths. However, pear ester has not performed similarly in different fruit production areas in terms of the relative magnitude of moth catch, especially the proportion of females caught. Our work was undertaken to identify host volatiles from apples, and to investigate whether these volatiles can be used to enhance the efficacy of host kairomone pear ester for monitoring female and male codling moths. Volatiles from immature apple trees were collected in the field using dynamic headspace sampling during the active period of codling moth flight. Using gas chromatography-electroantennogram detector (GC/EAD) analysis, six compounds elicited responses from antennae of females. These compounds were identified by GC/mass spectrometry (MS) and comparisons to authentic standards as nonanal, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, (Z,E)-α-farnesene, and (E,E)-α-farnesene. When the EAD-active compounds were tested individually in the field, no codling moths were caught except for a single male with decanal. However, addition of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, or (E,E)-α-farnesene to pear ester in a binary mixture enhanced the efficacy of pear ester for attracting female codling moths compared to pear ester alone. Addition of the 6-component blend to the pear ester resulted in a significant increase in the number of males attracted, and enhanced the females captured compared to pear ester alone; the number of males and females caught was similar to that with the pear ester plus acetic acid combination lure. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to synergize the response of codling moth to host kairomone by using other host volatiles. The new apple-pear ester host kairomone blend

  4. Effect of rearing strategy and gamma radiation on fecundity and fertility of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a serious pest of pome fruit worldwide. In an effort to reduce the use of pesticides to control this pest, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being used or considered as an integrated pest control tactic. Rearing codling moths through diapause has been...

  5. Combined heat and controlled atmosphere quarantine treatments for control of codling moth in sweet cherries.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2005-06-01

    Nonchemical quarantine treatments, using a combination of short-duration high temperatures under low oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide atmospheric environment were developed to control codling moth in sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.). The two treatments developed are a chamber temperature of 45 degrees C for 45 min and a chamber temperature of 47 degreesC for 25 min under a 1% oxygen, 15% carbon dioxide, -2 degrees C dew point environment. Both these treatments have been shown to provide control of all life stages of codling moth while preserving commodity market quality. The third and fourth instars of codling moth are equally tolerant to CATTS treatments and are the most tolerant immature stages to these treatments. We determined that low levels of oxygen are more important than elevated carbon dioxide in achieving high levels of insect mortality. Efficacy tests of both treatments resulted in 100% mortality of 5000 third instars of codling moth in each treatment. These treatments may be used to provide quarantine security in exported sweet cherries where codling moth is a quarantine concern and fumigation with methyl bromide is not desired.

  6. Toxicity of Six Insecticides on Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Effect on Expression of Detoxification Genes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Wu, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Barros-Parada, Wilson

    2016-02-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a key worldwide fruit pest that has evolved high levels of resistance to almost all classes of conventional insecticides. Neonicotinoids, a new reduced-risk biorational insecticide class, have remained an effective control approach. In this study, the toxicity and sublethal effect of conventional and reduced-risk biorational insecticides on transcripts abundance of three detoxification genes in codling moth were determined. Bioassays on a codling moth laboratory strain suggested that acetamiprid had the highest oral toxicity against the third-instar larvae compared with the other five pesticides. Results also indicated that acetamiprid exhibits long-term efficacy against codling moth even at 120 h post feeding. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the detoxification genes CYP9A61, CpGST1, and CpCE-1 were differentially induced or suppressed by deltamethrin, cypermethrin, methomyl, carbaryl, and imidacloprid, depending on the type of insecticides; in contrast, no significant difference in CYP9A61, CpGST1, and CpCE-1 expressions were observed after acetamiprid exposure, when compared with the control. These results suggest that the reduced-risk biorational insecticide acetamiprid is an effective insecticide with no induction of detoxification genes and can be integrated into the management of codling moth.

  7. Population genetic structure of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from apple orchards in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo; Espinoza, Juan L; Lavandero, Blas; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2008-02-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the main pest of pome fruits worldwide. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the genetic structure and patterns of dispersal at the local and regional scale, which are important aspects for establishing a control strategy for this pest. An analysis of genetic variability using microsatellites was performed for 11 codling moth populations in the two major apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cropping regions in central Chile. Despite the geographical distances between some populations (approximately 185 km), there was low genetic differentiation among populations (F(ST) = 0.002176), with only slight isolation by distance. Only approximately 0.2% of the genetic variability was found among the populations. Geographically structured genetic variation was independent of apple orchard management (production or abandoned). These results suggest a high genetic exchange of codling moth between orchards, possibly mediated by human activities related to fruit production.

  8. Genetic transformation of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., with piggyBac EGFP.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Holly J; Neven, Lisa G; Thibault, Stephen T; Mohammed, Ahmed; Fraser, Malcolm

    2011-02-01

    Genetic transformation of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, was accomplished through embryo microinjection with a plasmid-based piggyBac vector containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. Sequencing of the flanking regions around the inserted construct resulted in identification of insect genomic sequences, not plasmid sequences, thus providing evidence that the piggyBac EGFP cassette had integrated into the codling moth genome. EGFP-positive moths were confirmed in the 28th and earlier generations post injection through PCR and Southern blot analyses, indicating heritability of the transgene.

  9. N-Butyl sulfide as an attractant and coattractant for male and female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Landolt, Peter J; Ohler, Bonnie; Lo, Peter; Cha, Dong; Davis, Thomas S; Suckling, David M; Brunner, Jay

    2014-04-01

    Research to discover and develop attractants for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., has involved identification of the chemicals eliciting moth orientation to conspecific female moths, host fruits, fermented baits, and species of microbes. Pear ester, acetic acid, and N-butyl sulfide are among those chemicals reported to attract or enhance attractiveness to codling moth. We evaluated the trapping of codling moth with N-butyl sulfide alone and in combination with acetic acid and pear ester in apple orchards. Acetic acid was attractive in two tests and N-butyl sulfide was attractive in one of two tests. N-Butyl sulfide increased catches of codling moth when used with acetic acid to bait traps. N-Butyl sulfide also increased catches of codling moth when added to traps baited with the combination of acetic acid and pear ester. Male and female codling moth both responded to these chemicals and chemical combinations. These results provide a new three-component lure comprising N-butyl sulfide, acetic acid, and pear ester that is stronger for luring codling moth females than other attractants tested.

  10. Aerosol emitters disrupt codling moth, Cydia pomonella, competitively.

    PubMed

    McGhee, Peter S; Gut, Larry J; Miller, James R

    2014-12-01

    Isomate(®) CM MIST aerosol emitters (Pacific BioControl Corp, Vancouver, WA) containing 36 g of codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, were deployed at various densities in a commercial apple orchard to generate dosage-response profiles in order to elucidate the behavioral mechanism of disruption. Moth captures decreased asymptotically as Isomate(®) CM MIST densities increased. Data fitting to Miller-Gut and Miller-de Lame plots yielded straight lines, with positive and negative slopes respectively. Catch of male moths decreased from 28 trap(-1) in the control to 0.9 trap(-1) at the highest emitter density. Disruption of >90% was realized at emitter densities greater than 5 units ha(-1) . The resulting set of profiles explicitly matched the predictions for competitive rather than non-competitive disruption. Thus, these devices probably disrupt by inducing false-plume following rather than by camouflaging traps and females. The use of 5 MIST units ha(-1) would be necessary to achieve the same level of codling moth control provided by a standard pheromone treatment with passive reservoir dispensers. The need for only a few aerosol emitters, 2.5-5 units ha(-1) , mitigates the cost of labor required to hand-apply hundreds of passive reservoir dispensers; however, a potential weakness in using this technology is that the low deployment density may leave areas of little or no pheromone coverage, where mate finding may occur. This technology is likely to benefit substantially from treatment of large contiguous blocks of crop. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diapausing 5th instars of codling moth, Cydia pomonella, are serious quarantine pests of in-shell walnuts. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling this pest in walnuts...

  12. Resistance in Cydia pomonella to the Codling Moth Granulovirus in Europe: Could It Happen Here?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the most specific control agents of codling moth (CM) is the granulovirus (CpGV) discovered in Mexico in 1963. Although first evaluated in North America, its commercial development and widespread use began in Europe. Use of CpGV has increased considerably in North America since 2000, especial...

  13. The Effect of Temperature on the Long Term Storage of Codling Moth Granulovirus Formulations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We assessed the long-term stability and storage potential of two commercial formulations of the codling moth granulovirus (CpGV), ‘Cyd-X’ and ‘Virosoft’. All assays were performed with individual neonate larvae in 2 ml vials on 1 ml of artificial larval diet that was surface inoculated with 10 'l of...

  14. Combined approaches using sex pheromone and pear ester for behavioral disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies utilized the attractive properties of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., for behavioural disruption. Standard dispensers loaded with codlemone alone or in combination with pear ester (c...

  15. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in orchards treated with pear ester and sex pheromone combo dispensers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lures for monitoring codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in apple and walnut blocks treated with Cidetrak CM-DA Combo dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E, Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE), and sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Total and female moth catches with combin...

  16. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  17. Apple volatiles synergize the response of codling moth to pear ester

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This work was undertaken to identify host volatiles from apples and investigate whether these can be used to enhance the efficacy of pear ester, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, for monitoring female and male codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. Volatiles from immature apple trees were collected in the f...

  18. Evaluation of traps and lures for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the use of several trap – lure combinations to improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple, Malus domestica Bordk. Treatments included the use of clear, orange and white traps baited with one or more of the followin...

  19. Tolerance of codling moth and apple quality associated with low-pressure/low-temperature treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of effective low-pressure/low-temperature (LPLT) disinfestation treatments for fresh fruits requires knowledge on the tolerance of target insects to the LPLT treatment environment. In this study, different life stages of codling moth (eggs, 2nd-3rd instar larvae, 5th instar larvae and pu...

  20. Combining mutualistic yeast and pathogenic virus--a novel method for codling moth control.

    PubMed

    Knight, Alan L; Witzgall, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The combination of a pathogenic virus and mutualistic yeasts isolated from larvae of codling moth Cydia pomonella is proposed as a novel insect control technique. Apples were treated with codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) and either one of three yeasts, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Cryptococcus tephrensis, or Aureobasidium pullulans. The combination of yeasts with CpGV significantly increased mortality of neonate codling moth larvae, compared with CpGV alone. The three yeasts were equally efficient in enhancing the activity of CpGV. The addition of brown cane sugar to yeast further increased larval mortality and the protection of fruit against larvae. In comparison, without yeast, the addition of sugar to CpGV did not produce a significant effect. A field trial confirmed that fruit injury and larval survival were significantly reduced when apple trees were sprayed with CpGV, M. pulcherrima, and sugar. We have shown earlier that mutualistic yeasts are an essential part of codling moth larval diet. The finding that yeast also enhances larval ingestion of an insect-pathogenic virus is an opportunity for the development of a novel plant protection technique. We expect the combination of yeasts and insect pathogens to essentially contribute to future insect management.

  1. The chemosensory receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella–expression in larvae and adults

    PubMed Central

    Walker, William B.; Gonzalez, Francisco; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Witzgall, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Olfaction and gustation play critical roles in the life history of insects, mediating vital behaviors such as food, mate and host seeking. Chemosensory receptor proteins, including odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs) function to interface the insect with its chemical environment. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide pest of apple, pear and walnut, and behavior-modifying semiochemicals are used for environmentally safe control. We produced an Illumina-based transcriptome from antennae of males and females as well as neonate head tissue, affording a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the codling moth chemosensory receptor repertoire. We identified 58 ORs, 20 GRs and 21 IRs, and provide a revised nomenclature that is consistent with homologous sequences in related species. Importantly, we have identified several OR transcripts displaying sex-biased expression in adults, as well as larval-enriched transcripts. Our analyses have expanded annotations of the chemosensory receptor gene families, and provide first-time transcript abundance estimates for codling moth. The results presented here provide a strong foundation for future work on codling moth behavioral physiology and ecology at the molecular level, and may lead to the development of more precise biorational control strategies. PMID:27006164

  2. Impact of Kairomones on Moth Pest Management: Pear Ester and the Codling Moth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Codling moth (CM) is the major pest of apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Our focus is to develop novel, species-specific monitoring and control systems based on host-plant odors, kairomones. In 1998 ‘pear ester’ (PE), ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, was identified as a powerful kairomonal attra...

  3. Efficacy and safety of nitric oxide fumigation for controlling codling moth in apples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were...

  4. Codling moth establishment in China: stages of invasion and potential future distribution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) is an internal feeding pest of apples and can cause substantial economic losses to fruit growers due to larval feeding which in turn degrades fruit quality and can result in complete crop loss if left uncontrolled. Although this pest originally developed in central ...

  5. "This is not an apple"-yeast mutualism in codling moth.

    PubMed

    Witzgall, Peter; Proffit, Magali; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Becher, Paul G; Andreadis, Stefanos; Coracini, Miryan; Lindblom, Tobias U T; Ream, Lee J; Hagman, Arne; Bengtsson, Marie; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Piskur, Jure; Knight, Alan

    2012-08-01

    The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We here show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes larval survival by reducing the incidence of fungal infestations in the apple. Larval feeding, on the other hand, enables yeast proliferation on unripe fruit. Chemical, physiological and behavioral analyses demonstrate that codling moth senses and responds to yeast aroma. Female moths are attracted to fermenting yeast and lay more eggs on yeast-inoculated than on yeast-free apples. An olfactory response to yeast volatiles strongly suggests a contributing role of yeast in host finding, in addition to plant volatiles. Codling moth is a widely studied insect of worldwide economic importance, and it is noteworthy that its association with yeasts has gone unnoticed. Tripartite relationships between moths, plants, and microorganisms may, accordingly, be more widespread than previously thought. It, therefore, is important to study the impact of microorganisms on host plant ecology and their contribution to the signals that mediate host plant finding and recognition. A better comprehension of host volatile signatures also will facilitate further development of semiochemicals for sustainable insect control.

  6. The chemosensory receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella-expression in larvae and adults.

    PubMed

    Walker, William B; Gonzalez, Francisco; Garczynski, Stephen F; Witzgall, Peter

    2016-03-23

    Olfaction and gustation play critical roles in the life history of insects, mediating vital behaviors such as food, mate and host seeking. Chemosensory receptor proteins, including odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs) function to interface the insect with its chemical environment. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide pest of apple, pear and walnut, and behavior-modifying semiochemicals are used for environmentally safe control. We produced an Illumina-based transcriptome from antennae of males and females as well as neonate head tissue, affording a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the codling moth chemosensory receptor repertoire. We identified 58 ORs, 20 GRs and 21 IRs, and provide a revised nomenclature that is consistent with homologous sequences in related species. Importantly, we have identified several OR transcripts displaying sex-biased expression in adults, as well as larval-enriched transcripts. Our analyses have expanded annotations of the chemosensory receptor gene families, and provide first-time transcript abundance estimates for codling moth. The results presented here provide a strong foundation for future work on codling moth behavioral physiology and ecology at the molecular level, and may lead to the development of more precise biorational control strategies.

  7. Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combinations of pheromones and kairomoness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Experiments were conducted in North and South America during 2012-2013 to evaluate the use of lure combinations of sex pheromones (PH), host plant volatiles (HPV), and food baits in traps to capture the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in pome an...

  8. Mapping of single-copy genes by TSA-FISH in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We work on the development of transgenic sexing strains in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae), which would enable to produce male-only progeny for the population control of this pest using sterile insect technique (SIT). To facilitate this research, we have developed a number of cytogenetic and molecular tools, including a physical map of the codling moth Z chromosome using BAC-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization with bacterial artificial chromosome probes). However, chromosomal localization of unique, single-copy sequences such as a transgene cassette by conventional FISH remains challenging. In this study, we adapted a FISH protocol with tyramide signal amplification (TSA-FISH) for detection of single-copy genes in Lepidoptera. We tested the protocol with probes prepared from partial sequences of Z-linked genes in the codling moth. Results Using a modified TSA-FISH protocol we successfully mapped a partial sequence of the Acetylcholinesterase 1 (Ace-1) gene to the Z chromosome and confirmed thus its Z-linkage. A subsequent combination of BAC-FISH with BAC probes containing anticipated neighbouring Z-linked genes and TSA-FISH with the Ace-1 probe allowed the integration of Ace-1 in the physical map of the codling moth Z chromosome. We also developed a two-colour TSA-FISH protocol which enabled us simultaneous localization of two Z-linked genes, Ace-1 and Notch, to the expected regions of the Z chromosome. Conclusions We showed that TSA-FISH represents a reliable technique for physical mapping of genes on chromosomes of moths and butterflies. Our results suggest that this technique can be combined with BAC-FISH and in the future used for physical localization of transgene cassettes on chromosomes of transgenic lines in the codling moth or other lepidopteran species. Furthermore, the developed protocol for two-colour TSA-FISH might become a powerful tool for synteny mapping in non-model organisms. PMID:25471491

  9. Mapping of single-copy genes by TSA-FISH in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Carabajal Paladino, Leonela Z; Nguyen, Petr; Síchová, Jindra; Marec, František

    2014-01-01

    We work on the development of transgenic sexing strains in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae), which would enable to produce male-only progeny for the population control of this pest using sterile insect technique (SIT). To facilitate this research, we have developed a number of cytogenetic and molecular tools, including a physical map of the codling moth Z chromosome using BAC-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization with bacterial artificial chromosome probes). However, chromosomal localization of unique, single-copy sequences such as a transgene cassette by conventional FISH remains challenging. In this study, we adapted a FISH protocol with tyramide signal amplification (TSA-FISH) for detection of single-copy genes in Lepidoptera. We tested the protocol with probes prepared from partial sequences of Z-linked genes in the codling moth. Using a modified TSA-FISH protocol we successfully mapped a partial sequence of the Acetylcholinesterase 1 (Ace-1) gene to the Z chromosome and confirmed thus its Z-linkage. A subsequent combination of BAC-FISH with BAC probes containing anticipated neighbouring Z-linked genes and TSA-FISH with the Ace-1 probe allowed the integration of Ace-1 in the physical map of the codling moth Z chromosome. We also developed a two-colour TSA-FISH protocol which enabled us simultaneous localization of two Z-linked genes, Ace-1 and Notch, to the expected regions of the Z chromosome. We showed that TSA-FISH represents a reliable technique for physical mapping of genes on chromosomes of moths and butterflies. Our results suggest that this technique can be combined with BAC-FISH and in the future used for physical localization of transgene cassettes on chromosomes of transgenic lines in the codling moth or other lepidopteran species. Furthermore, the developed protocol for two-colour TSA-FISH might become a powerful tool for synteny mapping in non-model organisms.

  10. Putative nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits express differentially through the life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Martin, Jessica A; Garczynski, Stephen F

    2016-04-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Orchardists in Washington State are concerned about the possibility of codling moth field populations developing resistance to these two insecticides. In an effort to help mitigate this issue, we initiated a project to identify and characterize codling moth nAChR subunits expressed in heads. This study had two main goals; (i) identify transcripts from a codling moth head transcriptome that encode for nAChR subunits, and (ii) determine nAChR subunit expression profiles in various life stages of codling moth. From a codling moth head transcriptome, 24 transcripts encoding for 12 putative nAChR subunit classes were identified and verified by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequence determination. Characterization of the deduced protein sequences encoded by putative nAChR transcripts revealed that they share the distinguishing features of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily with 9 α-type subunits and 3 β-type subunits identified. Phylogenetic analysis comparing these protein sequences to those of other insect nAChR subunits supports the identification of these proteins as nAChR subunits. Stage expression studies determined that there is clear differential expression of many of these subunits throughout the codling moth life cycle. The information from this study will be used in the future to monitor for potential target-site resistance mechanisms to neonicotinoids and spinosads in tolerant codling moth populations.

  11. Sex Pheromones: (E,E)-8,10-Dodecadien-1-ol in the Codling Moth.

    PubMed

    Beroza, M; Bierl, B A; Moffitt, H R

    1974-01-11

    Although (E,E)-8,10-Dodecadien-l-ol was reported to be a sex pheromone of the codling moth [Laspeyresia pomonella (L.)], its presence in the moth was questioned, mainly because it has not been isolated. A computerized search of data from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of a partially purified extract equivalent to 45 abdominal tips of female moths produced a mass spectrum that matched that of the authentic coinpound. Other data also confirmed the presence of the compound.

  12. Behavior of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) neonate larvae on surfaces treated with microencapsulated pear ester.

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Beck, John J

    2012-06-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae cause severe internal feeding damage to apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Research has demonstrated that codling moth neonate first instar larvae are attracted to a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester (PE). Reported here are the behavioral activities of neonate codling moth larvae to microencapsulated pear ester (MEC-PE) applied in aqueous solutions to both filter paper and apple leaf surfaces that were evaluated over a period of up to 20 d of aging. In dual-choice tests the MEC-PE treatment elicited attraction to and longer time spent on treated zones of filter papers relative to water-treated control zones for up to 14 d of aging. A higher concentration of MEC-PE caused no preferential response to the treated zone for the first 5 d of aging followed by significant responses through day 20 of aging, suggesting sensory adaptation as an initial concentration factor. Estimated emission levels of PE from treated filter papers were experimentally calculated for the observed behavioral thresholds evident over the aging period. When applied to apple leaves, MEC-PE changed neonate walking behavior by eliciting more frequent and longer time periods of arrestment and affected their ability to find the leaf base and stem or petiole. Effects of MEC-PE on extended walking time and arrestment by codling moth larvae would increase temporal and spatial exposure of neonates while on leaves; thereby potentially disrupting fruit or nut finding and enhancing mortality by increasing the exposure to insecticides, predation, and abiotic factors.

  13. Artemisia arborescens "Powis Castle" extracts and α-thujone prevent fruit infestation by codling moth neonates.

    PubMed

    Creed, Cory; Mollhagen, Ariel; Mollhagen, Noelle; Pszczolkowski, Maciej A

    2015-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Tortricidae), is a major cosmopolitan pest of the apple. The potential of plant-derived semiochemicals for codling moth control is poorly studied. To evaluate the potential of crude extracts of five plants from the Asteraceae family: Artemisia absinthium L., Artemisia arborescens L. "Powis Castle", Artemisia annua L., and Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. to prevent apple infestation by C. pomonella larvae and to identify the deterrent(s) in these plants. Artemisia dried leaves were extracted in v/v mixture of 80% ethanol, 10% isopropanol, and 10% of methanol, and the extracts were analyzed using high-performance thin layer chromatography. Preference of fruit treated with test solutions (Artemisia extracts or α-thujone) versus fruit treated with solvent was studied using choice assays. α-Thujone was detected in A. arborescens extract at a concentration of 77.4 ± 2.4 mg/g of dry tissue, localized between Rf 0.75 and 0.79 and was absent from crude extracts of remaining Artemisia species. Material from each extract in the zone between Rf 0.75 and 0.79 was removed from chromatographic plates and tested for feeding deterrence. Only the material from A. arborescens showed feeding deterrent properties. Minimum concentrations that prevented fruit infestation were 10 mg/ml for α-thujone and 1 mg/ml for A. arborescens crude extract. Artemisia arborescens contains chemicals that prevent apple infestation by codling moth neonates. Thujone is one of these chemicals, but it is not the only constituent of A. arborescens crude extract that prevents fruit infestation by codling moth neonates.

  14. Genetic architecture in codling moth populations: comparison between microsatellite and insecticide resistance markers.

    PubMed

    Franck, P; Reyes, M; Olivares, J; Sauphanor, B

    2007-09-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is renowned for developing resistance to insecticides and causing significant economic damage to pome fruits worldwide. In spite of its economic importance, little is known about the patterns of movement of this pest and the effects of insecticide treatment on the population genetic structure. Here, we investigated the genetic structure of the pest in 27 orchards from France, Italy, Armenia and Chile at seven microsatellite loci and two resistance markers [biochemical activity of cytochrome P450 oxidases and proportion of knockdown resistance (kdr) alleles in the sodium channel gene]. According to the microsatellite loci, we detected isolation by distance at the supranational scale but found no evidence of geographical structure among the 24 French orchards, which were mainly structured by the intensity of the insecticide treatments. Similarly, the highest levels of metabolic resistance associated with activity of the cytochrome P450 oxidases were detected in the most treated orchards. The kdr alleles were observed in southern France and Armenia where the pyrethroid insecticides were or have been intensively sprayed. The intensity of the insecticide treatments marginally affected the allelic richness in each orchard, but not the level of inbreeding. These results suggest important and high-distance gene flow among the codling moth populations, which were mainly structured according to the history of insecticide applications. Differences in mutation-migration-drift equilibrium among treated and untreated orchards also suggest that insecticide applications are the main force regulating the local dynamics of codling moth populations.

  15. Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Yang, Xiangbing; Simmons, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples. PMID:27918417

  16. Separating the attractant from the toxicant improves attract-and-kill of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Gut, Larry J; Miller, James R

    2013-10-01

    The behavior of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), responding to three attract-and-kill devices was compared in flight tunnel experiments measuring attraction and duration of target contact. Placing a 7.6 by 12.6 cm card immediately upwind of a rubber septum releasing pheromone, dramatically increased the duration on the target to > 60 s. In this setting, nearly all the males flew upwind, landed on the card first, and spent the majority of time searching the card. In contrast, male codling moths spent < 15 s at the source if given the lure only. In a forced contact bioassay, knockdown rate or mortality of male codling moths increased in direct proportion to duration of contact on a lambda-cyhalothrin-loaded filter paper. When this insecticide-treated paper was placed immediately upwind of the lure in the flight tunnel, > 90% of males contacting the paper were knocked down 2 h after voluntary exposure. These findings suggest that past attempts to combine insecticide directly with sex pheromones into a small paste, gel, or other forms of dollops are ill-advised because moths are likely over-exposed to pheromone and vacate the target before obtaining a lethal dose of insecticide. It is better to minimize direct contact with the concentrated pheromone while enticing males to extensively search insecticide-treated surface nearby the lure.

  17. Multiple Origins of the Sodium Channel kdr Mutations in Codling Moth Populations

    PubMed Central

    Franck, Pierre; Siegwart, Myriam; Olivares, Jerome; Toubon, Jean-François; Lavigne, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to insecticides is one interesting example of a rapid current evolutionary change. DNA variability in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (trans-membrane segments 5 and 6 in domain II) was investigated in order to estimate resistance evolution to pyrethroid in codling moth populations at the World level. DNA variation among 38 sequences revealed a unique kdr mutation (L1014F) involved in pyrethroid resistance in this gene region, which likely resulted from several convergent substitutions. The analysis of codling moth samples from 52 apple orchards in 19 countries using a simple PCR-RFLP confirmed that this kdr mutation is almost worldwide distributed. The proportions of kdr mutation were negatively correlated with the annual temperatures in the sampled regions. Homozygous kdr genotypes in the French apple orchards showed lower P450 cytochrome oxidase activities than other genotypes. The most plausible interpretation of the geographic distribution of kdr in codling moth populations is that it has both multiple independent origins and a spreading limited by low temperature and negative interaction with the presence of alternative resistance mechanisms to pyrethroid in the populations. PMID:22912889

  18. Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Yang, Xiangbing; Simmons, Gregory

    2016-12-02

    Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples.

  19. Multiple origins of the sodium channel kdr mutations in codling moth populations.

    PubMed

    Franck, Pierre; Siegwart, Myriam; Olivares, Jerome; Toubon, Jean-François; Lavigne, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to insecticides is one interesting example of a rapid current evolutionary change. DNA variability in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (trans-membrane segments 5 and 6 in domain II) was investigated in order to estimate resistance evolution to pyrethroid in codling moth populations at the World level. DNA variation among 38 sequences revealed a unique kdr mutation (L1014F) involved in pyrethroid resistance in this gene region, which likely resulted from several convergent substitutions. The analysis of codling moth samples from 52 apple orchards in 19 countries using a simple PCR-RFLP confirmed that this kdr mutation is almost worldwide distributed. The proportions of kdr mutation were negatively correlated with the annual temperatures in the sampled regions. Homozygous kdr genotypes in the French apple orchards showed lower P450 cytochrome oxidase activities than other genotypes. The most plausible interpretation of the geographic distribution of kdr in codling moth populations is that it has both multiple independent origins and a spreading limited by low temperature and negative interaction with the presence of alternative resistance mechanisms to pyrethroid in the populations.

  20. Temperature-dependent development and temperature thresholds of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Aghdam, Hossein Ranjbar; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Radjabi, Gholamreza; Rezapanah, Mohammadreza

    2009-06-01

    Developmental rate models and biological parameters estimated from them, especially lower and upper temperature thresholds and optimal temperature, can help to forecast phenological events of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple orchards. We studied the developmental time of immature stages of codling moth at eight constant temperatures ranging from 10 to 35 degrees C and modeled their developmental rate as a function of temperature using 13 published nonlinear and 2 linear models. Data were fitted to developmental rate models and temperature thresholds and the optimal temperatures were estimated. The models were evaluated based on adjusted coefficient of determination (R(2)(adj)) and Akaike information criterion (AIC), in addition to coefficient of determination (R(2)) and residual sum of squares (RSS). The thermal constants were 79.80, 312.60, 232.03, and 615.32 DD for egg, larva, pupa, and overall immature stages of codling moth, respectively, using the Ikemoto and Takai linear model. The Ikemoto and Takai linear model estimated lower temperature thresholds as 9.97, 8.94, 10.04, and 9.63 degrees C for egg, larva, pupa, and overall immature stages, respectively. Among the nonlinear models, the third-order polynomial fit the data well. This model estimates optimal temperature accurately. Brière-1 and Brière-2 accurately estimated the lower and upper temperature thresholds considering model evaluation criteria and accuracy of estimations.

  1. CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) CpomOR1 gene affects egg production and viability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. The inclusion of semiochemicals, including the main sex pheromone (codlemone), in codling moth IPM programs has drastically reduced the amount of chemical insecticides needed to control this ...

  2. Efficacy of the biofumigant fungus Muscodor albus (Ascomycota: Xylariales) for control of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in simulated storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Lacey, L A; Horton, D R; Jones, D C; Headrick, H L; Neven, L G

    2009-02-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a serious pest of pome fruit, is a threat to exportation of apples (Malus spp.) because of the possibility of shipping infested fruit. The need for alternatives to fumigants such as methyl bromide for quarantine security of exported fruit has encouraged the development of effective fumigants with reduced side effects. The endophytic fungus Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel and Hess (Ascomycota: Xylariales) produces volatile compounds that are biocidal for several pest organisms, including plant pathogens and insect pests. The objectives of our research were to determine the effects of M. albus volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on codling moth adults, neonate larvae, larvae in infested apples, and diapausing cocooned larvae in simulated storage conditions. Fumigation of adult codling moth with VOCs produced by M. albus for 3 d and incubating in fresh air for 24 h at 25 degrees C resulted in 81% corrected mortality. Four- and 5-d exposures resulted in higher mortality (84 and 100%, respectively), but control mortality was also high due to the short life span of the moths. Exposure of neonate larvae to VOCs for 3 d on apples and incubating for 7 d resulted in 86% corrected mortality. Treated larvae were predominantly first instars, whereas 85% of control larvae developed to second and third instars. Exposure of apples that had been infested for 5 d, fumigated with M. albus VOCs for 3 d, and incubated as described above resulted in 71% corrected larval mortality. Exposure of diapausing cocooned codling moth larvae to VOCs for 7 or 14 d resulted in 31 and 100% mortality, respectively, with negligible control mortality. Our data on treatment of several stages of codling moth with M. albus VOCs indicate that the fungus could provide an alternative to broad spectrum chemical fumigants for codling moth control in storage and contribute to the systems approach to achieve quarantine security of exported apples.

  3. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs.

  4. Overwintering strategy and mechanisms of cold tolerance in the codling moth (Cydia pomonella).

    PubMed

    Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Zahradníčková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately -15.3 °C during summer to -26.3 °C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to -15 °C, even in partially frozen state. Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer).

  5. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Overwintering Strategy and Mechanisms of Cold Tolerance in the Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella)

    PubMed Central

    Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Zahradníčková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Background The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. Fully grown last instar larvae overwinter in diapause state. Their overwintering strategies and physiological principles of cold tolerance have been insufficiently studied. No elaborate analysis of overwintering physiology is available for European populations. Principal Findings We observed that codling moth larvae of a Central European population prefer to overwinter in the microhabitat of litter layer near the base of trees. Reliance on extensive supercooling, or freeze-avoidance, appears as their major strategy for survival of the winter cold. The supercooling point decreases from approximately −15.3°C during summer to −26.3°C during winter. Seasonal extension of supercooling capacity is assisted by partial dehydration, increasing osmolality of body fluids, and the accumulation of a complex mixture of winter specific metabolites. Glycogen and glutamine reserves are depleted, while fructose, alanine and some other sugars, polyols and free amino acids are accumulated during winter. The concentrations of trehalose and proline remain high and relatively constant throughout the season, and may contribute to the stabilization of proteins and membranes at subzero temperatures. In addition to supercooling, overwintering larvae acquire considerable capacity to survive at subzero temperatures, down to −15°C, even in partially frozen state. Conclusion Our detailed laboratory analysis of cold tolerance, and whole-winter survival assays in semi-natural conditions, suggest that the average winter cold does not represent a major threat for codling moth populations. More than 83% of larvae survived over winter in the field and pupated in spring irrespective of the overwintering microhabitat (cold-exposed tree trunk or temperature-buffered litter layer). PMID:23613923

  7. Effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on diapausing 5th instar codling moth metabolism.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Lehrman, Nathan J; Hansen, Lee D

    2014-05-01

    The oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance (OCLTT) has been established in aquatic insect larvae, but OCLTT has not been shown to generally apply to terrestrial insects. Previous research indicates that heat treatments in combination with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and low concentrations of oxygen may be effective for controlling diapausing codling moth, a quarantine pest in walnuts, but treatment requires long times and the killing mechanism is unknown. In this study, the effects of temperature and modified atmospheres on metabolism in diapausing 5th instar codling moth (Cydia pomonella) was investigated with multi-channel differential scanning calorimeters, one equipped with an oxygen sensor. O2 consumption and metabolic heat rates in air were measured simultaneously at isothermal temperatures from 5 to 50°C at 5°C intervals. Both rates increased with increasing temperatures from 5 to 40°C. The ratio of metabolic heat rate to O2 consumption rate at temperatures ≤40°C shows that a portion of the metabolic heat is from normal anabolic reactions of metabolism. At 45 and 50°C in air, O2 consumption and metabolic heat rates dropped to near zero. These results indicate that treatment of walnuts in air at >45°C for a short period of time (minutes) is effective in killing diapausing 5th instar codling moth larvae. Continuous heating scans at 0.4°C/min were used to measure metabolic heat rates from 10 to 50°C with air and modified atmospheres with lowered oxygen and high carbon dioxide. A rapid increase was observed in heat rates above 40°C in scans with O2≥11%. Taken together with the isothermal results showing no metabolic heat production or oxygen uptake at 45 and 50°C, these results demonstrate that thermal damage to cell membranes and loss of control of oxidation reactions is the lethal mechanism at high temperature when O2≥11%. The data from scans with O2≤2% and high CO2 show the effects of oxygen limitation as postulated by

  8. Resistance of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), larvae in Michigan to insecticides with different modes of action and the impact on field residual activity.

    PubMed

    Mota-Sanchez, David; Wise, John C; Poppen, Ryan Vander; Gut, Larry J; Hollingworth, Robert M

    2008-09-01

    The codling moth is one of the principal pests of apple in the world. Resistance monitoring is crucial to the effective management of resistance in codling moth. Three populations of codling moth in neonate larvae were evaluated for resistance to seven insecticides via diet bioassays, and compared with a susceptible population. In addition, apple plots were treated with labeled field rate doses of four insecticides. Treated fruit were exposed to neonate larvae of two populations from commercial orchards. Two populations of codling moth expressed two- and fivefold resistance to azinphos-methyl, seven- and eightfold resistance to phosmet, six- and tenfold resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin, 14- and 16-fold resistance to methoxyfenozide and sixfold resistance to indoxacarb, but no resistance to acetamiprid and spinosad. The impact of the resistance to azinphos-methyl, measured as fruit damage, increased as the insecticide residues aged in the field. In contrast, fruit damage in methoxyfenozide- and lambda-cyhalothrin-treated fruit was observed earlier for resistant codling moth. No differences in efficacy were found for acetamiprid. Broad-spectrum insecticide resistance was detected for codling moth. Resistance to azinphos-methyl, lambda-cyhalothrin and methoxyfenozide was associated with reduced residual activity in the field. Broad-spectrum resistance presents serious problems for management of the codling moth in Michigan.

  9. CpSAT-1, a transcribed satellite sequence from the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Věchtová, Pavlína; Dalíková, Martina; Sýkorová, Miroslava; Žurovcová, Martina; Füssy, Zoltán; Zrzavá, Magda

    2016-08-01

    Satellite DNA (satDNA) is a non-coding component of eukaryotic genomes, located mainly in heterochromatic regions. Relevance of satDNA began to emerge with accumulating evidence of its potential yet hardly comprehensible role that it can play in the genome of many organisms. We isolated the first satDNA of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Tortricidae, Lepidoptera), a species with holokinetic chromosomes and a single large heterochromatic element, the W chromosome in females. The satDNA, called CpSAT-1, is located on all chromosomes of the complement, although in different amounts. Surprisingly, the satellite is almost missing in the heterochromatic W chromosome. Additionally, we isolated mRNA from all developmental stages (1st-5th instar larva, pupa, adult), both sexes (adult male and female) and several tissues (Malpighian tubules, gut, heart, testes, and ovaries) of the codling moth and showed the CpSAT-1 sequence was transcribed in all tested samples. Using CpSAT-1 specific primers we amplified, cloned and sequenced 40 monomers from cDNA and gDNA, respectively. The sequence analysis revealed a high mutation rate and the presence of potentially functional motifs, mainly in non-conserved regions of the monomers. Both the chromosomal distribution and the sequence analysis suggest that CPSAT-1 has no function in the C. pomonella genome.

  10. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella

    PubMed Central

    Duménil, Claire; Judd, Gary J. R.; Bosch, Dolors; Baldessari, Mario; Gemeno, César; Groot, Astrid T.

    2014-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption. PMID:26462935

  11. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Duménil, Claire; Judd, Gary J R; Bosch, Dolors; Baldessari, Mario; Gemeno, César; Groot, Astrid T

    2014-09-26

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption.

  12. Candidate pheromone receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella respond to pheromones and kairomones

    PubMed Central

    Cattaneo, Alberto Maria; Gonzalez, Francisco; Bengtsson, Jonas M.; Corey, Elizabeth A.; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Montagné, Nicolas; Salvagnin, Umberto; Walker, William B.; Witzgall, Peter; Anfora, Gianfranco; Bobkov, Yuriy V.

    2017-01-01

    Olfaction plays a dominant role in the mate-finding and host selection behaviours of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella), an important pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. Antennal transcriptome analysis revealed a number of abundantly expressed genes related to the moth olfactory system, including those encoding the olfactory receptors (ORs) CpomOR1, CpomOR3 and CpomOR6a, which belong to the pheromone receptor (PR) lineage, and the co-receptor (CpomOrco). Using heterologous expression, in both Drosophila olfactory sensory neurones and in human embryonic kidney cells, together with electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging, we characterize the basic physiological and pharmacological properties of these receptors and demonstrate that they form functional ionotropic receptor channels. Both the homomeric CpomOrco and heteromeric CpomOrco + OR complexes can be activated by the common Orco agonists VUAA1 and VUAA3, as well as inhibited by the common Orco antagonists amiloride derivatives. CpomOR3 responds to the plant volatile compound pear ester ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, while CpomOR6a responds to the strong pheromone antagonist codlemone acetate (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-yl acetate. These findings represent important breakthroughs in the deorphanization of codling moth pheromone receptors, as well as more broadly into insect ecology and evolution and, consequently, for the development of sustainable pest control strategies based on manipulating chemosensory communication. PMID:28117454

  13. Putative chemosensory receptors of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, identified by antennal transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Jonas M; Trona, Federica; Montagné, Nicolas; Anfora, Gianfranco; Ignell, Rickard; Witzgall, Peter; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is an important fruit pest worldwide. As nocturnal animals, adults depend to a large extent on olfactory cues for detection of food and mates, and, for females, oviposition sites. In insects, odor detection is mediated by odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, our aim was to identify chemosensory receptors in the codling moth as a means to uncover new targets for behavioral interference. Using next-generation sequencing techniques, we identified a total of 43 candidate ORs, one gustatory receptor and 15 IRs in the antennal transcriptome. Through Blast and sequence similarity analyses we annotated the insect obligatory co-receptor ORco, five genes clustering in a conserved clade containing sex pheromone receptors, one homolog of the Bombyx mori female-enriched receptor BmorOR30 (but no homologs of the other B. mori female-enriched receptors) and one gene clustering in the sugar receptor family. Among the candidate IRs, we identified homologs of the two highly conserved co-receptors IR8a and IR25a, and one homolog of an IR involved in phenylethyl amine detection in Drosophila. Our results open for functional characterization of the chemosensory receptors of C. pomonella, with potential for new or refined applications of semiochemicals for control of this pest insect.

  14. Putative Chemosensory Receptors of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella, Identified by Antennal Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Jonas M.; Trona, Federica; Montagné, Nicolas; Anfora, Gianfranco; Ignell, Rickard; Witzgall, Peter; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is an important fruit pest worldwide. As nocturnal animals, adults depend to a large extent on olfactory cues for detection of food and mates, and, for females, oviposition sites. In insects, odor detection is mediated by odorant receptors (ORs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs), which ensure the specificity of the olfactory sensory neuron responses. In this study, our aim was to identify chemosensory receptors in the codling moth as a means to uncover new targets for behavioral interference. Using next-generation sequencing techniques, we identified a total of 43 candidate ORs, one gustatory receptor and 15 IRs in the antennal transcriptome. Through Blast and sequence similarity analyses we annotated the insect obligatory co-receptor ORco, five genes clustering in a conserved clade containing sex pheromone receptors, one homolog of the Bombyx mori female-enriched receptor BmorOR30 (but no homologs of the other B. mori female-enriched receptors) and one gene clustering in the sugar receptor family. Among the candidate IRs, we identified homologs of the two highly conserved co-receptors IR8a and IR25a, and one homolog of an IR involved in phenylethyl amine detection in Drosophila. Our results open for functional characterization of the chemosensory receptors of C. pomonella, with potential for new or refined applications of semiochemicals for control of this pest insect. PMID:22363688

  15. Effects of gamma radiation on codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F.

    2004-12-01

    The radiosensitivity of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs in different stages of development was studied. Eggs ranging in age from 1-24 to 97-120 h were exposed, at 24 h intervals, to gamma radiation doses ranging from 10 to 350 Gy. The effects of gamma radiation on egg hatch, pupation and adult emergence was examined. Results showed that the radiosensitivity of codling moth eggs decreased with increasing age. Egg hatch in 1-24 h old eggs was significantly affected at 20 Gy dose and at 60 Gy dose, egg hatch decreased to about 1%. At the age of 25-48 h, however, egg hatch at 60 Gy dose was about 10%, and egg sensitivity to gamma irradiation decreased significantly in the 49-72 h age group; 60 Gy dose had no significant effect on egg hatch. Eggs irradiated few hours before hatch (at the blackhead stage), were the most resistant ones; 100 Gy had no significant effect on egg hatch and at 350 Gy dose over 56% of the eggs hatched. When adult emergence was used as a criterion for measuring effectiveness, however, the effect of gamma radiation was very sever. A dose of 60 Gy completely prevented adult emergence and at 100 Gy dose all resulted larvae died before pupation.

  16. Fate of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in harvested apples held under short photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2012-04-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., is a cosmopolitan pest of pome and stone fruits. It has been identified as a quarantine pest of concern in a number of countries where it is not known to occur, most of them tropical or subtropical countries. Although considerable work has been done on the basic biology and physiology of this temperate pest, little is known on its potential to develop and establish in tropical environments with short photoperiods and few to no days below 10 degrees C. Apples were harvested over three field seasons (2007-2009) from unmanaged orchards in central Washington State and subjected to simulated commercial cold storage at 1.1 +/- 2 degrees C for up to 119 d. After cold storage, infested fruits were held at 20 degrees C under a 12:12 L:D photoperiod for up to 6 mo. Over the entire experiment only 27% of the larvae collected exited the fruit and cocooned. Of those 27%, only 1.06% of larvae held under a 12:12 L:D photoperiod successfully emerged as moths. No moths emerged when host fruit would be available in a representative importing country in the tropics over the 3 yr of testing. These results indicate that codling moth in apples from the Pacific Northwest pose little threat of surviving and establishing in tropical regions where daylength is insufficient to break diapause and the chilling requirement is not met.

  17. Baculovirus resistance in codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) caused by early block of virus replication.

    PubMed

    Asser-Kaiser, Sabine; Radtke, Pit; El-Salamouny, Said; Winstanley, Doreen; Jehle, Johannes A

    2011-02-20

    An up to 10,000-fold resistance against the biocontrol agent Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) was observed in field populations of codling moth, C. pomonella, in Europe. Following different experimental approaches, a modified peritrophic membrane, a modified midgut receptor, or a change of the innate immune response could be excluded as possible resistance mechanisms. When CpGV replication was traced by quantitative PCR in different tissues of susceptible and resistant insects after oral and intra-hemocoelic infection, no virus replication could be detected in any of the tissues of resistant insects, suggesting a systemic block prior to viral DNA replication. This conclusion was corroborated by fluorescence microscopy using a modified CpGV (bacCpGV(hsp-eGFP)) carrying enhanced green fluorescent gene (eGFP), which showed that infection in resistant insects did not spread. In conclusion, the different lines of evidence indicate that CpGV can enter but not replicate in the cells of resistant codling moth larvae. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Organophosphate Resistance and its Main Mechanism in Populations of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Maritza; Barros-Parada, Wilson; Ramírez, Claudio C; Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is the key pest of apple production worldwide. Insecticide resistance has been reported in all producing countries, based on five different mechanisms. Codling moth in Chile has resistance to azinphos-methyl and tebufenozide in post-diapausing larvae. However, there are no studies about the susceptibility of these populations to insecticides from other chemical groups. Therefore, the efficacy of azinphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos-ethyl, esfenvalerate, methoxyfenozide, tebufenozide, and thiacloprid on neonate and post-diapausing larvae from six field populations was investigated, and identified resistance mechanisms in this species were evaluated. Neonate larvae were susceptible to all insecticides studied, but post-diapausing larvae from four populations were resistant to chlorpyrifos, one of them was also resistant to azinphos-methyl, and another one was resistant to tebufenozide. The acetylcholinesterase insensitivity mutation was not detected, and the sodium channel knockdown resistance mutation was present in a low frequency in one population. Detoxifying enzymatic activity of glutathione S-transferases, esterases, and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases in adults differed among populations, but chlorpyrifos resistance was associated only with a decreased esterase activity as shown by a significant negative correlation between chlorpyrifos mortality and esterase activity. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Candidate pheromone receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella respond to pheromones and kairomones.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Alberto Maria; Gonzalez, Francisco; Bengtsson, Jonas M; Corey, Elizabeth A; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Montagné, Nicolas; Salvagnin, Umberto; Walker, William B; Witzgall, Peter; Anfora, Gianfranco; Bobkov, Yuriy V

    2017-01-24

    Olfaction plays a dominant role in the mate-finding and host selection behaviours of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella), an important pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. Antennal transcriptome analysis revealed a number of abundantly expressed genes related to the moth olfactory system, including those encoding the olfactory receptors (ORs) CpomOR1, CpomOR3 and CpomOR6a, which belong to the pheromone receptor (PR) lineage, and the co-receptor (CpomOrco). Using heterologous expression, in both Drosophila olfactory sensory neurones and in human embryonic kidney cells, together with electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging, we characterize the basic physiological and pharmacological properties of these receptors and demonstrate that they form functional ionotropic receptor channels. Both the homomeric CpomOrco and heteromeric CpomOrco + OR complexes can be activated by the common Orco agonists VUAA1 and VUAA3, as well as inhibited by the common Orco antagonists amiloride derivatives. CpomOR3 responds to the plant volatile compound pear ester ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, while CpomOR6a responds to the strong pheromone antagonist codlemone acetate (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-yl acetate. These findings represent important breakthroughs in the deorphanization of codling moth pheromone receptors, as well as more broadly into insect ecology and evolution and, consequently, for the development of sustainable pest control strategies based on manipulating chemosensory communication.

  20. Evaluation of novel semiochemical dispensers simultaneously releasing pear ester and sex pheromone for mating disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The performance of polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with two rates of ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), was compared with similar dispensers and two commercial dispensers l...

  1. Putative nicotinic acetylchloline receptor subunits express differentially through life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The nAChRs mediate the fast actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in synaptic tr...

  2. Measuring local genetic variability in populations of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) across an unmanaged / commercial orchard interface

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic structure of adult codling moth Cydia pomonella L., populations was characterized both inside a managed apple, Malus domestica Borkdhausen, orchard and in surrounding unmanaged hosts and non-host trees in central Chile during 2006-2007. Adult males were collected using an array of sex ph...

  3. Characterization of three transcripts encoding small heat shock proteins expressed in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Codling moth is a major pest of apples and pears worldwide. Increasing knowledge of how this insect responds to environmental stress will improve field and postharvest control measures used against it. The small heat shock proteins (sHsps) play a major role in cellular responses to environmental st...

  4. Evaluation of Lignins and Particle Films as Solar Protectants for the Granulovirus of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The identification of effective adjuvants for field application of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., granulovirus (CpGV) is of interest to improve the commercial viability and utility of this biological pesticide. We evaluated several materials as potential adjuvants to protect CpGV from ultra-v...

  5. Comparing mating disruption of codling moth with standard and meso dispensers loaded with pear ester and codlemone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted with hand-applied combo dispensers loaded with the sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), and the pear volatile, (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) for control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in apple, Malus domestica Bordkhausen during 2012. Two types of...

  6. Creating Point Sources for Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with Low-Volume Sprays of a Microencapsulated Sex Pheromone Formulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to examine the depositioin of microcapsules and the attractiveness of treated apple leaves for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), following low volume concentrated sprays of a microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone formulation (CheckMate CM-F). Nearly 30% of leaves collected f...

  7. N-butyl sulfide as an attractant and co-attractant for male and female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research to discover and develop attractants for the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L., has involved identification of the chemicals eliciting moth orientation to conspecific female moths, host fruits, fermented baits, and species of microbes. Pear eester, acetic acid, and N-butyl sulfide are am...

  8. Evidence for the non-pest status of codling moth on commercial fresh sweet cherries intended for export

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To gain acceptance of a systems approach as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for U.S. fresh sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., exported to Japan, additional evidence was needed to show that sweet cherries are poor or non-hosts for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortri...

  9. Application of Cydia pomonella expressed sequence tags: identification and expression of three general odorant binding proteins in codling moth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is one of the most important pests of pome fruits in the world, yet the molecular genetics and physiology of this insect remains poorly understood. A combined assembly of 8340 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was generated from Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencing of 8 tissu...

  10. A test of fruit varieties on entry rate and development by neonate larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rate of entry by neonate larvae of the frugivorous codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), into fruit material was investigated. Larval entry was assayed across several host plant species and several genetic varieties within a host species (apple). Effects of apple varieties on adult moth size, larv...

  11. Efficacy of the Biofumigant Fungus Muscodor albus (Ascomycota: Xylariales) for Control of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Simulated Storage Conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Codling moth CM, Cydia pomonella, (L.), a serious pest of pome fruit, is a threat to exportation of apples because of the possibility of shipping infested fruit. Broad spectrum fumigants have been used as the principle method for the protection of exported fruit from insect infestations. Some of th...

  12. Improving the performance of the Granulosis virus of Codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricideae) by adding the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with sugar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies evaluated the effectiveness of adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae with brown cane sugar (sugar) to the codling moth granulosis virus, CpGV, to improve larval control of Cydia pomonella (L.), on apple. Neither the use of the yeast or sugar alone caused larval mortality greater than the water con...

  13. Consistent codling moth population decline by two years of mating disruption in apple: a Flemish case study.

    PubMed

    Bangels, E; Beliën, T

    2012-01-01

    Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is one of the most important pests in apple and pear. In 2010 mating disruption became a key pest management tactic in Flemish pip fruit orchards, largely due to a government subsidy and demonstrating projects aiming to widen the area treated by pheromones as large as possible. As a consequence, the mating disruption strategy was applied at approximately 7.500 ha, or half of the pip fruit area, in 2010 and 2011. The sudden large-scale implementation of this technique changed the codling moth management landscape. Here we present a case study of a commercially managed orchard that suffered from high codling moth pressures for many years, as did the surrounding area. The RAK3 mating disruption system was introduced at this location in 2010, and was continued in 2011. Systematic detailed codling moth flight data for this location are available for many years. In addition, comprehensive data on damage levels of chemically untreated windows spread all over the test orchard in a randomized block design were obtained in successive years, enabling us to thoroughly evaluate the effect of the changed codling moth management strategy. Data from 2011 included damage levels in chemically treated windows when the entire orchard was applied once at the flight peak of Cydia pomonella. In 2009, before introduction of mating disruption, a mean of 8.25 +/- 5.54% of the fruits were infested at harvest when assessed in completely untreated windows. After two years of mating disruption, supported with a full chemical support in 2010, except for the untreated assessment windows, and only one application on the flight peak of 2011, damage was reduced to less than 0.03% at harvest. This is a valuable case study to demonstrate the benefits of the mating disruption approach.

  14. Baculovirus resistance in codling moth is virus isolate-dependent and the consequence of a mutation in viral gene pe38

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt, Manuela M.; Eberle, Karolin E.; Radtke, Pit; Jehle, Johannes A.

    2014-01-01

    The baculovirus Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is widely applied as a biocontrol agent of codling moth. After field resistance of codling moth populations had been observed against the commercially used Mexican (M) isolate of CpGV, infection experiments of larvae of the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1 showed that several other naturally occurring CpGV isolates (I12, S, E2, and I07) from different geographic origins are still infectious to resistant CpRR1. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these geographic CpGV variants revealed that their genomes share only a single common difference from that of CpGV-M, which is a mutation coding for a repeat of 24 nucleotides within the gene pe38; this mutation results in an additional repeat of eight amino acids that appears to be inserted to PE38 of CpGV-M only. Deletion of pe38 from CpGV-M totally abolished virus infection in codling moth cells and larvae, demonstrating that it is an essential gene. When the CpGV-M deletion mutant was repaired with pe38 from isolate CpGV-S, which originated from the commercial product Virosoft and is infectious for the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1, the repaired CpGV-M mutant was found to be fully infectious for CpRR1. Repair using pe38 from CpGV-M restored infectivity for the virus in sensitive codling moth strains, but not in CpRR1. Therefore, we conclude that CpGV resistance of codling moth is directed to CpGV-M but not to other virus isolates. The viral gene pe38 is not only essential for the infectivity of CpGV but it is also the key factor in overcoming CpGV resistance in codling moth. PMID:25331863

  15. Baculovirus resistance in codling moth is virus isolate-dependent and the consequence of a mutation in viral gene pe38.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Manuela M; Eberle, Karolin E; Radtke, Pit; Jehle, Johannes A

    2014-11-04

    The baculovirus Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is widely applied as a biocontrol agent of codling moth. After field resistance of codling moth populations had been observed against the commercially used Mexican (M) isolate of CpGV, infection experiments of larvae of the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1 showed that several other naturally occurring CpGV isolates (I12, S, E2, and I07) from different geographic origins are still infectious to resistant CpRR1. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of these geographic CpGV variants revealed that their genomes share only a single common difference from that of CpGV-M, which is a mutation coding for a repeat of 24 nucleotides within the gene pe38; this mutation results in an additional repeat of eight amino acids that appears to be inserted to PE38 of CpGV-M only. Deletion of pe38 from CpGV-M totally abolished virus infection in codling moth cells and larvae, demonstrating that it is an essential gene. When the CpGV-M deletion mutant was repaired with pe38 from isolate CpGV-S, which originated from the commercial product Virosoft and is infectious for the resistant codling moth strain CpRR1, the repaired CpGV-M mutant was found to be fully infectious for CpRR1. Repair using pe38 from CpGV-M restored infectivity for the virus in sensitive codling moth strains, but not in CpRR1. Therefore, we conclude that CpGV resistance of codling moth is directed to CpGV-M but not to other virus isolates. The viral gene pe38 is not only essential for the infectivity of CpGV but it is also the key factor in overcoming CpGV resistance in codling moth.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Bao-Cai; Liu, Wei; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2013-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was determined. The genome is 15,253 bp long with 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. All genes are arranged in their conserved positions compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects except for trnM, which was translocated to the upstream of the transfer RNA cluster trnI-trnQ as in all previously reported lepidopteran mitochondiral genomes. Seven portein-coding genes use ATG start codon and five use ATT. However, the cox1 gene uses the CGA start codon as it is found in all previous reported mitochondrial genomes of Lepidoptera. Nine protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA. Four protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codons TA or T. The A+T region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 331 bp.

  17. False Codling Moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), Cold Disinfestation Treatment Using Grapes as the Test Medium.

    PubMed

    Ware, A B; Du Toit, C L N

    2016-10-01

    Some countries consider false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a phytosanitary pest and may require the application of a mitigation treatment before accepting T. leucotreta-susceptible produce. This research reports on cold treatments that provide the phytosanitary security that this pest would not be accidentally imported alive. More than 35,000 individuals were treated for 20 d at 0.8 °C and >30,000 individuals subjected to - 0.6 °C for 18 d, with no survivors. The adoption of these treatments in international fruit trade protocols is recommended. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with passive interception traps in sex pheromone-treated apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Knight, A L

    2000-12-01

    Male and female codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were monitored with passive interception traps (PI-traps) in apple orchards treated with sex pheromone dispensers. The proportion of mated females recaptured by PI-traps was significantly higher than the proportion released after the release of both sexes into a codling moth-infested orchard. However, no significant difference occurred between the proportion of mated females recaptured and released when only females were released into uninfested orchards. Replicated nine-tree apple plots situated either on the edge or in the center ofpheromone-treated apple orchards were monitored with PI-traps during first moth flight in 1995 and during both flights in 1996. Moths caught on PI-traps were predominately males. The first male moths were captured 7-10 d before females during the first flight in both years. Initial capture of virgin and mated females on PI-traps coincided in 1995. Mated females were captured 14 d after the first virgin females in 1996. The mean proportion of females that were mated ranged from 32 to 55% during the first flight and 85 to 92% during the second flight. Moth catch and fruit injury were significantly higher in the edge versus the center plots. The numbers of total and female moths caught with PI-traps were significantly correlated with fruit injury for each generation. The percentage of female moths caught on PI-traps that were mated was 32% lower and the mean oocyte load of all females was 42% higher in a pheromone-treated apple orchard than in the untreated crabapple grove monitored during May and June 1997.

  19. Evaluating dispensers loaded with codlemone and pear ester for disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Knight, Alan; Light, Douglas; Chebny, Vincent

    2012-04-01

    Polyvinyl chloride polymer (PVC) dispensers loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were compared with PVC dispensers and a commercial dispenser (Isomate-C Plus) loaded with codlemone. Evaluations were conducted in replicated plots (0.1-0.2 ha) in apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen) during both generations of codling moth from 2007 to 2009. Dispensers were applied at 1,000 ha(-1). Male captures in traps baited with virgin female moths and codlemone lures were recorded. Residual analysis of field-aged dispensers over both moth generations was conducted. Dispensers exhibited linear declines in release rates of both attractants, and pear ester was released at a significantly higher rate than codlemone during both time periods. The proportion of virgin female-baited traps catching males was significantly lower with combo dispenser TRE24 (45/110, mg codlemone/mg pear ester) during the second generation in 2007 and the combo dispensers TRE144 (45/75) and TRE145 (75/45) during the first generation in 2008 compared with Isomate-C Plus. Similarly, male catches in female-baited traps in plots treated with the combo dispensers TRE144 during the first generation in 2008 and TRE23 (75/110) during the second generation, in 2007 were significantly lower than in plots treated with Isomate-C Plus. No significant differences were found for male catches in codlemone-baited traps in plots treated with Isomate-C Plus and any of the combo dispensers. However, male catches were significantly lower in plots treated with Cidetrak CM (codlemone-only dispenser) than the combo TRE144 dispenser during both generations in 2009.

  20. Longevity of the adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana, in Washington apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Vincent P; Wiman, Nik G

    2008-01-01

    The longevity of adult codling moth (Cydia pomonella (L.) Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and obliquebanded leafroller (Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) held in shaded vials in the tree canopy was measured during the normal flight periods during 2004 and 2005. In both years all codling moths were dead by 130 degree-days (DD) (21 d) in the spring and 121 DD (8 d) in the summer. On a degree-day basis, data were similar across sex, generation, and year, and a common curve adequately predicted the survival distribution. For the obliquebanded leafroller, there were longevity differences between the sexes, but not between generations or years. Use of empirical quantile-quantile plots showed that the female obliquebanded leafroller lived an average of 32% longer than males. Maximum longevity observed in these studies for obliquebanded leafrollers was 117 DD (11 d) across both generations. The implications of these data for population biology studies and quarantine requirements are discussed.

  1. Progressive Adaptation of a CpGV Isolate to Codling Moth Populations Resistant to CpGV-M

    PubMed Central

    Graillot, Benoît; Berling, Marie; Blachere-López, Christine; Siegwart, Myriam; Besse, Samantha; López-Ferber, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The NPP-R1 isolate of CpGV is able to replicate on CpGV-M-resistant codling moths. However, its efficacy is not sufficient to provide acceptable levels of control in natural (orchard) conditions. A laboratory colony derived from resistant codling moths was established, which exhibited a homogeneous genetic background and a resistance level more than 7000 fold. By successive cycles of replication of NPP-R1 in this colony, we observed a progressive increase in efficacy. After 16 cycles (isolate 2016-r16), the efficacy of the virus isolate was equivalent to that of CpGV-M on susceptible insects. This isolate was able to control both CpGV-M-susceptible and CpGV-M-resistant insects with similar efficacy. No reduction in the levels of occlusion body production in susceptible larvae was observed for 2016-r16 compared to CpGV-M. PMID:25533659

  2. Longevity of the Adult Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella, and the Obliquebanded Leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana, in Washington Apple Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Vincent P.; Wiman, Nik G.

    2008-01-01

    The longevity of adult codling moth (Cydia pomonella (L.) Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and obliquebanded leafroller (Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) held in shaded vials in the tree canopy was measured during the normal flight periods during 2004 and 2005. In both years all codling moths were dead by 130 degree-days (DD) (21 d) in the spring and 121 DD (8 d) in the summer. On a degree-day basis, data were similar across sex, generation, and year, and a common curve adequately predicted the survival distribution. For the obliquebanded leafroller, there were longevity differences between the sexes, but not between generations or years. Use of empirical quantile-quantile plots showed that the female obliquebanded leafroller lived an average of 32% longer than males. Maximum longevity observed in these studies for obliquebanded leafrollers was 117 DD (11 d) across both generations. The implications of these data for population biology studies and quarantine requirements are discussed. PMID:20337564

  3. Progressive adaptation of a CpGV isolate to codling moth populations resistant to CpGV-M.

    PubMed

    Graillot, Benoît; Berling, Marie; Blachere-López, Christine; Siegwart, Myriam; Besse, Samantha; López-Ferber, Miguel

    2014-12-22

    The NPP-R1 isolate of CpGV is able to replicate on CpGV-M-resistant codling moths. However, its efficacy is not sufficient to provide acceptable levels of control in natural (orchard) conditions. A laboratory colony derived from resistant codling moths was established, which exhibited a homogeneous genetic background and a resistance level more than 7000 fold. By successive cycles of replication of NPP-R1 in this colony, we observed a progressive increase in efficacy. After 16 cycles (isolate 2016-r16), the efficacy of the virus isolate was equivalent to that of CpGV-M on susceptible insects. This isolate was able to control both CpGV-M-susceptible and CpGV-M-resistant insects with similar efficacy. No reduction in the levels of occlusion body production in susceptible larvae was observed for 2016-r16 compared to CpGV-M.

  4. Climate change impact on development rates of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in the Wielkopolska region, Poland.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Radosław; Kuchar, Leszek; Leśny, Jacek; Olejnik, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate how the observed and predicted climate changes may affect the development rates and emergence of the codling moth in the southern part of the Wielkopolska region in Poland. In order to simulate the future climate conditions one of the most frequently used A1B SRES scenarios and two different IPCC climate models (HadCM3 and GISS modelE) are considered. A daily weather generator (WGENK) was used to generate temperature values for present and future climate conditions (time horizons 2020-2040 and 2040-2060). Based on the generated data set, the degree-days values were then calculated and the emergence dates of the codling moth at key stages were estimated basing on the defined thresholds. Our analyses showed that the average air surface temperature in the Wielkopolska region may increase from 2.8°C (according to GISS modelE) even up to 3.3°C (HadCM3) in the period of 2040-2060. With the warming climate conditions the cumulated degree-days values may increase at a rate of about 142 DD per decade when the low temperature threshold (T(low)) of 0°C is considered and 91 DD per decade when T(low) = 10°C. The key developmental stages of the codling moth may occur much earlier in the future climate conditions than currently, at a rate of about 3.8-6.8 days per decade, depending on the considered GCM model and the pest developmental stage. The fastest changes may be observed in the emergence dates of 95% of larvae of the second codling moth generation. This could increase the emergence probability of the pest third generation that has not currently occurred in Poland.

  5. Climate change impact on development rates of the codling moth ( Cydia pomonella L.) in the Wielkopolska region, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszczak, Radosław; Kuchar, Leszek; Leśny, Jacek; Olejnik, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate how the observed and predicted climate changes may affect the development rates and emergence of the codling moth in the southern part of the Wielkopolska region in Poland. In order to simulate the future climate conditions one of the most frequently used A1B SRES scenarios and two different IPCC climate models (HadCM3 and GISS modelE) are considered. A daily weather generator (WGENK) was used to generate temperature values for present and future climate conditions (time horizons 2020-2040 and 2040-2060). Based on the generated data set, the degree-days values were then calculated and the emergence dates of the codling moth at key stages were estimated basing on the defined thresholds. Our analyses showed that the average air surface temperature in the Wielkopolska region may increase from 2.8°C (according to GISS modelE) even up to 3.3°C (HadCM3) in the period of 2040-2060. With the warming climate conditions the cumulated degree-days values may increase at a rate of about 142 DD per decade when the low temperature threshold ( T low ) of 0°C is considered and 91 DD per decade when T low = 10°C. The key developmental stages of the codling moth may occur much earlier in the future climate conditions than currently, at a rate of about 3.8-6.8 days per decade, depending on the considered GCM model and the pest developmental stage. The fastest changes may be observed in the emergence dates of 95% of larvae of the second codling moth generation. This could increase the emergence probability of the pest third generation that has not currently occurred in Poland.

  6. Oviposition Site Selection of the Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its Consequences for Egg and Neonate Performance.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Runzhi

    2015-08-01

    The codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) is a worldwide pest of pome fruit. A better understanding of oviposition site selection by this insect would help management of this pest in orchards. Oviposition site selection of codling moth was assessed by manipulative experiments and field survey. In addition, the temperatures of different sites were recorded. Neonate infestation and egg hatching were tested to evaluate the consequences of oviposition site selection. The percentage of eggs laid on the shady side of apple clusters was significantly higher than on the sunny side. How.ever, this was not influenced by leaf surface turning. Percentage of eggs on upper and lower leaf surfaces was significantly influenced by leaf surface turning. Percentage of eggs on the lower leaf surface was significantly higher than turned lower leaf surface (∼41.1% higher) and significantly higher (∼35.5%) on the turned upper leaf surface on than upper leaf surfaces. There was no significant difference in neonate infestation between leaves and fruit, as well as between the upper and lower leaf surfaces. Number of eggs hatching on the shady side of clusters was significantly higher than on the sunny side (56.3% higher). In both the manipulative experiment and field survey, codling moths did not choose the sites with the highest mean temperature, but chose sites suitable for egg development and hatching. This indicates that in the field codling moth, oviposition site selection is not strictly thermophilous, but they look for the lower leaf surface on the shady side, which benefits the offspring.

  7. Entomopathogenic nematodes for the control of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in field and laboratory trials.

    PubMed

    Odendaal, D; Addison, M F; Malan, A P

    2016-09-01

    Three commercially available entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) strains (Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Hb1 and Hb2) and two local species (S. jeffreyense and S. yirgalemense) were evaluated for the control of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). In field spray trials, the use of S. jeffreyense resulted in the most effective control (67%), followed by H. bacteriophora (Hb1) (42%) and S. yirgalemense (41%). Laboratory bioassays using spray application in simulated field conditions indicate S. feltiae to be the most virulent (67%), followed by S. yirgalemense (58%). A laboratory comparison of the infection and penetration rate of the different strains showed that, at 14°C, all EPN strains resulted in slower codling moth mortality than they did at 25°C. After 48 h, 98% mortality was recorded for all species involved. However, the washed codling moth larvae, cool-treated (at 14°C) with S. feltiae or S. yirgalemense, resulted in 100% mortality 24 h later at room temperature, whereas codling moth larvae treated with the two H. bacteriophora strains resulted in 68% and 54% control, respectively. At 14°C, S. feltiae had the highest average penetration rate of 20 IJs/larva, followed by S. yirgalemense, with 14 IJs/larva. At 25°C, S. yirgalemense had the highest penetration rate, with 39 IJs/larva, followed by S. feltiae, with 9 IJs/larva. This study highlights the biocontrol potential of S. jeffreyense, as well as confirming that S. feltiae is a cold-active nematode, whereas the other three EPN isolates tested prefer warmer temperatures.

  8. Confirmation and efficacy tests against codling moth and oriental fruit moth in apples using combination heat and controlled atmosphere treatments.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Rehfield-Ray, Linda

    2006-10-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are serious pests of apples (Malus spp.) grown in the United States and other countries. In countries where these species are not found, there are strict quarantine restrictions in place to prevent their accidental introduction. The treatment used in this study consisted of hot, forced, moist air with a linear heating rate of 12 degrees C/h to a final chamber temperature of 46 degrees C under a 1% oxygen and 15% carbon dioxide environment. We found that the fourth instar of both species was the most tolerant to the treatment, with equal tolerance between the species. Efficacy tests against the fourth instar of both oriental fruit moth and codling moth by using a commercial controlled atmosphere temperature treatment system chamber resulted in > 5,000 individuals of each species being controlled using the combination treatment. Confirmation tests against codling moth resulted in mortality of > 30,000 fourth instars. These treatments may be used to meet quarantine restrictions for organic apples where fumigation with methyl bromide is not desirable.

  9. Efficacy results of insecticides against Cydia pomonella, the codling moth, in Belgium during the last decade (1998-2007).

    PubMed

    Bangels, Eva; Gobin, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    The codling moth is an economically important top fruit pest, with its major flight from May till August. We give an overview of ten years of results of efficacy field trials against the codling moth Cydia pomonella, with a number of commonly used products (diflubenzuron, fenoxycarb, flufenoxuron, indoxacarb, granulosis virus, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide). All trials were executed according to EPPO guidelines. Trials were performed in the Belgian fruit growing area nearby Sint-Truiden, on apple or pear. Each product was sprayed repetitively at registered dose rates to cover the whole flight period of the codling moth, as monitored with pheromone traps. Applications were repeated at strict intervals (7, 14, 21 or 28 days). We show that the different active ingredients had diverse mean efficacies, ranging from 49% to 98%. In general low mean efficacies could be attributed to high variability between trials. Maximal efficacies were indeed high (80%-100%) for all except one "product-interval" combinations, whereas minimal efficacies ranged from 0% to 92%. Belgian fruit growers can thus choose from a large set of active ingredients for resistance management, but have to take variability in efficacy into account. The best and most constant efficacies were reached with Cascade 100 DC (flufenoxuron) at a dose rate of 44 to 50 g a.i./ha leaf wall area and with an application interval of 14 or 21 days.

  10. Sex linkage of CpGV resistance in a heterogeneous field strain of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.).

    PubMed

    Asser-Kaiser, Sabine; Heckel, David G; Jehle, Johannes A

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of codling moth populations in European apple orchards that were not controlled by Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is the first reported case of field resistance against a baculovirus control agent. A monogenic dominant sex-linked mode of inheritance was previously demonstrated in single-pair crosses between a homogeneous resistant (CpRR1) and a susceptible (CpS) laboratory strain of codling moth. However, resistant field populations (CpR) are more heterogeneous in their levels of resistance, and the possibility that they could harbor different resistance genes to CpRR1 had not been directly addressed. Here we report single pair crossing experiments using a resistant codling moth strain collected from an apple orchard in the southwest of Germany. Single-pair crosses within the field strain revealed a genetic basis to the heterogeneity of CpR concerning CpGV resistance. Hybrid crosses to a susceptible laboratory strain and backcrosses of the F1 generation to the resistant CpR strain confirmed that the homogeneous CpRR1 and the heterogeneous field strain CpR share the same mode of inheritance. Thus the variable levels of CpGV resistance in field populations is likely due to frequency differences of the same resistance-conferring gene, rather than different genes, which will facilitate future efforts to monitor and manage resistance.

  11. Predicting codling moth (Cydia pomonella) phenology in North Carolina on the basis of temperature and improved generation turnover estimates.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Thomas M; Kennedy, George G; Walgenbach, James F

    2015-10-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major worldwide pest of apples, pears and walnuts. A temperature-driven phenological model of codling moth, developed in Michigan, has been utilized in North Carolina and other states for decades. Systematic inaccuracy of this model in predicting moth emergence in North Carolina suggests that the relationship between emergence and temperature differs between the American midwest and southeast, or that additional factors may influence the system. A method was developed to optimize the estimation of generation turnover intervals. Emergence was modeled as a function of heat unit accumulation. Significant differences between emergence predictions based on the resultant model and the existing model developed in Michigan were found. A new model of codling moth emergence, incorporating improved estimates for generation turnover for North Carolina, offers predictive improvement with practical importance to management. Differences between the emergence of susceptible and resistant moth populations were also investigated, leading to the suggestion that resistance to insecticides should be considered in future studies of emergence phenology. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Assessing climate change impacts on fruit plant and pest phenology and their synchrony: the case of apple and codling moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, Raphael; Stöckli, Sibylle; Calanca, Pierluigi

    2017-04-01

    Temperature is a main climatic driver of plant phenology and the dominant abiotic factor directly affecting insect pests. Global warming is therefore expected to accelerate the development of plants and insects. Moreover, in the case of multivoltine pest species higher temperatures are expected to lead to the appearance of additional generations toward the end of the warm season. These changes could entail higher pest pressure and hence require an adaptation of pest management, but ultimately this would depend on whether plant and pest phenology remain synchronized or not. In this contribution we present an analysis of potential impacts of climate change on the phenology of the apple tree (Malus pumila L.), a fruit crop of economic relevance worldwide, and the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.), one of its main pests. Key developmental stages of the apple and the codling moth were simulated by means of two heat summation models. The models were calibrated with lab and field data from Switzerland and subsequently run with observed weather data and various climate change scenarios. The time period between flowering termination and the harvest of the apples was compared to the appearance of the second and third generation of codling moth larvae to study the interlinkage between host and pest. To illustrate the potential for practical applications of the phenology models, we used spatial temperature data of Switzerland to produce risk maps that can serve as a basis for further studies and decision support.

  13. Effect of temperature on long-term storage of codling moth granulovirus formulations.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Lawrence A; Headrick, Heather L; Arthurs, Steven P

    2008-04-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is the major pest of apple (Malus spp.) in the western United States and many other regions of the world. The codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) provides a selective and safe means of its control. We assessed the long-term stability and storage potential of two commercial formulations of CpGV, Cyd-X, and Virosoft. All assays were performed with individual C. pomonella neonate larvae in 2-ml vials on 1 ml of artificial larval diet that was surface inoculated with 10 microl of the test virus suspension. Baseline quantitative assays for the two formulations revealed that the LC50 and LC95 values (occlusion bodies per vial) did not differ significantly between the formulations. For year-long studies on Cyd-X stability, the product was stored at -20, 2, 25, and 35 degrees C, and quantitative bioassays were conducted after 0, 3, 6, and 12 mo of storage. Cyd-X retained good larvicidal activity from -20 to 25 degrees C, and it was the least negatively affected at the lowest temperature. Storage of Cyd-X at 35 degrees C was detrimental to its larvicidal activity within 3 mo of storage. For longer term storage studies, Cyd-X and Virosoft formulations were stored at 2, 25, and 35 degrees C, and assayed for larvicidal activity over a 3-yr period. For recently produced product, a 10-microl sample of a 10(-5) dilution of both formulations resulted in 95-100% mortality in neonate larvae. Larvicidal activity for the Cyd-X formulation remained essentially unaffected for 156 wk when stored at 2 and 25 degrees C, but it began to decline significantly after 20 wk of storage at 35 degrees C. The Virosoft formulation stored at 2 degrees C also remained active throughout the 3-yr study, but it began to decline in larvicidal activity after 144 wk at 25 degrees C and 40 wk at 35 degrees C. The information reported in this study should be useful to growers and commercial suppliers for avoiding decreases in CpGV potency due to improper storage conditions.

  14. Susceptibility in field populations of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in Ontario and Quebec apple orchards to a selection of insecticides.

    PubMed

    Grigg-McGuffin, Kristy; Scott, Ian M; Bellerose, Sylvie; Chouinard, Gérald; Cormier, Daniel; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia

    2015-02-01

    Codling moth is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. Insecticide resistance has become a widespread pest management issue. However, the current status of insecticide resistance in Ontario and Quebec codling moth populations is unknown. Codling moth populations were collected from 27 orchards in Ontario and Quebec from 2008 to 2010. A series of laboratory bioassays were performed to establish baseline susceptibility of adults and larvae to azinphos-methyl, thiacloprid, chlorantraniliprole and methoxyfenozide. Adult codling moth percentage mortality ranged from 22 to 97% and from 21 to 85% when exposed to topical bioassays using azinphos-methyl and thiacloprid respectively. Azinphos-methyl LC50 values from three selected orchards were ca fivefold greater than those from an insecticide-susceptible population. Neonate larva percentage mortality ranged from 5 to 50%, from 15 to 65%, from 90 to 100% and from 10 to 40% when exposed to diet bioassays using azinphos-methyl, thiacloprid, chlorantraniliprole and methoxyfenozide respectively. Based on the response of the field-collected populations, resistance development to some registered insecticides was evident in some Ontario and Quebec populations. With the present status of insecticide resistance documented in these regions, modifications to codling moth management strategies should be initiated before changes in field efficacy occur. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. CRISPR/Cas9 Editing of the Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) CpomOR1 Gene Affects Egg Production and Viability.

    PubMed

    Garczynski, Stephen F; Martin, Jessica A; Griset, Margaret; Willett, Laura S; Cooper, W Rodney; Swisher, Kylie D; Unruh, Thomas R

    2017-08-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. Incorporation of semiochemicals, including the main sex pheromone (codlemone), into codling moth IPM programs has drastically reduced the amount of chemical insecticides needed to control this orchard pest. Odorant receptors located in sensory neuron membranes in the antennae are key sensors in the detection of semiochemicals and trigger downstream signaling events leading to a behavioral response. CpomOR1 is an odorant receptor belonging to the pheromone receptor subfamily in codling moth, and is a prime candidate for being a codlemone receptor based on its high expression levels in male antennae. In this study, the CpomOR1 gene was targeted using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to knockdown functional OR1 protein production to determine physiological function(s). By injecting early stage eggs, mutations were successfully introduced, including both deletions and insertions. When attempting to create stable populations of codling moth through mating of males with females containing mutations of the CpomOR1 gene, it was found that fecundity and fertility were affected, with edited females producing nonviable eggs. The role of CpomOR1 in fecundity and fertility in codling moth is unknown and will be the focus of future studies. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long-distance transportation: 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Blomefield, T; Carpenter, J E; Vreysen, M J B

    2011-06-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an areawide integrated pest management program. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of sterile insects could be made more cost-effective through the importation of sterile moths produced in other production centers. For codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), this is an attractive option because mating studies have confirmed the absence of mating barriers between codling moth populations from geographically different areas. To assess the feasibility of long-distance transportation of codling moths, pupae and adult moths were transported in 2004 from Canada to South Africa in four shipments by using normal commercial transport routes. The total transport time remained below 67 h in three of the consignments, but it was 89 h in the fourth consignment. Temperature in the shipping boxes was fairly constant and remained between -0.61 and 0.16 degrees C for 76.8-85.7% of the time. The data presented indicate that transporting codling moths as adults and pupae from Canada to South Africa had little effect on moth emergence, longevity, and ability to mate, as assessed in the laboratory. These results provide support to the suggestion that the STT for codling moth in pome fruit production areas might be evaluated and implemented by the importation of irradiated moths from rearing facilities in a different country or hemisphere.

  17. Novaluron causes reduced egg hatch after treating adult codling moths, Cydia pomenella: support for transovarial transfer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Hoon S; Wise, John C; Gökçe, Avhan; Whalon, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of apples throughout the United States. Reliance on broad spectrum organophosphates has been declining with the slated cancellation and has shifted towards narrow spectrum insecticides. Novaluron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, has primarily been used for its ovicidal and larvacidal activities. However, recent studies have demonstrated a transovarial effect after exposure to adults. The effects of novaluron were studied to determine if reduced egg hatch occurs after exposure of different sexes to this compound. Effects of this compound through horizontal transfer were also compared with a topical application to C. pomonella eggs. Results from independent exposure of different sexes to novaluron were different than the control for all three exposure types; male only, female only, and both treated. The horizontal transfer experiment yielded no significant difference while the topical application of novaluron on eggs showed significantly lower egg hatch. Although novaluron has no direct toxicity to adults, the results of this study demonstrate that the delayed lethal activity of this compound reduces hatching of eggs laid by treated adults. Along with the direct ovicidal and larvicidal properties of novaluron, the delayed lethal activity provides an important contribution to the overall control seen in the field.

  18. Cold hardiness and supercooling capacity in the overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Khani, Abbas; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2010-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a worldwide apple pest, is classified as a freeze-intolerant organism and one of the most cold-tolerant pests. The objectives of this study were to examine the supercooling point of overwintering and non-diapausing larvae of C. pomonella as an index of its cold hardiness, and to assess larval mortality following 24 h exposure to extreme low temperatures ranging from -5 to -25 degrees C. The mean (+/-SE) supercooling point for feeding larvae (third through fifth instars) was -12.4 +/- 1.1 degrees C. The mean supercooling point for cocooned, non-diapausing larvae (i.e., non-feeding stages) decreased as the days that the arvae were cocooned increased and changed between -15.1 +/- 1.2 degrees C for one to two day cocooned arvae and -19.2 +/- 1.8 degrees C for less than five day cocooned larvae. The mean (+/-SE) supercooling point for other non-feeding stages containing pupae and overwintering larvae were -19.9 +/- 1.0 degrees C and -20.2 +/- 0.2 degrees C, respectively. Mean supercooling points of C. pomonella larvae were significantly lower during the winter months than the summer months, and sex had no effect on the supercooling point of C. pomonella larvae. The mortality of larvae increased significantly after individuals were exposed to temperatures below the mean supercooling point of the population. The supercooling point was a good predictor of cold hardiness.

  19. A female-specific attractant for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, from apple fruit volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hern, Alan; Dorn, Silvia

    Host plant-derived esters were investigated as potential female-specific attractants for the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), a key pest of apples worldwide. The behavioural effects of single and combined volatile compounds and of a natural odour blend were examined using olfactometry and wind-tunnel bioassays. The apple-derived volatile butyl hexanoate attracted mated females while it was behaviourally ineffective for males over a dosage range of more than three orders of magnitude in olfactometer assays. Female CM preferred this kairomone to the headspace volatiles from ripe apples. Both no-choice and choice trials in the wind-tunnel suggested that female moths might be effectively trapped by means of this compound. In contrast, headspace volatiles collected from ripe apple fruits as well as a blend containing the six dominant esters from ripe apples were behaviourally ineffective. A female-specific repellency was found for the component hexyl acetate in the olfactometer, but this ester had no significant effect in the wind-tunnel. Butyl hexanoate with its sex-specific attraction should be further evaluated for monitoring and controlling CM females in orchards.

  20. Optimizing Aerosol Dispensers for Mating Disruption of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L.

    PubMed

    McGhee, Peter S; Miller, James R; Thomson, Donald R; Gut, Larry J

    2016-07-01

    Experiments were conducted in commercial apple orchards to determine if improved efficiencies in pheromone delivery may be realized by using aerosol pheromone dispensers for codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L., mating disruption. Specifically, we tested how reducing: pheromone concentration, period of dispenser operation, and frequency of pheromone emission from aerosol dispensers affected orientational disruption of male CM to pheromone-baited monitoring traps. Isomate® CM MIST formulated with 50 % less codlemone (3.5 mg/ emission) provided orientation disruption equal to the standard commercial formulation (7 mg / emission). Decreased periods of dispenser operation (3 and 6 h) and frequency of pheromone emission (30 and 60 min) provided a level of orientational disruption similar to the current standard protocol of releasing pheromone over a 12 h period on a 15 min cycle, respectively. These three modifications provide a means of substantially reducing the amount of pheromone necessary for CM disruption. The savings accompanying pheromone conservation could lead to increased adoption of CM mating disruption and, moreover, provide an opportunity for achieving higher levels of disruption by increasing dispenser densities.

  1. Distribution Characteristics of Eggs and Neonate Larvae of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wearing, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Literature is reviewed on the spatial distribution of the eggs and neonate larvae of codling moth on apple trees in relation to research conducted in Nelson, New Zealand. At Nelson, oviposition increased with height and was greater in the north and east of the trees and in those with greater fruit load in some seasons, which matches published reports. All publications and the research recorded high percentages of eggs laid singly within 10–15 cm of the fruit, with most eggs on leaves even within fruit clusters; oviposition on fruit clusters of different sizes was nonrandom because more eggs were laid on those with more fruit, but the aggregation of both per cluster and within clusters was even greater than that caused by the fruit number alone. Oviposition at random with respect to the fruit occurred only at very low population density. The choice of oviposition site between fruit and the adaxial leaf surface and abaxial leaf surface (AbLS) was variable and cultivar related. Cultivars on which eggs predominated on the AbLS were less frequent and characterized by low trichome density. In the literature, neonate larvae from eggs on the AbLS suffered greater mortality, as did those in Nelson that hatched more distant from the fruit. This review discusses the interaction between these distribution characteristics and species-specific host–plant volatiles, egg adhesion to plant surfaces, oviposition deterrents, predation, and their relevance to pest management. PMID:27429560

  2. Attractants from Bartlett pear for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Alan L.; Light, Douglas M.

    2001-08-01

    The alkyl ethyl and methyl esters of (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoic acid found in head-space samples of ripe Bartlett pear ( Pyrus communis L.) stimulated a response from neonate larvae of the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), in both static-air Petri-plate and in upwind Y-tube and straight-tube olfactometer bioassays. In comparison with the known CM neonate attractant, ( E,E)-α-farnesene, ethyl (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate was attractive at 10-fold and 1,000-fold lower threshold dosages in the Petri-plate and in the Y-tube bioassays, respectively. Methyl (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate was attractive to CM neonates in these bioassays at much higher doses than ethyl (2 E,4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate. Other principal head-space volatiles from ripe pear fruit and pear leaves, including butyl acetate, hexyl acetate, ( Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and ( E)-β-ocimene, were not attractive to CM neonates. The potential uses of these pear kairomones for monitoring and control of CM in walnuts and apple are discussed.

  3. Novaluron Causes Reduced Egg Hatch After Treating Adult Codling Moths, Cydia pomenella: Support for Transovarial Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Hoon S.; Wise, John C.; Gökçe, Avhan; Whalon, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of apples throughout the United States. Reliance on broad spectrum organophosphates has been declining with the slated cancellation and has shifted towards narrow spectrum insecticides. Novaluron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, has primarily been used for its ovicidal and larvacidal activities. However, recent studies have demonstrated a transovarial effect after exposure to adults. The effects of novaluron were studied to determine if reduced egg hatch occurs after exposure of different sexes to this compound. Effects of this compound through horizontal transfer were also compared with a topical application to C. pomonella eggs. Results from independent exposure of different sexes to novaluron were different than the control for all three exposure types; male only, female only, and both treated. The horizontal transfer experiment yielded no significant difference while the topical application of novaluron on eggs showed significantly lower egg hatch. Although novaluron has no direct toxicity to adults, the results of this study demonstrate that the delayed lethal activity of this compound reduces hatching of eggs laid by treated adults. Along with the direct ovicidal and larvicidal properties of novaluron, the delayed lethal activity provides an important contribution to the overall control seen in the field. PMID:22239717

  4. Distribution Characteristics of Eggs and Neonate Larvae of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Wearing, Christopher H

    2016-01-01

    Literature is reviewed on the spatial distribution of the eggs and neonate larvae of codling moth on apple trees in relation to research conducted in Nelson, New Zealand. At Nelson, oviposition increased with height and was greater in the north and east of the trees and in those with greater fruit load in some seasons, which matches published reports. All publications and the research recorded high percentages of eggs laid singly within 10-15 cm of the fruit, with most eggs on leaves even within fruit clusters; oviposition on fruit clusters of different sizes was nonrandom because more eggs were laid on those with more fruit, but the aggregation of both per cluster and within clusters was even greater than that caused by the fruit number alone. Oviposition at random with respect to the fruit occurred only at very low population density. The choice of oviposition site between fruit and the adaxial leaf surface and abaxial leaf surface (AbLS) was variable and cultivar related. Cultivars on which eggs predominated on the AbLS were less frequent and characterized by low trichome density. In the literature, neonate larvae from eggs on the AbLS suffered greater mortality, as did those in Nelson that hatched more distant from the fruit. This review discusses the interaction between these distribution characteristics and species-specific host-plant volatiles, egg adhesion to plant surfaces, oviposition deterrents, predation, and their relevance to pest management.

  5. Studies on the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) response to different codlemone release rates.

    PubMed

    Vacas, S; Miñarro, M; Bosch, M D; Primo, J; Navarro-Llopis, V

    2013-12-01

    The response of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)) to different emission values of its main pheromone component, 8E,10E-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), was investigated in three field trials conducted in plots without mating disruption treatments. Moth catches obtained in traps baited with pheromone dispensers were correlated with the corresponding codlemone release rates by multiple regression analysis. In a preliminary trial conducted in Lleida (NE Spain), a decreasing trend of captures was observed based on increasing pheromone levels. After this, the pheromone release profiles of the pheromone dispensers were studied, in parallel with the field trials, by residual codlemone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the trials carried out in Asturias (NW Spain), a correlation between trap catches and emission levels (within the range from 11 to 1,078 μg/d) was found and fitted a logarithmic model. Captures followed a decreasing linear trend in the range of emission rates from 11 to 134 μg/d. Given that release values comprised between 11 and 67 μg/d did not lead to significantly different catches in traps, this emission range could be considered to develop effective formulations for attraction purposes when mating disruption is not acting in the environment.

  6. Respiratory response of fifth-instar codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to rapidly changing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Neven, L G

    1998-02-01

    Fifth-instar codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to 10 simulated heat treatments of apples and pears and CO2 levels were monitored as a measure of respiration. Marked increases in respiration rates (microliter CO2/mg/min) were noted during these treatments. Respiration peaked between 3.5 and 4.8 microliters CO2/mg/min; the amount of time to peak respiration depended on the heating rate and was correlated to the LT95. No differences were observed between male and female larvae in the timing of the peaks of CO2 production. In treatments where mortality occurred, CO2 levels dropped to zero, but only after a considerable time after death. Respiratory recovery rates, the time it took for CO2 levels to return to normal, were recorded after treatments at time points where CO2 production reached 3/4 and maximum peak. Respiration rates at constant temperatures were recorded within the range of 10-30 degrees C. Q10 over this range was 1.49, whereas Q10 was the greatest, 2.54, between 10 and 15 degrees C.

  7. Brazilian gemstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro

    1981-04-01

    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  8. Molecular phylogeny and population structure of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in Central Europe: I. Ancient clade splitting revealed by mitochondrial haplotype markers.

    PubMed

    Meraner, A; Brandstätter, A; Thaler, R; Aray, B; Unterlechner, M; Niederstätter, H; Parson, W; Zelger, R; Dalla Via, J; Dallinger, R

    2008-09-01

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella L., Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is an important pest of pome fruit with global distribution. It has adapted successfully to different habitats by forming various ecotypes and populations, often termed strains, which differ among each other in several morphological, developmental, and physiological features. Many strains of Cydia pomonella have developed resistance against a broad range of chemically different pesticides. Obviously, pesticide-resistant strains must have a genetic basis inherent to the gene pool of codling moth populations, and this deserves our particular attention. The primary intention of the present study was to contribute novel information regarding the evolutionary phylogeny and phylogeography of codling moth populations in Central Europe. In addition, we aimed at testing the hypothesis that differential biological traits and response patterns towards pesticides in codling moth populations may be reflected at a mitochondrial DNA level. In particular, we wanted to test if pesticide resistance in codling moths is associated repeatedly and independently with more than one mitochondrial haplotype. To this end, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA and constructed phylogenetic trees based on three mitochondrial genes: cytochrome oxidase I (COI), the A+T-rich region of the control region (CR), and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5). The results indicate that Central European populations of Cydia pomonella are clearly divided in two ancient clades. As shown by means of a molecular clock approach, the splitting of the two clades can be dated to a time period between the lower and middle Pleistocene, about 1.29-0.20 million years ago. It is assumed that the cyclic changes of warm and cold periods during Pleistocene may have lead to the geographic separation of codling moth populations due to glaciation, giving rise to the formation of the two separate refugial clades, as already shown for many

  9. Pheromone trap and population model-based control of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in Romanian apple culture.

    PubMed

    Iordanescu, O; Micu, R; Angelache, I; Blidaru, A; Snejana, D; Simeria, G; Draganescu, E; Beyers, T; Verberne, A; Aerts, R

    2007-01-01

    Like in most parts of the world, the codling moth, Cydia pomonello (L.), is one of the most important pests in apple orchards in the Romanian Banat region. There, the control of this pest is often inadequate and the damage and economic losses are therefore enormous. This lack of control is caused by structural problems such as the absence of an advanced distribution network for phytopharmaceutical products, obsolete spraying equipment and the insufficient exchange of knowledge and expertise of those products and the pest itself between the local research facilities and the apple growers. The purpose of this research project is rather demonstrative, because a change in the Romanian pome culture's attitude is urgently needed. Pheromone trapping and the computerized population model RIMpro Cydia, which predicts important phenological events such as adult flight and egg hatch, were used to determine the optimal spray timing. These modern pest management techniques would not only minimize pressure on the environment, but also on the income of the Romanian apple grower, for whom phytopharmaceuticals are a high-priced investment. In July 2006 a comparative study between the supervised pest control program using Calypso, Runner and Reldan, all easily obtainable and commercially available insecticides in the region, and a conventional Romanian management programme was conducted. The control plot and the two test plots were all three located in a high codling moth pressure orchard in Timişoara. In the control plot 9,44 % of the fruits were damaged by codling moth larvae. In the plot containing the trees that were treated according to the traditional Romanian management programme 5,56 % damage was recorded, while the supervised management plot showed only 1,1% damage. Additionally damage was measured in another orchard in Periam, about 60 km away from the other plots. There, an intensive control program using Reldan, Calypso, Actare, Karate and Insegar was applied and damage

  10. Incidence and transmission of a granulovirus in a large codling moth [Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)] rearing facility.

    PubMed

    Cossentine, J E; Jensen, L B M; Eastwell, K C

    2005-11-01

    Incidences of potential per os Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) transmission within a large codling moth colony were identified. CpGV was detected in the water which is used to wash egg sheets. When pre-neonates were extracted from eggs prior to emergence and tested for the presence of CpGV, 40% were found to carry amounts of CpGV detectable by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, suggesting possible transovarial transmission of the virus. Although symptoms typical of virus infection and larval death were found infrequently within communal rearing trays, the frequency with which CpGV DNA was detected by PCR assays increased from a mean of 31% of 10-day-old larvae to 94% of 25-day-old larvae. CpGV in codling moth cadavers remained virulent after being held at 60 degrees C for 3 days under conditions similar to the treatment of spent diet at the rearing facility before its disposal. PCR tests of surface samples taken from air filters and rearing rooms of the rearing facility were found to contain CpGV. Bioassays of surface samples from the diet trash bin and a filter through which outside air is passed before entering the rearing chambers resulted in significant codling moth neonate mortality. The virulence of CpGV in dust from the spent diet and the original inadvertent positioning of the diet trash bin directly below one of the air intake ducts are suggested as a possible additional source of CpGV contamination within the facility.

  11. New method for testing solar sensitivity of commercial formulations of the granulovirus of codling moth (Cydia pomonella, Tortricidae: Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Lacey, Lawrence A; Arthurs, Steven P

    2005-10-01

    A method for screening codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) formulation sensitivity to sunlight using specially prepared half apples and a solar simulator is described. The half apple preparation allows an even coverage of virus over the surface of the fruit that would not be possible using whole apples. Leaves and artificial medium were not usable for extended periods of exposure in the solar simulator due to excess drying. Fruit was sprayed with 10(-3) and 10(-5) dilutions of three commercial formulations of CpGV (Carpovirusine, Cyd-X, and Virosoft) and infested with codling moth neonates. Half of the sprayed fruit was exposed to 650 W/m2 for 4 h in an Atlas Suntest CPS solar simulator resulting in an accumulated radiant energy of 9.36x10(6) J/m2 before they were infested with neonate codling moth larvae. Spraying non-irradiated fruit with the 10(-3) dilution of Cyd-X and Virosoft resulted in nearly 100% mortality of neonate larvae. Irradiation reduced viral activity by 71-98% at the 10(-3) dilution and by up to 32% at the 10(-5) dilution relative to non-irradiated fruit. The procedures utilized enabled good preservation of the fruit throughout the incubation period and minimized invasion of the fruit by plant pathogens and saprophytic organisms. This laboratory method for screening candidate formulations and potential UV protectants could conserve time and resources by eliminating adjuvants with less potential in laboratory tests and field testing only the most promising candidates. It also enables year-round testing.

  12. Potential for Using Acetic Acid Plus Pear Ester Combination Lures to Monitor Codling Moth in an SIT Program

    PubMed Central

    Judd, Gary J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies were conducted in commercial apple orchards in British Columbia, Canada, to determine whether lures combining ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, pear ester (PE), with either acetic acid (AA) or sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), might improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in an area-wide programme integrating sterile insect technology (SIT) and mating disruption (MD). Catches of sterile and wild codling moths were compared in apple orchards receiving weekly delivery of sterile moths (1:1 sex ratio) using white delta traps baited with either AA or PE alone, and in combination. Sterile and wild codling moths responded similarly to these kairomone lures. For each moth sex and type (sterile and wild), AA-PE lures were significantly more attractive than AA or PE alone. Bisexual catches with AA-PE lures were compared with those of commercial bisexual lures containing 3 mg of codlemone plus 3 mg of PE (Pherocon CM-DA Combo lure, Trécé Inc., Adair, OK, USA), and to catches of males with standard codlemone-loaded septa used in SIT (1 mg) and MD (10 mg) programmes, respectively. CM-DA lures caught the greatest number of sterile and wild male moths in orchards managed with SIT alone, or combined with MD, whereas AA-PE lures caught 2–3× more females than CM-DA lures under both management systems. Sterile to wild (S:W) ratios for male versus female moths in catches with AA-PE lures were equivalent, whereas in the same orchards, male S:W ratios were significantly greater than female S:W ratios when measured with CM-DA lures. Male S:W ratios measured with CM-DA lures were similar to those with codlemone lures. CM-DA and codlemone lures appear to overestimate S:W ratios as measured by AA-PE lures, probably by attracting relatively more sterile males from long range. Using AA-PE lures to monitor codling moths in an SIT programme removes fewer functional sterile males and reduces the need for trap maintenance compared with using

  13. THE ACTION SPECTRUM FOR BREAKING DIAPAUSE IN THE CODLING MOTH, Laspeyresia pomonella (L.), AND THE OAK SILKWORM, Antheraea pernyi GUER.

    PubMed

    Norris, K H; Howell, F; Hayes, D K; Adler, V E; Sullivan, W N; Schechter, M S

    1969-08-01

    The action spectrum for breaking diapause in the oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi Guer., and the codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella (L.), was determined from 400 to 700 nm with a wedge-interference spectrograph. Insects were exposed to ten hours of white light, followed by six hours of spectral light each day for 45 days. The portion of the spectrum between 400 and 500 nm was found to be the most effective in terminating diapause. Diapause was broken for both insects with energy levels as low as 0.02 muw/cm(2).

  14. Rheological profile of diets produced using agro-industrial wastes for rearing codling moth larvae for baculovirus biopesticides.

    PubMed

    Gnepe, J R; Tyagi, R D; Brar, S K; Valero, J R

    2011-01-01

    A rheological study of diets using the agro-industrial wastes (brewery wastewater and pomace waste) was carried out in order to obtain a diet most adapted to supply nutrients for growth of codling moth (CM) larvae. Nutritive capacity (g/L) of brewery wastewater (BWW) (25.5 ± 5.5 carbohydrates; 16.9 ± 2.1 proteins; 6 ± 1.6 lipids) and pomace waste (POM) (22.0 ± 0.03 carbohydrates; 11.3 ± 1.3 proteins; 2 ± 0.2 lipids) were essential and important as replacement or in association with other ingredients [soya flour (SF), wheat germ (WG), yeast extract (YE)] of the standard diet for the breeding of codling moth larvae. These diet additives also contributed to the preservation of texture and nutritive content of larvae diet. The eggs and CM larvae were grown on alternate diets under industrial conditions (16:8 h photoperiod; 25 ± 1 °C and 50 ± 0.5 % of humidity). The higher assimilation of nutrients of the diets in BWW and control diet was observed by calculating the rate of hatching of eggs (0.48 to 0.71); larvae growth (0.23 to 0.4) and fertility (1.33 to 3 for control diet). The excellent growth and fertility rates of codling moth larvae were attributed to variations in viscosity (varying from 50 to 266 mPa.s⁻¹), particle size (varying 24.3 μm in 88.05 μm with regard to 110 μm the control diet) and total solids (145.88 g/L POM + YE; 162.08 g/L BWW + YE; 162.2 g/L POM + WG; 173 g/L control; 174.3 g/L BWW + WG) diets. Lower viscosity favored improved diet due to ease of assimilation of nutrients. Thus, rheology is an important parameter during preparation of diets for growth of codling moth larvae as it will dictate the nutrient assimilation which is an important parameter of larvae growth.

  15. Potential for Using Acetic Acid Plus Pear Ester Combination Lures to Monitor Codling Moth in an SIT Program.

    PubMed

    Judd, Gary J R

    2016-11-25

    Studies were conducted in commercial apple orchards in British Columbia, Canada, to determine whether lures combining ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, pear ester (PE), with either acetic acid (AA) or sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), might improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in an area-wide programme integrating sterile insect technology (SIT) and mating disruption (MD). Catches of sterile and wild codling moths were compared in apple orchards receiving weekly delivery of sterile moths (1:1 sex ratio) using white delta traps baited with either AA or PE alone, and in combination. Sterile and wild codling moths responded similarly to these kairomone lures. For each moth sex and type (sterile and wild), AA-PE lures were significantly more attractive than AA or PE alone. Bisexual catches with AA-PE lures were compared with those of commercial bisexual lures containing 3 mg of codlemone plus 3 mg of PE (Pherocon CM-DA Combo lure, Trécé Inc., Adair, OK, USA), and to catches of males with standard codlemone-loaded septa used in SIT (1 mg) and MD (10 mg) programmes, respectively. CM-DA lures caught the greatest number of sterile and wild male moths in orchards managed with SIT alone, or combined with MD, whereas AA-PE lures caught 2-3× more females than CM-DA lures under both management systems. Sterile to wild (S:W) ratios for male versus female moths in catches with AA-PE lures were equivalent, whereas in the same orchards, male S:W ratios were significantly greater than female S:W ratios when measured with CM-DA lures. Male S:W ratios measured with CM-DA lures were similar to those with codlemone lures. CM-DA and codlemone lures appear to overestimate S:W ratios as measured by AA-PE lures, probably by attracting relatively more sterile males from long range. Using AA-PE lures to monitor codling moths in an SIT programme removes fewer functional sterile males and reduces the need for trap maintenance compared with using

  16. Mastrus ridibundus parasitoids eavesdrop on cocoon-spinning codling moth, Cydia pomonella, larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumean, Zaid; Unruh, Tom; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Cocoon-spinning larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) employ a pheromone that attracts or arrests conspecifics seeking pupation sites. Such intraspecific communication signals are important cues for illicit receivers such as parasitoids to exploit. We tested the hypothesis that the prepupal C. pomonella parasitoid Mastrus ridibundus Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) exploits the larval aggregation pheromone to locate host prepupae. In laboratory olfactometer experiments, female M. ridibundus were attracted to 3-day-old cocoons containing C. pomonella larvae or prepupae. Older cocoons containing C. pomonella pupae, or larvae and prepupae excised from cocoons, were not attractive. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of bioactive Porapak Q extract of cocoon-derived airborne semiochemicals, ten compounds elicited responses from female M. ridibundus antennae. Comparative GC-mass spectrometry of authentic standards and cocoon-volatiles determined that these compounds were 3-carene, myrcene, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, sulcatone, and geranylacetone. A synthetic 11-component blend consisting of these ten EAD-active compounds plus EAD-inactive (+)-limonene (the most abundant cocoon-derived volatile) was as effective as Porapak Q cocoon extract in attracting both female M. ridibundus and C. pomonella larvae seeking pupation sites. Only three components could be deleted from the 11-component blend without diminishing its attractiveness to M. ridibundus, which underlines the complexity of information received and processed during foraging for hosts. Mastrus ridibundus obviously “eavesdrop” on the pheromonal communication signals of C. pomonella larvae that reliably indicate host presence.

  17. Phenotypic screen for RNAi effects in the codling moth Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinda; Gu, Liuqi; Ireland, Stephen; Garczynski, Stephen F; Knipple, Douglas C

    2015-11-10

    RNAi-based technologies have the potential to augment, or replace existing pest management strategies. However, some insect taxa are less susceptible to the induction of the post-transcriptional gene silencing effect than others, such as the Lepidoptera. Here we describe experiments to investigate the induction of RNAi in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, a major lepidopteran pest of apple, pear, and walnut. Prior to a knockdown screen, fluorescently labeled small interfering RNA (siRNA) and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) derived from green fluorescent protein (GFP) coding sequence were delivered to the surface of artificial diet to which neonate larvae were introduced and subsequently examined for the distribution of fluorescence in their tissues. Fluorescence was highly concentrated in the midgut but its presence in other tissues was equivocal. Next, dsRNAs were made for C. pomonella genes orthologous to those that have well defined deleterious phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster. A screen was conducted using dsRNAs encoding cullin-1 (Cpcul1), maleless (Cpmle), musashi (Cpmsi), a homeobox gene (CpHbx), and pumilio (Cppum). The dsRNAs designed from these target genes were administered to neonate larvae by delivery to the surface of the growth medium. None of the dsRNA treatments affected larval viability, however Cpcul1-dsRNA had a significant effect on larval growth, with the average length of larvae about 3mm, compared to about 4mm in the control groups. Measurement of Cpcul1 transcript levels by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed a dose-dependent RNAi effect in response to increasing amount of Cpcul1-dsRNA. Despite their reduced size, Cpcul1-dsRNA-treated larvae molted normally and matured to adulthood in a manner similar to controls. In an additional experiment, Cpcul1-siRNA was found to induce similar stunting effect as that induced by Cpcul1-dsRNA.

  18. Genetic inferences about the population dynamics of codling moth females at a local scale.

    PubMed

    Franck, P; Ricci, B; Klein, E K; Olivares, J; Simon, S; Cornuet, J-M; Lavigne, C

    2011-07-01

    Estimation of demographic parameters is important for understanding the functioning of natural populations and the underlying ecological and evolutionary processes that may impact their dynamics. Here, we used sibship assignment methods to shed light on the local dynamics of codling moth females in eight orchards in a 90-ha domain near Valence, France. Based on full-sib inference among 1,063 genotyped moths, we estimated (1) the effective number of females that had offspring, (2) their fertility and (3) the distribution of their oviposition sites within and among orchards. The average number of females in all the orchards increased between the first (~130) and the second (~235) annual generations. The average fertilities of the females were similar at each generation according to the host plant considered (apple, pear, or walnut), but differed between commercial (~10) and non-treated (~25) apple orchards. Females mainly clustered their eggs on contiguous trees along orchard borders, but they also occasionally dispersed their eggs among different orchards independently of the cultivated host plants or the inter-orchard distances (up to 698 m) during the second annual generation. The mean distance between two oviposition sites was 30 m. Sibship estimates of both the effective number of females and the inter-orchard migration rates (~5%) were in agreement with the observed genetic differentiation among the eight orchards (0.006 < F ( st ) < 0.013). These results confirm and extend previous field and laboratory observations in Cydia pomonella, and they demonstrate that sibship assignments based on genetic data are an interesting alternative to mark-release-recapture methods for inferring insect population dynamics.

  19. Cold Hardiness and Supercooling Capacity in the Overwintering Larvae of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Abbas; Moharramipour, Saeid

    2010-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a worldwide apple pest, is classified as a freeze-intolerant organism and one of the most cold-tolerant pests. The objectives of this study were to examine the supercooling point of overwintering and non-diapausing larvae of C. pomonella as an index of its cold hardiness, and to assess larval mortality following 24 h exposure to extreme low temperatures ranging from -5 to -25°C. The mean (±SE) supercooling point for feeding larvae (third through fifth instars) was -12.4 ± 1.1°C. The mean supercooling point for cocooned, non-diapausing larvae (i.e., non-feeding stages) decreased as the days that the arvae were cocooned increased and changed between -15.1 ± 1.2°C for one to two day cocooned arvae and -19.2 ± 1.8°C for less than five day cocooned larvae. The mean (±SE) supercooling point for other non-feeding stages containing pupae and overwintering larvae were -19.9 ± 1.0°C and -20.2 ± 0.2°C, respectively. Mean supercooling points of C. pomonella larvae were significantly lower during the winter months than the summer months, and sex had no effect on the supercooling point of C. pomonella larvae. The mortality of larvae increased significantly after individuals were exposed to temperatures below the mean supercooling point of the population. The supercooling point was a good predictor of cold hardiness. PMID:20673068

  20. Influence of juvenile hormone and mating on oogenesis and oviposition in the codling moth, cydia pomonella

    PubMed

    Webb; Shu; Ramaswamy; Dorn

    1999-01-01

    Oogenesis in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and the role of juvenile hormones (JHs) were addressed. Rudimentary ovarian structures were recognisable in day 3-4 pupae, when haemolymph JH was still undetectable by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the selected ion mode (GC-MS/SIM). The presence of developing oocytes was observed by light microscopy on day 8, coincident with very low JH titres (0.74 +/- 0.05 ng/ml JH II). Chorionation was only evident upon emergence, following an increase in JH in the pharate adult (0h old: 4.71 +/- 0.34 ng/ml JH II). Analysis of haemolymph from virgin and mated females indicated that JH II was predominant, with approximately equal and lower quantities of JHs I and III (3.3- to 5.0-fold less). When pupae or newly emerged adults were treated with JH homologues, no alteration in ovarian protein content was apparent, but the JH mimetic, fenoxycarb, depressed the number of oocytes filling >/= 50% follicular volume. Chorion deposition was stimulated by JHs I, II, or III (10 &mgr;g), but not by fenoxycarb (0.05 &mgr;g, 10 &mgr;g). Mating provided correct stimuli for enhanced choriogenesis and egg laying, and, since haemolymph JH titres were concomitantly elevated (approximately 2-fold), it was postulated that the rise in JH elicited both these events. Application of JHs to virgin females, however, could not mimic mating; only increases in choriogenesis were induced: JH-treatment of virgins (or mated insects) significantly decreased oviposition rates over 24 and 48 h and markedly reduced the life-time total number of eggs. Arch. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Application of Cydia pomonella expressed sequence tags: Identification and expression of three general odorant binding proteins in codling moth.

    PubMed

    Garczynski, Stephen F; Coates, Brad S; Unruh, Thomas R; Schaeffer, Scott; Jiwan, Derick; Koepke, Tyson; Dhingra, Amit

    2013-10-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is one of the most important pests of pome fruits in the world, yet the molecular genetics and the physiology of this insect remain poorly understood. A combined assembly of 8 341 expressed sequence tags was generated from Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencing of eight tissue-specific cDNA libraries. Putative chemosensory proteins (12) and odorant binding proteins (OBPs) (18) were annotated, which included three putative general OBP (GOBP), one more than typically reported for other Lepidoptera. To further characterize CpomGOBPs, we cloned cDNA copies of their transcripts and determined their expression patterns in various tissues. Cloning and sequencing of the 698 nt transcript for CpomGOBP1 resulted in the prediction of a 163 amino acid coding region, and subsequent RT-PCR indicated that the transcripts were mainly expressed in antennae and mouthparts. The 1 289 nt (160 amino acid) CpomGOBP2 and the novel 702 nt (169 amino acid) CpomGOBP3 transcripts are mainly expressed in antennae, mouthparts, and female abdomen tips. These results indicate that next generation sequencing is useful for the identification of novel transcripts of interest, and that codling moth expresses a transcript encoding for a new member of the GOBP subfamily.

  2. Effects of Ginkgo biloba constituents on fruit-infesting behavior of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in apples.

    PubMed

    Pszczolkowski, Maciej A; Durden, Kevin; Sellars, Samantha; Cowell, Brian; Brown, John J

    2011-10-26

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a cosmopolitan pest of apple, potentially causing severe damage to the fruit. Currently used methods of combating this insect do not warrant full success or are harmful to the environment. The use of plant-derived semiochemicals for manipulation with fruit-infesting behavior is one of the new avenues for controlling this pest. Here, we explore the potential of Ginkgo biloba and its synthetic metabolites for preventing apple feeding and infestation by neonate larvae of C. pomonella. Experiments with crude extracts indicated that deterrent constituents of ginkgo are present among alkylphenols, terpene trilactones, and flavonol glycosides. Further experiments with ginkgo synthetic metabolites of medical importance, ginkgolic acids, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, ginkgolides, and bilobalide, indicated that three out of these chemicals have feeding deterrent properties. Ginkgolic acid 15:0 prevented fruit infestation at concentrations as low as 1 mg/mL, bilobalide had deterrent effects at 0.1 mg/mL and higher concentrations, and ginkgolide B at 10 mg/mL. On the other hand, kaempferol and quercetin promoted fruit infestation by codling moth neonates. Ginkgolic acids 13:0, 15:1, and 17:1, isorhamnetin, and ginkgolides A and C had no effects on fruit infestation-related behavior. Our research is the first report showing that ginkgo constituents influence fruit infestation behavior and have potential applications in fruit protection.

  3. Foliar application of microdoses of sucrose to reduce codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) damage to apple trees.

    PubMed

    Arnault, Ingrid; Lombarkia, Nadia; Joy-Ondet, Sophie; Romet, Lionel; Brahim, Imene; Meradi, Rahma; Nasri, Ardjouna; Auger, Jacques; Derridj, Sylvie

    2016-10-01

    The effects of foliar applications of microdoses of sucrose to reduce the damage by the codling moth have been reported from nine trials carried in France and Algeria from 2009 to 2014. The activity of sucrose alone was assessed by comparison with an untreated control and some treatments with the Cydia pomonella granulovirus or a chemical insecticide. The addition of sucrose to these different treatments was also investigated. The application of sucrose at 0.01% reduced the means of infested fruits with a value of Abbott's efficacy of 41.0 ± 10.0%. This involved the induction of resistance by antixenosis to insect egg laying. Indeed, it seems that acceptance of egg laying on leaves treated with sucrose was reduced. The addition of sucrose to thiacloprid improved its efficacy (59.5% ± 12.8) by 18.4%. However, the sucrose had no added value when associated with C. pomonella granulovirus treatments. Foliar applications of microdoses of sucrose every 20 days in commercial orchards can partially protect against the codling moth. Its addition to thiacloprid increases the efficacy in integrated control strategies, contrary to C. pomonella granulovirus treatments. This work opens a route for the development of new biocontrol strategies. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Measuring local genetic variability in populations of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) across an unmanaged and commercial orchard interface.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo; Basoalto, Esteban; Franck, Pierre; Lavandero, Blas; Knight, Alan L; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2014-04-01

    The genetic structure of adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), populations was characterized both inside a managed apple, Malus domestica Borkdhausen, orchard and in surrounding unmanaged hosts and nonhost trees in central Chile during 2006-2007. Adult males were collected using an array of sex pheromone-baited traps. Five microsatellite genetic markers were used to study the population genetic structure across both spatial (1-100 ha) and temporal (generations within a season) gradients. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) found a significant, but weak, association in both the spatial and temporal genetic structures. Discriminant analysis also found significant differentiation between the first and second generation for traps located either inside or outside the managed orchard. The Bayesian assignment test detected three genetic clusters during each of the two generations, which corresponded to different areas within the unmanaged and managed apple orchard interface. The lack of a strong spatial structure at a local scale was hypothesized to be because of active adult movement between the managed and unmanaged hosts and the asymmetry in the insecticide selection pressure inside and outside the managed habitats. These data highlight the importance of developing area-wide management programs that incorporate management tactics effective at the landscape level for successful codling moth control.

  5. Enhancement of insecticides against codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with L-aspartate in laboratory and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Pszczolkowski, Maciej A; Brown, John J

    2014-06-01

    The idea of enhancing insecticide efficacy against phytophagous insects with feeding stimulators was proposed as early as the 1960s, and a number of insect feeding stimulators based on sugars, molasses, and cottonseed extracts, biologically active at relatively high (5% and higher) concentrations, have been advocated. Here, we show that an acidic amino acid, L-aspartate, stimulates feeding in codling moth neonates at much lower concentrations and acts as an effective tank-mixed additive for increasing efficacy of insecticides, reducing fruit damage, and increasing yield of the fruit. In laboratory experiments, 1 mg/ml L-aspartate increased foliage consumption by 40-60% and, when added to Assail 30 SG, Baythroid XL, Delegate WG, or Carbaryl 80S, maintained its feeding stimulatory properties and reduced LD50(s) by approximately 10 times. In a 3-yr field trial, addition of L-aspartate to the aforementioned insecticides at 395 g/ha reduced fruit damage from approximately 6%, on average to < 1% for first-generation codling moth, and from approximately 20 to approximately 5% for the second generation. Interestingly, addition of L-aspartate also increased the average weight of apples by 11-27%, as measured at the time of harvest.

  6. Predicting the emergence of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), on a degree-day scale in North America.

    PubMed

    Jones, Vincent P; Hilton, Richard; Brunner, Jay F; Bentley, Walt J; Alston, Diane G; Barrett, Bruce; Van Steenwyk, Robert A; Hull, Larry A; Walgenbach, James F; Coates, William W; Smith, Timothy J

    2013-12-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut production in North America. Management programs are based on preventing larval entry into the fruit or nut and are typically timed by heat-driven models that are synchronized to field populations by first capture of overwintering moths in pheromone traps. Unfortunately, trap capture is affected by a range of environmental parameters as well as by the use of mating disruption, which makes detecting first flight difficult, thus complicating implementation of management programs. The present goal was to evaluate data collected from a broad range of locations across North America to see whether average first spring emergence times could be predicted. Average emergence time on a degree-day scale from 1 January was predictable using latitude and elevation. Sites at elevations of <400 m fit a simple quadratic equation using latitude, but, when higher elevations were included, a multiple regression using elevation was required. The present models can be used to simplify management programs for codling moth in areas where heat-driven models that require extensive trapping to synchronize with emergence are currently used. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Seasonal changes in the composition of storage and membrane lipids in overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Berková, Petra; Zahradníčková, Helena; Simek, Petr

    2014-10-01

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. It overwinters as a diapausing fifth instar larva. The overwintering is often a critical part of the insect life-cycle in temperate zone. This study brings detailed analysis of seasonal changes in lipid composition and fluidity in overwintering larvae sampled in the field. Fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol (TG) depots in the fat body and relative proportions of phospholipid (PL) molecular species in biological membranes were analyzed. In addition, temperature of melting (Tm) in TG depots was assessed by using differential scanning calorimetry and the conformational order (fluidity) of PL membranes was analyzed by measuring the anisotropy of fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene probe in membrane vesicles. We observed a significant increase of relative proportion of linoleic acid (C18:2n6) at the expense of palmitic acid (C16:0) in TG depots during the larval transition to diapause accompanied with decreasing melting temperature of total lipids, which might increase the accessibility of depot fats for enzymatic breakdown during overwintering. The fluidity of membranes was maintained very high irrespective of developmental mode or seasonally changing acclimation status of larvae. The seasonal changes in PL composition were relatively small. We discuss these results in light of alternative survival strategies of codling moth larvae (supercooling vs. freezing), variability and low predictability of environmental conditions, and other cold tolerance mechanisms such as extending the supercooling capacity and massive accumulation of cryoprotective metabolites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of Cydia pomonella expressed sequence tags: Identification and expression of three general odorant binding proteins in codling moth

    PubMed Central

    Garczynski, Stephen F.; Coates, Brad S.; Unruh, Thomas R.; Schaeffer, Scott; Jiwan, Derick; Koepke, Tyson; Dhingra, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is one of the most important pests of pome fruits in the world, yet the molecular genetics and the physiology of this insect remain poorly understood. A combined assembly of 8 341 expressed sequence tags was generated from Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencing of eight tissue-specific cDNA libraries. Putative chemosensory proteins (12) and odorant binding proteins (OBPs) (18) were annotated, which included three putative general OBP (GOBP), one more than typically reported for other Lepidoptera. To further characterize CpomGOBPs, we cloned cDNA copies of their transcripts and determined their expression patterns in various tissues. Cloning and sequencing of the 698 nt transcript for CpomGOBP1 resulted in the prediction of a 163 amino acid coding region, and subsequent RT-PCR indicated that the transcripts were mainly expressed in antennae and mouthparts. The 1 289 nt (160 amino acid) CpomGOBP2 and the novel 702 nt (169 amino acid) CpomGOBP3 transcripts are mainly expressed in antennae, mouthparts, and female abdomen tips. These results indicate that next generation sequencing is useful for the identification of novel transcripts of interest, and that codling moth expresses a transcript encoding for a new member of the GOBP subfamily. PMID:23956229

  9. Microencapsulated pear ester enhances insecticide efficacy in walnuts for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Knight, Alan L

    2011-08-01

    The efficacy of combining insecticides with a microencapsulated formulation of ethyl (2E,4Z) -2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE-MEC) was evaluated in walnuts, Juglans regia L., for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). Two types of studies were conducted to compare the use of insecticides with and without PE-MEC. In the first study, PE-MEC in combination with reduced rates of insecticides, including chlorpyrifos, phosmet, methoxyfenozide, and codling moth granulovirus were evaluated in single tree replicates. PE-MEC was tested at one to three rates (0.6, 1.8, and 4.4 g active ingredient ha(-1)) with each insecticide. In the second study, seasonal programs including sprays of esfenvalerate, chlorpyrifos, and ethyl parathion at full rates were evaluated in replicated two ha blocks. Significant reductions in nut injury occurred in the single-tree trial with treatments of PE-MEC plus insecticide compared with the insecticides used alone against both pest species; except with methoxyfenozide for navel orangeworm. Similarly, nut injury in the large plots was significantly reduced with the addition of PE-MEC, except for navel orangeworm in one of the two studies. These results suggest that adding pear ester as a microencapsulated spray can improve the efficacy of a range of insecticides for two key pests and foster the development of integrated pest management tactics with reduced insecticide use in walnut.

  10. Dose-morality and large-scale studies for controlling codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs on 'd'Agen' plums by using methyl bromide.

    PubMed

    Leesch, J G; Tebbets, J S; Obenland, D M; Vail, P V; Tebbets, J C

    1999-08-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), eggs on 'd'Agen' cultivar of plums, Prunus salicina Lindl., were treated with methyl bromide to determine if a quarantine treatment could be developed so that the plums could be exported to Japan from the United States. Small-scale tests consisted of treating codling moth eggs on plums with various doses of methyl bromide at 20 degrees C for 2 h. Small-scale tests showed that 0- to 24-h-old eggs of codling moth on the plums were controlled by doses > 22.5 g/m3. Because testing showed that 48 g/m3 had no adverse effect on the quality of plums, this dose was chosen for large-scale testing to establish the quarantine dose. Large-scale tests consisted of treating plums at 18.5 degrees C for 2 h using methyl bromide at a dose of 48 mg/liter. Large-scale tests showed that the dose of 48 g/m3 killed all 0- to 24-h-old codling moth eggs exposed on plums in packing cartons without affecting the quality of the plums.

  11. Addition of pear ester enhances disruption of mating by female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in walnut orchards treated with meso dispensers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The success of applying low rates (50 ha-1) of dispensers to achieve disruption of adult communication of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., in walnuts, Juglans regia (L.),was evaluated with several methods. These included cumulative catches of male moths in traps baited with either sex pheromone (...

  12. Cross-resistance between azinphos-methyl and acetamiprid in populations of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), from Washington State.

    PubMed

    Knight, Alan L

    2010-08-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), has been intensely managed with the organophosphate insecticide azinphos-methyl for 50 years, and populations have developed resistance. New management programs have been developed and implemented that rely more heavily on other classes of insecticides. A prerequisite for developing effective resistance management strategies for these compounds is to establish their current levels of effectiveness. Adult and neonate larval assays were conducted to assess the response of field-collected codling moth populations from apple in Washington State. Male codling moth populations exhibited a range of responses to a discriminating concentration of azinphos-methyl in a survey of 20 populations. Populations from certified organic orchards were more susceptible than those from conventional orchards. Mean fecundity was inversely related to azinphos-methyl tolerance. Male responses to azinphos-methyl and acetamiprid varied significantly among populations and were correlated. The residual effectiveness of field applications of both insecticides varied significantly against neonate larvae. Neonate bioassays with insecticide-dipped fruit found significant differences among populations with azinphos-methyl, acetamiprid, methoxyfenozide and spinosad, but not with esfenvalerate. These results support a concern that alternation of insecticides with different modes of action may not be a sufficient strategy to avoid the evolution of broad-spectrum insecticide resistance by codling moth. Published 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Post-Application of Anti-Desiccant Agents Improves Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Nematodes in Formulated Host Cadavers or Aqueous Suspension Against Diapausing Codling Moth Larvae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella L. is the most serious pest of apple and other pome fruit worldwide. In temperate climate, diapausing cocooned larvae make up 100% of the population. Control of this stage would reduce or eliminate damage by first generation CM in late spring and early summer. Ento...

  14. Development of the sterile insect technique to suppress false codling moth Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in citrus fruit: Research to implementation (Part 1)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    False Codling Moth (FCM), Thaumatotibia leucotreta, is indigenous to sub-Saharan Arica and infests a large number of agricultural and wild fruit-bearing plants. The pest was unknown in the Western Province region of South Africa until the end of the 1960’s, when it was first identified in pear orch...

  15. Molecular phylogeny and population structure of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in Central Europe: II. AFLP analysis reflects human-aided local adaptation of a global pest species.

    PubMed

    Thaler, R; Brandstätter, A; Meraner, A; Chabicovski, M; Parson, W; Zelger, R; Dalla Via, J; Dallinger, R

    2008-09-01

    Originally resident in southeastern Europe, the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) (Tortricidae) has achieved a nearly global distribution, being one of the most successful pest insect species known today. As shown in our accompanying study, mitochondrial genetic markers suggest a Pleistocenic splitting of Cydia pomonella into two refugial clades which came into secondary contact after de-glaciation. The actual distribution pattern shows, however, that Central European codling moths have experienced a geographic splitting into many strains and locally adapted populations, which is not reflected by their mitochondrial haplotype distribution. We therefore have applied, in addition to mitochondrial markers, an approach with a higher resolution potential at the population level, based on the analysis of amplification fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). As shown in the present study, AFLP markers elucidate the genetic structure of codling moth strains and populations from different Central European apple orchard sites. While individual genetic diversity within codling moth strains and populations was small, a high degree of genetic differentiation was observed between the analyzed strains and populations, even at a small geographic scale. One of the main factors contributing to local differentiation may be limited gene flow among adjacent codling moth populations. In addition, microclimatic, ecological, and geographic constraints also may favour the splitting of Cydia pomonella into many local populations. Lastly, codling moths in Central European fruit orchards may experience considerable selective pressure due to pest control activities. As a consequence of all these selective forces, today in Central Europe we see a patchy distribution of many locally adapted codling moth populations, each of them having its own genetic fingerprint. Because of the complete absence of any correlation between insecticide resistance and geographic or genetic distances among

  16. The Brazilian Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, Charles D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the unusually aggressive Brazilian honeybee, which exhibits many of the attributes of its African antecedants. Describes its abundance and distribution, behaviorial characteristics, future spread, and the potential impact of the Brazilian bee in North America. (JR)

  17. The Brazilian Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, Charles D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the unusually aggressive Brazilian honeybee, which exhibits many of the attributes of its African antecedants. Describes its abundance and distribution, behaviorial characteristics, future spread, and the potential impact of the Brazilian bee in North America. (JR)

  18. Coding and interaction of sex pheromone and plant volatile signals in the antennal lobe of the codling moth Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Trona, Federica; Anfora, Gianfranco; Bengtsson, Marie; Witzgall, Peter; Ignell, Rickard

    2010-12-15

    In the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) plant volatiles attract males and females by upwind flight and synergise the male response to the female-produced sex pheromone, indicating a close relationship between the perception of social and environmental olfactory signals. We have studied the anatomical and functional organisation of the antennal lobe (AL), the primary olfactory centre, of C. pomonella with respect to the integration of sex pheromone and host-plant volatile information. A three-dimensional reconstruction of the glomerular structure of the AL revealed 50±2 and 49±2 glomeruli in males and females, respectively. These glomeruli are functional units involved in the coding of odour quality. The glomerular map of the AL was then integrated with electrophysiological recordings of the response of individual neurons in the AL of males and females to sex pheromone components and behaviourally active plant volatiles. By means of intracellular recordings and stainings, we physiologically characterised ca. 50 neurons in each sex, revealing complex patterns of activation and a wide variation in response dynamics to these test compounds. Stimulation with single chemicals and their two-component blends produced both synergistic and inhibitory interactions in projection neurons innervating ordinary glomeruli and the macroglomerular complex. Our results show that the sex pheromone and plant odours are processed in an across-fibre coding pattern. The lack of a clear segregation between the pheromone and general odour subsystems in the AL of the codling moth suggests a level of interaction that has not been reported from other insects.

  19. Improved monitoring of female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with pear ester plus acetic acid in sex pheromone-treated orchards.

    PubMed

    Knight, Alan

    2010-08-01

    The performance of clear delta traps baited with 3.0 mg of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and 5.0 ml of acetic acid in separate lures was compared with orange delta traps baited with a single lure containing 3.0 mg of both pear ester and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen). Residual analyses and field tests demonstrated that both the pear ester and acetic acid lures were effective for at least 8 wk. The two trap-lure combinations caught a similar number of total moths in an orchard treated with sex pheromone dispensers during short-term trials in 2008. However, the mean catch of female moths was significantly higher and male moths significantly lower in clear traps baited with pear ester and acetic acid versus orange traps baited with pear ester and codlemone. Season-long studies were conducted with these two trap-lure combinations in orchards treated with (n = 6) and without (n = 7) sex pheromone dispensers during 2009. The two trap-lure combinations caught similar numbers of moths in dispenser-treated orchards. In contrast, total catch was significantly higher (>2-fold) in the orange compared with the clear traps in untreated orchards. The clear caught >6-fold more females than the orange trap in both types of orchards. These studies suggest that deploying clear delta traps baited with pear ester and acetic acid can be an effective monitoring tool for female codling moth and an alternative to codlemone-baited traps in sex pheromone-treated orchards.

  20. Improving the Performance of the Granulosis Virus of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by Adding the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Sugar.

    PubMed

    Knight, Alan L; Basoalto, Esteban; Witzgall, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Studies were conducted with the codling moth granulosis virus (CpGV) to evaluate whether adding the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E. C. Hansen with brown cane sugar could improve larval control of Cydia pomonella (L.). Larval mortalities in dipped-apple bioassays with S. cerevisiae or sugar alone were not significantly different from the water control. The addition of S. cerevisiae but not sugar with CpGV significantly increased larval mortality compared with CpGV alone. The combination of S. cerevisiae and sugar with CpGV significantly increased larval mortality compared with CpGV plus either additive alone. The addition of S. cerevisiae improved the efficacy of CpGV similarly to the use of the yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima (isolated from field-collected larvae). The proportion of uninjured fruit in field trials was significantly increased with the addition of S. cerevisiae and sugar to CpGV compared with CpGV alone only in year 1, and from the controls in both years. In comparison, larval mortality was significantly increased in both years with the addition of S. cerevisiae and sugar with CpGV compared with CpGV alone or from the controls. The numbers of overwintering larvae on trees was significantly reduced from the control following a seasonal program of CpGV plus S. cerevisiae and sugar. The addition of a microencapsulated formulation of pear ester did not improve the performance of CpGV or CpGV plus S. cerevisiae and sugar. These data suggest that yeasts can enhance the effectiveness of the biological control agent CpGV, in managing and maintaining codling moth at low densities. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Population Dynamics and Flight Phenology Model of Codling Moth Differ between Commercial and Abandoned Apple Orchard Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Rajotte, Edwin G; Naithani, Kusum J; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A

    2016-01-01

    Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight, and egg-hatch) allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator) that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth) models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e., PETE model). In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology.

  2. Cydia pomonella granulovirus Genotypes Overcome Virus Resistance in the Codling Moth and Improve Virus Efficiency by Selection against Resistant Hosts▿

    PubMed Central

    Berling, Marie; Blachere-Lopez, Christine; Soubabere, Olivier; Lery, Xavier; Bonhomme, Antoine; Sauphanor, Benoît; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) has been used for 15 years as a bioinsecticide in codling moth (Cydia pomonella) control. In 2004, some insect populations with low susceptibility to the virus were detected for the first time in southeast France. RGV, a laboratory colony of codling moths resistant to the CpGV-M isolate used in the field, was established with collection of resistant insects in the field followed by an introgression of the resistant trait into a susceptible colony (Sv). The resistance level (based on the 50% lethal concentrations [LC50s]) of the RGV colony to the CpGV-M isolate, the active ingredient in all commercial virus formulations in Europe, appeared to be over 60,000-fold compared to the Sv colony. The efficiency of CpGV isolates from various other regions was tested on RGV. Among them, two isolates (I12 and NPP-R1) presented an increased pathogenicity on RGV. I12 had already been identified as effective against a resistant C. pomonella colony in Germany and was observed to partially overcome the resistance in the RGV colony. The recently identified isolate NPP-R1 showed an even higher pathogenicity on RGV than other isolates, with an LC50 of 166 occlusion bodies (OBs)/μl, compared to 1.36 × 106 OBs/μl for CpGV-M. Genetic characterization showed that NPP-R1 is a mixture of at least two genotypes, one of which is similar to CpGV-M. The 2016-r4 isolate obtained from four successive passages of NPP-R1 in RGV larvae had a sharply reduced proportion of the CpGV-M-like genotype and an increased pathogenicity against insects from the RGV colony. PMID:19114533

  3. Development and biological activity of a new antagonist of the pheromone of the codling moth Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Giner, Marta; Sans, Albert; Riba, Magi; Bosch, Dolors; Gago, Rafael; Rayo, Josep; Rosell, Gloria; Guerrero, Angel

    2009-09-23

    A new pheromone antagonist of the codling moth Cydia pomonella is reported. Presaturation of the antennae of the insects with vapors of the antagonist (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienyl trifluoromethyl ketone, analogue of the main component of the pheromone (codlemone), resulted in lower electrophysiological responses to the pheromone relative to untreated insects. In the wind tunnel, the compound elicited a remarkable disruptive effect on all types of behavior of males flying toward a source baited with a pheromone/antagonist blend in 1:1, 1:5, and 1:10 ratios. The insects displayed erratic flights in the presence of the antagonist, as shown by their flight parameters in comparison to insects attracted to the pheromone alone. In the field, traps baited with mixtures of 1:10 codlemone/antagonist attracted considerably lower numbers of males than the natural attractant. The antagonist, however, did not inhibit the pheromone-degrading enzymes present in male antennae, suggesting that trifluoromethyl ketones are not sufficiently electrophilic to produce a stable intermediate adduct with a cysteine residue of the enzyme, a mechanism previously proposed for oxidase inhibition in insects. Overall and taking into account our previous reports and, particularly, the reduction in damage induced in maize fields by a trifluoromethyl ketone analogue of the pheromone of Sesamia nonagrioides (Sole, J.; Sans, A.; Riba, M.; Rosa, E.; Bosch, M. P.; Barrot, M.; Palencia, J.; Castella, J.; Guerrero, A. Reduction of damage by the Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides , and the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis , in maize fields by a trifluoromethyl ketone pheromone analog . Entomol. Exp. Appl. 2008, 126, 28-39), the antagonist might be a new candidate to consider in future strategies to control the codling moth.

  4. High stability and no fitness costs of the resistance of codling moth to Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV-M).

    PubMed

    Undorf-Spahn, Karin; Fritsch, Eva; Huber, Jürg; Kienzle, Jutta; Zebitz, Claus P W; Jehle, Johannes A

    2012-10-01

    Resistance against the biocontrol agent Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV-M) was previously observed in field populations of codling moth (CM, C. pomonella) in South-West Germany. Incidental observations in a laboratory reared field colony (CpR) indicated that this resistance is rather stable, even in genetically heterogeneous CM colonies consisting of both susceptible and resistant individuals. To test this hypothesis, the resistance level of CpR that was 1000times less susceptible to CpGV-M was followed for more than 60 generations of rearing. Even without virus selection pressure, the high level of resistance, expressed as median lethal concentration, remained stable for more than 30 generations and declined only by a factor of 10 after 60 generations. When cohorts of the F32 and F56 generations of the same colony were selected to CpGV-M for five and two generations, respectively, the resistance level increased to factor of >1,000,000 compared to a susceptible control colony. Laboratory reared colonies of CpR, did not exhibit any measurable fitness costs under laboratory conditions in terms of fecundity and fertility. Resistance testing of seven selected codling moth field populations collected between 2003 and 2008 in commercial orchards in Germany that were repeatedly sprayed with CpGV products gave evidence of different levels of resistance and a more than 20-fold increase of the resistance in 1-3 years when selection by CpGV-M was continued. A maximum 1,000,000-fold level of resistance to CpGV-M that could be induced in the laboratory under virus pressure had been also observed in one field population. The high stability of resistance observed in the genetically heterogenous colony CpR indicates that resistance to CpGV-M is not very costly. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The optimal sex pheromone release rate for trapping the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the field

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Runzhi

    2016-01-01

    For successful pest management, codlemone (E, E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol) is widely used to monitor codling moth. The pheromone release rate is essential for the lure’s attractiveness. The optimal sex pheromone release rate (V0) for trapping codling moth was evaluated during 2013–2014. The overwinter generation V0 was 6.7–33.4 μg wk−1, and moth catches (MCs) were 0.82 ± 0.11 adults/trap/week; MCs for lower (V1) and higher (V2) release rates were 52.4% and 46.3%, respectively, of that for V0. The first generation V0 was 18.4–29.6 μg wk−1, with MCs of 1.45 ± 0.29 adults/week/trap. V1 and V2 MCs were 34.5% and 31.7%, respectively, of those for V0. Combining across generations, the final V0 was 18.4–29.6 μg wk−1, with MCs of 1.07 ± 0.06 adults/week/trap. V1 and V2 MCs were 51.4% and 41.1%, respectively, of that for V0. Overwinter generation emergence was relatively concentrated, requiring a wider V0. Maintaining the release rate at 18.4–29.6 μg wk−1 could optimize the lure’s efficacy; this resulted in the capture of nearly 1.9 and 2.4 times more moths than V1 and V2, respectively. The results also indicate that a dispenser pheromone release rate of 200–300 times that of the female moth can perfectly outcompetes females in the field. PMID:26879373

  6. Population Dynamics and Flight Phenology Model of Codling Moth Differ between Commercial and Abandoned Apple Orchard Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Naithani, Kusum J.; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A.

    2016-01-01

    Apple orchard management practices may affect development and phenology of arthropod pests, such as the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), which is a serious internal fruit-feeding pest of apples worldwide. Estimating population dynamics and accurately predicting the timing of CM development and phenology events (for instance, adult flight, and egg-hatch) allows growers to understand and control local populations of CM. Studies were conducted to compare the CM flight phenology in commercial and abandoned apple orchard ecosystems using a logistic function model based on degree-days accumulation. The flight models for these orchards were derived from the cumulative percent moth capture using two types of commercially available CM lure baited traps. Models from both types of orchards were also compared to another model known as PETE (prediction extension timing estimator) that was developed in 1970s to predict life cycle events for many fruit pests including CM across different fruit growing regions of the United States. We found that the flight phenology of CM was significantly different in commercial and abandoned orchards. CM male flight patterns for first and second generations as predicted by the constrained and unconstrained PCM (Pennsylvania Codling Moth) models in commercial and abandoned orchards were different than the flight patterns predicted by the currently used CM model (i.e., PETE model). In commercial orchards, during the first and second generations, the PCM unconstrained model predicted delays in moth emergence compared to current model. In addition, the flight patterns of females were different between commercial and abandoned orchards. Such differences in CM flight phenology between commercial and abandoned orchard ecosystems suggest potential impact of orchard environment and crop management practices on CM biology. PMID:27713702

  7. The optimal sex pheromone release rate for trapping the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the field.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Runzhi

    2016-02-16

    For successful pest management, codlemone (E, E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol) is widely used to monitor codling moth. The pheromone release rate is essential for the lure's attractiveness. The optimal sex pheromone release rate (V0) for trapping codling moth was evaluated during 2013-2014. The overwinter generation V0 was 6.7-33.4 μg wk(-1), and moth catches (MCs) were 0.82 ± 0.11 adults/trap/week; MCs for lower (V1) and higher (V2) release rates were 52.4% and 46.3%, respectively, of that for V0. The first generation V0 was 18.4-29.6 μg wk(-1), with MCs of 1.45 ± 0.29 adults/week/trap. V1 and V2 MCs were 34.5% and 31.7%, respectively, of those for V0. Combining across generations, the final V0 was 18.4-29.6 μg wk(-1), with MCs of 1.07 ± 0.06 adults/week/trap. V1 and V2 MCs were 51.4% and 41.1%, respectively, of that for V0. Overwinter generation emergence was relatively concentrated, requiring a wider V0. Maintaining the release rate at 18.4-29.6 μg wk(-1) could optimize the lure's efficacy; this resulted in the capture of nearly 1.9 and 2.4 times more moths than V1 and V2, respectively. The results also indicate that a dispenser pheromone release rate of 200-300 times that of the female moth can perfectly outcompetes females in the field.

  8. Impact of a North American isolate of the microsporidium Nosema carpocapsae on a laboratory population of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J P; Lacey, L A; Vossbrinck, C R

    2001-11-01

    Nosema carpocapsae is a microsporidian pathogen of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella. We report the occurrence of this pathogen in a colony originating from collections made in the United States. This is the first record of N. carpocapsae infecting North American codling moths. This North American isolate of N. carpocapsae was indistinguishable from isolates received from New Zealand and Bulgaria, based on small subunit ribosomal RNA sequencing, but was more virulent than the previously described New Zealand isolate. In the laboratory, infected larvae and pupae had increased mortality compared to their uninfected counterparts and developmental time increased by 1 week. There was no effect on female fecundity. Within a cohort of eggs laid by infected females, neonates that emerged first were more likely to be uninfected. We established an uninfected colony by interrupting horizontal transmission and only utilizing the larvae that emerged from the first-laid eggs.

  9. Influence of canopy aspect and height on codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) larval infestation in apple, and relationship between infestation and fruit size.

    PubMed

    Stoeckli, Sibylle; Mody, Karsten; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-02-01

    Monitoring systems based on traps with female attractants are expected to enhance forecasting of insect population size and damage. The optimal placement of such traps should match the small-scale distribution of ovipositing females. In the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), fruit infestation takes place in proximity to the oviposition site. We characterized the within-tree distribution of codling moth infestations and the size of uninfested fruit based on a survey of 40,000 apples (Malus spp.) from trees belonging to 160 different apple genotypes and growing in two different environments. Each tree was subdivided into 12 sectors, considering canopy aspect (north, east, south, and west) and canopy height (bottom, middle, and top). This study revealed that fruit infestation by the first but not by the second generation of larvae correlated significantly with canopy aspect. Similarly, fruit size differed significantly between the north- and the south-facing tree side for the period of infestation by the first but not by the second larval generation. Significantly lower fruit infestation was observed on the north- compared with the south- or east-facing tree side for the first generation. A significant influence of canopy height on larval infestation was observed in three of eight assessments, in which the middle height level showed the highest infestations. Significant differences in within-tree distribution of codling moth infestation suggest that oviposition preference is guided by nonrandom factors including microclimate, fruit phenology, and wind direction. These cultivar-independent findings should be considered in future monitoring systems that focus on female codling moth.

  10. Exposure to methoxyfenozide-treated surfaces reduces the responsiveness of adult male codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to codlemone and pear ester lures in a wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Bruce A

    2010-10-01

    The responsiveness of male codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), exposed to surfaces treated with the ecdysteroid agonist methoxyfenozide, toward lures loaded with the synthetic sex pheromone codlemone and/or the pear ester kairomone were investigated in wind tunnel experiments. Five different kinds of commercially available codling moth monitoring lures (obtained from Tr6c6 Inc., Adair, OK) were used in the bioassay: Pherocon CM Standard lure (loaded with 1 mg of codlemone), Pherocon CM Long-Life L2 (loaded with 3.5 mg of codlemone), Pherocon CM 10X (loaded with 10 mg of codlemone), Pherocon CM-DA Combo (loaded with 3.0 mg of codlemone and 3.0 mg of pear ester), and Pherocon DA (loaded with 3.0 mg of pear ester). Results from the study revealed that male codling moth exposed to surfaces treated with methoxyfenozide and the surfactant exhibited a significant decline in responsiveness toward lures loaded with either codlemone or pear ester. The full impact of how this negative effect might alter current moth monitoring procedures in orchards receiving ecdysone agonist sprays requires further investigation.

  11. Landscape analysis of adult codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) distribution and dispersal within typical agroecosystems dominated by apple production in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Basoalto, E; Miranda, M; Knight, A L; Fuentes-Contreras, E

    2010-10-01

    We analyzed the spatial distribution and dispersal of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), adults within two heterogeneous agroecosystems typical of central Chile: commercial apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen, orchards surrounded by various unmanaged host plants. Both a geostatistical analysis of catches of adult males with a grid of sex pheromone-baited traps and an immunological self-marking technique combined with traps baited with a male and female attractant were used. The spatial analyses identified the key sources of moths within these diverse landscapes. Codling moth catches in traps were spatially associated within distances of ≈ 150-300 m. Similarly, the mean distance from the immunological self-marking plots within the commercial apple orchard to the traps that captured marked adults was 282 m. In contrast, the mean distance in the capture of marked moths from unmanaged self-marking plots to a commercial orchard was 828 m. These data suggest that the success of any future area-wide management programs for codling moth in Chilean pome fruit must include a component for managing or removing noncommercial hosts that surround orchards. This analysis also suggests that the selection pressure for resistance imposed by insecticide sprays within managed orchards is likely dampened by the influx of susceptible moths from unmanaged sites common in central Chile.

  12. Effect of the use of anti-hail nets on codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and organoleptic quality of apple (cv. Braeburn) grown in Alto Adige Region (northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Baiamonte, Irene; Raffo, Antonio; Nardo, Nicoletta; Moneta, Elisabetta; Peparaio, Marina; D'Aloise, Antonio; Kelderer, Markus; Casera, Claudio; Paoletti, Flavio

    2016-04-01

    The anti-hail nets are widely used to protect apple fruit against hailstorms and hail damage. They can have also beneficial effects against pests in apple orchards, in particular codling moth (Cydia pomonella). However, covering the trees with anti-hail nets can modify the orchard microclimate and reduce the interception of light, thus potentially causing negative consequences on the organoleptic quality of apple fruits. A consistent reduction of the percentage of apple fruits infested by codling moth was registered as a result of the use of anti-hail nets during two consecutive harvest years. Their use did not affect fruit maturity, but reduced the skin colour, sugar content, pulp total phenol content, volatile compound composition and sensory characteristics. However, the results were inconsistent over the two years apart for total phenols, formation of two volatile compounds (butyl and hexenyl acetate, the first being one of the main odorants in most apple cultivars), sensory attributes of 'flavour of lemon' and 'juiciness'. For these parameters, the fruits from plots where the trees were not covered showed higher values than those from plots where anti-hail nets were used. The use of anti-hail nets was effective in preventing the attack of codling moth to apple fruits, suggesting their use in organic management where conventional insecticides are prohibited. Under the conditions tested, anti-hail nets showed a negative effect on some of the quality characteristics measured on apple fruits, which could influence consumer acceptability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Line-Trapping of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): A Novel Approach to Improving the Precision of Capture Numbers in Traps Monitoring Pest Density.

    PubMed

    Adams, C G; McGhee, P S; Schenker, J H; Gut, L J; Miller, J R

    2017-08-01

    This field study of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), response to single versus multiple monitoring traps baited with codlemone demonstrates that precision of a given capture number is alarmingly poor when the population is held constant by releasing moths. Captures as low as zero and as high as 12 males per single trap are to be expected where the catch mode is three. Here, we demonstrate that the frequency of false negatives and overestimated positives for codling moth trapping can be substantially reduced by employing the tactic of line-trapping, where five traps were deployed 4 m apart along a row of apple trees. Codling moth traps spaced closely competed only slightly. Therefore, deploying five traps closely in a line is a sampling technique nearly as good as deploying five traps spaced widely. But line trapping offers a substantial savings in time and therefore cost when servicing aggregated versus distributed traps. As the science of pest management matures by mastering the ability to translate capture numbers into estimates of absolute pest density, it will be important to employ a tactic like line-trapping so as to shrink the troublesome variability associated with capture numbers in single traps that thwarts accurate decisions about if and when to spray. Line-trapping might similarly increase the reliability and utility of density estimates derived from capture numbers in monitoring traps for various pest and beneficial insects. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  14. Higher densities of distributed pheromone sources provide disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) superior to that of lower densities of clumped sources.

    PubMed

    Epstein, D L; Stelinski, L L; Reed, T P; Miller, J R; Gut, L J

    2006-08-01

    Field experiments quantified the effect of synthetic pheromone release-site density and distribution on 1) orientational disruption of male codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to pheromone-baited traps; and 2) fruit injury. A clustering test varied pheromone release-site density from 0 to 1,000 Isomate-C Plus dispensers per ha while maintaining the total number of dispensers at 1,000. Percentage of orientational disruption of pheromone-baited traps increased significantly as a function of increasing density of release sites. Fruit injury decreased as the density of release sites increased and was lowest in plots treated with Isomate-C Plus dispensers distributed as 1,000 point sources per ha. We also manipulated point source density of 0.1-ml paraffin-wax drops containing 5% codlemone [(E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol], and thus the total amount of pheromone deployed per hectare. The percentage of disruption of traps baited with either 1.0- or 0.1-mg codlemone lures increased with increasing density of wax drops deployed. Both trapping and field observations confirmed that wax drops were attractive to male codling moths, suggesting that disruption was mediated by competitive attraction. Development of dispensers that can be mechanically applied at high densities has potential to improve the efficacy and economics of codling moth disruption at high population densities.

  15. Control and Monitoring of Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Walnut Orchards Treated With Novel High-Load, Low-Density "Meso" Dispensers of Sex Pheromone and Pear Ester.

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M

    2016-03-27

    Low-density per ha "meso" dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, kairomone and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, pheromone of codling moth,Cydia pomonella(L)., were evaluated versus meso dispensers loaded with pheromone alone for mating disruption control in walnut orchards receiving no insecticide sprays. Meso dispensers loaded with codlemone alone (Ph meso) were applied at 50 ha(-1)and compared with mesos combining codlemone and pear ester (Ph + PE meso) at 25 and 50 ha(-1) Various lures containing pear ester (PE), Ph-PE combo, and an experimental codlemone plus (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene lure were tested alone and with acetic acid (AA) lures for moth capture efficacy. Male moth capture in pheromone traps was significantly reduced by 88% in Ph meso plots and 96% in Ph + PE meso plots versus control plots. Moth capture in Ph-PE combo traps was significantly reduced for both sexes in all meso plots. Harvest damage by both the codling moth and the secondary pest, navel orangeworm,Amyelois transitella(Walker), was significantly lower in all meso treatment plots compared with damage in control plots. Nut injury level with the Ph + PE meso treatment (50 ha(-1)) was significantly lower than in Ph meso plots for both codling moth and combined pest injury. Regression analysis suggested that nut infestation levels by navel orangeworm were influenced by codling moth levels. In all meso plots, the most effective lures attracting both codling moth sexes were PE & AA or Ph-PE combo & AA. Demonstrated disruption and control efficacy of these pheromone plus PE-meso dispensers applied at low densities supports development of the meso dispenser tactic for practical pest management use in walnut orchards with inherent low planting densities. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the United States.

  16. Expression of a Sensory Neuron Membrane Protein SNMP2 in Olfactory Sensilla of Codling Moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinglong; Liu, Lu; Fang, Yiqing; Feng, Jinian

    2016-08-01

    In insects, sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) are critical peripheral olfactory proteins and highly promote the sensitivity of pheromone detection. In this study, we cloned an SNMP transcript (CpomSNMP2, GenBank KU302714) from the antennae of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) Its open reading frame is 1,575 bp and it encodes a protein with 524 amino acids. CpomSNMP2 contains two putative transmembrane domains and has a large extracellular loop. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CpomSNMP2 is clustered into the group of previously characterized lepidopteron SNMP2s. Expression levels of CpomSNMP2 were significantly higher in antennae of both males and females than in tissues from the thoraxes, abdomens, legs, and wings. CpomSNMP2 was distributed in sensilla trichodea of both males and females, but only in sensilla chaetica of males. This study provides evidence for olfactory roles of CpomSNMP2 in this moth. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Evidence for a Second Type of Resistance against Cydia pomonella Granulovirus in Field Populations of Codling Moths.

    PubMed

    Jehle, J A; Schulze-Bopp, S; Undorf-Spahn, K; Fritsch, E

    2017-01-15

    Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is an important biocontrol agent for the codling moth (CM) in organic and integrated apple production worldwide. Previously, Z chromosome-linked dominant resistance in at least 38 CM field populations in Europe was reported, threatening organic apple production. Growers responded by switching to a different resistance-breaking isolate of CpGV that could control these populations. Here, we report a nonuniform response of different CM field populations to CpGV isolates from CpGV genome groups A to E. Even more strikingly, one field population, NRW-WE, was resistant to all known CpGV genome groups except group B. Single-pair crossing experiments with a susceptible strain, followed by resistance testing of the F1 offspring, clearly indicated cross-resistance to CpGV isolates that had been considered to be resistance breaking. This finding provides clear evidence of a second, broader type of CpGV resistance with a novel mode of inheritance that cannot be fully explained by Z-linkage of resistance.

  18. Antennal response of codling moth males, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to the geometric isomers of codlemone and codlemone acetate.

    PubMed

    Bäckman, A C; Anderson, P; Bengtsson, M; Löfqvist, J; Unelius, C R; Witzgall, P

    2000-06-01

    Single sensillum recordings from Cydia pomonella male antennae showed three different types of receptor neurons. The most abundant type was most sensitive to the main pheromone compound (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienol, while its response to the geometric isomers E,Z, Z,E and Z,Z was comparable to a tenfold lower dose of (E,E)-8,10-dodecadienol. This neuron type also responded to the four behaviorally antagonistic isomers of (delta,delta)-8,10-dodecadienyl acetate, among which it was most sensitive to the E,E isomer. Cross-adaptation studies showed that these compounds were all detected by the same receptor neuron type. Receptor neurons specifically tuned to (E,Z) or (Z,Z)-8,10-dodecadienol were not found, although these two compounds are behaviorally active. A second type of receptor neuron responded to all isomers of (delta,delta)-8,10-dodecadienyl acetate and was most sensitive to the E,E isomer. This neuron type did not respond to any of the isomers of (delta,delta)-8,10-dodecadienol. A third receptor neuron type was highly sensitive to the plant compound alpha-farnesene. The finding that the receptor neuron type tuned to the main pheromone compound responded even to strong behavioral antagonists aids the interpretation of ongoing behavioral studies for the development of the mating disruption technique in codling moth.

  19. Apple and sugar feeding in adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella: effects on longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility.

    PubMed

    Wenninger, Erik J; Landolt, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Attraction of adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to sweet baits has been well documented. However, beneficial effects of sugar feeding on moth fitness have not been demonstrated. Longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility were examined for female/male pairs of moths maintained with the following food regimens: water, sucrose water, honey water, apple juice, apple flesh, or starved, i.e., no food or water provided. Longevity and total fecundity were enhanced in all treatments relative to the starved treatment moths. Sucrose water, honey water, and apple juice treatments yielded the highest longevity, but total fecundity was highest for moths maintained on honey water or apple juice. Total egg fertility did not differ among treatments. However, egg fertility declined more gradually over the female lifespan for the three aqueous solution diets of sucrose water, honey water, and apple juice. Similarly, fecundity per day declined more gradually over time for honey water and apple juice treatments. Performance of moths maintained with apple flesh was generally intermediate between that of moths with water and the three aqueous solution treatments. This suggests that moths benefit from feeding on ripe apple flesh, although apple may be more difficult to ingest or its nutrients less concentrated compared to aqueous solutions. The results presented here may explain attraction of adult moths to sweet baits as well as to odors from ripe fruit, which may be a natural source of food in the fall.

  20. Age-based mating success in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana.

    PubMed

    Jones, Vincent P; Wiman, Nik G

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the passage of spermatophores was examined between 1-day-old males mated in no-choice situations with females 0, 2, 4, or 6 days old and the converse for both the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris). For C. pomonella, female age had no effect on the passage of spermatophores from males, and only 6-day-old female C. rosaceana had reduced spermatophore number. The ages of moths at the time of mating had a greater effect on males, with C. pomonella males older than 2 days showing significant reductions in the ability to successfully pass a spermatophore to 1-day-old females. For C. rosaceana, 2- and 6-day-old males were significantly less likely to pass a spermatophore, but reduced transfer from 4-day-old males did not reach statistical significance. Wind-tunnel assays were used to evaluate the ability of 1- or 4-day-old males to fly upwind and successfully contact a young calling female. Four-day-old males were more likely to initiate flight upwind, but were less efficient at finding and contacting the females than younger males. This study suggests that evaluation of multiple components of the mating process are required to understand the effect of age at the time of mating on population dynamics of these moths.

  1. A pear-derived kairomone with pheromonal potency that attracts male and female codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, Douglas M.; Knight, Alan L.; Henrick, Clive A.; Rajapaska, Dayananda; Lingren, Bill; Dickens, Joseph C.; Reynolds, Katherine M.; Buttery, Ronald G.; Merrill, Gloria; Roitman, James; Campbell, Bruce C.

    2001-08-01

    Ethyl (2 E, 4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate, a pear-derived volatile, is a species-specific, durable, and highly potent attractant to the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), a serious pest of walnuts, apples, and pears worldwide. This kairomone attracts both CM males and virgin and mated females. It is highly attractive to CM in both walnut and apple orchard contexts, but has shown limited effectiveness in a pear orchard context. Rubber septa lures loaded with ethyl (2 E, 4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate remained attractive for several months under field conditions. At the same low microgram load rates on septa, the combined gender capture of CM in kairomone-baited traps was similar to the capture rate of males in traps baited with codlemone, the major sex pheromone component. The particular attribute of attracting CM females renders this kairomone a novel tool for monitoring population flight and mating-ovipositional status, and potentially a major new weapon for directly controlling CM populations.

  2. Gamma irradiation: Effect of dose and dose rate on development of mature codling moth larvae and adult eclosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burditt, Arthur K.; Hungate, Frank P.; Toba, H. Harold

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae infest apples, pears and many other fruits and nuts. Mature, nondiapausing, cocooned larvae in fiberboard strips were exposed to γ-irradiation at applied doses ranging from 0 to 98 Gy and dose rates from 0.77 to 204.4 Gy/min and subsequently held to permit further development, pupation and adult emergence. At or above an applied dose of 58 Gy, many of the adults that emerged were physically deformed and most were males. As the applied dose increased from 44 to 98 Gy, the percentage of normal adults decreased, the primary effect shifting from a higher percentage of abnormal adults, pupal mortality, to larval mortility. The effects were more pronounced at higher than at lower dose rates. Insect development apparently was not affected when larvae were irradiated at applied doses up to 31.7 Gy. Significantly more adults emerged when larvae were treated at low dose rates (1.0 Gy/min) than at higher dose rates (204 Gy/min). A rate of 52.2 Gy/min was more effective at preventing adult emergence than rates of 1, 4.4 or 201.5 Gy/min.

  3. Age-based mating success in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Vincent P.; Wiman, Nik G.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the passage of spermatophores was examined between 1-day-old males mated in no-choice situations with females 0, 2, 4, or 6 days old and the converse for both the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris). For C. pomonella, female age had no effect on the passage of spermatophores from males, and only 6-day-old female C. rosaceana had reduced spermatophore number. The ages of moths at the time of mating had a greater effect on males, with C. pomonella males older than 2 days showing significant reductions in the ability to successfully pass a spermatophore to 1-day-old females. For C. rosaceana, 2- and 6-day-old males were significantly less likely to pass a spermatophore, but reduced transfer from 4-day-old males did not reach statistical significance. Wind-tunnel assays were used to evaluate the ability of 1- or 4-day-old males to fly upwind and successfully contact a young calling female. Four-day-old males were more likely to initiate flight upwind, but were less efficient at finding and contacting the females than younger males. This study suggests that evaluation of multiple components of the mating process are required to understand the effect of age at the time of mating on population dynamics of these moths. PMID:24784225

  4. Apple and Sugar Feeding in Adult Codling Moths, Cydia pomonella: Effects on Longevity, Fecundity, and Egg Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Wenninger, Erik J.; Landolt, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Attraction of adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to sweet baits has been well documented. However, beneficial effects of sugar feeding on moth fitness have not been demonstrated. Longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility were examined for female/male pairs of moths maintained with the following food regimens: water, sucrose water, honey water, apple juice, apple flesh, or starved, i.e., no food or water provided. Longevity and total fecundity were enhanced in all treatments relative to the starved treatment moths. Sucrose water, honey water, and apple juice treatments yielded the highest longevity, but total fecundity was highest for moths maintained on honey water or apple juice. Total egg fertility did not differ among treatments. However, egg fertility declined more gradually over the female lifespan for the three aqueous solution diets of sucrose water, honey water, and apple juice. Similarly, fecundity per day declined more gradually over time for honey water and apple juice treatments. Performance of moths maintained with apple flesh was generally intermediate between that of moths with water and the three aqueous solution treatments. This suggests that moths benefit from feeding on ripe apple flesh, although apple may be more difficult to ingest or its nutrients less concentrated compared to aqueous solutions. The results presented here may explain attraction of adult moths to sweet baits as well as to odors from ripe fruit, which may be a natural source of food in the fall. PMID:22239247

  5. Field resistance of codling moth against Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is autosomal and incompletely dominant inherited.

    PubMed

    Eberle, Karolin E; Jehle, Johannes A

    2006-11-01

    The current appearance of local codling moth populations with resistance to Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is an impediment to continuous CpGV application. Therefore, crossing experiments have been performed in order to gain information about the inheritance of resistance. Evidence is presented that the observed field resistance is stably inherited even under non-selective conditions in the laboratory. Offspring of reciprocal F(1) crosses between a susceptible ('S') and a resistant ('R') strain and backcrosses between F(1) and S were bioassayed at different CpGV concentrations. The resistant strain showed 100 times lower susceptibility in 7-day bioassays. The responses of the reciprocal crosses (male S x female R and female S x male R) did not differ significantly, indicating that resistance is autosomally inherited. The median lethal concentration for the F(1) progeny was intermediate between those of its parental strains. Mortality data obtained from the backcrosses suggested that inheritance of resistance is due to a non-additive, polygenic trait.

  6. Comparing the genetic structure of codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) from Greece and France: long distance gene-flow in a sedentary pest species.

    PubMed

    Voudouris, C Ch; Franck, P; Olivares, J; Sauphanor, B; Mamuris, Z; Tsitsipis, J A; Margaritopoulos, J T

    2012-04-01

    Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is the most important insect pest of apple production in Europe. Despite the economic importance of this pest, there is not information about the genetic structure of its population in Greece and the patterns of gene-flow which might affect the success of control programs. In this study, we analysed nine samples from apple, pear and walnut from various regions of mainland Greece using 11 microsatellite loci. Six samples from the aforementioned hosts from southern France were also examined for comparison. Bayesian clustering and genetic distance analyses separated the codling moth samples in two genetic clusters. The first cluster consisted mainly of the individuals from Greece, and the second of those from France, although admixture and miss-classified individuals were also observed. The low genetic differentiation among samples within each country was also revealed by F(ST) statistics (0.009 among Greek samples and 0.0150 among French samples compared to 0.050 global value among all samples and 0.032 the mean of the pair-wise values between the two countries). These F(ST) values suggest little structuring at large geographical scales in agreement with previous published studies. The host species and local factors (climatic conditions, topography, pest control programs) did not affect the genetic structure of codling moth populations within each country. The results are discussed in relation to human-made activities that promote gene-flow even at large geographic distances. Possible factors for the genetic differentiation between the two genetic clusters are also discussed.

  7. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  8. Brazilian consensus on photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; Cunha, José Antônio Jabur da; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva dos; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection.

  9. Overview of areawide programs and the program for suppression of codling moth in the western USA directed by the United States Department of Agriculture--Agricultural Research Service.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Carrol O; Faust, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    An areawide suppression program for codling moth (Cydia pomonella L) populations was initiated in 1995 in Washington, Oregon and California under the direction of the US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service in cooperation with Washington State University, Oregon State University and University of California, Berkeley. Mating disruption was used to reduce the pest population while reducing and eliminating the use of organophosphate insecticides. During the 5-year program, the original 1064 hectares were expanded to 8400 hectares and from 66 grower participants to more than 400 participants. The acreage under mating disruption in the three states increased from 6000 hectares in 1994 to 54000 hectares in the year 2000.

  10. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Oviposition.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Rajotte, Edwin G; Myers, Clayton T; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, 10 apple cultivars, viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s) for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars.

  11. Isolation and identification of entomopathogenic nematodes from citrus orchards in South Africa and their biocontrol potential against false codling moth.

    PubMed

    Malan, Antoinette P; Knoetze, Rinus; Moore, Sean D

    2011-10-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the diversity and frequency of endemic entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in citrus orchards in the Western Cape, Eastern Cape and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa. The main aim of the survey was to obtain nematodes as biological control agents against false codling moth (FCM), Thaumatotibia leucotreta, a key pest of citrus in South Africa. From a total of 202 samples, 35 (17%) tested positive for the presence of EPN. Of these, four isolates (11%) were found to be steinernematids, while 31 (89%) were heterorhabditids. Sequencing and characterisation of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was used to identify all nematode isolates to species level. Morphometrics, morphology and biology of the infective juvenile (IJ) and the first-generation male were used to support molecular identification and characterisation. The Steinernema spp. identified were Steinernema khoisanae, Steinernema yirgalemense and Steinernema citrae. This is the first report of S. yirgalemense in South Africa, while for S. citrae it is the second new steinernematid to be identified from South Africa. Heterorhabditis species identified include Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, Heterorhabditis zealandica and an unknown species of Heterorhabditis. Laboratory bioassays, using 24-well bioassay disks, have shown isolates of all six species found during the survey, to be highly virulent against the last instar of FCM larvae. S. yirgalemense, at a concentration of 50IJs/FCM larva caused 100% mortality and 74% at a concentration of 200IJs/pupa. Using a sand bioassay, S. yirgalemense gave 93% control of cocooned pupae and emerging moths at a concentration of 20IJs/cm(2). This is the first report on the potential use of EPN to control the soil-borne life stages of FCM, which includes larvae, pupae and emerging moths. It was shown that emerging moths were infected with nematodes, which may aid in control and dispersal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  12. Development of a Susceptibility Index of Apple Cultivars for Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Oviposition

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Myers, Clayton T.; Krawczyk, Greg; Hull, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major fruit feeding pest of apples. Understanding susceptibility differences of various apple cultivars to CM oviposition is an important step in developing resistant varieties as well as monitoring and management strategies for this pest in apple orchards planted with mixed-cultivars. In this context, oviposition preferences of CM for the fruits of different apple cultivars were studied in laboratory bioassays using a series of no-choice and multiple-choice tests in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In 2006 and 2007, 10 apple cultivars, viz., Arlet, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, Pristine, Delicious, Stayman, Sunrise, and York Imperial were evaluated, while in the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious, Honeycrisp, and York Imperial were evaluated. During the 2006 tests, preferred apple cultivars for CM oviposition were Golden Delicious and Fuji, while the least preferred were Arlet, Pristine, Sunrise, and Honeycrisp. Similarly, during the 2007 tests, Golden Delicious, Fuji and Stayman remained the preferred cultivars, while Arlet, Honeycrisp, Pristine, and Sunrise remained the least preferred cultivars. In the 2008 tests, Golden Delicious and Honeycrisp were the most and least preferred cultivars, respectively. Based on the oviposition preferences from these bioassays, a susceptibility index for each cultivar was developed. This index may be used as a standard measure in cultivar evaluations in breeding programs, and may assist fruit growers and crop consultants to select the most appropriate cultivar(s) for monitoring and detecting the initial signs of fruit injury from CM in an apple orchard planted with mixed-cultivars. PMID:26617629

  13. Evaluating sex-pheromone- and kairomone-based lures for attracting codling moth adults in mating disruption versus conventionally managed apple orchards in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Hull, Larry A; Rajotte, Edwin G; Krawczyk, Greg; Bohnenblust, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Effectiveness of different types of commercial sex-pheromone- and kairomone-based lures for attracting codling moth adults may vary under different pest management practices. The attractiveness of four types of codling moth (CM) lures (CM L2 Long-Life(®), CM 10X Megalure(®), Pherocon CM DA(®) and Pherocon CM-DA Combo(®)) was evaluated in commercial apple orchards either treated with sex pheromone mating disruption (MD) or only conventional insecticides (non-MD) in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2006 and 2007. CM DA Combo lure was most effective in terms of mean seasonal weekly moth capture as well as mean cumulative moth capture in MD orchards. In both years, the CM L2 lure was as attractive to adult moths as the CM DA Combo lure in non-MD orchards. The CM DA and CM 10X lures caught significantly fewer moths in both MD and non-MD orchards compared with the CM DA Combo lure. ON the basis of mean seasonal weekly moth capture as well as mean cumulative moth capture, the CM DA Combo and CM L2 lures were found to be significantly more effective for monitoring CM adults in both MD and non-MD orchards. In contrast, the CM DA and CM 10X lures were not as effective in either type of orchard. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Reprint of: Seasonal changes in the composition of storage and membrane lipids in overwintering larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella.

    PubMed

    Rozsypal, Jan; Koštál, Vladimír; Berková, Petra; Zahradníčková, Helena; Šimek, Petr

    2015-12-01

    The codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is a major insect pest of apples worldwide. It overwinters as a diapausing fifth instar larva. The overwintering is often a critical part of the insect life-cycle in temperate zone. This study brings detailed analysis of seasonal changes in lipid composition and fluidity in overwintering larvae sampled in the field. Fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol (TG) depots in the fat body and relative proportions of phospholipid (PL) molecular species in biological membranes were analyzed. In addition, temperature of melting (Tm) in TG depots was assessed by using differential scanning calorimetry and the conformational order (fluidity) of PL membranes was analyzed by measuring the anisotropy of fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene probe in membrane vesicles. We observed a significant increase of relative proportion of linoleic acid (C18:2n6) at the expense of palmitic acid (C16:0) in TG depots during the larval transition to diapause accompanied with decreasing melting temperature of total lipids, which might increase the accessibility of depot fats for enzymatic breakdown during overwintering. The fluidity of membranes was maintained very high irrespective of developmental mode or seasonally changing acclimation status of larvae. The seasonal changes in PL composition were relatively small. We discuss these results in light of alternative survival strategies of codling moth larvae (supercooling vs. freezing), variability and low predictability of environmental conditions, and other cold tolerance mechanisms such as extending the supercooling capacity and massive accumulation of cryoprotective metabolites. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Occurrence and Prevalence of Insect Pathogens in Populations of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L.: A Long-Term Diagnostic Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Gisbert; Huger, Alois M.; Kleespies, Regina G.

    2013-01-01

    About 20,550 larvae, pupae and adults of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., were diagnosed for pathogens during long-term investigations (1955–2012) at the Institute for Biological Control in Darmstadt, Germany. The prevailing entomopathogens diagnosed in these studies were insect pathogenic fungi, especially Beauveria bassiana and Isaria farinosa, the microsporidium, Nosema carpocapsae, the Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV), as well as mostly undetermined bacteria. While the CpGV was observed exclusively in larvae and pupae from laboratory colonies or from field experiments with this virus, entomopathogenic fungi were most frequently diagnosed in last instars in autumn and in diapausing larvae and pupae in spring. B. bassiana was identified as the major fungal pathogen, causing larval prevalences of 0.9% to 100% (mean, about 32%). During prognostic long-term studies in larvae and adults of C. pomonella, N. carpocapsae was diagnosed in codling moth populations from various locations in Germany. The mean prevalence generally ranged between 20% and 50%. Experiments revealed that the fecundity and fertility of microsporidia-infected female adults were significantly reduced compared to healthy ones. The results underpin the importance of naturally occurring microbial antagonists and represent a base for further ecological studies on developing new or additional biological and integrated control strategies. PMID:26462428

  16. Occurrence and Prevalence of Insect Pathogens in Populations of the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella L.: A Long-Term Diagnostic Survey.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Gisbert; Huger, Alois M; Kleespies, Regina G

    2013-08-02

    About 20,550 larvae, pupae and adults of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., were diagnosed for pathogens during long-term investigations (1955-2012) at the Institute for Biological Control in Darmstadt, Germany. The prevailing entomopathogens diagnosed in these studies were insect pathogenic fungi, especially Beauveria bassiana and Isaria farinosa, the microsporidium, Nosema carpocapsae, the Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV), as well as mostly undetermined bacteria. While the CpGV was observed exclusively in larvae and pupae from laboratory colonies or from field experiments with this virus, entomopathogenic fungi were most frequently diagnosed in last instars in autumn and in diapausing larvae and pupae in spring. B. bassiana was identified as the major fungal pathogen, causing larval prevalences of 0.9% to 100% (mean, about 32%). During prognostic long-term studies in larvae and adults of C. pomonella, N. carpocapsae was diagnosed in codling moth populations from various locations in Germany. The mean prevalence generally ranged between 20% and 50%. Experiments revealed that the fecundity and fertility of microsporidia-infected female adults were significantly reduced compared to healthy ones. The results underpin the importance of naturally occurring microbial antagonists and represent a base for further ecological studies on developing new or additional biological and integrated control strategies.

  17. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in sex phermone-treated orchards with (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene or pear ester in combination with codlemone and acetic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traps baited with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) or (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) in two- or three-way combinations with the sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) and acetic acid (AA) were evaluated for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). All studies were conduct...

  18. Control and monitoring of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in walnut orchards treated with novel high-load, low-density “meso” dispensers of sex pheromone and pear ester

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Novel low-density per ha “meso” dispensers loaded with both pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, kairomone and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., were evaluated versus meso dispensers loaded with pheromone-alone for their mating disru...

  19. Evidence for a Second Type of Resistance against Cydia pomonella Granulovirus in Field Populations of Codling Moths

    PubMed Central

    Schulze-Bopp, S.; Undorf-Spahn, K.; Fritsch, E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is an important biocontrol agent for the codling moth (CM) in organic and integrated apple production worldwide. Previously, Z chromosome-linked dominant resistance in at least 38 CM field populations in Europe was reported, threatening organic apple production. Growers responded by switching to a different resistance-breaking isolate of CpGV that could control these populations. Here, we report a nonuniform response of different CM field populations to CpGV isolates from CpGV genome groups A to E. Even more strikingly, one field population, NRW-WE, was resistant to all known CpGV genome groups except group B. Single-pair crossing experiments with a susceptible strain, followed by resistance testing of the F1 offspring, clearly indicated cross-resistance to CpGV isolates that had been considered to be resistance breaking. This finding provides clear evidence of a second, broader type of CpGV resistance with a novel mode of inheritance that cannot be fully explained by Z-linkage of resistance. IMPORTANCE CpGV is registered and used in virtually all commercial apple growing areas worldwide and is therefore the most widely used baculovirus biocontrol agent. Recently, resistance to CpGV products was reported in different countries in Europe, threatening organic growers who rely almost exclusively on CpGV products. This resistance appeared to be targeted against a 24-bp repeat in the pe38 gene in isolate CpGV-M of genome group A, which had been used commercially for many years. On the other hand, resistance could be broken by CpGV isolates from CpGV genome groups B to E. Here, we report clear evidence of a second type of field resistance that is also directed against resistance-breaking isolates of CpGV genome groups C, D, and E and which appears not to be targeted against CpGV pe38. Therefore, we propose to differentiate between type I resistance, which is targeted against pe38 of CpGV genome group A, and a novel type II

  20. A Brazilian Oz?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Both the American author, L. Frank Baum, and his Brazilian counterpart, Jose Monteiro Lobato, created children's books that featured alternative worlds, peopled by characters who fascinated many generations of young readers. The authors were both born in the second half of the nineteenth century into families of privilege, and both enjoyed idyllic…

  1. A Brazilian Oz?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Both the American author, L. Frank Baum, and his Brazilian counterpart, Jose Monteiro Lobato, created children's books that featured alternative worlds, peopled by characters who fascinated many generations of young readers. The authors were both born in the second half of the nineteenth century into families of privilege, and both enjoyed idyllic…

  2. Brazilian women in politics.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  3. Evaluation of spray-dried lignin-based formulations and adjuvants as solar protectants for the granulovirus of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L).

    PubMed

    Arthurs, S P; Lacey, L A; Behle, R W

    2006-10-01

    Commercial formulations of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., granulovirus (CpGV) are limited by their short residual activity under orchard conditions in the Pacific Northwest. We evaluated spray-dried lignin-encapsulated formulations of CpGV for improved solar stability based on laboratory bioassays with a solar simulator and in field tests in an infested apple orchard. In laboratory tests, aqueous lignin formulations containing a high dosage of 3 x 10(10) occlusion bodies (OB)/L, with and without the additives titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and sugar, provided significant solar protection of virus, i.e., mortality of codling moth exposed to lignin formulations that had been irradiated with 9.36 x 10(6) joules/m(2) was 92-94%, compared with 66-67% from a glycerin-stabilized product (Cyd-X) or suspension of pure unformulated virus at the same rates. By comparison, a lower dosage of the lignin formulation (3 x 10(8)OB/L) did not provide significant solar protection. Equivalent dosage-dependent patterns in solar protection were observed in further tests with the lignin formulation, when an intermediate (3 x 10(9)OB/L) as well as the low dosage provided no solar protection. Equivalent rates of a blank lignin formulation (containing no virus) did not affect larval mortality, suggesting a protective effect of the lignin on the virus at the high rate. The use of several spray adjuvants, 'NuFilm-17' and 'Organic Biolink' (sticker-spreaders at 0.06% v/v), 'Raynox' (sunburn protectant at 5% v/v), and 'Trilogy'(neem oil at 1% v/v) did not provide solar protection of a commercial CpGV preparation in laboratory tests. In season long orchard tests (Golden Delicious), the lignin formulation of CpGV applied at 6.57 x 10(12)OB/ha did not significantly improve control of codling moth or protection of fruit compared with Cyd-X at equivalent rates. Our studies show that lignin-based CpGV formulations provided solar protection at relatively high virus dosages. The testing of lignin

  4. A Third Type of Resistance to Cydia pomonella Granulovirus in Codling Moths Shows a Mixed Z-Linked and Autosomal Inheritance Pattern.

    PubMed

    Sauer, A J; Schulze-Bopp, S; Fritsch, E; Undorf-Spahn, K; Jehle, J A

    2017-09-01

    Different isolates of Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) are used worldwide to control codling moth larvae (Cydia pomonella) in pome fruit production. Two types of dominantly inherited field resistance of C. pomonella to CpGV have been recently identified: Z-chromosomal type I resistance and autosomal type II resistance. In the present study, a CpGV-resistant C. pomonella field population (termed SA-GO) from northeastern Germany was investigated. SA-GO individuals showed cross-resistance to CpGV isolates of genome group A (CpGV-M) and genome group E (CpGV-S), whereas genome group B (CpGV-E2) was still infective. Crossing experiments between individuals of SA-GO and the susceptible C. pomonella strain CpS indicated the presence of a dominant autosomal inheritance factor. By single-pair inbreeding of SA-GO individuals for two generations, the genetically more homogenous strain CpRGO was generated. Resistance testing of CpRGO neonates with different CpGV isolates revealed that isolate CpGV-E2 and isolates CpGV-I07 and -I12 were resistance breaking. When progeny of hybrid crosses and backcrosses between individuals of resistant strain CpRGO and susceptible strain CpS were infected with CpGV-M and CpGV-S, resistance to CpGV-S appeared to be autosomal and dominant for larval survivorship but recessive when success of pupation of the hybrids was considered. Inheritance of resistance to CpGV-M, however, is proposed to be both autosomal and Z linked, since Z linkage of resistance was needed for pupation. Hence, we propose a further type III resistance to CpGV in C. pomonella, which differs from type I and type II resistance in its mode of inheritance and response to CpGV isolates from different genome groups.IMPORTANCE The baculovirus Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) is registered and applied as a biocontrol agent in nearly all pome fruit-growing countries worldwide to control codling moth caterpillars in an environmentally friendly manner. It is therefore the most

  5. Comparison of Lures Loaded with Codlemone and Pear Ester for Capturing Codling Moths, Cydia pomonella, in Apple and Pear Orchards using Mating Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, D.E.; Cichón, L.; Garrido, S.; Ribes-Dasi, M.; Avilla, J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies were conducted in apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen and pear, Pyrus communis L. (Rosales: Rosaceae), orchards to evaluate the attractiveness of grey halobutyl septa loaded with 1 (L2) and 10 (Mega) mg of codlemone, 8E, 10E-dodecadien-1-ol, 3 mg of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (DA2313), and 3 mg of pear ester plus 3 mg of codlemone (Combo) to adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). All studies were conducted in orchards treated with pheromone mating disruption. All four lures were tested on diamond-shaped sticky traps placed in 60 plots of apple and 40 plots of pears in 2003/04, and in 62 plots of apples and 30 of pears in 2004–05. Combo lures attracted significantly more moths (males + females) than all the others in both years. Comparisons among flights showed significant differences mainly for flight 1 and 2, but not always for flight 3. Mega lures provided no significant improvement compared with L2 lures during both seasons regarding the total number of moths. Combo and DA2313 lures attracted fewer females than males during the whole season. For most sample dates, more virgin than mated females were attracted to Combo lures, except during the third flight, and the overall ratio was 60:40, although the difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that the Combo lures are better indicators of codling moth activity in pheromone treated orchards, regardless of pest population level, when compared with similar lures containing codlemone or pear ester alone. PMID:20883133

  6. The Effect of Long-Distance Transportation on the Fitness of Irradiated False Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) for Use in a Sterile Insect Release Program.

    PubMed

    Nepgen, E S; Hill, M P; Moore, S D

    2015-12-01

    The effect of cold immobilization and long-distance transport of irradiated Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) on the flight ability of male (♂) and female (♀) moths, the longevity of male and female moths, and the realized fecundity of mating pairs CIM (chilled irradiated moths) ♀ × CIM♂, CIM♀ × NIP (nonirradiated pupae) ♂, NIP♀ × CIM♂, and NIP♀ × NIP♂ was examined to improve application of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Adult moths treated with 150 Gy of gamma radiation were immobilized with cold temperature between 4 and 6°C inside a polyurethane cooler box and transported for 12 h by road from Citrusdal, Western Cape Province, to Addo, Eastern Cape Province. Nonirradiated moths were transported as pupae inside a cardboard tray and removed by hand after which male and female pupae were separated and placed inside containers for eclosion. Male and female moths were individually placed inside petri dishes to determine longevity or paired with irradiated and nonirradiated counterparts to evaluate realized fecundity before incubation in 100% darkness at 25°C and 75% relative humidity. Flight tests were conducted indoors at 25°C by release of individual moths per hand. A significant decrease in flight ability and longevity of irradiated false codling moth was found after handling, cold immobilization, and transport, although critically, realized fecundity was not affected. Because of the impact of long-distance transport on quality of the released insects as well as the efficacy of SIT, comprehensive protocols for this critical step in the process need to be developed for a pestiferous insect with phytosanitary status such as false codling moth.

  7. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524

  8. The Brazilian Twin Registry.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Junqueira, Daniela R; Cisneros, Lígia C; Ferreira, Lucas C; Murphy, Kate; Ordoñana, Juan R; Hopper, John L; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.

  9. Brazilian minister sets global goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    Marco Antonio Raupp, the mathematical physicist who is now Brazil's minister of science, technology and innovation, talks to Physics World about the challenges and opportunities for Brazilian research.

  10. Correction: Graillot, B.; et al. Progressive Adaptation of a CpGV Isolate to Codling Moth Populations Resistant to CpGV-M. Viruses 2014, 6, 5135–5144

    PubMed Central

    Graillot, Benoît; Berling, Marie; Blachere-López, Christine; Siegwart, Myriam; Besse, Samantha; López-Ferber, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    In our article “Progressive Adaptation of a CpGV Isolate to Codling Moth Populations Resistant to CpGV-M.” (Viruses 2014, 6, 5135–5144; doi:10.3390/v6125135) [1] we obtained resistance values of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, RGV laboratory colony [2], when challenged with Cydia pomonella Granulovirus, Mexican Isolate (CpGV-M), that were lower than those previously published [2]. Careful analysis of both the RGV colony and the CpGV-M virus stock used led to the realization that a low level contamination of this virus stock with CpGV-R5 occurred. We have made new tests with a verified stock, and the results are now in agreement with those previously published.

  11. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  12. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  13. Brazilian Space Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilha, Antonio; Takahashi, Hisao; de Paula, Eurico; Sawant, Hanumant; de Campos Velho, Haroldo; Vitorello, Icaro; Costa, Joaquim; Souza, Jonas; Cecatto, José; Mendes, Odim; Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter Demétrio

    A space weather program is being initiated at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) to study events from their initiation on the sun to their impacts on the earth, including their effects on space-based and ground-based technological systems. The program is built on existing capabilities at INPE, which include scientists with a long tradition and excellence in the observation, analysis and modeling of solar and solar-terrestrial phenomena and an array of geophysical instruments that spans all over the Brazilian territory from the north to south of the magnetic dip equator. Available sensors include solar radio frequency receivers and telescopes, optical instruments and solar imagers, GNSS receivers, ionosondes, radars, allsky imagers, magnetometers and cosmic ray detectors. In the equatorial region, ionosphere and thermosphere constitute a coupled system with electrodynamical and plasma physical processes being responsible for a variety of peculiar phenomena. The most important of them are the equatorial electrojet current system and its instabilities, the equatorial ionization anomaly, and the plasma instabilities/irregularities of the night-time ionosphere (associated with the plasma bubble events). In addition, space weather events modify the equatorial ionosphere in a complex and up to now unpredictable manner. Consequently, a main focus of the program will be on monitoring the low, middle and upper atmosphere phenomena and developing a predictive model of the equatorial ionosphere through data assimilation, that could help to mitigate against the deleterious effects on radio communications and navigation systems. The technological, economic and social importance of such activities was recognized by the Brazilian government and a proposal for funding was approved for the period 2008-2011. New ground instruments will be installed during this period allowing us to extend our current capability to provide space weather observations, accurate

  14. The Brazilian mineral resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beurlen, Hartmut; Cassedanne, Jacques Pierre

    1981-04-01

    The activity of the first generation of Brazilian geologists began in the early sixties. Systematic exploration work since then has evidenced some important new mineral reserves in Brazil. The most important examples are the 18 × 10 9 tons of high-grade iron ore (Carajás District), formed by supergene enrichment on iron formations older than 1800 m.y., the 2.5 × 10 9 tons of bauxite and similar reserves of kaolinite as residual enrichment in Cenozoic sediments in the Amazonas Basin (Oriximina, Capim); the potash and magnesium-rich evaporites near Aracajú(Sergipe); the large residual concentrations of phosphate, anatase, pyrochlore and rare earths related to Cretaceous alkaline complexes with carbonatites; and some garnierite and asbestos deposits related to ultramafic rocks in the states of Goiás and Piauí.

  15. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  16. Costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): implications for pest control and the sterile insect release programme

    PubMed Central

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Terblanche, John S

    2011-01-01

    Sterile insect release (SIR) is used to suppress insect pest populations in agro-ecosystems, but its success hinges on the performance of the released insects and prevailing environmental conditions. For example, low temperatures dramatically reduce SIR efficacy in cooler conditions. Here, we report on the costs and benefits of thermal acclimation for laboratory and field responses of codling moth, Cydia pomonella. Using a component of field fitness, we demonstrate that low temperature acclimated laboratory-reared moths are recaptured significantly more (∼2–4×) under cooler conditions in the wild relative to warm-acclimated or control moths. However, improvements in low temperature performance in cold-acclimated moths came at a cost to performance under warmer conditions. At high ambient temperatures, warm-acclimation improved field performance relative to control or cold-acclimated moths. Laboratory assessments of thermal activity and their limits matched the field results, indicating that these laboratory assays may be transferable to field performance. This study demonstrates clear costs and benefits of thermal acclimation on laboratory and field performance and the potential utility of thermal pretreatments for offsetting negative efficacy in SIR programmes under adverse thermal conditions. Consequently, the present work shows that evolutionary principles of phenotypic plasticity can be used to improve field performance and thus possibly enhance pest control programmes seeking increased efficacy. PMID:25568003

  17. Overcrowding of false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) leads to the isolation of five new Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV-SA) isolates.

    PubMed

    Opoku-Debrah, John K; Hill, Martin P; Knox, Caroline; Moore, Sean D

    2013-03-01

    False codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) is a serious pest of economic importance to the South African fruit industry. As part of sustainable efforts to control this pest, biological control options that involve the application of baculovirus-based biopesticides such as Cryptogran and Cryptex (both formulated with a South African isolate of Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus, CrleGV-SA) are popularly used by farmers. In order to safeguard the integrity of these biopesticides as well as protect against any future development of resistance in the host, we conducted a study to bioprospect for additional CrleGV isolates as alternatives to existing ones. Using overcrowding as an induction method for latent infection, we recovered five new CrleGV isolates (CrleGV-SA Ado, CrleGV-SA Mbl, CrleGV-SA Cit, CrleGV-SA MixC and CrleGV-SA Nels). Single restriction endonuclease (REN) analysis of viral genomic DNA extracted from purified occlusion bodies showed that isolates differed in their DNA profiles. Partial sequencing of granulin and egt genes from the different isolates and multiple alignments of nucleotide sequences revealed the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), some of which resulted in amino acid substitutions in the protein sequence. Based on these findings as well as comparisons with other documented CrleGV isolates, we propose two phylogenetic groups for CrleGV-SA isolates recovered in this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigating the validity of the species status of the false codling moth in South African deciduous fruit orchards using mating studies and mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Mgocheki, N; Addison, P

    2016-10-01

    The false codling moth is a polyphagous pest of various kinds or fruit, and it has expanded its geographical distribution and host range. The expanding host range could result in subspecies requiring varied pest management options. Laboratory no-choice cross-mating tests were conducted to establish whether Thaumatotibia leucotreta individuals from six areas and three host species, in South Africa, share mating characteristics and belong to the same subspecies or strain. The no-choice cross-mating tests indicated that all individuals in self- and out-crosses readily mated within 24 h with those derived from different hosts and areas. The mtDNA results confirmed that all individuals formed one group or clade. Overall, the results indicate that T. leucotreta individuals from the six areas and three host species in the Western Cape Province and two other provinces in South Africa represent a single genetical species. The results imply that similar control options can be effective across host ranges and distribution areas.

  19. Geochemistry of Brazilian oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, C.C.

    1983-02-01

    A general survey of the main brazilian oil shale formations presenting their location, oil reserve, age and stratigraphy introduces this paper. It is followed by a comparative survey of the data on chemical composition (elementary, minerals and organic constituents/biological markers) and of thermal alteration indexes in order to define their maturity. The geochemical phenomena involved with a large diabase intrusion in the Irati formation is particularly stressed. The analytical methods of Solid Phase Extraction and Functional Group Marker developed for the analysis of bitumens and kerogens and the results obtained from the application of these methods to brazilian oil shales are discussed. The paper ends with a brief description of a comprehensive analytical bibliography on brazilian oil shales prepared to serve as a data base for these organites.

  20. Addition of Pear Ester With Sex Pheromone Enhances Disruption of Mating by Female Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Walnut Orchards Treated with Meso Dispensers.

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Grant, Joseph A; Haff, Ronald P; Knight, Alan L

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated the low-density application of 50 dispensers per hectare, in contrast to the traditional >800 dispensers per hectare in apple orchards, to achieve disruption of communication of adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in walnuts, Juglans regia (L.), using several methods. These methods included cumulative catches of male moths in traps baited with sex pheromone (Ph) or codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, or a combination of codlemone, pear ester (PE), ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and acetic acid, and by examining the mating status of females. These data were collected from 2011-2014 in nontreated plots and in similar plots treated with Meso dispensers loaded with codlemone (Ph Meso) or codlemone and PE (Ph + PE Meso). Male moth captures in both the Ph and combination lure traps reduced by 88-96% and 72 to 77%, respectively, compared with traps in the nontreated plots. A significantly higher proportion of female moths were nonmated in plots treated with Ph + PE Meso dispensers (33%) than in plots treated with Ph Meso (18-26%), or left nontreated (13%). In addition, significantly fewer multiple-mated females were trapped in the Ph + PE Meso-treated plots (6%) than in either Ph Meso-treated (13-18%) or nontreated plots (23%). These data suggest that the addition of PE can effectively improve Ph-based disruption of C. pomonella in walnut orchards. In addition, these data suggest that the use of low-density hand-applied dispensers can be an effective and lower-cost approach to manage this pest in the large canopy presented by walnut orchards. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Dissipation of chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb-insecticides used to control codling moth (Cydia Pomonella L.) and leafrollers (Tortricidae) in apples for production of baby food.

    PubMed

    Szpyrka, Ewa; Matyaszek, Aneta; Słowik-Borowiec, Magdalena

    2017-05-01

    Dissipations of three insecticides: chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb in apples were studied following their foliar application on apples intended for production of baby food. The apples were sprayed with formulations for control of codling moth (Cydia Pomonella L.) and leafrollers (Tortricidae). Six experiments were conducted; each insecticide was applied individually on dessert apples. A validated gas chromatography-based method with simultaneous electron capture and nitrogen-phosphorus detection (GC-ECD/NPD) was used for the residue analysis. The analytical performance of the method was satisfactory, with expanded uncertainties ≤36% (a coverage factor, k = 2, and a confidence level of 95%). The dissipations of insecticides were studied in pseudo-first-order kinetic models (for which the coefficient of determination, R (2) , ranged between 0.9188 and 0.9897). Residues of studied insecticides were below their maximum residue limits of 0.5 mg/kg at an early stage of growth of the fruit. The half-lives of chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos-methyl and indoxacarb were 16-17, 4-6 and 20-24 days, respectively. The initial residue levels declined gradually and reached the level of 0.01 mg/kg in 1 month for chlorpyrifos-methyl, 2 months for chlorantraniliprole and 2.5 months for indoxacarb. To obtain the insecticide residue levels below 0.01 mg/kg, which is the default MRL for food intended for infants and young children, the application of the studied insecticides should be carried out at recommended doses not later then: 1 month before harvest for chlorpyrifos-methyl, 2 months for chlorantraniliprole and 2.5 months for indoxacarb.

  2. Gramscian Thought and Brazilian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dore, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    In the history of Brazilian education, it is only since the 1980s, during the redemocratization of Brazil, that proposals for public education in a socialist perspective have been presented. The past two decades have been marked by a growing interest in Gramscian thought, mainly in the educational field, making possible the elaboration of…

  3. Sustainability in Brazilian Federal Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palma, Lisiane Celia; de Oliveira, Lessandra M.; Viacava, Keitiline R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the number of courses related to sustainability offered in bachelor degree programs of business administration in Brazilian federal universities. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory research was carried out based on a descriptive scope. The process of mapping federal universities in Brazil…

  4. [Bioethics and Brazilian health policies].

    PubMed

    Zoboli, Elma; Fortes, Paulo Antonio de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    In Brazil, bioethics has developed within specific social circumstances taking into account public health issues. In addition, this article analyses the ethical principles of the Brazilian healthcare system issued from the 1988 Federal Constitution which made healthcare a universal right for all citizens. The goal of this system is to provide universal care through an equity policy pertaining to the distribution of resources.

  5. Gramscian Thought and Brazilian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dore, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    In the history of Brazilian education, it is only since the 1980s, during the redemocratization of Brazil, that proposals for public education in a socialist perspective have been presented. The past two decades have been marked by a growing interest in Gramscian thought, mainly in the educational field, making possible the elaboration of…

  6. Sustainability in Brazilian Federal Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palma, Lisiane Celia; de Oliveira, Lessandra M.; Viacava, Keitiline R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the number of courses related to sustainability offered in bachelor degree programs of business administration in Brazilian federal universities. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory research was carried out based on a descriptive scope. The process of mapping federal universities in Brazil…

  7. [Brazilian migration to North America].

    PubMed

    Goza, F

    1992-01-01

    "This article is a comparative study of Brazilian immigration to Canada and the United States. Analyses of recently collected data, in Toronto, Ontario, as well as in a medium sized U.S. community permit this study to examine the adaptation and adjustment experiences of a new group of immigrants to North America. This article begins with a discussion of the origins of this recent immigrant group, and its rapid expansion. Next, this study focuses on the labor force activities of Brazilian immigrants and compares and contrasts their experiences in the U.S. and Canada. A final section examines social adaptation in North America by exploring linguistic and cultural dimensions." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  8. Brazilian immigration to North America.

    PubMed

    Goza, F

    1994-01-01

    "This article is a comparative study of Brazilian immigration to Canada and the United States. Analysis of recently collected data in Toronto, Ontario and in a medium-size U.S. community facilitated the examination of the adaptation and adjustment experiences of a new group of immigrants to North America. This article begins with a discussion of the origins of this recent immigrant group and its rapid expansion. Next, it focuses on the labor force activities of Brazilian immigrants and compares and contrasts their experiences in the United States and Canada. A final section examines social adaptation in North America by exploring linguistic and cultural dimensions. This article closes with a section on the future aspirations of these immigrants."

  9. Natural radioactivity in Brazilian groundwater.

    PubMed

    Godoy, José Marcus; Godoy, Maria Luiza

    2006-01-01

    More than 220 groundwater samples were analyzed for 228Ra, 226Ra, 222Rn, 210Pb, U(nat), Th(nat), pH, conductivity, fluoride and some additional elements determined by ICP-MS. Since samples from several Brazilian states were taken, involving areas with quite different geologies, no general trend was observed relating the chemical composition and the natural radionuclide content. On the other hand, 210Pb strongly depends on the water content of its progenitor, 222Rn. The values obtained during the present work were compared with those reported by Hainberger et al. [Hainberger, P.L., de Oliveira Paiva, I.R., Salles Andrade, H.A., Zundel, G., Cullen, T.L., 1974. Radioactivity in Brazilian mineral waters. Radiation Data and Reports, 483-488.], when more than 270 groundwater samples were analyzed, mainly, for 226Ra. Based on the results of both works, it was possible to build a database including the results of both works, generating a set with the radium content of circa 350 groundwater sources. It was demonstrated that 228Ra, 226Ra, 222Rn, 210Pb and U(nat) content in Brazilian groundwater follows a lognormal distribution and the obtained geometric mean were 0.045, 0.014, 57.7, 0.040 BqL(-1) and 1.2 microgL(-1), respectively.

  10. The new Brazilian national forest inventory

    Treesearch

    Joberto V. de Freitas; Yeda M. M. de Oliveira; Doadi A. Brena; Guilherme L.A. Gomide; Jose Arimatea Silva; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The new Brazilian national forest inventory (NFI) is being planned to be carried out through five components: (1) general coordination, led by the Brazilian Forest Service; (2) vegetation mapping, which will serve as the basis for sample plot location; (3) field data collection; (4) landscape data collection of 10 x 10-km sample plots, based on high-resolution...

  11. Sociocultural Influences on Brazilian Children's Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Reports on insights about sociocultural influences on Brazilian children's drawings, using visual anthropology to examine children's drawings that depicted what they like to do. Discusses visual anthropology, provides information on Brazilian educational influences, and presents the context and findings of the study. (CMK)

  12. Sociocultural Influences on Brazilian Children's Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Reports on insights about sociocultural influences on Brazilian children's drawings, using visual anthropology to examine children's drawings that depicted what they like to do. Discusses visual anthropology, provides information on Brazilian educational influences, and presents the context and findings of the study. (CMK)

  13. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in sex pheromone-treated orchards with (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene or pear ester in combination with codlemone and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Knight, Alan L; Light, Douglas M

    2012-04-01

    Traps baited with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) or (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) in two- or three-way combinations with the sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) and acetic acid (AA) were evaluated for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). All studies were conducted in apple orchards, Malus domestica Borkhausen, treated with sex pheromone dispensers during 2010. Septa were loaded with codlemone, DMNT, and pear ester individually or codlemone with either DMNT or pear ester together (combo lures). Polyethylene vials loaded with AA were added as a co-lure. Residual analyses of field-aged combo lures and weight loss of the AA co-lure were conducted. AA vials lost 50-150 mg wk(-1). Weekly weight loss was not affected by field aging, but was closely correlated with the daily mean temperature. Pear ester was released from septa at a slightly higher but nonsignificant rate than codlemone. DMNT was released at a significantly higher rate than codlemone, and lures were effective for 4 wk. The addition of codlemone to traps baited with either host plant volatile plus AA had either no effect or significantly increased total moth catches. The addition of AA significantly increased the catch of female moths with either combo lure. Total moth catches in traps baited with pear ester or DMNT combo lures and AA did not differ and were either significantly higher or similar to the pear ester combo lure. These data suggest that codling moth may be more effectively monitored in sex pheromone-treated orchards with multi-component lures, including codlemone, AA, and host plant volatiles.

  14. Working conditions of Brazilian immigrants in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Eduardo Siqueira, C; Jansen, Tiago

    2012-06-01

    Brazilian immigration to Massachusetts and other states in the US grew significantly in the last two decades. There is a lack of data about the working conditions and health and safety hazards faced by Brazilian immigrant workers. We surveyed over 500 workers in Eastern Massachusetts through a community-based participatory research project to explore occupational and immigration factors that may represent a risk to the health of Brazilian immigrant workers, who mostly work in the construction, housecleaning, and food services segments of the state labor force. Our pilot study suggests that Brazilian immigrant workers are exposed to chemical, ergonomic, physical, and psychosocial job hazards and have experienced a variety of health symptoms that may be associated with these work environment exposures. Since most Brazilian workers have not received proper training to recognize the hazards, there is an urgent need for the implementation of culturally adequate training programs and enforcement of safety and health regulations to prevent occupational injuries and fatalities.

  15. The first Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Anjos Candeiro, Carlos Roberto; da Silva Marinho, Thiago

    2015-08-01

    The 1st Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium gathered paleontologists, geologists, and paleoartists in the city of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from April 21st to 24th, 2013. The Dinosaur Symposium in the Pontal Campus of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil provided an opportunity to share many new results of dinosaur research being conducted around the world. The symposium coincided with a new dawn of scientific advances in dinosaur paleontology further expanding its importance, interest and credibility worldwide.

  16. Proalcohol: the Brazilian alcohol program

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    Examines the Brazilian National Alcohol Plan - Proalcohol - which has as its immediate aim, 20% replacement of all gasoline with alcohol. Future plans call for replacement of virtually all gasoline by alcohol and a significant fraction of diesel fuels by 1986. Issues which are looked at separately are: agronomic, industrial (alcohol production), utilization, institutional, social, environmental, and scientific. Economic issues pervade all of these and are considered in the conclusions. There is a brief discussion of methanol production and the lessons for the United States.

  17. Political Liberalization, Black Consciousness, and Recent Afro-Brazilian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, James H.

    1986-01-01

    Accounts for the surge in Afro-Brazilian literacy production of the late 1970s and early 1980s from the perspective of Brazil's changing political life and a growth of racial consciousness. Presents a broad overview of recent Brazilian political and literary history. Focuses on racial politics and Afro-Brazilians in the Brazilian literary market.…

  18. Political Liberalization, Black Consciousness, and Recent Afro-Brazilian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, James H.

    1986-01-01

    Accounts for the surge in Afro-Brazilian literacy production of the late 1970s and early 1980s from the perspective of Brazil's changing political life and a growth of racial consciousness. Presents a broad overview of recent Brazilian political and literary history. Focuses on racial politics and Afro-Brazilians in the Brazilian literary market.…

  19. Publication in a Brazilian journal by Brazilian scientists whose papers have international impact.

    PubMed

    Meneghini, R

    2010-09-01

    Nine Brazilian scientists with an outstanding profile of international publications were invited to publish an original article in the same issue of a Brazilian Journal (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências). The objective was to measure the impact of the papers on the number of citations to the articles, the assumption being that these authors would carry their international prestige to the Brazilian periodical. In a 2-year period there was a larger number of citations of these articles compared to others published in the same journal. Nevertheless, the number of citations in Brazilian journals did not equal the number of citations obtained by the other papers by the same authors in their international publications within the same 2-year period. The reasons for this difference in the number of citations could be either that less significant invited articles were submitted or that it was due to the intrinsic lack of visibility of the Brazilian journals, but this could not be fully determined with the present data. Also relevant was a comparison between the citations of Brazilian journals and the publication in Brazilian journals by these selected authors. A clear imbalance due to a remarkable under-citation of Brazilian authors by authors publishing in Brazilian journals raises the possibility that psychological factors may affect the decision of citing Brazilian journals.

  20. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    PubMed

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment.

  1. Food cravings among Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Queiroz de Medeiros, Anna Cecília; Pedrosa, Lucia de Fatima Campos; Yamamoto, Maria Emilia

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a Brazilian version of the Food Craving Inventory (FCI-Br), adapted to the cultural-gastronomic context of Brazil, and to explore this behavior among adult Brazilians. The Study 1 population consisted of 453 adults from all regions of Brazil. Participants responded to a preliminary form of the instrument online. Exploratory factor analysis revealed an FCI-Br presenting 23 items and three factors: High Fat, Sweet Food and Traditional Meal. The FCI-Br overall reliability was considered adequate (α = 0.82), as were each of the sub-scales. The food items receiving higher average scores from the application of the instrument were chocolate (3.14 ± 1.28; women) and bread (2.94 ± 1.44, men). A significant association was observed between the specific-craving for Sweet Food and female respondents. Most participants reported experiencing more frequent episodes of food craving when alone (68.0%; n = 391) and during the afternoon (32.2%; n = 127) or evening (43.8%; n = 173) hours. Application of the FCI-Br in a population of 649 university students (Study 2) demonstrated a good adjustment of the model developed according to the Confirmatory factor analysis (χ(2)/gl = 2.82, CFI = 0.94; TLI = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.06). The current findings indicate that the FCI-Br has adequate psychometric properties to measure craving behavior with respect to specific food groups in the resident population of Brazil. The results of this study also shed light on the importance of considering the cultural diversity of a population when investigating eating behaviors.

  2. ASTER: A Brazilian Mission to an Asteroid.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, O. C.; Macau, E. E. N.; de Campos Velho, H.; Carruba, V.

    2012-05-01

    The first Brazilian mission to an asteroid is being planned. The target is the asteroid 2001 SN263, which has a NEA orbit of class AMOR. The mission is scheduled to be launched in 2015, reaching the asteroid in 2019.

  3. The Brazilian scientific balloon program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Joao

    The Brazilian scientific balloon program is based almost entirely at the National Institute for Space Research -INPE, which has a facility for research and development of scientific balloon systems such as telemetry, command, power supply, separation and flight train devices, ballast control systems, ATC transponders, shock absorbers and especially different launching tech-niques. The Balloon Launching Center of INPE operates since the early 70s, when the first launches were performed in cooperation with French groups for astronomical gamma-ray obser-vations. Since then, the center was involved in a large numbers of international collaborations with France, Japan, United Kingdom, USA, Italy, Germany and Tasmania. INPEs high-energy astrophysics group developed several X and Gamma-ray experiments that were launched in balloons since the early 80s. The most complex of these payloads is the MASCO experiment, launched in 2004. It consists in a 2-ton experiment with a large gamma-ray imaging coded-mask telescope and an attitude control system developed at INPE. Currently, the high-energy group is developing a prototype balloon experiment for the MIRAX satellite, named protoMIRAX. Others scientists at INPE have also used balloons for cosmic rays, geophysics and atmospheric electricity experiments.

  4. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M )

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  5. Aflatoxins in Brazilian Peanut Confection.

    PubMed

    2016-04-07

    The study's objectives were to evaluate a method for the determination of aflatoxins (AFs) in the Brazilian peanut confection "Paçoca" and to apply the method in investigating AF concentrations in Paçoca marketed in São Paulo State throughout 2013. Results of another survey conducted between 1994 and 2002 with another method were also reported. The current method consists of immunoaffinity column cleanup, LC with postcolumn derivatization for AF fluorescence enhancement, and fluorescence determination for the toxins. The mean recovery and mean RSDr values were 88.6 and 7.9%, respectively. The LODs for aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, and aflatoxin G2 were 0.04, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.01 ng/g; and the LOQs were 0.15, 0.04, 0.07, and 0.04 ng/g, respectively. Results of the two survey studies indicate that the contamination of AFs in Paçoca remains a public health problem. In the 2013 survey, 71 of 100 samples (71%) had AFs contamination ranging from 0.3 to 41.8 ng/g, with 12 samples (12%) containing >20 ng/g of the toxins, whereas in the 1994-2002 survey, 73 of 150 samples (51%) had AFs contamination ranging from 9 to 1439 ng/g with 65 samples (45%) containing levels >20 ng/g.

  6. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  7. Brazilian Cerrado Soil Actinobacteria Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Suela Silva, Monique; Naves Sales, Alenir; Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes, Karina; Ribeiro Dias, Disney; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah) soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora) and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry). The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production. PMID:23555089

  8. Seismicity around Brazilian dam reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Coelho, P.E.F.P. )

    1987-01-01

    More than 30 cases of seismicity associated with dam reservoir sites are known throughout the world. Despite the lack of data in some areas, where seismicity occurred after reservoir impounding, there have been distinct seismic patterns observed in seismic areas after dam projects implantation. This has demonstrated that reservoir loading can trigger earthquakes. A mechanism of earthquake generation by reservoir impounding is proposed here with particular application to the Brazilian cases and to areas subject to low confining stress conditions in stable regions. Six artificial lakes are described and the associated earthquake sources are discussed in terms of natural or induced seismicity. Earthquake monitoring in Brazil up to 1967, when Brasilia's seismological station started operation, was mainly based in personal communications to the media. Therefore, there is a general lack of seismic records in relatively uninhabited areas, making it difficult to establish a seismic risk classification for the territory and to distinguish natural from induced seismicity. Despite this, cases reported here have shown an alteration of the original seismic stability in dam sites after reservoir loading, as observed by the inhabitants or records from Brasilia's seismological station. All cases appear to be related to an increase in pore pressure in permeable rocks or fracture zones which are confined between impermeable rock slabs or more competent rock. It is apparent that some cases show some participation of high residual stress conditions in the area.

  9. Group dialogue empowers Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Badiani, R; Becker, J

    1995-11-01

    In response to an alarming rise in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Brazilian women during the early 1990s, the Sociedade Civil Bem-Estar Familiar no Brazil (BEMFAM) developed a project that integrates HIV prevention with clinical services, community-based prevention activities, and sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. Preliminary interviews with clinic clients revealed that women's fears they would be considered unfaithful were impeding their ability to suggest condom use to their sexual partners. Condom use within a relationship was considered appropriate only for pregnancy prevention. To facilitate dialogue about sexual health, BEMFAM developed a women's group intervention project. All women who attend a BEMFAM clinic are invited to participate in a one-hour group discussion before receiving medical services. Novela-style booklets with stories and characters women can relate to their own lives are used to stimulate discussion. Participants learn to use condoms correctly by putting them on a penis model and anticipate situations in which they would be able to negotiate condom use. The group setting enables women to gain confidence and practice assertiveness in a non-threatening, supportive environment. Their identification with other women's stories empowers women to take control of their health and sexual lives. Between October 1994 and July 1995, 3464 women participated in group discussions organized by BEMFAM and 40,688 condoms were distributed; 18% of these women returned to the clinic for additional condoms.

  10. Dominance of foreign citations in Brazilian orthopedics journals.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Rosa, Rita de Cássia Rodrigues; de Barros, Rui Sergio Monteiro; Botelho, Nara Macedo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether there is any preference for citing journals from other countries to the detriment of Brazilian journals, in three Brazilian orthopedics journals. All the references of articles published in 2011 by the journals Acta Ortopédica Brasileira, Coluna/Columna and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia were evaluated to as certain how many of these came from Brazilian journals and how many from foreign journals. 3813 references distributed among 187 articles were analyzed. Out of this total, 306 (8.02%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no difference between the three journals analyzed. There were 76 articles (40.64%) without any citations of articles in Brazilian journals and only two articles (1%) cited more Brazilian articles than articles published elsewhere. There is a need for Brazilian researchers to cite articles from Brazilian journals more often.

  11. The Brazilian "Indian Emancipation Decree": Emancipation or Genocide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shand, Hope

    1978-01-01

    Reviewing the proposed Brazilian "Indian Emancipation Decree," a recent development in Brazilian Indian policy, this article asserts there is no evidence that this legislation was either proposed or petitioned by Indian people in their own self-interest. (RTS)

  12. Trends in water balance components across the Brazilian Cerrado

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna) is considered one of the most important biomes for Brazilian water resources; however, little is known about the components of the water balance in this biome. In this study, we reviewed the available literature on the water balance components in the Brazilian Cerrado...

  13. The Brazilian national system of forest permanent plots

    Treesearch

    Yeda Maria Malheiros de Oliveira; Maria Augusta Doetzer Rosot; Patricia Povoa de Mottos; Joberto Veloso de Freitas; Guilherme Luis Augusto Gomide; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian National System of Forest Permanent Plots (SisPP) is a governmental initiative designed and being implemented in partnership by the Ministry of Environment (MMA), represented by the National Forest Programme (PNF) and the Brazilian Forest Service (SFB) and the Embrapa Forestry (a research center of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa...

  14. Indoor air quality in Brazilian universities.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Sonia R; Bankoff, Antônia D P; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-07-11

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3) in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively). The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  15. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, S T; Lombardi Junior, I; Berg, K O; Ramos, L R; Natour, J

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65). The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments) and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001) and 0.98 (P < 0.001), respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001) and 0.97 (P < 0.001), respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  16. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  17. [New migratory flows of the Brazilian population].

    PubMed

    Sales, T

    1991-01-01

    "This article focuses [on] the recent emigration of Brazilians abroad. In the post World War II period, a new type of international migration was observed, caused by demands for labor in the receiving countries, where immigrants are integrated into the secondary labor market. The programs created to stimulate temporary foreign migrations resulted in the recent illegal migrations of Brazilians, most of them working in unskilled jobs. The study is based on data from a preliminary survey on the migratory flow from the city of Governador Valadares in the State of Minas Gerais, to Boston, in the U.S." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  18. Effects of Brazilian Schools on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, José Francisco; Alves, Maria Teresa Gonzaga; Xavier, Flavia Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Brazilian elementary schools on the chances of their students achieving at different levels of mathematics proficiency. Since student proficiency is classified at three levels--Insufficient, Basic and Proficient--the chosen model of analysis was the hierarchical multinomial model. The…

  19. Land Use Dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon

    Treesearch

    Robert Walker

    1996-01-01

    The articles presented in this special issue of Ecological Economics address the important theme of land use dynamics as it pertains to the Brazilian Amazon. Much environmental change is an ecological artifact of human agency, and such agency is often manifested in land use impacts, particularly in tropical areas. The critical problem of tropical deforestation is but...

  20. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Treesearch

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  1. Anthropometry of Brazilian Air Force pilots.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gilvan V; Halpern, Manny; Gordon, Claire C

    2017-10-01

    Anthropometric data are essential for the design of military equipment including sizing of aircraft cockpits and personal gear. Currently, there are no anthropometric databases specific to Brazilian military personnel. The aim of this study was to create a Brazilian anthropometric database of Air Force pilots. The methods, protocols, descriptions, definitions, landmarks, tools and measurements procedures followed the instructions outlined in Measurer's Handbook: US Army and Marine Corps Anthropometric Surveys, 2010-2011 - NATICK/TR-11/017. The participants were measured countrywide, in all five Brazilian Geographical Regions. Thirty-nine anthropometric measurements related to cockpit design were selected. The results of 2133 males and 206 females aged 16-52 years constitute a set of basic data for cockpit design, space arrangement issues and adjustments, protective gear and equipment design, as well as for digital human modelling. Another important implication is that this study can be considered a starting point for reducing gender bias in women's career as pilots. Practitioner Summary: This paper describes the first large-scale anthropometric survey of the Brazilian Air Force pilots and the development of the related database. This study provides critical data for improving aircraft cockpit design for ergonomics and comprehensive pilot accommodation, protective gear and uniform design, as well as digital human modelling.

  2. Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Parra, Flavia C; Amado, Roberto C; Lambertucci, José R; Rocha, Jorge; Antunes, Carlos M; Pena, Sérgio D J

    2003-01-07

    This work was undertaken to ascertain to what degree the physical appearance of a Brazilian individual was predictive of genomic African ancestry. Using a panel of 10 population-specific alleles, we assigned to each person an African ancestry index (AAI). The procedure was able to tell apart, with no overlaps, 20 males from northern Portugal from 20 males from São Tomé Island on the west coast of Africa. We also tested 10 Brazilian Amerindians and observed that their AAI values fell in the same range as the Europeans. Finally, we studied two different Brazilian population samples. The first consisted of 173 individuals from a rural Southeastern community, clinically classified according to their Color (white, black, or intermediate) with a multivariate evaluation based on skin pigmentation in the medial part of the arm, hair color and texture, and the shape of the nose and lips. In contrast to the clear-cut results with the African and European samples, our results showed large variances and extensive overlaps among the three Color categories. We next embarked on a study of 200 unrelated Brazilian white males who originated from cosmopolitan centers of the four major geographic regions of the country. The results showed AAI values intermediate between Europeans and Africans, even in southern Brazil, a region predominantly peopled by European immigrants. Our data suggest that in Brazil, at an individual level, color, as determined by physical evaluation, is a poor predictor of genomic African ancestry, estimated by molecular markers.

  3. Translating Ovide Decroly's Ideas to Brazilian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hai, Alessandra Arce; Simon, Frank; Depaepe, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to analyse, comprehend and apprehend the appropriation processes of Ovide Decroly's ideas in Brazil through the translation of his books and that of Amélie Hamaïde into Portuguese. The article discusses the following questions. Why did Brazilian intellectuals and teachers need to import Decroly's ideas to be applied in Brazilian…

  4. Motor Acquisition Rate in Brazilian Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Virlaine Bardella; de Lima, Carolina Daniel; Tudella, Eloisa

    2009-01-01

    This study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) with the aim of characterizing motor acquisition rate in 70 healthy 0-6-month-old Brazilian infants, as well as comparing both emergence (initial age) and establishment (final age) of each skill between the study sample and the AIMS normative data. New motor skills were continuously acquired…

  5. Translating Ovide Decroly's Ideas to Brazilian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hai, Alessandra Arce; Simon, Frank; Depaepe, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to analyse, comprehend and apprehend the appropriation processes of Ovide Decroly's ideas in Brazil through the translation of his books and that of Amélie Hamaïde into Portuguese. The article discusses the following questions. Why did Brazilian intellectuals and teachers need to import Decroly's ideas to be applied in Brazilian…

  6. Hemoglobin Variant Profiles among Brazilian Quilombola Communities.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Rayra P; Oliveira, Rodrigo M; Soares, Leonardo F; Figueiredo, Camylla V B; Silva, Denise Oliveira; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ana F; Fiuza, Luciana M; Guarda, Caroline C; Adorno, Elisângela V; Barbosa, Cynara G; Gonçalves, Marilda S

    2017-03-01

    Brazilian Quilombolas are communities composed of African-derived populations that have their territories guaranteed by the Brazilian Constitution. The present study investigated the hemoglobin (Hb) variants among these population groups. This study was conducted in a total of 2843 individuals of Brazilian Quilombola communities of the Bahia, Pará, and Piauí states. All the participants had their Hb profiles evaluated. The Hb S (HBB: c.20A>T) variant was described in all the studied localities. However, the individuals in Bahia State had the highest frequency of the Hb C (HBB: c.19G>A) variant; individuals from Piauí State had a higher frequency of the Hb D-Punjab (HBB: c.364G>C) variant compared to the other states, and individuals from Pará State only carried the Hb S variant. The present study revealed a specific distribution of Hb variants that could represent different waves of African influence in these Brazilian populations.

  7. Internet Implementation in Brazilian K-12 Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joia, Luiz Antonio

    1997-01-01

    Presents a framework for implementing the Internet in Brazilian elementary and secondary schools. Topics include schools as assembly lines in the information society; pedagogical uses of the Internet, including research, educational projects, and video conferences; and obstacles to implementing the Internet, including cost, cultural differences,…

  8. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Rufino, R; Costa, C H; Lopes, A J; Maiworm, A I; Maynard, K; Silva, L M R A; Dias, R M

    2017-03-02

    The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%), 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%), and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT). This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index). From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method). Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9). The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5), and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  9. Internet Implementation in Brazilian K-12 Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joia, Luiz Antonio

    1997-01-01

    Presents a framework for implementing the Internet in Brazilian elementary and secondary schools. Topics include schools as assembly lines in the information society; pedagogical uses of the Internet, including research, educational projects, and video conferences; and obstacles to implementing the Internet, including cost, cultural differences,…

  10. Severe complications of a "Brazilian" bikini wax.

    PubMed

    Dendle, Claire; Mulvey, Sheila; Pyrlis, Felicity; Grayson, M Lindsay; Johnson, Paul D R

    2007-08-01

    A 20-year-old Australian woman with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes presented with life-threatening Streptococcus pyogenes and Herpes simplex infection of her external genitalia following a routine perineal "Brazilian" bikini wax. Extensive pubic hair removal is now common among young adults in Australia and elsewhere. However, the infectious risks of these practices, particularly among immunosuppressed individuals, are often underappreciated.

  11. Evaluating Legal Compliance in Brazilian Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastos, Lilia da Rocha; And Others

    1980-01-01

    By 1976, compliance of 13 Brazilian teacher education institutions in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo with the Educational Reform Law of 1971 was judged as poor. The law demanded radical institutional change and created a teacher profile which was too comprehensive and complex. (CP)

  12. Brazilian cuts put projects in peril

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Lopes, Reinaldo

    2015-10-01

    The soap opera surrounding Brazil's participation in the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has taken another twist after the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation said that the government is still “considering” what to do, even though physicist Sérgio Rezende - a former science minister - was behind the push for Brazilian membership.

  13. Effects of Brazilian Schools on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, José Francisco; Alves, Maria Teresa Gonzaga; Xavier, Flavia Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Brazilian elementary schools on the chances of their students achieving at different levels of mathematics proficiency. Since student proficiency is classified at three levels--Insufficient, Basic and Proficient--the chosen model of analysis was the hierarchical multinomial model. The…

  14. Vaccinia virus infection in monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Abrahão, Jônatas S; Silva-Fernandes, André T; Lima, Larissa S; Campos, Rafael K; Guedes, Maria I M C; Cota, Marcela M G; Assis, Felipe L; Borges, Iara A; Souza-Júnior, Milton F; Lobato, Zélia I P; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G

    2010-06-01

    To detect orthopoxvirus in the Brazilian Amazon, we conducted a serosurvey of 344 wild animals. Neutralizing antibodies against orthopoxvirus were detected by plaque-reduction neutralizing tests in 84 serum samples. Amplicons from 6 monkey samples were sequenced. These amplicons identified vaccinia virus genetically similar to strains from bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil.

  15. Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Flavia C.; Amado, Roberto C.; Lambertucci, José R.; Rocha, Jorge; Antunes, Carlos M.; Pena, Sérgio D. J.

    2003-01-01

    This work was undertaken to ascertain to what degree the physical appearance of a Brazilian individual was predictive of genomic African ancestry. Using a panel of 10 population-specific alleles, we assigned to each person an African ancestry index (AAI). The procedure was able to tell apart, with no overlaps, 20 males from northern Portugal from 20 males from São Tomé Island on the west coast of Africa. We also tested 10 Brazilian Amerindians and observed that their AAI values fell in the same range as the Europeans. Finally, we studied two different Brazilian population samples. The first consisted of 173 individuals from a rural Southeastern community, clinically classified according to their Color (white, black, or intermediate) with a multivariate evaluation based on skin pigmentation in the medial part of the arm, hair color and texture, and the shape of the nose and lips. In contrast to the clear-cut results with the African and European samples, our results showed large variances and extensive overlaps among the three Color categories. We next embarked on a study of 200 unrelated Brazilian white males who originated from cosmopolitan centers of the four major geographic regions of the country. The results showed AAI values intermediate between Europeans and Africans, even in southern Brazil, a region predominantly peopled by European immigrants. Our data suggest that in Brazil, at an individual level, color, as determined by physical evaluation, is a poor predictor of genomic African ancestry, estimated by molecular markers. PMID:12509516

  16. Virus infections in Brazilian honey bees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brazilian honey bees are famously resistant to disease, perhaps because of long-term introgression from Apis mellifera subsp. scutellata. Recently, colony losses were observed in the Altinópolis region of southeastern Brazil. We sampled 200 colonies from this region for Israeli acute paralysis vir...

  17. Myriam Krasilchik: A Brazilian Science Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bizzo, Nelio Marco Vincenzo; Kelly, Peter Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Tells the story of Brazilian science educator Myriam Krasilchik who, in 1990, became dean of the University of Sao Paolo's School of Education. She provided leadership in the creation of Science Teaching Centers in Brazil and has been active in international science education organizations. (SM)

  18. Vaccinia Virus Infection in Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Abrahão, Jônatas S.; Silva-Fernandes, André T.; Lima, Larissa S.; Campos, Rafael K.; Guedes, Maria I.M.C.; Cota, Marcela M.G.; Assis, Felipe L.; Borges, Iara A.; Souza-Júnior, Milton F.; Lobato, Zélia I.P.; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Ferreira, Paulo C.P.; Trindade, Giliane S.

    2010-01-01

    To detect orthopoxvirus in the Brazilian Amazon, we conducted a serosurvey of 344 wild animals. Neutralizing antibodies against orthopoxvirus were detected by plaque-reduction neutralizing tests in 84 serum samples. Amplicons from 6 monkey samples were sequenced. These amplicons identified vaccinia virus genetically similar to strains from bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil. PMID:20507750

  19. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Fabio; Salles, João; Hamdy, Osama; Coutinho, Walmir; Regina Baptista, Deise; Benchimol, Alexander; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy) and regular physical activity (structured exercise) represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained. PMID:26340638

  20. Bothriocephalus gadellus n. sp. (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidae) from the beardless codling Gadella imberbis (Vaillant) (Moridae) in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, with a review of species of Bothriocephalus Rudolphi, 1808 reported from gadiform fishes.

    PubMed

    Blend, Charles K; Dronen, Norman O

    2003-01-01

    Bothriocephalus gadellus n. sp. is described from the intestine of the beardless codling Gadella imberbis (Gadiformes: Moridae) from the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. It resembles B. scorpii, the type-species of Bothriocephalus, and B. manubriformis, the only species of the genus reported from the Gulf of Mexico. B. gadellus n. sp. differs from both species in having four excretory canals on each side of the proglottid (three per side in B. scorpii; two per side anastomosing to form an extensive plexus throughout the medulla in B. manubriformis ), 24-33 testes per proglottid (30-60 in B. scorpii; 60-100 in B. manubriformis), a total length of 31-47 mm (32-950 mm in B. scorpii; 130-1,000 mm in B. manubriformis), and a seminal receptacle and wing-like expansions on each proglottid (absent in B. scorpii and B. manubriformis), as well as lacking two sets of reproductive organs per proglottid (present in B. scorpii) and a vagina with a bulbous sphincter near the opening (present in B. manubriformis). An amendment to the generic diagnosis of Bothriocephalus might be warranted if other species of this genus are found to possess a seminal receptacle. B. gadellus n. sp. appears to be like those species of Bothriocephalus that can utilise two intermediate hosts (copepod and fish). B. ellipticus and B. neglectus are designated as species inquirendae. This is the first report of a cestode from a morid fish in the Gulf of Mexico, and the first report of a parasite from a species of Gadellus.

  1. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    PubMed

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  2. Brazilian Vaccinia Viruses and Their Origins

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Giliane S.; Emerson, Ginny L.; Carroll, Darin S.; Kroon, Erna G.

    2007-01-01

    Although the World Health Organization (WHO) declared global smallpox eradicated in 1980, concerns over emergent poxvirus infections have increased. Most poxvirus infections are zoonotic; exploring their genetic diversity will illuminate the genetic and evolutionary aspects of poxvirus infections, ecology, and epidemiology. In recent decades, several strains of the orthopoxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) have been isolated throughout Brazil, including many genetically distinct isolates within the same outbreak. To further investigate the diversity and origins of these viruses, we analyzed molecular data from 8 Brazilian VACV isolates and compared several genes involved in virus structure and pathogenicity. Genetic variation among isolates suggests that ancestral Brazilian VACVs existed before the beginning of the WHO smallpox eradication vaccination campaigns and that these viruses continue to circulate. PMID:18214166

  3. Archaea in Natural and Impacted Brazilian Environments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, archaeal diversity surveys have received increasing attention. Brazil is a country known for its natural diversity and variety of biomes, which makes it an interesting sampling site for such studies. However, archaeal communities in natural and impacted Brazilian environments have only recently been investigated. In this review, based on a search on the PubMed database on the last week of April 2016, we present and discuss the results obtained in the 51 studies retrieved, focusing on archaeal communities in water, sediments, and soils of different Brazilian environments. We concluded that, in spite of its vast territory and biomes, the number of publications focusing on archaeal detection and/or characterization in Brazil is still incipient, indicating that these environments still represent a great potential to be explored. PMID:27829818

  4. EDITORIAL: XVI Brazilian Colloquium on Orbital Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo, Cristiano F.; Macau, Elbert E. N.; Prado, Antonio B. A.; Hetem Jnr, Annibal

    2013-10-01

    The XVI Brazilian Colloquium on Orbital Dynamics was held from 26-30 November 2012, at the Biazi Grand Hotel, Serra Negra, São Paulo, Brazil. The Brazilian Colloquia on Orbital Dynamics are scientific events that occur bi-annually and are designed to develop those areas of research in celestial mechanics, orbital dynamics, planetary science, fundamental astronomy, aerospace engineering, and nonlinear systems and chaos. The meeting has been held for 30 years and it brings together researchers, professors and students from South American and also from other continents. Acknowledgements National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level - CAPES São Paulo Research Foundation - FAPESP

  5. Sports injuries in Brazilian blind footballers.

    PubMed

    Magno e Silva, M P; Morato, M P; Bilzon, J L J; Duarte, E

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes, 11 succumbed to some form of injury during the 5 competitions, which incorporated 23 matches, representing a prevalence of 84.6%. A total of 35 sports injuries were recorded, giving a clinical incidence of 2.7 injuries per athlete and an injury risk of 0.85 and an incidence rate of 0.12 injuries per match. Traumatic injuries (80%) were more common than overuse injuries (20%) (p<0.05). The highest distribution of injury was in the lower limbs (80%), followed by the head (8.6%), spine (5.7%) and upper limbs (5.7%). The body regions most affected were the knee (28.6%), feet (17.1%), ankle (11.4%) and thigh (11.4%). Contusions (31.4%), sprains (25.7%) and tendinopathy (8.6%) were the most frequent diagnoses. This is the first study to describe the nature and prevalence of sports-related injuries in 5-a-side football in blind athletes. The results are important in guiding strategies to inform the implementation of preventive pathways and provide a strong rationale for the compulsory use of additional protective equipment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    Rufino, R.; Costa, C.H.; Lopes, A.J.; Maiworm, A.I.; Maynard, K.; Silva, L.M.R.A.; Dias, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%), 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%), and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT). This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index). From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method). Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9). The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5), and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used. PMID:28273211

  7. Cyclodextrin-enclosed substances of Brazilian propolis.

    PubMed

    Nafady, Alaa Mohamed; El-Shanawany, Mohamed Ahmed; Mohamed, Mahmoud Hamed; Hassanean, Hashim Abdel-Halim; Nohara, Toshihiro; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Ono, Masateru; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Doi, Shima; Sasaki, Ken; Kuroda, Hirohisa

    2003-08-01

    By using beta-cyclodextrin-inclusion as a unique technique, an efficient separation of pharmacologically active phenolic compounds from Brazilian propolis was achieved to provide one new compound, 3-(3-hydroxy-3-methyl-butyl)-5-prenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, together with two common cinnamic acid derivatives, artepillin C and capillartemisin A, and two known flavanols, aromadendrin and 3,5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanol.

  8. Impacts of Prolonged Peace on Brazilian Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Southern Cone and Antarctica (Lynne Reinner Publishers, Colorado, 1988 ), 2. 14 Ibid., 34. 8 D. FOREIGN POLICY TOOLS AND DIPLOMACY IN BRAZIL 1... 1988 ), 8. 36 Ibid., 16. 17 3. Military Governments The Brazilian Generals seized power with promises to reinforce the threatened democratic...37 Skidmore 1988 , 8. 38 Ibid., 18. 39 Ibid., 105. 18 After Castelo’s term, Artur da Costa e Silva

  9. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  10. [Profile of clinical trials enrolling Brazilian children].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Jean Mendes de Lucena; Lima, Elisangela da Costa; Land, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot; Ventura, Miriam; Coelho, Helena Lutescia Luna

    2017-06-12

    This study aimed to characterize the clinical trials with medicines enrolling Brazilian children and adolescents, registered in the databases of Clinical Trials and the Brazilian Clinical Trials Network (ReBEC) from 1994 to 2014. Only 462 clinical trials enrolled Brazilian children and adolescents. There was an increase in registrations beginning in 2003, with an important drop in 2011. Among these trials, 35.5% were hosted in Brazil. The international clinical trials were mostly conducted by North American companies. In both cases, multinational industry was the principal source of funding. The clinical trials were predominantly phase III with injectable and solid oral pharmaceutical forms of antiviral drugs. Domestic clinical trials showed wider variation in the pharmaceutical forms and higher percentage of liquid formulations, when compared to the international trials. In addition to heavy external dependence for conducting clinical trials, the study emphasized the challenge for pediatric care in Brazil, which presents epidemiological peculiarities in an environment prone to the use of unlicensed medicines for children.

  11. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Sonia R.; Bankoff, Antônia D. P.; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 μg/m3) in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively). The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem. PMID:25019268

  12. Hydrocarbon source potential in Brazilian margin basins

    SciTech Connect

    Mello, M.R.; Estrella, G.D.O.; Gaglianone, P.C.

    1984-04-01

    Twenty thousand samples from the Brazilian continental shelf basins were analyzed to characterize and evaluate the hydrocarbon source potential of the areas. The geochemical evaluation of the rock and oil samples was performed by organic carbon determinations, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance, thermal alteration index, liquid and gas chromatographies, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and carbon isotope analyses. Three source rock systems have been identified: lower Neocomian shales deposited in a continental environment, upper Neocomian shales grading from continental to lagoonal environment, and Aptian shales related to evaporitic and lacustrine sequences. Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary open marine slope sediments are not considered as source rocks. Locally, these sediments present high organic carbon content but show an extremely poor hydrocarbon yield. Anoxic depositional conditions, nevertheless, can be traced locally along some levels of the Santonian to Cenomanian shales and marls. These sediments are generally immature in the Brazilian margin basins and no oil was generated from this section. Three oil families were distinguished through oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock correlations: the lower Neocomian continental type, the upper Neocomian continental to lagoonal type, and the Aptian evaporitic to lacustrine related sequences. The geochemical studies, together with geologic and geophysical data, provided the basis to display some models for the migration pathways and habitat of oils in the Brazilian margin basins.

  13. Novel resistance to Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) in codling moth shows autosomal and dominant inheritance and confers cross-resistance to different CpGV genome groups

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Petr; Marec, Frantisek; Heckel, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Commercial Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) products have been successfully applied to control codling moth (CM) in organic and integrated fruit production for more than 30 years. Since 2005, resistance against the widely used isolate CpGV-M has been reported from different countries in Europe. The inheritance of this so-called type I resistance is dominant and linked to the Z chromosome. Recently, a second form (type II) of CpGV resistance in CM was reported from a field population (NRW-WE) in Germany. Type II resistance confers reduced susceptibility not only to CpGV-M but to most known CpGV isolates and it does not follow the previously described Z-linked inheritance of type I resistance. To further analyze type II resistance, two CM strains, termed CpR5M and CpR5S, were generated from parental NRW-WE by repeated mass crosses and selection using the two isolates CpGV-M and CpGV-S, respectively. Both CpR5M and CpR5S were considered to be genetically homogeneous for the presence of the resistance allele(s). By crossing and backcrossing experiments with a susceptible CM strain, followed by resistance testing of the offspring, an autosomal dominant inheritance of resistance was elucidated. In addition, cross-resistance to CpGV-M and CpGV-S was detected in both strains, CpR5M and CpR5S. To test the hypothesis that the autosomal inheritance of type II resistance was caused by a large interchromosomal rearrangement involving the Z chromosome, making type I resistance appear to be autosomal in these strains; fluorescence in situ hybridization with bacterial artificial chromosome probes (BAC-FISH) was used to physically map the Z chromosomes of different CM strains. Conserved synteny of the Z-linked genes in CpR5M and other CM strains rejects this hypothesis and argues for a novel genetic and functional mode of resistance in CM populations with type II resistance. PMID:28640892

  14. Novel resistance to Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) in codling moth shows autosomal and dominant inheritance and confers cross-resistance to different CpGV genome groups.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Annette J; Fritsch, Eva; Undorf-Spahn, Karin; Nguyen, Petr; Marec, Frantisek; Heckel, David G; Jehle, Johannes A

    2017-01-01

    Commercial Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV) products have been successfully applied to control codling moth (CM) in organic and integrated fruit production for more than 30 years. Since 2005, resistance against the widely used isolate CpGV-M has been reported from different countries in Europe. The inheritance of this so-called type I resistance is dominant and linked to the Z chromosome. Recently, a second form (type II) of CpGV resistance in CM was reported from a field population (NRW-WE) in Germany. Type II resistance confers reduced susceptibility not only to CpGV-M but to most known CpGV isolates and it does not follow the previously described Z-linked inheritance of type I resistance. To further analyze type II resistance, two CM strains, termed CpR5M and CpR5S, were generated from parental NRW-WE by repeated mass crosses and selection using the two isolates CpGV-M and CpGV-S, respectively. Both CpR5M and CpR5S were considered to be genetically homogeneous for the presence of the resistance allele(s). By crossing and backcrossing experiments with a susceptible CM strain, followed by resistance testing of the offspring, an autosomal dominant inheritance of resistance was elucidated. In addition, cross-resistance to CpGV-M and CpGV-S was detected in both strains, CpR5M and CpR5S. To test the hypothesis that the autosomal inheritance of type II resistance was caused by a large interchromosomal rearrangement involving the Z chromosome, making type I resistance appear to be autosomal in these strains; fluorescence in situ hybridization with bacterial artificial chromosome probes (BAC-FISH) was used to physically map the Z chromosomes of different CM strains. Conserved synteny of the Z-linked genes in CpR5M and other CM strains rejects this hypothesis and argues for a novel genetic and functional mode of resistance in CM populations with type II resistance.

  15. Private Health Care Coverage in the Brazilian population, according to the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Pereira, Cimar Azeredo; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Oliveira, Martha; Reis, Arthur Chioro Dos

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present the percentages of the Brazilian population holding health insurance plans, itemized by social-demographic characteristics, based on the data of the National Health Survey carried out in 2013, and to compare this information with the administrative data of the National Supplementary Health Agency for the same year. Data from the National Health Survey, and from the Beneficiaries Information System of the National Health Agency for the year 2013, were used. The percentage of people having a health plan was described according to stratification for: all of Brazil, urban/rural, Brazilian official Regions, Brazilian States and state capitals, gender, age group, level of schooling, position in the workforce, ethnic classification, and self-assessed state of health. Results include the following: The percentage of people saying they had some health plan in Brazil was 27.9% (CI 95%: 27.1-28.8). A significant difference was found relating to level of schooling - the percentage being highest for those who stated they had complete secondary education (68.8% CI 95%: 67.2-70.4) and for those who said they were currently in work (32.5% CI 95%: 31.5-33.5). The increase in health plan coverage in the Brazilian population reflects the improvement of the suply of employment and the growth in the country's economy.

  16. Partnerships for Lifelong Learning Policies: A Brazilian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Brazilian inequality is the result of multiple complex determinations but the heterogeneity with which quality education is distributed among the population remains at its core. When we consider the Brazilian labour market we see that the heterogeneity in the levels of schooling of the workforce is the principle determinant for wage inequality…

  17. Brazilian Adaptation of the Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Nunes, Carlos Sancineto; Schelini, Patricia Waltz; Pasian, Sonia Regina; Homsi, Silvia Vertoni; Moretti, Lucia; Anache, Alexandra Ayach

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the standard battery of Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) for Brazilian children and youth was investigated. The sample was composed of 1094 students (54 percent girls), ages 7-17, living in Sao Paulo state (91 percent). Items from Brazilian school books as well as from the WJ-III Spanish version…

  18. An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Codas in Brazilian Portuguese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese allows only /s, N, l, r/ syllable finally, and of these, only /s/ is realized faithfully (as well as /r/ for some speakers). In order to avoid unacceptable codas, dialects of Brazilian Portuguese employ such strategies as epenthesis, nasal absorption, debucalization, and gliding. The current analysis argues that codas in…

  19. "Tupy or not Tupy?" Examining Hybridity in Contemporary Brazilian Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastos, Flavia M. C.

    2006-01-01

    Updating the 1920s notion of Anthropophagy developed to symbolize through cannibalistic ritual the process of cultural assimilation that influences art, this article examines issues of naming, describing, and representing contemporary Brazilian art. In the first part of the article, the work of four contemporary Brazilian artists recently…

  20. The Afro-Brazilian Fetish Cults: Religious Syncretism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, B. C.

    1967-01-01

    This paper treats the Afro-Brazilian fetish cults found throughout Brazil and examines the syncretism of these cults with Catholicism. The religious practices of the "macumbas" (deities of the Afro-Brazilian cults), ritual music, and the ethnicity of the Negroes from both southern and northern Brazil are discussed. Frequently, excerpts…

  1. A Brief History of the Brazilian Participation in CMB Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villela, Thyrso

    This contribution is a short report on the Brazilian participation in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observational programs. It includes brief descriptions of the experiments aiming to measure both CMB properties and Galactic microwave signals that hamper these measurements. The work done by Brazilian researchers involved in the development of these experiments and in the subsequent observations is briefly described as well.

  2. From Brazilian Portuguese to American English: Pronunciation Problems and Drills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Percilia

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the sounds in American English and Brazilian Portuguese in order to focus on the problems that Brazilian students may encounter when learning to speak English. The comparative analysis of the consonants, vowels, and diphthongs describes how a given sound is pronounced in both languages. Particular…

  3. Comparison of peak muscle power between Brazilian and French girls.

    PubMed

    Nanci Maria, França; Eric, Doré; Mario, Bedu; Emmanuel, Van Praagh

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the muscle power of Brazilian circumpubertal girls and extended the analysis to a cross-cultural dimension. A total of 462 children, 123 Brazilian girls and 339 French girls, 9-18 years, participated in this investigation. Anthropometric data included body mass (BM), height, skinfold thicknesses, and estimated lean leg volume (LLV). All subjects completed a physical activity questionnaire. Cycling peak power was measured including the flywheel inertia of the device (CPPi). Brazilian girls self-assessed their maturation using pubic hair development. CPPi and optimal velocity (v(opt) = velocity at CPPi) increased with stages of puberty. A multiple stepwise regression with anthropometric variables as explanatory factors showed only LLV and age explaining the variance of CPPi (R2 = 0.40, P < 0.001). Therefore, 60% of the variance of CPPi in Brazilian girls was related to undetermined qualitative individual factors, which may be related to cycling skill. Even when normalized for anthropometric variables, the anaerobic performance (CPPi and v(opt)) of Brazilian girls was significantly lower than a cohort of French girls. The latter demonstrated a high participation in sport and training activities, while 50% of the Brazilian girls had only physical education classes in the form of regular physical activity. Moreover, most of the Brazilian girls demonstrated an ineffective sprint cycling skill. The data suggest that motor learning is an important issue in muscle power assessment and might, therefore, partially explain peak power differences in Brazilian compared with French girls.

  4. Factors Influencing Consonant Acquisition in Brazilian Portuguese-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceron, Marizete Ilha; Gubiani, Marileda Barichello; de Oliveira, Camila Rosa; Keske-Soares, Márcia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to provide valid and reliable data on the acquisition of consonant sounds in speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. Method: The sample comprised 733 typically developing monolingual speakers of Brazilian Portuguese (ages 3;0-8;11 [years;months]). The presence of surface speech error patterns, the revised percentage consonants…

  5. The Use and Perception of English in Brazilian Magazine Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Amanda Lira Gordenstein

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the uses of English in advertising in Brazil and the attitudes of Brazilians towards the use of different difficulty levels of English in advertising. Using a two part, mixed-methods approach, drawing from quantitative and qualitative methods, I utilized a corpus study to examine English uses in Brazilian magazines and a…

  6. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  7. An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Codas in Brazilian Portuguese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese allows only /s, N, l, r/ syllable finally, and of these, only /s/ is realized faithfully (as well as /r/ for some speakers). In order to avoid unacceptable codas, dialects of Brazilian Portuguese employ such strategies as epenthesis, nasal absorption, debucalization, and gliding. The current analysis argues that codas in…

  8. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  9. Brazilian Adaptation of the Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Nunes, Carlos Sancineto; Schelini, Patricia Waltz; Pasian, Sonia Regina; Homsi, Silvia Vertoni; Moretti, Lucia; Anache, Alexandra Ayach

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the standard battery of Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) for Brazilian children and youth was investigated. The sample was composed of 1094 students (54 percent girls), ages 7-17, living in Sao Paulo state (91 percent). Items from Brazilian school books as well as from the WJ-III Spanish version…

  10. The Use and Perception of English in Brazilian Magazine Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Amanda Lira Gordenstein

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the uses of English in advertising in Brazil and the attitudes of Brazilians towards the use of different difficulty levels of English in advertising. Using a two part, mixed-methods approach, drawing from quantitative and qualitative methods, I utilized a corpus study to examine English uses in Brazilian magazines and a…

  11. Necessity to review the Brazilian regulation about fluoride toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Caldarelli, Pablo Guilherme; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the Brazilian legislation about fluoride toothpaste. A search was conducted in LILACS, Medline and SciELO databases about the fluoride concentration found in Brazilians toothpastes, using descriptors on health. Publications since 1981 have shown that some Brazilian toothpastes are not able to maintain, during their expiration time, a minimum of 1,000 ppm F of soluble fluoride in the formulation. However, the Brazilian regulation (ANVISA, Resolution 79, August 28, 2000) only sets the maximum total fluoride (0.15%; 1,500 ppm F) that a toothpaste may contain but not the minimum concentration of soluble fluoride that it should contain to have anticaries potential, which according to systematic reviews should be 1,000 ppm F. Therefore, the Brazilian regulation on fluoride toothpastes needs to be revised to assure the efficacy of those products for caries control.

  12. Necessity to review the Brazilian regulation about fluoride toothpastes

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Caldarelli, Pablo Guilherme; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the Brazilian legislation about fluoride toothpaste. A search was conducted in LILACS, Medline and SciELO databases about the fluoride concentration found in Brazilians toothpastes, using descriptors on health. Publications since 1981 have shown that some Brazilian toothpastes are not able to maintain, during their expiration time, a minimum of 1,000 ppm F of soluble fluoride in the formulation. However, the Brazilian regulation (ANVISA, Resolution 79, August 28, 2000) only sets the maximum total fluoride (0.15%; 1,500 ppm F) that a toothpaste may contain but not the minimum concentration of soluble fluoride that it should contain to have anticaries potential, which according to systematic reviews should be 1,000 ppm F. Therefore, the Brazilian regulation on fluoride toothpastes needs to be revised to assure the efficacy of those products for caries control. PMID:26487295

  13. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: Brazilian survey

    PubMed Central

    Cotrim, Helma P.; Oliveira, Claudia P.; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio M.; Alvares-da-Silva, Mario R.; Nabuco, Leticia; Parise, Edison Roberto; Ivantes, Claúdia; Martinelli, Ana LC; Galizzi-Filho, João; Carrilho, Flair J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The majority of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma have been reported in individuals with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholism, but recently, the prevalence has become increasingly related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis around the world. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical and histophatological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazilians' patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at the present time. METHODS: Members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology were invited to complete a survey regarding patients with hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with a history of alcohol intake (>20 g/day) and other liver diseases were excluded. Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis was performed by liver biopsy or imaging methods according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases' 2011 guidelines. RESULTS: The survey included 110 patients with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from nine hepatology units in six Brazilian states (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul). The mean age was 67±11 years old, and 65.5% were male. Obesity was observed in 52.7% of the cases; diabetes, in 73.6%; dyslipidemia, in 41.0%; arterial hypertension, in 60%; and metabolic syndrome, in 57.2%. Steatohepatitis without fibrosis was observed in 3.8% of cases; steatohepatitis with fibrosis (grades 1-3), in 27%; and cirrhosis, in 61.5%. Histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was performed in 47.2% of the patients, with hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis accounting for 7.7%. In total, 58 patients with cirrhosis had their diagnosis by ultrasound confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of these, 55% had 1 nodule; 17%, 2 nodules; and 28%, ≥3 nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a relevant risk factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with and

  14. Brazilian Portuguese validation of Mood Disorder Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Gurgel, Wagner; Rebouças, Diego Barreto; Negreiros de Matos, Karla Julianne; Carneiro, Alexandre Henrique Silva; Gomes de Matos e Souza, Fábio

    2012-04-01

    The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) is a screening instrument for bipolar spectrum disorders already validated in many languages. Patients from 2 psychiatric outpatient facilities were diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD) type I and II and major depression according to the mood module of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (SCID), Axis I Disorders--Clinician Version. In addition, a control group of healthy subjects was selected. The diagnostic interviews were used as the gold standard against which to investigate the performance of the MDQ. The MDQ was administered to 153 subjects, distributed among 4 groups. We analyzed the test reliability and discriminative capacity of the MDQ for the detection of patients with BD. Based on the SCID, Axis I Disorders--Clinician Version, 52 subjects (33.3%) presented a bipolar spectrum disorder (type I, II, or not otherwise specified), 48 (32.4%) were diagnosed as having unipolar depressive disorder, whereas 54 (35.3%) were unaffected by any type of psychiatric disorder (had no psychiatric disorder according to SCID results). The sensitivity for bipolar disorder was 0.72 (bipolar I disorder, 0.81; bipolar II disorder, 0.58; and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified, 0.69), with specificity of 0.95. The Brazilian Portuguese MDQ demonstrated adequate internal consistency (Cronbach α = .87). Recruiting patients attending tertiary services may inflate the performance of the MDQ. The performance of the Brazilian Portuguese MDQ is comparable with other language validations. In a psychiatric outpatient sample, the Brazilian Portuguese MDQ proves to be a feasible and reliable screening instrument. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. PREFACE: VII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plascak, Joao Antonio; Rosas, Alexandres

    2014-03-01

    This special issue includes invited and selected articles of the VIIth Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP), held in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, from the 5th to 10th August, 2013. This is the seventh such meeting, and the first one to have contributed papers published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The previous meetings in the BMSP series took place in the mountains of Minas Gerais and in the region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Now, for the first time, the Meeting was held in the pleasant shores of João Pessoa, the capital of the Paraíba state. The VIIth BMSP brought together more than 50 researchers from all over the world for a vibrant and productive period. As in the previous meetings, the talks and posters highlighted recent advances in applications, algorithms, and implementations of computer simulation methods for the study of condensed matter, materials, out of equilibrium, quantum and biologically motivated systems. We are sure that this meeting series will continue to provide a valuable venue for people working in simulational physics to exchange ideas and discuss the state of art of this always expanding field. We are very glad to realize this special issue, and are most appreciative to the editors of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for making this publication possible. We are grateful for the outstanding work of the João Pessoa team, for the financial support of the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPESQ, and of the Federal Universities UFPB and UFMG. At last, but not least, we would like to acknowledge all of the authors of this special issue for their contributions. João Antonio Plascak Alexandre Rosas Guest Editors Conference photograph

  16. Plasma lipid concentrations for some Brazilian lizards.

    PubMed

    Gillett, M P; Lima, V L; Costa, J C; Sibrian, A M

    1979-01-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides were determined for ten species of Brazilian lizards, Iguana iguana, Tropidurus torquatos and T. semitaeniatus (Iguanidae), Tupinambis teguixin, Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae), Mabuya maculata (Scincidae), Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae), Amphisbaenia vermicularis and Leposternon polystegum (Amphisbaenidae). 2. Considerable inter- and intra-species variations in plasma lipid concentrations were observed. 3. The percentage of total cholesterol esterified and the individual phospholipid composition of plasma were relatively constant for each species. 4. Over 60% of the cholesteryl esters present in plasma from three species each of iguanid and teiid lizards were polyenoic.

  17. Reverse logistics in the Brazilian construction industry.

    PubMed

    Nunes, K R A; Mahler, C F; Valle, R A

    2009-09-01

    In Brazil most Construction and Demolition Waste (C&D waste) is not recycled. This situation is expected to change significantly, since new federal regulations oblige municipalities to create and implement sustainable C&D waste management plans which assign an important role to recycling activities. The recycling organizational network and its flows and components are fundamental to C&D waste recycling feasibility. Organizational networks, flows and components involve reverse logistics. The aim of this work is to introduce the concepts of reverse logistics and reverse distribution channel networks and to study the Brazilian C&D waste case.

  18. Net Carbon Balance for the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    The general purpose of this research was to use recent satellite-based estimates of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia to calculate the net flux of carbon associated with deforestation and subsequent regrowth of secondary forests. We have made such a calculation, in the process comparing two estimates of deforestation and two estimates of biomass for the region. Both estimates were based on the RADAMBRASIL survey. They differed in the equations used to convert wood-volumes to total biomass. The net flux of carbon from changes in land use seems to vary from year to year, perhaps by as much as a factor of 4.

  19. Antibodies to Shiga toxins in Brazilian cattle.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Bruno B; Luz, Daniela; Abreu, Patrícia A E; Gotti, Tatiana B; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Piazza, Roxane M F; Horton, Denise S P Q

    2017-07-01

    Cattle are considered a reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). There is no information about the presence of antibodies against Shiga toxins in Brazilian bovine serum. Using ELISA, all sera tested showed antibodies against the two main STEC virulence factors; Stx1 and Stx2. Neutralizing antibodies against Stx1 and/or Stx2 were detected in all but one serum. In conclusion, our results indicated that these animals had been exposed to STEC producing both toxins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Novelties in Brazilian Tradescantia L. (Commelinaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Marco O. O.; Forzza, Rafaela C.; Sakuragui, Cassia M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We present a new record to the Brazilian territory (i.e. Tradescantia boliviana), the rediscovery of a species exclusively known from the cultivated type collection (i.e. T. valida), the description of a new taxon (i.e. T. chrysophylla), synonyms for T. crassula and T. boliviana, correct the typification of T. crassula, and designation of a lectotype for T. ambigua and T. ambigua var. pilosula. Furthermore, we present illustrations, comments, distribution maps, and identification keys for the studied taxa. PMID:28781555

  1. ESR dating of teeth from Brazilian megafauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, L. C.; Kinoshita, A.; Barreto, A. M. F.; Figueiredo, A. M.; Silva, J. L. L.; Baffa, O.

    2010-11-01

    The study of radiation defects created in biomaterials, such as bone and teeth, can be used in dating with importance to palaeontology and archaeology. Two Stegomastodon teeth (AL1 and AL2) from north-eastern Brazilian megafauna were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The samples were collected in Fazenda Ovo da Ema, (913349 / 3714965) UTM, Alagoas state, Brazil. The dating of these samples can contribute to the better knowledge of megafauna presence in this region as well as to the events associated to the extinction of these species.

  2. Brazilian exchange rate complexity: Financial crisis effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueira, José Roberto C.; Mortoza, Letícia Pelluci D.

    2012-04-01

    With the financial market globalization, foreign investments became vital for the economies, mainly in emerging countries. In the last decades, Brazilian exchange rates appeared as a good indicator to measure either investors' confidence or risk aversion. Here, some events of global or national financial crisis are analyzed, trying to understand how they influenced the "dollar-real" rate evolution. The theoretical tool to be used is the López-Mancini-Calbet (LMC) complexity measure that, applied to real exchange rate data, has shown good fitness between critical events and measured patterns.

  3. Brazilian keratin hair treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Weathersby, Courtney; McMichael, Amy

    2013-06-01

    Brazilian keratin treatments are widely available products that are used by women all over the world to straighten hair. Marketers of these products claim that the keratin treatments render naturally curly hair more manageable and frizz-free while enhancing color and shine, giving the hair a healthier appearance. Although widely used, there have been virtually no reports of adverse side effects. Unfortunately, many of the products that are applied by salon professionals contain formaldehyde or its derivatives and are being marketed as safe.

  4. Net Carbon Balance for the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    The general purpose of this research was to use recent satellite-based estimates of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia to calculate the net flux of carbon associated with deforestation and subsequent regrowth of secondary forests. We have made such a calculation, in the process comparing two estimates of deforestation and two estimates of biomass for the region. Both estimates were based on the RADAMBRASIL survey. They differed in the equations used to convert wood-volumes to total biomass. The net flux of carbon from changes in land use seems to vary from year to year, perhaps by as much as a factor of 4.

  5. [The Brazilguayans, Brazilian migrants in Paraguay].

    PubMed

    Pebayle, R

    1994-01-01

    "Since the 1950s, the population of Eastern regions of Paraguay has grown with the steady influx of Brazilian immigrants. Planters from Parana and Sao Paulo, mechanized wheat and soy farmers from the southern campos and cattle farmers from the Matto Grosso do Sul have joined mixed farmers, descendants of European settlers from the south of Brazil. Despite some local conflicts, the Brazilguayans...[in] Oriente [province] seem to be on the road to integration in Paraguay." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA AND POR)

  6. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  7. Brazilian obesity prevention and control initiatives.

    PubMed

    Jaime, P C; da Silva, A C F; Gentil, P C; Claro, R M; Monteiro, C A

    2013-11-01

    Obesity prevalence in the Brazilian adult population is 12.5% among men and 16.9% among women. Obesity control has been a subject of concern in Brazilian health policies since the publication of the National Food and Nutrition Policy in 1999. The initiatives include a comprehensive national intersectorial plan for obesity prevention and control focused on confronting its social and environmental causes, development of a food and nutrition education framework aimed at intersectorial public policies in the food and nutritional security field, promotion and provision of healthy food in school environments (linked to family farming), structuring nutrition actions in primary healthcare in the national healthcare system, promoting community physical activity, food regulation and control, and encouragement of public participation and food control. We conclude that several initiatives have been developed in Brazil to deal with the challenge of implementing an intergovernmental, intersectorial response to reverse the rising overweight and obesity rates. The success of this response will depend on a governance model that promotes joint and integrated action by different sectors and active participation of society to consolidate the actions, places and laws that protect health and promote healthy lifestyles. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  8. UNOSAT: the First University Brazilian Nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancato, F.; Oliveira, E. M. Manhas M., Jr.; Mendes, L. H.; Oliveira, G.

    2002-01-01

    In 2000 it was created in the Universidade Norte do Paraná, UNOPAR University, an educational undergraduate aerospace group called SPACE. During the 51st International Astronautical Congress in Brazil, the participant students got in contact with different small satellite programs from different universities. Motivated by these contacts they began the a nanosatellite project feasibility study. Contacts were made in the beginning of 2001 to see a launch possibility as secondary payload at the third qualification flight test of the VLS, the Brazilian launcher. Soon came the positive answer and the project began. A very simple nanosatellite project was chosen. The mission was going to download 5 parameters telemetry and one voice message. The different project parts were divided among the thirteen undergraduate students: structure, radio link, solar panels, energy controller module, telemetry and instrumentation. They were also responsible for the systems tests, integration and follow final tests. An outreach activity was also made. An local broadcast radio company did an competition among its listeners to select the message and the voice of the first Brazilian who would "speech" from the space. It was an unusual way also to get some funding from a sponsor who got free media. It is shown the program management strategy, what had worked and what not, funding strategy and the educational benefits.- The launch is scheduled to the 2002 second semester.

  9. [Chemical characterization of Brazilian oat genotypes].

    PubMed

    Beber, Rosane Costa; de Francisco, Alicia; Alves, Antonio Carlos; de Sá, Roberta Marins; Ogliari, Paulo

    2002-01-01

    The chemical composition of oats has been poorly studied in Brazil. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the main chemical constituents of Brazilian oat cultivars. This knowledge is essential for the utilization of this cereal in balanced diets, specially for individuals with high blood cholesterol, where the beta-glucans contribute to it's reduction. The analyzed genotipes were recommended by the Brazilian Oat Research Commission. The cultivars studied (CTC3, UFRGS7, UFRGS14, UPF7 and UPF16) showed high levels of protein (16.8%), lipids (6.84%) and beta-glucans (4.89%). The aminoacid profil of these samples was limiting only for lyisine, threonine and isoleucine. The other aminoacids had similar values to those recommended by the FAO. It was observed that all the studied variables suffered changes according to the interactions between genotype, locality and year of production. Cultivars UFRGS14, UFRGS7 and UPF16 were differentiated for their high contents of protein, lipids and beta-glucans, respectively.

  10. Lumbosacral plexus in Brazilian Common Opossum.

    PubMed

    Senos, R; Ribeiro, M S; Benedicto, H G; Kfoury Júnior, J R

    2016-01-01

    The opossum has been suggested as an animal model for biomedical studies due to its adaptability to captivity and number of births per year. Despite many studies on morphology and experimental neurology using this opossum model, the literature does not offer details of the nerves of the lumbosacral plexus in this species. Ten lumbosacral plexus were dissected to describe the peripheral innervations of the Brazilian Common Opossum (Didelphis aurita) and compare the results with Eutheria clade species. The tensor fasciae latae muscle was absent and there was only one sartorius muscle for each limb. The distribution of the nerves were similar to other mammals, except for the caudal gluteal nerve, sartorius muscle innervations and the position of the pudendal nerve which arose from the major ischiatic foramen together with the ischiatic nerve, the cranial gluteal nerve and the caudal gluteal nerve. No anatomical variation was found. The special position of the pudendal nerve suggested that the Brazilian Common Opossum is a better model than rats or rabbits in surgical procedures with that specific nerve. In addition, the study revealed that the pelvic limb nerves are not an invariable structure of reference for muscle homology and homonym as reported previously. New investigation using other species of opossums are necessary to best comprehend the lumbosacral plexus distribution in the Methatheria clade and to confirm that other opossum species is eligible as a good model for pudendal nerve studies.

  11. Brazilian law for scientific use of animals.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ruy Garcia; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Petroianu, Andy

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian scientific community claimed for a definitive systematization and for comprehensive and realistic national rules, to provide guidance and regulation, instead of sanctions, so that the question of scientific research involving animals could be better contemplated. This is beginning to occur now with Law no. 11.794, sanctioned by the President of the Republic on November 8, 2008. To describe the evolution of Brazilian regimentation for scientific use of animals and to analyze Law no. 11.794. The legislation about the use of animals in teaching and in scientific research in Brazil and in Rio de Janeiro State was identified and discussed. Until now, there was no updated general and systematizing rule regarding animal vivisection and experimentation for didactic or scientific purposes. The only specific law dates back to 1979 and was not regimented. More recent laws equated the practice of scientific experiments to acts of abuse and mistreatment of animals, when alternative technology was available. Municipal laws that restricted the scientific practice of vivisection and experimentation with animals were created in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Florianopolis. With the claim and collaboration of the scientific community, the sanction of Law no. 11.794 regarding the scientific use of animals represented an invaluable advance in spite of the presence of some points that eventually may require another type of treatment. The new Law states that it will be regimented within 180 (one-hundred-and-eighty) days, when some of these points could be better elucidated.

  12. [Mineral waters from several Brazilian natural sources].

    PubMed

    Rebelo, M A; Araujo, N C

    1999-01-01

    To divulge information on the chemical composition and physical-chemical features of some mineral waters from Brazilian natural sources that will be of useful protocol investigation and patient advice. The survey was based on bottle labels of non-gaseous mineral waters commercially available in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The íon concentration of each mineral was calculated from the salt content. 36 springs were enralled from different states of the country. The pH (25 degrees C), 4.1 to 9.3, varied on dependence of the source and it was linearey correlated with the cations calcium, magnesium and sodium and the anion bicarbonate. It was atributed to high alkalinity (about 70% of bicarbonate in the molecula-gram) of these salts. The calcium (0.3 to 42 mg/l), magnesium (0.0 to 18 mg/l) and bicarbonate (4 to 228 mg/l) contents are relatively low. The mineral content of the Brazilian springs enrolled in this survey is low; about 70% of the sources having calcium and magnesium less than 10 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l, respectively, similar to local tap water.

  13. Effects of Brazilian propolis on Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Diana Copi; Marcucci, Maria Cristina; Giorgio, Selma

    2007-05-01

    Leishmaniasis, an endemic parasitosis that leads to chronic cutaneous, mucocutaneous or visceral lesions, is part of those diseases, which still requires improved control tools. Propolis has shown activities against different bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In this study we investigated the effect of four ethanolic extracts of typified propolis collected in different Brazilian states, on Leishmania amazonensis performing assays with promastigote forms, extracellular amastigotes, and on infected peritoneal macrophages. Ethanolic extracts of all propolis samples (BRG, BRPG, BRP-1, and BRV) were capable to reduce parasite load as monitored by the percentage of infected macrophages and the number of intracellular parasites. BRV sample called red propolis, collected in the state of Alagoas, and containing high concentration of prenylated and benzophenones compounds, was the most active extract against L. amazonensis. The anti-Leishmania effect of BRV sample was increased in a concentration and time dependent manner. BRV treatment proved to be non-toxic to macrophage cultures. Since BRV extract at the concentration of 25 microg/ml reduced the parasite load of macrophages while presented no direct toxic to promastigotes and extracellular amastigotes, it was suggested that constituents of propolis intensify the mechanism of macrophage activation leading to killing of L. amazonensis. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that ethanolic extracts of Brazilian propolis reduce L. amazonensis infection in macrophages, and encourage further studies of this natural compound in animal models of leishmaniasis.

  14. Complex network study of Brazilian soccer players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onody, Roberto N.; de Castro, Paulo A.

    2004-09-01

    Although being a very popular sport in many countries, soccer has not received much attention from the scientific community. In this paper, we study soccer from a complex network point of view. First, we consider a bipartite network with two kinds of vertices or nodes: the soccer players and the clubs. Real data were gathered from the 32 editions of the Brazilian soccer championship, in a total of 13411 soccer players and 127 clubs. We find a lot of interesting and perhaps unsuspected results. The probability that a Brazilian soccer player has worked at N clubs or played M games shows an exponential decay while the probability that he has scored G goals is power law. Now, if two soccer players who have worked at the same club at the same time are connected by an edge, then a new type of network arises (composed exclusively by soccer player nodes). Our analysis shows that for this network the degree distribution decays exponentially. We determine the exact values of the clustering coefficient, the assortativity coefficient and the average shortest path length and compare them with those of the Erdös-Rényi and configuration model. The time evolution of these quantities are calculated and the corresponding results discussed.

  15. Mapping Brazilian Cropland Expansion, 2000-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, V.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil is one of the world's leading producers and exporters of agricultural goods. Despite undergoing significant increases in its cropland area in the last decades, it remains one of the countries with the most potential for further agricultural expansion. Most notably, the expansion in production areas of commodity crops such as soybean, corn, and sugarcane has become the leading cause of land cover conversion in Brazil. Natural land covers, such as the Amazon and Cerrado forests, have been negatively affected by this agricultural expansion, causing carbon emissions, biodiversity loss, altered water cycles, and many other disturbances to ecosystem services. Monitoring of change in cropland area extent can provide relevant information to decision makers seeking to understand and manage land cover change drivers and their impacts. In this study, the freely-available Landsat archive was leveraged to produce a large-scale, methodologically consistent map of cropland cover at 30 m. resolution for the entire Brazilian territory in the year 2000. Additionally, we mapped cropland expansion from 2000 to 2013, and used statistical sampling techniques to accurately estimate cropland area per Brazilian state. Using the Global Forest Change product produced by Hansen et al. (2013), we can disaggregate forest cover loss due to cropland expansion by year, revealing spatiotemporal trends that could advance our understanding of the drivers of forest loss.

  16. Gout treatment: survey of Brazilian rheumatology residents.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Rodrigo Balbino Chaves; Vargas-Santos, Ana Beatriz; Pereira, Leticia Rocha; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, Geraldo

    2017-05-01

    To assess the current practices in gout management among Brazilian rheumatology residents. We performed a cross-sectional online survey among all the rheumatology residents and those rheumatologists who had just completed their training (post-residency (PR)) regarding their approach to gout management. Results were compared with the 2012 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) gout guidelines and with the responses of a previous survey with a representative sample of practicing Brazilian rheumatologists (RHE). We received 224 responses (83%) from 271 subjects. Among all respondents, the first-choice treatment for gout flares was the combination of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug + colchicine for otherwise healthy patients. A target serum urate <6 mg/dL for patients without tophi was reported by >75%. Less than 70% reported starting allopurinol at low doses (≤100 mg/day) for patients with normal renal function and <50% reported maintaining urate-lowering therapy indefinitely for patients without tophi. Among residents and PR, the residency stage was the main predictor of concordance with the ACR guidelines, with PR achieving the greatest rates. Reported practices were commonly concordant with the 2012 ACR gout guidelines, especially among PR. However, some important aspects of gout management need improvement. These results will guide the development of a physician education program to improve the management of gout patients in Brazil.

  17. Is there publication bias towards brazilian articles on cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Luiz Victor Maia; Callegaro, Donato; Rocha, Altieres de Arruda; Prado, Bernard Lobato; Mutão, Taciana Sousa; Donnarumma, Carlos del Cistia; del Giglio, Auro

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate whether Brazilian articles on cancer are published in journals with an impact factor and/or repercussion (measured by the number of citations) inferior to those that come from foreign organizations. Methods: A search was carried out in PubMed for the MeSH term “neoplasm” with the limits clinical trial, affiliation of the Brazilian author(s), and interval from July 1st, 2009 to June 30, 2010. Selected for matching were non-Brazilian related articles published from three months prior to three months after the date of publication of the Brazilian study. The numbers of citations were obtained from two databases, as well as the impact factor for the journals in which the articles were published. Results: Fortythree national and 876 related international articles were identified. The Brazilian publications had a mean impact factor of 3.000 versus 3.430 of the international ones (p=0.041). There was no statistically significant difference as to the number of citations between the two groups. The affiliation of the first author with a Brazilian or foreign organization did not significantly influence the number of citations or the impact factor. Conclusion: Brazilian articles are significantly less accepted in journals with higher impact factors, although it does not compromise its repercussion on the scientific community. PMID:23579739

  18. Is there publication bias towards Brazilian articles on cancer?

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Luiz Victor Maia; Callegaro Filho, Donato; Rocha, Altieres de Arruda; Prado, Bernard Lobato; Mutão, Taciana Sousa; Donnarumma, Carlos del Cistia; del Giglio, Auro

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether Brazilian articles on cancer are published in journals with an impact factor and/or repercussion (measured by the number of citations) inferior to those that come from foreign organizations. A search was carried out in PubMed for the MeSH term "neoplasm" with the limits clinical trial, affiliation of the Brazilian author(s), and interval from July 1st, 2009 to June 30, 2010. Selected for matching were non-Brazilian related articles published from three months prior to three months after the date of publication of the Brazilian study. The numbers of citations were obtained from two databases, as well as the impact factor for the journals in which the articles were published. Forty-three national and 876 related international articles were identified. The Brazilian publications had a mean impact factor of 3.000 versus 3.430 of the international ones (p=0.041). There was no statistically significant difference as to the number of citations between the two groups. The affiliation of the first author with a Brazilian or foreign organization did not significantly influence the number of citations or the impact factor. Brazilian articles are significantly less accepted in journals with higher impact factors, although it does not compromise its repercussion on the scientific community.

  19. [Citation patterns in Portuguese and Brazilian biomedical journals].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Sílvia Costa; Santos, Tiago S; Lopes, Pedro Faria; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Bibliographic references of scientific articles are the source for calculating impact indexes frequently used for the assignment of funding to research projects. Different citation patterns may result in measurement bias of these impact indexes. To analyze citation patterns of Brazilian and Portuguese biomedical journals regarding the geographic origin of the sources cited. As part of the v+biomed project, a convenience sample of 11 biomedical journals, 4 Portuguese and 7 Brazilian, was gathered including the following subject categories: General and Internal Medicine, Public Health, Gynecology and Obstetrics, and Surgery. All the references from all the articles published in all the issues (except supplements) in 2009 and 2010 were retrieved. The type of source cited and its geographic origin were analyzed. A total of 102 issues from the 11 journals, containing 1430 articles, with a total of 32782 references were analyzed. No differences were found regarding the number of authors, pages or references between articles from Brazilian and Portuguese journals. Brazilian journals presented higher prevalence of English language and cited significantly more journals from their own country (30.1%) comparing to Portuguese journals (5.4%). Additionally, a lower citation rate to journals from the other country analyzed was evident in Brazilian (0.1%) when compared to Portuguese (3.2%) journals, as well as a higher self-citation of Brazilian journals (Brazil - 5.6%, Portugal - 2.1%). A different citation pattern between Portuguese and Brazilian biomedical journals was found, consisting of a higher citation rate from Brazilian to other Brazilian journals and to themselves. This differential in citation patterns may have implications on impact indexes determination which warrant further investigation.

  20. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus

    PubMed Central

    Crainey, James L; da Silva, Túllio RR; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio LB

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource. PMID:26814648

  1. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    PubMed

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  2. Historical evolution of the Brazilian Annals of Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho; Vallarelli, Andrelou Fralete Ayres; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel; Reis, Vitor Manoel da Silva

    2012-02-01

    In this special edition in celebration of the centennial of the Brazilian Society of Dermatology, the authors take a retrospective look at printed Brazilian dermatology from the very beginning onward, showing evidence of descriptive dermatology with rich discussions, illustrations and advertisements of medications much used at the time, such as bismuth for the treatment of syphilis, before the discovery of penicillin. This retrospective covers up to the current days, when publications in the Brazilian Annals of Dermatology have reached the modern era in electronics, science and layout as well.

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  4. An acoustic study of the Brazilian cuica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Paul A.

    2002-11-01

    The cuica is a friction drum of African origin played in the batucada (an ensemble of instruments used for the samba) during the Brazilian carnival. It is played by rubbing a bamboo rod which is connected to the center of a drum head, giving a rhythmic grunting sound. Pitch is changed by applying pressure to the membrane. This paper discusses several acoustic aspects of a folk cuica (made of a gourd) including the waveforms, spectra, and time envelopes produced. Rubbing the bamboo rod gives a primitive saw-toothed excitation, similar to a bowed violin string. This is connected to the center of a membrane which modifies and radiates the sound. The body of the cuica contributes little to the sound.

  5. μ-SRXRF characterization of Brazilian emeralds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curado, J. F.; Radtke, M.; Buzanich, G.; Reinholz, U.; Riesemeier, H.; Guttler, R. A. S.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to characterize emeralds from different mines of Brazil by using Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Microanalysis (μ-SRXRF). The advantage of this technique is that we can analyze a homogeneous, inclusion free area of the stone with the microbeam to distinguish the elemental fingerprint according to the provenance of the emerald. A total of 47 samples belonging to 5 different Brazilian mines were studied in this work and 28 elements were identified. By means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) it is possible to build different groups according to the provenance of the stones, which allows to assign samples of unknown origin to the according mine.

  6. PREFACE: XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-07-01

    The XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics (or XXXVII RTFNB 2014) gave continuity to a long sequence of workshops held in Brazil, devoted to the study of the different aspects of nuclear physics. The meeting took place in the Maresias Beach Hotel, in the town of Maresias (state of São Paulo) from 8th to 12th September 2014. Offering gentle weather, a charming piece of green land of splendid natural beauty with beach and all amenities, the place had all the conditions for very pleasant and fruitful discussions. The meeting involved 162 participants and attracted undergraduate and graduate students, Brazilian and South American physicists and invited speakers from overseas (USA, Italy, Spain, France, England, Switzerland, Germany and South Corea). In the program we had plenary morning sessions with review talks on recent developments in theory, computational techniques, experimentation and applications of the many aspects of nuclear physics. In the parallel sessions we had a total of 58 seminars. This volume contains 60 written contributions based on these talks and on the poster sessions. Evening talks and poster sessions gave still more insight and enlarged the scope of the scientific program. The contributed papers, representing mainly the scientific activity of young physicists, were exhibited as posters and are included in the present volume. Additional information about the meeting can be found at our website: http://www.sbfisica.org.br/~rtfnb/xxxvii-en Support and sponsorship came from brazilian national agencies: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnoógico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ); Sociedade Brasileira de Física (SBF) and Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo (IFUSP). We honored Professor Alejandro Szanto de Toledo, who completed

  7. Brazilian Decimetric Array (Phase-I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, H. S.; Ramesh, R.; Cecatto, J. R.; Faria, C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Rosa, R. R.; Andrade, M. C.; Stephany, S.; Cividanes, L. B. T.; Miranda, C. A. I.; Botti, L. C. L.; Boas, J. W. S. V.; Saito, J. H.; Moron, C. E.; Mascarenhas, N. D.; Subramanian, K. R.; Sundararajan, M. S.; Ebenezer, E.; Sankararaman, M. R.

    2007-05-01

    An East West, one-dimensional radio interferometer array consisting of five parabolic dish antennas has been set up at Cachoeira Paulista (longitude 45°0‧20″ W, latitude 22°41‧19″ S) for observations of the Sun and some of the strong sidereal sources by the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Brazil. This is Phase-I of the proposed Brazilian Decimetric Array and can be operated at any frequency in the range 1.2 1.7 GHz. The instrument has been in operation since November 2004 onwards at 1.6 GHz. The angular and temporal resolutions at this frequency are ˜3‧ and 100 ms, respectively. Details of the array, analog/digital receiver system, and a preliminary East West one-dimensional solar image at the 1.6 GHz are presented in this paper.

  8. Selective Logging in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Knapp, David E.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Oliveira, Paulo J. C.; Keller, Michael; Silva, Jose N.

    2005-10-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square kilometers per year (+/-14%) between 1999 and 2002, equivalent to 60 to 123% of previously reported deforestation area. Up to 1200 square kilometers per year of logging were observed on conservation lands. Each year, 27 million to 50 million cubic meters of wood were extracted, and a gross flux of ~0.1 billion metric tons of carbon was destined for release to the atmosphere by logging.

  9. Measuring complexity in Brazilian economic crises

    PubMed Central

    Mortoza, Letícia P. D.; Piqueira, José R. C.

    2017-01-01

    Capital flows are responsible for a strong influence on the foreign exchange rates and stock prices macroeconomic parameters. In volatile economies, capital flows can change due to several types of social, political and economic events, provoking oscillations on these parameters, which are recognized as economic crises. This work aims to investigate how these two macroeconomic variables are related with crisis events by using the traditional complex measures due to Lopez-Mancini-Calbet (LMC) and to Shiner-Davison-Landsberg (SDL), that can be applied to any temporal series. Here, Ibovespa (Bovespa Stock Exchange main Index) and the “dollar-real” parity are the background for calculating the LMC and SDL complexity measures. By analyzing the temporal evolution of these measures, it is shown that they might be related to important events that occurred in the Brazilian economy. PMID:28301506

  10. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Broadbent, Eben N; Oliveira, Paulo J C; Keller, Michael; Silva, Jose N

    2005-10-21

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square kilometers per year (+/-14%) between 1999 and 2002, equivalent to 60 to 123% of previously reported deforestation area. Up to 1200 square kilometers per year of logging were observed on conservation lands. Each year, 27 million to 50 million cubic meters of wood were extracted, and a gross flux of approximately 0.1 billion metric tons of carbon was destined for release to the atmosphere by logging.

  11. Sport participation motives of young Brazilian athletes.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Dartagnan P; Netto, Jose Evaristo S

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the motives for sport participation in a sample of young Brazilian athletes according to sex, age, and training history. A total of 1,517 participants (714 girls, 803 boys) ages 12 to 18 years were included in the study. The Portuguese version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire was used to identify motives for sport participation. The most important motives were Skill Development and Fitness, whereas the least important were Fun and Achievement/Status. Sex, age, type of sport, onset of training, duration of training, training volume, and competitive experience significantly influenced the motives for sport participation reported by the athletes. These results will contribute to establish intervention programs designed to reduce sport dropout rates among young athletes.

  12. Development of a Brazilian maize core collection

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate methods for developing a Brazilian maize core collection. For an initial survey of the active collection, passport information, as well as characterization and evaluation of accessions, were taken into consideration, these then being divided according to geographic region and kernel-type. Multiple sampling methods were evaluated. The strategy of constant sampling generated extensive alterations in extract accession frequency. The multivariate strategy with dispersion graphs and principal components associated with the Tocher method was considered efficient for identifying the most divergent genotypes. The multivariate strategy generated greater alterations in the variance of traits. The average number of traits revealed few modifications with the various sampling strategies used. Therefore, the active collection could be considered as possessing a satisfactory amount of information for most of its accessions. Moreover, the multivariate strategy generated modifications in the variance of the traits, independent of sampling intensity. PMID:21637517

  13. Virus infections in Brazilian honey bees.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Erica Weinstein; Chen, Yanping; Message, Dejair; Pettis, Jeff; Evans, Jay D

    2008-09-01

    This work describes the first molecular-genetic evidence for viruses in Brazilian honey bee samples. Three different bee viruses, Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Deformed wing virus (DWV) were identified during a screening of RNAs from 1920 individual adult bees collected in a region of southeastern Brazil that has recently shown unusual bee declines. ABPV was detected in 27.1% of colony samples, while BQCV and DWV were found in 37% and 20.3%, respectively. These levels are substantially lower than the frequencies found for these viruses in surveys from other parts of the world. We also developed and validated a multiplex RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of ABPV, BQCV, and DWV in Brazil.

  14. Chromosome X aneuploidy in Brazilian schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Leopoldo Silva; Khayat, André Salim; de Lima, Patrícia Danielle Lima; Lima, Eleonidas Moura; Pinto, Giovanny Rebouças; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    The identification of cytogenetic abnormalities in schizophrenic patients may provide clues to the genes involved in this disease. For this reason, a chromosomal analysis of samples from 62 schizophrenics and 70 controls was performed with trypsin-Giemsa banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization of the X chromosome. A clonal pericentric inversion on chromosome 9 was detected in one male patient, and we also discovered mosaicism associated with X chromosome aneuploidy in female patients, primarily detected in schizophrenic and normal female controls over 40 years old. When compared with age-matched female controls, the frequency of X chromosome loss was not significantly different between schizophrenics and controls, except for the 40- to 49-year-old age group. Our findings suggest that the X chromosome loss seen in schizophrenic patients is inherent to the normal cellular aging process. However, our data also suggest that X chromosome gain may be correlated with schizophrenia in this Brazilian population.

  15. Phylogeny of culturable cyanobacteria from Brazilian mangroves.

    PubMed

    Silva, Caroline Souza Pamplona; Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Vaz, Marcelo Gomes Marçal Vieira; Fiore, Marli Fátima

    2014-03-01

    The cyanobacterial community from Brazilian mangrove ecosystems was examined using a culture-dependent method. Fifty cyanobacterial strains were isolated from soil, water and periphytic samples collected from Cardoso Island and Bertioga mangroves using specific cyanobacterial culture media. Unicellular, homocytous and heterocytous morphotypes were recovered, representing five orders, seven families and eight genera (Synechococcus, Cyanobium, Cyanobacterium, Chlorogloea, Leptolyngbya, Phormidium, Nostoc and Microchaete). All of these novel mangrove strains had their 16S rRNA gene sequenced and BLAST analysis revealed sequence identities ranging from 92.5 to 99.7% when they were compared with other strains available in GenBank. The results showed a high variability of the 16S rRNA gene sequences among the genotypes that was not associated with the morphologies observed. Phylogenetic analyses showed several branches formed exclusively by some of these novel 16S rRNA gene sequences. BLAST and phylogeny analyses allowed for the identification of Nodosilinea and Oxynema strains, genera already known to exhibit poor morphological diacritic traits. In addition, several Nostoc and Leptolyngbya morphotypes of the mangrove strains may represent new generic entities, as they were distantly affiliated with true genera clades. The presence of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, polyketide synthase, microcystin and saxitoxin genes were detected in 20.5%, 100%, 37.5% and 33.3%, respectively, of the 44 tested isolates. A total of 134 organic extracts obtained from 44 strains were tested against microorganisms, and 26% of the extracts showed some antimicrobial activity. This is the first polyphasic study of cultured cyanobacteria from Brazilian mangrove ecosystems using morphological, genetic and biological approaches.

  16. Highlights of the Brazilian Solar Spectroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, H. S.; Cecatto, J. R.; Mészárosová, H.; Faria, C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Karlický, M.; de Andrade, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    The digital, decimetric (950-2500 MHz) Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS, Sawant, H.S., Subramanian, K.R., Faria, C., et al. Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). Solar Phys. 200, 167-176, 2001) with high time (10-1000 ms) and frequency (1-10 MHz) resolution is in regular operation since April, 1998, at the National Space Research Institute (INPE) at São José dos Campos, Brazil. The BSS has now been upgraded with a new digital data acquisition and data processing system. The new version of the BSS has improved the observational possibilities with the capability to record up to 200 frequency channels available in the selectable frequency range 950-2500 MHz. The GPS receiver permits the acquisition of data with time accuracy in the order of 0.1 ms. The software system of the BSS is composed by two distinct modules: the first, data acquisition system provides a flexible Graphical User Interface (GUI) that allows one to choose the observational parameters. The second module is the real time visualization system that permits real time visualization of the observed dynamic spectrum and additionally allows procedures for visualization and preliminary analysis of the recorded solar spectra. Using the new visualization system, we have realized two new types of dm-radio fine structures: narrow band type III bursts with positive as well as negative group frequency drift and dots emissions arranged in zebra-like and fiber-like chains. Furthermore, we have found flare generated fast wave trains according to their tadpole signature in wavelet power spectra for a decimetric type IV radio event (June 6, 2000 flare).

  17. The Brazilian tunable filter imager for SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Keith; Mendes de Oliveira, Cláudia; Laporte, Rene; Guzman, Christian D.; Ramirez Fernandez, Javier; Scarano, Sergio, Jr.; Ramos, Giseli; Plana, Henri; Lourenco, Fernando E.; Gach, Jean-Luc; Fontes, Fernando L.; Ferrari, Fabricio; Cavalcanti, Luiz; Gutierrez Castañeda, Edna C.; de Calasans, Alvaro; Balard, Philippe; Amram, Philippe; Andrade, Denis

    2010-07-01

    A scientific and engineering team led by the Department of Astronomy of the IAG, at the University of São Paulo, is engaged in the development of a highly versatile, new technology, optical imaging interferometer to be used both in seeing-limited mode and at high spatial resolution using the SOAR Adaptive Optics Module (SAM: the GLAO facility for the SOAR telescope). Such an instrument opens up important new science capabilities for the SOAR astronomical community: from studies of nearby galaxies and the ISM to statistical cosmological investigations. The Brazilian Tunable Filter Imager (BTFI) concept takes advantage of two new technologies that have been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory environment but have yet to be deployed in any astronomical instrument. The iBTF (imaging Bragg Tunable Filter) concept utilizes a Volume Phase Holographic Grating in double-pass configuration (Blais-Ouellette et al. 20061) while the new Fabry-Perot concept involves the use of commercially available technology allowing a single etalon to act over a very large range of interference orders. Both technologies will be used in the same instrument. The combination allows for highly versatile capabilities. Spectral resolutions spanning the full range between 5 and 35,000 can be achieved in the same instrument through the use of iBTF at low resolution and scanning Fabry-Perots beyond R ~2,000 with some overlap in the mid-range. The instrument is being developed in collaboration with several other Brazilian Institutions (Poli/USP, INPE, LNA and Unipampa) and international collaborations with the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille and the University of Montreal. The reader is directed to the URL http://www.astro.iag.usp.br/~btfi/index.php for a full representation of the project and its current status. The instrument should see first light, mounted on the SOAR telescope, as a visiting instrument, on semester 2010B.

  18. Molecular Basis of KELnull Phenotype in Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    Boturão-Neto, Edmir; Yamamoto, Mihoko; Chiba, Akemi Kuroda; Kimura, Elisa Yuriko Sugano; de Oliveira, Maria do Carmo Valgueiro Costa; do Monte Barretto, Cláudia Lumack; Nunes, Mércia Maria Alves; Albuquerque, Sérgio Roberto Lopes; de Deus Santos, Marcos Daniel; Bordin, José Orlando

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background KELnull (K0) persons can produce clinically significant anti-KEL5 antibody after transfusion and/or pregnancy, requiring K0 blood transfusion when indicated. 37 K0 alleles have been reported in studies over different populations, but none in Amerindian-Caucasian descendants from South America. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular basis of K0 phenotype in Brazilians. Methods We investigated three K0 samples from different Brazilian blood banks (Recife, Manaus, and Vila Velha) in women with anti-KEL5. KEL antigen typing was performed by serologic techniques, and the K0 status was confirmed by flow cytometry. PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing of the KEL coding and exon-intron regions were also performed. Results RBCs of the 3 patients were phenotyped as KEL:-1,−2,−3,−4,−7. The 3 patients had the same KEL*02/02 genotype and were negative for KEL*02.03 and KEL*02.06 alleles. The Recife K0 patient was homozygous for IVS16 + 1g>a mutation (KEL*02N.31 allele). The flow cytometry with anti-KEL1, anti-KEL2, anti-KEL3, anti-KEL4, and anti-CD238 confirmed the K0 phenotype. In addition, we found the c.10423C>T mutation (KEL*02N.04 allele) in both the Manaus K0 and the Vila Velha K0 patients. Conclusion This report represents the first study of K0 molecular basis performed in Amerindian-Caucasian descendants from South America. PMID:25960716

  19. Interventional rheumatology: the competence of Brazilian rheumatologists.

    PubMed

    Landa, Aline Teixeira de; Natour, Jamil; Furtado, Rita Nely Vilar

    2017-06-19

    Describe Brazilian rheumatologists's competence in interventional rheumatology; assess the association between this ability and demographic and training variables. A cross-sectional study with 500 Brazilian rheumatologists. Participants were assessed by self-administered questionnaire consisting of demographics, training, practice in office and knowledge in interventional rheumatology data. 463 participants had their data analyzed. The mean age was 40.2 years (±11.2). 70% had performed periarticular injections and 78% had performed intra-articular injections. The sample was divided into three groups: non-interventionist, little interventionist and very interventionist. The non-interventionist group showed (p<0.001-0.04) higher mean age, lower proportion of university bond, lower training history, higher proportion of graduates in the Southeast country, and higher proportion of graduates in the 1980s to 1989. The very interventionist group showed higher (p<0.001-0.018) proportion of adult rheumatologists, higher proportion of university bond, longer training time with greater practice of complex procedures, and higher proportion of graduates, trained and with private practice in the South country. Variables most associated with the very interventionist subgroup are performing axial intra-articular injections (OR: 7.4, p<0.001), synovial biopsy (OR: 5.75, p=0.043), image-guided IAI (OR: 4.16, p<0.001), viscosupplementation (OR=3.41, p<0.001), joint lavage (OR=3.22, p=0.019), salivary gland biopsy (OR=2.16, p=0.034) and over 6-month training (OR: 2.16, p=0.008). Performing more complex invasive procedures and over 6-month training in interventional rheumatology were variables associated with enhanced interventional profile. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  20. [The Brazilian National Health Conference: challenges for the country].

    PubMed

    Gadelha, Paulo

    2015-10-01

    This article was published in the context of the upcoming 15th Brazilian National Health Conference and addresses the country's health challenges based on the history of previous conferences. The authors analyze the evolution of health as a public policy agenda, highlighting the role of such institutions as the Brazilian Center for Health Studies (CEBES), the Brazilian Association of Collective Health (Abrasco), and the National Health Council in advocating and establishing the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). The article also focuses on expectations concerning the 15th National Health Conference within a political and economic scenario that raises questions and challenges both for the future of health policy, exemplified by SUS, and the current capacity to mobilize stakeholders.

  1. [Social support assessment in Brazilian studies: conceptual aspects and measures].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Tonantzin Ribeiro; Pawlowski, Josiane; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated the different ways of evaluating the social support in Brazilian studies. A surveying of scientific Brazilian publications from 1987 to 2007 was done in the Indexpsi, Pepsic, SciELO and Lilacs databases according to keywords social support and social network. Fifty-five studies included some type of assessing social support in Brazilian samples. The results indicated a rise in the number of studies about social support assessment in the last years using interviews to investigate received and perceived support, predominantly. However, the construction was applied without theoretical basis and was associated with many other concepts, sometimes without an appropriate articulation. Besides, there were evidences of lacking reliable, valid and standardized instruments to Brazilian population by considering the instruments currently used and revised by this study.

  2. New Brazilian Cerambycidae from the Amazonian region (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Silva, Antonio; Galileo, Maria Helena M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Cerambycidae are described from the Brazilian Amazonian region: Psapharochrus bezarki (Lamiinae, Acanthoderini); Xenofrea ayri (Lamiinae, Xenofreini); and Mecometopus wappesi (Cerambycinae, Clytini). Mecometopus wappesi is added to a previous key. PMID:27551200

  3. New Brazilian Cerambycidae from the Amazonian region (Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Santos-Silva, Antonio; Galileo, Maria Helena M

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Cerambycidae are described from the Brazilian Amazonian region: Psapharochrus bezarki (Lamiinae, Acanthoderini); Xenofrea ayri (Lamiinae, Xenofreini); and Mecometopus wappesi (Cerambycinae, Clytini). Mecometopus wappesi is added to a previous key.

  4. Renormalization of the Brazilian chiral nucleon-nucleon potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Rocha, Carlos A.; Timóteo, Varese S.

    2013-03-01

    In this work we present a renormalization of the Brazilian nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential using a subtractive method. We show that the exchange of correlated two pion is important for isovector channels, mainly in tensor and central potentials.

  5. Renormalization of the Brazilian chiral nucleon-nucleon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Da Rocha, Carlos A.; Timoteo, Varese S.

    2013-03-25

    In this work we present a renormalization of the Brazilian nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential using a subtractive method. We show that the exchange of correlated two pion is important for isovector channels, mainly in tensor and central potentials.

  6. Clinical trials in Brazilian journals of ophthalmology: where we are.

    PubMed

    Lira, Rodrigo Pessoa Cavalcanti; Leal, Franz Schubert; Gonçalves, Fauze Abdulmassih; Amorim, Fernando Henrique Ramos; Felix, João Paulo Fernandes; Arieta, Carlos Eduardo Leite

    2013-01-01

    To compare clinical trials published in Brazilian journals of ophthalmology and in foreign journals of ophthalmology with respect to the number of citations and the quality of reporting [by applying the Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement writing standards]. The sample of this systematic review comprised the two Brazilian journals of ophthalmology indexed at Science Citation Index Expanded and six of the foreign journals of ophthalmology with highest Impact Factor® according ISI. All clinical trials (CTs) published from January 2009 to December 2010 at the Brazilians journals and a 1:1 randomized sample of the foreign journals were included. The primary outcome was the number of citations through the end of 2011. Subgroup analysis included language. The secondary outcome included likelihood of citation (cited at least once versus no citation), and presence or absence of CONSORT statement indicators. The citation counts were statistically significantly higher (P<0.001) in the Foreign Group (10.50) compared with the Brazilian Group (0.45). The likelihood citation was statistically significantly higher (P<0.001) in the Foreign Group (20/20 - 100%) compared with the Brazilian Group (8/20 - 40%). The subgroup analysis of the language influence in Brazilian articles showed that the citation counts were statistically significantly higher in the papers published in English (P<0.04). Of 37 possible CONSORT items, the mean for the Foreign Group was 20.55 and for the Brazilian Group was 13.65 (P<0.003). The number of citations and the quality of reporting of clinical trials in Brazilian journals of ophthalmology still are low when compared with the foreign journals of ophthalmology with highest Impact Factor®.

  7. E-Commerce Sites: Use Intention by Brazilian Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimaraes, Cayley; Lacerda, Lucas; Antunes, Diego R.

    This article discusses the behavior of Brazilian's intention of use e-commerce sites. To explain its use, or not, the Unified Theory of Acceptance of Technology (UTAUT) was used. A survey was conducted through a questionnaire based on variables from UTAUT available for twenty days over the Web, that prompted 1900 responses. The results indicate that Effort and Social Influence are the variables of the model that better explain Brazilian user's intention to use e-commerce sites.

  8. [Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori infection].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga Vaz; Zaterka, Schlioma

    2005-01-01

    Significant progress has been obtained since the First Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection held in 1995, in Belo Horizonte, MG, and justify a second meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter and took place on June, 19-20, 2004 in São Paulo, SP. Thirty six delegates coming from 15 different Brazilian states including gastroenterologists, pathologists, microbiologists and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one the five main topics of the meeting: H. pylori and dyspepsia, H. pylori and NSAIDs, H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease, H. pylori treatment, and H. pylori retreatment. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. The results were presented during a special session on the VI Brazilian Week of Digestive System, in Recife, PE (October 2004), and this publication represents the summary of the main recommendations and conclusions emerged from the meeting.

  9. References from Brazilian medical journals in national publications.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Botelho, Nara Macedo; Petroianu, Andy

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether there is a preference for international journal citation to the detriment of national ones in ten Brazilian medical journals, in two different periods. All references in the articles published in Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, São Paulo Medical Journal, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Clinics, Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia, Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria e Acta Ortopédica Brasileira in the years 2011 and 2007 were analyzed, assessing the number of articles published in national and international journals. A total of 36,125 references from 1,462 articles published in the 10 aforementioned journals were analyzed. Of the total number, 4.242 (11.74%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no significant difference between the two analyzed periods. A total of 453 (30,98%) of the articles studied non-cited brazilian papers,and 81 (5.54%) articles had more Brazilian than international references. Of total references analyzed, 11.74% were related to articles published in Brazilian journals. This number, when compared to the percentage of Brazilian articles published in the medical area, demonstrates a good number of citations of national articles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep complaints in the Brazilian population: Impact of socioeconomic factors

    PubMed Central

    Hirotsu, Camila; Bittencourt, Lia; Garbuio, Silverio; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    National surveys are relevant for the study of sleep epidemiology since they can provide specific data about sleep in large dimension with important implications for the health system. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep complaints among the Brazilian population using a randomized cluster sample according to region and socioeconomic class. For this, a 3-stage sampling technique was used to randomly select Brazilian subjects of both genders older than 16 years. A total of 2017 subjects, from 132 different cities, were selected to estimate prevalence in the Brazilian population with a sampling error of ±2%. Questions about sleep complaints were administered face-to-face by Instituto Datafolha interviewers on April 10 and 16, 2012. Data were expanded using a weighted variable. The results showed that 76% of the study population suffers from at least 1 sleep complaint, indicating that approximately 108 million Brazilians may be affected by sleep disorders. On average, each subject had 1.9 sleep problems with the most common complaints being light and insufficient sleep, snoring, moving a lot during sleep, and insomnia, which usually occurred more than 3 times per week. Low income was associated with higher number of sleep complaints only in Northeast and Southeast regions. In conclusion, this study showed a high prevalence of sleep complaints in a sample of the Brazilian population, suggesting that sleep disorders may be markedly frequent in the Brazilian population with a possible correlation with the socioeconomic situation of the interviewed subjects. PMID:26483918

  11. Breast cancer screening: updated recommendations of the Brazilian College of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Brazilian Breast Disease Society, and Brazilian Federation of Gynecological and Obstetrical Associations

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Linei Augusta Brolini Dellê; Chala, Luciano Fernandes; Bauab, Selma di Pace; Schaefer, Marcela Brisighelli; dos Santos, Radiá Pereira; Maranhão, Norma Medicis de Albuquerque; Kefalas, Ana Lucia; Kalaf, José Michel; Ferreira, Carlos Alberto Pecci; Canella, Ellyete de Oliveira; Peixoto, João Emílio; de Amorim, Heverton Leal Ernesto; de Camargo Junior, Helio Sebastião Amâncio

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present the current recommendations for breast cancer screening in Brazil, as devised by the Brazilian College of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, the Brazilian Breast Disease Society, and the Brazilian Federation of Gynecological and Obstetrical Associations. Materials and methods We analyzed scientific studies available in the Medline and Lilacs databases. In the absence of evidence, the recommendations reflected the consensus of a panel of experts. Recommendations Annual mammography screening is recommended for women 40-74 years of age. Among women ≥ 75 years of age, annual mammography screening should be reserved for those with an expected survival > 7 years. Complementary ultrasound should be considered for women with dense breasts. Complementary magnetic resonance imaging is recommended for women at high risk. When available, an advanced form of mammography known as tomosynthesis can be considered as a means of screening for breast cancer. PMID:28894332

  12. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  13. Sandstream on the northeast Brazilian shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianna, Marcio L.; Solewicz, Reynaldo; Cabral, Alexandre P.; Testa, Viviane

    1991-06-01

    A preliminary characterization of seabed morphology and mapping of algal patches within a sandstream on the northeast Brazilian continental shelf off Cape Calcanhar (where the South American coast turns sharply to the west) is presented. The study area (30 km × 30 km) is swept by unidirectional, wind-driven, tidally rectified currents, under the influence of the North Brazil Current. The study was made by use of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data of the seafloor down to 40 m depth, digital bathymetric data from smooth sheets furnished by the Brazilian Navy, echo-sounder profiling and underwater surveying by SCUBA diving. A mesoscale shore-parallel natural zonation of the sandstream was observable on the TM-images: (a) an inner zone dominated by sediment resuspension caused by wave-driven turbulence and tidal currents; (b) an intermediate zone dominated by sand ribbons and other longitudinal bedforms; (c) an outer zone dominated by large-scale sand waves (underwater sand dunes) limited offshore by shore-parallel sandbanks. Image-assisted in situ work, carried out on the latter zone, gave the following results: (1) Morphology and sand composition—the asymmetric sand waves are made of medium quartz sand, with almost straight crests of lengths up to 4 km, heights between 3 and 7 m, and avalanche lee slopes of 30°; on the stoss sides we recorded the presence of ripples and absence of megaripples and benthic ecosystems; on interdune areas, benthic ecosystem patches dominated by foliaceous and calcareous algae were found.(2) Sediment transport—active bedload transport was observable only during the winter season, when the strongest wind-forced currents induce flow separation at the crests and avalanche streams on the lee slope. Within the interdune areas, under the influence of the lee vortices, benthic community data confirms no appreciable abrasion due to sand transport.(3) Biology—species composition and biomass estimates from the algal patches in the first

  14. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  15. ERICA: prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Faria, José Rocha; Bento, Vivian Freitas Rezende; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Olandoski, Marcia; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the distribution of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in Brazilian adolescents, as well as the prevalence of altered levels of such parameters. METHODS Data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) were used. This is a country-wide, school-based cross-sectional study that evaluated 12 to 17-year old adolescents living in cities with over 100,000 inhabitants. The average and distribution of plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were evaluated. Dyslipidemia was determined by levels of total cholesterol ≥ 170 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol < 45 mg/dL, or triglycerides ≥ 130 mg/dl. The data were analyzed by gender, age, and regions in Brazil. RESULTS We evaluated 38,069 adolescents – 59.9% of females, and 54.2% between 15 and 17 years. The average values found were: total cholesterol = 148.1 mg/dl (95%CI 147.1-149.1), HDL cholesterol = 47.3 mg/dl (95%CI 46.7-47.9), LDL cholesterol = 85.3 mg/dl (95%CI 84.5-86.1), and triglycerides = 77.8 mg/dl (95%CI 76.5-79.2). The female adolescents had higher average levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, without differences in the levels of triglycerides. We did not observe any significant differences between the average values among 12 to 14 and 15- to 17-year old adolescents. The most prevalent lipid alterations were low HDL cholesterol (46.8% [95%CI 44.8-48.9]), hypercholesterolemia (20.1% [95%CI 19.0-21.3]), and hypertriglyceridemia (7.8% [95%CI 7.1-8.6]). High LDL cholesterol was found in 3.5% (95%CI 3.2-4.0) of the adolescents. Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol was higher in Brazil’s North and Northeast regions. CONCLUSIONS A significant proportion of Brazilian adolescents has alterations in their plasma lipids. The high prevalence of low HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Brazil’s North and Northeast regions

  16. Copepods and fishes in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatcher, Vernon E.

    1998-06-01

    The Amazon basin comprises the largest river ecosystem in the world (7 million km 2) with annual high and low water peaks and a constant temperature near 29°C. Some 2000 fish species and 40 species of free-living copepods are known to occur in Amazonia. The free-living forms serve as food for most larval fishes and some adults, but they also transmit several parasites including representatives of the nematode family Camallanidae. About three dozen species of parasitic copepods have been described from the Brazilian Amazon. Females of Amazonian parasitic copepods are found on skin, gill filaments, gill rakers or within the nasal fossae. Parasitic copepods are found on fishes that are from a few millimeters long up to those over 2 m in length and they are usually quite host specific. All have body pigmentation in different patterns and colors (frequently blues, such as cerulean, cobalt, spectrum, smalt or campanula). It is suggested that the coloration serves to attract specific host fish. Copepods have evolved adaptations for attachment and feeding, especially in the second antennae and endopods. Examples of progenesis, phoresis and commensalism are shown. Some species produce pathology such as a tourniquet effect, hyperplasia, blood loss and anemia, and can kill fishes by limiting their respiration.

  17. Disordered eating among Brazilian female college students.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Marle Dos Santos; Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic and nutritional factors associated with disordered eating among Brazilian female college students (n = 2,489). Prevalence ratios of risk factors were calculated using Poisson regression models with robust variance based on responses to selected questions from the Eating Attitude Test and Disordered Eating Attitude Scale. It was found that 40.7% of students were dieting, 35.6% were using diet or compensatory methods, 23.9% skipping meals, 12.6% not eating or just drinking liquids, and 3.3%, vomiting to lose weight. A positive association was found between not eating or just drinking liquids and skipping meals and nutritional status after adjustment for age and region. A positive association was found between compensatory methods and dieting and education level of the head of the family. Disordered eating behaviors were frequent, and not eating and skipping meals were more prevalent among overweight/obese students; compensatory methods and dieting were less prevalent among students from families whose head had up to only four years of education. Prevention strategies and food education are necessary in order to decrease the prevalence of these behaviors.

  18. Astronomy in Brazilian music and poetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Freitas Mourão, Ronaldo Rogério

    2011-06-01

    The rôle of astronomy in the Brazilian cultural diversity -though little known world- has been enormous. Thus, the different forms of popular music and erudite, find musical compositions and lyrics inspired by the stars, the eclipses in rare phenomena such as the transit of Venus in front of the sun in 1882, the appearance of Halley's Comet in 1910, in the Big Bang theory. Even in the carnival parades of the blocks at the beginning of the century astronomy was present. More recently, the parade of 1997, the samba school Unidos do Viradouro, under the direction of Joãozinho Trinta, offered a new picture of the first moments of the creation of the universe to join in the white and dark in the components of their school, the idea of matter and anti-matter that reigned in the early moments of the creation of the universe in an explosion of joy. Examples in classical music include Dawn of Carlos Gomes and Carta Celeste by Almeida Prado. Unlike The Planets by Gustav Holst -who between 1914 and 1916 composed a symphonical tribute to the solar system based on astrology- Almeida Prado composed a symphony that is not limited to the world of planets, penetrating the deep cosmos of galaxies. Using various resources of the technique for the piano on the clusters and static movements, violent conflicts between the records of super acute and serious instrument, harpejos cross, etc . . .

  19. Exploring professionalization among Brazilian oral health technicians.

    PubMed

    Sanglard-Oliveira, Carla Aparecida; Werneck, Marcos Azeredo Furquim; Lucas, Simone Dutra; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2012-04-20

    Professional dental auxiliaries emerged in the early 20th century in the United States of America and quickly spread to Europe and other regions of the world. In Brazil, however, oral health technicians (OHTs), who occupy a similar role as dental hygienists, had a long journey before the occupation achieved legal recognition: Brazilian Law 11.889, which regulates this occupation in the country, was only enacted in 2008. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the professionalization of OHTs, highlighting the triggering, limiting and conflicting aspects that exerted an influence on the historical progress of these professionals in Brazil. We have tested Abbott's and Larson's theory on professionalization, against the history of OHTs. A number of different dental corporative interests exerted an influence over professionalization, especially in discussions regarding the permissible activities of these professionals in the oral cavity of patients. With primary health care advances in Brazil, the importance of these professionals has once again come to the forefront. This seems to be a key point in the consolidation of OHTs in the area of human resources for health in Brazil.

  20. Nutritional status of Brazilian elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Valéria Cristina Provenza; Amancio, Olga Maria Silverio

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the body composition, dietary intake, use of nutritional supplements, and biochemical status of 8 Brazilian male elite swimmers, aged 18-21 years, participants at a national swimming competition. Data from the athletes were obtained through a 4-day food record, a fasting blood sample, and anthropometric measurements. The anthropometric results showed that body composition was compatible with sport category. The dietary assessment showed an adequate ingestion of calories, vitamins, and mineral, with the exception of calcium, for which only half of the sample reached the recommendation. The results also indicated low carbohydrate and high protein and cholesterol intakes. Of the swimmers, 62.5% and 25% consumed synthetic aminoacids and antioxidants supplements, respectively. The biochemical indices of the nutritional status were within normal limits in all swimmers, with the exception of creatine-kinase, which was above the recommended level, indicating muscle degradation probably due to poor carbohydrate intake. In conclusion, the results suggest the importance of nutritional education to promote a balanced intake, provide all nutrients in optimal amounts, inhibit unnecessary ingestion of nutritional supplements, maintain ideal performance, and improve the swimmers' health status.

  1. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  2. Learning experience in endodontics: Brazilian students' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Seijo, Marilia O S; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio P; Paiva, Saul M; Martins, Renata C

    2013-05-01

    Including students' perceptions in the educational process is considered a key component in monitoring the quality of academic programs. This study aimed to evaluate the concept of one's learning experience in endodontic teaching from the perspective of a group of Brazilian students. A total of 126 self-administered, structured questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate dental students enrolled in endodontics courses during the second semester of the 2009 academic year. The questionnaires were administered during final examinations and focused on students' opinions concerning learning during endodontic treatments, time spent during endodontic treatments, difficulties found during endodontic treatments, quality of endodontic treatments performed, characteristics of the technique employed, and suggestions to improve endodontic teaching. Ninety-one percent of the questionnaires were returned for evaluation. The obtained answers were discussed and analyzed, thereby generating quantitative and qualitative data showing students' perceptions of their experiences in endodontics courses. The main points that can affect the teaching of endodontics, according to the undergraduate students, included patients' absences and delays, selection of patients, preclinical and clinical training, difficulties found, type of technique employed, and teachers' orientation during endodontic treatment. The students' perceptions provided valuable information about the development of the course and the teacher-student relationship, together with the added intention of enhancing the teaching of endodontics as well as other courses.

  3. The configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.

    PubMed

    Barata, Rita B; Aragão, Erika; de Sousa, Luis E P Fernandes; Santana, Taris M; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the configuration of the scientific field in Brazil, characterizing the scientific communities in every major area of knowledge in terms of installed capacity, ability to train new researchers, and capacity for academic production. Empirical data from several sources of information are used to characterize the different communities. Articulating the theoretical contributions of Pierre Bourdieu, Ludwik Fleck, and Thomas Kuhn, the following types of capital are analyzed for each community: social capital (scientific prestige), symbolic capital (dominant paradigm), political capital (leadership in S & T policy), and economic capital (resources). Scientific prestige is analyzed by taking into account the volume of production, activity index, citations, and other indicators. To characterize symbolic capital, the dominant paradigms that distinguish the natural sciences, the humanities, applied sciences, and technology development are analyzed theoretically. Political capital is measured by presidency in one of the main agencies in the S & T national system, and research resources and fellowships define the economic capital. The article discusses the composition of these different types of capital and their correspondence to structural capacities in various communities with the aim of describing the configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.

  4. [Healthy life expectancy to Brazilian elders, 2003].

    PubMed

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Rodrigues, Roberto do Nascimento; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The increase of the percentage of elderly population in Brazil and the increase in longevity incite a demand for information on the quantity of years spent in good health. The aim of the present study is to measure the life expectancy for the elderly of 60 years and above, by sex and age, in the year of 2003. The Sullivan method was used, which combined the life-table with the current experience of mortality and the self-perceived health. The mortality information was obtained from the life tables published by the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), 2003. The self-perceived health was used and it was dichotomized in good and bad. This information came from the National Research of Household Sample (PNAD), 2003. The results indicate that women live longer, but spend a higher number of years perceiving their health as bad, as compared to men. The results also highlights to the need of considering the differences between sexes in relation to the demand for health care. It is also important to consider the need to have policies designed to allow the increase in the number of years that the elderly can live in good health conditions.

  5. Exploring professionalization among Brazilian oral health technicians

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Professional dental auxiliaries emerged in the early 20th century in the United States of America and quickly spread to Europe and other regions of the world. In Brazil, however, oral health technicians (OHTs), who occupy a similar role as dental hygienists, had a long journey before the occupation achieved legal recognition: Brazilian Law 11.889, which regulates this occupation in the country, was only enacted in 2008. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the professionalization of OHTs, highlighting the triggering, limiting and conflicting aspects that exerted an influence on the historical progress of these professionals in Brazil. We have tested Abbott’s and Larson’s theory on professionalization, against the history of OHTs. A number of different dental corporative interests exerted an influence over professionalization, especially in discussions regarding the permissible activities of these professionals in the oral cavity of patients. With primary health care advances in Brazil, the importance of these professionals has once again come to the forefront. This seems to be a key point in the consolidation of OHTs in the area of human resources for health in Brazil. PMID:22520155

  6. Bedload flux in southern Brazilian basalt scarp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merten, G. H.; Minella, J. P. G.

    2015-03-01

    Frequently, to assess the life expectancy of Brazilian reservoirs, bedload flux has been estimated by using formulas (e.g. the Einstein equations) or by assuming that bedload represents a fixed percentage of the suspended load. This study was carried out to characterize the bedload flux on the basalt scarps of southern Brazil. The bedload was measured over the course of 12 stormflows. The results demonstrated that the bedload flux-streamflow relationship was adequately described by a potential mathematical function. Bedload flux selectively transported particles smaller than D50 surface and subsurface bedstream sediments. When considering the bedload flux-streamflow relationship, the flux ranged from a minimum of 0.24 g m-1 s-1 for a streamflow of 0.53 m3 s-1 to a maximum of 44 g m-1 s-1 for a streamflow of 1.3 m3 s-1. The percentage of bedload/suspended load varied between <1% up to 60%, and this variation was strongly associated with peak flow.

  7. [Lobotomy and leucotomy in Brazilian mental hospitals].

    PubMed

    Masiero, André Luis

    2003-01-01

    Lobotomy and leucotomy were used in Brazilian mental institutions from 1936 to 1956. Also called psycho-surgeries, they were operations that separated the right and left frontal lobes and pre-frontal lobes from the rest of the brains, aiming at modifying behavior or curing mental diseases. The technique, created by the Portuguese neurologist Egas Moniz in 1935 and developed by Walter Freeman from the United States, arrived in Brazil through the hands of Aloysio Mattos Pimenta, neurologist from Hospital PsiquiátricoJuquely in São Paulo. Soon, many doctors followed suit. These procedures were used on more than a thousand in-patients aiming at not only healing results, but also the technical improvement of the surgical technique, since preliminary experiments with animals were quite rare at the time. In Brazil, the technique was used until 1956, when it was considered as going against the 1947 Nuremberg Code, whose objective was to detain and regulate the medical experiments with human beings made during the Second World War.

  8. [Citing of national articles: the (de)valuation of Brazilian journals].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Silveira, Tiago Santos; Botelho, Nara Macedo; Petroianu, Andy

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether there is a preference for foreign periodicals over Brazilian one. We evaluated all references of articles published in the years 2011 and 2007 in the journals Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira, Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva and the Journal of the Brazilian College of Surgeons, verifying the quantity of papers from Brazilian and foreign publications. We analyzed a total of 7,343 references arranged in 348 articles in those three journals; of these, 856 (11.65%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no difference between the three magazines, nor between the two periods. One hundred and eleven (31.9%) articles did not cite any Brazilian journal article and 36 (10.34%) cited Brazilian articles more than foreign ones. There is need for the Brazilian researcher to appreciate more the Brazilian journals, increasing citation from Brazil, without a scientific xenophobia.

  9. Comparative evaluation of two populations of Pseudophilothrips ichini as candidates for biological control of Brazilian peppertree

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is one of the worst invasive species in Florida. The thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini Hood (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is being considered as a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree. Two populati...

  10. Dominance of foreign citations in Brazilian orthopedics journals☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Rosa, Rita de Cássia Rodrigues; de Barros, Rui Sergio Monteiro; Botelho, Nara Macedo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether there is any preference for citing journals from other countries to the detriment of Brazilian journals, in three Brazilian orthopedics journals. Methods All the references of articles published in 2011 by the journals Acta Ortopédica Brasileira, Coluna/Columna and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia were evaluated to as certain how many of these came from Brazilian journals and how many from foreign journals. Results 3813 references distributed among 187 articles were analyzed. Out of this total, 306 (8.02%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no difference between the three journals analyzed. There were 76 articles (40.64%) without any citations of articles in Brazilian journals and only two articles (1%) cited more Brazilian articles than articles published elsewhere. Conclusion There is a need for Brazilian researchers to cite articles from Brazilian journals more often. PMID:26229879

  11. Separation patterns between Brazilian nut and reversed Brazilian nut of a binary granular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zi-Ang; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Chen, Sen; Jia, Chao; Liu, Chuan-Ping; Wang, Li

    2012-06-01

    This paper studies the segregation behavior of binary granular particles with diameters at approximately 10:1 in a vertically vibrated container. An array of transitional separation patterns between reversed Brazilian nut (RBN) and Brazilian nut (BN) separations are observed, with their geometrical features carefully measured. The binary particle system develops into either a stable separation pattern when f and Γ are relatively low or an oscillating pattern when f and Γ are relatively high. We regard these patterns as different phases, in which the stable patterns can be divided into phases of RBN, RBN transitional (RBNT), BNT, and BN. A phase parameter λ between-1 and 1 is defined to describe the separation patterns based on the mass center height difference in large and small particles. By drawing f-Γ-λ phase diagrams, the system's tendency toward BN separation was found to increase with f and decrease with Γ. Furthermore, the range of the tendency toward BN separation expands when the size of small particles rises. As the total mass of the small particles increases, the system's tendency toward RBN separation is enhanced. Abnormal points are also observed in the stable phase regions, and the oscillating phase shifts among the four stable phases with time. These stable phases can be explained via an analysis of the distribution of the dissipation energy, whereas the mechanism of the oscillating phase remains to be discovered.

  12. Health Service Quality Scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Luiz Roberto Martins; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; e Oliveira, Paulo Rocha; Song, Elaine Horibe; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2013-01-17

    The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study, with public health system patients in a Brazilian university hospital. Validity was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient to measure the strength of the association between the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument and the SERVQUAL scale. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient; the intraclass (ICC) and Pearson's correlation coefficients were used for test-retest reliability. One hundred and sixteen consecutive postoperative patients completed the questionnaire. Pearson's correlation coefficient for validity was 0.20. Cronbach's alpha for the first and second administrations of the final version of the instrument were 0.982 and 0.986, respectively. For test-retest reliability, Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.89 and ICC was 0.90. The culturally adapted, Brazilian Portuguese version of the Health Service Quality Scale is a valid and reliable instrument to measure health service quality.

  13. Comparative Chemistry of Propolis from Eight Brazilian Localities

    PubMed Central

    Righi, A. A.; Negri, G.; Salatino, A.

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo) type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1) black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state) and Pirenópolis (Goiás state); (2) green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state), Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state), Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state), and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state). The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose) in green propolis. PMID:23690840

  14. The dynamics of Brazilian protozoology over the past century.

    PubMed

    Elias, M Carolina; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M; Mena-Chalco, Jesus P

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian scientists have been contributing to the protozoology field for more than 100 years with important discoveries of new species such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. In this work, we used a Brazilian thesis database (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) covering the period from 1987-2011 to identify researchers who contributed substantially to protozoology. We selected 248 advisors by filtering to obtain researchers who supervised at least 10 theses. Based on a computational analysis of the thesis databases, we found students who were supervised by these scientists. A computational procedure was developed to determine the advisors' scientific ancestors using the Lattes Platform. These analyses provided a list of 1,997 researchers who were inspected through Lattes CV examination and allowed the identification of the pioneers of Brazilian protozoology. Moreover, we investigated the areas in which researchers who earned PhDs in protozoology are now working. We found that 68.4% of them are still in protozoology, while 16.7% have migrated to other fields. We observed that support for protozoology by national or international agencies is clearly correlated with the increase of scientists in the field. Finally, we described the academic genealogy of Brazilian protozoology by formalising the "forest" of Brazilian scientists involved in the study of protozoa and their vectors over the past century.

  15. Biodiversity conservation gaps in the Brazilian protected areas.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ubirajara; Soares-Filho, Britaldo Silveira; Paglia, Adriano Pereira; Brescovit, Antonio D; de Carvalho, Claudio J B; Silva, Dasniel Paiva; Rezende, Daniella T; Leite, Felipe Sá Fortes; Batista, João Aguiar Nogueira; Barbosa, João Paulo Peixoto Pena; Stehmann, João Renato; Ascher, John S; de Vasconcelos, Marcelo Ferreira; De Marco, Paulo; Löwenberg-Neto, Peter; Ferro, Viviane Gianluppi; Santos, Adalberto J

    2017-08-22

    Although Brazil is a megadiverse country and thus a conservation priority, no study has yet quantified conservation gaps in the Brazilian protected areas (PAs) using extensive empirical data. Here, we evaluate the degree of biodiversity protection and knowledge within all the Brazilian PAs through a gap analysis of vertebrate, arthropod and angiosperm occurrences and phylogenetic data. Our results show that the knowledge on biodiversity in most Brazilian PAs remain scant as 71% of PAs have less than 0.01 species records per km(2). Almost 55% of Brazilian species and about 40% of evolutionary lineages are not found in PAs, while most species have less than 30% of their geographic distribution within PAs. Moreover, the current PA network fails to protect the majority of endemic species. Most importantly, these results are similar for all taxonomic groups analysed here. The methods and results of our countrywide assessment are suggested to help design further inventories in order to map and secure the key biodiversity of the Brazilian PAs. In addition, our study illustrates the most common biodiversity knowledge shortfalls in the tropics.

  16. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues Moreira, Vilmar; Kureski, Ricardo; Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies. PMID:27243040

  17. The scientific production of Brazilian neurologists: 1995-2004.

    PubMed

    Nitrini, Ricardo

    2006-06-01

    The Brazilian scientific production saw more than a four-fold increase from the 1990s onwards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of scientific production by Brazilian clinical neuroscientists over the last 10 years. A search in the PubMed identified 295 clinical neuroscientists and their publications. Brazilian production corresponded to 2.37% of the papers published by the 20 indexed periodicals that regularly publish clinical neuroscience research. If only the first and last two years are compared, there was a real growth of 75.1%. More than 40% of the Brazilian papers were published in Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, the official journal of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology. When only those periodicals with impact factor higher than one are considered, the percentage falls to 0.86% in the whole 10-year period, but attains 1.23% in 2004. Epilepsy and infectious diseases were the sub-areas with the highest scientific production.

  18. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Moreira, Vilmar; Kureski, Ricardo; Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies.

  19. Cited Brazilian papers in general surgery between 1970 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    Heldwein, Flavio L.; Hartmann, Antonio A.; Kalil, Antonio N.; Neves, Bruno V. D.; Ratti, Giorigo S. B.; Beber, Moises C.; Souza, Rafael M.; d’Acampora, Armando J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To identify the most cited articles in general surgery published by Brazilian authors. INTRODUCTION There are several ways for the international community to recognize the quality of a scientific article. Although controversial, the most widely used and reliable methodology to identify the importance of an article is citation analysis. METHODS A search using the Institute for Scientific Information citation database (Science Citation Index Expanded) was performed to identify highly cited Brazilian papers published in twenty-six highly cited general surgery journals, selected based on their elevated impact factors, from 1970 to 2009. Further analysis was done on the 65 most-cited papers. RESULTS We identified 1,713 Brazilian articles, from which nine papers emerged as classics (more than 100 citations received). For the Brazilian contributions, a total increase of about 21-fold was evident between 1970 and 2009. Although several topics were covered, articles covering trauma, oncology and organ transplantation were the most cited. The majority of classic studies were done with international cooperation. CONCLUSIONS This study identified the most influential Brazilian articles published in internationally renowned general surgery journals. PMID:20535371

  20. Brazilian rain forest security - environment - development. Study project report

    SciTech Connect

    Arruda, P.A.

    1993-03-25

    The Amazon region has been intensely discussed in the recent years. Most of these discussions have been highly influenced by interests groups. To understand the Amazon area we need to specify what the Amazon is, to describe the forest, to evaluate its mineral and biological resources, and to study the people living in the region. A security analysis reveals that there are no main threats to Brazilian Amazon. Nevertheless, narco guerrillas, acting in neighboring countries, can cross the borders and challenge regional authorities. First World interests may disturb Brazilian policies to the region. To face these threats, Brazilian armed forces maintain a well trained military sharing with other native people the security and the routes towards progress. Brazilian government is also implementing some programs to achieve a well balanced development. The new concepts of sustainable development are applied to keep the region's natural resources available for future generations. Among these programs this paper addresses the ecological economic zoning, Calha Norte Program and Amazon Protection System (SIPAM/SIVAM). In synthesis it demonstrates the Brazilian commitment to integrate, develop and preserve this rich and exotic region.

  1. Comparative chemistry of propolis from eight brazilian localities.

    PubMed

    Righi, A A; Negri, G; Salatino, A

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo) type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1) black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state) and Pirenópolis (Goiás state); (2) green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state), Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state), Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state), and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state). The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose) in green propolis.

  2. The dynamics of Brazilian protozoology over the past century

    PubMed Central

    Elias, M Carolina; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M; Mena-Chalco, Jesus P

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian scientists have been contributing to the protozoology field for more than 100 years with important discoveries of new species such asTrypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. In this work, we used a Brazilian thesis database (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) covering the period from 1987-2011 to identify researchers who contributed substantially to protozoology. We selected 248 advisors by filtering to obtain researchers who supervised at least 10 theses. Based on a computational analysis of the thesis databases, we found students who were supervised by these scientists. A computational procedure was developed to determine the advisors’ scientific ancestors using the Lattes Platform. These analyses provided a list of 1,997 researchers who were inspected through Lattes CV examination and allowed the identification of the pioneers of Brazilian protozoology. Moreover, we investigated the areas in which researchers who earned PhDs in protozoology are now working. We found that 68.4% of them are still in protozoology, while 16.7% have migrated to other fields. We observed that support for protozoology by national or international agencies is clearly correlated with the increase of scientists in the field. Finally, we described the academic genealogy of Brazilian protozoology by formalising the “forest” of Brazilian scientists involved in the study of protozoa and their vectors over the past century. PMID:26814646

  3. "I'm Your Teacher, I'm Brazilian!" Authenticity and Authority in European "Capoeira"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Campos Rosario, Claudio; Stephens, Neil; Delamont, Sara

    2010-01-01

    "Capoeira," the Brazilian dance and martial art is now globalised and taught widely outside Brazil. Instruction is provided by Brazilians who are living in self-imposed exile from their homeland. The authentic "capoeira" that such teachers provide is a major attraction for non-Brazilian students. However, there is little…

  4. "I'm Your Teacher, I'm Brazilian!" Authenticity and Authority in European "Capoeira"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Campos Rosario, Claudio; Stephens, Neil; Delamont, Sara

    2010-01-01

    "Capoeira," the Brazilian dance and martial art is now globalised and taught widely outside Brazil. Instruction is provided by Brazilians who are living in self-imposed exile from their homeland. The authentic "capoeira" that such teachers provide is a major attraction for non-Brazilian students. However, there is little…

  5. The Brazilian Organic Food Sector: Prospects and Constraints of Facilitating the Inclusion of Smallholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Julien; Kledal, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian organic food sector has experienced important growth during the last two decades. Brazilian smallholders, however, are facing huge challenges to enter and benefit from this growth in a sustainable way. Combining the lens of New Institutional Economics and socio-anthropology, we analyze six experiences of Brazilian smallholders who…

  6. The Brazilian Organic Food Sector: Prospects and Constraints of Facilitating the Inclusion of Smallholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Julien; Kledal, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian organic food sector has experienced important growth during the last two decades. Brazilian smallholders, however, are facing huge challenges to enter and benefit from this growth in a sustainable way. Combining the lens of New Institutional Economics and socio-anthropology, we analyze six experiences of Brazilian smallholders who…

  7. Investigating Responses to Compliments by Brazilian Portuguese Speaking EFL Learners: A Contrastive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lima Zanella, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a study on politeness strategies of Brazilian Portuguese speakers and American English speakers regarding their responses to compliments. The aim of this research is to gain an insight into the politeness characteristics of Brazilian Portuguese speakers by analyzing how Brazilian students react when receiving compliments. It…

  8. A mountain observatory and the Brazilian Astrophysics Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Cristina de Amorim; Videira, Antonio A. P.

    2015-11-01

    The Brazilian astrophysics project is intimately linked to a scientific institution that came into existence in the 1980s: the National Astrophysics Laboratory. Responsible for enabling the development of Brazilian research in this area, its history dates back to a dream to build an observatory on a mountaintop conceived at an institution formed in the nineteenth century, the Imperial Observatory of Rio de Janeiro, later the National Observatory. It is a story of national and international scientific cooperation, especially in the second half of the twentieth century. This paper tells the story of this dream and how it was transformed into reality in 1980s with the installation of what was then called the Brazilian Astrophysics Observatory, heralding a new era for astronomical research in Brazil.

  9. Towards a Brazilian radon map: consortium radon Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, N C; Bossew, P; Ferreira Filho, A L; Campos, T F C; Pereira, A J S C; Yoshimura, E M; Veiga, L H S; Campos, M P; Rocha, Z; Paschuk, S A; Bonotto, D M

    2014-07-01

    Recently, the idea of generating radon map of Brazil has emerged. First attempts of coordinating radon surveys--carried out by different groups across the country--and initial discussions on how to proceed on a larger scale were made at the First Brazilian Radon Seminary, Natal, September 2012. Conventionally, it is believed that indoor radon is no major problem in Brazil, because the overall benign climate usually allows high ventilation rates. Nevertheless, scattered measurements have shown that moderately high indoor radon concentrations (up to a few hundred Bq m⁻³) do occur regionally. Brazilian geology is very diverse and there are regions where an elevated geogenic radon potential exists or is expected to exist. Therefore, a Brazilian Radon Survey is expected to be a challenge, although it appears an important issue, given the rising concern of the public about the quality of its environment.

  10. The Brazilian alcohol program; Foundations, results, and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, J.M.M. )

    1990-01-01

    The Brazilian alcohol program, Proalcool, is discussed. It was developed as a strategic answer to the high dependence on imported oil and sharp increases in oil prices that adversely affected the Brazilian balance of payments. The program is intended to replace part of the gasoline consumption with ethanol. The availability of resources, including fertile land and unskilled labor, made possible its implementation. As a result of these measures, there were changes in the Brazilian energy matrix. The most important were the substitution between gasoline and fuel alcohol and also between fuel oil and electricity. Other benefits with Proalcool include environmental gains, employment creation, increase in rural area income, and technological improvements in the sugarcane sector. These have allowed an ethanol cost reduction from US$70/bbl at the beginning the program (1976) to US$45/bbl in 1989.

  11. 2 nd Brazilian Consensus on Chagas Disease, 2015.

    PubMed

    Dias, João Carlos Pinto; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Gontijo, Eliane Dias; Luquetti, Alejandro; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida; Coura, José Rodrigues; Torres, Rosália Morais; Melo, José Renan da Cunha; Almeida, Eros Antonio de; Oliveira, Wilson de; Silveira, Antônio Carlos; Rezende, Joffre Marcondes de; Pinto, Fabiane Scalabrini; Ferreira, Antonio Walter; Rassi, Anis; Fragata, Abílio Augusto; Sousa, Andréa Silvestre de; Correia, Dalmo; Jansen, Ana Maria; Andrade, Glaucia Manzan Queiroz; Britto, Constança Felícia De Paoli de Carvalho; Pinto, Ana Yecê das Neves; Rassi, Anis; Campos, Dayse Elisabeth; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Santos, Silvana Eloi; Chiari, Egler; Hasslocher-Moreno, Alejandro Marcel; Moreira, Eliane Furtado; Marques, Divina Seila de Oliveira; Silva, Eliane Lages; Marin-Neto, José Antonio; Galvão, Lúcia Maria da Cunha; Xavier, Sergio Salles; Valente, Sebastião Aldo da Silva; Carvalho, Noêmia Barbosa; Cardoso, Alessandra Viana; Silva, Rafaella Albuquerque E; Costa, Veruska Maia da; Vivaldini, Simone Monzani; Oliveira, Suelene Mamede; Valente, Vera da Costa; Lima, Mayara Maia; Alves, Renato Vieira

    2016-12-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected chronic condition with a high burden of morbidity and mortality. It has considerable psychological, social, and economic impacts. The disease represents a significant public health issue in Brazil, with different regional patterns. This document presents the evidence that resulted in the Brazilian Consensus on Chagas Disease. The objective was to review and standardize strategies for diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of Chagas disease in the country, based on the available scientific evidence. The consensus is based on the articulation and strategic contribution of renowned Brazilian experts with knowledge and experience on various aspects of the disease. It is the result of a close collaboration between the Brazilian Society of Tropical Medicine and the Ministry of Health. It is hoped that this document will strengthen the development of integrated actions against Chagas disease in the country, focusing on epidemiology, management, comprehensive care (including families and communities), communication, information, education, and research .

  12. Stylized Facts in Brazilian Vote Distributions.

    PubMed

    Calvão, Angelo Mondaini; Crokidakis, Nuno; Anteneodo, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Elections, specially in countries such as Brazil, with an electorate of the order of 100 million people, yield large-scale data-sets embodying valuable information on the dynamics through which individuals influence each other and make choices. In this work we perform an extensive analysis of data sets available for Brazilian proportional elections of legislators and city councilors throughout the period 1970-2014, which embraces two distinct political regimes: a military regime followed by a democratic one. We perform a comparative analysis of elections for legislative positions, in different states and years, through the distribution p(v) of the number of candidates receiving v votes. We show the impact of the different political regimes on the vote distributions. Although p(v) has a common shape, with a scaling behavior, quantitative details change over time and from one electorate to another. In order to interpret the observed features, we propose a multi-species model consisting in a system of nonlinear differential equations, with values of the parameters that reflect the heterogeneity of candidates. In its simplest setting, the model can not explain the cutoff, formed by the most voted candidates, whose success is determined mainly by their peculiar, intrinsic characteristics, such as previous publicity. However, the modeling allows to interpret the scaling of p(v), yielding a predictor of the degree of feedback in the interactions of the electorate. Knowledge of the feedback is relevant beyond the context of elections, since a similar interactivity may occur for other social contagion processes in the same population.

  13. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees.

    PubMed

    Al Toufailia, Hasan; Alves, Denise A; Bento, José M S; Marchini, Luis C; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2016-11-15

    Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula) in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony). These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001), and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008). This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because they lack diseases.

  14. Stylized Facts in Brazilian Vote Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Calvão, Angelo Mondaini; Crokidakis, Nuno; Anteneodo, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Elections, specially in countries such as Brazil, with an electorate of the order of 100 million people, yield large-scale data-sets embodying valuable information on the dynamics through which individuals influence each other and make choices. In this work we perform an extensive analysis of data sets available for Brazilian proportional elections of legislators and city councilors throughout the period 1970–2014, which embraces two distinct political regimes: a military regime followed by a democratic one. We perform a comparative analysis of elections for legislative positions, in different states and years, through the distribution p(v) of the number of candidates receiving v votes. We show the impact of the different political regimes on the vote distributions. Although p(v) has a common shape, with a scaling behavior, quantitative details change over time and from one electorate to another. In order to interpret the observed features, we propose a multi-species model consisting in a system of nonlinear differential equations, with values of the parameters that reflect the heterogeneity of candidates. In its simplest setting, the model can not explain the cutoff, formed by the most voted candidates, whose success is determined mainly by their peculiar, intrinsic characteristics, such as previous publicity. However, the modeling allows to interpret the scaling of p(v), yielding a predictor of the degree of feedback in the interactions of the electorate. Knowledge of the feedback is relevant beyond the context of elections, since a similar interactivity may occur for other social contagion processes in the same population. PMID:26418863

  15. Copy Number Profiling of Brazilian Astrocytomas

    PubMed Central

    Bidinotto, Lucas Tadeu; Torrieri, Raul; Mackay, Alan; Almeida, Gisele Caravina; Viana-Pereira, Marta; Cruvinel-Carloni, Adriana; Spina, Maria Luisa; Campanella, Nathalia Cristina; Pereira de Menezes, Weder; Clara, Carlos Afonso; Becker, Aline Paixão; Jones, Chris; Reis, Rui Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Copy number alterations (CNA) are one of the driving mechanisms of glioma tumorigenesis, and are currently used as important biomarkers in the routine setting. Therefore, we performed CNA profiling of 65 astrocytomas of distinct malignant grades (WHO grade I–IV) of Brazilian origin, using array-CGH and microsatellite instability analysis (MSI), and investigated their correlation with TERT and IDH1 mutational status and clinico-pathological features. Furthermore, in silico analysis using the Oncomine database was performed to validate our findings and extend the findings to gene expression level. We found that the number of genomic alterations increases in accordance with glioma grade. In glioblastomas (GBM), the most common alterations were gene amplifications (PDGFRA, KIT, KDR, EGFR, and MET) and deletions (CDKN2A and PTEN). Log-rank analysis correlated EGFR amplification and/or chr7 gain with better survival of the patients. MSI was observed in 11% of GBMs. A total of 69% of GBMs presented TERT mutation, whereas IDH1 mutation was most frequent in diffuse (85.7%) and anaplastic (100%) astrocytomas. The combination of 1p19q deletion and TERT and IDH1 mutational status separated tumor groups that showed distinct age of diagnosis and outcome. In silico validation pointed to less explored genes that may be worthy of future investigation, such as CDK2, DMRTA1, and MTAP. Herein, using an extensive integrated analysis, we indicated potentially important genes, not extensively studied in gliomas, that could be further explored to assess their biological and clinical impact in astrocytomas. PMID:27172220

  16. I RBH - First Brazilian Hypertension Registry

    PubMed Central

    Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga; de Souza, Weimar Kunz Sebba Barroso; Lopes, Renato Delascio; Brandão, Andréa Araújo; Malachias, Marcus V. Bolívar; Gomes, Marco Mota; Moreno Júnior, Heitor; Barbosa, Eduardo Costa Duarte; Póvoa, Rui Manoel dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Background: A registry assessing the care of hypertensive patients in daily clinical practice in public and private centers in various Brazilian regions has not been conducted to date. Such analysis is important to elucidate the effectiveness of this care. Objective: To document the current clinical practice for the treatment of hypertension with identification of the profile of requested tests, type of administered treatment, level of blood pressure (BP) control, and adherence to treatment. Methods: National, observational, prospective, and multicenter study that will include patients older than 18 years with hypertension for at least 4 weeks, following up in public and private centers and after signing a consent form. The study will exclude patients undergoing dialysis, hospitalized in the previous 30 days, with class III or IV heart failure, pregnant or nursing, with severe liver disease, stroke or acute myocardial infarction in the past 30 days, or with diseases with a survival prognosis < 1 year. Evaluations will be performed at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up. The parameters that will be evaluated include anthropometric data, lifestyle habits, BP levels, lipid profile, metabolic syndrome, and adherence to treatment. The primary outcomes will be hospitalization due to hypertensive crisis, cardiocirculatory events, and cardiovascular death, while secondary outcomes will be hospitalization for heart failure and requirement of dialysis. A subgroup analysis of 15% of the sample will include noninvasive central pressure evaluation at baseline and study end. The estimated sample size is 3,000 individuals for a prevalence of 5%, sample error of 2%, and 95% confidence interval. Results: The results will be presented after the final evaluation, which will occur at the end of a 1-year follow-up. Conclusion: The analysis of this registry will improve the knowledge and optimize the treatment of hypertension in Brazil, as a way of modifying the prognosis of

  17. The Brazilian Science Data Center (BSDC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, Ulisses Barres; Bodmann, Benno; Giommi, Paolo; Brandt, Carlos H.

    Astrophysics and Space Science are becoming increasingly characterised by what is now known as “big data”, the bottlenecks for progress partly shifting from data acquisition to “data mining”. Truth is that the amount and rate of data accumulation in many fields already surpasses the local capabilities for its processing and exploitation, and the efficient conversion of scientific data into knowledge is everywhere a challenge. The result is that, to a large extent, isolated data archives risk being progressively likened to “data graveyards”, where the information stored is not reused for scientific work. Responsible and efficient use of these large data-sets means democratising access and extracting the most science possible from it, which in turn signifies improving data accessibility and integration. Improving data processing capabilities is another important issue specific to researchers and computer scientists of each field. The project presented here wishes to exploit the enormous potential opened up by information technology at our age to advance a model for a science data center in astronomy which aims to expand data accessibility and integration to the largest possible extent and with the greatest efficiency for scientific and educational use. Greater access to data means more people producing and benefiting from information, whereas larger integration of related data from different origins means a greater research potential and increased scientific impact. The project of the BSDC is preoccupied, primarily, with providing tools and solutions for the Brazilian astronomical community. It nevertheless capitalizes on extensive international experience, and is developed in full cooperation with the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC), from the Italian Space Agency, granting it an essential ingredient of internationalisation. The BSDC is Virtual Observatory-complient and part of the “Open Universe”, a global initiative built under the auspices of the

  18. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Denise A.; Bento, José M. S.; Marchini, Luis C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula) in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony). These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001), and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008). This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because they lack

  19. Brazilian research on extremophiles in the context of astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Nóbrega, Felipe; Nakayama, Cristina R.; Pellizari, Vivian H.

    2012-10-01

    Extremophiles are organisms adapted to grow at extreme ranges of environmental variables, such as high or low temperatures, acid or alkaline medium, high salt concentration, high pressures and so forth. Most extremophiles are micro-organisms that belong to the Archaea and Bacteria domains, and are widely spread across the world, which include the polar regions, volcanoes, deserts, deep oceanic sediments, hydrothermal vents, hypersaline lakes, acid and alkaline water bodies, and other extreme environments considered hostile to human life. Despite the tropical climate, Brazil has a wide range of ecosystems which include some permanent or seasonally extreme environments. For example, the Cerrado is a biome with very low soil pH with high Al+3 concentration, the mangroves in the Brazilian coast are anaerobic and saline, Pantanal has thousands of alkaline-saline lakes, the Caatinga arid and hot soils and the deep sea sediments in the Brazilian ocean shelf. These environments harbour extremophilic organisms that, coupled with the high natural biodiversity in Brazil, could be explored for different purposes. However, only a few projects in Brazil intended to study the extremophiles. In the frame of astrobiology, for example, these organisms could provide important models for defining the limits of life and hypothesize about life outside Earth. Brazilian microbiologists have, however, studied the extremophilic micro-organisms inhabiting non-Brazilian environments, such as the Antarctic continent. The experience and previous results obtained from the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR) provide important results that are directly related to astrobiology. This article is a brief synopsis of the Brazilian experience in researching extremophiles, indicating the most important results related to astrobiology and some future perspectives in this area.

  20. Zebrafish in Brazilian Science: Scientific Production, Impact, and Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Gheno, Ediane Maria; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Calabró, Luciana

    2016-06-01

    By means of scientometric indicators, this study investigated the characteristics of scientific production and research collaboration involving zebrafish (Danio rerio) in Brazilian Science indexed by the Web of Science (WoS). Citation data were collected from the WoS and data regarding Impact Factor (IF) were gathered from journals in the Journal Citation Reports. Collaboration was evaluated according to coauthorship data, creating representative nets with VOSviewer. Zebrafish has attained remarkable importance as an experimental model organism in recent years and an increase in scientific production with zebrafish is observed in Brazil and around the world. The citation impact of the worldwide scientific production is superior when compared to the Brazilian scientific production. However, the citation impact of the Brazilian scientific production is consistently increasing. Brazil does not follow the international trends with regard to publication research fields. The state of Rio Grande do Sul has the greatest number of articles and the institution with the largest number of publications is Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul. Journals' average IF is higher in Brazilian publications with international coauthorship, and around 90% of articles are collaborative. The Brazilian institutions presenting the greatest number of collaborations are Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Fundação Universidade Federal de Rio Grande, and Universidade de São Paulo. These data indicate that Brazilian research using zebrafish presents a growth in terms of number of publications, citation impact, and collaborative work.

  1. Zebrafish in Brazilian Science: Scientific Production, Impact, and Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Gheno, Ediane Maria; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Souza, Diogo Onofre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract By means of scientometric indicators, this study investigated the characteristics of scientific production and research collaboration involving zebrafish (Danio rerio) in Brazilian Science indexed by the Web of Science (WoS). Citation data were collected from the WoS and data regarding Impact Factor (IF) were gathered from journals in the Journal Citation Reports. Collaboration was evaluated according to coauthorship data, creating representative nets with VOSviewer. Zebrafish has attained remarkable importance as an experimental model organism in recent years and an increase in scientific production with zebrafish is observed in Brazil and around the world. The citation impact of the worldwide scientific production is superior when compared to the Brazilian scientific production. However, the citation impact of the Brazilian scientific production is consistently increasing. Brazil does not follow the international trends with regard to publication research fields. The state of Rio Grande do Sul has the greatest number of articles and the institution with the largest number of publications is Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul. Journals' average IF is higher in Brazilian publications with international coauthorship, and around 90% of articles are collaborative. The Brazilian institutions presenting the greatest number of collaborations are Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Fundação Universidade Federal de Rio Grande, and Universidade de São Paulo. These data indicate that Brazilian research using zebrafish presents a growth in terms of number of publications, citation impact, and collaborative work. PMID:27045850

  2. Spinopelvic parameters evaluation in a Brazilian population sample.

    PubMed

    Jacob, C J; Cardoso, I M; Batista, J L J; Maia, T C; Roncaglio, B

    2015-07-01

    The morphology of the spine is variable within a population, and its maintenance in appropriate values implies a decrease in the energy expended. We need to know their normal values in population. This study aims to carry out a literature review and evaluate published papers on spinopelvic parameters in a Brazilian population sample. Eleven potentially eligible papers were initially identified for inclusion in this review: three papers from PubMed and eight from Medicine. Out of these, only five papers contained methodology and relevant significance level, and therefore, they were included in the final analytical run. According to a Brazilian study, Pratali mentions no significant difference in the average values of spinopelvic balance in the Brazilian population and those found in the literature; there was also no significant difference comparing Brazilian and Korean population; however, a difference was found in comparison with European population regarding PI parameters and SS, but the latter with higher values. According to Kulcheski (Column/Columna 12:224-227, 2013), the values of pelvic tilt in the Brazilian population evaluated in his research were 19° (10°-35°) and the sacral inclination was 38° (30°-55°), presenting similar values concerning the European population. In another Brazilian paper, Oliveira (Rev Bras Ort 49:189-193, 2014) reports that the research population had PI average of 45° (41.9°-48.1°). The values obtained are relatively minor when compared to the European population. However, all of these are within the normal margin considered in the worldwide literature.

  3. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon: An Instrument for Psycholinguistic Research

    PubMed Central

    Estivalet, Gustavo L.; Meunier, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon, a new word-based corpus for psycholinguistic and computational linguistic research in Brazilian Portuguese. We describe the corpus development, the specific characteristics on the internet site and database for user access. We also perform distributional analyses of the corpus and comparisons to other current databases. Our main objective was to provide a large, reliable, and useful word-based corpus with a dynamic, easy-to-use, and intuitive interface with free internet access for word and word-criteria searches. We used the Núcleo Interinstitucional de Linguística Computacional’s corpus as the basic data source and developed the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon by deriving and adding metalinguistic and psycholinguistic information about Brazilian Portuguese words. We obtained a final corpus with more than 30 million word tokens, 215 thousand word types and 25 categories of information about each word. This corpus was made available on the internet via a free-access site with two search engines: a simple search and a complex search. The simple engine basically searches for a list of words, while the complex engine accepts all types of criteria in the corpus categories. The output result presents all entries found in the corpus with the criteria specified in the input search and can be downloaded as a.csv file. We created a module in the results that delivers basic statistics about each search. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon also provides a pseudoword engine and specific tools for linguistic and statistical analysis. Therefore, the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon is a convenient instrument for stimulus search, selection, control, and manipulation in psycholinguistic experiments, as also it is a powerful database for computational linguistics research and language modeling related to lexicon distribution, functioning, and behavior. PMID:26630138

  4. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon: An Instrument for Psycholinguistic Research.

    PubMed

    Estivalet, Gustavo L; Meunier, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon, a new word-based corpus for psycholinguistic and computational linguistic research in Brazilian Portuguese. We describe the corpus development, the specific characteristics on the internet site and database for user access. We also perform distributional analyses of the corpus and comparisons to other current databases. Our main objective was to provide a large, reliable, and useful word-based corpus with a dynamic, easy-to-use, and intuitive interface with free internet access for word and word-criteria searches. We used the Núcleo Interinstitucional de Linguística Computacional's corpus as the basic data source and developed the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon by deriving and adding metalinguistic and psycholinguistic information about Brazilian Portuguese words. We obtained a final corpus with more than 30 million word tokens, 215 thousand word types and 25 categories of information about each word. This corpus was made available on the internet via a free-access site with two search engines: a simple search and a complex search. The simple engine basically searches for a list of words, while the complex engine accepts all types of criteria in the corpus categories. The output result presents all entries found in the corpus with the criteria specified in the input search and can be downloaded as a.csv file. We created a module in the results that delivers basic statistics about each search. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon also provides a pseudoword engine and specific tools for linguistic and statistical analysis. Therefore, the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon is a convenient instrument for stimulus search, selection, control, and manipulation in psycholinguistic experiments, as also it is a powerful database for computational linguistics research and language modeling related to lexicon distribution, functioning, and behavior.

  5. [Abortion and fetal non-viability: the Brazilian debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora

    2005-01-01

    The Case Against Non-Compliance with the Fundamental Principle concerning Anencephaly, under review by the Brazilian Supreme Court, is a milestone in the debate on abortion in Latin America. Since the currently prevailing version of the Brazilian Penal Code was enacted in 1940, there has been fierce resistance to any change in the country's abortion policy. This article discusses the arguments and political strategies used in the anencephaly suit brought before the Supreme Court, particularly the ethical and legal position that interruption of pregnancy in cases of anencephaly does not constitute abortion, but should be considered a therapeutic anticipation of delivery.

  6. [Attitudes of Brazilian pulmonologists toward nicotine dependence: a national survey].

    PubMed

    Viegas, Carlos Alberto de Assis; Valentim, Antonio Gabriel Teles; Amoras, Jaene Andrade Pacheco; Nascimento, Euler Junior Moreira

    2010-01-01

    Smoking is a medical condition, since there is drug dependence, and health professionals should treat it as a chronic disease. In order to understand the attitudes of Brazilian pulmonologists toward smokers, we conducted a national survey, using a questionnaire posted on the Internet, of 2,800 pulmonologists, 587 (21%) of whom completed and returned the questionnaires. We found that 3.2% of the respondents did not believe that smoking is a medical condition. Only 14.7% treated smokers, and 32.4% stated that they would refer smokers to another professional for treatment. These results suggest that Brazilian pulmonologists have insufficient knowledge of smoking cessation therapies.

  7. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in exotic wild felids from Brazilian zoos.

    PubMed

    Silva, J C; Ogassawara, S; Marvulo, M F; Ferreira-Neto, J S; Dubey, J P

    2001-09-01

    Serum samples from 37 captive exotic felids in 12 zoos from six Brazilian states were assayed for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using formalin-fixed whole tachyzoites. Titers greater than or equal to 1:20 were considered positive. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 24 of 37 (64.9%) felids, including one European lynx (Lynx lynx), two jungle cats (Felis chaus), two servals (Leptailurus serval), two tigers (Panthera tigris), three leopards (Panthera pardus), and 14 of 27 lions (Panthera leo). This is the first serologic analysis for T. gondii infection in exotic wild felids from Brazilian zoos.

  8. [Differences in mortality in Brazilian youth: the importance of household socioeconomic factors and living conditions in Brazilian municipalities and states].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Fabiano Neves Alves; Queiroz, Bernardo Lanza

    2016-10-10

    This study analyzed the relationship between household socioeconomic status and local social conditions and risk of death in Brazilian youth 15 to 29 years of age. Mortality data from the previous 12 months collected by the 2010 Population Census were used for the analysis at the local level. Data analysis was based on hierarchical models that allowed identifying the role of household social conditions and municipality and state of residence on mortality in young Brazilians. Differences in socioeconomic status between households accounted for more than 90% of the variability in risk of death. Residing in socioeconomically deprived areas also increased the odds of death among young people from households of any socioeconomic status.

  9. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  10. Older adults abuse in three Brazilian cities.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Monteiro, Edilene Araújo; Santos, Ana Maria Ribeiro Dos; Pontes, Maria de Lourdes de Farias; Fhon, Jack Roberto Silva; Bolina, Alisson Fernandes; Seredynskyj, Fernanda Laporti; Almeida, Vanessa Costa; Giacomini, Suelen Borelli Lima; Defina, Giovanna Partezani Cardoso; Silva, Luipa Michele

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the police reports filed by older adults who suffered abuse in order to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and aggressors, type of violence, location, as well as to compare rates in three Brazilian cities in the period from 2009 to 2013. Ecological study, in which 2,612 police reports registered in Police Stations were analyzed. An instrument was used to obtain data from the victim, the aggressor and the type of violence. Psychological abuse predominated and most cases occurred in the older adults own home. In the cities of Ribeirão Preto and João Pessoa, the older adults presented similar rates for both gender. Regarding the standardized rates, in João Pessoa, there was a rise of this type of abuse in the two first years, and later there was a certain stability. In the city of Teresina, there was an increase, also observed in the city of Ribeirão Preto in the three first years, followed by a decrease. Older adults abuse is a cultural phenomenon difficult to be reported by them, since it occurs in the family context. Analisar os boletins de ocorrência registrados por idosos que sofreram violência, a fim de identificar características sociodemográficas das vítimas e dos agressores, tipo de violência, local, bem como comparar as taxas em três municípios brasileiros no período de 2009 a 2013. Estudo ecológico, em que foram analisados 2.612 boletins de ocorrência registrados em Delegacias do Idoso. Utilizou-se um instrumento para obter dados da vítima, do agressor e tipo de violência. Predominou a violência psicológica, na maioria dos casos na própria residência do idoso. Em Ribeirão Preto e João Pessoa, os idosos mais jovens apresentaram taxas semelhantes entre ambos os sexos. Na comparação das taxas padronizadas, em João Pessoa, houve ascensão deste tipo de violência nos dois primeiros anos, e, posteriormente, certa estabilidade. Em Teresina, houve ascensão, também observada em Ribeirão Preto nos tr

  11. Antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of Brazilian plants.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Valadares, Diogo G; Franca, Juçara R; Lage, Paula S; Duarte, Mariana C; Andrade, Pedro H R; Martins, Vivian T; Costa, Lourena E; Arruda, Ana L A; Faraco, André A G; Coelho, Eduardo A F; Castilho, Rachel O

    2014-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem, and the alarming spread of parasite resistance has increased the importance of discovering new therapeutic products. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro leishmanicidal activity from 16 different Brazilian medicinal plants. Stationary-phase promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and murine macrophages were exposed to 44 plant extracts or fractions for 48 h at 37°C, in order to evaluate their antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity, respectively. The most potent extracts against L. amazonensis were the hexanic extract of Dipteryx alata (IC50 of 0.08 μg/mL), the hexanic extract of Syzygium cumini (IC50 of 31.64 μg/mL), the ethanolic and hexanic extracts of leaves of Hymenaea courbaril (IC50 of 44.10 μg/mL and 35.84 μg/mL, respectively), the ethanolic extract of H. stignocarpa (IC50 of 4.69 μg/mL), the ethanolic extract of Jacaranda caroba (IC50 of 13.22 μg/mL), and the ethanolic extract of J. cuspidifolia leaves (IC50 of 10.96 μg/mL). Extracts of D. alata and J. cuspidifolia presented higher selectivity index, with high leishmanicidal activity and low cytotoxicity in the mammalian cells. The capacity in treated infected macrophages using the extracts and/or fractions of D. alata and J. cuspidifolia was also analyzed, and reductions of 95.80%, 98.31%, and 97.16%, respectively, in the parasite burden, were observed. No nitric oxide (NO) production could be observed in the treated macrophages, after stimulation with the extracts and/or fractions of D. alata and J. cuspidifolia, suggesting that the biological activity could be due to mechanisms other than macrophage activation mediated by NO production. Based on phytochemistry studies, the classes of compounds that could contribute to the observed activities are also discussed. In conclusion, the data presented in this study indicated that traditional medicinal plant extracts present effective antileishmanial activity. Future studies could focus on

  12. Brazilian Adolescents' Conceptions of Autonomy and Parental Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milnitsky-Sapiro, Clary; Turiel, Elliot; Nucci, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-two middle class and 32 lower class southern Brazilian pre-adolescent (M=12.8 years) and adolescent (M=15.7 years) participants were individually interviewed regarding their perceptions of who (adolescent or parent) should determine the adolescent's actions in cases where the parents and adolescent disagree over the action choice.…

  13. Subject Expression in Brazilian Portuguese: Construction and Frequency Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silveira Neto, Agripino De Souza

    2012-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese (henceforth BP) has for long been considered as a Null-subject language due to its variability in regards to subject expression (e.g. "Era bom porque eu diminuia de peso...era muito gordinha" "That was good because then I could lose some weight...(I) was a bit chubby." C33:179). Such variability has been…

  14. Early Education and Professional Choice: Brazilian Teachers' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvão, Afonso; Brasil, Ive

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative and exploratory research is aimed at investigating the underlying reasons for the professional choice of Brazilian teachers who work within early education. Seventeen teachers (seven from public schools and 10 from private schools) were interviewed in depth in a semi-structured manner. Questions concerned the reasons that guided…

  15. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: A Classroom Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijman, Jan; Hill, A. David

    1991-01-01

    Presents a classroom project dealing with tropical deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Addresses environmental consequences and economic, social, and political causes. Involves both lectures and individual research and reports by student groups on deforestation causes. Includes a note-playing activity in which students make recommendations for…

  16. Ethnolinguistic Vitality among Japanese-Brazilians: Challenges and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, Mitsuyo; Matsubara Morales, Leiko

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores ethnolinguistic vitality among Japanese-Brazilians ("Nikkeis"). First, an 18-item questionnaire was administered to 33 individuals who attended a seminar on bilingual studies held in São Paulo. Then, two bilingual "Nikkei" teachers who participated in the questionnaire and who grew up to be bilinguals…

  17. Simplicity and Innovation Make This "Green" Brazilian City Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Carol

    1993-01-01

    Describes how a Brazilian city, Curitiba, is successfully curbing environmental degradation through recycling efforts, transportation, housing, and land use changes. These projects include tree planting, decreased automobile use, a simple technology that enables buses to run as quickly and efficiently as subways, and increasing city open space…

  18. Citations of Brazilian physical therapy journals in national publications.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Renan K C; Yamaki, Vitor N; Botelho, Nara M; Teixeira, Renato C

    2014-01-01

    Quotations in Brazilian journals are mainly obtained from national articles (articles from Brazilian journals); thus, it is essential to determine how frequently these articles reference Brazilian journals. This study sought to verify how frequently national papers are cited in the references of three Brazilian physical therapy journals. All references for articles published in Fisioterapia em Movimento, Fisioterapia e Pesquisa and Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia between 2010 and 2012 were evaluated. In particular, the numbers of national articles and international articles (articles from international journals) cited in these references were determined. A total of 13,009 references cited by 456 articles were analyzed, and 2,924 (22.47%) of the cited works were national articles. There were no significant differences among the three examined years. A total of 36 (7.89%) articles did not cite national articles, whereas 65 (13.25%) articles cited more national articles than international articles. On average, 22.47% of the works cited by the evaluated articles were national articles. No significant differences were detected among the three analyzed years.

  19. Education, Employment and Household Dynamics: Brazilian Migrants in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Paul

    2013-01-01

    By treating the household as a primary unit of analysis and social production, this article considers the mutually influential ways in which migrant families shape the educational pathways and experiences of Brazilian children living in Japan. Through an ethnographic exploration of relations between parents, children and their working siblings I…

  20. Children's Perceptions of Brazilian Cerrado Landscapes and Biodiversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bizerril, Marcelo X. A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the author evaluated Brazilian students' environmental perceptions of Cerrado (savanna-like vegetation). The author administered tests of knowledge and perception of the Cerrado biome's wildlife to students of different social classes. The students (age range: 11-17 years) generally exhibited low identification with the region, and…

  1. Sustainability Insights from the Mission Statements of Leading Brazilian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deus, Rafael Mattos; Battistelle, Rosane Aparecida Gomes; Ribeiro da Silva, Gustavo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mission statements from 30 leading Brazilian universities, evaluating the statements based on a sustainable model that involves an environmental management system, public participation and social responsibility, and sustainable education and research. Design/methodology/approach: Content…

  2. The Brazilian Integrated Environmental Policy and the Treaty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Melo Diniz, Nilo Sergio

    2006-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of the Environment, directed by the Minister Marina Silva, recently awarded by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) with the "World Champion" prize. The four courses of the agency's direction are: (1) To enhance the National System of the Environment (SISNAMA); (2) To "mainstream" the…

  3. Methylparaben concentration in commercial Brazilian local anesthetics solutions

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Gustavo Henrique Rodriguez; BOTTOLI, Carla Beatriz Grespan; GROPPO, Francisco Carlos; VOLPATO, Maria Cristina; RANALI, José; RAMACCIATO, Juliana Cama; MOTTA, Rogério Heládio Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Objective To detect the presence and concentration of methylparaben in cartridges of commercial Brazilian local anesthetics. Material and methods Twelve commercial brands (4 in glass and 8 in plastic cartridges) of local anesthetic solutions for use in dentistry were purchased from the Brazilian market and analyzed. Different lots of the commercial brands were obtained in different Brazilian cities (Piracicaba, Campinas and São Paulo). Separation was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV-Vis detector. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile:water (75:25 - v/v), pH 4.5, adjusted with acetic acid at a flow rate of 1.0 ml.min-1. Results When detected in the solutions, the methylparaben concentration ranged from 0.01% (m/v) to 0.16% (m/v). One glass and all plastic cartridges presented methylparaben. Conclusion 1. Methylparaben concentration varied among solutions from different manufacturers, and it was not indicated in the drug package inserts; 2. Since the presence of methylparaben in dental anesthetics is not regulated by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) and this substance could cause allergic reactions, it is important to alert dentists about its possible presence. PMID:23032206

  4. Bullying and Sexual Harassment among Brazilian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSouza, Eros R.; Ribeiro, J'aims

    2005-01-01

    Bullying and sexual harassment at school have received recent attention in developed countries; however, they have been neglected in Latin America. Thus, the authors investigated these phenomena among 400 Brazilian high school students from two high schools (one private and one public). Analyses using t-tests showed that boys bullied and sexually…

  5. Children's Perceptions of Brazilian Cerrado Landscapes and Biodiversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bizerril, Marcelo X. A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the author evaluated Brazilian students' environmental perceptions of Cerrado (savanna-like vegetation). The author administered tests of knowledge and perception of the Cerrado biome's wildlife to students of different social classes. The students (age range: 11-17 years) generally exhibited low identification with the region, and…

  6. Microbial diversity in Brazilian mangrove sediments - a mini review.

    PubMed

    Ghizelini, Angela Michelato; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda Cristina Santana; Macrae, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    The importance and protection of mangrove ecosystems has been recognized in Brazilian Federal law since 1965. Being protected in law, however, has not always guaranteed their protection in practice. Mangroves are found in coastal and estuarine locations, which are prime real estate for the growth of cities, ports and other economic activities important for Brazilian development. In this mini-review we introduce what mangroves are and why they are so important. We give a brief overview of the microbial diversity found in mangrove sediments and then focus on diversity studies from Brazilian mangroves. We highlight the breadth and depth of knowledge about mangrove microbial communities gained from studying Brazilian mangroves. We report on the exciting findings of molecular microbial ecology methods that have been very successfully applied to study bacterial communities. We note that there have been fewer studies that focus on fungal communities and that fungal diversity studies deserve more attention. The review ends with a look at how a combination of new molecular biology methods and isolation studies are being developed to monitor and conserve mangrove ecosystems and their associated microbial communities. These recent studies are having a global impact and we hope they will help to protect and re-establish mangrove ecosystems.

  7. Brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion

    PubMed Central

    Sebastião, Emerson; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-01-01

    Public health actions endorsed by the federal government, for instance, health promotion initiatives, usually have greater impact at population level compared to other types of initiatives. This commentary aims to instigate debate on the importance and necessity of producing federally endorsed brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion. PMID:25210830

  8. Zoonotic Enterocytozoon bieneusi Genotypes found in Brazilian sheep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in sheep has been reported in only three countries worldwide. The present study has found E. bieneusi in Brazilian sheep for the first time; in 24/125 (19.2%) fecal samples by PCR and in 8/10 (80%) farms from three diverse locations. A significantly greater...

  9. Vowel Harmony: A Variable Rule in Brazilian Portuguese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisol, Leda

    1989-01-01

    Examines vowel harmony in the "Gaucho dialect" of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Informants from four areas of the state were studied: the capital city (Porto Alegre), the border region with Uruguay, and two areas of the interior populated by descendants of nineteenth-century immigrants from Europe, mainly Germans and…

  10. Vowel Harmony: A Variable Rule in Brazilian Portuguese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisol, Leda

    1989-01-01

    Examines vowel harmony in the "Gaucho dialect" of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Informants from four areas of the state were studied: the capital city (Porto Alegre), the border region with Uruguay, and two areas of the interior populated by descendants of nineteenth-century immigrants from Europe, mainly Germans and…

  11. Simplicity and Innovation Make This "Green" Brazilian City Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, Carol

    1993-01-01

    Describes how a Brazilian city, Curitiba, is successfully curbing environmental degradation through recycling efforts, transportation, housing, and land use changes. These projects include tree planting, decreased automobile use, a simple technology that enables buses to run as quickly and efficiently as subways, and increasing city open space…

  12. New prospects for biological control of Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), is an invasive weed from South America that has been spread to many countries. It was introduced into the USA about 100 years ago as an ornamental. Escaping cultivation, it now occurs in three south-eastern states of the USA, Cali...

  13. Metabolic and infectious pathologies in Brazilian medical literature: a review.

    PubMed

    Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio

    2010-06-01

    This review of original reports on metabolic and infectious diseases that were recently published in Brazilian journals is designed to inform the readership of CLINICS about their content. I conducted a search in PubMed for original research articles (clinical or basic research) recently published (2008-2009) by Brazilian medical and biological periodicals. Papers on metabolic pathologies were retrieved by searching for appropriate keywords such as metabolic syndrome and obesity. Papers on infectious disease were obtained by entering 15 different keywords for the most commonly occurring pathologies. Review articles, editorials, letters to the editor, and case reports were manually excluded. Selected titles were then categorized into appropriate sub-categories. This search produced a total of 123 articles, which filtered down to 72 articles after eliminating editorials, review articles, letters to the Editor and case reports. Reviewed periodicals were Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Brazilian Journal of Biological and Medical Research, Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Jornal de Pediatria, Jornal de Pneumologia, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade de São Paulo, and São Paulo Medical Journal. The articles were then briefly summarized.

  14. Humicolous buthoid scorpions: a new species from Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2005-01-01

    A new species of humicolous buthid scorpion is described on the basis of a single specimen collected in the Brazilian Amazonia. New considerations on the taxonomy and biogeography of some micro-scorpions of the subfamily Ananterinae Pocock, 1900 are proposed in relation to their possible evolution from endogeous to epygean environments.

  15. Brazilians Teach Soccer to U.S. Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horshok, John

    1977-01-01

    An international landmark exchange between the Confederacao Brasileira de Desportos (CBD) and Partners of the Americas is reported. In a two-week tour of the U.S., Brazilian soccer coaches performed clinics and seminars in 18 states for nearly 42,000 youngsters. (LBH)

  16. Subject Expression in Brazilian Portuguese: Construction and Frequency Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silveira Neto, Agripino De Souza

    2012-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese (henceforth BP) has for long been considered as a Null-subject language due to its variability in regards to subject expression (e.g. "Era bom porque eu diminuia de peso...era muito gordinha" "That was good because then I could lose some weight...(I) was a bit chubby." C33:179). Such variability has been…

  17. Diversity in School: A Brazilian Educational Policy against Homophobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrara, Sergio; Nascimento, Marcos; Duque, Aline; Tramontano, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Diversity in School is a Brazilian initiative that seeks to increase understanding, recognition, respect, and value social and cultural differences through offering an e-learning course on gender, sexuality, and ethnic relations for teachers and school administrators in the public school system. The course and its objectives aim to enable staff…

  18. Instructing Brazilian Teachers to Develop Children's Creative Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soriano de Alencar, Eunice M. L.

    1989-01-01

    The article describes an inservice teacher training program which is teaching Brazilian teachers to (1) be more aware of their own creativity, (2) creativity enhancing techniques and exercises to use in the classroom, (3) basic concepts about creative thinking and problem solving, and (4) increased awareness of obstacles to creative development.…

  19. Diversity in School: A Brazilian Educational Policy against Homophobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrara, Sergio; Nascimento, Marcos; Duque, Aline; Tramontano, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Diversity in School is a Brazilian initiative that seeks to increase understanding, recognition, respect, and value social and cultural differences through offering an e-learning course on gender, sexuality, and ethnic relations for teachers and school administrators in the public school system. The course and its objectives aim to enable staff…

  20. Achromobacter xylosoxidans: Characterization of Strains in Brazilian Cystic Fibrosis Patients▿

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Rosana H. V.; Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Folescu, Tania W.; Jones, Marcia C. M. F.; Leão, Robson S.; Marques, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of cross-infection among cystic fibrosis patients in two Brazilian reference centers. Achromobacter xylosoxidans isolates (n = 122) were recovered over a 5-year period from 39 patients. Isolates were genetically heterogeneous, but one genotype was present in 56% of the patients, suggesting that cross-infection may have occurred. PMID:21849686

  1. Achromobacter xylosoxidans: characterization of strains in Brazilian cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rosana H V; Carvalho-Assef, Ana Paula; Albano, Rodolpho M; Folescu, Tania W; Jones, Marcia C M F; Leão, Robson S; Marques, Elizabeth A

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the possibility of cross-infection among cystic fibrosis patients in two Brazilian reference centers. Achromobacter xylosoxidans isolates (n = 122) were recovered over a 5-year period from 39 patients. Isolates were genetically heterogeneous, but one genotype was present in 56% of the patients, suggesting that cross-infection may have occurred.

  2. [Brazilian guidelines for marketing baby food: history, limitations and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Renata

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to present and discuss Brazilian policy concerning actions to protect breastfeeding, especially the history, international and national background, limitations, and perspectives of the Brazilian Guidelines for the Marketing of Baby Food, Pacifiers and Bottles. The Brazilian Guidelines, which play a crucial role in protecting breastfeeding against industry marketing strategies, were based on the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, proposed by the World Health Organization in 1981. The first version of the Brazilian Guidelines was released in 1988, and there were subsequent revisions in 1992 and 2001/2002. In 2006, the Guidelines became national law. However, the strides made over this period in terms of regulation have been few because the law is not always observed. Thus, it is essential that all actors involved, including government officials, manufacturers and sellers of baby food and other baby products, teaching and health professionals and their associations, international bodies, and non-governmental organizations make a commitment to enforce the current law.

  3. Brazilians Teach Soccer to U.S. Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horshok, John

    1977-01-01

    An international landmark exchange between the Confederacao Brasileira de Desportos (CBD) and Partners of the Americas is reported. In a two-week tour of the U.S., Brazilian soccer coaches performed clinics and seminars in 18 states for nearly 42,000 youngsters. (LBH)

  4. Decentralizing Education: A Successful Experience in the Brazilian Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proenca, Marilene; Neneve, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the importance of education policies that aim at diminishing social disparities in poor countries, focusing on a program in higher education developed in the state of Rondonia in the Brazilian Amazon. Rondonia is a region in which people have suffered deeply from the consequences of social inequalities. Many…

  5. Longevity of the Brazilian underground tree Jacaranda decurrens Cham.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ruy J V; Da Silva, Nílber G; Fernandes Júnior, Aluísio J; Guimarães, Alessandra R

    2013-01-01

    Underground trees are a rare clonal growth form. In this survey we describe the branching pattern and estimate the age of the underground tree Jacaranda decurrens Cham. (Bignoniaceae), an endangered species from the Brazilian Cerrado, with a crown diameter of 22 meters. The mean age calculated for the individual was 3,801 years, making it one of the oldest known living Neotropical plants.

  6. Metabolic and infectious pathologies in Brazilian medical literature: a review

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review of original reports on metabolic and infectious diseases that were recently published in Brazilian journals is designed to inform the readership of CLINICS about their content. METHODS: I conducted a search in PubMed for original research articles (clinical or basic research) recently published (2008–2009) by Brazilian medical and biological periodicals. Papers on metabolic pathologies were retrieved by searching for appropriate keywords such as metabolic syndrome and obesity. Papers on infectious disease were obtained by entering 15 different keywords for the most commonly occurring pathologies. Review articles, editorials, letters to the editor, and case reports were manually excluded. Selected titles were then categorized into appropriate sub-categories. RESULTS: This search produced a total of 123 articles, which filtered down to 72 articles after eliminating editorials, review articles, letters to the Editor and case reports. Reviewed periodicals were Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Brazilian Journal of Biological and Medical Research, Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Jornal de Pediatria, Jornal de Pneumologia, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade de São Paulo, and São Paulo Medical Journal. The articles were then briefly summarized. PMID:20835560

  7. Achievement in the Brazilian Public Schools: Research for Counseling Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth M. P.

    School failure in elementary school students from low income families has been a serious problem in Brazilian public schools for many years. A number of studies were implemented in an effort to reduce the incidence of school failure. One set of studies focusing on teachers' causal perceptions revealed a combination of socio-economic determinism…

  8. The Emergence of Quality Assessment in Brazilian Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauko, Jaakko; Centeno, Vera Gorodski; Candido, Helena; Shiroma, Eneida; Klutas, Anni

    2016-01-01

    The focus in this article is on Brazilian education policy, specifically quality assurance and evaluation. The starting point is that quality, measured by means of large-scale assessments, is one of the key discursive justifications for educational change. The article addresses the questions of how quality evaluation became a significant feature…

  9. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: A Classroom Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijman, Jan; Hill, A. David

    1991-01-01

    Presents a classroom project dealing with tropical deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Addresses environmental consequences and economic, social, and political causes. Involves both lectures and individual research and reports by student groups on deforestation causes. Includes a note-playing activity in which students make recommendations for…

  10. Use of statistical procedures in Brazilian and international dental journals.

    PubMed

    Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Reis, André Figueiredo; Giannini, Marcelo; Pereira, Antônio Carlos

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive survey was performed in order to assess the statistical content and quality of Brazilian and international dental journals, and compare their evolution throughout the last decades. The authors identified the reporting and accuracy of statistical techniques in 1000 papers published from 1970 to 2000 in seven dental journals: three Brazilian (Brazilian Dental Journal, Revista de Odontologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo and Revista de Odontologia da UNESP) and four international journals (Journal of the American Dental Association, Journal of Dental Research, Caries Research and Journal of Periodontology). Papers were divided into two time periods: from 1970 to 1989, and from 1990 to 2000. A slight increase in the number of articles that presented some form of statistical technique was noticed for Brazilian journals (from 61.0 to 66.7%), whereas for international journals, a significant increase was observed (65.8 to 92.6%). In addition, a decrease in the number of statistical errors was verified. The most commonly used statistical tests as well as the most frequent errors found in dental journals were assessed. Hopefully, this investigation will encourage dental educators to better plan the teaching of biostatistics, and to improve the statistical quality of submitted manuscripts.

  11. Curve number estimation from Brazilian Cerrado rainfall and runoff data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Curve Number (CN) method has been widely used to estimate runoff from rainfall events in Brazil, however, CN values for use in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) are poorly documented. In this study we used experimental plots to measure natural rainfall-driven rates of runoff under undisturbed Cerr...

  12. Analysis of undergraduate cell biology contents in Brazilian public universities.

    PubMed

    Mermelstein, Claudia; Costa, Manoel Luis

    2017-04-01

    The enormous amount of information available in cell biology has created a challenge in selecting the core concepts we should be teaching our undergraduates. One way to define a set of essential core ideas in cell biology is to analyze what a specific cell biology community is teaching their students. Our main objective was to analyze the cell biology content currently being taught in Brazilian universities. We collected the syllabi of cell biology courses from public universities in Brazil and analyzed the frequency of cell biology topics in each course. We also compared the Brazilian data with the contents of a major cell biology textbook. Our analysis showed that while some cell biology topics such as plasma membrane and cytoskeleton was present in ∼100% of the Brazilian curricula analyzed others such as cell signaling and cell differentiation were present in only ∼35%. The average cell biology content taught in the Brazilian universities is quite different from what is presented in the textbook. We discuss several possible explanations for these observations. We also suggest a list with essential cell biology topics for any biological or biomedical undergraduate course. The comparative discussion of cell biology topics presented here could be valuable in other educational contexts.

  13. The implementation of the Brazilian domestic satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, Augusto C. G.

    1987-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of the evolution of the Brazilian domestic satellite system (SBTS) through leased Intelsat transponders, operational results and the engineering experience accumulated by Embratel in this field. In addition, a description of the Brazilsat project, its implementation and the present configuration is presented.

  14. Citations of Brazilian physical therapy journals in national publications

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Renan K. C.; Yamaki, Vitor N.; Botelho, Nara M.; Teixeira, Renato C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Quotations in Brazilian journals are mainly obtained from national articles (articles from Brazilian journals); thus, it is essential to determine how frequently these articles reference Brazilian journals. Objective This study sought to verify how frequently national papers are cited in the references of three Brazilian physical therapy journals. Method All references for articles published in Fisioterapia em Movimento, Fisioterapia e Pesquisa and Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia between 2010 and 2012 were evaluated. In particular, the numbers of national articles and international articles (articles from international journals) cited in these references were determined. Results A total of 13,009 references cited by 456 articles were analyzed, and 2,924 (22.47%) of the cited works were national articles. There were no significant differences among the three examined years. A total of 36 (7.89%) articles did not cite national articles, whereas 65 (13.25%) articles cited more national articles than international articles. Conclusion On average, 22.47% of the works cited by the evaluated articles were national articles. No significant differences were detected among the three analyzed years. PMID:24675917

  15. New products made with lignocellulosic nanofibers from Brazilian amazon forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufalino, L.; Mendes, L. M.; Tonoli, G. H. D.; Rodrigues, A.; Fonseca, A.; Cunha, P. I.; Marconcini, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    The biodiversity of the Amazon forest is undoubtedly rich; hence there is considerable variety of plant fibers regarding their morphological, chemical and structural properties. The legal exploration of the Brazilian Amazon is based on sustainable management techniques, but the generation of a relevant amount of plant wastes still cant be avoided. The correct destination of such materials is a challenge that Brazilian companies have to face. In this context, the National Council of Science and Technology (CNPq) promoted the creation of investigation nets on sustainability of Brazilian agribusiness. The Brazilian Net on Lignocellulosic Composites and Nanocomposites was then created, with partnership between several national and international research institutions. Until the moment, the results showed that Amazon plant fibers that are discarded as residues have great potential to nanofiber production. Nanopapers with considerable high mechanical and physical strength, proper opacity and great crystalline index were produced by using a clean and simple mechanical method. Those materials are candidates to several uses such as packaging, substrates transparent conductive films, gas barrier films, solar cells and e-papers.

  16. The Emergence of Quality Assessment in Brazilian Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauko, Jaakko; Centeno, Vera Gorodski; Candido, Helena; Shiroma, Eneida; Klutas, Anni

    2016-01-01

    The focus in this article is on Brazilian education policy, specifically quality assurance and evaluation. The starting point is that quality, measured by means of large-scale assessments, is one of the key discursive justifications for educational change. The article addresses the questions of how quality evaluation became a significant feature…

  17. Sustainability Insights from the Mission Statements of Leading Brazilian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deus, Rafael Mattos; Battistelle, Rosane Aparecida Gomes; Ribeiro da Silva, Gustavo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mission statements from 30 leading Brazilian universities, evaluating the statements based on a sustainable model that involves an environmental management system, public participation and social responsibility, and sustainable education and research. Design/methodology/approach: Content…

  18. Developing a Brazilian Band Method Book: Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbosa, Joel Luis

    1999-01-01

    Relates a pilot test of an elementary band method book for group instruction in Brazilian music education. Focused on the amount of content taught within three one-hour classes per week and studied the quality of learning. Concludes that the group covered 17 pages of the book, learned outside material, and performed four concerts. (CMK)

  19. Education, Employment and Household Dynamics: Brazilian Migrants in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Paul

    2013-01-01

    By treating the household as a primary unit of analysis and social production, this article considers the mutually influential ways in which migrant families shape the educational pathways and experiences of Brazilian children living in Japan. Through an ethnographic exploration of relations between parents, children and their working siblings I…

  20. Ethnolinguistic Vitality among Japanese-Brazilians: Challenges and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakamoto, Mitsuyo; Matsubara Morales, Leiko

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores ethnolinguistic vitality among Japanese-Brazilians ("Nikkeis"). First, an 18-item questionnaire was administered to 33 individuals who attended a seminar on bilingual studies held in São Paulo. Then, two bilingual "Nikkei" teachers who participated in the questionnaire and who grew up to be bilinguals…

  1. Microbial diversity in Brazilian mangrove sediments – a mini review

    PubMed Central

    Ghizelini, Angela Michelato; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda Cristina Santana; Macrae, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The importance and protection of mangrove ecosystems has been recognized in Brazilian Federal law since 1965. Being protected in law, however, has not always guaranteed their protection in practice. Mangroves are found in coastal and estuarine locations, which are prime real estate for the growth of cities, ports and other economic activities important for Brazilian development. In this mini-review we introduce what mangroves are and why they are so important. We give a brief overview of the microbial diversity found in mangrove sediments and then focus on diversity studies from Brazilian mangroves. We highlight the breadth and depth of knowledge about mangrove microbial communities gained from studying Brazilian mangroves. We report on the exciting findings of molecular microbial ecology methods that have been very successfully applied to study bacterial communities. We note that there have been fewer studies that focus on fungal communities and that fungal diversity studies deserve more attention. The review ends with a look at how a combination of new molecular biology methods and isolation studies are being developed to monitor and conserve mangrove ecosystems and their associated microbial communities. These recent studies are having a global impact and we hope they will help to protect and re-establish mangrove ecosystems. PMID:24031949

  2. Plasticity of illusory vowel perception in Brazilian-Japanese bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Parlato-Oliveira, Erika; Christophe, Anne; Hirose, Yuki; Dupoux, Emmanuel

    2010-06-01

    Previous research shows that monolingual Japanese and Brazilian Portuguese listeners perceive illusory vowels (/u/ and /i/, respectively) within illegal sequences of consonants. Here, several populations of Japanese-Brazilian bilinguals are tested, using an explicit vowel identification task (experiment 1), and an implicit categorization and sequence recall task (experiment 2). Overall, second-generation immigrants, who first acquired Japanese at home and Brazilian during childhood (after age 4) showed a typical Brazilian pattern of result (and so did simultaneous bilinguals, who were exposed to both languages from birth on). In contrast, late bilinguals, who acquired their second language in adulthood, exhibited a pattern corresponding to their native language. In addition, an influence of the second language was observed in the explicit task of Exp. 1, but not in the implicit task used in Exp. 2, suggesting that second language experience affects mostly explicit or metalinguistic skills. These results are compared to other studies of phonological representations in adopted children or immigrants, and discussed in relation to the role of age of acquisition and sociolinguistic factors.

  3. Early Education and Professional Choice: Brazilian Teachers' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvão, Afonso; Brasil, Ive

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative and exploratory research is aimed at investigating the underlying reasons for the professional choice of Brazilian teachers who work within early education. Seventeen teachers (seven from public schools and 10 from private schools) were interviewed in depth in a semi-structured manner. Questions concerned the reasons that guided…

  4. Semiotic Analysis of Brazilian E-Commerce Signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimaraes, Cayley; de Paula, Alice G.; Antunes, Diego R.

    A Semiotic analysis of pictographic signs used in Brazilian e-commerce sites is presented. This study shows a low mapping between the intended function in the system and the desired goal from the user. A better understanding of the Theory of Sign Production and Semiotic Engineering Methods for sign re-design is recommended.

  5. Dermatology and the Brazilian Portuguese language orthographic reform.

    PubMed

    Miot, Hélio Amante; Ramos, Paulo Müller

    2011-01-01

    The Brazilian Portuguese language orthographic reform has promoted changes in writing in less than 2% of its lexis. However, these changes have affected medical practice. The authors present in this article the main changes in the orthographic rules and gather a group of words that have had their spelling altered by this new language reform emphasizing the dermatological terms.

  6. Brazilian Higher Education from a Post-Colonial Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Denise

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Brazilian higher education (HE) politics from a post-colonial perspective. The term "post-colonial" originally referred to a historical period of colonial empires established by European nations. Nowadays, the term commonly distinguishes a field of contemporary studies of "defamiliarisation of the imperial…

  7. The Brazilian Integrated Environmental Policy and the Treaty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Melo Diniz, Nilo Sergio

    2006-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of the Environment, directed by the Minister Marina Silva, recently awarded by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) with the "World Champion" prize. The four courses of the agency's direction are: (1) To enhance the National System of the Environment (SISNAMA); (2) To "mainstream" the…

  8. Brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Sebastião, Emerson; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-08-01

    Public health actions endorsed by the federal government, for instance, health promotion initiatives, usually have greater impact at population level compared to other types of initiatives. This commentary aims to instigate debate on the importance and necessity of producing federally endorsed brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion.

  9. Is obesity an emerging problem in Brazilian children and adolescents?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this issue of the Jornal de Pediatria, Silva et al. compared the growth patterns of Brazilian children and adolescents with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) growth charts. The Silva et al. study has significant public health implications...

  10. The Brazilian Back Complaints in the Elders (Brazilian BACE) study: characteristics of Brazilian older adults with a new episode of low back pain.

    PubMed

    Jesus-Moraleida, Fabianna Resende De; Ferreira, Paulo Henrique; Ferreira, Manuela Loureiro; Silva, Juscelio Pereira Da; Assis, Marcella Guimarães; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2017-08-10

    Low back pain (LBP) is little explored in the aging population especially when considering age-relevant and culturally dependent outcomes. We aimed to describe socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of Brazilian older people with a new episode of LBP presenting to primary care. We sourced baseline information on socio-demographic, pain-related and clinical characteristics from 602 older adults from the Brazilian Back Complaints in the Elders (Brazilian BACE) study. We analyzed differences in pain, disability, functional capacity and psychosocial factors between sub-groups based on age (i.e. participants aged 55-74 or ≥75 years), education (i.e. those with four years or less of schooling or those with more than four years of schooling) and income (i.e. participants who reported earning two or less minimal wages or three and more). Participants presented severe LBP (7.18/10, SD: 2.59). Younger participants were slightly more disabled (mean difference 1.29 points, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03/5.56), reporting poorer physical health, and less fall-related self-efficacy (mean difference of 2.41, 95% CI 0.35/4.46). Those less educated, and those with income equal or less than two minimum wages had more disability, pain catastrophizing and worse functional capacity. This was the first study showing that Brazilian older adults with LBP present high levels of functional disability and psychological distress, especially those with low socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluating fire danger in Brazilian biomes: present and future patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Patrícia; Bastos, Ana; DaCamara, Carlos; Libonati, Renata

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is expected to have a significant impact on fire occurrence and activity, particularly in Brazil, a region known to be fire-prone [1]. The Brazilian savanna, commonly referred to as cerrado, is a fire-adapted biome covering more than 20% of the country's total area. It presents the highest numbers of fire events, making it particularly susceptible to changes in climate. It is thus essential to understand the present fire regimes in Brazilian biomes, in order to better evaluate future patterns. The CPTEC/INPE, the Brazilian Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Research at the Brazilian National Institute of Space Research developed a fire danger index based on the occurrence of hundreds of thousands of fire events in the main Brazilian biomes [2]: the Meteorological Fire Danger Index (MFDI). This index indicates the predisposition of vegetation to be burned on a given day, for given climate conditions preceding that day. It relies on daily values of air temperature, relative humidity, accumulated precipitation and vegetation cover. In this study we aim to access the capability of the MFDI to accurately replicate present fire conditions for different biomes, with a special focus on cerrado. To this end, we assess the link between the MFDI as calculated by three different reanalysis (ERA-Interim, NCEP/DOE Reanalysis 2 and MERRA-2) and the observed burned area. We further calculate the validated MFDI using a regional climate model, the RCA4 as forced by EC-Earth from CORDEX, to understand the ability of the model to characterize present fire danger. Finally, the need to calibrate the model to better characterize future fire danger was also evaluated. This work was developed within the framework of the Brazilian Fire-Land-Atmosphere System (BrFLAS) Project financed by the Portuguese and Brazilian science foundations, FCT and FAPESP (project references FAPESP/1389/2014 and 2014/20042-2). [1] KRAWCHUK, M.A.; MORITZ, M.A.; PARISIEN, M.A.; VAN DORN, J

  12. PERSPECTIVE: Learning from the Brazilian biofuel experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the article `The ethanol program in Brazil' [1] José Goldemberg summarizes the key features of Brazil's sugarcane ethanol program—the most successful biofuel program in the world so far. In fact, as of 2005, Brazil was the world's largest producer of fuel ethanol. In addition to providing 40% of its gasoline market with ethanol, Brazil exports a significant amount of ethanol to Europe, Japan, and the United States. The success of the program is attributed to a variety of factors, including supportive governmental policies and favorable natural conditions (such as a tropical climate with abundant rainfall and high temperatures). As the article points out, in the early stages of the Brazilian ethanol program, the Brazilian government provided loans to sugarcane growers and ethanol producers (in most cases, they are the same people) to encourage sugarcane and ethanol production. Thereafter, ethanol prices were regulated to ensure that producers can economically sustain production and consumers can benefit from using ethanol. Over time, Brazil was able to achieve a price for ethanol that is lower than that for gasoline, on the basis of energy content. This lower cost is largely driving the widespread use of ethanol instead of gasoline by consumers in Brazil. In the United States, if owners of E85 flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are expected to use E85 instead of gasoline in their FFVs, E85 will have to be priced competitively against gasoline on an energy-content basis. Compared with corn-based or sugar beet-based ethanol, Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol yields considerably more favorable results in terms of energy balance and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These results are primarily due to (i) the dramatic increase of sugarcane yield in Brazil in the past 25 years and (ii) the use of bagasse instead of fossil fuels in ethanol plants to provide the heat needed for ethanol plant operations and to generate electricity for export to electric grids

  13. PREFACE: VII Brazilian Congress on Metrology (Metrologia 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa-Félix, Rodrigo; Bernardes, Americo; Valente de Oliveira, José Carlos; Mauro Granjeiro, José; Epsztejn, Ruth; Ihlenfeld, Waldemar; Smarçaro da Cunha, Valnei

    2015-01-01

    SEVENTH BRAZILIAN CONGRESS ON METROLOGY (METROLOGIA 2013) Metrology and Quality for a Sustainable Development From November 24th to 27th 2013 was issued the Seventh Brazilian Congress on Metrology (Metrologia 2013), which is a biannual conference organized and sponsored by the Brazilian Society of Metrology (SBM) and the Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (Inmetro). This edition was held in the charming and historical city of Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil, and aimed to join people and institutions devoted to the dissemination of the metrology and conformity assessment. The Metrologia 2013 Conference consisted of Keynote Speeches (7) and regular papers (204). Among the regular papers, the 47 most outstanding ones, comprising a high quality content on Metrology and Conformity Assessment, were selected to be published in this issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The topics of the conference covered all important areas of Metrology, which were agglutinated in the following sessions in the present issue: . Physical Metrology (Acoustics, Vibration and Ultrasound; Electricity and Magnetism; Mechanics; Optics); . Metrology on Ionizing Radiations; . Time and Frequency; . Chemistry Metrology; . Materials Metrology; . Biotechnology; . Uncertainty, Statistics and Mathematics; . Legal Metrology; . Conformity Assessment. It is our great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) to the scientific community to promote further research in Metrology and related areas. We believe that this volume will be both an excellent source of scientific material in the fast evolving fields that were covered by Metrologia 2013. President of the congress Americo Bernardes Federal University of Ouro Preto atb@iceb.ufop.br Editor-in-chief Rodrigo Costa-Félix Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology rpfelix@inmetro.gov.br Editors José Carlos Valente de Oliveira (Editor on Mechanical Metrology

  14. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Amanda de Moura; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Giannini, Denise Tavares; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years) to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years). Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended (< 10.0%). Vitamins A and E, and calcium were the micronutrients with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake (> 50.0%). Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar. PMID:26910551

  15. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Souza, Amanda de Moura; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Giannini, Denise Tavares; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years) to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years). Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended (< 10.0%). Vitamins A and E, and calcium were the micronutrients with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake (> 50.0%). Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar.

  16. Implementation of the Brazilian National Repository - RBMN Project - 13008

    SciTech Connect

    Cassia Oliveira de Tello, Cledola

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). Besides this NPP, in the National Energy Program is previewed the installation of four more plants, by 2030. In November 2008, CNEN launched the Project RBMN (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes), which aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (authors)

  17. The Teaching of Afro-Brazilian and Indigenous Culture and History in Brazilian Basic Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimarães, Selva

    2015-01-01

    This paper approaches the public policies for teaching Afro-Brazilian and indigenous history and culture in Brazil in the 21st century. It is part of a broader study about the implementation and impacts of Federal Laws 10.639/2009 and 11.645/2008, which made the study of these topics mandatory across the national territory. Our methodology…

  18. The Teaching of Afro-Brazilian and Indigenous Culture and History in Brazilian Basic Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimarães, Selva

    2015-01-01

    This paper approaches the public policies for teaching Afro-Brazilian and indigenous history and culture in Brazil in the 21st century. It is part of a broader study about the implementation and impacts of Federal Laws 10.639/2009 and 11.645/2008, which made the study of these topics mandatory across the national territory. Our methodology…

  19. Rotator cuff repair in the Brazilian Unified Health System: Brazilian trends from 2003 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Assunção, Jorge Henrique; Beraldo, Rodrigo Alves; Pinto, Gustavo de Mello Ribeiro; Gracitelli, Mauro Emilio Conforto; Ferreira Neto, Arnaldo Amado

    2017-01-01

    To assess the historical trend of rotator cuff repairs in Brazil between 2003 and 2015, using the database of the Brazilian Unified Health System's (Sistema Único de Saúde [SUS]) Department of Informatics (DataSUS). Historical series using DataSUS. Surgeries performed between 2003 and 2015 were included and data relating to cuff tear repair were assessed, including decompression procedures were included. The numerator was the total number of rotator cuff repair and the denominator, the total population of the assessed locality. Population data were based on information from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). During the period, 50,207 surgeries were performed. The rate was presented as number of procedures per 100,000 inhabitants, and increased from 0.83 to 2.81, a growth of 238%. In 2015, the South region had the highest rate, 6.32, followed by the Southeast, 3.62, while the North had the lowest rate, 0.13. The growing trend can be observed in the Southeast, South, and Midwest, while the rate is stable in the North and Northeast. The rate of rotator cuff repairs in Brazil performed through the SUS increased from 0.83 to 2.81 between 2003 and 2015, representing a growth of 238%, but remains lower than that of developed countries. A trend of growth can be observed in the Southeast, South, and Midwest, while the rate is stable in the North and Northeast.

  20. Antioxidant activity of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of Brazilian blueberries.

    PubMed

    Pertuzatti, Paula Becker; Barcia, Milene Teixeira; Rodrigues, Daniele; da Cruz, Pollyanna Nogueira; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Smith, Robert; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of ten cultivars of Highbush and Rabbiteye Brazilian blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and Vacciniumashei Reade, respectively) that are used for commercial production were analysed for antioxidant activity by the FRAP, ORAC, ABTS and β-carotene-linoleate methods. Results were correlated to the amounts of carotenoids, total phenolics and anthocyanins. Brazilian blueberries had relatively high concentration of total phenolics (1,622-3,457 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g DW) and total anthocyanins (140-318 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g DW), as well as being a good source of carotenoids. There was a higher positive correlation between the amounts of these compounds and the antioxidant activity of hydrophilic compared to lipophilic extracts. There were also significant differences in the level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities between different cultivars, production location and year of cultivation.