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Sample records for brazilian free-tailed bats

  1. Thermal windows on Brazilian free-tailed bats facilitate thermoregulation during prolonged flight.

    PubMed

    Reichard, Jonathan D; Prajapati, Suresh I; Austad, Steven N; Keller, Charles; Kunz, Thomas H

    2010-09-01

    The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) experiences challenging thermal conditions while roosting in hot caves, flying during warm daylight conditions, and foraging at cool high altitudes. Using thermal infrared cameras, we identified hot spots along the flanks of free-ranging Brazilian free-tailed bats, ventral to the extended wings. These hot spots are absent in syntopic cave myotis (Myotis velifer), a species that forages over relatively short distances, and does not engage in long-distance migration. We hypothesized that the hot spots, or "radiators," on Brazilian free-tailed bats may be adaptations for migration, particularly in this long-distance, high-flying species. We examined the vasculature of radiators on Brazilian free-tailed bats with transillumination to characterize the unique arrangements of arteries and veins that are positioned perpendicular to the body in the proximal region of the wing. We hypothesized that these radiators aid in maintaining heat balance by flushing the uninsulated thermal window with warm blood, thereby dissipating heat while bats are flying under warm conditions, but shunting blood away and conserving heat when they are flying in cooler air at high altitudes. We also examined fluid-preserved specimens representing 122 species from 15 of 18 chiropteran families and radiators appeared present only in species in the family Molossidae, including both sedentary and migratory species and subspecies. Thus, the radiator appears to be a unique trait that may facilitate energy balance and water balance during sustained dispersal, foraging, and long-distance migration.

  2. Thermal Windows on Brazilian Free-tailed Bats Facilitate Thermoregulation during Prolonged Flight

    PubMed Central

    Reichard, Jonathan D.; Prajapati, Suresh I.; Austad, Steven N.; Keller, Charles; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) experiences challenging thermal conditions while roosting in hot caves, flying during warm daylight conditions, and foraging at cool high altitudes. Using thermal infrared cameras, we identified hot spots along the flanks of free-ranging Brazilian free-tailed bats, ventral to the extended wings. These hot spots are absent in syntopic cave myotis (Myotis velifer), a species that forages over relatively short distances, and does not engage in long-distance migration. We hypothesized that the hot spots, or “radiators,” on Brazilian free-tailed bats may be adaptations for migration, particularly in this long-distance, high-flying species. We examined the vasculature of radiators on Brazilian free-tailed bats with transillumination to characterize the unique arrangements of arteries and veins that are positioned perpendicular to the body in the proximal region of the wing. We hypothesized that these radiators aid in maintaining heat balance by flushing the uninsulated thermal window with warm blood, thereby dissipating heat while bats are flying under warm conditions, but shunting blood away and conserving heat when they are flying in cooler air at high altitudes. We also examined fluid-preserved specimens representing 122 species from 15 of 18 chiropteran families and radiators appeared present only in species in the family Molossidae, including both sedentary and migratory species and subspecies. Thus, the radiator appears to be a unique trait that may facilitate energy balance and water balance during sustained dispersal, foraging, and long-distance migration. PMID:20811514

  3. Dead and dying Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) from Texas: Rabies and pesticide exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Donlad R.; Lollar, Amanda; Cowman, Deborah

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-three dead and dying Brazilian free-tailed bats from roosts in downtown Mineral Wells, Palo Pinto County, Texas, were tested for rabies and for anticholinesterase (antiChE) effects of or- ganophosphorus (OP) and carbamate pesticides. Seventeen of the 23 bats tested positive for rabies. The cause of death or dying in five of the nonrabid bats is unknown; however, one of the six nonrabid bats had a ChE activity level equivalent to only 27% of the control mean and may have been exposed to a pes- ticide. Three bats (including the bat with depressed ChE) contained sufficient ingesta to analyze for an- tiChE compounds, but no antiChE compounds could be identified in the samples. Exposure may be dermal and pulmonary as well as dietary. It is feasible that other bat deaths not explained by rabies were attributable to a pesticide but missed due to postmortem reactivation of the ChE enzyme. The largest group of rabid bats was young males (13 of 17, 76.5%), and the largest group of nonrabid bats was older females (3 of 6, 50%). All older females were nonrabid, perhaps survivors of the disease in previous years. Rabid bats had a lower mean fat index and weighed less than nonrabid bats. Four bats (not includ- ing the low ChE bat) showed external bleeding, and none was rabid; thus the incidence of bleeding was greater among nonrabid bats than among rabid bats. The four affected bats came from roosts in three different buildings, making a roost-treatment with an anticoagulant chemical seem unlikely.

  4. Variation in physiological stress between bridge- and cave-roosting Brazilian free-tailed bats.

    PubMed

    Allen, Louise C; Turmelle, Amy S; Widmaier, Eric P; Hristov, Nickolay I; McCracken, Gary F; Kunz, Thomas H

    2011-04-01

    Since the late 1980s, Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) have increasingly used bridges as roosts in the southern United States. We examined differences in blood cortisol levels, body condition, and parasite load, as measures of physiological stress in bats roosting in bridges and bats roosting in caves. We collected data during three periods, coinciding with female phases of reproduction. For all measures, bats were captured during the nightly emergence from the roost and immediately sampled. Cortisol levels were significantly higher during pregnancy and lactation and in individuals with lower body-condition scores (length of forearm to mass ratio) and significantly higher in bats roosting in caves than in those roosting in bridges. Thus, we concluded that individuals of this species that roost in bridges are not chronically stressed and seem to be unaffected by human activities present at bridges. This is a rare documented instance where a human-dominated environment does not appear to be adversely affecting the physiological health of a free-ranging animal.

  5. Brazilian free-tailed bats as insect pest regulators in transgenic and conventional cotton crops.

    PubMed

    Federico, Paula; Hallam, Thomas G; McCracken, Gary F; Purucker, S Thomas; Grant, William E; Correa-Sandoval, A Nelly; Westbrook, John K; Medellin, Rodrigo A; Cleveland, Cutler J; Sansone, Chris G; López, Juan D; Betke, Margrit; Moreno-Valdez, Arnulfo; Kunz, Thomas H

    2008-06-01

    During the past 12000 years agricultural systems have transitioned from natural habitats to conventional agricultural regions and recently to large areas of genetically engineered (GE) croplands. This GE revolution occurred for cotton in a span of slightly more than a decade during which a switch occurred in major cotton production areas from growing 100% conventional cotton to an environment in which 95% transgenics are grown. Ecological interactions between GE targeted insects and other insectivorous insects have been investigated. However, the relationships between ecological functions (such as herbivory and ecosystem transport) and agronomic benefits of avian or mammalian insectivores in the transgenic environment generally remain unclear, although the importance of some agricultural pest management services provided by insectivorous species such as the Brazilian free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis, have been recognized. We developed a dynamic model to predict regional-scale ecological functions in agricultural food webs by using the indicators of insect pest herbivory measured by cotton boll damage and insect emigration from cotton. In the south-central Texas Winter Garden agricultural region we find that the process of insectivory by bats has a considerable impact on both the ecology and valuation of harvest in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic and nontransgenic cotton crops. Predation on agricultural pests by insectivorous bats may enhance the economic value of agricultural systems by reducing the frequency of required spraying and delaying the ultimate need for new pesticides. In the Winter Garden region, the presence of large numbers of insectivorous bats yields a regional summer dispersion of adult pest insects from Bt cotton that is considerably reduced from the moth emigration when bats are absent in either transgenic or non-transgenic crops. This regional decrease of pest numbers impacts insect herbivory on a transcontinental scale. With a few

  6. Changes in kinematics and aerodynamics over a range of speeds in Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Hristov, Nickolay I; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2012-06-07

    To date, wake measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV) of bats in flight have studied only three bat species, all fruit and nectar feeders. In this study, we present the first wake structure analysis for an insectivorous bat. Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an aerial hunter that annually migrates long distances and also differs strikingly from the previously investigated species morphologically. We compare the aerodynamics of T. brasiliensis with those of other, frugivorous bats and with common swifts, Apus apus, a bird with wing morphology, kinematics and flight ecology similar to that of these bats. The comparison reveals that, for the range of speeds evaluated, the cyclical pattern of aerodynamic forces associated with a wingbeat shows more similarities between T. brasiliensis and A. apus than between T. brasiliensis and other frugivorous bats.

  7. Changes in kinematics and aerodynamics over a range of speeds in Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Hristov, Nickolay I.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Breuer, Kenneth S.

    2012-01-01

    To date, wake measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV) of bats in flight have studied only three bat species, all fruit and nectar feeders. In this study, we present the first wake structure analysis for an insectivorous bat. Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an aerial hunter that annually migrates long distances and also differs strikingly from the previously investigated species morphologically. We compare the aerodynamics of T. brasiliensis with those of other, frugivorous bats and with common swifts, Apus apus, a bird with wing morphology, kinematics and flight ecology similar to that of these bats. The comparison reveals that, for the range of speeds evaluated, the cyclical pattern of aerodynamic forces associated with a wingbeat shows more similarities between T. brasiliensis and A. apus than between T. brasiliensis and other frugivorous bats. PMID:22258554

  8. Thermoregulation during flight: body temperature and sensible heat transfer in free-ranging Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Reichard, Jonathan D; Fellows, Spenser R; Frank, Alexander J; Kunz, Thomas H

    2010-01-01

    Bat wings are important for thermoregulation, but their role in heat balance during flight is largely unknown. More than 80% of the energy consumed during flight generates heat as a by-product, and thus it is expected that bat wings should dissipate large amounts of heat to prevent hyperthermia. We measured rectal (T(r)) and surface (T(s)) temperatures of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) as they emerged from and returned to their daytime roosts and calculated sensible heat transfer for different body regions (head, body, wings, and tail membrane). Bats' T(r) decreased from 36.8°C during emergence flights to 34.4°C during returns, and T(s) scaled positively with ambient temperature (T(a)). Total radiative heat loss from bats was significantly greater for a radiative sink to the night sky than for a sink with temperature equal to T(a). We found that free-ranging Brazilian free-tailed bats, on average, do not dissipate heat from their wings by convection but instead dissipate radiative heat (L) to the cloudless night sky during flight ([Formula: see text] W). However, within the range of T(a) measured in this study, T. brasiliensis experienced net heat loss between evening emergence and return flights. Regional hypothermia reduces heat loss from wings that are exposed to potentially high convective fluxes. Additional research is needed to establish the role of wings in evaporative cooling during flight in bats.

  9. Vascular contrast enhanced micro-CT imaging of "radiators" in the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Reichard, Jonathan D; Kunz, Thomas H; Keller, Charles; Prajapati, Suresh I

    2012-04-01

    The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) exhibits a highly vascularized, hairless thermal window (or "radiator") on the proximal ventral surfaces of extended wings and body. We identified this character using thermal infrared imaging and investigated the vasculature using barium sulfate enhanced microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). Micro-CT images revealed unique arrangements of arteries and veins in the region of the radiator positioned perpendicular to the axis of the body. Coupling micro-CT imaging with analysis of surface temperature profiles, we concluded that radiators aid in thermoregulation during flight in variable environments. This study represents the first application of contrast enhanced micro-CT to visualize vasculature of bats and thus exhibits a promising technique for further investigations of cardiovascular function and anatomy in bats.

  10. Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis: Molossidae, Chiroptera) at high altitude: links to migratory insect populations.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Gary F; Gillam, Erin H; Westbrook, John K; Lee, Ya-Fu; Jensen, Michael L; Balsley, Ben B

    2008-07-01

    Existing information on the activity of bats in the aerosphere is restricted almost exclusively to altitudes that are within a few tens of meters above the ground. We report a total of 50.2 h of ultrasonic recordings made using radio microphonic bat detectors suspended from free-floating helium balloons and from kites. The data include a total of 22 353 echolocative calls from ground-level to 1118 m above ground level (AGL). These calls are attributed to Brazilian free-tailed bats based on acoustic features and the large numbers and high-altitude aerial dispersion of these bats over the local landscape. Bat activity varied significantly throughout the air column and was greatest at 400-500 m AGL and near ground level. Feeding buzzes, indicating feeding on aerial prey, were most abundant near ground level and at 400-500 m, and were detected to altitudes of ∼ 900 m AGL. The peak activity of bats at 400-500 m AGL is concordant with the altitude of the atmospheric boundary layer and the seasonal formation of the low-elevation southerly wind jet that has been identified as a major aeroecological corridor for the nocturnal dispersal of noctuid moths and other insects.

  11. Histological assessment of cellular immune response to the phytohemagglutinin skin test in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Turmelle, Amy S; Ellison, James A; Mendonça, Mary T; McCracken, Gary F

    2010-11-01

    Bats are known reservoirs for numerous emerging infectious diseases, occupy unique ecological niches, and occur globally except for Antarctica. Given their impact on human and agricultural health, it is critical to understand the mechanisms underlying immunocompetence in this reservoir host. To date, few studies have examined immune function in the Order Chiroptera, particularly among natural colonies of bats. The phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test has been widely used to measure delayed-type cellular immune response in a wide variety of vertebrates, and has been routinely employed in immunoecological studies. Although this test is frequently described as a measure of T cell proliferation, recent studies indicate it may represent a combination of immune responses. In mammals, the immune response is differentially, temporally and spatially regulated, therefore, we characterized the infiltrating leukocyte response to the PHA skin test in bats by examining a time-series of histological sections from PHA and saline injection areas in 41 Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis). Results suggest that bats exhibit diverse leukocyte traffic within 6 h, and up to 24 h following subcutaneous PHA injection. There was a significant presence of lymphocytes and neutrophils, as well as eosinophils, basophils, and macrophages observed in the PHA-injected tissues, compared with saline-injected control tissues. We observed a highly significant negative correlation between the number of lymphocytes and neutrophils in PHA-injected tissue, with peak lymphocyte response at 12 h, and peak neutrophil response at 24 h post-injection. These results indicate substantial variation in the immune response of individuals, and may aid our understanding of disease emergence in natural populations of bats.

  12. Roosting ecology and variation in adaptive and innate immune system function in the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Allen, Louise C; Turmelle, Amy S; Mendonça, Mary T; Navara, Kristen J; Kunz, Thomas H; McCracken, Gary F

    2009-04-01

    Bats have recently been implicated as reservoirs of important emerging diseases. However, few studies have examined immune responses in bats, and even fewer have evaluated these responses in an ecological context. We examined aspects of both innate and adaptive immune response in adult female Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) at four maternity roosts (two natural caves and two human-made bridges) in south-central Texas. Immune measurements included in vitro bactericidal ability of whole blood and in vivo T cell mediated response to mitogenic challenge. Bactericidal activity in T. brasiliensis varied with roosting ecology, but appears to be sensitive to colony-level effects. Blood from females living at one cave had significantly lower bactericidal ability than blood from females at three other sites. T cell mediated response in this species was associated with variation in roost ecology, with females from two caves having greater responses than females from two bridges. T cell mediated response and bactericidal activity were negatively correlated with one another within individuals that were tested for both. Variation in immunological response of T. brasiliensis is important for understanding the influence of the environment on the frequency and distribution of immunologically competent individuals and for understanding disease-host dynamics in this and other colonial species.

  13. Response to vaccination with a commercial inactivated rabies vaccine in a captive colony of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Turmelle, Amy S; Allen, Louise C; Schmidt-French, Barbara A; Jackson, Felix R; Kunz, Thomas H; McCracken, Gary F; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2010-03-01

    A captive colony of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) was vaccinated with a commercial monovalent inactivated rabies virus (RABV) vaccine (RABVAC 1). Baseline rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) and the response to vaccination were measured in 50 bats. Rabies VNA was detected in the plasma of 64% (27/42) of bats that had been vaccinated 1 yr prior, but only 19% (8/42) had levels considered adequate. Rabies VNA was detected in the plasma of 63% (5/8) of bats with no record of previous vaccination, suggesting natural RABV exposure before captivity. All bats demonstrated a VNA response by 10 days postvaccination, and baseline titer significantly predicted humoral response to vaccination. No adverse reactions to vaccination or clinical signs of RABV infection were observed in the bats during a 6-mo observation period. Annual vaccination may maintain immunity against RABV infection in captive colonies of bats. Bat, rabies virus, Tadarida brasiliensis, vaccination, virus neutralizing antibodies.

  14. Ecology of rabies virus exposure in colonies of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) at natural and man-made roosts in Texas.

    PubMed

    Turmelle, Amy S; Allen, Louise C; Jackson, Felix R; Kunz, Thomas H; Rupprecht, Charles E; McCracken, Gary F

    2010-03-01

    Previous studies have investigated rabies virus (RABV) epizootiology in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) in natural cave roosts. However, little is known about geographic variation in RABV exposure, or if the use of man-made roosts by this species affects enzootic RABV infection dynamics within colonies. We sampled rabies viral neutralizing antibodies in bats at three bridge and three cave roosts at multiple time points during the reproductive season to investigate temporal and roost variation in RABV exposure. We report seropositive bats in all age and sex classes with minimal geographic variation in RABV seroprevalence among Brazilian free-tailed bat colonies in south-central Texas. While roost type was not a significant predictor of RABV seroprevalence, it was significantly associated with seasonal fluctuations, suggesting patterns of exposure that differ between roosts. Temporal patterns suggest increased RABV seroprevalence after parturition in cave colonies, potentially related to an influx of susceptible young, in contrast to more uniform seroprevalence in bridge colonies. This study highlights the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding patterns of RABV seroprevalence in colonies of the Brazilian free-tailed bat.

  15. Detection of Alphacoronavirus in velvety free-tailed bats (Molossus molossus) and Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) from urban area of Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Francisco Esmaile de Sales; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Kunert Filho, Hiran Castagnino; Batista, Helena Beatriz de Carvalho Ruthner; Carnielli, Pedro; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Spilki, Fernando Rosado; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Cláudia

    2013-08-01

    A survey was carried out in search for bat coronaviruses in an urban maternity roost of about 500 specimens of two species of insectivorous bats, Molossus molossus and Tadarida brasiliensis, in Southern Brazil. Twenty-nine out of 150 pooled fecal samples tested positive by reverse transcription-PCR contained fragments of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene of coronavirus-related viruses. The sequences clustered along with bat alphacoronaviruses, forming a subcluster within this group. Our findings point to the need for risk assessment and continued surveillance of coronavirus infections of bats in Brazil.

  16. Fat content in migratory central Arizona Brazilian free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensis (Molossidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    Fat content of migratory Tadarida brasiliensis was determined during the spring, summer and fall of 1972 in the Verde Valley of Arizona. Fat indices were highest in March arrivals, generally declined throughout the summer, and were lowest in September. In both 1972 and 1973 bats had arrived at the study area by mid-March. In 1971 bats were last noted at the area in mid-October while in 1972 they had disappeared by late September. On the basis on physiological calculations it is estimated that bats collected in March 1972 possessed sufficient fat reserves to carry them a mean distance of 716 km north of the study area while September bats had only enough reserves to fly 386 km southward, about 160 km short of the nearest known Sonora wintering locality. It is suggested that in spring the bats may have a more rigidly timed migration and so put on excess fat to counter an uncertain environment to the north. The fall migration may be triggered by more unpredictable events, such as the passage of cold fronts, and less fat reserves may be required for movements into more favorable southern locales.

  17. Analyzing NEXRAD doppler radar images to assess nightly dispersal patterns and population trends in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Horn, Jason W; Kunz, Thomas H

    2008-07-01

    Operators of early weather-surveillance radars often observed echoes on their displays that did not behave like weather pattern, including expanding ring-like shapes they called angels. These echoes were caused by high-flying insects, migrating birds, and large colonies of bats emerging from roosts to feed. Modern weather-surveillance radar stations in the United States (NEXt-generation RADar or NEXRAD) provide detailed images that clearly show evening bat emergences from large colonies. These images can be used to investigate the flight behavior of groups of bats and population trends in large colonies of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) in south-central Texas which are clearly imaged by local NEXRAD radar stations. In this study, we used radar reflectivity data from the New Braunfels, Texas NEXRAD station to examine relative colony size, direction of movement, speed of dispersion, and altitude gradients of bats from these colonies following evening emergence. Base reflectivity clear-air-mode Level-II images were geo-referenced and compiled in a GIS along with locations of colonies and features on the landscape. Temporal sequences of images were filtered for the activity of bats, and from this, the relative size of bat colonies, and the speed and heading of bat emergences were calculated. Our results indicate cyclical changes in colony size from year to year and that initial headings taken by bats during emergence flights are highly directional. We found that NEXRAD data can be an effective tool for monitoring the nightly behavior and seasonal changes in these large colonies. Understanding the distribution of a large regional bat population on a landscape scale has important implications for agricultural pest management and conservation efforts.

  18. Infectivity of attenuated poxvirus vaccine vectors and immunogenicity of a raccoonpox vectored rabies vaccine in the Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Stading, Ben R; Osorio, Jorge E; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Smotherman, Michael; Kingstad-Bakke, Brock; Rocke, Tonie E

    2016-10-17

    Bats (Order Chiroptera) are an abundant group of mammals with tremendous ecological value as insectivores and plant dispersers, but their role as reservoirs of zoonotic diseases has received more attention in the last decade. With the goal of managing disease in free-ranging bats, we tested modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and raccoon poxvirus (RCN) as potential vaccine vectors in the Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), using biophotonic in vivo imaging and immunogenicity studies. Animals were administered recombinant poxviral vectors expressing the luciferase gene (MVA-luc, RCN-luc) through oronasal (ON) or intramuscular (IM) routes and subsequently monitored for bioluminescent signal indicative of viral infection. No clinical illness was noted after exposure to any of the vectors, and limited luciferase expression was observed. Higher and longer levels of expression were observed with the RCN-luc construct. When given IM, luciferase expression was limited to the site of injection, while ON exposure led to initial expression in the oral cavity, often followed by secondary replication at another location, likely the gastric mucosa or gastric associated lymphatic tissue. Viral DNA was detected in oral swabs up to 7 and 9 days post infection (dpi) for MVA and RCN, respectively. While no live virus was detected in oral swabs from MVA-infected bats, titers up to 3.88 x 10(4) PFU/ml were recovered from oral swabs of RCN-infected bats. Viral DNA was also detected in fecal samples from two bats inoculated IM with RCN, but no live virus was recovered. Finally, we examined the immunogenicity of a RCN based rabies vaccine (RCN-G) following ON administration. Significant rabies neutralizing antibody titers were detected in the serum of immunized bats using the rapid fluorescence focus inhibition test (RFFIT). These studies highlight the safety and immunogenicity of attenuated poxviruses and their potential use as vaccine vectors in bats.

  19. Infectivity of attenuated poxvirus vaccine vectors and immunogenicity of a raccoonpox vectored rabies vaccine in the Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stading, Benjamin; Osorio, Jorge E.; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Smotherman, Michael; Kingstad-Bakke, Brock; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2016-01-01

    Bats (Order Chiroptera) are an abundant group of mammals with tremendous ecological value as insectivores and plant dispersers, but their role as reservoirs of zoonotic diseases has received more attention in the last decade. With the goal of managing disease in free-ranging bats, we tested modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and raccoon poxvirus (RCN) as potential vaccine vectors in the Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), using biophotonic in vivo imaging and immunogenicity studies. Animals were administered recombinant poxviral vectors expressing the luciferase gene (MVA-luc, RCN-luc) through oronasal (ON) or intramuscular (IM) routes and subsequently monitored for bioluminescent signal indicative of viral infection. No clinical illness was noted after exposure to any of the vectors, and limited luciferase expression was observed. Higher and longer levels of expression were observed with the RCN-luc construct. When given IM, luciferase expression was limited to the site of injection, while ON exposure led to initial expression in the oral cavity, often followed by secondary replication at another location, likely the gastric mucosa or gastric associated lymphatic tissue. Viral DNA was detected in oral swabs up to 7 and 9 days post infection (dpi) for MVA and RCN, respectively. While no live virus was detected in oral swabs from MVA-infected bats, titers up to 3.88 x 104 PFU/ml were recovered from oral swabs of RCN-infected bats. Viral DNA was also detected in fecal samples from two bats inoculated IM with RCN, but no live virus was recovered. Finally, we examined the immunogenicity of a RCN based rabies vaccine (RCN-G) following ON administration. Significant rabies neutralizing antibody titers were detected in the serum of immunized bats using the rapid fluorescence focus inhibition test (RFFIT). These studies highlight the safety and immunogenicity of attenuated poxviruses and their potential use as vaccine vectors in bats.

  20. Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis: Molossidae, Chiroptera) at high altitude: Links to migratory insect populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Existing information on the activity of bats in the aerosphere is restricted almost exclusively to altitudes that are within a few tens of meters above the ground. We report a total of 50.2 hrs of ultrasonic recordings made using radiomicrophone bat detectors suspended from free-floating helium bal...

  1. DDT and the decline of free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) at Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Clark, D R

    2001-05-01

    DDT is believed to have caused the population of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) at Carlsbad Cavern to decline severely after 1936. Nevertheless, previous data supporting this hypothesis are limited to a single study from 1974, which indicated that 20% of young free-tails from the cavern may have died of DDE poisoning during their first southward migration. In this study I compared organochlorine residues among samples of free-tails collected in Carlsbad Cavern in 1930, 1956, 1965, 1973, and 1988. Samples of skin cut from dry museum specimens were chemically analyzed, except for the 1973 data, which were derived from analyses of whole bats minus gastrointestinal tracts. Accumulated residue levels of DDT compounds in bats from 1965 and 1956 exceeded those in 1973 bats by approximately 4.8 times and approximately 2.7 times, respectively. This suggests that lethal effects of DDT compounds were substantially greater in the 1950s and 1960s than in the 1970s. Residues in 1988 bats resembled those for 1973 bats. It is concluded that DDT played a major role in this severe population decline. These results can be applied by management personnel in evaluating the present and future status of this population regarding persisting organochlorine insecticides as well as other agricultural chemicals now in use. The case of the Carlsbad colony is discussed relative to the general issue of other bat population declines.

  2. A Comparison of mucosal surface area and villous histology in small intestines of the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) and the mouse (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Brun, Antonio; Price, Edwin R; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P; Karasov, William H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Studies on birds have led to the hypothesis that increased intestinal absorption between enterocytes (paracellular) evolved as a compensation for smaller intestinal size in fliers, which was perhaps selected to minimize the mass of digesta carried. This hypothesis predicts that bats will also exhibit relatively reduced intestinal size and high paracellular absorption, compared with nonflying mammals. Published studies on three bat species indicate relatively high paracellular absorption. One mechanism for increasing paracellular absorption per cm2 small intestine (SI) is increased number of tight junctions (TJs) across which paracellular absorption occurs. To our knowledge, we provide the first comparative analysis of enterocyte size and number in flying and nonflying mammals. Intestines of insectivorous bats Tadarida brasiliensis were compared with Mus musculus using hematoxylin and eosin staining method. Bats had shorter and narrower SIs than mice, and after correction for body size difference by normalizing to mass3/4, the bats had 40% less nominal surface area than the mouse, as predicted. Villous enhancement of surface area was 90% greater in the bat than in the mouse, mainly because of longer villi and a greater density of villi in bat intestines. Bat and mouse were similar in enterocyte diameter. Bats exceeded mice by 54.4% in villous area per cm length SI and by 95% in number of enterocytes per cm2 of the nominal surface area of the SI. Therefore, an increased density of TJs per cm2 SI may be a mechanistic explanation that helps to understand the high paracellular absorption observed in bats compared to nonflying mammals.

  3. Effects of DDE on experimentally poisoned free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis): Lethal brain concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Kroll, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Adult female free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and shipped to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Treated mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing 107 ppm DDE were fed to 17 bats; five other bats were fed untreated mealworms. After 40 days on dosage, during which one dosed bat was killed accidentally, four dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 17 were starved to death. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE to lethality and measure these concentrations. After the feeding period, dosed bats weighed less than controls. After starvation, the body condition of dosed bats was poorer than that of controls even though there was no difference in the amounts of carcass fat. During starvation, dosed bats lost weight faster than controls. Also, four dosed bats exhibited the prolonged tremoring that characterizes DDE poisoning. DDE increased in brains of starving bats as fat was metabolized. The estimated mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was 519 ppm with a range of 458-564 ppm. These values resemble diagnostic levels known for two species of passerine birds, but they exceed published levels for two free-tailed bats from Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico.

  4. Effects of DDE on experimentally poisoned free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis): lethal brain concentrations.

    PubMed

    Clark, D R; Kroll, J C

    1977-12-01

    Adult female free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and shipped to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Treated mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing 107 ppm DDE were fed to 17 bats; five other bats were fed untreated mealworms. After 40 days on dosage, during which one dosed bat was killed accidentally, four dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 17 were starved to death. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE to lethality and measure these concentrations. After the feeding period, dosed bats weighed less than controls. After starvation, the body condition of dosed bats was poorer than that of controls even though there was no difference in the amounts of carcass fat. During starvation, dosed bats lost weight faster than controls. Also, four dosed bats exhibited the prolonged tremoring that characterizes DDE poisoning. DDE increased in brains of starving bats as fat was metabolized. The estimated mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was 519 ppm with a range of 458-564 ppm. These values resemble diagnostic levels known for two species of passerine birds, but they exceed published levels for two free-tailed bats from Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico.

  5. Serotonergic innervation of the auditory brainstem of the Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Hurley, L M; Thompson, A M

    2001-06-18

    Anatomical and electrophysiological evidence suggests that serotonin alters the processing of sound in the auditory brainstem of many mammalian species. The Mexican free-tailed bat is a hearing specialist, like other microchiropteran bats. At the same time, many aspects of its auditory brainstem are similar to those in other mammals. This dichotomy raises an interesting question regarding the serotonergic innervation of the bat auditory brainstem: Is the serotonergic input to the auditory brainstem similar in bats and other mammals, or are there specializations in the serotonergic innervation of bats that may be related to their exceptional hearing capabilities? To address this question, we immunocytochemically labeled serotonergic fibers in the brainstem of the Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis. We found many similarities in the pattern of serotonergic innervation of the auditory brainstem in Tadarida compared with other mammals, but we also found two striking differences. Similarities to staining patterns in other mammals included a higher density of serotonergic fibers in the dorsal cochlear nucleus and in granule cell regions than in the ventral cochlear nucleus, a high density of fibers in some periolivary nuclei of the superior olive, and a higher density of fibers in peripheral regions of the inferior colliculus compared with its core. The two novel features of serotonergic innervation in Tadarida were a high density of fibers in the fusiform layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus relative to surrounding layers and a relatively high density of serotonergic fibers in the low-frequency regions of the lateral and medial superior olive.

  6. Context-dependent effects of noise on echolocation pulse characteristics in free-tailed bats.

    PubMed

    Tressler, Jedediah; Smotherman, Michael S

    2009-10-01

    Background noise evokes a similar suite of adaptations in the acoustic structure of communication calls across a diverse range of vertebrates. Echolocating bats may have evolved specialized vocal strategies for echolocating in noise, but also seem to exhibit generic vertebrate responses such as the ubiquitous Lombard response. We wondered how bats balance generic and echolocation-specific vocal responses to noise. To address this question, we first characterized the vocal responses of flying free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) to broadband noises varying in amplitude. Secondly, we measured the bats' responses to band-limited noises that varied in the extent of overlap with their echolocation pulse bandwidth. We hypothesized that the bats' generic responses to noise would be graded proportionally with noise amplitude, total bandwidth and frequency content, and consequently that more selective responses to band-limited noise such as the jamming avoidance response could be explained by a linear decomposition of the response to broadband noise. Instead, the results showed that both the nature and the magnitude of the vocal responses varied with the acoustic structure of the outgoing pulse as well as non-linearly with noise parameters. We conclude that free-tailed bats utilize separate generic and specialized vocal responses to noise in a context-dependent fashion.

  7. Tourism values for Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) viewing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Widerholdt, Ruscena

    2013-01-01

    Migratory species provide diverse ecosystem services to people, but these values have seldom been estimated rangewide for a single species. In this article, we summarize visitation and consumer surplus for recreational visitors to viewing sites for the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) throughout the Southwestern United States. Public bat viewing opportunities are available at 17 of 25 major roosts across six states; on an annual basis, we estimate that over 242,000 visitors view bats, gaining over $6.5 million in consumer surplus. A better understanding of spatial mismatches between the areas where bats provide value to people and areas most critical for maintaining migratory populations can better inform conservation planning, including economic incentive systems for conservation.

  8. Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

  9. Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats (Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex.

    PubMed

    Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

  10. Female dietary bias towards large migratory moths in the European free-tailed bat (Tadarida teniotis)

    PubMed Central

    Corley, Martin F. V.

    2016-01-01

    In bats, sexual segregation has been described in relation to differential use of roosting and foraging habitats. It is possible that variation may also exist between genders in the use of different prey types. However, until recently this idea was difficult to test owing to poorly resolved taxonomy of dietary studies. Here, we use high-throughput sequencing to describe gender-related variation in diet composition of the European free-tailed bat (Tadarida teniotis), while controlling for effects of age and season. We analysed guano pellets collected from 143 individuals mist-netted from April to October 2012 and 2013, in northeast Portugal. Moths (Lepidoptera; mainly Noctuidae and Geometridae) were by far the most frequently recorded prey, occurring in nearly all samples and accounting for 96 out of 115 prey taxa. There were significant dietary differences between males and females, irrespective of age and season. Compared to males, females tended to consume larger moths and more moths of migratory behaviour (e.g. Autographa gamma). Our study provides the first example of gender-related dietary variation in bats, illustrating the value of novel molecular tools for revealing intraspecific variation in food resource use in bats and other insectivores. PMID:27009885

  11. Organochlorine insecticide residues in the free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) at Bracken Cave, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Martin, C.O.; Swineford, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Fifty-nine free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana ) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and analyzed for organochlorine insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Residues of DDE in the brain were greater in 12 young collected from the floor than in 15 young taken from the ceiling, but food deprivation, not higher residues in the brain, apparently caused young to fall....Among 18 pregnant females, residues of DDE and DDT were highest in yearlings. The first lactation by yearlings caused their residue loads to drop sharply. Thereafter, increasing age was accompanied by increasing residues but amounts generally did not exceed those in yearlings.....Residue levels in embryos were a function both of levels in the female parent and degree of embryonic development. Residues accumulated rapidly in nursing young, and lactating females may excrete from 1.3 to 16.2 (mean = 4.3) micrograms of DDE in milk per day. Maximum individual residue loads may be attained toward the end of nursing, and mobilization of these residues during southward migration may subject Bracken Cave free-tails to maximum lifetime residues in the brain....Comparison of our data with residue data for the free-tail population at Eagle Creek Cave (Arizona) in 1970 produced the following conclusions: ( 1) residues of DDE appeared similar in pregnant females, embryos, lactating females, and fallen young for the two populations; (2) residues of DDT and dieldrin appeared greater in pregnant females at Bracken Cave; (3) DDE and DDT occurred at greater levels in guano samples from Bracken Cave. On this basis, the population decline observed at Eagle Creek Cave between 1963 and 1969 does not appear to be related to the residues observed in the 1970 samples taken from that cave.

  12. Evidence for prenatal transfer of rabies virus in the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis Mexicana).

    PubMed

    Steece, R S; Calisher, C H

    1989-07-01

    Fetuses were collected from four Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) and a fetal bat cell (FBC) line was established and tested for its ability to support the replication of the ERA vaccine strain of rabies virus. Cytopathic effects were detected in ERA virus-inoculated as well as uninoculated FBC's. Immunofluorescent antibody testing of uninoculated FBC's provided no evidence for the presence of rabies virus. However, mice inoculated intracranially with supernatant fluid from uninoculated FBC's died. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescent antibody testing revealed rabies virus in the brains of these mice. Tests with a panel of monoclonal antibodies indicated that the isolate was the same as that isolated from Mexican free-tailed bats from the southwestern United States. We conclude that the fetuses from which the FBC line was derived had been infected in utero with rabies virus. We believe this may represent the first observation of prenatal transfer of rabies virus in naturally infected bats.

  13. Genetic variation and migration in the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana).

    PubMed

    Russell, A L; Medellín, R A; McCracken, G F

    2005-06-01

    Incomplete lineage sorting can genetically link populations long after they have diverged, and will exert a more powerful influence on larger populations. The effects of this stochastic process can easily be confounded with those of gene flow, potentially leading to inaccurate estimates of dispersal capabilities or erroneous designation of evolutionarily significant units (ESUs). We have used phylogenetic, population genetic, and coalescent methods to examine genetic structuring in large populations of a widely dispersing bat species and to test hypotheses concerning the influences of coalescent stochasticity vs. gene flow. The Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana, exhibits variation in both migratory tendency and route over its range. Observations of the species' migratory behaviour have led to the description of behaviourally and geographically defined migratory groups, with the prediction that these groups compose structured gene pools. Here, we used mtDNA sequence analyses coupled with existing information from allozyme, banding, and natural history studies to evaluate hypotheses regarding the relationship between migration and genetic structure. Analyses of molecular variance revealed no significant genetic structuring of behaviourally distinct migratory groups. Demographic analyses were consistent with population growth, although the timing of population expansion events differs between migratory and nonmigratory populations. Hypotheses concerning the role of gene flow vs. incomplete lineage sorting on these data are explored using coalescent simulations. Our study demonstrates the importance of accounting for coalescent stochasticity in formulating phylogeographical hypotheses, and indicates that analyses that do not take such processes into account can lead to false conclusions regarding a species' phylogeographical history.

  14. Molecular Diet Analysis of Two African Free-Tailed Bats (Molossidae) Using High Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Bohmann, Kristine; Monadjem, Ara; Lehmkuhl Noer, Christina; Rasmussen, Morten; Zeale, Matt R. K.; Clare, Elizabeth; Jones, Gareth; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    Given the diversity of prey consumed by insectivorous bats, it is difficult to discern the composition of their diet using morphological or conventional PCR-based analyses of their faeces. We demonstrate the use of a powerful alternate tool, the use of the Roche FLX sequencing platform to deep-sequence uniquely 5′ tagged insect-generic barcode cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) fragments, that were PCR amplified from faecal pellets of two free-tailed bat species Chaerephon pumilus and Mops condylurus (family: Molossidae). Although the analyses were challenged by the paucity of southern African insect COI sequences in the GenBank and BOLD databases, similarity to existing collections allowed the preliminary identification of 25 prey families from six orders of insects within the diet of C. pumilus, and 24 families from seven orders within the diet of M. condylurus. Insects identified to families within the orders Lepidoptera and Diptera were widely present among the faecal samples analysed. The two families that were observed most frequently were Noctuidae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera). Species-level analysis of the data was accomplished using novel bioinformatics techniques for the identification of molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU). Based on these analyses, our data provide little evidence of resource partitioning between sympatric M. condylurus and C. pumilus in the Simunye region of Swaziland at the time of year when the samples were collected, although as more complete databases against which to compare the sequences are generated this may have to be re-evaluated. PMID:21731749

  15. Residues of lead, cadmium, and arsenic in livers of Mexican free-tailed bats

    SciTech Connect

    Thies, M.; Gregory, D. )

    1994-05-01

    Since 1936, the size of the summer population of Mexican free-tailed bats, Tadarida brasiliensisat Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, declined from an estimated 8.7 million to 700,000 in 1991. This decline has been attributed primarily to human disturbance and the heavy agricultural use of organochlorine pesticides. Members of this species forage extensively over heavily agricultural areas, feeding on insects potentially contaminated with high levels of insecticides and trace metals. However, contamination from elements such as lead, cadmium, and arsenic have not been examined. The accumulation of these elements in wild vertebrates is often a primary reflection of contamination of the food supply. The presence of elemental contaminants in body tissues of bats is poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine and compare lead, cadmium, and arsenic contamination in livers of adult T. Brasiliensis from Carlsbad Caverns and Vickery Cave, a maternity colony in northwestern Oklahoma. Lead, cadmium, and arsenic were specifically selected because of their documented toxic and/or reproductive effects and their potential availability to this species. Large quantities of tetraethyl lead have been released into the environment and other lead compounds continue to be released by industrial manufacturing and petroleum refinement processes. Cadmium is used in a number of industrial processes such as metal plating and fabrication of alloys and is released from phosphate fertilizers and combusted coals. Teratogenicity appears to be greater for cadmium than for other elements. Arsenical compounds have been commonly used as herbicides and defoliants. These compounds have been demonstrated to cause abnormal embryonic development, degenerative tissue changes, cancer, chromosomal damage, and death in domestic animals.

  16. New report of parasite-fauna of the free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis, Geoffroy, 1824) in Chile.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Pamela; Fredes, Fernando; Raffo, Eduardo; González-Acuña, Daniel; Muñoz, Lisandro; Cid, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and ninety five specimens of free tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) obtained from two regions of Chile were analized to determine parasite infection. From those specimens the endoparasites identified were: Trematoda: Acanthatrium lunatum, Limatuoides limatulus and Paralecithodendrium carlsbadensis; Cestoda: Vampirolepis sp.; Nematoda: Nochtia pilosus and Anoplostrongylus paradoxus. The ectoparasites identified were Chiroptonyssus robustipes, Ewingnana inaequalis and Notoedres lasionycteris all of them are acari species. Even thought the bat specimens are from the same species on both survey sites, the results differ for each site when the parasite species identified are compared.

  17. Anatomy and projection patterns of the superior olivary complex in the Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana.

    PubMed

    Grothe, B; Schweizer, H; Pollak, G D; Schuller, G; Rosemann, C

    1994-05-22

    The superior olivary complex (SOC) is the first station in the ascending auditory pathway that receives binaural projections. Two of the principal nuclei, the lateral superior olive (LSO) and the medial superior olive (MSO), are major sources of ascending projections to the inferior colliculus. Whereas almost all mammals have an LSO, it has traditionally been thought that only animals that hear low frequencies have an MSO. Recent reports, however, suggest that the medial part of the SOC in bats is highly variable and that at least some bats have a well-developed MSO. Thus, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the cytoarchitecture and connections of the principal superior olivary nuclei of the Mexican free-tailed bat, with specific attention directed at the MSO. Cell and fiber stained material revealed that the LSO and the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) are similar to those described for other mammals. There are two medial nuclei we refer to as dorsomedial periolivary nucleus (DMPO) and MSO. Tracer experiments exhibited that the DMPO receives bilateral projections from the cochlear nucleus, and additional projections from the ipsilateral MNTB. The DMPO sends a strong projection to the ipsilateral inferior colliculus. Positive staining for acetylcholinesterase indicates that the DMPO is a part of the olivocochlear system, as it is in other animals. The MSO in the free-tailed bat meets many of the criteria that traditionally define this nucleus. These include the presence of bipolar and multipolar principal cells, bilateral innervation from the cochlear nucleus, a strong projection from the ipsilateral MNTB, and the absence of cholinergic cells. The major difference from traditional MSO features is that it projects bilaterally to the inferior colliculus. Approximately 30% of its cells provide collateral projections to the colliculi on both sides. Functional implications of the MSO for the free-tailed bat are considered in the Discussion.

  18. A Novel Chiropteran Circovirus Genome Recovered from a Brazilian Insectivorous Bat Species

    PubMed Central

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Dall Bello, Aline Gehlen; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Witt, André Alberto; Roehe, Paulo Michel; d’Azevedo, Pedro Alves

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the identification and characterization of a novel circovirus using metagenomic approaches in respiratory fluid samples from Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis). The genome and deduced protein sequences share low identity with another circovirus recovered in distantly related bats from China. PMID:26607898

  19. A Novel Chiropteran Circovirus Genome Recovered from a Brazilian Insectivorous Bat Species.

    PubMed

    Lima, Francisco Esmaile Sales; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Dall Bello, Aline Gehlen; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Witt, André Alberto; Roehe, Paulo Michel; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves

    2015-11-25

    This report describes the identification and characterization of a novel circovirus using metagenomic approaches in respiratory fluid samples from Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis). The genome and deduced protein sequences share low identity with another circovirus recovered in distantly related bats from China.

  20. Prevalence of rabies specific antibodies in the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) at Lava Cave, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Steece, R; Altenbach, J S

    1989-10-01

    Adult female and juvenile Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) were collected bimonthly at Lava Cave, New Mexico from May through September. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of active rabies infection as well as to determine individual immune status in these hosts. All bats were bled and examined for rabies antibody (total antibody versus IgM) utilizing a modified serum neutralization test. The brains were removed and examined by the fluorescent rabies antibody (FRA) test. No significant difference was observed in the number of adults with rabies neutralizing antibody (total) over the study period. Significant differences in rabies neutralizing antibody (total) were observed among the juveniles sampled during July and August. The number of adults with IgM specific antibody was low (15 of 750, 2%) and did not fluctuate significantly. However, the number of juveniles with IgM antibody did show increased levels in August and September. The number of adults positive by the FRA was low (4 of 750, less than 1%) and did not appear to fluctuate significantly over the study period. The number of juveniles positive by the FRA was three and one-half times higher than observed for the adults (14 of 600, 2%). These results indicate that the Mexican free-tailed bat appears to be exposed to rabies virus shortly after birth as evident by its immune status. The low prevalence (4 of 750, less than 1%) of active infection as determined by the FRA and mouse inoculation and the high prevalence (514 of 750, 69%) of IgG antibody in the adult females indicate that the Mexican free-tailed bat recovers from rabies virus infection.

  1. Acarine infracommunities associated with the Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana (Chiroptera: Molossidae) in arid regions of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Cornejo, C; García-Prieto, L; Morales-Malacara, J B; Pérez-Ponce De León, G

    2003-11-01

    The Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana, is one of the most widely distributed bats, and its range includes the whole Mexican territory. Ectoparasites of this bat have been the subject of isolated reports, but no studies of its community ecology have been conducted. The acarine infracommunities associated with this bat were analyzed, comparing bat populations from three arid regions of Mexico: an abandoned factory in Nombre de Dios, Durango; a cave in Santiago, Nuevo León; and a church in Concepción del Oro, Zacatecas. The acarine infracommunity in Nuevo Le6n's bats exhibited the highest levels of diversity as reflected by a higher richness, a lower dominance, and a moderate and relatively homogeneous abundance in this locality in relation to the other two. This pattern is influenced by stable cave conditions relative to artificial habitats. Notwithstanding, further studies are required to determine whether or not different habitat conditions are a primary factor in the process of structuring the acari infracommunities.

  2. Syllable acoustics, temporal patterns, and call composition vary with behavioral context in Mexican free-tailed bats

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Kirsten M.; Schmidt-French, Barbara; Ma, Sean T.; Pollak, George D.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has shown that some bat species have rich vocal repertoires with diverse syllable acoustics. Few studies, however, have compared vocalizations across different behavioral contexts or examined the temporal emission patterns of vocalizations. In this paper, a comprehensive examination of the vocal repertoire of Mexican free-tailed bats, T. brasiliensis, is presented. Syllable acoustics and temporal emission patterns for 16 types of vocalizations including courtship song revealed three main findings. First, although in some cases syllables are unique to specific calls, other syllables are shared among different calls. Second, entire calls associated with one behavior can be embedded into more complex vocalizations used in entirely different behavioral contexts. Third, when different calls are composed of similar syllables, distinctive temporal emission patterns may facilitate call recognition. These results indicate that syllable acoustics alone do not likely provide enough information for call recognition; rather, the acoustic context and temporal emission patterns of vocalizations may affect meaning. PMID:19045674

  3. Syllable acoustics, temporal patterns, and call composition vary with behavioral context in Mexican free-tailed bats.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Kirsten M; Schmidt-French, Barbara; Ma, Sean T; Pollak, George D

    2008-09-01

    Recent research has shown that some bat species have rich vocal repertoires with diverse syllable acoustics. Few studies, however, have compared vocalizations across different behavioral contexts or examined the temporal emission patterns of vocalizations. In this paper, a comprehensive examination of the vocal repertoire of Mexican free-tailed bats, T. brasiliensis, is presented. Syllable acoustics and temporal emission patterns for 16 types of vocalizations including courtship song revealed three main findings. First, although in some cases syllables are unique to specific calls, other syllables are shared among different calls. Second, entire calls associated with one behavior can be embedded into more complex vocalizations used in entirely different behavioral contexts. Third, when different calls are composed of similar syllables, distinctive temporal emission patterns may facilitate call recognition. These results indicate that syllable acoustics alone do not likely provide enough information for call recognition; rather, the acoustic context and temporal emission patterns of vocalizations may affect meaning.

  4. A Study of Mexican Free-Tailed Bat Chirp Syllables: Bayesian Functional Mixed Models for Nonstationary Acoustic Time Series.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Josue G; Bohn, Kirsten M; Carroll, Raymond J; Morris, Jeffrey S

    2013-06-01

    We describe a new approach to analyze chirp syllables of free-tailed bats from two regions of Texas in which they are predominant: Austin and College Station. Our goal is to characterize any systematic regional differences in the mating chirps and assess whether individual bats have signature chirps. The data are analyzed by modeling spectrograms of the chirps as responses in a Bayesian functional mixed model. Given the variable chirp lengths, we compute the spectrograms on a relative time scale interpretable as the relative chirp position, using a variable window overlap based on chirp length. We use 2D wavelet transforms to capture correlation within the spectrogram in our modeling and obtain adaptive regularization of the estimates and inference for the regions-specific spectrograms. Our model includes random effect spectrograms at the bat level to account for correlation among chirps from the same bat, and to assess relative variability in chirp spectrograms within and between bats. The modeling of spectrograms using functional mixed models is a general approach for the analysis of replicated nonstationary time series, such as our acoustical signals, to relate aspects of the signals to various predictors, while accounting for between-signal structure. This can be done on raw spectrograms when all signals are of the same length, and can be done using spectrograms defined on a relative time scale for signals of variable length in settings where the idea of defining correspondence across signals based on relative position is sensible.

  5. A Study of Mexican Free-Tailed Bat Chirp Syllables: Bayesian Functional Mixed Models for Nonstationary Acoustic Time Series

    PubMed Central

    MARTINEZ, Josue G.; BOHN, Kirsten M.; CARROLL, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new approach to analyze chirp syllables of free-tailed bats from two regions of Texas in which they are predominant: Austin and College Station. Our goal is to characterize any systematic regional differences in the mating chirps and assess whether individual bats have signature chirps. The data are analyzed by modeling spectrograms of the chirps as responses in a Bayesian functional mixed model. Given the variable chirp lengths, we compute the spectrograms on a relative time scale interpretable as the relative chirp position, using a variable window overlap based on chirp length. We use 2D wavelet transforms to capture correlation within the spectrogram in our modeling and obtain adaptive regularization of the estimates and inference for the regions-specific spectrograms. Our model includes random effect spectrograms at the bat level to account for correlation among chirps from the same bat, and to assess relative variability in chirp spectrograms within and between bats. The modeling of spectrograms using functional mixed models is a general approach for the analysis of replicated nonstationary time series, such as our acoustical signals, to relate aspects of the signals to various predictors, while accounting for between-signal structure. This can be done on raw spectrograms when all signals are of the same length, and can be done using spectrograms defined on a relative time scale for signals of variable length in settings where the idea of defining correspondence across signals based on relative position is sensible. PMID:23997376

  6. The tiny difference between foraging and communication buzzes uttered by the Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Christine; Tressler, Jedidiah; Keller, Halli; Vanzant, Marc; Ezell, Sarah; Smotherman, Michael

    2007-08-01

    Echolocating insectivorous bats consummate prey captures using a distinct vocal motor pattern commonly known as the terminal or feeding buzz, which is widely considered a fixed motor pattern executed independently of auditory feedback influences. The Mexican free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis, offers an opportunity to explore the role of sensory feedback in buzzing because they emit similar buzzes both in flight during foraging and while stationary as communication sounds. Here we compared the spectral and temporal patterns of foraging and communication buzzes to address whether or not auditory feedback may influence buzz patterns. We found that while foraging buzzes uttered in open space were composed of generic FM calls, communication buzzes were composed of an adapted CF-FM call similar to the call type used by T. brasiliensis when navigating in confined spaces. This provides the first evidence that some bats can make significant context-dependent changes in the spectral parameters of calls within their buzz. We also found that inter-pulse intervals, but not call durations, were different within the two buzz types. These observations indicate that though a common pattern generator hierarchically organizes all buzzes, T. brasiliensis retains a significant capacity to adapt the spectral and temporal patterns of elements within its buzzes.

  7. Distribution of 2-[I]iodomelatonin binding in the brain of Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis).

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Christine; Bartell, Paul; Cassone, Vincent; Smotherman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The neurohormone melatonin is an important signal for both time of day and time of year in many seasonally breeding animals. High densities of melatonin receptors have been found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, median eminence, and the pituitary gland in almost all mammals investigated so far, and lower densities of melatonin receptors have also been localized to other brain regions varying in a species-specific fashion. Because species-specific differences in receptor distributions have been correlated with differences in behavior and ecology, a comparative study of how melatonin receptors are distributed in vertebrate brains can be useful to the understanding of the functional organization of neural circuits controlling daily and seasonal behaviors. In this study, we localized and characterized melatonin binding sites in the brain of the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) using in vitro autoradiography with 2-[(125)I]iodomelatonin. Tadarida brasiliensis is a nocturnal insectivorous mammal that seasonally migrates, reproduces once a year, and exhibits documented sexual dimorphisms in seasonal reproductive behaviors, most notably in courtship vocalizations. Prominent 2-[(125)I]iodomelatonin binding was found in the median eminence, suprachiasmatic nuclei, and hippocampus, similar to that observed in other mammals. High densities of binding were also localized to structures of the basal ganglia, including the caudate nucleus, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, a feature commonly observed in songbirds but not in mammals. Saturation analysis indicated that the observed binding sites had an affinity for melatonin typical of the binding properties for the Mel(1a) receptor subtype. We conclude that melatonin receptor distributions in the Mexican free-tailed bat brain appear to show similarities with the reproductive and circadian systems of other mammals and the basal ganglia of songbirds.

  8. Kaeng Khoi virus from naturally infected bedbugs (Cimicidae) and immature free-tailed bats*

    PubMed Central

    Williams, James E.; Imlarp, Somsak; Top, Franklin H.; Cavanaugh, Dan C.; Russell, Philip K.

    1976-01-01

    Kaeng Khoi virus was recovered from bedbugs (Stricticimex parvus and Cimex insuetus) and from suckling wrinkle-lipped bats (Tadarida plicata) collected in central Thailand. The data implicate bedbugs as possible vectors of this virus. PMID:1086729

  9. Population growth of Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) predates human agricultural activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human activities, such as agriculture, hunting, and habitat modification, exert a significant effect on native species. Although many species have suffered population declines, increased population fragmentation, or even extinction in connection with these human impacts, others seem to have benefitted from human modification of their habitat. Here we examine whether population growth in an insectivorous bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) can be attributed to the widespread expansion of agriculture in North America following European settlement. Colonies of T. b. mexicana are extremely large (~106 individuals) and, in the modern era, major agricultural insect pests form an important component of their food resource. It is thus hypothesized that the growth of these insectivorous bat populations was coupled to the expansion of agricultural land use in North America over the last few centuries. Results We sequenced one haploid and one autosomal locus to determine the rate and time of onset of population growth in T. b. mexicana. Using an approximate Maximum Likelihood method, we have determined that T. b. mexicana populations began to grow ~220 kya from a relatively small ancestral effective population size before reaching the large effective population size observed today. Conclusions Our analyses reject the hypothesis that T. b. mexicana populations grew in connection with the expansion of human agriculture in North America, and instead suggest that this growth commenced long before the arrival of humans. As T. brasiliensis is a subtropical species, we hypothesize that the observed signals of population growth may instead reflect range expansions of ancestral bat populations from southern glacial refugia during the tail end of the Pleistocene. PMID:21457563

  10. A novel Coltivirus-related virus isolated from free-tailed bats from Côte d'Ivoire is able to infect human cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Sabrina; Dabrowski, Piotr Wojtek; Kurth, Andreas; Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2017-09-18

    Zoonotic transmission events play a major role in the emergence of novel diseases. While such events are virtually impossible to predict, wildlife screening for potential emerging pathogens can be a first step. Driven by recent disease epidemics like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and Ebola, bats have gained special interest as reservoirs of emerging viruses. As part of a bigger study investigating pathogens in African bats we screened animals for the presence of known and unknown viruses. We isolated and characterised a novel reovirus from blood of free-tailed bats (Chaereophon aloysiisabaudiae) captured in 2006 in Côte d'Ivoire. The virus showed closest relationship with two human pathogenic viruses, Colorado tick fever virus and Eyach virus, and was able to infect various human cell lines in vitro. The study shows the presence of a coltivirus-related virus in bats from Sub-Sahara Africa. Serological studies could help to assess its impact on humans or wildlife health.

  11. Driving factors for the evolution of species-specific echolocation call design in new world free-tailed bats (molossidae).

    PubMed

    Jung, Kirsten; Molinari, Jesús; Kalko, Elisabeth K V

    2014-01-01

    Phylogeny, ecology, and sensorial constraints are thought to be the most important factors influencing echolocation call design in bats. The Molossidae is a diverse bat family with a majority of species restricted to tropical and subtropical regions. Most molossids are specialized to forage for insects in open space, and thus share similar navigational challenges. We use an unprecedented dataset on the echolocation calls of 8 genera and 18 species of New World molossids to explore how habitat, phylogenetic relatedness, body mass, and prey perception contribute to echolocation call design. Our results confirm that, with the exception of the genus Molossops, echolocation calls of these bats show a typical design for open space foraging. Two lines of evidence point to echolocation call structure of molossids reflecting phylogenetic relatedness. First, such structure is significantly more similar within than among genera. Second, except for allometric scaling, such structure is nearly the same in congeneric species. Despite contrasting body masses, 12 of 18 species call within a relatively narrow frequency range of 20 to 35 kHz, a finding that we explain by using a modeling approach whose results suggest this frequency range to be an adaptation optimizing prey perception in open space. To conclude, we argue that the high variability in echolocation call design of molossids is an advanced evolutionary trait allowing the flexible adjustment of echolocation systems to various sensorial challenges, while conserving sender identity for social communication. Unraveling evolutionary drivers for echolocation call design in bats has so far been hampered by the lack of adequate model organisms sharing a phylogenetic origin and facing similar sensorial challenges. We thus believe that knowledge of the echolocation call diversity of New World molossid bats may prove to be landmark to understand the evolution and functionality of species-specific signal design in bats.

  12. Variation in echolocation call frequencies in two species of free-tailed bats according to temperature and humidity.

    PubMed

    Chaverri, Gloriana; Quirós, Oscar E

    2017-07-01

    Bats can actively adjust their echolocation signals to specific habitats and tasks, yet it is not known if bats also modify their calls to decrease atmospheric attenuation. Here the authors test the hypothesis that individuals emit echolocation calls ideally suited to current conditions of temperature and humidity. The authors recorded two species, Molossus molossus and Molossops temminckii, in the field under different conditions of humidity and temperature. For each species, two calls were analyzed: the shorter frequency modulated (FM) signals that bats emitted as they approached the recording microphone, and the longer constant frequency (CF) calls emitted thereafter. For each signal, the authors extracted peak frequency and duration, and compared these parameters among species, call type, and environmental conditions. The authors' results show significant differences in peak frequency and duration among environmental conditions for both call types. Bats decreased the frequency and increased duration of CF calls as atmospheric attenuation increased; using a lower-frequency call may increase the range of detection by a few meters as atmospheric attenuation increases. The same trend was not observed for FM calls, which may be explained by the primary role of these signals in short-range target localization.

  13. Seasonal variation of energy reserves and reproduction in neotropical free-tailed bats Molossus molossus (Chiroptera: Molossidae).

    PubMed

    Barros, M S; Morais, D B; Araújo, M R; Carvalho, T F; Matta, S L P; Pinheiro, E C; Freitas, M B

    2013-08-01

    Seasonal variation is a key factor regulating energy metabolism and reproduction in several mammals, including bats. This study aimed to track seasonal changes in the energy reserves of the insectivorous bat Molossus molossus associated with its reproductive cycle. Adult males were collected during the four neotropical annual seasons in Viçosa - MG, Brazil. Blood and tissues were collected for metabolic analysis and testes were removed for histology and morphometry. Our results show that liver and breast muscle glycogen concentrations were significantly lower in winter. The adiposity index was significantly higher in the fall compared to winter and spring. Seminiferous tubules were greater in diameter in animals captured in fall and winter, indicating a higher investment in spermatic production during these seasons. The percentage of Leydig cells was higher in summer compared to fall and winter. We suggest that M. molossus presents a type of seasonal reproduction with two peaks of testicular activity: one in fall, with higher sperm production (spermatogenesis), and another in summer, with higher hormone production (steroidogenesis). The metabolic pattern may be associated with reproductive events, especially due to the highest fat storage observed in the fall, which coincides with the further development of the seminiferous tubules.

  14. Primary structure and functional properties of the hemoglobin from the free-tailed bat Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera). Small effect of carbon dioxide on oxygen affinity.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, T; Rücknagel, K P; Weber, R E; Koop, B F; Braunitzer, G

    1987-06-01

    The hemoglobin of the Free-Tailed Bat Tadarida brasiliensis (Microchiroptera) comprises two components (Hb I and Hb II) in nearly equal amounts. Both hemoglobins have identical beta-chains, whereas the alpha-chains differ in having glycine (Hb I) or aspartic acid (Hb II) in position 115 (GH3). The components could be isolated by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography and separated into the globin chains by chromatography on carboxymethyl-cellulose CM-52. The sequences have been determined by Edman degradation with the film technique or the gas phase method (the alpha I-chains with the latter method only), using the native chains and tryptic peptides, as well as the C-terminal prolyl-peptide obtained by acid hydrolysis of the Asp-Pro bond in the beta-chains. The comparison with human hemoglobin showed 18 substitutions in the alpha-chains and 24 in the beta-chains. In the alpha-chains one amino-acid exchange involves an alpha 1/beta 1-contact. In the beta-chains one heme contact, three alpha 1/beta 1- and one alpha 1/beta 2-contacts are substituted. A comparison with other chiropteran hemoglobin sequences shows similar distances to Micro- and Megachiroptera. The oxygenation characteristics of the composite hemolysate and the two components, measured in relation to pH, Cl-, and 2,3-bis-phosphoglycerate, are described. The effect of carbon dioxide on oxygen affinity is considerably smaller than that observed in human hemoglobin, which might be an adaptation to life under hypercapnic conditions.

  15. Energy metabolism and evaporative water loss in the European free-tailed bat and Hemprich's long-eared bat (Microchiroptera): species sympatric in the Negev Desert.

    PubMed

    Marom, Sagi; Korine, Carmi; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Tracy, Christopher R; Pinshow, Berry

    2006-01-01

    We compared the thermoregulatory abilities of two insectivorous bat species, Tadarida teniotis (mean body mass 32 g) and Otonycteris hemprichii (mean body mass 25 g), that are of different phylogenetic origins and zoogeographic distributions but are sympatric in the Negev Desert. At night, both were normothermic. By day, both were torpid when exposed to ambient temperatures (T(a)) below 25 degrees Celsius, with concomitant adjustments in metabolic rate (MR). Otonycteris hemprichii entered torpor at higher T(a) than T. teniotis, and, when torpid, their body temperatures (T(b)) were 1 degrees -2 degrees Celsius and 5 degrees -8 degrees Celsius above T(a), respectively; MR was correspondingly reduced. At night, the lower critical temperature of T. teniotis was 31.5 degrees Celsius, and that of O. hemprichii was 33 degrees Celsius. Mean nocturnal thermoneutral MR of T. teniotis was 37% greater than that of O. hemprichii. At high T(a), evaporative water loss (EWL) increased markedly in both species, but it was significantly higher in T. teniotis above 38 degrees Celsius. In both species, the dry heat transfer coefficient (thermal conductance) followed the expected pattern for small mammals, by day and by night. Total EWL was notably low in normothermic and torpid animals of both species, much lower than values reported for other bats, indicating efficient water conservation mechanisms in the study species. Comparing thermoregulatory abilities suggests that O. hemprichii is better adapted to hot, arid environments than T. teniotis, which may explain its wider desert distribution. By both standard and phylogenetically informed ANCOVA, we found no differences in basal metabolic rate (BMR) between desert and nondesert species of insectivorous bats, substantiating previous studies suggesting that low BMR is a characteristic common to insectivorous bats in general.

  16. Bats track and exploit changes in insect pest populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator’s ability to exploit available prey in space and time. Using a qPCR faecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consumin...

  17. Bats aloft: Variation in echolocation call structure at high altitudes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bats alter their echolocation calls in response to changes in ecological and behavioral conditions, but little is known about how they adjust their call structure in response to changes in altitude. This study examines altitudinal variation in the echolocation calls of Brazilian free-tailed bats, T...

  18. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  19. Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) as insect pest regulators in transgenic and conventional cotton crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the past 12,000 years, agricultural systems have transitioned from natural areas to conventional agricultural regions, and recently, to genetically engineered crops. The most rapid transitional link has been from non-transgenic to transgenic crops; in a span of slightly more than a decade, ma...

  20. Brazilian Free-tailed Bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) as Insect Pest Regulators in Transgenic and Conventional Cotton Crops

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past 12,000 years agricultural systems have transitioned from natural habitats to conventional agricultural regions, and recently to large areas of genetically- engineered (GE) croplands. This GE revolution occurred for cotton in a span of slightly more than a decade w...

  1. Brazilian Free-tailed Bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) as Insect Pest Regulators in Transgenic and Conventional Cotton Crops

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past 12,000 years agricultural systems have transitioned from natural habitats to conventional agricultural regions, and recently to large areas of genetically- engineered (GE) croplands. This GE revolution occurred for cotton in a span of slightly more than a decade w...

  2. A Novel Anelloviridae Species Detected in Tadarida brasiliensis Bats: First Sequence of a Chiropteran Anellovirus

    PubMed Central

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; de Sales Lima, Francisco Esmaile; do Santos, Helton Fernandes; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Using metagenomic approaches, we identified a novel Torque teno virus from Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) (TT-TbV). The TT-TbV genome and deduced protein sequences share extremely low identity with known anelloviruses. Due to a high degree of phylogenetic divergence, such putative virus could not be allocated into any Anelloviridae genera. PMID:25359906

  3. A Novel Anelloviridae Species Detected in Tadarida brasiliensis Bats: First Sequence of a Chiropteran Anellovirus.

    PubMed

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; de Sales Lima, Francisco Esmaile; do Santos, Helton Fernandes; Franco, Ana Claudia; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2014-10-30

    Using metagenomic approaches, we identified a novel Torque teno virus from Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) (TT-TbV). The TT-TbV genome and deduced protein sequences share extremely low identity with known anelloviruses. Due to a high degree of phylogenetic divergence, such putative virus could not be allocated into any Anelloviridae genera.

  4. Bats of the Savannah River Site and vicinity.

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Menzel; J.M. Menzel; J.C. Kilgo; W.M. Ford; T.C. Carter; J.W. Edwards

    2003-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site supports a diverse bat community. Nine species occur there regularly, including the eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus), southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius), evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis), Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis), Seminole bat (L. seminolus), hoary bat (L. cinereus), and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). There are extralimital capture records for two additional species: little brown bat (M. lucifigus) and northern yellow bat (Lasiurus intermedius). Acoustical sampling has documented the presence of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), but none has been captured. Among those species common to the Site, the southeastern myotis and Rafinesque's big-eared bat are listed in South Carolina as threatened and endangered, respectively. The presence of those two species, and a growing concern for the conservation of forest-dwelling bats, led to extensive and focused research on the Savannah River Site between 1996 and 2002. Summarizing this and other bat research, we provide species accounts that discuss morphology and distribution, roosting and foraging behaviors, home range characteristics, habitat relations, and reproductive biology. We also present information on conservation needs and rabies issues; and, finally, identification keys that may be useful wherever the bat species we describe are found.

  5. The importance of natural habitats to Brazilian free-tailed bats in intensive agricultural landscapes in the Winter Garden Region of Texas, United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The conversion of natural lands to agriculture affects the distribution of biological diversity across the landscape. In particular, cropland monocultures alter insect abundance and diversity compared to adjacent natural habitats, but nevertheless can provide large numbers of insect pests as prey i...

  6. Parasite-host interactions of bat flies (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea) in Brazilian tropical dry forests.

    PubMed

    de Vasconcelos, Pedro Fonseca; Falcão, Luiz Alberto Dolabela; Graciolli, Gustavo; Borges, Magno Augusto Zazá

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the parasitology of ectoparasitic bat flies are scarce, and they are needed to identify patterns in parasitism. Hence, in the present study, we assessed community composition, prevalence, average infestation intensity, and specificity in the fly-bat associations in Brazilian tropical dry forests. In order to do that, we used the parasitological indices known as prevalence and average infestation intensity, along with an index of host specificity. We collected 1098 bat flies of 38 species. Five of the associations found are new to Brazil, 9 are new to southeastern Brazil, and 10 are new to science. Average infestation intensity varied from 1 to 9 and prevalence 0 to 100 %. In terms of specificity, 76 % of the bat flies were associated to a single host (monoxenic). These results highlight the low capacity of bat flies to survive on a not usual host especially due to an immunological incompatibility between parasites and hosts and dispersal barriers.

  7. Antibodies Against Henipa-Like Viruses in Brazilian Bats.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Jansen; Lo, Michael K; Tamin, Azaibi; Ometto, Tatiana L; Thomazelli, Luciano M; Nardi, Marcello S; Hurtado, Renata F; Nava, Alessandra; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Rota, Paul A; Durigon, Edison L

    2017-04-01

    Bats are reservoir hosts for many paramyxoviruses, some of which cause human and zoonotic diseases of public health importance. We developed a Nipah virus nucleoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect cross-reactive antibodies in serum samples from several bat species in Brazil. Our results warrant further investigation of henipa-like virus reservoirs in the Western hemisphere.

  8. Advanced infrared detection and image processing for automated bat censusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Jeffery D.; Kunz, Tomas H.; Horn, Jason; Cleveland, Cutler; Petronio, Susan M.

    2003-09-01

    The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) forms some of the largest aggregations of mammals known to mankind. However, little is known about population sizes and nightly foraging activities. An advanced infrared (IR) thermal imaging system with a real time imaging and data acquisition system is described for censusing Brazilian free-tailed bats during nightly emergences at selected Texas caves. We developed a statistically-based algorithm suitable for counting emerging bats in columns with relative constant trajectories and velocities. Individual bats are not identified and tracked, but instead column density is calculated at intervals of 1/30th of a second and counts are accumulated based upon column velocity. Preliminary evaluation has shown this method to be far more accurate than those previously used to census large bat populations. This real-time automated censusing system allows us to make accurate and repeatable estimates of the number of bats present independent of colony size, ambient light, or weather conditions, and without causing disturbance to the colony.

  9. Bats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information about bats, including definitions and descriptions of the characteristics of bats. Provides teaching activities such as "Bat and Math,""A Bat Like That,""Bat Party,""Ears in the Dark," and "The Big Bat Mystery." Contains reproducible handouts and quizzes. (TW)

  10. Bats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information about bats, including definitions and descriptions of the characteristics of bats. Provides teaching activities such as "Bat and Math,""A Bat Like That,""Bat Party,""Ears in the Dark," and "The Big Bat Mystery." Contains reproducible handouts and quizzes. (TW)

  11. Large Roads Reduce Bat Activity across Multiple Species

    PubMed Central

    Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations. PMID:24823689

  12. Large roads reduce bat activity across multiple species.

    PubMed

    Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations.

  13. Genomic characterization of two novel polyomaviruses in Brazilian insectivorous bats.

    PubMed

    de Sales Lima, Francisco Esmaile; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Witt, André Alberto; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2015-07-01

    Two novel genomes comprising ≈4.9 kb were identified by next-generation sequencing from pooled organs of Tadarida brasiliensis bats. The overall nucleotide sequence identities between the viral genomes characterized here were less than 80% in comparison to other polyomaviruses (PyVs), members of the family Polyomaviridae. The new genomes display the archetypal organization of PyVs, which includes open reading frames for the regulatory proteins small T antigen (STAg) and large T antigen (LTAg), as well as capsid proteins VP1, VP2 and VP3. In addition, an alternate ORF was identified in the early genome region that is conserved in a large monophyletic group of polyomaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis showed similar clustering with group of PyVs detected in Otomops and Chaerephon bats and some species of monkeys. In this study, the genomes of two novel PyVs were detected in bats of a single species, demonstrating that these mammals can harbor genetically diverse polyomaviruses.

  14. Diversity of bats trypanosomes in hydroeletric area of Belo Monte in Brazilian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Andréa P; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Leite, Beatriz Helena Santos; Ferreira, Juliana Isabel G da S; Tonhosolo, Renata; da Rosa, Adriana Ruckert; da Rocha, Patricio Adriano; Aires, Caroline Cotrim; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei

    2016-12-01

    The Trypanosoma comprises flagellates able to infect many mammalian species and is transmitted by several groups of invertebrates. The order Chiroptera can be infected by the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum and Trypanozoon. In this study, we described the diversity of bats trypanosomes, inferring the phylogenetic relationships among the trypanosomes from bats caught Belo Monte Hydroeletric area (Brazilian Amazonia). Trypanosomes from bats were isolated by haemoculture, and the molecular phylogeny based on small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) and glycosomal-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) gene sequences. Morphological characterization included light and scanning electron microscopy. A total of 157 bats were caught in the area belonging 6 Families (Emballonuridae, Furipteridae, Mormoopidae, Natalidae, Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae) and 34 species. The bat trypanosome prevalence, as evaluated through haemoculture, was 5,7%. Phylogenetic trees grouped the isolates in T. cruzi branch (TCI and TCbat lineage), T. cruzi marinkellei and Trypanosoma wauwau from Pteronotus parnellii. This is the first isolate from T. wauwau in Para state. The occurrence of T. cruzi in the ​​ Belo Monte Hydroeletric area (UHE Belo Monte) in Amazon/Brazil attentive to the risk of migration human population required for the works of the dam and new cities that grow in the vicinity of these businesses, but it is a zoonosis already known to the Amazon region, and the presence of unclassified Trypanosoma species, attend to the large parasitic biodiversity still unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Airplane tracking documents the fastest flight speeds recorded for bats.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Gary F; Safi, Kamran; Kunz, Thomas H; Dechmann, Dina K N; Swartz, Sharon M; Wikelski, Martin

    2016-11-01

    The performance capabilities of flying animals reflect the interplay of biomechanical and physiological constraints and evolutionary innovation. Of the two extant groups of vertebrates that are capable of powered flight, birds are thought to fly more efficiently and faster than bats. However, fast-flying bat species that are adapted for flight in open airspace are similar in wing shape and appear to be similar in flight dynamics to fast-flying birds that exploit the same aerial niche. Here, we investigate flight behaviour in seven free-flying Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) and report that the maximum ground speeds achieved exceed speeds previously documented for any bat. Regional wind modelling indicates that bats adjusted flight speeds in response to winds by flying more slowly as wind support increased and flying faster when confronted with crosswinds, as demonstrated for insects, birds and other bats. Increased frequency of pauses in wing beats at faster speeds suggests that flap-gliding assists the bats' rapid flight. Our results suggest that flight performance in bats has been underappreciated and that functional differences in the flight abilities of birds and bats require re-evaluation.

  16. Airplane tracking documents the fastest flight speeds recorded for bats

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Thomas H.; Dechmann, Dina K. N.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Wikelski, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The performance capabilities of flying animals reflect the interplay of biomechanical and physiological constraints and evolutionary innovation. Of the two extant groups of vertebrates that are capable of powered flight, birds are thought to fly more efficiently and faster than bats. However, fast-flying bat species that are adapted for flight in open airspace are similar in wing shape and appear to be similar in flight dynamics to fast-flying birds that exploit the same aerial niche. Here, we investigate flight behaviour in seven free-flying Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) and report that the maximum ground speeds achieved exceed speeds previously documented for any bat. Regional wind modelling indicates that bats adjusted flight speeds in response to winds by flying more slowly as wind support increased and flying faster when confronted with crosswinds, as demonstrated for insects, birds and other bats. Increased frequency of pauses in wing beats at faster speeds suggests that flap-gliding assists the bats' rapid flight. Our results suggest that flight performance in bats has been underappreciated and that functional differences in the flight abilities of birds and bats require re-evaluation. PMID:28018618

  17. Climate and Weather Impact Timing of Emergence of Bats

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Winifred F.; Stepanian, Phillip M.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Howard, Kenneth W.; Kuster, Charles M.; Kunz, Thomas H.; Chilson, Phillip B.

    2012-01-01

    Interest in forecasting impacts of climate change have heightened attention in recent decades to how animals respond to variation in climate and weather patterns. One difficulty in determining animal response to climate variation is lack of long-term datasets that record animal behaviors over decadal scales. We used radar observations from the national NEXRAD network of Doppler weather radars to measure how group behavior in a colonially-roosting bat species responded to annual variation in climate and daily variation in weather over the past 11 years. Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) form dense aggregations in cave roosts in Texas. These bats emerge from caves daily to forage at high altitudes, which makes them detectable with Doppler weather radars. Timing of emergence in bats is often viewed as an adaptive trade-off between emerging early and risking predation or increased competition and emerging late which restricts foraging opportunities. We used timing of emergence from five maternity colonies of Brazilian free-tailed bats in south-central Texas during the peak lactation period (15 June–15 July) to determine whether emergence behavior was associated with summer drought conditions and daily temperatures. Bats emerged significantly earlier during years with extreme drought conditions than during moist years. Bats emerged later on days with high surface temperatures in both dry and moist years, but there was no relationship between surface temperatures and timing of emergence in summers with normal moisture levels. We conclude that emergence behavior is a flexible animal response to climate and weather conditions and may be a useful indicator for monitoring animal response to long-term shifts in climate. PMID:22876331

  18. Climate and weather impact timing of emergence of bats.

    PubMed

    Frick, Winifred F; Stepanian, Phillip M; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Howard, Kenneth W; Kuster, Charles M; Kunz, Thomas H; Chilson, Phillip B

    2012-01-01

    Interest in forecasting impacts of climate change have heightened attention in recent decades to how animals respond to variation in climate and weather patterns. One difficulty in determining animal response to climate variation is lack of long-term datasets that record animal behaviors over decadal scales. We used radar observations from the national NEXRAD network of Doppler weather radars to measure how group behavior in a colonially-roosting bat species responded to annual variation in climate and daily variation in weather over the past 11 years. Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) form dense aggregations in cave roosts in Texas. These bats emerge from caves daily to forage at high altitudes, which makes them detectable with Doppler weather radars. Timing of emergence in bats is often viewed as an adaptive trade-off between emerging early and risking predation or increased competition and emerging late which restricts foraging opportunities. We used timing of emergence from five maternity colonies of Brazilian free-tailed bats in south-central Texas during the peak lactation period (15 June-15 July) to determine whether emergence behavior was associated with summer drought conditions and daily temperatures. Bats emerged significantly earlier during years with extreme drought conditions than during moist years. Bats emerged later on days with high surface temperatures in both dry and moist years, but there was no relationship between surface temperatures and timing of emergence in summers with normal moisture levels. We conclude that emergence behavior is a flexible animal response to climate and weather conditions and may be a useful indicator for monitoring animal response to long-term shifts in climate.

  19. A decade of U.S. Air Force bat strikes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peurach, Suzanne C.; Dove, Carla J.; Stepko, Laura

    2009-01-01

    From 1997 through 2007, 821 bat strikes were reported to the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Safety Center by aircraft personnel or ground crew and sent to the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for identification. Many samples were identified by macroscopic and or microscopic comparisons with bat specimens housed in the museum and augmented during the last 2 years by DNA analysis. Bat remains from USAF strikes during this period were received at the museum from 40 states in the United States and from 20 countries. We confirmed that 46% of the strikes were caused by bats, but we did not identify them further; we identified 5% only to the family or genus level, and 49% to the species level. Fifty-five of the 101 bat-strike samples submitted for DNA analysis have been identified to the species level. Twenty-five bat species have been recorded striking USAF planes worldwide. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis; n = 173) is the species most commonly identified in USAF strike impacts, followed by the red bat (Lasiurus borealis; n = 83). Bat strikes peak during the spring and fall, with >57% occurring from August through October; 82% of the reports that included time of strike were recorded between 2100 and 0900 hours. More than 12% of the bat strikes were reported at >300 m above ground level (AGL). Although <1% of the bat-strike reports indicated damage to USAF aircraft, cumulative damage for 1997 through 2007 totaled >$825,000 and >50% of this sum was attributable to 5 bat-strike incidents. Only 5 bats from the 10 most damaging bat strikes were identified to the species level, either because we did not receive remains with the reports or the sample was insufficient for identification.

  20. First isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Cabral, A D; Gama, A R; Sodré, M M; Savani, E S M M; Galvão-Dias, M A; Jordão, L R; Maeda, M M; Yai, L E O; Gennari, S M; Pena, H F J

    2013-03-31

    There are currently no reports on the isolation and molecular examination of Toxoplasma gondii from bats. Here, we report the isolation and genotypic characterisation of two T. gondii isolates from bats. A total of 369 bats from different municipalities in São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, were captured and euthanised, and collected tissues (heart and pectoral muscle) were processed for each bat or in pools of two or three bats and bioassayed in mice (a total of 283 bioassays). Eleven PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers were used to genotype positive samples: SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and alt. SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, CS3 and Apico. The parasite was isolated from two bats from São Paulo city: an insectivorous bat, the velvety free-tailed bat Molossus molossus, and a hematophagous bat, the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Isolates were designated TgBatBr1 and TgBatBr2, respectively. The genotype of the isolate from M. molossus (TgBatBr1) has been previously described in an isolate from a capybara from São Paulo state, and the genotype from the D. rotundus isolate (TgBatBr2) has already been identified in isolates from cats, chickens, capybaras, sheep, a rodent and a common rabbit from different Brazilian states, suggesting that this may be a common T. gondii lineage circulating in some Brazilian regions. Isolation of T. gondii from a hematophagous species is striking. This study reveals that bats can share the same isolates that are found in domesticated and wild terrestrial animals. This is the first report of the isolation and genotyping of T. gondii in chiropterans.

  1. Survey for bats in the Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park, with special emphasis on the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum

    SciTech Connect

    Tyrell, K.; Brack, V. Jr.

    1992-10-29

    To increase knowledge about the presence of endangered species and their habitat at the LANL, 3D/Environmental Services, Inc. conducted a mist net survey for bats on Laboratory lands. In addition to documenting the presence of threatened and endangered species, this survey was conducted to gain more knowledge about the diversity and distribution of the bat fauna existing on the Laboratory. There are 25 species of bats found in New Mexico, about 16 of which are likely to occur in the region of the Laboratory. Of particular interest was documentation of the presence of the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum. The spotted bat is listed as Endangered, Group 2 by the State of New Mexico, and is a Federal Candidate for listing as endangered. As such, conservation of this species and its habitat should be a management priority on the Laboratory. A total of 94 bats were captured in 16 net nights, between 30 June and 05 July 1992. Thirteen species of bats were caught during the study: Antrozous pallidus (pallid bat), 10.6 percent; Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat), 10.6 percent; Lasionycteris noctivigans (silver-haired bat), 16 percent; Lasiurus cinereus (hoary bat), 11.7 percent; Myotis californicus (California myotis), 4.3 percent; M. evotis (long-eared myotis), 7.4 percent; M. leibii (small-footed myotis), 5.3 percent; M. thysanodes (fringed myotis), 13.8 percent; M. volans (long-legged myotis), 7.4 percent of the catch; M. yumanensis,(Yuma myotis), 5.3 percent; Pipistrellus hesperus (western pipistrelle), 1.1 percent; Plecotus townsendii (Townsend's big-eared bat), 1.1 percent, and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian free-tailed bat), 5.3 percent.

  2. Survey for bats in the Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park, with special emphasis on the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum

    SciTech Connect

    Tyrell, K.; Brack, V. Jr.

    1992-10-29

    To increase knowledge about the presence of endangered species and their habitat at the LANL, 3D/Environmental Services, Inc. conducted a mist net survey for bats on Laboratory lands. In addition to documenting the presence of threatened and endangered species, this survey was conducted to gain more knowledge about the diversity and distribution of the bat fauna existing on the Laboratory. There are 25 species of bats found in New Mexico, about 16 of which are likely to occur in the region of the Laboratory. Of particular interest was documentation of the presence of the spotted bat, Euderma maculatum. The spotted bat is listed as Endangered, Group 2 by the State of New Mexico, and is a Federal Candidate for listing as endangered. As such, conservation of this species and its habitat should be a management priority on the Laboratory. A total of 94 bats were captured in 16 net nights, between 30 June and 05 July 1992. Thirteen species of bats were caught during the study: Antrozous pallidus (pallid bat), 10.6 percent; Eptesicus fuscus (big brown bat), 10.6 percent; Lasionycteris noctivigans (silver-haired bat), 16 percent; Lasiurus cinereus (hoary bat), 11.7 percent; Myotis californicus (California myotis), 4.3 percent; M. evotis (long-eared myotis), 7.4 percent; M. leibii (small-footed myotis), 5.3 percent; M. thysanodes (fringed myotis), 13.8 percent; M. volans (long-legged myotis), 7.4 percent of the catch; M. yumanensis,(Yuma myotis), 5.3 percent; Pipistrellus hesperus (western pipistrelle), 1.1 percent; Plecotus townsendii (Townsend`s big-eared bat), 1.1 percent, and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian free-tailed bat), 5.3 percent.

  3. Prevention educational program of human rabies transmitted by bats in rain forest preserved area of southern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Kikuti, M; Paploski, I A D; Silva, M d C P; de Oliveira, E A; da Silva, A W C; Biondo, A W

    2011-12-01

    Guaraqueçaba city is a rain forest environmental protected area located on the southern coast of Brazil. Recently, the local Animal Health Service has noticed haematophagous bats feeding from humans and domestic animals, as well as bat colonies located in houses and public schools. In 2007, two non-haematophagous bats were tested positive by direct immunofluorescence for rabies in a nearby city. Native fauna and environmental laws protect non-haematophagous bats in Brazilian preserved areas such as Guaraqueçaba, making non-haematophagous bat population control almost impossible. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate a simple and feasible educational protocol applied by a multi-institutional task force in local elementary schools to prevent rabies transmitted by bats. Information was transmitted to children by video, lectures and oral question-answer section; evaluation was made by written questionnaires to teachers and students. Interinstitutional task force included public and animal health public services, a federal university and the city secretary of environment, of education, of agriculture and of animal health, and also participation of local community. Information was effectively absorbed by children when evaluated just after being given. As important, questionnaires showed that handling and playing with bats at day time was common in several elementary school students, exposing themselves to what may represent higher risk of rabies transmission than haematophagous bat feeding directly from humans. Training of teachers and students may effectively prevent rabies by bats in such communities. Insertion of this subject into science content of local elementary school educational programme was proposed in order to establish a continuing education programme on rabies transmitted by bats in environmental preserved areas.

  4. Bats track and exploit changes in insect pest populations.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Gary F; Westbrook, John K; Brown, Veronica A; Eldridge, Melanie; Federico, Paula; Kunz, Thomas H

    2012-01-01

    The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator's ability to track and exploit available prey. Using a qPCR fecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consuming corn earworm (CEW) moths (Helicoverpa zea) and seasonal fluctuations in CEW populations. This result is consistent with earlier research linking the bats' diet to patterns of migration, abundance, and crop infestation by important insect pests. Here we confirm opportunistic feeding on one of the world's most destructive insects and support model estimates of the bats' ecosystem services. Regression analysis of CEW consumption versus the moth's abundance at four insect trapping sites further indicates that bats track local abundance of CEW within the regional landscape. Estimates of CEW gene copies in the feces of bats are not associated with seasonal or local patterns of CEW abundance, and results of captive feeding experiments indicate that our qPCR assay does not provide a direct measure of numbers or biomass of prey consumed. Our results support growing evidence for the role of generalist predators, and bats specifically, as agents for biological control and speak to the value of conserving indigenous generalist predators.

  5. Bats Track and Exploit Changes in Insect Pest Populations

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Gary F.; Westbrook, John K.; Brown, Veronica A.; Eldridge, Melanie; Federico, Paula; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator's ability to track and exploit available prey. Using a qPCR fecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consuming corn earworm (CEW) moths (Helicoverpa zea) and seasonal fluctuations in CEW populations. This result is consistent with earlier research linking the bats' diet to patterns of migration, abundance, and crop infestation by important insect pests. Here we confirm opportunistic feeding on one of the world's most destructive insects and support model estimates of the bats' ecosystem services. Regression analysis of CEW consumption versus the moth's abundance at four insect trapping sites further indicates that bats track local abundance of CEW within the regional landscape. Estimates of CEW gene copies in the feces of bats are not associated with seasonal or local patterns of CEW abundance, and results of captive feeding experiments indicate that our qPCR assay does not provide a direct measure of numbers or biomass of prey consumed. Our results support growing evidence for the role of generalist predators, and bats specifically, as agents for biological control and speak to the value of conserving indigenous generalist predators. PMID:22952782

  6. VIROLOGICAL AND SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF RABIES IN BATS FROM AN URBAN AREA IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rubens Souza de; Costa, Lanna Jamile Corrêa da; Andrade, Fernanda Atanaena Gonçalves de; Uieda, Wilson; Martorelli, Luzia Fátima Alves; Kataoka, Ana Paula de Arruda Geraldes; Rosa, Elizabeth Salbé Travassos da; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa; Pereira, Armando de Souza; Carmo, Antônio Ismael Barros do; Fernandes, Marcus Emanuel Barroncas

    2015-12-01

    The outbreaks of rabies in humans transmitted by Desmodus rotundus in 2004 and 2005, in the northeast of the Brazilian State of Para, eastern Amazon basin, made this a priority area for studies on this zoonosis. Given this, the present study provides data on this phenomenon in an urban context, in order to assess the possible circulation of the classic rabies virus (RABV) among bat species in Capanema, a town in the Amazon basin. Bats were collected, in 2011, with mist nets during the wet and dry seasons. Samples of brain tissue and blood were collected for virological and serological survey, respectively. None of the 153 brain tissue samples analyzed tested positive for RABV infection, but 50.34% (95% CI: 45.67-55.01%) of the serum samples analyzed were seropositive. Artibeus planirostris was the most common species, with a high percentage of seropositive individuals (52.46%, 95% CI: 52.31 52.60%). Statistically, equal proportions of seropositive results were obtained in the rainy and dry seasons (c2 = 0.057, d.f. = 1, p = 0.88). Significantly higher proportions of males (55.96%, 95% CI: 48.96-62.96%) and adults (52.37%, 95% CI: 47.35-57.39%) were seropositive. While none of the brain tissue samples tested positive for infection, the high proportion of seropositive specimens indicates that RABV may be widespread in this urban area.

  7. VIROLOGICAL AND SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF RABIES IN BATS FROM AN URBAN AREA IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    PubMed Central

    de OLIVEIRA, Rubens Souza; da COSTA, Lanna Jamile Corrêa; de ANDRADE, Fernanda Atanaena Gonçalves; UIEDA, Wilson; MARTORELLI, Luzia Fátima Alves; KATAOKA, Ana Paula de Arruda Geraldes; da ROSA, Elizabeth Salbé Travassos; VASCONCELOS, Pedro Fernando da Costa; PEREIRA, Armando de Souza; do CARMO, Antônio Ismael Barros; FERNANDES, Marcus Emanuel Barroncas

    2015-01-01

    The outbreaks of rabies in humans transmitted by Desmodus rotundus in 2004 and 2005, in the northeast of the Brazilian State of Para, eastern Amazon basin, made this a priority area for studies on this zoonosis. Given this, the present study provides data on this phenomenon in an urban context, in order to assess the possible circulation of the classic rabies virus (RABV) among bat species in Capanema, a town in the Amazon basin. Bats were collected, in 2011, with mist nets during the wet and dry seasons. Samples of brain tissue and blood were collected for virological and serological survey, respectively. None of the 153 brain tissue samples analyzed tested positive for RABV infection, but 50.34% (95% CI: 45.67-55.01%) of the serum samples analyzed were seropositive. Artibeus planirostris was the most common species, with a high percentage of seropositive individuals (52.46%, 95% CI: 52.31 52.60%). Statistically, equal proportions of seropositive results were obtained in the rainy and dry seasons (c2 = 0.057, d.f. = 1, p = 0.88). Significantly higher proportions of males (55.96%, 95% CI: 48.96-62.96%) and adults (52.37%, 95% CI: 47.35-57.39%) were seropositive. While none of the brain tissue samples tested positive for infection, the high proportion of seropositive specimens indicates that RABV may be widespread in this urban area. PMID:27049703

  8. Weather-driven dynamics in a dual-migrant system: moths and bats.

    PubMed

    Krauel, Jennifer J; Westbrook, John K; McCracken, Gary F

    2015-05-01

    Animal migrations generate large spatial and temporal fluctuations in biomass that provide a resource base for many predator-prey interactions. These interactions are often driven by continent-scale weather patterns and are difficult to study. Few studies have included migratory animals on more than a single trophic level or for periods spanning multiple entire seasons. We tracked migrations of three species of agricultural pest noctuid moths over the 2010-2012 autumn seasons as the moths travelled past a large colony of migratory Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) in Texas. Increases in moth abundance, mass of bats and duration of bat activity outside of the cave were correlated with passage of cold fronts over the study area and related increases in northerly wind. Moth responses to weather patterns varied among species and seasons, but overall moth abundances were low in late summer and spiked after one or more cold front passages in September and October. Changes in bat mass and behaviour appear to be consequences of bat migration, as cave use transitioned from summer maternity roost to autumn migratory stopover sites. Weather-driven migration is at considerable risk from climate change, and bat and moth responses to that change may have marked impacts on agricultural systems and bat ecosystem services. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  9. Outbreaks of attacks by hematophagous bats in isolated riverine communities in the Brazilian Amazon: a challenge to rabies control.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Costa, F A; Tedesqui, V L; de Jesus Nascimento Monteiro, M; Bóia, M N

    2012-06-01

    Human rabies has re-emerged in Latin America due to bat associated transmission. We present data related to attacks by hematophagous bats in three riverine communities in the Rio Negro basin, Brazilian Amazon. A cross-sectional survey was carried out to obtain demographic and epidemiological data through interviews with 201 inhabitants. A total of 721 bat attacks with bites took place from 2004 to 2006, 238 (33%) reported by residents in Campinas do Rio Preto, 329 (46%) in Águas Vivas and 154 (21%) in the community of Malalahá. Incidence density among surveyed inhabitants was 84 attacks/100 persons-years in Campinas do Rio Preto, 249 attacks/100 persons-years in Águas Vivas and 81 attacks/100 persons-years in Malalahá. The proportion of surveyed inhabitants bled by bats at least once was 67% (63/94) in Campinas do Rio Preto, 96% (42/44) in Águas Vivas and 62% (39/63) in Malalahá. Among subjects bled by bats, the average number of bites was 4.6 ± 4.2 standard deviations (SD) in Campinas do Rio Preto, 8 ± 6 SD in Águas Vivas and 4.1 ± 3.9 SD in Malalahá. Regarding houses, 67% (26/39) had animals in the peridomestic environment (chickens and/or dogs) and all were vulnerable to bats due to gaps in the walls and/or in the windows and doors. In 13 dwellings, rudimentary protection against bats through the fixation of fishing nets and/or straw nets to the windows and other openings was observed. Among dwellers reporting attacks, 48% (68/144) received the full post-exposure anti-rabies vaccination protocol with five doses of diploid human cell vaccine, 28% (39/144) received an incomplete schedule (1-4 doses), and 26% (37/144) did not receive any dose. No cases of rabies were reported during the study; however, regular pre-exposure vaccination in the studied populations must be considered.

  10. Bat trypanosomes from Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve in Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Szpeiter, Bruno Bernal; Ferreira, Juliana Isabel Giuli da Silva; Assis, Francisco Flávio Vieira de; Stelmachtchuk, Felipe Nascimento; Peixoto, Kleber da Cunha; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Minervino, Antonio Humberto Hammad; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei

    2017-01-01

    Trypanosoma comprises flagellates able to infect several mammalian species and is transmitted by several groups of invertebrates. The order Chiroptera can be infected by the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum and Trypanozoon. In this study, we described the diversity of bat trypanosomes and inferred phylogenetic relationships among the trypanosomes from bats caught in Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve (Resex) in Pará state. Trypanosomes from bats were isolated by means of hemoculture, and the molecular phylogeny was based on the trypanosome barcode (SSUrDNA V7V8 variable region). A total of 111 bats were caught in the area, belonging to three families (Emballonuridae, Molossidae and Phyllostomidae) and 12 species. The bat trypanosome prevalence, as evaluated through hemoculture, was 9% all positive cultures were cryopreserve (100% of isolation success). Phylogenetic trees grouped nine isolates in T. cruzi marinkellei branch and only one in T. dionisii branch. Studies on bat trypanosome diversity are important for identifying pathogenic species and for generating support for control measures, especially in such areas where humans inhabit the forest with close contact with bat species. In addition, this is the first study in Resex Tapajós-Arapiuns extractive reserve and further studies should be conducted to elucidate the role of these parasites as environmental degradation biomarkers.

  11. First detection of Leishmania spp. DNA in Brazilian bats captured strictly in urban areas.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fernanda Müller; Costa, Luis Henrique Camargo; de Barros, Thainá Landim; Ito, Pier Kenji Rauschkolb Katsuda; Colombo, Fábio Antonio; de Carvalho, Cristiano; Pedro, Wagner André; Queiroz, Luzia Helena; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2015-10-01

    Leishmania spp. is a protozoan that maintains its life cycle in domestic and wild animals and it may include bats, a population that has increased in urban environments. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Leishmania spp. in bats captured strictly in urban areas that are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. The spleen and skin samples of 488 bats from 21 endemic cities in northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil, were tested for the presence of Leishmania kDNA using real-time PCR. Differentiation from Trypanosoma spp. was achieved by amplifying a DNA fragment of the ribosomal RNA gene. The presence of Leishmania spp. kDNA was verified in 23.9% of bats and Trypanosoma spp. DNA was identified in 3.9%. Leishmania species differentiation revealed the presence of Leishmania amazonensis in 78.3% of the bats; L. infantum in 17.4%, and 1 sample (4.3%) showed a mix pattern of L. infantum and L. amazonensis. We also detected, for the first time, L. infantum and L. amazonensis DNA in Desmodus rotundus, the hematophagous bat. The presence of Leishmania spp. DNA in bats strictly from urban areas endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in the State of São Paulo, Brazil indicates that these wild and abundant animals are capable of harboring Leishmania spp. in this new scenario. Due to their longevity, high dispersion capacity and adaptability to synanthropic environments, they may play a role in the maintenance of the life cycle of Leishmania parasites.

  12. Growth and development of two species of bats in a shared maternity roost.

    PubMed

    Hermanson, John W; Wilkins, Kenneth T

    2008-01-01

    Skeletogenesis was studied in two species of bats, Myotis austroriparius (southeastern brown bat) and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian free-tailed bat), occupying a maternity roost in central Florida. These bats often use distinct maternity roost environments, so this provided an opportunity to examine differential patterns of long bone growth while fetuses and newborn developed under similar environmental conditions. Some differences in the timing of onset of osteogenesis were revealed in the bats, indicating that some elements of the hindlimb develop relatively more rapidly in T. brasiliensis than in M. austroriparius. Some variance was also noted, with similarity to other species previously studied by others, in the exact timing and elongation of both long bones, as well as carpal and tarsal bones. In contrast to many elements of the long appendicular skeleton of developing Mus musculus, the bats all exhibit relatively precocial patterns of osteogenesis during which cartilaginous precursors are replaced by bone tissue. The relative advanced timing of osteogenesis in select hindlimb bones of T. brasiliensis may account for its relatively low neonatal mortality compared to M. austroriparius newborn in the same roost.

  13. Small subunit ribosomal metabarcoding reveals extraordinary trypanosomatid diversity in Brazilian bats

    PubMed Central

    Dario, Maria Augusta; Moratelli, Ricardo; Schwabl, Philipp; Jansen, Ana Maria; Llewellyn, Martin S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bats are a highly successful, globally dispersed order of mammals that occupy a wide array of ecological niches. They are also intensely parasitized and implicated in multiple viral, bacterial and parasitic zoonoses. Trypanosomes are thought to be especially abundant and diverse in bats. In this study, we used 18S ribosomal RNA metabarcoding to probe bat trypanosome diversity in unprecedented detail. Methodology/Principal Findings Total DNA was extracted from the blood of 90 bat individuals (17 species) captured along Atlantic Forest fragments of Espírito Santo state, southeast Brazil. 18S ribosomal RNA was amplified by standard and/or nested PCR, then deep sequenced to recover and identify Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for phylogenetic analysis. Blood samples from 34 bat individuals (13 species) tested positive for infection by 18S rRNA amplification. Amplicon sequences clustered to 14 OTUs, of which five were identified as Trypanosoma cruzi I, T. cruzi III/V, Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma rangeli, and Trypanosoma dionisii, and seven were identified as novel genotypes monophyletic to basal T. cruzi clade types of the New World. Another OTU was identified as a trypanosome like those found in reptiles. Surprisingly, the remaining OTU was identified as Bodo saltans–closest non-parasitic relative of the trypanosomatid order. While three blood samples featured just one OTU (T. dionisii), all others resolved as mixed infections of up to eight OTUs. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates the utility of next-generation barcoding methods to screen parasite diversity in mammalian reservoir hosts. We exposed high rates of local bat parasitism by multiple trypanosome species, some known to cause fatal human disease, others non-pathogenic, novel or yet little understood. Our results highlight bats as a long-standing nexus among host-parasite interactions of multiple niches, sustained in part by opportunistic and incidental infections

  14. Group A rotavirus in Brazilian bats: description of novel T15 and H15 genotypes.

    PubMed

    Asano, Karen Miyuki; Gregori, Fabio; Hora, Aline Santana; Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Fahl, Willian Oliveira; Iamamoto, Keila; Mori, Enio; Silva, Fernanda Dornelas Florentino; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to survey for group A rotaviruses (RVA) in bats from Brazil and to perform phylogenetic inferences for VP4, VP7, NSP3, NSP4 and NSP5 genes. RVA was found in 9.18 % (28/305) of tested samples. The partial genotype constellation of a Molossus molossus RVA strain was G3-P[3]-Ix-Rx-Cx-Mx-Ax-Nx-T3-E3-H6, and that of a Glossophaga soricina RVA strain was G20-P[x]-Ix-Rx-Cx-Mx-Ax-Nx-T15-Ex-H15. These findings demonstrate an important role of bats in RVA epidemiology and provide evidence of participation of bat RVA strains in interspecies transmission and reassortment events.

  15. The North‐east‐Brazilian Liana, Adenocalymna dichilum (Bignoniaceae) Pollinated by Bats

    PubMed Central

    MACHADO, ISABEL CRISTINA; VOGEL, STEFAN

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Of the set of syndromes displayed by specialized (euphilic) flowers, adaptation to pollination by bats (chiropterophily) is the least known. Accumulated new evidence reveals that this pollination mode plays a considerable role in tropical communities, especially in the neotropics. One family in which bat‐pollinated species are known in several genera is the Bignoniaceae. Here is reported, for the first time, bat pollination and floral ecology in Adenocalymna dichilum (tribe Bignonieae). • Methods Floral features of this species growing in Bahia (north‐east Brazil) indicated possible chiropterophily, which was subsequently confirmed by direct observation and from photographs of bat visits. Timing of anthesis and nectar parameters were monitored in the field, and floral morphology was investigated with fixed flowers. • Key Results One to two flowers open per night on the upright, simple racemes of A. dichilum during several weeks in a ‘steady state’ mode. The bilabiate, cream‐coloured corollas are functional for only a single night and wilt during the following day. A stout corolla, with a musky odour, and a large nectary disc with large quantities of watery nectar also conform to the syndrome. Glossophaga soricina (Glossophaginae) visited and pollinated the flowers in a trap‐lining manner. Whilst hovering, the bats put their heads into the corolla mouth for less than 1 s to feed, thereby effecting the transfer of pollen which is deposited on their backs. • Conclusions Adenocalymna, a New World genus comprising approx. 50 species, exhibits floral adaptive radiation including species pollinated by bees, birds and possibly moths. The discovery of chiropterophily in A. dichilum adds another facet to the array of floral syndromes represented in the genus. PMID:15037447

  16. A method for simultaneous detection and identification of Brazilian dog- and vampire bat-related rabies virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    PubMed

    Saitou, Yasumasa; Kobayashi, Yuki; Hirano, Shinji; Mochizuki, Nobuyuki; Itou, Takuya; Ito, Fumio H; Sakai, Takeo

    2010-09-01

    At present, the sporadic occurrence of human rabies in Brazil can be attributed primarily to dog- and vampire bat-related rabies viruses. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was employed as a simultaneous detection method for both rabies field variants within 60 min. Vampire bat-related rabies viruses could be distinguished from dog variants by digesting amplicons of the RT-LAMP reaction using the restriction enzyme AlwI. Amplification and digestion could both be completed within 120 min after RNA extraction. In addition, the RT-LAMP assay also detected rabies virus in isolates from Brazilian frugivorous bats and Ugandan dog, bovine and goat samples. In contrast, there were false negative results from several Brazilian insectivorous bats and all of Chinese dog, pig, and bovine samples using the RT-LAMP assay. This study showed that the RT-LAMP assay is effective for the rapid detection of rabies virus isolates from the primary reservoir in Brazil. Further improvements are necessary so that the RT-LAMP assay can be employed for the universal detection of genetic variants of rabies virus in the field.

  17. [Rabies virus isolation in the salivary glands of insectivorous bats].

    PubMed

    Gury Dohmen, F; Beltrán, F

    2009-12-01

    This study determined the presence of the rabies virus in salivary glands, as well as its titre and antigenic characterisation and the level of exposure to the virus from contact between domestic animals and humans. Twenty-six positive brain samples were selected, 80% of which were from the Brazilian free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis, corresponding to the period 1999-2005. Antigenic characterisation was conducted on a panel of 19 monoclonal antibodies targeting the rabies virus nucleoprotein supplied by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta in the United States of America. The results revealed a high percentage of isolations in salivary glands (76.9%). Their average titres were compared in a batch of positive samples of brain and salivary glands, giving values of 4.75 and 3.81 respectively (expressed as log LD50/0.03 ml). The isolated viruses corresponded principally to variant 4 associated with T brasiliensis and variant 6 associated with the hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus, and the red bat, L. borealis, and their respective subvariants. The level of exposure in domestic animals and humans was 50% during the period under study.

  18. Establishing baseline biodiversity data prior to hydroelectric dam construction to monitoring impacts to bats in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D; Tavares, Valéria da Cunha

    2017-01-01

    The modification of Amazonian rivers by the construction of megaprojects of hydroelectric dams has widely increased over the last decade. Robust monitoring programs have been rarely conducted prior to the establishment of dams to measure to what extent the fauna, and its associated habitats may be affected by upcoming impacts. Using bats as models, we performed analyses throughout the area under the influence of the Santo Antônio hydroelectric dam, Southwestern Brazilian Amazonia before its construction to estimate how the fauna and its associated habitats would be affected by the upcoming impacts. We surveyed bats in 49 plots distributed along the areas going to be inundated by the dam and those remaining dry. As predictors for the species distribution, we tested the variables of vegetation structure and topography. Species composition largely differed between the dry plots and the plots located in areas that will be flooded, and this was strongly associated with the variables of forest basal area and elevation. Vegetation-related variables also had strong influence on the guilds distribution. The flooding of lower elevations areas is expected to negatively affect the species number and abundance of frugivorous species. In contrast, it is likely that animalivores will be less vulnerable to dam-induced flooding, since they were abundant in the areas not expect to be inundated. We urge for the implementation of studies to predict impacts caused by large hydroelectric dams, including tests of the influence of the local conditions that shape diversity to avoid massive losses of the biota, and to build preventive monitoring and management actions.

  19. Establishing baseline biodiversity data prior to hydroelectric dam construction to monitoring impacts to bats in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Valéria da Cunha

    2017-01-01

    The modification of Amazonian rivers by the construction of megaprojects of hydroelectric dams has widely increased over the last decade. Robust monitoring programs have been rarely conducted prior to the establishment of dams to measure to what extent the fauna, and its associated habitats may be affected by upcoming impacts. Using bats as models, we performed analyses throughout the area under the influence of the Santo Antônio hydroelectric dam, Southwestern Brazilian Amazonia before its construction to estimate how the fauna and its associated habitats would be affected by the upcoming impacts. We surveyed bats in 49 plots distributed along the areas going to be inundated by the dam and those remaining dry. As predictors for the species distribution, we tested the variables of vegetation structure and topography. Species composition largely differed between the dry plots and the plots located in areas that will be flooded, and this was strongly associated with the variables of forest basal area and elevation. Vegetation-related variables also had strong influence on the guilds distribution. The flooding of lower elevations areas is expected to negatively affect the species number and abundance of frugivorous species. In contrast, it is likely that animalivores will be less vulnerable to dam-induced flooding, since they were abundant in the areas not expect to be inundated. We urge for the implementation of studies to predict impacts caused by large hydroelectric dams, including tests of the influence of the local conditions that shape diversity to avoid massive losses of the biota, and to build preventive monitoring and management actions. PMID:28886029

  20. Surveillance for White-Nose Syndrome in the bat community at El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valdez, Ernest W.

    2012-01-01

    From late winter to summer 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey Arid Lands Field Station conducted mist-netting efforts at El Malpais National Monument and on adjacent lands belonging to Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service to detect the occurrence of white-nose syndrome or causal fungal agent (Geomyces destructans). During this assessment, 421 bats belonging to 8 species were documented at El Malpais National Monument and adjacent lands. None of these captures showed evidence for the presence of white-nose syndrome or G. destructans, but it is possible that the subtle signs of some infections may not have been observed. Throughout the field efforts, Laguna de Juan Garcia was the only water source located on El Malpais National Monument and was netted on June 20 and 27, July 25, and August 2, 2011. During these dates, a total of 155 bats were captured, belonging to eight species including: Corynorhinus townsendii (Townsend's Big-Eared Bat), Eptesicus fuscus (Big Brown Bat), Lasionycterics noctivagans (Silver-Haired Bat), Myotis ciliolabrum (Small-Footed Myotis), M. evotis (Long-eared myotis), M. thysanodes (Fringed Myotis), M. volans (Long-Legged Myotis), and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian Free-Tailed Bat). Overall, Laguna de Juan Garcia had the greatest number of captures (79 bats) during one night compared to the other sites netted on adjacent lands and had the greatest species diversity of 8 species netted, not including Euderma maculatum (Spotted Bat) that was detected by its audible calls as it flew overhead. Laguna de Juan Garcia is an important site to bats because of its accessibility by all known occurring species, including the less-maneuverable T. brasiliensis that is known to form large colonies in the park. Laguna de Juan Garcia is also important as a more permanent water source during drought conditions in the earlier part of the spring and summer, as observed in 2011.

  1. New records of mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in two Brazilian biomes: Pantanal and Caatinga.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Martins, Mayara Almeida; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves; Peracchi, Adriano Lucio; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues

    2016-01-01

    A first survey of mite species that ectoparasitize bats in the states of Ceará and Mato Grosso was conducted. The specimens of bats and their mites were collected in areas of the Caatinga and Pantanal biomes. A total of 450 spinturnicids representing two genera and ten species was collected from 15 bat species in the Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Serra das Almas, Ceará State, Northeast Brazil and 138 spinturnicids represented by two genera and four species were found in seven bats species collected in Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Sesc Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Central-Western Brazil. The occurrence of Cameronieta genus and the species Mesoperiglischrus natali as well as four new associations (Periglischrus iheringi - Chiroderma vizottoi; P. micronycteridis - Micronycteris sanborni; P. paracutisternus - Trachops cirrhosus; Spinturnix americanus - Myotis riparius) are registered for the first time in Brazil.

  2. Detection of Entebbe Bat Virus after 54 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kading, Rebekah C.; Kityo, Robert; Nakayiki, Teddie; Ledermann, Jeremy; Crabtree, Mary B.; Lutwama, Julius; Miller, Barry R.

    2015-01-01

    Entebbe bat virus (ENTV; Flaviviridae: Flavivirus), closely related to yellow fever virus, was first isolated from a little free-tailed bat (Chaerephon pumilus) in Uganda in 1957, but was not detected after that initial isolation. In 2011, we isolated ENTV from a little free-tailed bat captured from the attic of a house near where it had originally been found. Infectious virus was recovered from the spleen and lung, and the viral RNA was sequenced and compared with that of the original isolate. Across the polypeptide sequence, there were 76 amino acid substitutions, resulting in 97.8% identity at the amino acid level between the 1957 and 2011 isolates. Further study of this virus would provide valuable insights into the ecological and genetic factors governing the evolution and transmission of bat- and mosquito-borne flaviviruses. PMID:26101270

  3. Organochlorine residues in bat guano from nine Mexican caves, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Moreno-Valdez, A.; Mora, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Samples of bat guano, primarily from Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), were collected at nine bat roosts in caves in northern and eastern Mexico and analysed for organochlorine residues. DDE, the most abundant residue found in each cave, was highest (0.99 p.p.m. dry weight) at Ojuela Cave, Durango. Other studies of DDE in bat guano indicate that this concentration is too low to reflect harmful concentrations in the bats themselves. The DDE at Ojuela may represent either lingering residues from use of DDT years ago in the Ojuela area of perhaps depuration loss from migrant bats with summer maternity roost(s) in a DDE-contaminated area such as Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico. Presence of o,p-DDT at Tio Bartolo Cave, Nuevo Leon, indicates recent use of DDT, but the concentration of this contaminant was low. Possible impacts on bat colonies of the organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides now in extensive use are unknown.

  4. Organochlorine residues in bat guano from nine Mexican caves, 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Moreno-Valdez, A.; Mora, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Samples of bat guano, primarily from Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), were collected at nine bat roosts in caves in northern and eastern Mexico and analysed for organochlorine residues. DDE, the most abundant residue found in each cave, was highest (0.99 p.p.m. dry weight) at Ojuela Cave, Durango. Other studies of DDE in bat guano indicate that this concentration is too low to reflect harmful concentrations in the bats themselves. The DDE at Ojuela may represent either lingering resides from use of DDT years ago in the Ojuela area or perhaps depuration loss from migrant bats with summer maternity roost(s) in a DDE-contaminated area such as Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico. Presence of o,p'-DDT at Tio Bartolo Cave, Nuevo Leon, indicates recent use of DDT, but the concentration of this contaminant was low. Possible impacts on bat colonies of the organophosphorus and carbonate insecticides now in extensive use are unknown.

  5. Comparative karyology of Brazilian vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and Diphylla ecaudata (Phyllostomidae, Chiroptera): banding patterns, base-specific fluorochromes and FISH of ribosomal genes.

    PubMed

    Santos, N; Fagundes, V; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Y; De Souza, M J

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides new data on chromosomes of Brazilian vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and Diphylla ecaudata. These species were analyzed by GTG, CBG- and CB-DAPI banding, AgNO3/CMA3 sequential staining, base-specific fluorochrome dyes and in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA probe. C-banding (CBG) revealed constitutive heterochromatin in the pericentromeric regions in all autosomes and the X and Y chromosomes appeared entirely heterochromatic in both species. CB-DAPI revealed a coincident banding pattern to that obtained by CBG. Triple staining CMA3/DA/DAPI revealed an R-banding and a weak G-banding pattern in the karyotypes. Sequential AgNO3/CMA3 staining showed a NOR located interstitially on the long arm of pair 8 in D. rotundus and on the short arm of pair 13 in D. ecaudata. FISH with a rDNA probe confirmed the location and number of NORs; a difference neither in intensity nor in size of hybridization signal was detected between homologues for both species.

  6. Broad and Temperature Independent Replication Potential of Filoviruses on Cells Derived From Old and New World Bat Species.

    PubMed

    Miller, Megan R; McMinn, Rebekah J; Misra, Vikram; Schountz, Tony; Müller, Marcel A; Kurth, Andreas; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-10-15

    Filoviruses are strongly associated with several species of bats as their natural reservoirs. In this study, we determined the replication potential of all filovirus species: Marburg marburgvirus, Taï Forest ebolavirus, Reston ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Zaire ebolavirus, and Bundibugyo ebolavirus. Filovirus replication was supported by all cell lines derived from 6 Old and New World bat species: the hammer-headed fruit bat, Buettikofer's epauletted fruit bat, the Egyptian fruit bat, the Jamaican fruit bat, the Mexican free-tailed bat and the big brown bat. In addition, we showed that Marburg virus Angola and Ebola virus Makona-WPGC07 efficiently replicated at 37°C, 37°-41°C, or 41°C, contrary to the hypothesis that temporal elevation in temperature due to flight affects filovirus replication in bats.

  7. Bat echolocation calls: Orientation to communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, M. Brock

    2004-05-01

    Bats hunting flying insects adjust the design of their echolocation calls according to the situation in which they forage and stage in an attack. Changes in call design across attack sequences alert other bats within earshot to the presence of prey, demonstrating a continuum in roles for biosonar signals between orientation and communication. Many aerial-feeding bats change the design of their echolocation calls in the presence of echolocating conspecifics. Bats may change frequency parameters, durations, and/or intensities of their calls. While a variety of free-tailed bats (Molossidae Otomops martiensseni, Tadarida teniotis, Molossus molossus) consistently change their echolocation calls when more than one bat is flying in an area, at least one sheath-tailed bat (Emballonuridae Taphozous perforatus) does not. Changes in echolocation calls may maximize jamming avoidance and/or enhance the communicative function of the calls. The data for molossids support the hypothesis that when hunting some species fly in formation. Here, variation in individual call design could provide positional information and reduce the chances of mid-air collisions.

  8. STUDIES ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF RABIES IN INSECTIVOROUS BATS

    PubMed Central

    Sulkin, S. Edward; Krutzsch, Philip H.; Allen, Rae; Wallis, Craig

    1959-01-01

    Studies on the pathogenesis of rabies in two species of experimentally infected insectivorous Chiroptera, the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida mexicana), a quasi hibernator, and the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus), a deep hibernator, provided evidence that brown adipose tissue may serve as an extraneural site for storage and multiplication of rabies virus. Although the Mexican free-tailed bat proved to be relatively insusceptible to experimental rabies infection, virus was demonstrated in the brown fat of 22 per cent of those animals shown to be infected by viral assay in white Swiss mice. Rabies infection in this species was most evident 20 to 40 days after intramuscular inoculation of virus. Rabies virus was found to be widely distributed in the little brown myotis 9 to 26 days following inoculation and virus concentrations in some of the tissues approached the level of the stock mouse brain virus suspension used in inoculating these bats. The shorter incubation period and higher virus titers in the tissues assayed reflect the increased susceptibility of Myotis lucifugus as compared with the Mexican free-tailed bat. Virus was demonstrated in the brown fat of 30 per cent of the experimentally infected Myotis. In the experimentally infected Myotis lucifugus and in the Syrian hamster which is highly susceptible to rabies infection, rabies virus was isolated more frequently from the brown fat than from the salivary gland indicating that in a susceptible host brown adipose tissue may be as frequent a site of viral proliferation as salivary gland. Since rabies virus was found to persist for long periods of time in the brown fat of experimentally infected bats and was occasionally demonstrated in this tissue alone, it is suggested that brown adipose tissue provides a mechanism by which these animals may serve as reservoirs for this agent in nature. The possibility that similar mechanisms may be involved in the maintenance of other viral agents during interepidemic

  9. Estimating colony sizes of emerging bats using acoustic recordings

    PubMed Central

    Kloepper, Laura N.; Linnenschmidt, Meike; Blowers, Zelda; Branstetter, Brian; Ralston, Joel; Simmons, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The decline of bats demands more widespread monitoring of populations for conservation and management. Current censusing methods are either prone to bias or require costly equipment. Here, we report a new method using passive acoustics to determine bat count census from overall acoustic amplitude of the emerging bat stream. We recorded the video and audio of an emerging colony of Mexican free-tailed bats from two cave locations across multiple nights. Instantaneous bat counts were calculated from the video frames, and the bat stream’s acoustic amplitude corresponding to each video frame was determined using three different methods for calculating acoustic intensity. We found a significant link between all three acoustic parameters and bat count, with the highest R2 of 0.742 linking RMS pressure and bat count. Additionally, the relationship between acoustics and population size at one cave location could accurately predict the population size at another cave location. The data were gathered with low-cost, easy-to-operate equipment, and the data analysis can be easily accomplished using automated scripts or with open-source acoustic software. These results are a potential first step towards creating an acoustic model to estimate bat population at large cave colonies worldwide. PMID:27069667

  10. Suppression of emission rates improves sonar performance by flying bats.

    PubMed

    Adams, Amanda M; Davis, Kaylee; Smotherman, Michael

    2017-01-31

    Echolocating bats face the challenge of actively sensing their environment through their own emissions, while also hearing calls and echoes of nearby conspecifics. How bats mitigate interference is a long-standing question that has both ecological and technological implications, as biosonar systems continue to outperform man-made sonar systems in noisy, cluttered environments. We recently showed that perched bats decreased calling rates in groups, displaying a behavioral strategy resembling the back-off algorithms used in artificial communication networks to optimize information throughput at the group level. We tested whether free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) would employ such a coordinated strategy while performing challenging flight maneuvers, and report here that bats navigating obstacles lowered emission rates when hearing artificial playback of another bat's calls. We measured the impact of acoustic interference on navigation performance and show that the calculated reductions in interference rates are sufficient to reduce interference and improve obstacle avoidance. When bats flew in pairs, each bat responded to the presence of the other as an obstacle by increasing emissions, but hearing the sonar emissions of the nearby bat partially suppressed this response. This behavior supports social cohesion by providing a key mechanism for minimizing mutual interference.

  11. Estimating colony sizes of emerging bats using acoustic recordings.

    PubMed

    Kloepper, Laura N; Linnenschmidt, Meike; Blowers, Zelda; Branstetter, Brian; Ralston, Joel; Simmons, James A

    2016-03-01

    The decline of bats demands more widespread monitoring of populations for conservation and management. Current censusing methods are either prone to bias or require costly equipment. Here, we report a new method using passive acoustics to determine bat count census from overall acoustic amplitude of the emerging bat stream. We recorded the video and audio of an emerging colony of Mexican free-tailed bats from two cave locations across multiple nights. Instantaneous bat counts were calculated from the video frames, and the bat stream's acoustic amplitude corresponding to each video frame was determined using three different methods for calculating acoustic intensity. We found a significant link between all three acoustic parameters and bat count, with the highest R (2) of 0.742 linking RMS pressure and bat count. Additionally, the relationship between acoustics and population size at one cave location could accurately predict the population size at another cave location. The data were gathered with low-cost, easy-to-operate equipment, and the data analysis can be easily accomplished using automated scripts or with open-source acoustic software. These results are a potential first step towards creating an acoustic model to estimate bat population at large cave colonies worldwide.

  12. STUDIES ON THE PATHOGENESIS OF RABIES IN INSECTIVOROUS BATS

    PubMed Central

    Sulkin, S. Edward; Allen, Rae; Sims, Ruth; Krutzsch, Philip H.; Kim, Chansoo

    1960-01-01

    Studies on the influence of environmental temperature on the pathogenesis of rabies in two species of experimentally infected Chiroptera, the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida mexicana) and the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus), provided evidence that little or no viral multiplication occurs in the inactive host during experimentally induced hibernation. When inoculated animals are wakened from hibernation by transfer to a warm room, virus previously in "cold storage" multiplies, reaching detectable levels in various tissues. Similar results were obtained with two strains of rabies virus, a canine rabies street virus which produced a fatal infection in man and a strain isolated from the pooled brown fat of naturally infected little brown bats. However, certain differences in the characteristics of these virus strains were observed. The canine rabies virus strain produced an encephalitic disease in mice and overt symptoms in bats; the bat rabies virus producing an encephalomyelitic disease in mice and infrequent symptoms in bats. The bat rabies virus had a greater predilection for brown adipose tissue than the canine strain. Results obtained with the bat rabies virus in hibernating animals indicate that after a period of latency in a dormant animal activated virus may reach the salivary gland more rapidly, with greater frequency, and attain higher concentrations than in animals which have not experienced a period of hibernation. The significance of these results as they relate to the natural history of bat rabies is discussed. PMID:19867178

  13. Are Bats Dangerous?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kim

    2004-01-01

    There are many reasons people are afraid of bats but most are myths. Many people are also afraid of bats because they believe all bats are vampire bats, or bats that feed on blood. There are a few species of bats called "vampire" bats;however, these bats are found in Central and South America--there are no vampire bats in the United…

  14. Are Bats Dangerous?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kim

    2004-01-01

    There are many reasons people are afraid of bats but most are myths. Many people are also afraid of bats because they believe all bats are vampire bats, or bats that feed on blood. There are a few species of bats called "vampire" bats;however, these bats are found in Central and South America--there are no vampire bats in the United…

  15. Environmental contaminants and the management of bat populations in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    Food-chain residues of organochlorine pesticides probably have been involved in declines of some U.S. bat populations; examples include free-tailed bats at Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico, and the endangered gray bat at sites in Missouri and Alabama. If a long-lived contaminant has not been dispersed in large amounts over large areas, its impact may be controlled by administrative action that stops its use or other environmental discharge, or that results in physical isolation of localized contamination so that it no longer enters food chains

  16. Bat Bonanza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Amanda J.; Scott, Catherine; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a lesson on bats developed for kindergartners, which uses models of bats to teach about their physiology, diet, and habitat. The lesson uses craft sticks, wax paper, and colored construction paper that kindergarten teachers can use to help their students compare the features of 4 different kinds of bats. The use of online…

  17. Breaking Bat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

  18. Bat Bonanza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Amanda J.; Scott, Catherine; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a lesson on bats developed for kindergartners, which uses models of bats to teach about their physiology, diet, and habitat. The lesson uses craft sticks, wax paper, and colored construction paper that kindergarten teachers can use to help their students compare the features of 4 different kinds of bats. The use of online…

  19. Breaking Bat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

  20. Brevity is prevalent in bat short-range communication.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bo; Jiang, Tinglei; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jing; Lin, Aiqing; Wei, Xuewen; Feng, Jiang

    2013-04-01

    Animal communication follows many coding schemes. Less is known about the coding strategy for signal length and rates of use in animal vocal communication. A generalized brevity (negative relation between signal length and frequency of use) is innovatively explored but remains controversial in animal vocal communication. We tested brevity for short-range social and distress sounds from four echolocating bats: adult black-bearded tomb bat Taphozous melanopogon, Mexican free-tailed bat Tadarida brasiliensis, adult greater horseshoe bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, and adult least horseshoe bat Rhinolophus pusillus. There was a negative association between duration and number of social but not distress calls emitted. The most frequently emitted social calls were brief, while most distress calls were long. Brevity or lengthiness was consistently selected in vocal communications for each species. Echolocating bats seem to have convergent coding strategy for communication calls. The results provide the evidence of efficient coding in bat social vocalizations, and lay the basis of future researches on the convergence for neural control on bats' communication calls.

  1. Suppression of emission rates improves sonar performance by flying bats

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Amanda M.; Davis, Kaylee; Smotherman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Echolocating bats face the challenge of actively sensing their environment through their own emissions, while also hearing calls and echoes of nearby conspecifics. How bats mitigate interference is a long-standing question that has both ecological and technological implications, as biosonar systems continue to outperform man-made sonar systems in noisy, cluttered environments. We recently showed that perched bats decreased calling rates in groups, displaying a behavioral strategy resembling the back-off algorithms used in artificial communication networks to optimize information throughput at the group level. We tested whether free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) would employ such a coordinated strategy while performing challenging flight maneuvers, and report here that bats navigating obstacles lowered emission rates when hearing artificial playback of another bat’s calls. We measured the impact of acoustic interference on navigation performance and show that the calculated reductions in interference rates are sufficient to reduce interference and improve obstacle avoidance. When bats flew in pairs, each bat responded to the presence of the other as an obstacle by increasing emissions, but hearing the sonar emissions of the nearby bat partially suppressed this response. This behavior supports social cohesion by providing a key mechanism for minimizing mutual interference. PMID:28139707

  2. Susceptibility and Pathogenesis of Little Brown Bats (Myotis lucifugus) to Heterologous and Homologous Rabies Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Jodie A.; Pouliott, Craig E.; Morgan, Shannon, M. D.; Rudd, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) maintenance in bats is not well understood. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), and Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) are the most common bats species in the United States. These colonial bat species also have the most frequent contact with humans and domestic animals. However, the silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) RABV is associated with the majority of human rabies virus infections in the United States and Canada. This is of interest because silver-haired bats are more solitary bats with infrequent human interaction. Our goal was to determine the likelihood of a colonial bat species becoming infected with and transmitting a heterologous RABV. To ascertain the potential of heterologous RABV infection in colonial bat species, little brown bats were inoculated with a homologous RABV or one of two heterologous RABVs. Additionally, to determine if the route of exposure influenced the disease process, bats were inoculated either intramuscularly (i.m.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) with a homologous or heterologous RABV. Our results demonstrate that intramuscular inoculation results in a more rapid progression of disease onset, whereas the incubation time in bats inoculated s.c. is significantly longer. Additionally, cross protection was not consistently achieved in bats previously inoculated with a heterologous RABV following a challenge with a homologous RABV 6 months later. Finally, bats that developed rabies following s.c. inoculation were significantly more likely to shed virus in their saliva and demonstrated increased viral dissemination. In summary, bats inoculated via the s.c. route are more likely to shed virus, thus increasing the likelihood of transmission. PMID:23741002

  3. Susceptibility and pathogenesis of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) to heterologous and homologous rabies viruses.

    PubMed

    Davis, April D; Jarvis, Jodie A; Pouliott, Craig E; Morgan, Shannon M D; Rudd, Robert J

    2013-08-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) maintenance in bats is not well understood. Big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), and Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) are the most common bats species in the United States. These colonial bat species also have the most frequent contact with humans and domestic animals. However, the silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) RABV is associated with the majority of human rabies virus infections in the United States and Canada. This is of interest because silver-haired bats are more solitary bats with infrequent human interaction. Our goal was to determine the likelihood of a colonial bat species becoming infected with and transmitting a heterologous RABV. To ascertain the potential of heterologous RABV infection in colonial bat species, little brown bats were inoculated with a homologous RABV or one of two heterologous RABVs. Additionally, to determine if the route of exposure influenced the disease process, bats were inoculated either intramuscularly (i.m.) or subcutaneously (s.c.) with a homologous or heterologous RABV. Our results demonstrate that intramuscular inoculation results in a more rapid progression of disease onset, whereas the incubation time in bats inoculated s.c. is significantly longer. Additionally, cross protection was not consistently achieved in bats previously inoculated with a heterologous RABV following a challenge with a homologous RABV 6 months later. Finally, bats that developed rabies following s.c. inoculation were significantly more likely to shed virus in their saliva and demonstrated increased viral dissemination. In summary, bats inoculated via the s.c. route are more likely to shed virus, thus increasing the likelihood of transmission.

  4. Breaking Bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

    2013-02-01

    The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created by the collision with the ball. The kind of wood that is used plays a role in the manner in which the bat breaks—-its "failure mode." We report on a simple experiment to compare the breaking strength and failure modes of ash and maple dowels. The results illustrate some of the features of breaking bats under game conditions.

  5. Genetic divergence of rabies viruses from bat species of Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Vidya; Orciari, Lillian A; De Mattos, Cecilia; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Pape, W John; O'Shea, Thomas J; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2005-01-01

    Molecular epidemiological studies have linked many cryptic human rabies cases in the United States with exposure to rabies virus (RV) variants associated with insectivorous bats. In Colorado, bats accounted for 98% of all reported animal rabies cases between 1977 and 1996. The genetic divergence of RV was investigated in bat and terrestrial animal specimens that were submitted for rabies diagnosis to the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE), Colorado, USA. RV isolates from animal specimens across the United States were also included in the analysis. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences, which revealed seven principal clades. RV associated with the colonial big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, an bats of the genus Myotis were found to segregate into two distinct clades (I and IV). Clade I was harbored by E. fuscus and Myotis species, but was also identified in terrestrial animals such as domestic cats and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). Clade IV was divided into subclades IVA, IVB, and IVC; IVA was identified in E. fuscus, and Myotis species bats, and also in a fox; subclades IVB and IVC circulated predominantly in E. fuscus. Clade II was formed by big free-tailed bat (Nyctinomops macrotis) and striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) samples. Clade III included RVs that are maintained by generally solitary, migratory bats such as the silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans) and bats of the genus Lasiurus. Big brown bats were found to harbor this RV variant. None of the Colorado specimens segregated with clades V and VII that harbor RVs associated with terrestrial animals. Different species of bats had the same RV variant, indicating active inter-species rabies transmission. In Colorado, animal rabies occurs principally in bats, and the identification of bat RVs in cat, gray fox Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and striped skunks demonstrated the importance of rabies spillover from bats to domestic and

  6. Streblidae (Diptera) of phyllostomid bats from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Alexsander Araújo; Linardi, Pedro Marcos

    2002-04-01

    Eight streblid species were collected from eight phyllostomid bat species, from April to November 1997, at or near the Reserve "Parque Estadual do Rio Doce", Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. In total, 48 specimens of streblid were removed from 57 phyllostomid bats. Most of batflies species were associated with a single species of the host, and only Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro) and Trichobius joblingi Wenzel were recorded on three bat species. Trichobius lonchophyllae Wenzel represents a new record for the Brazilian Southeastern region.

  7. Urban bat communities are affected by wetland size, quality, and pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Straka, Tanja Maria; Lentini, Pia Eloise; Lumsden, Linda Faye; Wintle, Brendan Anthony; van der Ree, Rodney

    2016-07-01

    Wetlands support unique biota and provide important ecosystem services. These services are highly threatened due to the rate of loss and relative rarity of wetlands in most landscapes, an issue that is exacerbated in highly modified urban environments. Despite this, critical ecological knowledge is currently lacking for many wetland-dependent taxa, such as insectivorous bats, which can persist in urban areas if their habitats are managed appropriately. Here, we use a novel paired landscape approach to investigate the role of wetlands in urban bat conservation and examine local and landscape factors driving bat species richness and activity. We acoustically monitored bat activity at 58 urban wetlands and 35 nonwetland sites (ecologically similar sites without free-standing water) in the greater Melbourne area, southeastern Australia. We analyzed bat species richness and activity patterns using generalized linear mixed-effects models. We found that the presence of water in urban Melbourne was an important driver of bat species richness and activity at a landscape scale. Increasing distance to bushland and increasing levels of heavy metal pollution within the waterbody also negatively influenced bat richness and individual species activity. Areas with high levels of artificial night light had reduced bat species richness, and reduced activity for all species except those adapted to urban areas, such as the White-striped free-tailed bat (Austronomus australis). Increased surrounding tree cover and wetland size had a positive effect on bat species richness. Our findings indicate that wetlands form critical habitats for insectivorous bats in urban environments. Large, unlit, and unpolluted wetlands flanked by high tree cover in close proximity to bushland contribute most to the richness of the bat community. Our findings clarify the role of wetlands for insectivorous bats in urban areas and will also allow for the preservation, construction, and management of wetlands

  8. Effects of DDE and PCB (Aroclor 1260) on experimentally poisoned little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus): Lethal brain concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Stafford, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Adult female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) were collected in a church attic in North East, Cecil County, Md. Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing organochlorine pollutants were fed to the bats as follows: 5 bats were dosed at 480 ppm DDE, 12 at 150 ppm DDE, 5 at 1000 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB; Aroclor 1260), and 12 at 15 ppm PCB. Seven other bats were fed untreated mealworms. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE and PCB to lethality and measure these concentrations. During 40 d of dosage, one DDE-dosed bat and two PCB-dosed bats died after exhibiting the prolonged tremor that characterizes organochlorine poisoning. After dosage, surviving bats were starved to elevate brain levels of toxicants, and three additional DDE-dosed bats had tremors before dying. The mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was estimated as 603 ppm, range 540-670 ppm. This mean is 16-18% higher than means for Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) and common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and may indicate less sensitivity. Lethal brain concentrations of Aroclor 1260 were 1300 and 1500 ppm. Such values appear to be higher than values (Aroclor 1254) for brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). During starvation, DDE-dosed bats lost weight about 24% faster than controls. If smaller amounts of stored DDE cause increases in metabolic rates of nonfeeding bats, as during hibernation or migration, the result could be premature energy depletion and increased mortality.

  9. Comparative analysis of rabies virus isolates from Brazilian canids and bats based on the G gene and G-L intergenic region.

    PubMed

    Carnieli, Pedro; Fahl, Willian de Oliveira; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Oliveira, Rafael de Novaes; Macedo, Carla Isabel; Durymanova, Ekaterina; Castilho, Juliana Galera

    2010-06-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) isolates from two species of canids and three species of bats were analyzed by comparing the C-terminal region of the G gene and the G-L intergenic region of the virus genome. Intercluster identities for the genetic sequences of the isolates showed both regions to be poorly conserved. Phylogenetic trees were generated by the neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods, and the results were found to agree between the two methods for both regions. Putative amino acid sequences obtained from the G gene were also analyzed, and genetic markers were identified. Our results suggest that different genetic lineages of RABV are adapted to different animal species in Brazil.

  10. Optimizing conservation strategies for Mexican freetailed bats: a population viability and ecosystem services approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiederholt, Ruscena; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Svancara, Colleen; McCracken, Gary; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Mattson, Brady; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cryan, Paul; Amy Russell,; Semmens, Darius J.; Rodrigo A. Medellín,

    2015-01-01

    Conservation planning can be challenging due to the need to balance biological concerns about population viability with social concerns about the benefits biodiversity provide to society, often while operating under a limited budget. Methods and tools that help prioritize conservation actions are critical for the management of at-risk species. Here, we use a multi-attribute utility function to assess the optimal maternity roosts to conserve for maintaining the population viability and the ecosystem services of a single species, the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana). Mexican free-tailed bats provide ecosystem services such as insect pest-suppression in agricultural areas and recreational viewing opportunities, and may be threatened by climate change and development of wind energy. We evaluated each roost based on five attributes: the maternity roost’s contribution to population viability, the pest suppression ecosystem services to the surrounding area provided by the bats residing in the roost, the ecotourism value of the roost, the risks posed to each roost structure, and the risks posed to the population of bats residing in each roost. We compared several scenarios that prioritized these attributes differently, hypothesizing that the set of roosts with the highest rankings would vary according to the conservation scenario. Our results indicate that placing higher values on different roost attributes (e.g. population importance over ecosystem service value) altered the roost rankings. We determined that the values placed on various conservation objectives are an important determinant of habitat planning.

  11. Bat consumption in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Background Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. Methods This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. Results In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Discussion Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption. PMID:26806167

  12. Bat consumption in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April-August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.

  13. Bat Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... spreading among humans?” How could bat flu viruses become capable of infecting and spreading among humans? ... discovery of bat flu taught us about flu viruses? The discovery of bat flu has shed light ...

  14. Molecular Diversity of Rabies Viruses Associated with Bats in Mexico and Other Countries of the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Orciari, Lillian A.; Juárez-Islas, Víctor; Gómez-Sierra, Mauricio; Padilla-Medina, Irma; Flisser, Ana; Souza, Valeria; Castillo, Amanda; Franka, Richard; Escalante-Mañe, Maribel; Sauri-González, Isaias; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    Bat rabies and its transmission to humans and other species in Mexico were investigated. Eighty-nine samples obtained from rabid livestock, cats, dogs, and humans in Mexico were studied by antigenic typing and partial sequence analysis. Samples were further compared with enzootic rabies associated with different species of bats in the Americas. Patterns of nucleotide variation allowed the definition of at least 20 monophyletic clusters associated with 9 or more different bat species. Several lineages associated with distinctive antigenic patterns were found in rabies viruses related to rabies in vampire bats in Mexico. Vampire bat rabies virus lineages associated with antigenic variant 3 are widely spread from Mexico to South America, suggesting these lineages as the most likely ancestors of vampire bat rabies and the ones that have been moved by vampire bat populations throughout the Americas. Rabies viruses related to Lasiurus cinereus, Histiotus montanus, and some other not yet identified species of the genus Lasiurus were found circulating in Mexico. Long-range dissemination patterns of rabies are not necessarily associated with migratory bat species, as in the case of rabies in Desmodus rotundus and Histiotus montanus. Human rabies was associated with vampire bat transmission in most cases, and in one case, rabies transmission from free-tailed bats was inferred. The occurrence of rabies spillover from bats to domestic animals was also demonstrated. Genetic typing of rabies viruses allowed us to distinguish trends of disease dissemination and to address, in a preliminary fashion, aspects of the complex evolution of rabies viruses in different host-reservoir species. PMID:16672396

  15. Molecular diversity of rabies viruses associated with bats in Mexico and other countries of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Villa, Andrés; Orciari, Lillian A; Juárez-Islas, Víctor; Gómez-Sierra, Mauricio; Padilla-Medina, Irma; Flisser, Ana; Souza, Valeria; Castillo, Amanda; Franka, Richard; Escalante-Mañe, Maribel; Sauri-González, Isaias; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2006-05-01

    Bat rabies and its transmission to humans and other species in Mexico were investigated. Eighty-nine samples obtained from rabid livestock, cats, dogs, and humans in Mexico were studied by antigenic typing and partial sequence analysis. Samples were further compared with enzootic rabies associated with different species of bats in the Americas. Patterns of nucleotide variation allowed the definition of at least 20 monophyletic clusters associated with 9 or more different bat species. Several lineages associated with distinctive antigenic patterns were found in rabies viruses related to rabies in vampire bats in Mexico. Vampire bat rabies virus lineages associated with antigenic variant 3 are widely spread from Mexico to South America, suggesting these lineages as the most likely ancestors of vampire bat rabies and the ones that have been moved by vampire bat populations throughout the Americas. Rabies viruses related to Lasiurus cinereus, Histiotus montanus, and some other not yet identified species of the genus Lasiurus were found circulating in Mexico. Long-range dissemination patterns of rabies are not necessarily associated with migratory bat species, as in the case of rabies in Desmodus rotundus and Histiotus montanus. Human rabies was associated with vampire bat transmission in most cases, and in one case, rabies transmission from free-tailed bats was inferred. The occurrence of rabies spillover from bats to domestic animals was also demonstrated. Genetic typing of rabies viruses allowed us to distinguish trends of disease dissemination and to address, in a preliminary fashion, aspects of the complex evolution of rabies viruses in different host-reservoir species.

  16. Bat Facts and Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a unit of study for elementary school science on bats. Students investigate the different types of bats; examine their behavior; find facts that other students are unlikely to know; write stories about bats; and examine the concept of echolocation, the means by which bats navigate. Suggests integrated activities for mathematics…

  17. Bat Facts and Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a unit of study for elementary school science on bats. Students investigate the different types of bats; examine their behavior; find facts that other students are unlikely to know; write stories about bats; and examine the concept of echolocation, the means by which bats navigate. Suggests integrated activities for mathematics…

  18. Moving across the border: Modeling migratory bat populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruscena, Wiederholt; López-Hoffman, Laura; Cline, Jon; Medellin, Rodrigo; Cryan, Paul M.; Russell, Amy; McCracken, Gary; Diffendorfer, Jay; Semmens, Darius J.

    2013-01-01

    The migration of animals across long distances and between multiple habitats presents a major challenge for conservation. For the migratory Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana), these challenges include identifying and protecting migratory routes and critical roosts in two countries, the United States and Mexico. Knowledge and conservation of bat migratory routes is critical in the face of increasing threats from climate change and wind turbines that might decrease migratory survival. We employ a new modeling approach for bat migration, network modeling, to simulate migratory routes between winter habitat in southern Mexico and summer breeding habitat in northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. We use the model to identify key migratory routes and the roosts of greatest conservation value to the overall population. We measure roost importance by the degree to which the overall bat population declined when the roost was removed from the model. The major migratory routes—those with the greatest number of migrants—were between winter habitat in southern Mexico and summer breeding roosts in Texas and the northern Mexican states of Sonora and Nuevo Leon. The summer breeding roosts in Texas, Sonora, and Nuevo Leon were the most important for maintaining population numbers and network structure – these are also the largest roosts. This modeling approach contributes to conservation efforts by identifying the most influential areas for bat populations, and can be used as a tool to improve our understanding of bat migration for other species. We anticipate this approach will help direct coordination of habitat protection across borders.

  19. Organochlorine residues in females and nursing young of the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Lamont, T.G.

    1976-01-01

    Carcasses and brains of 18 big brown bats from Gaithersburg, Maryland, were analyzed for residues of organochlorine insecticides and PCB's. Eleven bats were adult females, and six of these had seven nursing young associated with them....Young bats resembled their parents in microgram amounts of PCB and DDE present in carcasses. However, concentrations of chemicals (expressed as ppm) were significantly higher in young. Brains of three young contained detectable residues of PCB and DDE....Younger adult females contained higher levels of PCB and DDE than did older ones. However, among the oldest females, amounts appeared to begin rising again. This pattern resembles that in free-tailed bats from Bracken Cave, Texas, but differs from the continuous linear decline seen in a Laurel, Maryland population of big brown bats, in which initial levels among younger females were higher than those in the Gaithersburg population....DDE was transferred from female to young more readily than was PCB by nursing. Five of 51 neonate big brown bats from the Laurel population were thought to have been born dead because of residues of PCB that were transferred across the placenta. Present data show that even greater amounts of PCB may be transferred to young by lactation and nursing.

  20. A family matter: conclusive resolution of the taxonomic position of the long-fingered bats, miniopterus.

    PubMed

    Miller-Butterworth, Cassandra M; Murphy, William J; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jacobs, David S; Springer, Mark S; Teeling, Emma C

    2007-07-01

    The long-fingered bats (Miniopterus sp.) are among the most widely distributed mammals in the world. However, despite recent focus on the systematics of these bats, their taxonomic position has not been resolved. Traditionally, they are considered to be sole members of Miniopterinae, 1 of 5 subfamilies within the largest family of bats, the Vespertilionidae. However, this classification has increasingly been called into question. Miniopterines differ extensively from other vespertilionids in numerous aspects of morphology, embryology, immunology, and, most recently, genetics. Recent molecular studies have proposed that the miniopterines are sufficiently distinct from vespertilionids that Miniopterinae should be elevated to full familial status. However, controversy remains regarding the relationship of the putative family, Miniopteridae to existing Vespertilionidae and to the closely related free-tailed bats, the Molossidae. We report here the first conclusive analysis of the taxonomic position of Miniopterus relative to all other bat families. We generated one of the largest chiropteran data sets to date, incorporating approximately 11 kb of sequence data from 16 nuclear genes, from representatives of all bat families and 2 Miniopterus species. Our data confirm the distinctiveness of Miniopterus, and we support previous recommendations to elevate these bats to full familial status. We estimate that they diverged from all other bat species approximately 49-38 MYA, which is comparable to most other bat families. Furthermore, we find very strong support from all phylogenetic methods for a sister group relationship between Miniopteridae and Vespertilionidae. The Molossidae diverged from these lineages approximately 54-43 MYA and form a sister group to the Miniopteridae-Vespertilionidae clade.

  1. Temporal auditory summation in the echolocating bat, Tadarida brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S; Thaller, J

    1994-06-15

    Auditory thresholds improve with increasing signal duration within the maximum integration time of the auditory system, a phenomenon called temporal summation. The temporal summation function is a basic characteristic of particular relevance for bat sonar, as it determines the ability to detect targets with short echolocation calls. Temporal summation was studied in 6 Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) in a forced two-choice behavioural test. Masked auditory thresholds for 40-kHz test tone pulses with durations between 2 ms and 400 ms were determined in broadband noise of two different spectrum levels (-18 dB, +17 dB). At both masker levels, thresholds decreased by considerably more than 10 dB per decade of duration. The time constants of the summation functions, which are a measure of the maximum integration time, shortened significantly with increasing masker level from 62 ms to 14 ms. The steep summation functions are only partly accounted for by spectral splatter. This suggests that the bats are capable of a neural overintegration of sound intensity. Finally, it is shown that such short time constants are typical for echolocating animals, and the implications of the found summation functions for echolocation are considered.

  2. Analyzing bat migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, Paul M.; Diehl, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    T HE MIGRATORY MOVEIvl.ENTS OF BATS have proven ex­ tremely difficult to determine. Despite extensive efforts during the past century to track the movements of bats across landscapes, efficient methods of following small- to medium-size volant animals <240 gl for extended periods (>8 weeks) over long distances (>100 km) have not been developed. Important questions about bat migration remain unanswered: Which bats migrate? Where do they go? How far do they move? How high and fast do they fly? What are their habitat needs during migration? How do bats orient and navigate during migration? Addressing these apparently simple questions will be a considerable challenge to anyone interested in advancing the study of bat migration. In this chapter, we present direct and indirect methods used to study bat migration as well as techniques that have worked for studying bird migration that could feasibly be adapted to the study of bats.

  3. Distress Calls of a Fast-Flying Bat (Molossus molossus) Provoke Inspection Flights but Not Cooperative Mobbing

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Gerald; Schoeppler, Diana; Manthey, Marie; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Denzinger, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Many birds and mammals produce distress calls when captured. Bats often approach speakers playing conspecific distress calls, which has led to the hypothesis that bat distress calls promote cooperative mobbing. An alternative explanation is that approaching bats are selfishly assessing predation risk. Previous playback studies on bat distress calls involved species with highly maneuverable flight, capable of making close passes and tight circles around speakers, which can look like mobbing. We broadcast distress calls recorded from the velvety free-tailed bat, Molossus molossus, a fast-flying aerial-hawker with relatively poor maneuverability. Based on their flight behavior, we predicted that, in response to distress call playbacks, M. molossus would make individual passing inspection flights but would not approach in groups or approach within a meter of the distress call source. By recording responses via ultrasonic recording and infrared video, we found that M. molossus, and to a lesser extent Saccopteryx bilineata, made more flight passes during distress call playbacks compared to noise. However, only the more maneuverable S. bilineata made close approaches to the speaker, and we found no evidence of mobbing in groups. Instead, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that single bats approached distress calls simply to investigate the situation. These results suggest that approaches by bats to distress calls should not suffice as clear evidence for mobbing. PMID:26353118

  4. Distress Calls of a Fast-Flying Bat (Molossus molossus) Provoke Inspection Flights but Not Cooperative Mobbing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Gerald; Schoeppler, Diana; Manthey, Marie; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Denzinger, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Many birds and mammals produce distress calls when captured. Bats often approach speakers playing conspecific distress calls, which has led to the hypothesis that bat distress calls promote cooperative mobbing. An alternative explanation is that approaching bats are selfishly assessing predation risk. Previous playback studies on bat distress calls involved species with highly maneuverable flight, capable of making close passes and tight circles around speakers, which can look like mobbing. We broadcast distress calls recorded from the velvety free-tailed bat, Molossus molossus, a fast-flying aerial-hawker with relatively poor maneuverability. Based on their flight behavior, we predicted that, in response to distress call playbacks, M. molossus would make individual passing inspection flights but would not approach in groups or approach within a meter of the distress call source. By recording responses via ultrasonic recording and infrared video, we found that M. molossus, and to a lesser extent Saccopteryx bilineata, made more flight passes during distress call playbacks compared to noise. However, only the more maneuverable S. bilineata made close approaches to the speaker, and we found no evidence of mobbing in groups. Instead, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that single bats approached distress calls simply to investigate the situation. These results suggest that approaches by bats to distress calls should not suffice as clear evidence for mobbing.

  5. Bat and Superbat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Herbert R.

    1987-01-01

    The author considers the selection of a baseball bat from a mathematical perspective. The effectiveness of a bat-slider system is specifically analyzed. Results are presented graphically to show the effects of the mass of the slider on the swing time and on the batted ball velocity. (PK)

  6. Sampling methods for bats.

    Treesearch

    D.W. Thomas; S.D. West

    1989-01-01

    Bats represent the second most diverse group of mammals inhabiting the western slopes of the Cascade Range in southern Washington and the Oregon Coast Range. Bat populations may well be sensitive to changes in forest age, structure, or distribution, but their nocturnal habits and high mobility render the study of the habitat requirements of bats problematical. Unlike...

  7. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Sansone, Chris; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Goldstein, Joshua; LaSharr, Kelsie; Loomis, John; McCracken, Gary; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Russell, Amy; Semmens, Darius J.

    2014-01-01

    Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the “economic benefits” arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars) due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function – in this case bat population numbers – is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  8. Market Forces and Technological Substitutes Cause Fluctuations in the Value of Bat Pest-Control Services for Cotton

    PubMed Central

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Sansone, Chris; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cryan, Paul; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Goldstein, Joshua; LaSharr, Kelsie; Loomis, John; McCracken, Gary; Medellín, Rodrigo A.; Russell, Amy; Semmens, Darius

    2014-01-01

    Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the “economic benefits” arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars) due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function – in this case bat population numbers – is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular. PMID:24498400

  9. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton.

    PubMed

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Sansone, Chris; Bagstad, Kenneth J; Cryan, Paul; Diffendorfer, Jay E; Goldstein, Joshua; Lasharr, Kelsie; Loomis, John; McCracken, Gary; Medellín, Rodrigo A; Russell, Amy; Semmens, Darius

    2014-01-01

    Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the "economic benefits" arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars) due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function--in this case bat population numbers--is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  10. First detection of adenovirus in the vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Francisco Esmaile de Sales; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Elesbao, Felipe; Carnieli Junior, Pedro; Batista, Helena Beatriz de Carvalho Ruthner; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Cláudia

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the first detection of adenovirus in a Brazilian Desmodus rotundus bat, the common vampire bat. As part of a continuous rabies surveillance program, three bat specimens were captured in Southern Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from pooled organs and submitted to a nested PCR designed to amplify a 280 bp long portion of the DNA polymerase gene of adenoviruses. One positive sample was subjected to nucleotide sequencing, confirming that this DNA fragment belongs to a member of the genus Mastadenovirus. This sequence is approximately 25 % divergent at the nucleotide level from equine adenovirus 1 and two other recently characterized bat adenoviruses.

  11. Modification of the wake behind a bat ear with and without tubercles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrin, Christopher; Elbing, Brian

    2015-11-01

    The Mexican Free-Tailed Bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) is a highly aerobatic bat, known to dive from altitudes of several thousand feet into their home caves, reaching estimated speeds of 27 m/s (Davis et al., Ecological Monographs, 32, 1962). A series of small tubercles have been observed on the leading edge of the bat's ear, which mimic the pattern of tubercles found on the fins of the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). The tubercles on the whale fins have been proven to delay stall on the fin and allow the whale to retain better control during dives. The goal of the current study is to assess whether the bat ear tubercles fulfill a similar purpose of improving flow control, particularly at high angles of attack. This was accomplished by acquiring PIV measurements of the bat ear wake with and without the tubercles. The velocity profiles were used to assess the drag and lift as a function of angle of attack. These results will be presented and the impact of the tubercles assessed.

  12. Bat rabies in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Ellison, James A; Gilbert, Amy T; Recuenco, Sergio; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo A; Kuzmina, Natalia; Garcia, Daniel L; Peruski, Leonard F; Mendonça, Mary T; Lindblade, Kim A; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2014-01-01

    Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S). The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation.

  13. Bat Rabies in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, James A.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Recuenco, Sergio; Moran, David; Alvarez, Danilo A.; Kuzmina, Natalia; Garcia, Daniel L.; Peruski, Leonard F.; Mendonça, Mary T.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies in bats is considered enzootic throughout the New World, but few comparative data are available for most countries in the region. As part of a larger pathogen detection program, enhanced bat rabies surveillance was conducted in Guatemala, between 2009 and 2011. A total of 672 bats of 31 species were sampled and tested for rabies. The prevalence of rabies virus (RABV) detection among all collected bats was low (0.3%). Viral antigens were detected and infectious virus was isolated from the brains of two common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). RABV was also isolated from oral swabs, lungs and kidneys of both bats, whereas viral RNA was detected in all of the tissues examined by hemi-nested RT-PCR except for the liver of one bat. Sequencing of the nucleoprotein gene showed that both viruses were 100% identical, whereas sequencing of the glycoprotein gene revealed one non-synonymous substitution (302T,S). The two vampire bat RABV isolates in this study were phylogenetically related to viruses associated with vampire bats in the eastern states of Mexico and El Salvador. Additionally, 7% of sera collected from 398 bats demonstrated RABV neutralizing antibody. The proportion of seropositive bats varied significantly across trophic guilds, suggestive of complex intraspecific compartmentalization of RABV perpetuation. PMID:25080103

  14. [Rabies in bats].

    PubMed

    Beranová, Kateřina; Zendulková, Dagmar

    2016-06-01

    Rabies is a zoonosis ending fatally in all mammals, including humans. Unlike the other mammals, this disease is usually not fatal in bats. Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses which are divided into several distinct phylogroups comprising 15 known viruses. It is believed that the original hosts of all lyssaviruses are bats. Classical rabies virus (RABV) occurs in bats across Americas and represents the major cause of rabies in humans and domestic animals there. European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) are the most frequently diagnosed lyssaviruses in Eurasia. The transmission of EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 from bats to other mammals is very rare. As of now, more detailed information is missing about the other Eurasian lyssaviruses - West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV), Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV), Aravan virus (ARAV), Irkut virus (IRKV), Khujand virus (KHUV) and Lleida virus. The lyssavirus most frequently found in Africa is Lagos bat virus (LBV). In Australia, only Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) has been demonstrated as yet. In the Czech Republic, a total of five cases of rabies in bats were confirmed between 1994 and 2015. Rabies can be transmitted from bats mainly by biting or scratching. Clinically ill bats suffer from nervous disorders or produce abnormal sounds. If rabies is suspected, laboratory tests are essential. Protection of human health is based on pre-exposure and/or post-exposure vaccination. However, the available vaccines do not protect against some newly identified lyssaviruses such as WCBV. Nevertheless, most bat species pose a minimal risk to humans.

  15. Bats as Viral Reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Hayman, David T S

    2016-09-29

    Bats are hosts of a range of viruses, including ebolaviruses, and many important human viral infections, such as measles and mumps, may have their ancestry traced back to bats. Here, I review viruses of all viral families detected in global bat populations. The viral diversity in bats is substantial, and viruses with all known types of genomic structures and replication strategies have been discovered in bats. However, the discovery of viruses is not geographically even, with some apparently undersampled regions, such as South America. Furthermore, some bat families, including those with global or wide distributions such as Emballonuridae and Miniopteridae, are underrepresented on viral databases. Future studies, including those that address these sampling gaps along with those that develop our understanding of viral-host relationships, are highlighted.

  16. House bat management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenhall, Arthur M.

    1982-01-01

    The soundest long-term solution for the management of bats that enter buildings and cause a nuisance problem or present a public health hazard is by batproofing the structure. Chemical toxicants do not solve house bat problems and may create worse ones. This manual describes batproofing techniques that will provide effective and acceptable alternatives for dealing with house bat problems and hazards. Recent declines in bat populations and greater appreciation of the ecological importance of bats have identified the need for sound management strategies that will encourage bat conservation while protecting human health and solving nuisance problems. One of the best deterrents against house bats is to improve the energy efficiency of the structure since bats may enter holes through which heat is lost. Heat conservation methods used for batproofing will also be eligible for Federal residential energy tax credits. The manual should be useful to homeowners, public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, conservationists, and others interested or concerned about bat interactions with humans.

  17. Isolation of Histoplasma capsulatum from bats in the urban area of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, M A Galvão; Oliveira, R M Zancopé; Giudice, M C; Netto, H Montenegro; Jordão, L R; Grigorio, I M; Rosa, A R; Amorim, J; Nosanchuk, J D; Travassos, L R; Taborda, C P

    2011-10-01

    The presence of bats in caves, attics, ceilings, and roofs is important epidemiologically as they can increase the chance of human acquisition of pathogens, including Histoplasma capsulatum. Brazilian urban areas contain many species of bats, especially insectivorous bats, that are attracted by a wide range of readily available food and shelter. From August 2003 to December 2008, we analysed 2427 bats in the São Paulo State region. Homogenates of the livers and spleens of the bats were plated on specific medium to identify animals infected with H. capsulatum. The fungus was isolated from 87 bats (3·6%). The infected bats were identified as Molossus molossus (74), Nyctinomops macrotis (10), Tadarida brasiliensis (1), Molossus rufus (1) and Eumops glaucinus (1), all insectivorous species. The data presented are a relevant contribution to the epidemiology of H. capsulatum in densely populated urban areas such as in São Paulo State, especially since histoplasmosis is not included in the mandatory disease notification system.

  18. Bat Predation by Spiders

    PubMed Central

    Nyffeler, Martin; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper more than 50 incidences of bats being captured by spiders are reviewed. Bat-catching spiders have been reported from virtually every continent with the exception of Antarctica (∼90% of the incidences occurring in the warmer areas of the globe between latitude 30° N and 30° S). Most reports refer to the Neotropics (42% of observed incidences), Asia (28.8%), and Australia-Papua New Guinea (13.5%). Bat-catching spiders belong to the mygalomorph family Theraphosidae and the araneomorph families Nephilidae, Araneidae, and Sparassidae. In addition to this, an attack attempt by a large araneomorph hunting spider of the family Pisauridae on an immature bat was witnessed. Eighty-eight percent of the reported incidences of bat catches were attributable to web-building spiders and 12% to hunting spiders. Large tropical orb-weavers of the genera Nephila and Eriophora in particular have been observed catching bats in their huge, strong orb-webs (of up to 1.5 m diameter). The majority of identifiable captured bats were small aerial insectivorous bats, belonging to the families Vespertilionidae (64%) and Emballonuridae (22%) and usually being among the most common bat species in their respective geographic area. While in some instances bats entangled in spider webs may have died of exhaustion, starvation, dehydration, and/or hyperthermia (i.e., non-predation death), there were numerous other instances where spiders were seen actively attacking, killing, and eating the captured bats (i.e., predation). This evidence suggests that spider predation on flying vertebrates is more widespread than previously assumed. PMID:23516436

  19. Bat predation by spiders.

    PubMed

    Nyffeler, Martin; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper more than 50 incidences of bats being captured by spiders are reviewed. Bat-catching spiders have been reported from virtually every continent with the exception of Antarctica (≈ 90% of the incidences occurring in the warmer areas of the globe between latitude 30° N and 30° S). Most reports refer to the Neotropics (42% of observed incidences), Asia (28.8%), and Australia-Papua New Guinea (13.5%). Bat-catching spiders belong to the mygalomorph family Theraphosidae and the araneomorph families Nephilidae, Araneidae, and Sparassidae. In addition to this, an attack attempt by a large araneomorph hunting spider of the family Pisauridae on an immature bat was witnessed. Eighty-eight percent of the reported incidences of bat catches were attributable to web-building spiders and 12% to hunting spiders. Large tropical orb-weavers of the genera Nephila and Eriophora in particular have been observed catching bats in their huge, strong orb-webs (of up to 1.5 m diameter). The majority of identifiable captured bats were small aerial insectivorous bats, belonging to the families Vespertilionidae (64%) and Emballonuridae (22%) and usually being among the most common bat species in their respective geographic area. While in some instances bats entangled in spider webs may have died of exhaustion, starvation, dehydration, and/or hyperthermia (i.e., non-predation death), there were numerous other instances where spiders were seen actively attacking, killing, and eating the captured bats (i.e., predation). This evidence suggests that spider predation on flying vertebrates is more widespread than previously assumed.

  20. [The bats and rabies in the Western region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Albas, Avelino; Souza, Edson Aroldo Novaes de; Picolo, Miléia Ricci; Favoretto, Silvana Regina; da Gama, Adriana Ruckert; Sodré, Miriam Martos

    2011-01-01

    The Polo da Alta Sorocabana Laboratory in Presidente Prudente, SP, in partnership with other research institutions, conducted studies related to bats from the western region of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Thus, certain situations were investigated, including: a) isolation of the rabies virus from 2006 to 2008; b) identification of respective antigenic variants; and c) characterization of daytime shelters of Desmodus rotundus vampire bats. Samples for examination originated from nonhematophagous bats forwarded to the laboratory and subjected to direct fluorescent antibody test and mouse inoculation test. Positive samples were characterized by the monoclonal antibody test. Regarding the bats, they were identified and classified and mapping of their shelters was also performed. The laboratory received 1,113 nonhematophagous bats for rabies diagnosis, 11 (1%) of which were positives, and among the positive samples, 5 (45.5%) presented antigenic variant 3 (from the bat Desmodus rotundus) and 4 (36.5%) were compatible with samples derived from Brazilian insectivorous bats. Sixteen vampire bat shelters were investigated and observation confirmed the presence of another 3 species of nonhematophagous bats coexisting with them. The experiments showed that at least 3 antigenic variants of rabies virus are circulating in the region and that the cohabitation of vampire bats with nonhematophagous bats could be related to the dissemination of the rabies virus.

  1. A comparative study of rabies virus isolates from hematophagous bats in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Juliana G; Carnieli, Pedro; Oliveira, Rafael N; Fahl, Willian O; Cavalcante, Rosangela; Santana, Antonio A; Rosa, Wellington L G A; Carrieri, Maria L; Kotait, Ivanete

    2010-10-01

    The Brazilian chiropteran fauna consists of 167 species; of which, three are hematophagous: the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), the white-winged vampire bat (Diaemus youngi), and the hairy-legged vampire bat (Diphylla ecaudata). The aim of this study was to describe the isolation of Rabies virus from common and hairy-legged vampire bats and to report the first comparative antigenic and genetic studies of isolates from these bats. Antigenic and genetic typing of both isolates identified them as antigenic variant 3 (AgV3), the variant frequently isolated from common vampire bats. Phylogenetic analysis showed 99.3% identity between the isolates. This is the first time since 1934 that Rabies virus has been isolated from hairy-legged vampire bats in Brazil. Our analysis provides evidence that the existence of rabies-positive isolates from hairy-legged vampire bats may be the result of an interspecific rabies transmission event from common vampire bats and suggests that roost cohabitation may occur.

  2. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    PubMed

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.

  3. The bats of Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bogan, Michael A.; Cryan, Paul M.; Choate, Jerry R.

    2000-01-01

    We examined 1280 bats of 12 species submitted to the Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory (WSVL) for ra­bies testing between 1981 and 1992. The most abundant species in the sample was Myotis lucifugus, followed by Epte­sicus fuscus, Lasionycteris noetivagans, M. ciliolabrum, and M. volans. Using the WSVL sample and additional museum specimens, we summarized available records and knowledge for 17 species of bats in Wyoming, Records of the WSVL show that, between 1981 and 1992, 113 bats actually tested positive for rabies. We examined 45 of those rabies­ positive bats; E. fuscus had the highest incidence (60%) in the sample, followed by L. noctivagans (11 %) and L. cinereus (9%).

  4. Status of Utah Bats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-27

    are tier II species of concern in the Utah comprehensive wildlife conservation strategy ( WAP ) (UDWR 2005). Apparent declines in bat species may be...we treat the Arizona myotis as an independent species. The WAP and the draft Utah Bat Conservation Plan identify specific threats to each tier II...CWCS ( WAP ) and DoD’s INRMPs. To meet the goals of the Legacy II proposal and UDWR, 6 objectives were created by synthesizing the goals of the 2

  5. Bat rabies surveillance in Europe.

    PubMed

    Schatz, J; Fooks, A R; McElhinney, L; Horton, D; Echevarria, J; Vázquez-Moron, S; Kooi, E A; Rasmussen, T B; Müller, T; Freuling, C M

    2013-02-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered putative new lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) and the West Caucasian Bat Virus (WCBV). Unlike in the new world, bat rabies cases in Europe are comparatively less frequent, possibly as a result of varying intensity of surveillance. Thus, the objective was to provide an assessment of the bat rabies surveillance data in Europe, taking both reported data to the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe and published results into account. In Europe, 959 bat rabies cases were reported to the RBE in the time period 1977-2010 with the vast majority characterized as EBLV-1, frequently isolated in the Netherlands, North Germany, Denmark, Poland and also in parts of France and Spain. Most EBLV-2 isolates originated from the United Kingdom (UK) and the Netherlands, and EBLV-2 was also detected in Germany, Finland and Switzerland. Thus far, only one isolate of BBLV was found in Germany. Published passive bat rabies surveillance comprised testing of 28 of the 52 different European bat species for rabies. EBLV-1 was isolated exclusively from Serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus and Eptesicus isabellinus), while EBLV-2 was detected in 14 Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) and 5 Pond bats (Myotis dasycneme). A virus from a single Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri) was characterized as BBLV. During active surveillance, only oral swabs from 2 Daubenton's bats (EBLV-2) and from several Eptesicus bats (EBLV-1) yielded virus positive RNA. Virus neutralizing antibodies against lyssaviruses were detected in various European bat species from different countries, and its value and implications are discussed.

  6. Mapping vocalization-related immediate early gene expression in echolocating bats

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Christine P.; Smotherman, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of spontaneously vocalizing primates, cetaceans, bats and rodents suggests these animals possess a limited but meaningful capacity to manipulate the timing and acoustic structure of their vocalizations, yet the neural substrate for even the simplest forms of vocal modulation in mammals remains unknown. Echolocating bats rapidly and routinely manipulate the acoustic structure of their outgoing vocalizations to improve echolocation efficiency, reflecting cognitive rather than limbic control of the vocal motor pathways. In this study, we used immunohistochemical localization of immediate early gene (c-fos) expression to map neural activity in the brains of spontaneously echolocating stationary Mexican free-tailed bats. Our results support the current model of vocal control obtained largely through microstimulation studies, but also provide evidence for the contributions of two novel regions, the dorsolateral caudate nucleus and mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, which together suggest a striatothalamic feedback loop may be involved in the control of echolocation pulse production. Additionally, we found evidence of a motivation pathway, including the lateral habenula, substantia nigra pars compacta, and raphe nuclei. These data provide novel insights into where and how mammalian vocalizations may be regulated by sensory, contextual and motivational cues. PMID:21726584

  7. Phylogenetics: bats united, microbats divided.

    PubMed

    Springer, Mark S

    2013-11-18

    Phylogenetic analyses on four new bat genomes provide convincing support for the placement of bats relative to other placental mammals, suggest that microbats are an unnatural group, and have important implications for understanding the evolution of echolocation.

  8. Bat rabies surveillance in Finland.

    PubMed

    Nokireki, Tiina; Huovilainen, Anita; Lilley, Thomas; Kyheröinen, Eeva-Maria; Ek-Kommonen, Christine; Sihvonen, Liisa; Jakava-Viljanen, Miia

    2013-09-08

    In 1985, a bat researcher in Finland died of rabies encephalitis caused by European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2), but an epidemiological study in 1986 did not reveal EBLV-infected bats. In 2009, an EBLV-2-positive Daubenton's bat was detected. The EBLV-2 isolate from the human case in 1985 and the isolate from the bat in 2009 were genetically closely related. In order to assess the prevalence of EBLVs in Finnish bat populations and to gain a better understanding of the public health risk that EBLV-infected bats pose, a targeted active surveillance project was initiated. Altogether, 1156 bats of seven species were examined for lyssaviruses in Finland during a 28-year period (1985-2012), 898 in active surveillance and 258 in passive surveillance, with only one positive finding of EBLV-2 in a Daubenton's bat in 2009. In 2010-2011, saliva samples from 774 bats of seven species were analyzed for EBLV viral RNA, and sera from 423 bats were analyzed for the presence of bat lyssavirus antibodies. Antibodies were detected in Daubenton's bats in samples collected from two locations in 2010 and from one location in 2011. All seropositive locations are in close proximity to the place where the EBLV-2 positive Daubenton's bat was found in 2009. In active surveillance, no EBLV viral RNA was detected. These data suggest that EBLV-2 may circulate in Finland, even though the seroprevalence is low. Our results indicate that passive surveillance of dead or sick bats is a relevant means examine the occurrence of lyssavirus infection, but the number of bats submitted for laboratory analysis should be higher in order to obtain reliable information on the lyssavirus situation in the country.

  9. Bat rabies surveillance in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1985, a bat researcher in Finland died of rabies encephalitis caused by European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2), but an epidemiological study in 1986 did not reveal EBLV-infected bats. In 2009, an EBLV-2-positive Daubenton’s bat was detected. The EBLV-2 isolate from the human case in 1985 and the isolate from the bat in 2009 were genetically closely related. In order to assess the prevalence of EBLVs in Finnish bat populations and to gain a better understanding of the public health risk that EBLV-infected bats pose, a targeted active surveillance project was initiated. Results Altogether, 1156 bats of seven species were examined for lyssaviruses in Finland during a 28–year period (1985–2012), 898 in active surveillance and 258 in passive surveillance, with only one positive finding of EBLV-2 in a Daubenton’s bat in 2009. In 2010–2011, saliva samples from 774 bats of seven species were analyzed for EBLV viral RNA, and sera from 423 bats were analyzed for the presence of bat lyssavirus antibodies. Antibodies were detected in Daubenton’s bats in samples collected from two locations in 2010 and from one location in 2011. All seropositive locations are in close proximity to the place where the EBLV-2 positive Daubenton’s bat was found in 2009. In active surveillance, no EBLV viral RNA was detected. Conclusions These data suggest that EBLV-2 may circulate in Finland, even though the seroprevalence is low. Our results indicate that passive surveillance of dead or sick bats is a relevant means examine the occurrence of lyssavirus infection, but the number of bats submitted for laboratory analysis should be higher in order to obtain reliable information on the lyssavirus situation in the country. PMID:24011337

  10. MetaBAT

    SciTech Connect

    2014-04-01

    Assembling individual genomes from shotgun metagenomic sequences derived from complex microbial communities is so far one of the most challenging problems in bioinformatics. As it is impractical to directly assemble full-length genomes, a first step that groups contigs from the same organisms, called metagenome binning, has been developed to provide insights of individual organisms. However, current binning methods perform poorly in the context of large complex community, and as a result they fail to recover many novel genomes. To overcome this limitation, we developed integrated software, called MetaBAT, which automatically forms hundreds of individual genome bins from metagenome contigs. Probabilistic models of abundance and tetranucleotide frequency were trained by extensive empirical studies and integrated to decide the membership of contigs iteratively. To test the performance of MetaBAT, we applied MetaBAT to both synthetic and several large-scale real world metagenome datasets. By using two independent metrics, we demonstrate that in all the data sets tested MetaBAT achieves good sensitivity (16~87%) and very high specificity (56~99%) in forming genome bins. Further analyses of the novel genomes recovered from the human gut microbiome suggest a subset of these genomes are potentially associated with pathological conditions. In conclusion, we believe MetaBAT is a powerful tool

  11. Novel Lyssavirus in Bat, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Morón, Sonia Vázquez; Berciano, José M.; Nicolás, Olga; López, Carolina Aznar; Juste, Javier; Nevado, Cristina Rodríguez; Setién, Álvaro Aguilar; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus. PMID:23648051

  12. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-07-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat-associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans.

  13. IMPACT OF BT ( BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ) CROPS ON BAT ACTIVITY IN SOUTH TEXAS AGROECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The widespread adoption of transgenic insecticidal crops raises concerns that nontarget species may be harmed and food webs disrupted. The goal of this research is to determine how transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) crops impact the activity of Brazilian freetailed bats (Tada...

  14. IMPACT OF BT ( BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ) CROPS ON BAT ACTIVITY IN SOUTH TEXAS AGROECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The widespread adoption of transgenic insecticidal crops raises concerns that nontarget species may be harmed and food webs disrupted. The goal of this research is to determine how transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) crops impact the activity of Brazilian freetailed bats (Tada...

  15. Do bat gantries and underpasses help bats cross roads safely?

    PubMed

    Berthinussen, Anna; Altringham, John

    2012-01-01

    Major roads can reduce bat abundance and diversity over considerable distances. To mitigate against these effects and comply with environmental law, many European countries install bridges, gantries or underpasses to make roads permeable and safer to cross. However, through lack of appropriate monitoring, there is little evidence to support their effectiveness. Three underpasses and four bat gantries were investigated in northern England. Echolocation call recordings and observations were used to determine the number of bats using underpasses in preference to crossing the road above, and the height at which bats crossed. At gantries, proximity to the gantry and height of crossing bats were measured. Data were compared to those from adjacent, severed commuting routes that had no crossing structure. At one underpass 96% of bats flew through it in preference to crossing the road. This underpass was located on a pre-construction commuting route that allowed bats to pass without changing flight height or direction. At two underpasses attempts to divert bats from their original commuting routes were unsuccessful and bats crossed the road at the height of passing vehicles. Underpasses have the potential to allow bats to cross roads safely if built on pre-construction commuting routes. Bat gantries were ineffective and used by a very small proportion of bats, even up to nine years after construction. Most bats near gantries crossed roads along severed, pre-construction commuting routes at heights that put them in the path of vehicles. Crossing height was strongly correlated with verge height, suggesting that elevated verges may have some value in mitigation, but increased flight height may be at the cost of reduced permeability. Green bridges should be explored as an alternative form of mitigation. Robust monitoring is essential to assess objectively the case for mitigation and to ensure effective mitigation.

  16. Rabies virus in insectivorous bats: implications of the diversity of the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes for molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rafael de Novaes; de Souza, Sibele Pinheiro; Lobo, Renata Spinelli Vaz; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Macedo, Carla Isabel; Carnieli, Pedro; Fahl, Willian Oliveira; Achkar, Samira Maria; Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Kotait, Ivanete; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo

    2010-09-30

    Insectivorous bats are the main reservoirs of rabies virus (RABV) in various regions of the world. The aims of this study were to (a) establish genealogies for RABV strains from different species of Brazilian insectivorous bats based on the nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) genes, (b) investigate specific RABV lineages associated with certain genera of bats and (c) identify molecular markers that can distinguish between these lineages. The genealogic analysis of N and G from 57 RABV strains revealed seven genus-specific clusters related to the insectivorous bats Myotis, Eptesicus, Nyctinomops, Molossus, Tadarida, Histiotus and Lasiurus. Molecular markers in the amino acid sequences were identified which were specific to the seven clusters. These results, which constitute a novel finding for this pathogen, show that there are at least seven independent epidemiological rabies cycles maintained by seven genera of insectivorous bats in Brazil.

  17. Indiana Bat Project data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Our model is a full-annual-cycle population model {hostetler2015full} that tracks groups of bat surviving through four seasons: breeding season/summer, fall migration, non-breeding/winter, and spring migration. Our state variables are groups of bats that use a specific maternity colony/breeding site and hibernaculum/non-breeding site. Bats are also accounted for by life stages (juveniles/first-year breeders versus adults) and seasonal habitats (breeding versus non-breeding) during each year, This leads to four states variable (here depicted in vector notation): the population of juveniles during the non-breeding season, the population of adults during the non-breeding season, the population of juveniles during the breeding season, and the population of adults during the breeding season, Each vector's elements depict a specific migratory pathway, e.g., is comprised of elements, {non-breeding sites}, {breeding sites}The variables may be summed by either breeding site or non-breeding site to calculate the total population using a specific geographic location. Within our code, we account for this using an index column for breeding sites and an index column for non-breeding sides within the data table. Our choice of state variables caused the time step (i.e. \\(t\\)) to be 1 year. However, we recorded the population of each group during the breeding and non-breeding season as an artifact of our state-variable choice. We choose these state variables partially for their biological information and partially to simplify programming. We ran our simulation for 30 years because the USFWS currently issues Indiana Bat take permits for 30 years. Our model covers the range of the Indiana Bat, which is approximately the eastern half of the contiguous United States (Figure \\ref{fig:BatInput}). The boundaries of our range was based upon the United States boundary, the NatureServe Range map, and observations of the species. The maximum migration distance was 500-km, which was based

  18. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  19. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts. PMID:24750692

  20. Mechanics of swinging a bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2009-01-01

    Measurements on the swing of a baseball bat are analyzed to extract the basic mechanics of the swing. The force acting on the bat is determined from the velocity of the center of mass, and the angular velocity of the bat provides additional information on the couple exerted by the two hands. The motion of the bat was calculated for other force-couple combinations to determine their effects on the swing of the bat. It was found that a couple is needed to start the swing, and a large opposing couple is required near the end of the swing to prevent the bat rotating through an excessive angle before it impacts with the ball.

  1. The rabies viruses of bats.

    PubMed

    King, A; Davies, P; Lawrie, A

    1990-06-01

    In the 1930s rabies was shown to affect blood-, insect- and fruit-eating bats. We have prepared anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) using Mokola and bat (Lagos, Duvenhage and Denmark) rabies viruses as immunogens. With these MAbs we have examined rabies viruses from vampire, insectivorous and frugivorous bats from the Americas, Africa, Europe and the Soviet Union and have compared them with isolates from terrestrial species including man. As well as confirming the findings of others with viruses of African and American bat origin, the results revealed the presence of a second biotype in European bats and demonstrated the presence of serotype 1 as well as serotype 4 viruses in bats of the Soviet Union.

  2. Bats, cyanide, and gold mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    Although the boom days of prospectors and gold nuggets are long gone, modern technology enables gold to continue to be extracted from ore. Unfortunately, the extraction method has often been disastrous for bats and other wildlife, an issue I first became aware of in early 1989. Phone calls from Drs. Merlin Tuttle and Elizabeth Pierson, a BCI member and bat researcher from Berkeley, California, alerted me that bats were dying from apparent cyanide poisoning at gold mines in the western United States.

  3. Acari ectoparasites of bats from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Alexsander Araújo; Marcos Linardi, Pedro; Coutinho Zanatta, Maria Teresa

    2002-05-01

    Ectoparasites were recovered from Brazilian bats captured from April to November 1997 at or near Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Sixty bats were collected, representing three families and 13 species. Five Acari families were recorded: Myobiidae, Trombiculidae, Labidocarpidae, Macronyssidae, and Spinturnicidae. The macronyssid Radfordiella desmodi Radovsky (71 specimens) and the spinturnicid Periglichrus iheringi Oudemans (45 specimens) were the most abundant mite species. They were mainly recorded on Desmodus rotundus (Geoffroy) and Artibeus litratus (Ofers), respectively. Among trombiculid chiggers, the genus Colicus Brennan (55 specimens) was predominant and found mainly on Carollia perspicillata (L.). The current study presents new data about host-parasite relationships and increases the understanding of geographical distribution for some mite and chigger species.

  4. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Gerald; Leffer, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5–6.3%), whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1–0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior. PMID:26445502

  5. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    PubMed

    Carter, Gerald; Leffer, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%), whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.

  6. Bats jamming bats: food competition through sonar interference.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Conner, William E

    2014-11-07

    Communication signals are susceptible to interference ("jamming") from conspecifics and other sources. Many active sensing animals, including bats and electric fish, alter the frequency of their emissions to avoid inadvertent jamming from conspecifics. We demonstrated that echolocating bats adaptively jam conspecifics during competitions for food. Three-dimensional flight path reconstructions and audio-video field recordings of foraging bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) revealed extended interactions in which bats emitted sinusoidal frequency-modulated ultrasonic signals that interfered with the echolocation of conspecifics attacking insect prey. Playbacks of the jamming call, but not of control sounds, caused bats to miss insect targets. This study demonstrates intraspecific food competition through active disruption of a competitor's sensing during food acquisition.

  7. Environmental Assessment: T-6 Aircraft Basing and Operation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    AQCR 5 includes Baldwin, Escambia and Mobile counties in Alabama. The AQCR includes Bay, Calhoun, Escambia, Gulf , Holmes, Jackson, Okaloosa...American badger X Brazilian free-tailed bat X Buttermilk racer X Cerulean warbler X Desert shrew X Green water snake X Gulf crayfish snake X...Louisiana milk snake X Northern scarlet snake X Osprey X Ozark big-eared bat X Plains harvest mouse X Rafinesque’s big-eared bat X Ringtail X

  8. Bartonellae are Prevalent and Diverse in Costa Rican Bats and Bat Flies.

    PubMed

    Judson, S D; Frank, H K; Hadly, E A

    2015-12-01

    Species in the bacterial genus, Bartonella, can cause disease in both humans and animals. Previous reports of Bartonella in bats and ectoparasitic bat flies suggest that bats could serve as mammalian hosts and bat flies as arthropod vectors. We compared the prevalence and genetic similarity of bartonellae in individual Costa Rican bats and their bat flies using molecular and sequencing methods targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Bartonellae were more prevalent in bat flies than in bats, and genetic variants were sometimes, but not always, shared between bats and their bat flies. The detected bartonellae genetic variants were diverse, and some were similar to species known to cause disease in humans and other mammals. The high prevalence and sharing of bartonellae in bat flies and bats support a role for bat flies as a potential vector for Bartonella, while the genetic diversity and similarity to known species suggest that bartonellae could spill over into humans and animals sharing the landscape.

  9. Baseball bats: a silent weapon.

    PubMed

    Dujovny, Manuel; Onyekachi, Ibe; Perez-Arjona, Eimir

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this work was to understand how the baseball bat is a silent weapon. The baseball bat has been utilized illegally in different areas of the world. In the past, several case reports are known for their lethal effect. In this paper, we analyse the outcome of the utilization of baseball bat for illegal purposes as well as review the principal injury and the utilization of baseball bat as explained by an engineer. The medical and radiographic records of patients admitted to Sinai-Grace and Detroit Receiving Hospitals in Detroit, MI, USA, from June 1997 to June 2000, were reviewed. Ninety patients presented with documented baseball bat injury by history. Clinical data were obtained from the patients charts. Detailed descriptions of those body parts affected by baseball bat injury were registered and classified by anatomical regions. A total of 39 cranial fractures were observed, mainly on the skull base and orbital wall. Baseball bat-related injury is an endemic problem in Detroit. This urban use of the baseball bat as a weapon is getting severe. A team approach to this type of injury is recommended.

  10. Learning about Bats and Rabies

    MedlinePlus

    ... water and seek medical attention immediately. Have all dead, sick, or easily captured bats tested for rabies if exposure to people or pets occurs. Prevent bats from entering living quarters or occupied spaces in homes, churches, schools, and other similar areas ...

  11. Isolation and phylogenetic relationships of bat trypanosomes from different biomes in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marcili, Arlei; da Costa, Andrea P; Soares, Herbert S; Acosta, Igor da C L; de Lima, Julia T R; Minervino, Antonio H H; Melo, Andréia T L; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C; Gennari, Solange M

    2013-12-01

    In the order Chiroptera, more than 30 trypanosome species belonging to the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum, and Trypanozoon have been described. The species Trypanosoma cruzi , Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, and Trypanosoma dionisii are the most common in bats and belong to the Schizotrypanum subgenus. Bats from 2 different biomes, Pantanal and Amazonia/Cerrado in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were evaluated according to the presence of trypanosome parasites by means of hemoculture and PCR in primary samples (blood samples). A total of 211 bats from 20 different species were caught and the trypanosome prevalence, evaluated through hemoculture, was 9.0% (19), 15.5% (13), and 4.8% (6) in the municipalities of Confresa (Amazonia/Cerrado biome) and Poconé (Pantanal biome). Among the 123 primary samples obtained from the bats, only 3 (2.4%) were positive. Phylogenetic analysis using trypanosomatid barcoding (V7V8 region of SSU rDNA) identified all the isolates and primary samples as T. c. marinkellei. The sequences of the isolates were segregated according to the bat host genus or species and suggest that co-evolutionary patterns exist between hosts and parasites. Further studies in different Brazilian regions and biomes need to be conducted in order to gain real understanding of the diversity of trypanosomes in bats.

  12. Circumstances of bat encounters and knowledge of rabies among Minnesota residents submitting bats for rabies testing.

    PubMed

    Liesener, Alicia L; Smith, Kirk E; Davis, Rolan D; Bender, Jeff B; Danila, Richard N; Neitzel, David F; Nordquist, Gerda E; Forsman, Sandra R; Scheftel, Joni M

    2006-01-01

    Minnesota residents who submitted a bat to the Minnesota Department of Health for rabies testing in 2003 were surveyed by telephone regarding the circumstances of the bat encounter and their knowledge of bats and rabies. Of 442 bats submitted for testing, 12 (3%) tested positive for rabies, and 410 (93%) tested negative; 17 (4%) bats were unsuitable for testing, and three (1%) had equivocal results. A case-control study found that rabid bats were more likely than non-rabid bats to be found in September, found outside, found in a wooded area, unable to fly, acting ill, or acting aggressively. Rabid bats were not more likely than non-rabid bats to be found during the day or to have bitten someone. While most persons submitting bats for rabies testing were aware that bats can carry rabies, few knew they should submit the bat for testing until they sought the advice of an animal control officer, veterinarian, or healthcare provider.

  13. European Bat Lyssavirus Infection in Spanish Bat Populations

    PubMed Central

    Amengual, Blanca; Abellán, Carlos; Bourhy, Hervé

    2002-01-01

    From 1992 to 2000, 976 sera, 27 blood pellets, and 91 brains were obtained from 14 bat species in 37 localities in Spain. Specific anti-European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBL1)-neutralizing antibodies have been detected in Myotis myotis, Miniopterus schreibersii, Tadarida teniotis, and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum in the region of Aragon and the Balearic Islands. Positive results were also obtained by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on brain, blood pellet, lung, heart, tongue, and esophagus-larynx-pharynx of M. myotis, Myotis nattereri, R. ferrumequinum, and M. schreibersii. Determination of nucleotide sequence confirmed the presence of EBL1 RNA in the different tissues. In one colony, the prevalence of seropositive bats over time corresponded to an asymmetrical curve, with a sudden initial increase peaking at 60% of the bats, followed by a gradual decline. Banded seropositive bats were recovered during several years, indicating that EBL1 infection in these bats was nonlethal. At least one of this species (M. schreibersii) is migratory and thus could be partially responsible for the dissemination of EBL1 on both shores of the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:11971777

  14. Emerging diseases in Chiroptera: why bats?

    PubMed

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Moore, Marianne S; Schountz, Tony; Voigt, Christian C

    2010-08-23

    A conference entitled '2nd International Berlin Bat Meeting: Bat Biology and Infectious Diseases' was held between the 19 and 21 of February 2010 in Berlin, Germany. Researchers from two major disciplines, bat biologists and disease specialists, met for the first time in an interdisciplinary event to share their knowledge about bat-associated diseases. The focus of the meeting was to understand why in particular bats are the hosts of so many of the most virulent diseases globally. During several sessions, key note speakers and participants discussed infectious diseases associated with bats, including viral diseases caused by Henipa-, Filo-, Corona- and Lyssaviruses, the spread of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, bat immunology/immunogenetics, bat parasites, and finally, conservation and human health issues.

  15. Emerging diseases in Chiroptera: why bats?

    PubMed Central

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Moore, Marianne S.; Schountz, Tony; Voigt, Christian C.

    2010-01-01

    A conference entitled ‘2nd International Berlin Bat Meeting: Bat Biology and Infectious Diseases’ was held between the 19 and 21 of February 2010 in Berlin, Germany. Researchers from two major disciplines, bat biologists and disease specialists, met for the first time in an interdisciplinary event to share their knowledge about bat-associated diseases. The focus of the meeting was to understand why in particular bats are the hosts of so many of the most virulent diseases globally. During several sessions, key note speakers and participants discussed infectious diseases associated with bats, including viral diseases caused by Henipa-, Filo-, Corona- and Lyssaviruses, the spread of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, bat immunology/immunogenetics, bat parasites, and finally, conservation and human health issues. PMID:20427329

  16. Henipavirus RNA in African Bats

    PubMed Central

    Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Seebens, Antje; Annan, Augustina; Ipsen, Anne; Kruppa, Thomas; Müller, Marcel A.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Oppong, Samuel; Drosten, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background Henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah virus) are highly pathogenic members of the family Paramyxoviridae. Fruit-eating bats of the Pteropus genus have been suggested as their natural reservoir. Human Henipavirus infections have been reported in a region extending from Australia via Malaysia into Bangladesh, compatible with the geographic range of Pteropus. These bats do not occur in continental Africa, but a whole range of other fruit bats is encountered. One of the most abundant is Eidolon helvum, the African Straw-coloured fruit bat. Methodology/Principal Findings Feces from E. helvum roosting in an urban setting in Kumasi/Ghana were tested for Henipavirus RNA. Sequences of three novel viruses in phylogenetic relationship to known Henipaviruses were detected. Virus RNA concentrations in feces were low. Conclusions/Significance The finding of novel putative Henipaviruses outside Australia and Asia contributes a significant extension of the region of potential endemicity of one of the most pathogenic virus genera known in humans. PMID:19636378

  17. Rabies in bats from Alabama.

    PubMed

    Hester, Laura C; Best, Troy L; Hudson, M Keith

    2007-04-01

    Data on rabies virus infection in bats that were submitted to the Alabama Department of Public Health from 1995-2005 were analyzed. Demographic factors, such as species and sex, and temporal aspects, such as yearly and monthly trends, were investigated. Thirteen species of bats were submitted, and of those, individuals from seven species were rabid; prevalence was highest in Lasiurus borealis and Pipistrellus subflavus and lowest in Eptesicus fuscus and Nycticeius humeralis. There was no difference in prevalence of rabies between sexes or years. Statistically, more rabid bats were submitted in August, September, and November; and fewer were submitted in March, June, and July. Results were similar to those from other regions of North America; these data from Alabama can help to present a more complete view of rabies in bats in North America.

  18. SonicBAT Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-24

    Teams from NASA's Armstrong Flight Research Center in California, and Langley Research Center in Virginia, are conducting supersonic flight tests to study the ways sonic booms travel. The Sonic Booms in Atmospheric Turbulence flight series, or SonicBAT, features a F/A-18 research aircraft to create sonic booms, flying at supersonic speeds just off the coast of Florida. In order to understand how atmospheric turbulence in a humic climate impacts how sonic booms travel, NASA is flying a TG-14 motorized glider to obtain data on sonic booms before they travel through atmospheric turbulence. That data is compared with similar data captured by two microphone arrays on the ground that hear sonic booms that have traveled through atmospheric turbulence.

  19. Coronaviruses in bats from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda-Flores, R.; Rico-Chávez, O.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Zambrana-Torrelio, C. M.; Rostal, M. K.; Epstein, J. H.; Tipps, T.; Liang, E.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Sotomayor-Bonilla, J.; Aguirre, A. A.; Ávila-Flores, R.; Medellín, R. A.; Goldstein, T.; Suzán, G.; Daszak, P.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are reservoirs for a wide range of human pathogens including Nipah, Hendra, rabies, Ebola, Marburg and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (CoV). The recent implication of a novel beta (β)-CoV as the cause of fatal respiratory disease in the Middle East emphasizes the importance of surveillance for CoVs that have potential to move from bats into the human population. In a screen of 606 bats from 42 different species in Campeche, Chiapas and Mexico City we identified 13 distinct CoVs. Nine were alpha (α)-CoVs; four were β-CoVs. Twelve were novel. Analyses of these viruses in the context of their hosts and ecological habitat indicated that host species is a strong selective driver in CoV evolution, even in allopatric populations separated by significant geographical distance; and that a single species/genus of bat can contain multiple CoVs. A β-CoV with 96.5 % amino acid identity to the β-CoV associated with human disease in the Middle East was found in a Nyctinomops laticaudatus bat, suggesting that efforts to identify the viral reservoir should include surveillance of the bat families Molossidae/Vespertilionidae, or the closely related Nycteridae/Emballonuridae. While it is important to investigate unknown viral diversity in bats, it is also important to remember that the majority of viruses they carry will not pose any clinical risk, and bats should not be stigmatized ubiquitously as significant threats to public health. PMID:23364191

  20. Ecosystem services provided by bats.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Thomas H; Braun de Torrez, Elizabeth; Bauer, Dana; Lobova, Tatyana; Fleming, Theodore H

    2011-03-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits obtained from the environment that increase human well-being. Economic valuation is conducted by measuring the human welfare gains or losses that result from changes in the provision of ecosystem services. Bats have long been postulated to play important roles in arthropod suppression, seed dispersal, and pollination; however, only recently have these ecosystem services begun to be thoroughly evaluated. Here, we review the available literature on the ecological and economic impact of ecosystem services provided by bats. We describe dietary preferences, foraging behaviors, adaptations, and phylogenetic histories of insectivorous, frugivorous, and nectarivorous bats worldwide in the context of their respective ecosystem services. For each trophic ensemble, we discuss the consequences of these ecological interactions on both natural and agricultural systems. Throughout this review, we highlight the research needed to fully determine the ecosystem services in question. Finally, we provide a comprehensive overview of economic valuation of ecosystem services. Unfortunately, few studies estimating the economic value of ecosystem services provided by bats have been conducted to date; however, we outline a framework that could be used in future studies to more fully address this question. Consumptive goods provided by bats, such as food and guano, are often exchanged in markets where the market price indicates an economic value. Nonmarket valuation methods can be used to estimate the economic value of nonconsumptive services, including inputs to agricultural production and recreational activities. Information on the ecological and economic value of ecosystem services provided by bats can be used to inform decisions regarding where and when to protect or restore bat populations and associated habitats, as well as to improve public perception of bats.

  1. Aeromechanics of Highly Maneuverable Bats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    naturally flying bats, and implemented these techniques in two settings, flight corridors and wind tunnels . The flight corridor allows highly natural...data analysis approach based on collation PIV samples from numerous flights. In the wind tunnel , investigators can control bat speed to a great degree...straight and turning configurations, and to fly in the low-speed wind tunnels at the Harvard University-Concord Field Station and in the Division of

  2. Coronaviruses in bats from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Anthony, S J; Ojeda-Flores, R; Rico-Chávez, O; Navarrete-Macias, I; Zambrana-Torrelio, C M; Rostal, M K; Epstein, J H; Tipps, T; Liang, E; Sanchez-Leon, M; Sotomayor-Bonilla, J; Aguirre, A A; Ávila-Flores, R; Medellín, R A; Goldstein, T; Suzán, G; Daszak, P; Lipkin, W I

    2013-05-01

    Bats are reservoirs for a wide range of human pathogens including Nipah, Hendra, rabies, Ebola, Marburg and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (CoV). The recent implication of a novel beta (β)-CoV as the cause of fatal respiratory disease in the Middle East emphasizes the importance of surveillance for CoVs that have potential to move from bats into the human population. In a screen of 606 bats from 42 different species in Campeche, Chiapas and Mexico City we identified 13 distinct CoVs. Nine were alpha (α)-CoVs; four were β-CoVs. Twelve were novel. Analyses of these viruses in the context of their hosts and ecological habitat indicated that host species is a strong selective driver in CoV evolution, even in allopatric populations separated by significant geographical distance; and that a single species/genus of bat can contain multiple CoVs. A β-CoV with 96.5 % amino acid identity to the β-CoV associated with human disease in the Middle East was found in a Nyctinomops laticaudatus bat, suggesting that efforts to identify the viral reservoir should include surveillance of the bat families Molossidae/Vespertilionidae, or the closely related Nycteridae/Emballonuridae. While it is important to investigate unknown viral diversity in bats, it is also important to remember that the majority of viruses they carry will not pose any clinical risk, and bats should not be stigmatized ubiquitously as significant threats to public health.

  3. Street lighting disturbs commuting bats.

    PubMed

    Stone, Emma Louise; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen

    2009-07-14

    Anthropogenic disturbance is a major cause of worldwide declines in biodiversity. Understanding the implications of this disturbance for species and populations is crucial for conservation biologists wishing to mitigate negative effects. Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasing global problem, affecting ecological interactions across a range of taxa and impacting negatively upon critical animal behaviors including foraging, reproduction, and communication (for review see). Almost all bats are nocturnal, making them ideal subjects for testing the effects of light pollution. Previous studies have shown that bat species adapted to foraging in open environments feed on insects attracted to mercury vapor lamps. Here, we use an experimental approach to provide the first evidence of a negative effect of artificial light pollution on the commuting behavior of a threatened bat species. We installed high-pressure sodium lights that mimic the intensity and light spectra of streetlights along commuting routes of lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros). Bat activity was reduced dramatically and the onset of commuting behavior was delayed in the presence of lighting, with no evidence of habituation. These results demonstrate that light pollution may have significant negative impacts upon the selection of flight routes by bats.

  4. The physics of bat biosonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Rolf

    2011-10-01

    Bats have evolved one of the most capable and at the same time parsimonious sensory systems found in nature. Using active and passive biosonar as a major - and often sufficient - far sense, different bat species are able to master a wide variety of sensory tasks under very dissimilar sets of constraints. Given the limited computational resources of the bat's brain, this performance is unlikely to be explained as the result of brute-force, black-box-style computations. Instead, the animals must rely heavily on in-built physics knowledge in order to ensure that all required information is encoded reliably into the acoustic signals received at the ear drum. To this end, bats can manipulate the emitted and received signals in the physical domain: By diffracting the outgoing and incoming ultrasonic waves with intricate baffle shapes (i.e., noseleaves and outer ears), the animals can generate selectivity filters that are joint functions of space and frequency. To achieve this, bats employ structural features such as resonance cavities and diffracting ridges. In addition, some bat species can dynamically adjust the shape of their selectivity filters through muscular actuation.

  5. Bat Hunting and Bat-Human Interactions in Bangladeshi Villages: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission and Bat Conservation.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, J J; Hegde, S; Sazzad, H M S; Khan, S U; Hossain, M J; Epstein, J H; Daszak, P; Gurley, E S; Luby, S P

    2017-08-01

    Bats are an important reservoir for emerging zoonotic pathogens. Close human-bat interactions, including the sharing of living spaces and hunting and butchering of bats for food and medicines, may lead to spillover of zoonotic disease into human populations. We used bat exposure and environmental data gathered from 207 Bangladeshi villages to characterize bat exposures and hunting in Bangladesh. Eleven percent of households reported having a bat roost near their homes, 65% reported seeing bats flying over their households at dusk, and 31% reported seeing bats inside their compounds or courtyard areas. Twenty percent of households reported that members had at least daily exposure to bats. Bat hunting occurred in 49% of the villages surveyed and was more likely to occur in households that reported nearby bat roosts (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.9) and villages located in north-west (aPR 7.5, 95% CI 2.5-23.0) and south-west (aPR 6.8, 95% CI 2.1-21.6) regions. Our results suggest high exposure to bats and widespread hunting throughout Bangladesh. This has implications for both zoonotic disease spillover and bat conservation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Prompt Emission Observations of Swift BAT Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We review the prompt emission properties of Swift BAT gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present the global properties of BAT GRBs based on their spectral and temporal characteristics. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 80 and 20 s, respectively. The peak energy (Epeak) of about 60% of BAT GRBs is very likely to be less than 1.00 keV. We also present the BAT characteristics of GRBs with soft spectra, so called Xray flashes (XRFs). We will compare the BAT GRBs and XRFs parameter distribution to the other missions.

  7. Prompt Emission Observations of Swift BAT Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We review the prompt emission properties of Swift BAT gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present the global properties of BAT GRBs based on their spectral and temporal characteristics. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 80 and 20 s, respectively. The peak energy (Epeak) of about 60% of BAT GRBs is very likely to be less than 1.00 keV. We also present the BAT characteristics of GRBs with soft spectra, so called Xray flashes (XRFs). We will compare the BAT GRBs and XRFs parameter distribution to the other missions.

  8. Human–Bat Interactions in Rural West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Anti, Priscilla; Owusu, Michael; Agbenyega, Olivia; Annan, Augustina; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Because some bats host viruses with zoonotic potential, we investigated human–bat interactions in rural Ghana during 2011–2012. Nearly half (46.6%) of respondents regularly visited bat caves; 37.4% had been bitten, scratched, or exposed to bat urine; and 45.6% ate bat meat. Human–bat interactions in rural Ghana are frequent and diverse. PMID:26177344

  9. Bioecological Drivers of Rabies Virus Circulation in a Neotropical Bat Community.

    PubMed

    de Thoisy, Benoit; Bourhy, Hervé; Delaval, Marguerite; Pontier, Dominique; Dacheux, Laurent; Darcissac, Edith; Donato, Damien; Guidez, Amandine; Larrous, Florence; Lavenir, Rachel; Salmier, Arielle; Lacoste, Vincent; Lavergne, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the commonly accepted importance of the vampire bat in the maintenance and transmission of the rabies virus (RABV) in South America, RABV infection of other species is widely evidenced, challenging their role in the viral cycle. To identify the bioecological drivers of RABV circulation in neotropical bat communities, we conducted a molecular and serological survey on almost 1,000 bats from 30 species, and a 4-year longitudinal survey in two colonies of vampire bats in French Guiana. RABV was molecularly detected in a common vampire and in a frugivorous bat. The sequences corresponded to haematophagous bat-related strains and were close to viruses circulating in the Brazilian Amazon region. Species' seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 20%, and the risk of seropositivity was higher in bats with a haematophagous diet, living in monospecific colonies and in dense forests. The longitudinal survey showed substantial temporal fluctuations, with individual waves of seroconversions and waning immunity. The high prevalences observed in bat communities, in most habitats and in species that do not share the same microhabitats and bioecological patterns, the temporal variations, and a rather short period of detectable antibodies as observed in recaptured vampires suggest (i) frequent exposure of animals, (ii) an ability of the infected host to control and eliminate the virus, (iii) more relaxed modes of exposure between bats than the commonly assumed infection via direct contact with saliva of infected animals, all of which should be further investigated. We hypothesize that RABV circulation in French Guiana is mainly maintained in the pristine forest habitats that may provide sufficient food resources to allow vampire bats, the main prevalent species, to survive and RABV to be propagated. However, on the forest edge and in disturbed areas, human activities may induce more insidious effects such as defaunation. One of the ecological consequences is the disappearance

  10. Bioecological Drivers of Rabies Virus Circulation in a Neotropical Bat Community

    PubMed Central

    de Thoisy, Benoit; Bourhy, Hervé; Delaval, Marguerite; Pontier, Dominique; Dacheux, Laurent; Darcissac, Edith; Donato, Damien; Guidez, Amandine; Larrous, Florence; Lavenir, Rachel; Salmier, Arielle; Lacoste, Vincent; Lavergne, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In addition to the commonly accepted importance of the vampire bat in the maintenance and transmission of the rabies virus (RABV) in South America, RABV infection of other species is widely evidenced, challenging their role in the viral cycle. Methodology / Principles findings To identify the bioecological drivers of RABV circulation in neotropical bat communities, we conducted a molecular and serological survey on almost 1,000 bats from 30 species, and a 4-year longitudinal survey in two colonies of vampire bats in French Guiana. RABV was molecularly detected in a common vampire and in a frugivorous bat. The sequences corresponded to haematophagous bat-related strains and were close to viruses circulating in the Brazilian Amazon region. Species’ seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 20%, and the risk of seropositivity was higher in bats with a haematophagous diet, living in monospecific colonies and in dense forests. The longitudinal survey showed substantial temporal fluctuations, with individual waves of seroconversions and waning immunity. The high prevalences observed in bat communities, in most habitats and in species that do not share the same microhabitats and bioecological patterns, the temporal variations, and a rather short period of detectable antibodies as observed in recaptured vampires suggest (i) frequent exposure of animals, (ii) an ability of the infected host to control and eliminate the virus, (iii) more relaxed modes of exposure between bats than the commonly assumed infection via direct contact with saliva of infected animals, all of which should be further investigated. Conclusions / significance We hypothesize that RABV circulation in French Guiana is mainly maintained in the pristine forest habitats that may provide sufficient food resources to allow vampire bats, the main prevalent species, to survive and RABV to be propagated. However, on the forest edge and in disturbed areas, human activities may induce more insidious effects

  11. BGD: a database of bat genomes.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jianfei; Wang, Xuan; Mu, Shuo; Zhang, Shuyi; Dong, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Bats account for ~20% of mammalian species, and are the only mammals with true powered flight. For the sake of their specialized phenotypic traits, many researches have been devoted to examine the evolution of bats. Until now, some whole genome sequences of bats have been assembled and annotated, however, a uniform resource for the annotated bat genomes is still unavailable. To make the extensive data associated with the bat genomes accessible to the general biological communities, we established a Bat Genome Database (BGD). BGD is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates available data of bat genomes and genes. It hosts data from six bat species, including two megabats and four microbats. Users can query the gene annotations using efficient searching engine, and it offers browsable tracks of bat genomes. Furthermore, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of genes. To the best of our knowledge, BGD is the first database of bat genomes. It will extend our understanding of the bat evolution and be advantageous to the bat sequences analysis. BGD is freely available at: http://donglab.ecnu.edu.cn/databases/BatGenome/.

  12. [Bats and Viruses: complex relationships].

    PubMed

    Rodhain, F

    2015-10-01

    With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated. More than sixty viruses have been detected or isolated in bats; these animals are therefore involved in the natural cycles of many of them. This is the case, for instance, of rabies virus and other Lyssavirus (Family Rhabdoviridae), Nipah and Hendra viruses (Paramyxoviridae), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Coronaviridae). For these zoonotic viruses, a number of bat species are considered as important reservoir hosts, efficient disseminators or even directly responsible of the transmission. Some of these bat-borne viruses cause highly pathogenic diseases while others are of potential significance for humans and domestic or wild animals; so, bats are an important risk in human and animal public health. Moreover, some groups of viruses developed through different phylogenetic mechanisms of coevolution between viruses and bats. The fact that most of these viral infections are asymptomatic in bats has been observed since a long time but the mechanisms of the viral persistence are not clearly understood. The various bioecology of the different bat populations allows exchange of virus between migrating and non-migrating conspecific species. For a better understanding of the role of bats in the circulation of these viral zoonoses, epidemiologists must pay attention to

  13. Endangered Species on U.S. Army Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    DESERT (9UNORA) x SALAMANDER, SACRAMENTO, *40LINTAIA XX HEDGEHOG CACTUS, KUENZLER XX PRICKLY-P(JPPY, x 48141 el veso tx BAT, FREE-TAILED, BRAZILIAN X SAT...aARRACKSp -4EDGEHOG CACTUS, KUENZLER PLANTS ENDANGERED FT. BLISS EDYOTIS ELATIOR VAR. ELATIOP PLANTS UNDLTERMINFO SCHOFIELD BARRACKS, 58 tLnYOTI

  14. First records of two species of mammals in the Huachuca Mountains: results of ecological stewardship at Fort Huachuca

    Treesearch

    Ronnie Sidner; H. Sheridan Stone

    2005-01-01

    We report the first voucher of the cliff chipmunk (Neotamias dorsalis) and observations of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) from the Huachuca Mountains, Arizona, where these species had not been documented. While presence of T. brasiliensis was expected on Fort Huachuca, N. dorsalis was a surprise after a century...

  15. The evolution of echolocation in bats.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth; Teeling, Emma C

    2006-03-01

    Recent molecular phylogenies have changed our perspective on the evolution of echolocation in bats. These phylogenies suggest that certain bats with sophisticated echolocation (e.g. horseshoe bats) share a common ancestry with non-echolocating bats (e.g. Old World fruit bats). One interpretation of these trees presumes that laryngeal echolocation (calls produced in the larynx) probably evolved in the ancestor of all extant bats. Echolocation might have subsequently been lost in Old World fruit bats, only to evolve secondarily (by tongue clicking) in this family. Remarkable acoustic features such as Doppler shift compensation, whispering echolocation and nasal emission of sound each show multiple convergent origins in bats. The extensive adaptive radiation in echolocation call design is shaped largely by ecology, showing how perceptual challenges imposed by the environment can often override phylogenetic constraints.

  16. Some Bats Swinging Back At Fungal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162497.html Some Bats Swinging Back at Fungal Disease After near decimation, ... 2016 MONDAY, Dec. 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Some bats in North America appear to have developed resistance ...

  17. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

  18. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

  19. Undiscovered Bat Hosts of Filoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, John Paul; Alexander, Laura W.; Bowden, Sarah E.; Hayman, David T. S.; Drake, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Ebola and other filoviruses pose significant public health and conservation threats by causing high mortality in primates, including humans. Preventing future outbreaks of ebolavirus depends on identifying wildlife reservoirs, but extraordinarily high biodiversity of potential hosts in temporally dynamic environments of equatorial Africa contributes to sporadic, unpredictable outbreaks that have hampered efforts to identify wild reservoirs for nearly 40 years. Using a machine learning algorithm, generalized boosted regression, we characterize potential filovirus-positive bat species with estimated 87% accuracy. Our model produces two specific outputs with immediate utility for guiding filovirus surveillance in the wild. First, we report a profile of intrinsic traits that discriminates hosts from non-hosts, providing a biological caricature of a filovirus-positive bat species. This profile emphasizes traits describing adult and neonate body sizes and rates of reproductive fitness, as well as species’ geographic range overlap with regions of high mammalian diversity. Second, we identify several bat species ranked most likely to be filovirus-positive on the basis of intrinsic trait similarity with known filovirus-positive bats. New bat species predicted to be positive for filoviruses are widely distributed outside of equatorial Africa, with a majority of species overlapping in Southeast Asia. Taken together, these results spotlight several potential host species and geographical regions as high-probability targets for future filovirus surveillance. PMID:27414412

  20. Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Pongombo, Célestin; Lukashev, Alexander N.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Stöcker, Andreas; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Erbar, Stephanie; Maisner, Andrea; Fronhoffs, Florian; Buettner, Reinhard; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Kruppa, Thomas; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Kallies, René; Yandoko, Emmanuel R.N.; Herrler, Georg; Reusken, Chantal; Hassanin, Alexandre; Krüger, Detlev H.; Matthee, Sonja; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Leroy, Eric M.; Drosten, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents. Phylogenetic reconstruction of host associations suggests a predominance of host switches from bats to other mammals and birds. Hypothesis tests in a maximum likelihood framework permit the phylogenetic placement of bats as tentative hosts at ancestral nodes to both the major Paramyxoviridae subfamilies (Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae). Future attempts to predict the emergence of novel paramyxoviruses in humans and livestock will have to rely fundamentally on these data. PMID:22531181

  1. Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Cottontail, Veronika M; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Oppong, Samuel; Adu Sarkodie, Yaw; Pongombo, Célestin; Lukashev, Alexander N; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Stöcker, Andreas; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Erbar, Stephanie; Maisner, Andrea; Fronhoffs, Florian; Buettner, Reinhard; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Kruppa, Thomas; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Kallies, René; Yandoko, Emmanuel R N; Herrler, Georg; Reusken, Chantal; Hassanin, Alexandre; Krüger, Detlev H; Matthee, Sonja; Ulrich, Rainer G; Leroy, Eric M; Drosten, Christian

    2012-04-24

    The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents. Phylogenetic reconstruction of host associations suggests a predominance of host switches from bats to other mammals and birds. Hypothesis tests in a maximum likelihood framework permit the phylogenetic placement of bats as tentative hosts at ancestral nodes to both the major Paramyxoviridae subfamilies (Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae). Future attempts to predict the emergence of novel paramyxoviruses in humans and livestock will have to rely fundamentally on these data.

  2. Coccidioides posadasii Infection in Bats, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha de Castro e Silva, Kylvia; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; Bezerra de Araújo, Roberto Wagner; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats. PMID:22469192

  3. Guide to the BATS Resource Trunk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Game and Fish Dept., Phoenix.

    This guide provides detailed information, resources, and activities to teach students about the bats of Arizona. Chapters include: (1) "What is a Bat?"; (2) "Megabat or Microbat?"; (3) "Bat Anatomy"; (4) Diet and Feeding"; (5) Echolocation"; (6) Reproduction and Lifespan"; (7) "Flight"; (8)…

  4. Adaptive Evolution of Leptin in Heterothermic Bats

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lihong; Zhao, Xudong; Lin, Benfu; Rossiter, Stephen J.; He, Lingjiang; Zuo, Xueguo; He, Guimei; Jones, Gareth; Geiser, Fritz; Zhang, Shuyi

    2011-01-01

    Heterothermy (hibernation and daily torpor) is a key strategy that animals use to survive in harsh conditions and is widely employed by bats, which are found in diverse habitats and climates. Bats comprise more than 20% of all mammals and although heterothermy occurs in divergent lineages of bats, suggesting it might be an ancestral condition, its evolutionary history is complicated by complex phylogeographic patterns. Here, we use Leptin, which regulates lipid metabolism and is crucial for thermogenesis of hibernators, as molecular marker and combine physiological, molecular and biochemical analyses to explore the possible evolutionary history of heterothermy in bat. The two tropical fruit bats examined here were homeothermic; in contrast, the two tropical insectivorous bats were clearly heterothermic. Molecular evolutionary analyses of the Leptin gene revealed positive selection in the ancestors of all bats, which was maintained or further enhanced the lineages comprising mostly heterothermic species. In contrast, we found evidence of relaxed selection in homeothermic species. Biochemical assays of bat Leptin on the activity on adipocyte degradation revealed that Leptin in heterothermic bats was more lipolytic than in homeothermic bats. This shows that evolutionary sequence changes in this protein are indeed functional and support the interpretation of our physiological results and the molecular evolutionary analyses. Our combined data strongly support the hypothesis that heterothermy is the ancestral state of bats and that this involved adaptive changes in Leptin. Subsequent loss of heterothermy in some tropical lineages of bats likely was associated with range and dietary shifts. PMID:22110614

  5. How sensitive are bats to insecticides?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    Concern about the loss of bat populations to insecticides, first stated by Mohr (1953) has stimulated toxicological research to quantify the sensitivity of bats to these chemicals. This report is a review of results of research to date and a discussion of implications for bats in the wild.

  6. Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W. Ian; Luby, Stephen P.; Daszak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia. PMID:23343532

  7. Brazilian gemstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro

    1981-04-01

    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  8. Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantine, Denny G.; Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections offers readers an overview of the virus variants that cause bat rabies, and geographical patterns in occurrence of this disease. The section Species Susceptibility describes infection rates and trends among bats, humans, and other animals. Disease Ecology considers the biological and environmental dynamics of the disease in various species of bats. Points to Ponder: Interspecies Interactions in Potential Bat Rabies Transmission Settings discusses the narrowing interface of bat colonies and human society and how humans and domestic animals play a role in transmission of bat rabies. Disease Prevention and Control outlines how to limit exposure to rabid bats and other animals. Appendixes include extensive tables of reported infections in bat species and in humans, and a glossary of technical terms is included. The author, Denny G. Constantine, helped define rabies infection in insect-eating bats and has investigated bat rabies ecology for more than half a century. He has authored more than 90 papers during the course of his career and is widely considered to be the world's foremost authority on the disease. Currently, Dr. Constantine is a public health officer emeritus and veterinary epidemiologist for the California Department of Health Services Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory. Milt Friend, first director of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, wrote the foreword. David Blehert, a USGS microbiologist who is investigating the emergence and causes of bat white-nose syndrome, edited the volume. Bat Rabies is intended for scholars and the general public. Dr. Constantine presents the material in a simple, straightforward manner that serves both audiences. The goal of the author is to increase people's understanding of both bat and disease ecology and also provide a balanced perspective on human risks pertaining to bat rabies.

  9. Unusual influenza A viruses in bats.

    PubMed

    Mehle, Andrew

    2014-09-17

    Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential.

  10. Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Mehle, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential. PMID:25256392

  11. A One Health Message about Bats Increases Intentions to Follow Public Health Guidance on Bat Rabies

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hang; McComas, Katherine A.; Buttke, Danielle E.; Roh, Sungjong; Wild, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1960, bat rabies variants have become the greatest source of human rabies deaths in the United States. Improving rabies awareness and preventing human exposure to rabid bats remains a national public health priority today. Concurrently, conservation of bats and the ecosystem benefits they provide is of increasing importance due to declining populations of many bat species. This study used a visitor-intercept experiment (N = 521) in two U.S. national parks where human and bat interactions occur on an occasional basis to examine the relative persuasiveness of four messages differing in the provision of benefit and uncertainty information on intentions to adopt a rabies exposure prevention behavior. We found that acknowledging benefits of bats in a risk message led to greater intentions to adopt the recommended rabies exposure prevention behavior without unnecessarily stigmatizing bats. These results signify the importance of communicating benefits of bats in bat rabies prevention messages to benefit both human and wildlife health. PMID:27224252

  12. A One Health Message about Bats Increases Intentions to Follow Public Health Guidance on Bat Rabies.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hang; McComas, Katherine A; Buttke, Danielle E; Roh, Sungjong; Wild, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Since 1960, bat rabies variants have become the greatest source of human rabies deaths in the United States. Improving rabies awareness and preventing human exposure to rabid bats remains a national public health priority today. Concurrently, conservation of bats and the ecosystem benefits they provide is of increasing importance due to declining populations of many bat species. This study used a visitor-intercept experiment (N = 521) in two U.S. national parks where human and bat interactions occur on an occasional basis to examine the relative persuasiveness of four messages differing in the provision of benefit and uncertainty information on intentions to adopt a rabies exposure prevention behavior. We found that acknowledging benefits of bats in a risk message led to greater intentions to adopt the recommended rabies exposure prevention behavior without unnecessarily stigmatizing bats. These results signify the importance of communicating benefits of bats in bat rabies prevention messages to benefit both human and wildlife health.

  13. Intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkløv, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed “whispering” can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats' dynamic control of acoustic features also includes the intensity and directionality of their sonar calls. Aerial hawking bats will increase signal directionality in the field along with intensity thus increasing sonar range. During the last phase of prey pursuit, vespertilionid bats broaden their echolocation beam considerably, probably to counter evasive maneuvers of eared prey. We highlight how multiple call parameters (frequency, duration, intensity, and directionality of echolocation signals) in unison define the search volume probed by bats and in turn how bats perceive their surroundings. Small changes to individual parameters can, in combination, drastically change the bat's perception, facilitating successful navigation and food acquisition across a vast range of ecological niches. To better understand the function of echolocation in the natural habitat it is critical to determine multiple acoustic features of the echolocation calls. The combined (interactive) effects, not only of frequency and time parameters, but also of intensity and directionality, define the bat's view of its acoustic scene. PMID:23630501

  14. Bat-borne rabies in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as "Least Concern". According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats.

  15. How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

    2011-07-15

    The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (∼15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms.

  16. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

  17. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Dan

    2010-10-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as swing weight.2-3 A number of recent field studies4-7 have confirmed that the speed with which a player can swing a baseball or softball bat depends more on the bat's moment of inertia than on its mass. In this paper we investigate the moment of inertia (swing weight) of a variety of baseball and softball bats.

  18. Enhanced passive bat rabies surveillance in indigenous bat species from Germany--a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Schatz, Juliane; Freuling, Conrad Martin; Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Mühle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dörfer, Bärbel; Prüger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Günter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques.

  19. Enhanced Passive Bat Rabies Surveillance in Indigenous Bat Species from Germany - A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Mühle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dörfer, Bärbel; Prüger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Günter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques. PMID:24784117

  20. Do predators influence the behaviour of bats?

    PubMed

    Lima, Steven L; O'Keefe, Joy M

    2013-08-01

    Many aspects of animal behaviour are affected by real-time changes in the risk of predation. This conclusion holds for virtually all taxa and ecological systems studied, but does it hold for bats? Bats are poorly represented in the literature on anti-predator behaviour, which may reflect a lack of nocturnal predators specialized on bats. If bats actually experience a world with minimal anti-predator concerns, then they will provide a unique contrast within the realm of vertebrate ecology. Alternatively, such predator-driven behaviour in bats may not yet be fully understood, given the difficulties in working with these highly mobile and nocturnal animals. We provide a wide-ranging exploration of these issues in bat behaviour. We first cover the basic predator-prey information available on bats, both on potential predators and the ways in which bats might perceive predators and respond to attacks. We then cover work relevant to key aspects of bat behaviour, such as choice of daytime roosts, the nature of sleep and torpor, evening roost departures, moonlight avoidance, landscape-related movement patterns, and habitat selection. Overall, the evidence in favour of a strong influence of predators on bat behaviour is equivocal, with the picture clouded by contradictory results and a lack of information on potential predators and the perception of risk by bats. It seems clear that day-active bats run a considerable risk of being killed by diurnal raptors, which are able to capture bats with relative ease. Thus, bats taking advantage of a pulse of insects just prior to sunset are likely taking risks to gain much-needed energy. Further, the choice of daytime roosts by bats is probably strongly influenced by roost safety. Few studies, however, have directly addressed either of these topics. As a group, insectivorous temperate-zone bats show no clear tendency to avoid apparently risky situations, such as activity on moonlit nights. However, some observations are consistent

  1. Bat rabies--a Gordian knot?

    PubMed

    Freuling, Conrad; Vos, Ad; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R; Müller, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Although classical rabies is one of the earliest identified and best studied infectious diseases, there is still limited knowledge about lyssaviruses and their major natural hosts, bats. Focussing on bat rabies in Europe caused by European bat lyssaviruses 1 (EBLV-1) and 2, for instance the association of EBLV-1 to Eptesicus bats and EBLV-2 to Myotis daubentonii and M. dasycneme together with an apparent clustering of cases is one question still to be answered. Furthermore, the question whether EBLVs are less virulent or bats less susceptible is the key to the understanding of the disease. Accumulating evidence from experimental studies and field observations, however, has resulted in contradicting hypotheses. Serological surveys, using tools developed for classical rabies, are often used for bat rabies surveillance. However, such surveys are hampered by the lack of validated methods applicable for bat sera. Bats seem to play a prominent role as reservoir for viral pathogens and the unique biology of bats especially the immune response may contribute to this. Considering all known aspects, bat rabies seems to form a yet unsolvable entanglement, reminiscent of the ancient tale of the Gordian knot. In this manuscript we will not be able to untangle this knot, but we hope to offer some suggestions of where to start.

  2. The origins and diversity of bat songs.

    PubMed

    Smotherman, Michael; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Smarsh, Grace; Bohn, Kirsten

    2016-08-01

    Singing plays an important role in the social lives of several disparate bat species, but just how significant the behavior may be among bats generally is unknown. Recent discoveries suggest singing by bats might be surprisingly more diverse and widespread than anticipated, but if true then two questions must be addressed: firstly why has singing been so rarely documented among bats, and secondly do bats sing for the same reasons as songbirds? We address the first question by reviewing how sampling bias and technical constraints may have produced a myopic view of bat social communication. To address the second question, we review evidence from 50 years of batsong literature supporting the supposition that bat singing is linked to the same constellation of ecological variables that favored birdsong, including territoriality, polygyny, metabolic constraints, migratory behaviors and especially powered flight. We propose that bats sing like birds because they fly like birds; flight is energetically expensive and singing reduces time spent flying. Factoring in the singular importance of acoustic communication for echolocating bats, it seems likely that singing may prove to be relatively common among certain groups of bats once it becomes clear when and where to look for it.

  3. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  4. Bats in Agroecosytems around California's Central Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayne, A.

    2014-12-01

    Bats in agroecosystems around California's Central Coast: A full quarter of California's land area is farmland. Crops account for 32.5 billion of California's GDP. Insect control is a big problem for farmers, and California bats eat only insects, saving farmers an estimated 3 to $53 billion a year. As farmers maximize crop yield, they use more pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers, which contaminate runoff streams that bats drink from. Also, pesticide use kills bats' sole food source: insects. My research objective was to find out how farm management practices and landscape complexity affect bat diversity and activity, and to see which one affects bat activity more. We monitored 18 sites, including conventional, organic, and low and high-complexity landscapes. We noted more bat activity at sites with high complexity landscapes and organic practices than at sites with either low-complexity landscapes or conventional farming practices. I captured and processed bats and recorded data. I also classified insects collected from light traps. I learned how to handle bats and measure forearm length and weight, as well as how to indentify their gender. I took hair clippings and fecal samples, which yield data about the bats' diet. Their diet, in turn, gives us data about which pests they eat and therefore help control. I also learned about bats' echolocation: they have a special muscle over their ears that closes when they echolocate so that they don't burst their own eardrum. Also, some insects have evolved a special call that will disrupt bats echolocation so bats can't track it.

  5. Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Instrument Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.; Hullinger, D.; Markwardt, C.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts and will also monitor the sky for transient hard x-ray sources. For BAT to provide spectral and photometric information for the gamma-ray bursts, the transient sources and the all-sky survey, the BAT instrument response must be determined to an increasingly greater accuracy. In this talk, we describe the BAT instrument response as determined to an accuracy suitable for gamma-ray burst studies. We will also discuss the public data analysis tools developed to calculate the BAT response to sources at different energies and locations in the FOV. The level of accuracy required for the BAT instrument response used for the hard x-ray survey is significantly higher because this response must be used in the iterative clean algorithm for finding fainter sources. Because the bright sources add a lot of coding noise to the BAT sky image, fainter sources can be seen only after the counts due to the bright sources are removed. The better we know the BAT response, the lower the noise in the cleaned spectrum and thus the more sensitive the survey. Since the BAT detector plane consists of 32768 individual, 4 mm square CZT gamma-ray detectors, the most accurate BAT response would include 32768 individual detector response functions to separate mask modulation effects from differences in detector efficiencies! We describe OUT continuing work to improve the accuracy of the BAT instrument response and will present the current results of Monte Carlo simulations as well as BAT ground calibration data.

  6. Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Instrument Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.; Hullinger, D.; Markwardt, C.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts and will also monitor the sky for transient hard x-ray sources. For BAT to provide spectral and photometric information for the gamma-ray bursts, the transient sources and the all-sky survey, the BAT instrument response must be determined to an increasingly greater accuracy. In this talk, we describe the BAT instrument response as determined to an accuracy suitable for gamma-ray burst studies. We will also discuss the public data analysis tools developed to calculate the BAT response to sources at different energies and locations in the FOV. The level of accuracy required for the BAT instrument response used for the hard x-ray survey is significantly higher because this response must be used in the iterative clean algorithm for finding fainter sources. Because the bright sources add a lot of coding noise to the BAT sky image, fainter sources can be seen only after the counts due to the bright sources are removed. The better we know the BAT response, the lower the noise in the cleaned spectrum and thus the more sensitive the survey. Since the BAT detector plane consists of 32768 individual, 4 mm square CZT gamma-ray detectors, the most accurate BAT response would include 32768 individual detector response functions to separate mask modulation effects from differences in detector efficiencies! We describe OUT continuing work to improve the accuracy of the BAT instrument response and will present the current results of Monte Carlo simulations as well as BAT ground calibration data.

  7. Rain increases the energy cost of bat flight.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Christian C; Schneeberger, Karin; Voigt-Heucke, Silke L; Lewanzik, Daniel

    2011-10-23

    Similar to insects, birds and pterosaurs, bats have evolved powered flight. But in contrast to other flying taxa, only bats are furry. Here, we asked whether flight is impaired when bat pelage and wing membranes get wet. We studied the metabolism of short flights in Carollia sowelli, a bat that is exposed to heavy and frequent rainfall in neotropical rainforests. We expected bats to encounter higher thermoregulatory costs, or to suffer from lowered aerodynamic properties when pelage and wing membranes catch moisture. Therefore, we predicted that wet bats face higher flight costs than dry ones. We quantified the flight metabolism in three treatments: dry bats, wet bats and no rain, wet bats and rain. Dry bats showed metabolic rates predicted by allometry. However, flight metabolism increased twofold when bats were wet, or when they were additionally exposed to rain. We conclude that bats may not avoid rain only because of sensory constraints imposed by raindrops on echolocation, but also because of energetic constraints.

  8. ECHOLOCATION WITH WIDE-BAND WAVEFORMS: BAT SONAR SIGNALS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    in Chapter 2, of an arbitrary waveform; and (4) ambiguity diagrams are calculated for several types of bat sonar signals emitted by the bat Myotis lucifugus and one cruising signal emitted by the bat Lasiurus borealis .

  9. Bartonella Species in Bats (Chiroptera) and Bat Flies (Nycteribiidae) from Nigeria, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Baneth, Gad; Mitchell, Mark; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S–23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0–45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria. PMID:25229701

  10. Bartonella species in bats (Chiroptera) and bat flies (Nycteribiidae) from Nigeria, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mitchell, Mark; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0-45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria.

  11. The Brazilian Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, Charles D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the unusually aggressive Brazilian honeybee, which exhibits many of the attributes of its African antecedants. Describes its abundance and distribution, behaviorial characteristics, future spread, and the potential impact of the Brazilian bee in North America. (JR)

  12. The Brazilian Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, Charles D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the unusually aggressive Brazilian honeybee, which exhibits many of the attributes of its African antecedants. Describes its abundance and distribution, behaviorial characteristics, future spread, and the potential impact of the Brazilian bee in North America. (JR)

  13. Characterizing the performance of baseball bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Alan M.

    2003-02-01

    The characterization of the performance of baseball bats is presented from a physics point of view. The goal is to define a set of laboratory measurements that can be used to predict performance in the field. The concept of a model-independent collision efficiency, which relates the post-collision ball speed to the initial ball and bat speeds, is introduced and its properties are investigated. It is shown to provide a convenient link between laboratory and field measurements. Other performance metrics are presented, related to the collision efficiency, and evaluated according to their predictive power. Using a computational model, it is shown that bat performance depends on the interplay of the elasticity of the ball-bat collision, the inertial properties of the ball and bat, and the bat swing speed. It is argued that any method of determining performance needs to take all of these factors into account. A new method is proposed and compared with commonly used existing methods.

  14. A review of fire effects on bats and bat habitat in the eastern oaks region

    Treesearch

    Roger W. Perry

    2012-01-01

    Fire is increasingly being used in oak forests to promote oak regeneration, improve wildlife habitat, and reduce hazardous fuel loads. Although recent research has begun to shed light on the relationships among fire, bats, and bat habitat, these interactions are not yet fully understood. Fire may affect bats directly through heat and smoke during the burning process or...

  15. A review of fire effects on bats and bat habitat in the eastern oak region

    Treesearch

    Roger W. Perry

    2012-01-01

    Fire is increasingly being used in oak forests to promote oak regeneration, improve wildlife habitat, and reduce hazardous fuel loads. Although recent research has begun to shed light on the relationships among fire, bats, and bat habitat, these interactions are not yet fully understood. Fire may affect bats directly through heat and smoke during the burning process or...

  16. Endemic Circulation of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 in Serotine Bats, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Juste, Javier; Ibáñez, Carlos; Ruiz-Villamor, Eduardo; Avellón, Ana; Vera, Manuel; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the presence of European bat lyssavirus type 1 in southern Spain, we studied 19 colonies of serotine bats (Eptesicus isabellinus), its main reservoir, during 1998–2003. Viral genome and antibodies were detected in healthy bats, which suggests subclinical infection. The different temporal patterns of circulation found in each colony indicate independent endemic circulation. PMID:18680651

  17. Behavior of bats at wind turbines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, Paul M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Hine, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T.S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin W.; Dalton, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  18. Behavior of bats at wind turbines

    PubMed Central

    Cryan, Paul. M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T. S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines. PMID:25267628

  19. Antiviral immune responses of bats: a review.

    PubMed

    Baker, M L; Schountz, T; Wang, L-F

    2013-02-01

    Despite being the second most species-rich and abundant group of mammals, bats are also among the least studied, with a particular paucity of information in the area of bat immunology. Although bats have a long history of association with rabies, the emergence and re-emergence of a number of viruses from bats that impact human and animal health has resulted in a resurgence of interest in bat immunology. Understanding how bats coexist with viruses in the absence of disease is essential if we are to begin to develop therapeutics to target viruses in humans and susceptible livestock and companion animals. Here, we review the current status of knowledge in the field of bat antiviral immunology including both adaptive and innate mechanisms of immune defence and highlight the need for further investigations in this area. Because data in this field are so limited, our discussion is based on both scientific discoveries and theoretical predictions. It is hoped that by provoking original, speculative or even controversial ideas or theories, this review may stimulate further research in this important field. Efforts to understand the immune systems of bats have been greatly facilitated in recent years by the availability of partial genome sequences from two species of bats, a megabat, Pteropus vampyrus, and a microbat, Myotis lucifugus, allowing the rapid identification of immune genes. Although bats appear to share most features of the immune system with other mammals, several studies have reported qualitative and quantitative differences in the immune responses of bats. These observations warrant further investigation to determine whether such differences are associated with the asymptomatic nature of viral infections in bats.

  20. Heat Transfer of Fibrous Insulation Battings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    convection, conduction, and radiation through battings made of solid and hollow regular fibers (fiber diameter Df = 25-/»m), fine fibers (12->»m < D^ < 15...regular and fine fibers, low radiative heat loss of microfibers and the h fibers, they should be combined to form economic addition, reflective...and Compressed Fine Fiber Battings 11. Comparison of Bulk Density and Thickness between Uncompressed High 17 Density Microfiber Battings and

  1. Behavior of bats at wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Cryan, Paul M; Gorresen, P Marcos; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Diehl, Robert H; Huso, Manuela M; Hayman, David T S; Fricker, Paul D; Bonaccorso, Frank J; Johnson, Douglas H; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C

    2014-10-21

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  2. Musculoskeletal trauma: the baseball bat.

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, D. D.; Greenfield, R.; Martin, E.

    1992-01-01

    Between July 1987 and December 1990 in Washington, DC, 116 patients sustained 146 fractures and seven dislocations due to an assault with a baseball bat. The ulna was the most common site of trauma (61 fractures), followed by the hand (27 injuries) and the radius (14 injuries). Forty-two of the 146 fractures were significantly displaced and required open reduction and internal fixation to restore satisfactory alignment. Twenty-nine of the 146 fractures were open fractures. Treatment protocol for open fractures consisted of irrigation and debridement, antibiotic therapy, and bone stabilization with either internal or external fixation, or casting. Recognition of the severity of the soft tissue and bone damage is important in the management of musculoskeletal trauma secondary to the baseball bat. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1460683

  3. SonicBAT News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-17

    In the Kennedy Space Center's Press Site auditorium, Larry Cliatt, SonicBAT Fluid Mechanics at Armstrong Flight Research Center in California, speaks to members of the media at a news conference to discuss upcoming flight tests to study the effects of sonic booms. Kennedy is partnering with Armstrong, Langley and Space Florida for a program called SonicBAT for Sonic Booms in Atmospheric Turbulence. Starting in August, NASA F-18 jets will take off from the Shuttle Landing Facility and fly at supersonic speeds while agency researchers on the ground measure the effects of low-altitude turbulence on sonic booms. The study could lead to technology mitigating the annoying sonic booms making possible supersonic flights over populated areas.

  4. SonicBAT News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-17

    In the Kennedy Space Center's Press Site auditorium, Peter Coen, SonicBAT Mission Analysis at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Virginia, speaks to members of the media at a news conference to discuss upcoming flight tests to study the effects of sonic booms. Kennedy is partnering with Armstrong, Langley and Space Florida for a program called SonicBAT for Sonic Booms in Atmospheric Turbulence. Starting in August, NASA F-18 jets will take off from the Shuttle Landing Facility and fly at supersonic speeds while agency researchers on the ground measure the effects of low-altitude turbulence on sonic booms. The study could lead to technology mitigating the annoying sonic booms making possible supersonic flights over populated areas.

  5. Bat habitat research. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, B.L.; Bosworth, W.R.; Doering, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    This progress report describes activities over the current reporting period to characterize the habitats of bats on the INEL. Research tasks are entitled Monitoring bat habitation of caves on the INEL to determine species present, numbers, and seasons of use; Monitor bat use of man-made ponds at the INEL to determine species present and rates of use of these waters; If the Big Lost River is flowing on the INEL and/or if the Big Lost River sinks contain water, determine species present, numbers and seasons of use; Determine the habitat requirement of Townsend`s big-eared bats, including the microclimate of caves containing Townsend`s big-eared bats as compared to other caves that do not contain bats; Determine and describe an economical and efficient bat census technique to be used periodically by INEL scientists to determine the status of bats on the INEL; and Provide a suggestive management and protective plan for bat species on the INEL that might, in the future, be added to the endangered and sensitive list;

  6. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace.

  7. Notes on the distribution of Oregon bats.

    Treesearch

    Chris Maser; Stephen P. Cross

    1981-01-01

    Distributional data are given for 15 species of bats known to occur in Oregon: Antrozous pallidus, Eptesicus fuscus, Euderma maculatum, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Lasiurus cinereus, Myotis californicus, M. evotis, ...

  8. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, Harry K.; John Hewson, Victor Brunini

    2013-09-24

    CanTrilBat applications solves transient problems involving batteries. It is a 1-D application that represents 3-D physical systems that can be reduced using the porous flow approximation for the anode, cathode, and separator. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery adds constitutive models on top of the CanTrilBat framework. CanTrilBat_ThermalBattery contains constitutive models for the electrode behavior when more than one electrode heterogeneous surface is reacting. This is a novel capability within the battery community. These models are named as the “Electrode_MultiPlateau” model.

  9. Economic importance of bats in agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyles, Justin G.; Cryan, Paul M.; McCracken, Gary F.; Kunz, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) and the increased development of wind-power facilities are threatening populations of insectivorous bats in North America. Bats are voracious predators of nocturnal insects, including many crop and forest pests. We present here analyses suggesting that loss of bats in North America could lead to agricultural losses estimated at more than $3.7 billion/year. Urgent efforts are needed to educate the public and policy-makers about the ecological and economic importance of insectivorous bats and to provide practical conservation solutions.

  10. Optimizing Viral Discovery in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Young, Cristin C. W.; Olival, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Viral discovery studies in bats have increased dramatically over the past decade, yet a rigorous synthesis of the published data is lacking. We extract and analyze data from 93 studies published between 2007–2013 to examine factors that increase success of viral discovery in bats, and specific trends and patterns of infection across host taxa and viral families. Over the study period, 248 novel viruses from 24 viral families have been described. Using generalized linear models, at a study level we show the number of host species and viral families tested best explained number of viruses detected. We demonstrate that prevalence varies significantly across viral family, specimen type, and host taxonomy, and calculate mean PCR prevalence by viral family and specimen type across all studies. Using a logistic model, we additionally identify factors most likely to increase viral detection at an individual level for the entire dataset and by viral families with sufficient sample sizes. Our analysis highlights major taxonomic gaps in recent bat viral discovery efforts and identifies ways to improve future viral pathogen detection through the design of more efficient and targeted sample collection and screening approaches. PMID:26867024

  11. SonicBAT News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-17

    In the Kennedy Space Center's Press Site auditorium, NASA and other government leaders speak to members of the media at a news conference to discuss upcoming flight tests to study the effects of sonic booms. Participants from left are: Matthew Kamlet of NASA Communications at the Armstrong Flight Research Center in California; Peter Coen, SonicBAT Mission Analysis at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Virginia; Larry Cliatt, SonicBAT Fluid Mechanics at Armstrong; Dale Ketcham chief of Strategic Alliances for Space Florida; and Laura Henning, public information officer for the Canaveral National Seashore. Kennedy is partnering with Armstrong, Langley and Space Florida for a program called SonicBAT for Sonic Booms in Atmospheric Turbulence. Starting in August, NASA F-18 jets will take off from the Shuttle Landing Facility and fly at supersonic speeds while agency researchers on the ground measure the effects of low-altitude turbulence on sonic booms. The study could lead to technology mitigating the annoying sonic booms making possible supersonic flights over populated areas.

  12. TcBat a bat-exclusive lineage of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Panama Canal Zone, with comments on its classification and the use of the 18S rRNA gene for lineage identification.

    PubMed

    Pinto, C Miguel; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Cottontail, Iain; Wellinghausen, Nele; Cottontail, Veronika M

    2012-08-01

    We report TcBat, a recently described genetic lineage of Trypanosoma cruzi, in fruit-eating bats Artibeus from Panama. Infections were common (11.6% prevalence), but no other T. cruzi cruzi genotypes were detected. Phylogenetic analyses show an unambiguous association with Brazilian TcBat, but raise questions about the phylogenetic placement of this genotype using the 18S rRNA gene alone. However, analyses with three concatenated genes (18S rRNA, cytb, and H2B) moderately support TcBat as sister to the discrete typing unit (DTU) TcI. We demonstrate that short fragments (>500 bp) of the 18S rRNA gene are useful for identification of DTUs of T. cruzi, and provide reliable phylogenetic signal as long as they are analyzed within a matrix with reference taxa containing additional informative genes. TcBat forms a very distinctive monophyletic group that may be recognized as an additional DTU within T. cruzi cruzi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sound localization by echolocating bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytekin, Murat

    Echolocating bats emit ultrasonic vocalizations and listen to echoes reflected back from objects in the path of the sound beam to build a spatial representation of their surroundings. Important to understanding the representation of space through echolocation are detailed studies of the cues used for localization, the sonar emission patterns and how this information is assembled. This thesis includes three studies, one on the directional properties of the sonar receiver, one on the directional properties of the sonar transmitter, and a model that demonstrates the role of action in building a representation of auditory space. The general importance of this work to a broader understanding of spatial localization is discussed. Investigations of the directional properties of the sonar receiver reveal that interaural level difference and monaural spectral notch cues are both dependent on sound source azimuth and elevation. This redundancy allows flexibility that an echolocating bat may need when coping with complex computational demands for sound localization. Using a novel method to measure bat sonar emission patterns from freely behaving bats, I show that the sonar beam shape varies between vocalizations. Consequently, the auditory system of a bat may need to adapt its computations to accurately localize objects using changing acoustic inputs. Extra-auditory signals that carry information about pinna position and beam shape are required for auditory localization of sound sources. The auditory system must learn associations between extra-auditory signals and acoustic spatial cues. Furthermore, the auditory system must adapt to changes in acoustic input that occur with changes in pinna position and vocalization parameters. These demands on the nervous system suggest that sound localization is achieved through the interaction of behavioral control and acoustic inputs. A sensorimotor model demonstrates how an organism can learn space through auditory-motor contingencies

  14. Threshold effect of habitat loss on bat richness in cerrado-forest landscapes.

    PubMed

    Muylaert, Renata L; Stevens, Richard D; Ribeiro, Milton C

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how animal groups respond to contemporary habitat loss and fragmentation is essential for development of strategies for species conservation. Until now, there has been no consensus about how landscape degradation affects the diversity and distribution of Neotropical bats. Some studies demonstrate population declines and species loss in impacted areas, although the magnitude and generality of these effects on bat community structure are unclear. Empirical fragmentation thresholds predict an accentuated drop in biodiversity, and species richness in particular, when less than 30% of the original amount of habitat in the landscape remains. In this study, we tested whether bat species richness demonstrates this threshold response, based on 48 sites distributed across 12 landscapes with 9-88% remaining forest in Brazilian cerrado-forest formations. We also examined the degree to which abundance was similarly affected within four different feeding guilds. The threshold value for richness, below which bat diversity declines precipitously, was estimated at 47% of remaining forest. To verify if the response of bat abundance to habitat loss differed among feeding guilds, we used a model selection approach based on Akaike's information criterion. Models accounted for the amount of riparian forest, semideciduous forest, cerrado, tree plantations, secondary forest, and the total amount of forest in the landscape. We demonstrate a nonlinear effect of the contribution of tree plantations to frugivores, and a positive effect of the amount of cerrado to nectarivores and animalivores, the groups that responded most to decreases in amount of forest. We suggest that bat assemblages in interior Atlantic Forest and cerrado regions of southeastern Brazil are impoverished, since we found lower richness and abundance of different groups in landscapes with lower amounts of forest. The relatively higher threshold value of 47% suggests that bat communities have a relatively lower

  15. Are migratory behaviours of bats socially transmitted?

    PubMed Central

    Baerwald, E. F.; Barclay, R. M. R.

    2016-01-01

    To migrate, animals rely on endogenous, genetically inherited programmes, or socially transmitted information about routes and behaviours, or a combination of the two. In long-lived animals with extended parental care, as in bats, migration tends to be socially transmitted rather than endogenous. For a young bat to learn migration via social transmission, they would need to follow an experienced individual, most likely one roosting nearby. Therefore, we predicted that bats travelling together originate from the same place. It is also likely that young bats would follow their mothers or other kin, so we predicted that bats travelling together are more closely related to each other than bats not travelling together. To test our predictions, we used microsatellite genotypes and stable isotope values of δ13C, δ15N and δ2H to analyse the relatedness and geographical origins of migrating hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus/Aeorestes cinereus (Baird et al. 2015 J. Mammal. 96, 1255–1274 (doi:10.1093/jmammal/gyv135)); n = 133) and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans; n = 87) killed at wind turbines over two consecutive autumn migrations. Contrary to our predictions, there was no evidence that related dyads of hoary bats or silver-haired bats were killed on the same night more frequently than expected by chance, or that the number of days between the fatalities of dyad members was influenced by relatedness or latitude of origin. Our data suggest that these bats do not socially transmit migration routes and behaviours among close kin. PMID:27152208

  16. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T.S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K.R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L.N.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs.

  17. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?

    PubMed Central

    Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T. S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L. N.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs. PMID:23378666

  18. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn

    PubMed Central

    Maine, Josiah J.; Boyles, Justin G.

    2015-01-01

    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity. PMID:26371304

  19. Dengue Virus in Bats from Southeastern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J. Leopoldo; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR–positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688

  20. Halloween Treat: Bat Facts and Folklore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, Thomas H.

    1984-01-01

    Information on bats is provided, focusing on their diversity and distribution, characteristics, food habits, activities, roosting and social habits, reproduction, number of young and size at birth, hibernation, mortality and longevity, and movements and navigation. Additional information related to public health/disease concerns and bat management…

  1. Roost characteristics of hoary bats in Arkansas

    Treesearch

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill

    2007-01-01

    We radiotracked nine hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) and characterized 12 roosts during late spring and early summer in the Ouachita Mountains of central Arkansas. Hoary bats generally roosted on the easterly sides of tree canopies in the foliage of white oaks (Quercus alba), post oaks (Q. stellata) and shortleaf pines (Pinus...

  2. Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover

    PubMed Central

    Plowright, Raina K.; Eby, Peggy; Hudson, Peter J.; Smith, Ina L.; Westcott, David; Bryden, Wayne L.; Middleton, Deborah; Reid, Peter A.; McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Martin, Gerardo; Tabor, Gary M.; Skerratt, Lee F.; Anderson, Dale L.; Crameri, Gary; Quammen, David; Jordan, David; Freeman, Paul; Wang, Lin-Fa; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Marsh, Glenn A.; Kung, Nina Y.; McCallum, Hamish

    2015-01-01

    Viruses that originate in bats may be the most notorious emerging zoonoses that spill over from wildlife into domestic animals and humans. Understanding how these infections filter through ecological systems to cause disease in humans is of profound importance to public health. Transmission of viruses from bats to humans requires a hierarchy of enabling conditions that connect the distribution of reservoir hosts, viral infection within these hosts, and exposure and susceptibility of recipient hosts. For many emerging bat viruses, spillover also requires viral shedding from bats, and survival of the virus in the environment. Focusing on Hendra virus, but also addressing Nipah virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and coronaviruses, we delineate this cross-species spillover dynamic from the within-host processes that drive virus excretion to land-use changes that increase interaction among species. We describe how land-use changes may affect co-occurrence and contact between bats and recipient hosts. Two hypotheses may explain temporal and spatial pulses of virus shedding in bat populations: episodic shedding from persistently infected bats or transient epidemics that occur as virus is transmitted among bat populations. Management of livestock also may affect the probability of exposure and disease. Interventions to decrease the probability of virus spillover can be implemented at multiple levels from targeting the reservoir host to managing recipient host exposure and susceptibility. PMID:25392474

  3. Dynamics of the baseball-bat collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Alan M.

    2000-11-01

    A model is developed for the collision between the baseball and bat, taking into account the transverse bending vibrations of the bat. By coupling the flexible bat to the ball via a parametrized force that each mutually exerts on the other, a complete description of the collision process is obtained, including the exit speed of the ball vf. It is shown that vibrations play an important role in determining vf. The model is in excellent agreement with experimental data at low impact velocities. At the higher velocities more appropriate to the game of baseball, vf is shown to coincide with the rigid-body value only over a very small region in the barrel of the bat and to drop off sharply for impacts removed from that region. Some interesting insights into the collision process are obtained, including the observation that for impacts in the barrel of the bat, the momentum transferred to the ball is essentially complete by the time the elastic wave first arrives at the handle and that any clamping action of the hands will affect the bat at the impact point only after the ball and bat have separated. This suggests that vf is independent of the size, shape, and method of support of the bat at distances far from the impact location.

  4. Use of the forest canopy by bats.

    Treesearch

    L. Wunder; A.B. Carey

    1994-01-01

    Of the 15 species of bats in the Pacific Northwest, 11 are known to make regular use of the forest canopy for roosting, foraging, and reproduction. This paper reviews roosting requirements, foraging, and the importance of landscape-scale factors to canopy using species in the Northwest. Many northwest bats use several different types of tree roosts. Common roosting...

  5. Vampire Bat Rabies: Ecology, Epidemiology and Control

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Nicholas; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control. PMID:24784570

  6. Western crevice and cavity-roosting bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bogan, Michael A.; Cryan, Paul M.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Ellison, Laura E.; O'Shea, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    Among the 45 species of bats that occur in the United States (U.S.), 34 species regularly occur in western regions of the country. Many of these “western” species choose roost sites in crevices or cavities. Herein we provide an introduction to the biology of bats that roost in cavities and crevices and assess the challenges and opportunities associated with monitoring their populations. We reviewed recent studies and examined the U.S. Geological Survey Bat Population Database (BPD) for records of western bats using crevice and cavity roosts. We found records of 25 species of western bats that use crevice or cavity roosts for at least part of their annual cycle. There were relatively few (n = 92) observations or counts for these species in the BPD, representing only 6% of the observations in the database. This paucity of records likely reflects the difficulty of observing bats in such situations rather than actual use. We found no long-term data adequate for population trend analysis among this group of bats. Since the development of miniaturized radio transmitters, our knowledge about bats that roost in cavities and crevices has increased. Future challenges associated with monitoring these species will include understanding variability in the types of roosts used as well as the roost-switching behavior exhibited by many species.

  7. Vampire bat rabies: ecology, epidemiology and control.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro

    2014-04-29

    Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control.

  8. Effects of acoustic deterrents on foraging bats

    Treesearch

    Joshua B. Johnson; W. Mark Ford; Jane L. Rodrigue; John W. Edwards

    2012-01-01

    Significant bat mortality events associated with wind energy expansion, particularly in the Appalachians, have highlighted the need for development of possible mitigation practices to reduce or prevent strike mortality. Other than increasing turbine cut-in speed, acoustic deterrents probably hold the greatest promise for reducing bat mortality. However, acoustic...

  9. A study of wood baseball bat breakage

    Treesearch

    Patrick Drane; James Sherwood; Renzo Colosimo; David Kretschmann

    2012-01-01

    Over the span of three months in 2008, 2232 baseball bats broke while being used during Major League Baseball (MLB) games; of which 756 were classified as Multi Piece Failures (MPFs). This rate of failure motivated Major League Baseball to explore options for potential changes in the bat regulations to reduce the rate. After a study of the information that could be...

  10. Are torpid bats immune to anthropogenic noise?

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinhong; Clarin, B-Markus; Borissov, Ivailo M; Siemers, Björn M

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic noise has a negative impact on a variety of animals. However, many bat species roost in places with high levels of anthropogenic noise. Here, we tested the hypothesis that torpid bats are insensitive to anthropogenic noise. In a laboratory experiment, we recorded skin temperature (Tsk) of bats roosting individually that were subjected to playbacks of different types of noise. We found that torpid bats with Tsk ~10°C lower than their active Tsk responded to all types of noise by elevating Tsk. Bats responded most strongly to colony and vegetation noise, and most weakly to traffic noise. The time of day when torpid bats were exposed to noise had a pronounced effect on responses. Torpid bats showed increasing responses from morning towards evening, i.e. towards the onset of the active phase. Skin temperature at the onset of noise exposure (Tsk,start, 17-29°C) was not related to the response. Moreover, we found evidence that torpid bats rapidly habituated to repeated and prolonged noise exposure.

  11. Dengue virus in bats from southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J Leopoldo; Aguirre, A Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-07-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR-positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined.

  12. Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover.

    PubMed

    Plowright, Raina K; Eby, Peggy; Hudson, Peter J; Smith, Ina L; Westcott, David; Bryden, Wayne L; Middleton, Deborah; Reid, Peter A; McFarlane, Rosemary A; Martin, Gerardo; Tabor, Gary M; Skerratt, Lee F; Anderson, Dale L; Crameri, Gary; Quammen, David; Jordan, David; Freeman, Paul; Wang, Lin-Fa; Epstein, Jonathan H; Marsh, Glenn A; Kung, Nina Y; McCallum, Hamish

    2015-01-07

    Viruses that originate in bats may be the most notorious emerging zoonoses that spill over from wildlife into domestic animals and humans. Understanding how these infections filter through ecological systems to cause disease in humans is of profound importance to public health. Transmission of viruses from bats to humans requires a hierarchy of enabling conditions that connect the distribution of reservoir hosts, viral infection within these hosts, and exposure and susceptibility of recipient hosts. For many emerging bat viruses, spillover also requires viral shedding from bats, and survival of the virus in the environment. Focusing on Hendra virus, but also addressing Nipah virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and coronaviruses, we delineate this cross-species spillover dynamic from the within-host processes that drive virus excretion to land-use changes that increase interaction among species. We describe how land-use changes may affect co-occurrence and contact between bats and recipient hosts. Two hypotheses may explain temporal and spatial pulses of virus shedding in bat populations: episodic shedding from persistently infected bats or transient epidemics that occur as virus is transmitted among bat populations. Management of livestock also may affect the probability of exposure and disease. Interventions to decrease the probability of virus spillover can be implemented at multiple levels from targeting the reservoir host to managing recipient host exposure and susceptibility.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Lleida Bat Lyssavirus

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Denise A.; Ellis, Richard J.; Wise, Emma L.; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Freuling, Conrad M.; Banyard, Ashley C.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Müller, Thomas; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT All lyssaviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) cause the disease rabies, an acute progressive encephalitis for which, once symptoms occur, there is no effective cure. Using next-generation sequencing, the full-genome sequence for a novel lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus (LLEBV), from the original brain of a common bent-winged bat has been confirmed. PMID:28082487

  14. Halloween Treat: Bat Facts and Folklore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, Thomas H.

    1984-01-01

    Information on bats is provided, focusing on their diversity and distribution, characteristics, food habits, activities, roosting and social habits, reproduction, number of young and size at birth, hibernation, mortality and longevity, and movements and navigation. Additional information related to public health/disease concerns and bat management…

  15. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn.

    PubMed

    Maine, Josiah J; Boyles, Justin G

    2015-10-06

    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity.

  16. New insights into the evolution of the Trypanosoma cruzi clade provided by a new trypanosome species tightly linked to Neotropical Pteronotus bats and related to an Australian lineage of trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Lima, Luciana; Espinosa-Álvarez, Oneida; Pinto, C Miguel; Cavazzana, Manzelio; Pavan, Ana Carolina; Carranza, Julio C; Lim, Burton K; Campaner, Marta; Takata, Carmen S A; Camargo, Erney P; Hamilton, Patrick B; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2015-12-23

    Bat trypanosomes are implicated in the evolution of the T. cruzi clade, which harbours most African, European and American trypanosomes from bats and other trypanosomes from African, Australian and American terrestrial mammals, including T. cruzi and T. rangeli, the agents of the American human trypanosomiasis. The diversity of bat trypanosomes globally is still poorly understood, and the common ancestor, geographical origin, and evolution of species within the T. cruzi clade remain largely unresolved. Trypanosome sequences were obtained from cultured parasites and from museum archived liver/blood samples of bats captured from Guatemala (Central America) to the Brazilian Atlantic Coast. Phylogenies were inferred using Small Subunit (SSU) rRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH), and Spliced Leader (SL) RNA genes. Here, we described Trypanosoma wauwau n. sp. from Pteronotus bats (Mormoopidae) placed in the T. cruzi clade, then supporting the bat-seeding hypothesis whereby the common ancestor of this clade likely was a bat trypanosome. T. wauwau was sister to the clade T. spp-Neobats from phyllostomid bats forming an assemblage of trypanosome species exclusively of Noctilionoidea Neotropical bats, which was sister to an Australian clade of trypanosomes from indigenous marsupials and rodents, which possibly evolved from a bat trypanosome. T. wauwau was found in 26.5% of the Pteronotus bats examined, and phylogeographical analysis evidenced the wide geographical range of this species. To date, this species was not detected in other bats, including those that were sympatric or shared shelters with Pteronotus. T. wauwau did not develop within mammalian cells, and was not infective to Balb/c mice or to triatomine vectors of T. cruzi and T. rangeli. Trypanosoma wauwau n. sp. was linked to Pteronotus bats. The positioning of the clade T. wauwau/T.spp-Neobats as the most basal Neotropical bat trypanosomes and closely related to an Australian lineage

  17. Bats and Rodents Shape Mammalian Retroviral Phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jie; Tachedjian, Gilda; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-11-09

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) represent past retroviral infections and accordingly can provide an ideal framework to infer virus-host interaction over their evolutionary history. In this study, we target high quality Pol sequences from 7,994 Class I and 8,119 Class II ERVs from 69 mammalian genomes and surprisingly find that retroviruses harbored by bats and rodents combined occupy the major phylogenetic diversity of both classes. By analyzing transmission patterns of 30 well-defined ERV clades, we corroborate the previously published observation that rodents are more competent as originators of mammalian retroviruses and reveal that bats are more capable of receiving retroviruses from non-bat mammalian origins. The powerful retroviral hosting ability of bats is further supported by a detailed analysis revealing that the novel bat gammaretrovirus, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum retrovirus, likely originated from tree shrews. Taken together, this study advances our understanding of host-shaped mammalian retroviral evolution in general.

  18. The sweet spot of a baseball bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    1998-09-01

    The sweet spot of a baseball bat, like that of a tennis racket, can be defined either in terms of a vibration node or a centre of percussion. In order to determine how each of the sweet spots influences the "feel" of the bat, measurements were made of the impact forces transmitted to the hands. Measurements of the bat velocity, and results for a freely suspended bat, were also obtained in order to assist in the interpretation of the force waveforms. The results show that both sweet spots contribute to the formation of a sweet spot zone where the impact forces on the hands are minimised. The free bat results are also of interest since they provided particularly elegant examples of wave excitation and propagation, suitable for a student demonstration or experiment.

  19. Poxviruses in Bats … so What?

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Kate S.; Murcia, Pablo R.

    2014-01-01

    Poxviruses are important pathogens of man and numerous domestic and wild animal species. Cross species (including zoonotic) poxvirus infections can have drastic consequences for the recipient host. Bats are a diverse order of mammals known to carry lethal viral zoonoses such as Rabies, Hendra, Nipah, and SARS. Consequent targeted research is revealing bats to be infected with a rich diversity of novel viruses. Poxviruses were recently identified in bats and the settings in which they were found were dramatically different. Here, we review the natural history of poxviruses in bats and highlight the relationship of the viruses to each other and their context in the Poxviridae family. In addition to considering the zoonotic potential of these viruses, we reflect on the broader implications of these findings. Specifically, the potential to explore and exploit this newfound relationship to study coevolution and cross species transmission together with fundamental aspects of poxvirus host tropism as well as bat virology and immunology. PMID:24704730

  20. Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Instrument Response

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Tueller, J.; Sato, G.; Takahashi, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Okada, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Suzuki, M.; Tashiro, M.

    2004-09-28

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts, and will also monitor the sky for transient hard x-ray sources. For BAT to provide spectral and photometric information for the gamma-ray bursts, the transient sources and the all-sky survey, the BAT instrument response must be determined to an increasingly greater accuracy. This paper describes the spectral models and the ground calibration experiments used to determine the BAT response to an accuracy suitable for gamma-ray burst studies.

  1. Bats and Rodents Shape Mammalian Retroviral Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jie; Tachedjian, Gilda; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) represent past retroviral infections and accordingly can provide an ideal framework to infer virus-host interaction over their evolutionary history. In this study, we target high quality Pol sequences from 7,994 Class I and 8,119 Class II ERVs from 69 mammalian genomes and surprisingly find that retroviruses harbored by bats and rodents combined occupy the major phylogenetic diversity of both classes. By analyzing transmission patterns of 30 well-defined ERV clades, we corroborate the previously published observation that rodents are more competent as originators of mammalian retroviruses and reveal that bats are more capable of receiving retroviruses from non-bat mammalian origins. The powerful retroviral hosting ability of bats is further supported by a detailed analysis revealing that the novel bat gammaretrovirus, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum retrovirus, likely originated from tree shrews. Taken together, this study advances our understanding of host-shaped mammalian retroviral evolution in general. PMID:26548564

  2. Seed rain generated by bats under Cerrado's pasture remnant trees in a Neotropical savanna.

    PubMed

    Ragusa-Netto, J; Santos, A A

    2015-11-01

    In this study we described the seed rain generated by bats under four Cerrado's tree species common within pastures, Buchenavia tomentosa, Couepia grandiflora, Licania humilis and Qualea grandiflora. We analyzed the similarity among the four tree species in terms of seed rain composition, and compared the number of seeds and seed species deposited under them. Besides that, we assessed the relationship between seed rain intensity and the density of each tree species. Then, we randomly selected 10 mature trees of each species to sample seed rain. We recorded a total of 4892 bat dispersed seeds from 11 species. Also, we observed that along the year seed deposition varied substantially under all trees. At least two seed sub-communities could be distinguished according to tree species used by bats as feeding roost. One related to Couepia grandiflora and Licania humilis, and the other to Buchenavia tomentosa and Qualea grandiflora trees. The variability of seed rain composition in any particular tree and the range of actual seed fall into a particular species indicate patchiness in seed rain, and the overall results appear to be consistent in terms of a substantial and diverse seed rain generated by bats in a highly anthropized landscape. This is the first study concerning seed dispersal by bats in modified Brazilian Cerrado, one of the most endangered biomes in the world. In this respect, by preserving a dense and diverse collection of remnant trees within today's pastures may, potentially, contribute to a faster Cerrado recovery in extensive areas that can be reclaimed for restoration in the future.

  3. Alphacoronaviruses Detected in French Bats Are Phylogeographically Linked to Coronaviruses of European Bats

    PubMed Central

    Goffard, Anne; Demanche, Christine; Arthur, Laurent; Pinçon, Claire; Michaux, Johan; Dubuisson, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Bats are a reservoir for a diverse range of viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs). To determine the presence of CoVs in French bats, fecal samples were collected between July and August of 2014 from four bat species in seven different locations around the city of Bourges in France. We present for the first time the presence of alpha-CoVs in French Pipistrellus pipistrellus bat species with an estimated prevalence of 4.2%. Based on the analysis of a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, phylogenetic analyses show that alpha-CoVs sequences detected in French bats are closely related to other European bat alpha-CoVs. Phylogeographic analyses of RdRp sequences show that several CoVs strains circulate in European bats: (i) old strains detected that have probably diverged a long time ago and are detected in different bat subspecies; (ii) strains detected in Myotis and Pipistrellus bat species that have more recently diverged. Our findings support previous observations describing the complexity of the detected CoVs in bats worldwide. PMID:26633467

  4. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321

  5. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-08-07

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes.

  6. Alphacoronaviruses Detected in French Bats Are Phylogeographically Linked to Coronaviruses of European Bats.

    PubMed

    Goffard, Anne; Demanche, Christine; Arthur, Laurent; Pinçon, Claire; Michaux, Johan; Dubuisson, Jean

    2015-12-02

    Bats are a reservoir for a diverse range of viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs). To determine the presence of CoVs in French bats, fecal samples were collected between July and August of 2014 from four bat species in seven different locations around the city of Bourges in France. We present for the first time the presence of alpha-CoVs in French Pipistrellus pipistrellus bat species with an estimated prevalence of 4.2%. Based on the analysis of a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, phylogenetic analyses show that alpha-CoVs sequences detected in French bats are closely related to other European bat alpha-CoVs. Phylogeographic analyses of RdRp sequences show that several CoVs strains circulate in European bats: (i) old strains detected that have probably diverged a long time ago and are detected in different bat subspecies; (ii) strains detected in Myotis and Pipistrellus bat species that have more recently diverged. Our findings support previous observations describing the complexity of the detected CoVs in bats worldwide.

  7. Understanding human - bat interactions in NSW, Australia: improving risk communication for prevention of Australian bat lyssavirus.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Emma K; Massey, Peter D; Cox-Witton, Keren; Paterson, Beverley J; Eastwood, Keith; Durrheim, David N

    2014-07-02

    Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infects a number of flying fox and insectivorous bats species in Australia. Human infection with ABLV is inevitably fatal unless prior vaccination and/or post-exposure treatment (PET) is given. Despite ongoing public health messaging about the risks associated with bat contact, surveillance data have revealed a four-fold increase in the number of people receiving PET for bat exposure in NSW between 2007 and 2011. Our study aimed to better understand these human - bat interactions in order to identify additional risk communication messages that could lower the risk of potential ABLV exposure. All people aged 18 years or over whom received PET for non-occupation related potential ABLV exposure in the Hunter New England Local Health District of Australia between July 2011 and July 2013 were considered eligible for the study. Eligible participants were invited to a telephone interview to explore the circumstances of their bat contact. Interviews were then transcribed and thematically analysed by two independent investigators. Of 21 eligible participants that were able to be contacted, 16 consented and participated in a telephone interview. Participants reported bats as being widespread in their environment but reported a general lack of awareness about ABLV, particularly the risk of disease from bat scratches. Participants who attempted to 'rescue' bats did so because of a deep concern for the bat's welfare. Participants reported a change in risk perception after the exposure event and provided suggestions for public health messages that could be used to raise awareness about ABLV. Reframing the current risk messages to account for the genuine concern of people for bat welfare may enhance the communication. The potential risk to the person and possible harm to the bat from an attempted 'rescue' should be promoted, along with contact details for animal rescue groups. The potential risk of ABLV from bat scratches merits greater emphasis.

  8. Prevalence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats in Peru.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Recuenco, Sergio; Gilbert, Amy Turmelle; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Gómez, Jorge; Rupprecht, Charles; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2012-09-01

    Bartonella infections were investigated in bats in the Amazon part of Peru. A total of 112 bats belonging to 19 species were surveyed. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 24.1% of the bats (27/112). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 100% per bat species. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA of the Bartonella isolates revealed 21 genetic variants clustering into 13 divergent phylogroups. Some Bartonella strains were shared by bats of multiple species, and bats of some species were infected with multiple Bartonella strains, showing no evident specific Bartonella sp.-bat relationships. Rarely found in other bat species, the Bartonella strains of phylogroups I and III discovered from the common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were more specific to the host bat species, suggesting some level of host specificity.

  9. 77 FR 316 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66065; File Nos. SR-BATS-2011-038; SR-BYX-2011-025; SR- BX-2011-068; SR-CBOE-2011...; SR-Phlx-2011-129] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; BATS Y- Exchange, Inc.; NASDAQ... Extraordinary Market Volatility December 28, 2011. I. Introduction On September 27, 2011, each of BATS...

  10. 76 FR 5418 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on January 14, 2011, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') the proposed rule change...

  11. Novel hantavirus identified in black-bearded tomb bats, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Wu, Jianmin; He, Biao; Qin, Shaomin; Xia, Lele; Qin, Minchao; Li, Nan; Tu, Changchun

    2015-04-01

    Hantaviruses cause life-threatening diseases in human worldwide. Rodents, insectivores and bats are known hantaviral reservoirs, but lack of complete genomic sequences of bat-borne hantaviruses impedes phylogenetic and evolutionary comparison with those of rodents and insectivores. Here, a novel bat-borne hantavirus, Laibin virus (LBV), has been identified in a black-bearded tomb bat in China. The complete genomic sequence shows that LBV is only distantly related to all previously known bat-borne hantaviruses.

  12. Dengue virus in Mexican bats

    PubMed Central

    AGUILAR-SETIÉN, Á.; ROMERO-ALMARAZ, M. L.; SÁNCHEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, C.; FIGUEROA, R.; JUÁREZ-PALMA, L. P.; GARCÍA-FLORES, M. M.; VÁZQUEZ-SALINAS, C.; SALAS-ROJAS, M.; HIDALGO-MARTÍNEZ, A. C.; PIERLÉ, S. AGUILAR; GARCÍA-ESTRADA, C.; RAMOS, C.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Individuals belonging to five families, 12 genera, and 19 different species of bats from dengue endemic areas in the Gulf and Pacific coasts of Mexico were examined by ELISA, RT–PCR, and for the presence of dengue virus (DV) NS1 protein. Nine individuals from four species were seropositive by ELISA: three insectivorous, Myotis nigricans (four positives/12 examined), Pteronotus parnellii (3/19), and Natalus stramineus (1/4), and one frugivorous Artibeus jamaicensis (1/35) (12·86% seroprevalence in positive species). DV serotype 2 was detected by RT–PCR in four samples from three species (all from the Gulf coast – rainy season): two frugivorous, A. jamaicensis (2/9), and Carollia brevicauda (1/2), and one insectivorous, M. nigricans (1/11). The latter was simultaneously positive for NS1 protein. DV RT–PCR positive animals were all antibody seronegative. M. nigricans showed positive individuals for all three tests. This is the first evidence suggesting the presence of DV in bats from Mexico. PMID:18325131

  13. Convergent evolution of anti-bat sounds.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Hristov, Nickolay I

    2014-09-01

    Bats and their insect prey rely on acoustic sensing in predator prey encounters--echolocation in bats, tympanic hearing in moths. Some insects also emit sounds for bat defense. Here, we describe a previously unknown sound-producing organ in Geometrid moths--a prothoracic tymbal in the orange beggar moth (Eubaphe unicolor) that generates bursts of ultrasonic clicks in response to tactile stimulation and playback of a bat echolocation attack sequence. Using scanning electron microscopy and high-speed videography, we demonstrate that E. unicolor and phylogenetically distant tiger moths have evolved serially homologous thoracic tymbal organs with fundamentally similar functional morphology, a striking example of convergent evolution. We compared E. unicolor clicks to that of five sympatric tiger moths and found that 9 of 13 E. unicolor clicking parameters were within the range of sympatric tiger moths. Remaining differences may result from the small size of the E. unicolor tymbal. Four of the five sympatric clicking tiger moth species were unpalatable to bats (0-20% eaten), whereas E. unicolor was palatable to bats (86% eaten). Based on these results, we hypothesize that E. unicolor evolved tymbal organs that mimic the sounds produced by toxic tiger moths when attacked by echolocating bats.

  14. Non-kin cooperation in bats

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Gerald G.; Bohn, Kirsten M.; Adams, Danielle M.

    2016-01-01

    Many bats are extremely social. In some cases, individuals remain together for years or even decades and engage in mutually beneficial behaviours among non-related individuals. Here, we summarize ways in which unrelated bats cooperate while roosting, foraging, feeding or caring for offspring. For each situation, we ask if cooperation involves an investment, and if so, what mechanisms might ensure a return. While some cooperative outcomes are likely a by-product of selfish behaviour as they are in many other vertebrates, we explain how cooperative investments can occur in several situations and are particularly evident in food sharing among common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and alloparental care by greater spear-nosed bats (Phyllostomus hastatus). Fieldwork and experiments on vampire bats indicate that sharing blood with non-kin expands the number of possible donors beyond kin and promotes reciprocal help by strengthening long-term social bonds. Similarly, more than 25 years of recapture data and field observations of greater spear-nosed bats reveal multiple cooperative investments occurring within stable groups of non-kin. These studies illustrate how bats can serve as models for understanding how cooperation is regulated in social vertebrates. PMID:26729934

  15. Deconstructing the Essential Elements of Bat Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafti, Danesh; Viswanath, Kamal; Krishnamurthy, Nagendra

    2013-11-01

    There are over 1000 bat species worldwide with a wide range of wing morphologies. Bat wing motion is characterized by an active adaptive three-dimensional highly deformable wing surface which is distinctive in its complex kinematics facilitated by the skeletal and skin membrane manipulation, large deviations from the stroke plane, and large wing cambers. In this study we use measured wing kinematics of a fruit bat in a straight line climbing path to study the fluid dynamics and the forces generated by the wing using an Immersed Boundary Method. This is followed by a proper orthogonal decomposition to investigate the dimensional complexity as well as the key kinematic modes used by the bat during a representative flapping cycle. It is shown that the complex wing motion of the fruit bat can mostly be broken down into canonical descriptors of wing motion such as translation, rotation, out of stroke deviation, and cambering, which the bat uses with great efficacy to generate lift and thrust. Research supported through a grant from the Army Research Office (ARO). Bat wing kinemtaics was provided by Dr. Kenny Breuer, Brown University.

  16. Lyssavirus-reactive antibodies in Swedish bats

    PubMed Central

    Hammarin, Anna-Lena; Berndtsson, Louise Treiberg; Falk, Kerstin; Nedinge, Marie; Olsson, Gert; Lundkvist, Åke

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To study the presence of European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) infections in bat reservoirs in Sweden, active surveillance was performed during the summers from 2008 to 2013. Material and methods Bat specimens were collected at >20 bat colonies in the central, southeastern, and southern parts of Sweden. In total, blood and saliva of 452 bats were examined by a virus neutralization test and by reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs). Results and discussion EBLV neutralizing antibodies were detected in 14 Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii), all trapped in Skåne or Småland (south and southeast of Sweden). The result was not unexpected since EBLV has been shown to be present in many neighboring countries, for example, Denmark, Finland, Germany, and Norway. However, Sweden has been regarded free of rabies in terrestrial mammals since 1896. Although very rare, spillover of EBLV into other animals and humans have occurred, and the risk of EBLV infection to other species including humans should not be ignored. This is the first report of lyssavirus infection in Swedish bats. PMID:27974131

  17. Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

    2007-01-01

    Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of ‘good design’ through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, laser scanning of habitat features and acoustic flight path tracking permit reconstruction of the flight paths of echolocating bats relative to obstacles and prey in nature. These methods show that echolocation calls are among the most intense airborne vocalizations produced by animals. Acoustic tracking has clarified how and why bats vary call structure in relation to flight speed. Bats using broadband echolocation calls adjust call design in a range-dependent manner so that nearby obstacles are localized accurately. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences show that particular types of echolocation signals have evolved independently in several lineages of bats. Call design is often influenced more by perceptual challenges imposed by the environment than by phylogeny, and provides excellent examples of convergent evolution. Now that whole genome sequences of bats are imminent, understanding the functional genomics of echolocation will become a major challenge. PMID:17251105

  18. Non-kin cooperation in bats.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Gerald S; Carter, Gerald G; Bohn, Kirsten M; Adams, Danielle M

    2016-02-05

    Many bats are extremely social. In some cases, individuals remain together for years or even decades and engage in mutually beneficial behaviours among non-related individuals. Here, we summarize ways in which unrelated bats cooperate while roosting, foraging, feeding or caring for offspring. For each situation, we ask if cooperation involves an investment, and if so, what mechanisms might ensure a return. While some cooperative outcomes are likely a by-product of selfish behaviour as they are in many other vertebrates, we explain how cooperative investments can occur in several situations and are particularly evident in food sharing among common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and alloparental care by greater spear-nosed bats (Phyllostomus hastatus). Fieldwork and experiments on vampire bats indicate that sharing blood with non-kin expands the number of possible donors beyond kin and promotes reciprocal help by strengthening long-term social bonds. Similarly, more than 25 years of recapture data and field observations of greater spear-nosed bats reveal multiple cooperative investments occurring within stable groups of non-kin. These studies illustrate how bats can serve as models for understanding how cooperation is regulated in social vertebrates.

  19. Bats: Important Reservoir Hosts of Emerging Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Calisher, Charles H.; Childs, James E.; Field, Hume E.; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Schountz, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Bats (order Chiroptera, suborders Megachiroptera [“flying foxes”] and Microchiroptera) are abundant, diverse, and geographically widespread. These mammals provide us with resources, but their importance is minimized and many of their populations and species are at risk, even threatened or endangered. Some of their characteristics (food choices, colonial or solitary nature, population structure, ability to fly, seasonal migration and daily movement patterns, torpor and hibernation, life span, roosting behaviors, ability to echolocate, virus susceptibility) make them exquisitely suitable hosts of viruses and other disease agents. Bats of certain species are well recognized as being capable of transmitting rabies virus, but recent observations of outbreaks and epidemics of newly recognized human and livestock diseases caused by viruses transmitted by various megachiropteran and microchiropteran bats have drawn attention anew to these remarkable mammals. This paper summarizes information regarding chiropteran characteristics and information regarding 66 viruses that have been isolated from bats. From these summaries, it is clear that we do not know enough about bat biology; we are doing too little in terms of bat conservation; and there remain a multitude of questions regarding the role of bats in disease emergence. PMID:16847084

  20. Hearing in American leaf-nosed bats. IV: The Common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus

    PubMed Central

    Heffner, Rickye S.; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E.

    2013-01-01

    We behaviorally determined the audiograms of three Common vampire bats (Phyllostomidae, Desmodus rotundus), a species specialized to exist exclusively on blood. The bats were trained to respond to pure tones in a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure for a blood reward and a mild punisher for failures to detect the tones. Common vampire bats have a hearing range from 716 Hz to 113 kHz at a level of 60 dB. Their best hearing is at 20 kHz where they are slightly more sensitive than other bats, and they have a second peak of good sensitivity at 71 kHz. They have unusually good sensitivity to low frequencies compared to other bats, but are less sensitive to low frequencies than most mammals. Selective pressures affecting high-frequency hearing in bats and mammals in general are discussed. PMID:23194991

  1. Unique characteristics of bat rabies viruses in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    PubMed

    Davis, April D; Gordy, Paul A; Bowen, Richard A

    2013-04-01

    Rabies virus infection has been documented in several North American bat species, including Eptesicus fuscus. The virus-host relationship between bats and rabies virus (RV) is not well understood. The incidence of non-lethal RV exposure, based on the presence of viral neutralizing antibodies, demonstrates that exposure to RV does not always lead to clinical infection in bats. It is unknown how the route of exposure, rabies virus variant, or health of the bat affects the outcome following exposure. This paper describes the pathogenesis of two big brown bat RV variants in homologous host species. Our study demonstrates that RV variants obtained from the same species of bat from similar geographical areas may result in a diverse clinical progression of disease.

  2. Hearing in American leaf-nosed bats. IV: the Common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Rickye S; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E

    2013-02-01

    We behaviorally determined the audiograms of three Common vampire bats (Phyllostomidae, Desmodus rotundus), a species specialized to exist exclusively on blood. The bats were trained to respond to pure tones in a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure for a blood reward and a mild punisher for failures to detect the tones. Common vampire bats have a hearing range from 716 Hz to 113 kHz at a level of 60 dB. Their best hearing is at 20 kHz where they are slightly more sensitive than other bats, and they have a second peak of good sensitivity at 71 kHz. They have unusually good sensitivity to low frequencies compared to other bats, but are less sensitive to low frequencies than most mammals. Selective pressures affecting high-frequency hearing in bats and mammals in general are discussed.

  3. Numerical analysis of maximal bat performance in baseball.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Rochelle L; Miller, Karol; Elliott, Bruce C

    2006-01-01

    Metal baseball bats have been experimentally demonstrated to produce higher ball exit velocity (BEV) than wooden bats. In the United States, all bats are subject to BEV tests using hitting machines that rotate the bat in a horizontal plane. In this paper, a model of bat-ball impact was developed based on 3-D translational and rotational kinematics of a swing performed by high-level players. The model was designed to simulate the maximal performance of specific models of a wooden bat and a metal bat when swung by a player, and included material properties and kinematics specific to each bat. Impact dynamics were quantified using the finite element method (ANSYS/LSDYNA, version 6.1). Maximum BEV from both a metal (61.5 m/s) and a wooden (50.9 m/s) bat exceeded the 43.1 m/s threshold by which bats are certified as appropriate for commercial sale. The lower BEV from the wooden bat was attributed to a lower pre-impact bat linear velocity, and a more oblique impact that resulted in a greater proportion of BEV being lost to lateral and vertical motion. The results demonstrate the importance of factoring bat linear velocity and spatial orientation into tests of maximal bat performance, and have implications for the design of metal baseball bats.

  4. European bat lyssaviruses: an emerging zoonosis.

    PubMed Central

    Fooks, A. R.; Brookes, S. M.; Johnson, N.; McElhinney, L. M.; Hutson, A. M.

    2003-01-01

    In Europe, two bat lyssaviruses referred to as European bat lyssaviruses (EBLVs) types 1 and 2 (genotypes 5 and 6 respectively) which are closely related to classical rabies virus are responsible for an emerging zoonosis. EBLVs are host restricted to bats, and have been known to infect not only their primary hosts but also in rare circumstances, induce spillover infections to terrestrial mammals including domestic livestock, wildlife and man. Although spillover infections have occurred, there has been no evidence that the virus adapted to a new host. Since 1977, four human deaths from EBLVs have been reported. None of them had a record of prophylactic rabies immunization. Only fragmentary data exist about the effectiveness of current vaccines in cross-protection against EBLVs. It is clear that EBLV in bats cannot be eliminated using conventional strategies similar to the control programmes based on vaccine baits used for fox rabies in Europe during the 1980s. Due to the protected status of bats in Europe, our knowledge of EBLV prevalence and epidemiology is limited. It is possible that EBLV is under-reported and that the recorded cases of EBLV represent only a small proportion of the actual number of infected bats. For this reason, any interaction between man and bats in Europe must be considered as a possible exposure. Human exposure through biting incidents, especially unprovoked attacks, should be treated immediately with rabies post-exposure treatment and the bat, where possible, retained for laboratory analysis. Preventative measures include educating all bat handlers of the risks posed by rabies-infected animals and advising them to be immunized. This review provides a brief history of EBLVs, their distribution in host species and the public health risks. PMID:14959767

  5. Ecological Factors Associated with European Bat Lyssavirus Seroprevalence in Spanish Bats

    PubMed Central

    Serra-Cobo, Jordi; López-Roig, Marc; Seguí, Magdalena; Sánchez, Luisa Pilar; Nadal, Jacint; Borrás, Miquel; Lavenir, Rachel; Bourhy, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in Europe. However, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. This study completes our active surveillance work on Spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. Herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. Between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,393 blood samples and 45 dead bats from 25 localities and 20 bat species. The results for dead confirmed the presence of EBLV-1 RNA in six species analyzed (for the first time in Myotis capaccinii). Samples positive for European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1)–neutralizing antibodies were detected in 68% of the localities sampled and in 13 bat species, seven of which were found for the first time (even in Myotis daubentonii, a species to date always linked to EBLV-2). EBLV-1 seroprevalence (20.7%) ranged between 11.1 and 40.2% among bat species and seasonal variation was observed, with significantly higher antibody prevalence in summer (July). EBLV-1 seroprevalence was significantly associated with colony size and species richness. Higher seroprevalence percentages were found in large multispecific colonies, suggesting that intra- and interspecific contacts are major risk factors for EBLV-1 transmission in bat colonies. Although bat-roosting behavior strongly determines EBLV-1 variability, we also found some evidence that bat phylogeny might be involved in bat-species seroprevalence. The results of this study highlight the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding EBLV-1–prevalence patterns in bat colonies and also provide useful information for public health officials. PMID:23700480

  6. Rabies virus infection in Eptesicus fuscus bats born in captivity (naïve bats).

    PubMed

    Davis, April D; Jarvis, Jodie A; Pouliott, Craig; Rudd, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The study of rabies virus infection in bats can be challenging due to quarantine requirements, husbandry concerns, genetic differences among animals, and lack of medical history. To date, all rabies virus (RABV) studies in bats have been performed in wild caught animals. Determining the RABV exposure history of a wild caught bat based on the presence or absence of viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA) may be misleading. Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of VNA following natural or experimental inoculation is often ephemeral. With this knowledge, it is difficult to determine if a seronegative, wild caught bat has been previously exposed to RABV. The influence of prior rabies exposure in healthy, wild caught bats is unknown. To investigate the pathogenesis of RABV infection in bats born in captivity (naïve bats), naïve bats were inoculated intramuscularly with one of two Eptesicus fuscus rabies virus variants, EfV1 or EfV2. To determine the host response to a heterologous RABV, a separate group of naïve bats were inoculated with a Lasionycteris noctivagans RABV (LnV1). Six months following the first inoculation, all bats were challenged with EfV2. Our results indicate that naïve bats may have some level of innate resistance to intramuscular RABV inoculation. Additionally, naïve bats inoculated with the LnV demonstrated the lowest clinical infection rate of all groups. However, primary inoculation with EfV1 or LnV did not appear to be protective against a challenge with the more pathogenic EfV2.

  7. Navigation: bat orientation using Earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Holland, Richard A; Thorup, Kasper; Vonhof, Maarten J; Cochran, William W; Wikelski, Martin

    2006-12-07

    Bats famously orientate at night by echolocation, but this works over only a short range, and little is known about how they navigate over longer distances. Here we show that the homing behaviour of Eptesicus fuscus, known as the big brown bat, can be altered by artificially shifting the Earth's magnetic field, indicating that these bats rely on a magnetic compass to return to their home roost. This finding adds to the impressive array of sensory abilities possessed by this animal for navigation in the dark.

  8. Lyssaviruses and Bats: Emergence and Zoonotic Threat

    PubMed Central

    Banyard, Ashley C.; Evans, Jennifer S.; Luo, Ting Rong; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    The continued detection of zoonotic viral infections in bats has led to the microbial fauna of these mammals being studied at a greater level than ever before. Whilst numerous pathogens have been discovered in bat species, infection with lyssaviruses is of particular significance from a zoonotic perspective as, where human infection has been reported, it is invariably fatal. Here we review the detection of lyssaviruses within different bat species and overview what is understood regarding their maintenance and transmission following both experimental and natural infection. We discuss the relevance of these pathogens as zoonotic agents and the threat of newly discovered viruses to human populations. PMID:25093425

  9. Lagos bat virus transmission in an Eidolon helvum bat colony, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Freuling, Conrad M; Binger, Tabea; Beer, Martin; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Schatz, Juliane; Fischer, Melina; Hanke, Dennis; Hoffmann, Bernd; Höper, Dirk; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Oppong, Samual K; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Thomas

    2015-12-02

    A brain sample of a straw-coloured fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) from Ghana without evident signs of disease tested positive by generic Lyssavirus RT-PCR and direct antigen staining. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of a Lagos bat virus belonging to phylogenetic lineage A. Virus neutralization tests using the isolate with sera from the same group of bats yielded neutralizing antibodies in 74% of 567 animals. No cross-neutralization was observed against a different Lagos bat virus (lineage B). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Parasites of parasites of bats: Laboulbeniales (Fungi: Ascomycota) on bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Haelewaters, Danny; Pfliegler, Walter P; Szentiványi, Tamara; Földvári, Mihály; Sándor, Attila D; Barti, Levente; Camacho, Jasmin J; Gort, Gerrit; Estók, Péter; Hiller, Thomas; Dick, Carl W; Pfister, Donald H

    2017-02-21

    Bat flies (Streblidae and Nycteribiidae) are among the most specialized families of the order Diptera. Members of these two related families have an obligate ectoparasitic lifestyle on bats, and they are known disease vectors for their hosts. However, bat flies have their own ectoparasites: fungi of the order Laboulbeniales. In Europe, members of the Nycteribiidae are parasitized by four species belonging to the genus Arthrorhynchus. We carried out a systematic survey of the distribution and fungus-bat fly associations of the genus in central Europe (Hungary, Romania). We encountered the bat fly Nycteribia pedicularia and the fungus Arthrorhynchus eucampsipodae as new country records for Hungary. The following bat-bat fly associations are for the first time reported: Nycteribia kolenatii on Miniopterus schreibersii, Myotis blythii, Myotis capaccinii and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum; Penicillidia conspicua on Myotis daubentonii; and Phthiridium biarticulatum on Myotis capaccinii. Laboulbeniales infections were found on 45 of 1,494 screened bat flies (3.0%). We report two fungal species: Arthrorhynchus eucampsipodae on Nycteribia schmidlii, and A. nycteribiae on N. schmidlii, Penicillidia conspicua, and P. dufourii. Penicillidia conspicua was infected with Laboulbeniales most frequently (25%, n = 152), followed by N. schmidlii (3.1%, n = 159) and P. dufourii (2.0%, n = 102). Laboulbeniales seem to prefer female bat fly hosts to males. We think this might be due to a combination of factors: female bat flies have a longer life span, while during pregnancy female bat flies are significantly larger than males and accumulate an excess of fat reserves. Finally, ribosomal DNA sequences for A. nycteribiae are presented. We screened ectoparasitic bat flies from Hungary and Romania for the presence of ectoparasitic Laboulbeniales fungi. Arthrorhynchus eucampsipodae and A. nycteribiae were found on three species of bat flies. This study extends geographical and host

  11. Calling louder and longer: how bats use biosonar under severe acoustic interference from other bats.

    PubMed

    Amichai, Eran; Blumrosen, Gaddi; Yovel, Yossi

    2015-12-22

    Active-sensing systems such as echolocation provide animals with distinct advantages in dark environments. For social animals, however, like many bat species, active sensing can present problems as well: when many individuals emit bio-sonar calls simultaneously, detecting and recognizing the faint echoes generated by one's own calls amid the general cacophony of the group becomes challenging. This problem is often termed 'jamming' and bats have been hypothesized to solve it by shifting the spectral content of their calls to decrease the overlap with the jamming signals. We tested bats' response in situations of extreme interference, mimicking a high density of bats. We played-back bat echolocation calls from multiple speakers, to jam flying Pipistrellus kuhlii bats, simulating a naturally occurring situation of many bats flying in proximity. We examined behavioural and echolocation parameters during search phase and target approach. Under severe interference, bats emitted calls of higher intensity and longer duration, and called more often. Slight spectral shifts were observed but they did not decrease the spectral overlap with jamming signals. We also found that pre-existing inter-individual spectral differences could allow self-call recognition. Results suggest that the bats' response aimed to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and not to avoid spectral overlap.

  12. Potential force of infection of human rabies transmitted by vampire bats in the Amazonian region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schneider, M C; Santos-Burgoa, C; Aron, J; Munoz, B; Ruiz-Velazco, S; Uieda, W

    1996-12-01

    Human rabies transmitted by bats has acquired greater epidemiologic relevance in various Latin American countries, just when cases transmitted by dogs have decreased. Concern has been heightened by reports of increased rates of bats biting humans in villages in the Amazonian region of Brazil. The aim of the present work was to estimate the potential force of infection (per capita rate at which susceptible individuals acquire infection) of human rabies transmitted by the common vampire bat if the rabies virus were to be introduced to a colony of bats close to a village with a high rate of human bites. The potential force of infection could be then used to anticipate the size of a rabies outbreak in control programs. We present an estimator of potential incidence, adapted from models for malaria. To obtain some of the parameters for the equation, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in Mina Nova, a village of gold prospectors in the Amazonian region of Brazil with high rates of bates biting humans. Bats were captured near dwellings and sent to The Rabies Diagnostic Laboratory at the Center for Control of Zoonoses (Sao Paulo, Brazil) to be examined. To estimate the force of infection, a hypothetical rabies outbreak among bats was simulated using the actual data obtained in the study area. Of 129 people interviewed, 23.33% had been attacked by a vampire bat during the year prior to the study, with an average of 2.8 bites per attacked person. Males (29.41%) were attacked more often than females (11.36%); also, adults (29.35%) were attacked more often than children (8.33%). None of the 12 bats captured in Mina Nova tested positive for rabies, but the force of infection for a hypothetical outbreak was estimated to be 0.0096 per person per year. This risk represents 0.96 cases per 100 area residents, giving an incidence of 1.54 cases of bat-transmitted human rabies per year in the village of Mina Nova (160 inhabitants). The estimated risk is comparable with what has been

  13. Bats as reservoirs of severe emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Han, Hui-Ju; Wen, Hong-ling; Zhou, Chuan-Min; Chen, Fang-Fang; Luo, Li-Mei; Liu, Jian-wei; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2015-07-02

    In recent years severe infectious diseases have been constantly emerging, causing panic in the world. Now we know that many of these terrible diseases are caused by viruses originated from bats (Table 1), such as Ebola virus, Marburg, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV). These viruses have co-evolved with bats due to bats' special social, biological and immunological features. Although bats are not in close contact with humans, spillover of viruses from bats to intermediate animal hosts, such as horses, pigs, civets, or non-human primates, is thought to be the most likely mode to cause human infection. Humans may also become infected with viruses through aerosol by intruding into bat roosting caves or via direct contact with bats, such as catching bats or been bitten by bats.

  14. Somatosensory Substrates of Flight Control in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Kara L.; Chadha, Mohit; deSouza, Laura A.; Sterbing-D’Angelo, Susanne J.; Moss, Cynthia F.; Lumpkin, Ellen A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Flight maneuvers require rapid sensory integration to generate adaptive motor output. Bats achieve remarkable agility with modified forelimbs that serve as airfoils while retaining capacity for object manipulation. Wing sensory inputs provide behaviorally relevant information to guide flight; however, components of wing sensory-motor circuits have not been analyzed. Here, we elucidate the organization of wing innervation in an insectivore, the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. We demonstrate that wing sensory innervation differs from other vertebrate forelimbs, revealing a peripheral basis for the atypical topographic organization reported for bat somatosensory nuclei. Furthermore, the wing is innervated by an unusual complement of sensory neurons poised to report airflow and touch. Finally, we report that cortical neurons encode tactile and airflow inputs with sparse activity patterns. Together, our findings identify neural substrates of somatosensation in the bat wing and imply that evolutionary pressures giving rise to mammalian flight led to unusual sensorimotor projections. PMID:25937277

  15. White-Nose Syndrome of bats

    Treesearch

    Jessie A. Glaeser; Martin J. Pfeiffer; Daniel L. Lindner

    2016-01-01

    Devastating. Catastrophic. Unprecedented. This is how white-nose syndrome of bats (WNS) is characterized. It is one of the deadliest wildlife diseases ever observed and could have significant impacts on outdoor recreation, agriculture and wildlife management.

  16. Bat echolocation calls facilitate social communication

    PubMed Central

    Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten; Nagy, Martina; Metz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living bats so far. We analysed echolocation calls of the polygynous bat Saccopteryx bilineata and found pronounced vocal signatures encoding sex and individual identity. We showed experimentally that free-living males discriminate approaching male and female conspecifics solely based on their echolocation calls. Males always produced aggressive vocalizations when hearing male echolocation calls and courtship vocalizations when hearing female echolocation calls; hence, they responded with complex social vocalizations in the appropriate social context. Our study demonstrates that social information encoded in bat echolocation calls plays a crucial and hitherto underestimated role for eavesdropping conspecifics and thus facilitates social communication in a highly mobile nocturnal mammal. PMID:23034703

  17. Site 300 Bat Monitoring Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Drennan, Joe; Tortosa, Justin

    2016-07-18

    From June 15 to 18, 2015, GANDA biologist Graham Neale assisted in programming and fieldtesting of the bat monitoring equipment. The equipment was deployed in the field on a meteorological (MET) tower within Site 300 on June 18, 2015.

  18. Investigating white-nose syndrome in bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    A devastating, emergent disease afflicting hibernating bats has pread from the northeast to the mid-Atlantic region of the United States at an alarming rate. Since the winter of 2006-2007, hundreds of thousands of insect-eating bats from at least nine states have died from this new disease, named White-Nose Syndrome (WNS). The disease is named for the white fungus often seen on the muzzles, ears, and wings of bats. This disease poses a threat to cave hibernating bats of the United States and potentially all temperate regions of the world. USGS scientists from the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT), in collaboration with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and others have linked a newly described, cold-loving fungus to WNS.

  19. RABIES SURVEILLANCE AMONG BATS IN TENNESSEE, USA, 1996-2010.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Amy T; McCracken, Gary F; Sheeler, Lorinda L; Muller, Lisa I; O'Rourke, Dorcas; Kelch, William J; New, John C

    2015-10-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) infects multiple bat species in the Americas, and enzootic foci perpetuate in bats principally via intraspecific transmission. In recent years, bats have been implicated in over 90% of human rabies cases in the US. In Tennessee, two human cases of rabies have occurred since 1960: one case in 1994 associated with a tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus) RABV variant and another in 2002 associated with the tricolored/silver-haired bat (P. subflavus/Lasionycteris noctivagans) RABV variant. From 1996 to 2010, 2,039 bats were submitted for rabies testing in Tennessee. Among 1,943 bats in satisfactory condition for testing and with a reported diagnostic result, 96% (1,870 of 1,943) were identified to species and 10% (196 of 1,943) were rabid. Big brown (Eptesicus fuscus), tricolored, and eastern red (Lasiurus borealis) bats comprised 77% of testable bat submissions and 84% of rabid bats. For species with five or more submissions during 1996-2010, the highest proportion of rabid bats occurred in hoary (Lasiurus cinereus; 46%), unspecified Myotis spp. (22%), and eastern red (17%) bats. The best model to predict rabid bats included month of submission, exposure history of submission, species, and sex of bat.

  20. SonicBAT News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-17

    In the Kennedy Space Center's Press Site auditorium, Laura Henning, public information officer for the Canaveral National Seashore, speaks to members of the media at a news conference to discuss upcoming flight tests to study the effects of sonic booms. Kennedy is partnering with Armstrong, Langley and Space Florida for a program called SonicBAT for Sonic Booms in Atmospheric Turbulence. Starting in August, NASA F-18 jets will take off from the Shuttle Landing Facility and fly at supersonic speeds while agency researchers on the ground measure the effects of low-altitude turbulence on sonic booms. The study could lead to technology mitigating the annoying sonic booms making possible supersonic flights over populated areas.

  1. SonicBAT News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-17

    In the Kennedy Space Center's Press Site auditorium, Dale Ketcham chief of Strategic Alliances for Space Florida, speaks to members of the media at a news conference to discuss upcoming flight tests to study the effects of sonic booms. Kennedy is partnering with Armstrong, Langley and Space Florida for a program called SonicBAT for Sonic Booms in Atmospheric Turbulence. Starting in August, NASA F-18 jets will take off from the Shuttle Landing Facility and fly at supersonic speeds while agency researchers on the ground measure the effects of low-altitude turbulence on sonic booms. The study could lead to technology mitigating the annoying sonic booms making possible supersonic flights over populated areas.

  2. SonicBAT News Conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-17

    In the Kennedy Space Center's Press Site auditorium, Matthew Kamlet of NASA Communications at the Armstrong Flight Research Center in California, speaks to members of the media at a news conference to discuss upcoming flight tests to study the effects of sonic booms. Kennedy is partnering with Armstrong, Langley and Space Florida for a program called SonicBAT for Sonic Booms in Atmospheric Turbulence. Starting in August, NASA F-18 jets will take off from the Shuttle Landing Facility and fly at supersonic speeds while agency researchers on the ground measure the effects of low-altitude turbulence on sonic booms. The study could lead to technology mitigating the annoying sonic booms making possible supersonic flights over populated areas.

  3. SWIFT BAT Survey of AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tueller, J.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Barthelmy, S.; Cannizzo, J. K.; Gehrels, N.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Winter, L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We present the results1 of the analysis of the first 9 months of data of the Swift BAT survey of AGN in the 14-195 keV band. Using archival X-ray data or follow-up Swift XRT observations, we have identified 129 (103 AGN) of 130 objects detected at [b] > 15deg and with significance > 4.8-delta. One source remains unidentified. These same X-ray data have allowed measurement of the X-ray properties of the objects. We fit a power law to the logN - log S distribution, and find the slope to be 1.42+/-0.14. Characterizing the differential luminosity function data as a broken power law, we find a break luminosity logL*(ergs/s)= 43.85+/-0.26. We obtain a mean photon index 1.98 in the 14-195 keV band, with an rms spread of 0.27. Integration of our luminosity function gives a local volume density of AGN above 10(exp 41) erg/s of 2.4x10(exp -3) Mpc(sup -3), which is about 10% of the total luminous local galaxy density above M* = -19.75. We have obtained X-ray spectra from the literature and from Swift XRT follow-up observations. These show that the distribution of log nH is essentially flat from nH = 10(exp 20)/sq cm to 10(exp 24)/sq cm, with 50% of the objects having column densities of less than 10(exp 22)/sq cm. BAT Seyfert galaxies have a median redshift of 0.03, a maximum log luminosity of 45.1, and approximately half have log nH > 22.

  4. Bat guilds, a concept to classify the highly diverse foraging and echolocation behaviors of microchiropteran bats

    PubMed Central

    Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Throughout evolution the foraging and echolocation behaviors as well as the motor systems of bats have been adapted to the tasks they have to perform while searching and acquiring food. When bats exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way, they perform comparable tasks and thus share similar adaptations independent of their phylogeny. Species with similar adaptations are assigned to guilds or functional groups. Habitat type and foraging mode mainly determine the foraging tasks and thus the adaptations of bats. Therefore, we use habitat type and foraging mode to define seven guilds. The habitat types open, edge and narrow space are defined according to the bats' echolocation behavior in relation to the distance between bat and background or food item and background. Bats foraging in the aerial, trawling, flutter detecting, or active gleaning mode use only echolocation to acquire their food. When foraging in the passive gleaning mode bats do not use echolocation but rely on sensory cues from the food item to find it. Bat communities often comprise large numbers of species with a high diversity in foraging areas, foraging modes, and diets. The assignment of species living under similar constraints into guilds identifies patterns of community structure and helps to understand the factors that underlie the organization of highly diverse bat communities. Bat species from different guilds do not compete for food as they differ in their foraging behavior and in the environmental resources they use. However, sympatric living species belonging to the same guild often exploit the same class of resources. To avoid competition they should differ in their niche dimensions. The fine grain structure of bat communities below the rather coarse classification into guilds is determined by mechanisms that result in niche partitioning. PMID:23840190

  5. Auditory scene analysis by echolocation in bats.

    PubMed

    Moss, C F; Surlykke, A

    2001-10-01

    Echolocating bats transmit ultrasonic vocalizations and use information contained in the reflected sounds to analyze the auditory scene. Auditory scene analysis, a phenomenon that applies broadly to all hearing vertebrates, involves the grouping and segregation of sounds to perceptually organize information about auditory objects. The perceptual organization of sound is influenced by the spectral and temporal characteristics of acoustic signals. In the case of the echolocating bat, its active control over the timing, duration, intensity, and bandwidth of sonar transmissions directly impacts its perception of the auditory objects that comprise the scene. Here, data are presented from perceptual experiments, laboratory insect capture studies, and field recordings of sonar behavior of different bat species, to illustrate principles of importance to auditory scene analysis by echolocation in bats. In the perceptual experiments, FM bats (Eptesicus fuscus) learned to discriminate between systematic and random delay sequences in echo playback sets. The results of these experiments demonstrate that the FM bat can assemble information about echo delay changes over time, a requirement for the analysis of a dynamic auditory scene. Laboratory insect capture experiments examined the vocal production patterns of flying E. fuscus taking tethered insects in a large room. In each trial, the bats consistently produced echolocation signal groups with a relatively stable repetition rate (within 5%). Similar temporal patterning of sonar vocalizations was also observed in the field recordings from E. fuscus, thus suggesting the importance of temporal control of vocal production for perceptually guided behavior. It is hypothesized that a stable sonar signal production rate facilitates the perceptual organization of echoes arriving from objects at different directions and distances as the bat flies through a dynamic auditory scene. Field recordings of E. fuscus, Noctilio albiventris, N

  6. Two methods for recommending bat weights.

    PubMed

    Bahill, A T; Freitas, M M

    1995-01-01

    Baseball players swung very light and very heavy bats through our instrument and the speed of the bat was recorded. These data were used to make mathematical models for each person. Then these models were coupled with equations of physics for bat-ball collisions to compute the Ideal Bat Weight for each individual. However, these calculations required the use of a sophisticated instrument that is not conveniently available to most people. So, we tried to find items in our database that correlated with Ideal Bat Weight. However, because many cells in the database were empty, we could not use traditional statistical techniques or even neural networks. Therefore, three new methods were used to estimate the missing data: (i) a neural network was trained using subjects that had no empty cells, then that neural network was used to predict the missing data, (ii) the data patching facility of a commercial software package was used, and (iii) the empty cells were filled with random numbers. Then, using these fully populated databases, several simple models were derived for recommending bat weights.

  7. [Viruses and bats: rabies and Lyssavirus].

    PubMed

    Tordo, N; Marianneau, M Ph

    2009-01-01

    Recent emerging zoonoses (hemorrhagic fevers due to Ebola or Marburg virus, encephalitis due to Nipah virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome due to SRAS virus...) outline the potential of bats as vectors for transmission of infectious disease to humans. Such a potential is already known for rabies encephalitis since seven out of the eight genotypes of Lyssavirus are transmitted by bats. In addition, phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that Lyssavirus have evolved in chiropters before their emergence in carnivores. Nevertheless, carnivores remain the most critical vectors for public health, in particular dogs that are originating 55.000 rabies deaths per year, essentially in developing countries. Rabies control in carnivores by parenteral (dog) or oral (wild carnivores) vaccination is efficacious and campaigns start to be more widely applied. On the other hand, rabies control in bat still remains non realistic, particularly as the pathogenicity of bat Lyssavirus for bats is still under debate, suggesting that a "diplomatic relationship" between partners would have arisen from a long term cohabitation. While comparing the interactions that humans and bats establish with Lyssavirus, scientists try to understand the molecular basis ofpathogenicity in man, a indispensable prerequisite to identify antiviral targets in a perspective of therapy.

  8. Hawkmoths produce anti-bat ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jesse R.; Kawahara, Akito Y.

    2013-01-01

    Bats and moths have been engaged in aerial warfare for nearly 65 Myr. This arms race has produced a suite of counter-adaptations in moths, including bat-detecting ears. One set of defensive strategies involves the active production of sound; tiger moths' ultrasonic replies to bat attack have been shown to startle bats, warn the predators of bad taste and jam their biosonar. Here, we report that hawkmoths in the Choerocampina produce entirely ultrasonic sounds in response to tactile stimulation and the playback of biosonar attack sequences. Males do so by grating modified scraper scales on the outer surface of the genital valves against the inner margin of the last abdominal tergum. Preliminary data indicate that females also produce ultrasound to touch and playback of echolocation attack, but they do so with an entirely different mechanism. The anti-bat function of these sounds is unknown but might include startling, cross-family acoustic mimicry, warning of unprofitability or physical defence and/or jamming of echolocation. Hawkmoths present a novel and tractable system to study both the function and evolution of anti-bat defences. PMID:23825084

  9. Biological correlates of extinction risk in bats.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kate E; Purvis, Andy; Gittleman, John L

    2003-04-01

    We investigated patterns and processes of extinction and threat in bats using a multivariate phylogenetic comparative approach. Of nearly 1,000 species worldwide, 239 are considered threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and 12 are extinct. Small geographic ranges and low wing aspect ratios are independently found to predict extinction risk in bats, which explains 48% of the total variance in IUCN assessments of threat. The pattern and correlates of extinction risk in the two bat suborders are significantly different. A higher proportion (4%) of megachiropteran species have gone extinct in the last 500 years than microchiropteran bats (0.3%), and a higher proportion is currently at risk of extinction (Megachiroptera: 34%; Microchiroptera: 22%). While correlates of microchiropteran extinction risk are the same as in the order as a whole, megachiropteran extinction is correlated more with reproductive rate and less with wing morphology. Bat extinction risk is not randomly distributed phylogenetically: closely related species have more similar levels of threat than would be expected if extinction risk were random. Given the unbalanced nature of the evolutionary diversification of bats, it is probable that the amount of phylogenetic diversity lost if currently threatened taxa disappear may be greater than in other clades with numerically more threatened species.

  10. Swift/BAT Calibration and Spectral Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard NASA#s Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer is a large coded aperture gamma-ray telescope consisting of a 2.4 m (8#) x 1.2 m (4#) coded aperture mask supported 1 meter above a 5200 square cm area detector plane containing 32,768 individual 4 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm CZT detectors. The BAT is now completely assembled and integrated with the Swift spacecraft in anticipation of an October 2004 launch. Extensive ground calibration measurements using a variety of radioactive sources have resulted in a moderately high fidelity model for the BAT spectral and photometric response. This paper describes these ground calibration measurements as well as related computer simulations used to study the efficiency and individual detector properties of the BAT detector array. The creation of a single spectral response model representative of the fully integrated BAT posed an interesting challenge and is at the heart of the public analysis tool #batdrmgen# which computes a response matrix for any given sky position within the BAT FOV. This paper will describe the batdrmgen response generator tool and conclude with a description of the on-orbit calibration plans as well as plans for the future improvements needed to produce the more detailed spectral response model that is required for the construction of an all-sky hard x-ray survey.

  11. Swift/BAT Calibration and Spectral Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard NASA#s Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer is a large coded aperture gamma-ray telescope consisting of a 2.4 m (8#) x 1.2 m (4#) coded aperture mask supported 1 meter above a 5200 square cm area detector plane containing 32,768 individual 4 mm x 4 mm x 2 mm CZT detectors. The BAT is now completely assembled and integrated with the Swift spacecraft in anticipation of an October 2004 launch. Extensive ground calibration measurements using a variety of radioactive sources have resulted in a moderately high fidelity model for the BAT spectral and photometric response. This paper describes these ground calibration measurements as well as related computer simulations used to study the efficiency and individual detector properties of the BAT detector array. The creation of a single spectral response model representative of the fully integrated BAT posed an interesting challenge and is at the heart of the public analysis tool #batdrmgen# which computes a response matrix for any given sky position within the BAT FOV. This paper will describe the batdrmgen response generator tool and conclude with a description of the on-orbit calibration plans as well as plans for the future improvements needed to produce the more detailed spectral response model that is required for the construction of an all-sky hard x-ray survey.

  12. Warm-up with weighted bat and adjustment of upper limb muscle activity in bat swinging under movement correction conditions.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yoichi; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Nakamoto, Hiroki

    2014-02-01

    The effects of weighted bat warm-up on adjustment of upper limb muscle activity were investigated during baseball bat swinging under dynamic conditions that require a spatial and temporal adjustment of the swinging to hit a moving target. Seven male college baseball players participated in this study. Using a batting simulator, the task was to swing the standard bat coincident with the arrival timing and position of a moving target after three warm-up swings using a standard or weighted bat. There was no significant effect of weighted bat warm-up on muscle activity before impact associated with temporal or spatial movement corrections. However, lower inhibition of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle activity was observed in a velocity-changed condition in the weighted bat warm-up, as compared to a standard bat warm-up. It is suggested that weighted bat warm-up decreases the adjustment ability associated with inhibition of muscle activation under movement correction conditions.

  13. Nectar bat stows huge tongue in its rib cage.

    PubMed

    Muchhala, Nathan

    2006-12-07

    Bats of the subfamily Glossophaginae (family Phyllostomidae) are arguably the most specialized of mammalian nectarivores, and hundreds of neotropical plants rely on them for pollination. But flowers pollinated by bats are not known to specialize for bat subgroups (unlike flowers that have adapted to the length and curvature of hummingbird bills, for example), possibly because the mouthparts of bats do not vary much compared with the bills of birds or the probosces of insects. Here I report a spectacular exception: a recently-described nectar bat that can extend its tongue twice as far as those of related bats and is the sole pollinator of a plant with corolla tubes of matching length.

  14. Genetic characterization and geographic distribution of rabies virus isolates in Brazil: identification of two reservoirs, dogs and vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Ito, M; Arai, Y T; Itou, T; Sakai, T; Ito, F H; Takasaki, T; Kurane, I

    2001-06-05

    We analyzed 50 rabies virus samples isolated in Brazil from 12 dogs, 11 cats, 5 vampire bats, 15 cattle, 2 horses, 1 pig, 1 sheep, and 3 humans to investigate the molecular epidemiology of rabies viruses. We sequenced 203 nucleotides on the nucleoprotein gene by direct sequencing of the PCR-amplified products. All the isolates belonged to the genotype 1 and homology of the 203 nucleotides was at least 83.7% among isolates. The main reservoirs were estimated based on the homology of nucleotide sequences. Brazilian rabies virus isolates were clustered into two reservoir groups: dogs and vampire bats. All the dog-related rabies virus isolates showed nucleotide homology greater than 99.0%. Vampire bat-related rabies virus isolates showed nucleotide homology greater than 96.6% and could be further divided into subgroups corresponding to areas where viruses were isolated. These data suggest that circulating rabies variants belong to at least two different genotype clusters in Brazil and that these two clusters are maintained independently among vampire bats and dogs.

  15. Indiana bats, northern long-eared bats, and prescribed fire in the Appalachians: challenges and considerations.

    Treesearch

    Susan Loeb; Joy O' Keefe

    2014-01-01

    The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalist) is an endangered species and the northern long-eared bat (M. septentrionalis) has been proposed for listing as endangered. Both species are found throughout the Appalachians, and they commonly inhabit fire-dependent ecosystems such as pine and pine-oak forests. Due to their legal status, prescribed burns in areas where these species...

  16. Quantitative comparison of tree roosts used by red bats (Lasiurus borealis) and Semindle bats (L. seminolus)

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Menzel; Timothy C. Carter; Brian R. Chapman; Joshua Laerm

    1998-01-01

    We radio-tracked 11 red bats and 5 Seminole bats (L. seminolus) to 64 and 34 day roosts, respectively. Individuals of both species were found roosting within the canopy of the roost trees, clinging to leaf petioles or the tips of small branches (

  17. Phylogeny of European Bat Lyssavirus 1 in Eptesicus isabellinus Bats, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Juste, Javier; Ibáñez, Carlos; Berciano, José M.; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the epidemiology of European bat lyssavirus 1 (EBLV-1) in Europe, we phylogenetically characterized Lyssavirus from Eptesicus isabellinus bats in Spain. An independent cluster of EBLV-1 possibly resulted from geographic isolation and association with a different reservoir from other European strains. EBLV-1 phylogeny is complex and probably associated with host evolutionary history. PMID:21392449

  18. Effect of warm-up with different weighted bats on normal baseball bat velocity.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Brian S; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Zinder, Steven M

    2009-08-01

    Traditionally, baseball players have used a heavy bat for warm-up before competition. Because bat velocity is an essential component to hitting a baseball, and because players warm up differently, there is a need to investigate the best way to maximize post warm-up bat velocity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of warm-up with different weighted bats on normal baseball bat velocity. Nineteen recreational male baseball players (age, 24.5 +/- 3.9 years; height, 181.1 +/- 8.4 cm; body mass, 87.9 +/- 18.4 kg) participated in this study. Three different randomized warm-up conditions were completed and analyzed for velocity and for their effect on post warm-up normal baseball bat velocity. Subjects were instructed to perform 5 maximal swings with each of 3 different weighted bats-light (LB = 9.6 oz), normal (NB = 31.5 oz), and heavy (HB = 55.2 oz)-followed by 30-second rest and then 5 swings of the NB. Analysis of variance revealed that warm-up velocity of the LB (63.57 +/- 3.58 mph) was significantly (p < 0.05) faster than that of NB (51.25 +/- 3.01 mph) and HB (41.79 +/- 3.01 mph), whereas warm-up velocity of NB was also significantly faster than that of HB. For post warm-up, LB (52.29 +/- 2.68 mph) and NB (50.60 +/- 3.04 mph) produced significantly faster velocity of the normal bat than the HB (48.26 +/- 2.98 mph). Warming up with 5 swings of a light or normal bat appears to increase post warm-up velocity of the normal bat when compared with warming up with a heavy bat after a rest period of 30 seconds. Within the bat weight spectrum of this study, it is suggested that when preparing to hit, 5 warm-up swings with either a light or normal bat will allow a player to achieve the greatest velocity of their normal bat.

  19. Development of bat flight: morphologic and molecular evolution of bat wing digits.

    PubMed

    Sears, Karen E; Behringer, Richard R; Rasweiler, John J; Niswander, Lee A

    2006-04-25

    The earliest fossil bats resemble their modern counterparts in possessing greatly elongated digits to support the wing membrane, which is an anatomical hallmark of powered flight. To quantitatively confirm these similarities, we performed a morphometric analysis of wing bones from fossil and modern bats. We found that the lengths of the third, fourth, and fifth digits (the primary supportive elements of the wing) have remained constant relative to body size over the last 50 million years. This absence of transitional forms in the fossil record led us to look elsewhere to understand bat wing evolution. Investigating embryonic development, we found that the digits in bats (Carollia perspicillata) are initially similar in size to those of mice (Mus musculus) but that, subsequently, bat digits greatly lengthen. The developmental timing of the change in wing digit length points to a change in longitudinal cartilage growth, a process that depends on the relative proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes. We found that bat forelimb digits exhibit relatively high rates of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. We show that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) can stimulate cartilage proliferation and differentiation and increase digit length in the bat embryonic forelimb. Also, we show that Bmp2 expression and Bmp signaling are increased in bat forelimb embryonic digits relative to mouse or bat hind limb digits. Together, our results suggest that an up-regulation of the Bmp pathway is one of the major factors in the developmental elongation of bat forelimb digits, and it is potentially a key mechanism in their evolutionary elongation as well.

  20. Development of bat flight: Morphologic and molecular evolution of bat wing digits

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Karen E.; Behringer, Richard R.; Rasweiler, John J.; Niswander, Lee A.

    2006-01-01

    The earliest fossil bats resemble their modern counterparts in possessing greatly elongated digits to support the wing membrane, which is an anatomical hallmark of powered flight. To quantitatively confirm these similarities, we performed a morphometric analysis of wing bones from fossil and modern bats. We found that the lengths of the third, fourth, and fifth digits (the primary supportive elements of the wing) have remained constant relative to body size over the last 50 million years. This absence of transitional forms in the fossil record led us to look elsewhere to understand bat wing evolution. Investigating embryonic development, we found that the digits in bats (Carollia perspicillata) are initially similar in size to those of mice (Mus musculus) but that, subsequently, bat digits greatly lengthen. The developmental timing of the change in wing digit length points to a change in longitudinal cartilage growth, a process that depends on the relative proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes. We found that bat forelimb digits exhibit relatively high rates of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. We show that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) can stimulate cartilage proliferation and differentiation and increase digit length in the bat embryonic forelimb. Also, we show that Bmp2 expression and Bmp signaling are increased in bat forelimb embryonic digits relative to mouse or bat hind limb digits. Together, our results suggest that an up-regulation of the Bmp pathway is one of the major factors in the developmental elongation of bat forelimb digits, and it is potentially a key mechanism in their evolutionary elongation as well. PMID:16618938

  1. Bats in the Classroom: A Conceptual Guide for Biology Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, W. T.; Lewis, Norma G.

    2002-01-01

    Explains how to use bats to introduce different biological concepts such as classification and phylogeny, altruistic behavior, flight, coevolution, or physiological adaptations. Discusses common myths regarding bats and provides information on additional classroom materials. (YDS)

  2. Isolation of genetically diverse Marburg viruses from Egyptian fruit bats.

    PubMed

    Towner, Jonathan S; Amman, Brian R; Sealy, Tara K; Carroll, Serena A Reeder; Comer, James A; Kemp, Alan; Swanepoel, Robert; Paddock, Christopher D; Balinandi, Stephen; Khristova, Marina L; Formenty, Pierre B H; Albarino, Cesar G; Miller, David M; Reed, Zachary D; Kayiwa, John T; Mills, James N; Cannon, Deborah L; Greer, Patricia W; Byaruhanga, Emmanuel; Farnon, Eileen C; Atimnedi, Patrick; Okware, Samuel; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W; Zaki, Sherif R; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E

    2009-07-01

    In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1%) bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. The bat colony was estimated to be over 100,000 animals using mark and re-capture methods, predicting the presence of over 5,000 virus-infected bats. The genetically diverse virus genome sequences from bats and miners closely matched. These data indicate common Egyptian fruit bats can represent a major natural reservoir and source of Marburg virus with potential for spillover into humans.

  3. Bats in the Classroom: A Conceptual Guide for Biology Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, W. T.; Lewis, Norma G.

    2002-01-01

    Explains how to use bats to introduce different biological concepts such as classification and phylogeny, altruistic behavior, flight, coevolution, or physiological adaptations. Discusses common myths regarding bats and provides information on additional classroom materials. (YDS)

  4. Detection of group 1 coronaviruses in bats in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dominguez, S.R.; O'Shea, T.J.; Oko, L.M.; Holmes, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was caused by a newly emerged coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Bats of several species in southern People's Republic of China harbor SARS-like CoVs and may be reservoir hosts for them. To determine whether bats in North America also harbor coronaviruses, we used reverse transcription-PCR to detect coronavirus RNA in bats. We found coronavirus RNA in 6 of 28 fecal specimens from bats of 2 of 7 species tested. The prevalence of viral RNA shedding was high: 17% in Eptesicus fuscus and 50% in Myotis occultus. Sequence analysis of a 440-bp amplicon in gene 1b showed that these Rocky Mountain bat coronaviruses formed 3 clusters in phylogenetic group 1 that were distinct from group 1 coronaviruses of Asian bats. Because of the potential for bat coronaviruses to cause disease in humans and animals, further surveillance and characterization of bat coronaviruses in North America are needed.

  5. Antioxidant Defenses in the Brains of Bats during Hibernation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qiuyuan; Ge, Hanxiao; Liao, Chen-Chong; Liu, Di; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation is a strategy used by some mammals to survive a cold winter. Small hibernating mammals, such as squirrels and hamsters, use species- and tissue-specific antioxidant defenses to cope with oxidative insults during hibernation. Little is known about antioxidant responses and their regulatory mechanisms in hibernating bats. We found that the total level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the brain of each of the two distantly related hibernating bats M. ricketti and R. ferrumequinum at arousal was lower than that at torpid or active state. We also found that the levels of malondialdehyde (product of lipid peroxidation) of the two hibernating species of bats were significantly lower than those of non-hibernating bats R. leschenaultia and C. sphinx. This observation suggests that bats maintain a basal level of ROS/RNS that does no harm to the brain during hibernation. Results of Western blotting showed that hibernating bats expressed higher amounts of antioxidant proteins than non-hibernating bats and that M. ricketti bats upregulated the expression of some enzymes to overcome oxidative stresses, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase. In contrast, R. ferrumequinum bats maintained a relatively high level of superoxide dismutase 2, glutathione reductase, and thioredoxin-2 throughout the three different states of hibernation cycles. The levels of glutathione (GSH) were higher in M. ricketti bats than in R. ferrumequinum bats and were significantly elevated in R. ferrumequinum bats after torpor. These data suggest that M. ricketti bats use mainly antioxidant enzymes and R. ferrumequinum bats rely on both enzymes and low molecular weight antioxidants (e.g., glutathione) to avoid oxidative stresses during arousal. Furthermore, Nrf2 and FOXOs play major roles in the regulation of antioxidant defenses in the brains of bats during hibernation. Our study revealed strategies used by bats against oxidative

  6. Antioxidant Defenses in the Brains of Bats during Hibernation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Qiuyuan; Ge, Hanxiao; Liao, Chen-Chong; Liu, Di; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation is a strategy used by some mammals to survive a cold winter. Small hibernating mammals, such as squirrels and hamsters, use species- and tissue-specific antioxidant defenses to cope with oxidative insults during hibernation. Little is known about antioxidant responses and their regulatory mechanisms in hibernating bats. We found that the total level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the brain of each of the two distantly related hibernating bats M. ricketti and R. ferrumequinum at arousal was lower than that at torpid or active state. We also found that the levels of malondialdehyde (product of lipid peroxidation) of the two hibernating species of bats were significantly lower than those of non-hibernating bats R. leschenaultia and C. sphinx. This observation suggests that bats maintain a basal level of ROS/RNS that does no harm to the brain during hibernation. Results of Western blotting showed that hibernating bats expressed higher amounts of antioxidant proteins than non-hibernating bats and that M. ricketti bats upregulated the expression of some enzymes to overcome oxidative stresses, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase. In contrast, R. ferrumequinum bats maintained a relatively high level of superoxide dismutase 2, glutathione reductase, and thioredoxin-2 throughout the three different states of hibernation cycles. The levels of glutathione (GSH) were higher in M. ricketti bats than in R. ferrumequinum bats and were significantly elevated in R. ferrumequinum bats after torpor. These data suggest that M. ricketti bats use mainly antioxidant enzymes and R. ferrumequinum bats rely on both enzymes and low molecular weight antioxidants (e.g., glutathione) to avoid oxidative stresses during arousal. Furthermore, Nrf2 and FOXOs play major roles in the regulation of antioxidant defenses in the brains of bats during hibernation. Our study revealed strategies used by bats against oxidative

  7. Phase sensitivity in bat sonar revisited.

    PubMed

    Schörnich, Sven; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    An echolocating bat produces echoes consisting of the convolution of echolocation call and the impulse response (IR) of the ensonified object. A crucial question in animal sonar is whether bats are able to extract this IR from the echo. The bat inner ear generates a frequency representation of call and echo and IR extraction in the frequency domain requires accurate analysis of both magnitude and phase information. Previous studies investigating the phase sensitivity of bats using a jitter paradigm reported a temporal acuity down to 10 ns, suggesting perfect sonar phase representation. In a phantom-target playback experiment, we investigate the perceptual phase sensitivity of the bat Phyllostomus discolor using a novel approach: instead of manipulating IR phase by changing IR delay (jitter paradigm), we randomized IR phase and thus lengthened the IR over time, leaving the magnitude spectrum unchanged. Our results show that phase sensitivity, as reflected in the analysis of signal duration, appears to be much lower than phase sensitivity, as reflected in the analysis of signal onset. The current data indicate that different temporal aspects of sonar processing are encoded with very different temporal resolution and thus an overall claim of "phase sensitivity" as such cannot be maintained.

  8. Sexually Selected Infanticide in a Polygynous Bat

    PubMed Central

    Knörnschild, Mirjam; Ueberschaer, Katja; Helbig, Maria; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adult individuals of many species kill unrelated conspecific infants for several adaptive reasons ranging from predation or resource competition to the prevention of misdirected parental care. Moreover, infanticide can increase the reproductive success of the aggressor by killing the offspring of competitors and thereafter mating with the victimized females. This sexually selected infanticide predominantly occurs in polygynous species, with convincing evidence for primates, carnivores, equids, and rodents. Evidence for bats was predicted but lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the first case, to our knowledge, of sexually selected infanticide in a bat, the polygynous white-throated round-eared bat, Lophostoma silvicolum. Behavioral studies in a free-living population revealed that an adult male repeatedly attacked and injured the pups of two females belonging to his harem, ultimately causing the death of one pup. The infanticidal male subsequently mated with the mother of the victimized pup and this copulation occurred earlier than any other in his harem. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that sexually selected infanticide is more widespread than previously thought, adding bats as a new taxon performing this strategy. Future work on other bats, especially polygynous species in the tropics, has great potential to investigate the selective pressures influencing the evolution of sexually selected infanticide and to study how infanticide impacts reproductive strategies and social structures of different species. PMID:21949829

  9. [Hematophagous bats as reservoirs of rabies].

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Iamamoto, Keila; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Mori, Enio; Estevez Garcia, Andrea Isabel; Achkar, Samira M; Fahl, Williande Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Rabies continues to be a challenge for public health authorities and a constraint to the livestock industry in Latin America. Wild and domestic canines and vampire bats are the main transmitter species and reservoirs of the disease. Currently, variations observed in the epidemiological profile of rabies, where the species of hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus constitutes the main transmitting species. Over the years, knowledge has accumulated about the ecology, biology and behavior of this species and the natural history of rabies, which should lead to continuous development of methods of population control of d. Rotundus as well as prevention and diagnostic tools for rabies. Ecological relationships of this species with other hematophagous and non-hematophagous bats is unknown, and there is much room for improvement in reporting systems and surveillance, as well as creating greater awareness among the farming community. Understanding the impact of human-induced environmental changes on the rabies virus in bats should be cause for further investigation. This will require a combination of field studies with mathematical models and new diagnostic tools. This review aims to present the most relevant issues on the role of hematophagous bats as reservoirs and transmitters of the rabies virus.

  10. A review of batting in men's cricket.

    PubMed

    Stretch, R A; Bartlett, R; Davids, K

    2000-12-01

    In this review, we critically evaluate the scientific research into the morphology and physiology of cricket batsmen. We consider all aspects of the motor control of this skill, in the context of research into dynamic interceptive actions, the biomechanics (kinematics and kinetics) of the various phases of batting strokes and injuries to batsmen. Some attention is also devoted to batting equipment and to psychological factors in batting. Because of the lack of published scientific research into women's cricket, this review focuses on the men's game and covers research on batsmen of various playing standards. For the future, we see as a high priority research into injury mechanisms, rather than simple injury statistics, and the role of cricket equipment design in injury prevention. A second priority is for multi- or inter-disciplinary research, linking the biomechanics of batting to the underlying motor control of the movements and the effect of environmental information. Biomechanical studies of the variability of the batsman's movements are needed, and these should be related to the compensatory variability proposal of ecological psychology. Clearly, there is also a need for scientific research into batting in women's cricket, which has been inadequately researched to date.

  11. Bats of Ouray National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellison, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is located in the northeast corner of Utah along the Green River and is part of the Upper Colorado River System and the Colorado Plateau. The Colorado Plateau is home to 19 species of bats, some of which are quite rare. Of those 19 species, a few have a more southern range and would not be expected to be found at Ouray NWR, but it is unknown what species occur at Ouray NWR or their relative abundance. The assumption is that Ouray NWR provides excellent habitat for bats, since the riparian habitat consists of a healthy population of cottonwoods with plenty of older, large trees and snags that would provide foraging and roosting habitat for bats. The more than 4,000 acres of wetland habitat, along with the associated insect population resulting from the wetland habitat, would provide ideal foraging habitat for bats. The overall objective of this project is to conduct a baseline inventory of bat species occurring on the refuge using mist nets and passive acoustic monitoring.

  12. The hearing gene Prestin reunites echolocating bats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Wang, Jinhong; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Jones, Gareth; Cotton, James A.; Zhang, Shuyi

    2008-01-01

    The remarkable high-frequency sensitivity and selectivity of the mammalian auditory system has been attributed to the evolution of mechanical amplification, in which sound waves are amplified by outer hair cells in the cochlea. This process is driven by the recently discovered protein prestin, encoded by the gene Prestin. Echolocating bats use ultrasound for orientation and hunting and possess the highest frequency hearing of all mammals. To test for the involvement of Prestin in the evolution of bat echolocation, we sequenced the coding region in echolocating and nonecholocating species. The resulting putative gene tree showed strong support for a monophyletic assemblage of echolocating species, conflicting with the species phylogeny in which echolocators are paraphyletic. We reject the possibilities that this conflict arises from either gene duplication and loss or relaxed selection in nonecholocating fruit bats. Instead, we hypothesize that the putative gene tree reflects convergence at stretches of functional importance. Convergence is supported by the recovery of the species tree from alignments of hydrophobic transmembrane domains, and the putative gene tree from the intra- and extracellular domains. We also found evidence that Prestin has undergone Darwinian selection associated with the evolution of specialized constant-frequency echolocation, which is characterized by sharp auditory tuning. Our study of a hearing gene in bats strongly implicates Prestin in the evolution of echolocation, and suggests independent evolution of high-frequency hearing in bats. These results highlight the potential problems of extracting phylogenetic signals from functional genes that may be prone to convergence. PMID:18776049

  13. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  14. Brazilian consensus on photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; Cunha, José Antônio Jabur da; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva dos; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection.

  15. Distinct Lineage of Vesiculovirus from Big Brown Bats, United States

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Cindy; Carlos, Maria Paz; Prioleau, Algernon; Schmieder, Robert; Dwivedi, Bhakti; Wong, Jakk; Cha, Yunhee; Head, Steven; Breitbart, Mya; Delwart, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We identified a novel rhabdovirus, American bat vesiculovirus, from postmortem tissue samples from 120 rabies-negative big brown bats with a history of human contact. Five percent of the tested bats were infected with this virus. The extent of zoonotic exposure and possible health effects in humans from this virus are unknown. PMID:24274823

  16. Grassland bats and land management in the Southwest

    Treesearch

    Alice L. Chung-MacCoubrey

    1996-01-01

    Of the bat research that has been conducted in the Southwestern states, few studies have addressed species inhabiting grasslands and the potential effects of management activities on these populations. Up to 17 bat species may be found regularly or occasionally in Southwestern grasslands or short-grass prairie. Main habitat requirements of grassland-dwelling bats are...

  17. Henipavirus infection in fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus), India.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jonathan H; Prakash, Vibhu; Smith, Craig S; Daszak, Peter; McLaughlin, Amanda B; Meehan, Greer; Field, Hume E; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2008-08-01

    We tested 41 bats for antibodies against Nipah and Hendra viruses to determine whether henipaviruses circulate in pteropid fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) in northern India. Twenty bats were seropositive for Nipah virus, which suggests circulation in this species, thereby extending the known distribution of henipaviruses in Asia westward by >1,000 km.

  18. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Uieda, W

    1998-10-01

    This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  19. A plan for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat)

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb; Thomas J. Rodhouse; Laura E. Ellison; Cori L. Lausen; Jonathan D. Reichard; Kathryn M. Irvine; Thomas E. Ingersoll; Jeremy T.H. Coleman; Wayne E. Thogmartin; John R. Sauer; Charles M. Francis; Mylea L. Bayless; Thomas R. Stanley; Douglas H. Johnson

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) is to create a continent-wide program to monitor bats at local to rangewide scales that will provide reliable data to promote effective conservation decisionmaking and the long-term viability of bat populations across the continent. This is an international, multiagency program. Four approaches will be...

  20. Potentially Zoonotic Bartonella in Bats from France and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, Matthew J.; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Cliquet, Florence; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Servat, Alexandre; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2017-01-01

    We detected Bartonella in 11 of 109 insectivorous bats from France and 1 of 26 bats from Spain. These genetic variants are closely related to bat-associated Bartonella described in Finland and the United Kingdom and to B. mayotimonensis, the agent of a human endocarditis case in the United States. PMID:28221109

  1. Kinetic-Link Patterns, Congenital Blindness and Batting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaggs, S. O.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study compared the batting swing of two skilled congenitally blind beep baseball players to a perfect kinetic-link model for the batting skill. It found that the subjects used a modified batting technique and that there was an inverse relationship between the subjects' performances and the kinetic-link model. (Author)

  2. Bat habitat use in White Mountain National Forest

    Treesearch

    Rachel A. Krusic; Mariko Yamasaki; Christopher D. Neefus; Peter J. Pekins

    1996-01-01

    In 1992 and 1993, we surveyed the foraging and feeding activity of bat species with broadband bat detectors at 2 foliage heights in 4 age classes of northern hardwood and spruce/fir forest stands in White Mountain National Forest, New Hampshire and Maine. The association of bat activity with trails and water bodies and the effect of elevation were measured. Mist nets,...

  3. Food resource partitioning inb syntopic nectarivorous bats on Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    We analyzed stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) to estimate the importance of plants and insects to the diet of two nectar-feeding bats on Puerto Rico, the brown flower bat (Erophylla bombifrons) and the Greater Antillean long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani). Concentrations of stable ...

  4. Bats of the Savannah River Site and vicinity

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Menzel; Jennifer M. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; Timothy C. Carter; John W. Edwards

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site supports a diverse bat community. Nine species occur there regularly, including the eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus), southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius), evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis), Rafinesque’s big-eared bat (Corynorhinus...

  5. Food resource partitioning inb syntopic nectarivorous bats on Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    We analyzed stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) to estimate the importance of plants and insects to the diet of two nectar-feeding bats on Puerto Rico, the brown flower bat (Erophylla bombifrons) and the Greater Antillean long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani). Concentrations of stable ...

  6. Resource selection by Indiana bats during the maternity season

    Treesearch

    Kathryn M. Womack; Sybill K. Amelon; Frank R. Thompson

    2013-01-01

    Little information exists on resource selection by foraging Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) during the maternity season. Existing studies are based on modest sample sizes because of the rarity of this endangered species and the difficulty of radio-tracking bats. Our objectives were to determine resource selection by foraging Indiana bats during the maternity season and...

  7. Experimental rabies virus infection of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    PubMed

    Jackson, Felix R; Turmelle, Amy S; Farino, David M; Franka, Richard; McCracken, Gary F; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2008-07-01

    A captive colony of adult Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus) was experimentally infected with a rabies virus (RABV) variant isolated from the salivary glands of a naturally infected Big Brown Bat and passaged once through murine neuroblastoma cell culture. Bats were divided into 11 groups, which were composed of one to three noninfected and one to three infected individuals each. Twenty of 38 animals were infected intramuscularly into both left and right masseter muscles; they received a total of 10(3.2) median mouse intracerebral lethal dose (MICLD50) of Big Brown Bat RABV variant. Experimental outcome after viral exposure was followed in the bats for 140 days postinoculation (PI). Of 20 infected bats, 16 developed clinical rabies, and the mean incubation period was 24 days (range: 13-52 days). Three infected bats never seroconverted and succumbed early to infection (13 days). Four infected bats that survived until the end of the experiment without any signs of disease maintained detectable antibody titers until the third month PI, peaking between days 13 and 43, and consequent drop-off below the threshold for detection occurred by day 140. Limited excretion of virus in saliva of infected bats during the clinical course of disease was observed in two individuals on days 13 and 15 PI (<24 hr prior to onset of clinical illness). No bat-to-bat transmission of RABV to noninfected bats was detected.

  8. Acute pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, David S.; Maluping, Ramón P.; Green, David E.; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Langenberg, Julia

    2014-01-01

    We report acute fatal pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Wisconsin, USA. Mortality of approximately 100 bats was documented over 4 wk, with no evidence for predatory injuries. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from multiple internal organs from four of five bats examined postmortem.

  9. Bats and zoonotic viruses: can we confidently link bats with emerging deadly viruses?

    PubMed

    Moratelli, Ricardo; Calisher, Charles H

    2015-02-01

    An increasingly asked question is 'can we confidently link bats with emerging viruses?'. No, or not yet, is the qualified answer based on the evidence available. Although more than 200 viruses - some of them deadly zoonotic viruses - have been isolated from or otherwise detected in bats, the supposed connections between bats, bat viruses and human diseases have been raised more on speculation than on evidence supporting their direct or indirect roles in the epidemiology of diseases (except for rabies). However, we are convinced that the evidence points in that direction and that at some point it will be proved that bats are competent hosts for at least a few zoonotic viruses. In this review, we cover aspects of bat biology, ecology and evolution that might be relevant in medical investigations and we provide a historical synthesis of some disease outbreaks causally linked to bats. We provide evolutionary-based hypotheses to tentatively explain the viral transmission route through mammalian intermediate hosts and to explain the geographic concentration of most outbreaks, but both are no more than speculations that still require formal assessment.

  10. Long-Term Survival of an Urban Fruit Bat Seropositive for Ebola and Lagos Bat Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hayman, David T. S.; Emmerich, Petra; Yu, Meng; Wang, Lin-Fa; Suu-Ire, Richard; Fooks, Anthony R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Wood, James L. N.

    2010-01-01

    Ebolaviruses (EBOV) (family Filoviridae) cause viral hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates when they spill over from their wildlife reservoir hosts with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Fruit bats may act as reservoirs of the Filoviridae. The migratory fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, is common across sub-Saharan Africa and lives in large colonies, often situated in cities. We screened sera from 262 E. helvum using indirect fluorescent tests for antibodies against EBOV subtype Zaire. We detected a seropositive bat from Accra, Ghana, and confirmed this using western blot analysis. The bat was also seropositive for Lagos bat virus, a Lyssavirus, by virus neutralization test. The bat was fitted with a radio transmitter and was last detected in Accra 13 months after release post-sampling, demonstrating long-term survival. Antibodies to filoviruses have not been previously demonstrated in E. helvum. Radio-telemetry data demonstrates long-term survival of an individual bat following exposure to viruses of families that can be highly pathogenic to other mammal species. Because E. helvum typically lives in large urban colonies and is a source of bushmeat in some regions, further studies should determine if this species forms a reservoir for EBOV from which spillover infections into the human population may occur. PMID:20694141

  11. Calling louder and longer: how bats use biosonar under severe acoustic interference from other bats

    PubMed Central

    Amichai, Eran; Blumrosen, Gaddi; Yovel, Yossi

    2015-01-01

    Active-sensing systems such as echolocation provide animals with distinct advantages in dark environments. For social animals, however, like many bat species, active sensing can present problems as well: when many individuals emit bio-sonar calls simultaneously, detecting and recognizing the faint echoes generated by one's own calls amid the general cacophony of the group becomes challenging. This problem is often termed ‘jamming’ and bats have been hypothesized to solve it by shifting the spectral content of their calls to decrease the overlap with the jamming signals. We tested bats’ response in situations of extreme interference, mimicking a high density of bats. We played-back bat echolocation calls from multiple speakers, to jam flying Pipistrellus kuhlii bats, simulating a naturally occurring situation of many bats flying in proximity. We examined behavioural and echolocation parameters during search phase and target approach. Under severe interference, bats emitted calls of higher intensity and longer duration, and called more often. Slight spectral shifts were observed but they did not decrease the spectral overlap with jamming signals. We also found that pre-existing inter-individual spectral differences could allow self-call recognition. Results suggest that the bats’ response aimed to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and not to avoid spectral overlap. PMID:26702045

  12. Bats and zoonotic viruses: can we confidently link bats with emerging deadly viruses?

    PubMed Central

    Moratelli, Ricardo; Calisher, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    An increasingly asked question is 'can we confidently link bats with emerging viruses?'. No, or not yet, is the qualified answer based on the evidence available. Although more than 200 viruses - some of them deadly zoonotic viruses - have been isolated from or otherwise detected in bats, the supposed connections between bats, bat viruses and human diseases have been raised more on speculation than on evidence supporting their direct or indirect roles in the epidemiology of diseases (except for rabies). However, we are convinced that the evidence points in that direction and that at some point it will be proved that bats are competent hosts for at least a few zoonotic viruses. In this review, we cover aspects of bat biology, ecology and evolution that might be relevant in medical investigations and we provide a historical synthesis of some disease outbreaks causally linked to bats. We provide evolutionary-based hypotheses to tentatively explain the viral transmission route through mammalian intermediate hosts and to explain the geographic concentration of most outbreaks, but both are no more than speculations that still require formal assessment. PMID:25742261

  13. Bats Increase the Number of Cultivable Airborne Fungi in the "Nietoperek" Bat Reserve in Western Poland.

    PubMed

    Kokurewicz, Tomasz; Ogórek, Rafał; Pusz, Wojciech; Matkowski, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    The "Nietoperek" bat reserve located in Western Poland is one of the largest bat hibernation sites in the European Union with nearly 38,000 bats from 12 species. Nietoperek is part of a built underground fortification system from WWII. The aims of the study were (1) to determine the fungal species composition and changes during hibernation season in relation to bat number and microclimatic conditions and (2) evaluate the potential threat of fungi for bat assemblages and humans visiting the complex. Airborne fungi were collected in the beginning, middle and end of hibernation period (9 November 2013 and 17 January and 15 March 2014) in 12 study sites, one outside and 11 inside the complex. Ambient temperature (T a) and relative humidity (RH) were measured by the use of data loggers, and species composition of bats was recorded from the study sites. The collision method (Air Ideal 3P) sampler was used to detect 34 species of airborne fungi including Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). The density of airborne fungi isolated from the outdoor air samples varied from 102 to 242 CFU/1 m(3) of air and from 12 to 1198 CFU in the underground air samples. There was a positive relationship between number of bats and the concentration of fungi. The concentration of airborne fungi increased with the increase of bats number. Analysis of other possible ways of spore transport to the underground indicated that the number of bats was the primary factor determining the number of fungal spores in that hibernation site. Microclimatic conditions where Pd was found (median 8.7 °C, min-max 6.1-9.9 °C and 100 %, min-max 77.5-100.0 %) were preferred by hibernating Myotis myotis and Myotis daubentonii; therefore, these species are most probably especially prone to infection by this fungi species. The spores of fungi found in the underground can be pathogenic for humans and animals, especially for immunocompromised persons, even though their concentrations did not exceed limits and

  14. When echolocating bats do not echolocate.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chen; Moss, Cynthia F

    2008-01-01

    Echolocating bats are known to continuously generate high frequency sonar pulses and listen to the reflecting echoes to localize objects and orient in the environment. However, silent behavior has been reported in a recent paper, which demonstrated that the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus) can fly a relative long distant (0.6 to 8 m) without echolocating when flying with another conspecific in a large flight room.1 Methodology and conclusion developed in this study have the potential for further experimental design to answer the question of how millions of bats navigate and orient in cohesive groups. In addition, the discovery of silent behavior suggests the possible use of cooperative sonar in echolocating animals.

  15. Scattering of a baseball by a bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod; Nathan, Alan M.

    2006-10-01

    A ball can be hit faster if it is projected without spin, but it can be hit farther if it is projected with backspin. Measurements of the tradeoff between the speed and spin for a baseball impacting a baseball bat are presented. The results are inconsistent with a collision model in which the ball rolls off the bat and instead imply tangential compliance in the ball, the bat, or both. If the results are extrapolated to the higher speeds that are typical of the game of baseball, they suggest that a curveball can be hit with greater backspin than a fastball, but by an amount that is less than would be the case in the absence of tangential compliance.

  16. Acoustic mirrors as sensory traps for bats.

    PubMed

    Greif, Stefan; Zsebők, Sándor; Schmieder, Daniela; Siemers, Björn M

    2017-09-08

    Sensory traps pose a considerable and often fatal risk for animals, leading them to misinterpret their environment. Bats predominantly rely on their echolocation system to forage, orientate, and navigate. We found that bats can mistake smooth, vertical surfaces as clear flight paths, repeatedly colliding with them, likely as a result of their acoustic mirror properties. The probability of collision is influenced by the number of echolocation calls and by the amount of time spent in front of the surface. The echolocation call analysis corroborates that bats perceive smooth, vertical surfaces as open flyways. Reporting on occurrences with different species in the wild, we argue that it is necessary to more closely monitor potentially dangerous locations with acoustic mirror properties (such as glass fronts) to assess the true frequency of fatalities around these sensory traps. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  17. Lift enhancement by bats' dynamically changing wingspan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shizhao; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei; Liu, Tianshu

    2015-01-01

    This paper elucidates the aerodynamic role of the dynamically changing wingspan in bat flight. Based on direct numerical simulations of the flow over a slow-flying bat, it is found that the dynamically changing wingspan can significantly enhance the lift. Further, an analysis of flow structures and lift decomposition reveal that the elevated vortex lift associated with the leading-edge vortices intensified by the dynamically changing wingspan considerably contributed to enhancement of the time-averaged lift. The nonlinear interaction between the dynamically changing wing and the vortical structures plays an important role in the lift enhancement of a flying bat in addition to the geometrical effect of changing the lifting-surface area in a flapping cycle. In addition, the dynamically changing wingspan leads to the higher efficiency in terms of generating lift for a given amount of the mechanical energy consumed in flight. PMID:26701882

  18. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, John

    2011-08-16

    The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species.

  19. Deciphering the bat virome catalog to better understand the ecological diversity of bat viruses and the bat origin of emerging infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Li; Ren, Xianwen; He, Guimei; Zhang, Junpeng; Yang, Jian; Qian, Zhaohui; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Zhu, Yafang; Du, Jiang; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Shuyi; Jin, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that ~60%–80% of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans originated from wild life. Bats are natural reservoirs of a large variety of viruses, including many important zoonotic viruses that cause severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. However, the understanding of the viral population and the ecological diversity residing in bat populations is unclear, which complicates the determination of the origins of certain EIDs. Here, using bats as a typical wildlife reservoir model, virome analysis was conducted based on pharyngeal and anal swab samples of 4440 bat individuals of 40 major bat species throughout China. The purpose of this study was to survey the ecological and biological diversities of viruses residing in these bat species, to investigate the presence of potential bat-borne zoonotic viruses and to evaluate the impacts of these viruses on public health. The data obtained in this study revealed an overview of the viral community present in these bat samples. Many novel bat viruses were reported for the first time and some bat viruses closely related to known human or animal pathogens were identified. This genetic evidence provides new clues in the search for the origin or evolution pattern of certain viruses, such as coronaviruses and noroviruses. These data offer meaningful ecological information for predicting and tracing wildlife-originated EIDs. PMID:26262818

  20. Deciphering the bat virome catalog to better understand the ecological diversity of bat viruses and the bat origin of emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Li; Ren, Xianwen; He, Guimei; Zhang, Junpeng; Yang, Jian; Qian, Zhaohui; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Zhu, Yafang; Du, Jiang; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Shuyi; Jin, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Studies have demonstrated that ~60%-80% of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans originated from wild life. Bats are natural reservoirs of a large variety of viruses, including many important zoonotic viruses that cause severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. However, the understanding of the viral population and the ecological diversity residing in bat populations is unclear, which complicates the determination of the origins of certain EIDs. Here, using bats as a typical wildlife reservoir model, virome analysis was conducted based on pharyngeal and anal swab samples of 4440 bat individuals of 40 major bat species throughout China. The purpose of this study was to survey the ecological and biological diversities of viruses residing in these bat species, to investigate the presence of potential bat-borne zoonotic viruses and to evaluate the impacts of these viruses on public health. The data obtained in this study revealed an overview of the viral community present in these bat samples. Many novel bat viruses were reported for the first time and some bat viruses closely related to known human or animal pathogens were identified. This genetic evidence provides new clues in the search for the origin or evolution pattern of certain viruses, such as coronaviruses and noroviruses. These data offer meaningful ecological information for predicting and tracing wildlife-originated EIDs.

  1. Kanyawara Virus: A Novel Rhabdovirus Infecting Newly Discovered Nycteribiid Bat Flies Infesting Previously Unknown Pteropodid Bats in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Tony L; Bennett, Andrew J; Kityo, Robert; Kuhn, Jens H; Chapman, Colin A

    2017-07-13

    Bats are natural reservoir hosts of highly virulent pathogens such as Marburg virus, Nipah virus, and SARS coronavirus. However, little is known about the role of bat ectoparasites in transmitting and maintaining such viruses. The intricate relationship between bats and their ectoparasites suggests that ectoparasites might serve as viral vectors, but evidence to date is scant. Bat flies, in particular, are highly specialized obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that incidentally bite humans. Using next-generation sequencing, we discovered a novel ledantevirus (mononegaviral family Rhabdoviridae, genus Ledantevirus) in nycteribiid bat flies infesting pteropodid bats in western Uganda. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that both the bat flies and their bat hosts belong to putative new species. The coding-complete genome of the new virus, named Kanyawara virus (KYAV), is only distantly related to that of its closest known relative, Mount Elgon bat virus, and was found at high titers in bat flies but not in blood or on mucosal surfaces of host bats. Viral genome analysis indicates unusually low CpG dinucleotide depletion in KYAV compared to other ledanteviruses and rhabdovirus groups, with KYAV displaying values similar to rhabdoviruses of arthropods. Our findings highlight the possibility of a yet-to-be-discovered diversity of potentially pathogenic viruses in bat ectoparasites.

  2. Bats Use Geomagnetic Field: Behavior and Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.; Tian, L.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, R.

    2015-12-01

    It has been known that numerous animals can use the Earth's magnetic field for spatial orientation and long-distance navigation, nevertheless, how animals can respond to the magnetic field remain mostly ambiguous. The intensities of the global geomagnetic field varies between 23 and 66 μT, and the geomagnetic field intensity could drop to 10% during geomagnetic polarity reversals or geomagnetic excursions. Such dramatic changes of the geomagnetic field may pose a significant challenge for the evolution of magnetic compass in animals. For examples, it is vital whether the magnetic compass can still work in such very weak magnetic fields. Our previous experiment has demonstrated that a migratory bat (Nyctalus plancyi) uses a polarity compass for orientation during roosting when exposed to an artificial magnetic field (100 μT). Recently, we experimentally tested whether the N. plancyi can sense very weak magnetic fields that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Results showed: 1) the bats can sense the magnetic north in a field strength of present-day local geomagnetic field (51μT); 2) As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (10 μT), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. Notably, as the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field with intensity range from twice to 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This allows them to orient themselves across the entire range of present-day global geomagnetic field strengths and sense very weak magnetic fields. We propose that this high sensitivity might have evolved in bats as the geomagnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years since the origin of bats. The physiological mechanisms underlying

  3. Target Images in the Sonar of Bats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    targets was regulated by controlling the delay of the echoes electronically. The bat was rewarded with a piece of a mealworm offered in forceps for each...and on the test-days each bat was run on a number of trials that was determined by its current body weight and the quantity of mealworms consumed...Naval Research in a series of meetings held in 1985 and 1986. We are grateful for having the opportunity to address them. 56 REFERENCES Altes, RA (1976

  4. The dynamical theory of the baseball bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zandt, L. L.

    1992-02-01

    A theory of the elastic behavior of an irregularly shaped, cylindrically symmetric object is developed and applied to the study of the familiar baseball bat. The normal mode, standing wave patterns of elastic vibrations are obtained and displayed graphically. The lowest 20 normal modes, extending in frequency up to about 3 kHz, are used to study and display the elastic response of the bat in the first few milliseconds after striking a ball. The contribution of the normal mode elastic vibrations to the hit ball speed is also developed, and the consequences for the batter (and fielders) are explored.

  5. XMM Observations of 'New' Swift BAT Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    Because the E> 15 keV band is unaffected by absorption this band offers the best hope of obtaining an unbiased sample of AGN. The Swift BAT survey has produced the first large sample of hard x-ray bright AGN in the local universe providing the data necessary to determine the true characteristics of the AGN population. However to use this data one needs to obtain the x-ray spectral properties of these objects.We will present the complete sample of x-ray spectra of the BAT objects and the implications of these data.

  6. XMM Observations of 'New' Swift BAT Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    Because the E> 15 keV band is unaffected by absorption this band offers the best hope of obtaining an unbiased sample of AGN. The Swift BAT survey has produced the first large sample of hard x-ray bright AGN in the local universe providing the data necessary to determine the true characteristics of the AGN population. However to use this data one needs to obtain the x-ray spectral properties of these objects.We will present the complete sample of x-ray spectra of the BAT objects and the implications of these data.

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 Aminotransferases Have Functionally Diverged from the Ancestral-Like Kluyveromyces lactis Orthologous Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Colón, Maritrini; Hernández, Fabiola; López, Karla; Quezada, Héctor; González, James; López, Geovani; Aranda, Cristina; González, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    Background Gene duplication is a key evolutionary mechanism providing material for the generation of genes with new or modified functions. The fate of duplicated gene copies has been amply discussed and several models have been put forward to account for duplicate conservation. The specialization model considers that duplication of a bifunctional ancestral gene could result in the preservation of both copies through subfunctionalization, resulting in the distribution of the two ancestral functions between the gene duplicates. Here we investigate whether the presumed bifunctional character displayed by the single branched chain amino acid aminotransferase present in K. lactis has been distributed in the two paralogous genes present in S. cerevisiae, and whether this conservation has impacted S. cerevisiae metabolism. Principal Findings Our results show that the KlBat1 orthologous BCAT is a bifunctional enzyme, which participates in the biosynthesis and catabolism of branched chain aminoacids (BCAAs). This dual role has been distributed in S. cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 paralogous proteins, supporting the specialization model posed to explain the evolution of gene duplications. BAT1 is highly expressed under biosynthetic conditions, while BAT2 expression is highest under catabolic conditions. Bat1 and Bat2 differential relocalization has favored their physiological function, since biosynthetic precursors are generated in the mitochondria (Bat1), while catabolic substrates are accumulated in the cytosol (Bat2). Under respiratory conditions, in the presence of ammonium and BCAAs the batbat2Δ double mutant shows impaired growth, indicating that Bat1 and Bat2 could play redundant roles. In K. lactis wild type growth is independent of BCAA degradation, since a Klbat1Δ mutant grows under this condition. Conclusions Our study shows that BAT1 and BAT2 differential expression and subcellular relocalization has resulted in the distribution of the biosynthetic and catabolic

  8. North American Bats and Mines Project: A cooperative approach for integrating bat conservation and mine-land reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Ducummon, S.L.

    1997-12-31

    Inactive underground mines now provide essential habitat for more than half of North America`s 44 bat species, including some of the largest remaining populations. Thousands of abandoned mines have already been closed or are slated for safety closures, and many are destroyed during renewed mining in historic districts. The available evidence suggests that millions of bats have already been lost due to these closures. Bats are primary predators of night-flying insects that cost American farmers and foresters billions of dollars annually, therefore, threats to bat survival are cause for serious concern. Fortunately, mine closure methods exist that protect both bats and humans. Bat Conservation International (BCI) and the USDI-Bureau of Land Management founded the North American Bats and Mines Project to provide national leadership and coordination to minimize the loss of mine-roosting bats. This partnership has involved federal and state mine-land and wildlife managers and the mining industry. BCI has trained hundreds of mine-land and wildlife managers nationwide in mine assessment techniques for bats and bat-compatible closure methods, published technical information on bats and mine-land management, presented papers on bats and mines at national mining and wildlife conferences, and collaborated with numerous federal, state, and private partners to protect some of the most important mine-roosting bat populations. Our new mining industry initiative, Mining for Habitat, is designed to develop bat habitat conservation and enhancement plans for active mining operations. It includes the creation of cost-effective artificial underground bat roosts using surplus mining materials such as old mine-truck tires and culverts buried beneath waste rock.

  9. Roosting ecology of the pallid bat, Antrozous pallidus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaughan, Terry A.; O'Shea, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    Daytime roosting behavior of pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) was studied in central Arizona. Bats were present in the area from March or April until November and roosted in cliffs in colonies generally including 20 or more individuals. Pallid bats were highly selective in their choice of roost sites and minimized diurnal energy output by adaptive hypothermia and behavioral thermo-regulation. In spring and autumn the bats roosted in vertical crevices responsive to changes in ambient temperatures. Here temperatures remained low and the bats were torpid for much of the day, but when the crevices became heated in the late afternoon the bats were passively warmed prior to emergence. Deep, horizontal crevices were preferred in summer; cliffs function as massive heat sinks, and in summer crevice temperatures remained moderate and relatively stable. Throughout most of the day both the deep parts of the crevices and the body temperatures of the bats remained close to 30ºC; at this body temperature pallid bats have unexpectedly low metabolic rates (Trune, 1974). By adjusting their positions and closeness to other bats in the thermal gradient within the crevice, bats dissipate heat early in the day, maintain a low metabolic rate through most of the fat and elevate the body temperature prior to emergence in the evening. Of vital important to pallid bats in the summer are social behaviors that promote communal roosting at "traditional" crevices.

  10. Isolation of fungi from bats of the Amazon basin.

    PubMed Central

    Mok, W Y; Luizão, R C; Barreto da Silva, M do S

    1982-01-01

    A total of 2,886 bats captured in the Amazon Basin of Brazil were processed for the isolation of fungi. From the livers, spleens, and lungs of 155 bats (5.4%), 186 fungal isolates of the genera Candida (123 isolates), Trichosporon (26 isolates), Torulopsis (25 isolates), Kluyveromyces (11 isolates), and Geotrichum (1 isolate) were recovered. Seven known pathogenic species were present: Candida parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. albicans, C. stellatoidea, C. pseudotropicalis, Trichosporon beigelii, and Torulopsis glabrata. Twenty-three culture-positive bats showed identical fungal colonization in multiple organs or mixed colonization in a single organ. The fungal isolation rates for individual bat species varied from 1 fungus per 87 bats to 3 fungi per 13 bats, and the mycoflora diversity for members of an individual fungus-bearing bat species varied from 16 fungi per 40 bats to 7 fungi per 6 bats. Of the 38 fungal species isolated, 36 had not been previously described as in vivo bat isolates. Of the 27 culture-positive bat species, 21 had not been previously described as mammalian hosts for medically or nonmedically important fungi. PMID:6890326

  11. Education to Action: Improving Public Perception of Bats

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmaster, Eric; Vonk, Jennifer; Mies, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Public perception of bats has historically been largely negative with bats often portrayed as carriers of disease. Bats are commonly associated with vampire lore and thus elicit largely fearful reactions despite the fact that they are a vital and valuable part of the ecosystem. Bats provide a variety of essential services from pest control to plant pollination. Despite the benefits of bats to the environment and the economy, bats are suffering at the hands of humans. They are victims of turbines, human encroachment, pesticides, and, most recently, white nose syndrome. Because of their critical importance to the environment, humans should do what they can to help protect bats. We propose that humans will be more likely to do so if their perceptions and attitudes toward bats can be significantly improved. In a preliminary study we found some support for the idea that people can be educated about bats through bat oriented events and exhibits, and that this greater knowledge can inspire humans to act to save bats. PMID:26784239

  12. Nonecholocating fruit bats produce biosonar clicks with their wings.

    PubMed

    Boonman, Arjan; Bumrungsri, Sara; Yovel, Yossi

    2014-12-15

    Because evolution mostly acts over millions of years, the intermediate steps leading to a functional sensory system remain enigmatic. Accordingly, there is an ongoing debate regarding the evolution of bat echolocation. In search of the origin of bat echolocation, we studied how Old World fruit bats, which have always been classified as nonecholocating, orient in complete darkness. We found that two of these nonecholocating species used click-like sounds to detect and discriminate objects in complete darkness. However, we discovered that this click-based echo sensing is rudimentary and does not allow these bats to estimate distance accurately as all other echolocating bats can. Moreover, unlike all other echolocating bats, which generate pulses using the larynx or the tongue, these bats generated clicks with their wings. We provide evidence suggesting that all Old World fruit bats can click with their wings. Although this click-based echo sensing used by Old World fruit bats may not represent the ancestral form of current (laryngeal) bat echolocation, we argue that clicking fruit bats could be considered behavioral fossils, opening a window to study the evolution of echolocation.

  13. A bony connection signals laryngeal echolocation in bats.

    PubMed

    Veselka, Nina; McErlain, David D; Holdsworth, David W; Eger, Judith L; Chhem, Rethy K; Mason, Matthew J; Brain, Kirsty L; Faure, Paul A; Fenton, M Brock

    2010-02-18

    Echolocation is an active form of orientation in which animals emit sounds and then listen to reflected echoes of those sounds to form images of their surroundings in their brains. Although echolocation is usually associated with bats, it is not characteristic of all bats. Most echolocating bats produce signals in the larynx, but within one family of mainly non-echolocating species (Pteropodidae), a few species use echolocation sounds produced by tongue clicks. Here we demonstrate, using data obtained from micro-computed tomography scans of 26 species (n = 35 fluid-preserved bats), that proximal articulation of the stylohyal bone (part of the mammalian hyoid apparatus) with the tympanic bone always distinguishes laryngeally echolocating bats from all other bats (that is, non-echolocating pteropodids and those that echolocate with tongue clicks). In laryngeally echolocating bats, the proximal end of the stylohyal bone directly articulates with the tympanic bone and is often fused with it. Previous research on the morphology of the stylohyal bone in the oldest known fossil bat (Onychonycteris finneyi) suggested that it did not echolocate, but our findings suggest that O. finneyi may have used laryngeal echolocation because its stylohyal bones may have articulated with its tympanic bones. The present findings reopen basic questions about the timing and the origin of flight and echolocation in the early evolution of bats. Our data also provide an independent anatomical character by which to distinguish laryngeally echolocating bats from other bats.

  14. Novel Bartonella Species in Insectivorous Bats, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Han, Hui-Ju; Wen, Hong-Ling; Zhao, Li; Liu, Jian-Wei; Luo, Li-Mei; Zhou, Chuan-Min; Qin, Xiang-Rong; Zhu, Ye-Lei; Zheng, Xue-Xing; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Bartonella species are emerging human pathogens. Bats are known to carry diverse Bartonella species, some of which are capable of infecting humans. However, as the second largest mammalian group by a number of species, the role of bats as the reservoirs of Bartonella species is not fully explored, in term of their species diversity and worldwide distribution. China, especially Northern China, harbors a number of endemic insectivorous bat species; however, to our knowledge, there are not yet studies about Bartonella in bats in China. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in bats in Northern China. Bartonella species were detected by PCR amplification of gltA gene in 25.2% (27/107) bats in Mengyin County, Shandong Province of China, including 1/3 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, 2/10 Rhinolophus pusillus, 9/16 Myotis fimbriatus, 1/5 Myotis ricketti, 14/58 Myotis pequinius. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Bartonella species detected in bats in this study clustered into ten groups, and some might be novel Bartonella species. An association between Bartonella species and bat species was demonstrated and co-infection with different Bartonella species in a single bat was also observed. Our findings expanded our knowledge on the genetic diversity of Bartonella in bats, and shed light on the ecology of bat-borne Bartonella species.

  15. Novel Bartonella Species in Insectivorous Bats, Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hui-Ju; Wen, Hong-ling; Zhao, Li; Liu, Jian-wei; Luo, Li-Mei; Zhou, Chuan-Min; Qin, Xiang-Rong; Zhu, Ye-Lei; Zheng, Xue-Xing

    2017-01-01

    Bartonella species are emerging human pathogens. Bats are known to carry diverse Bartonella species, some of which are capable of infecting humans. However, as the second largest mammalian group by a number of species, the role of bats as the reservoirs of Bartonella species is not fully explored, in term of their species diversity and worldwide distribution. China, especially Northern China, harbors a number of endemic insectivorous bat species; however, to our knowledge, there are not yet studies about Bartonella in bats in China. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in bats in Northern China. Bartonella species were detected by PCR amplification of gltA gene in 25.2% (27/107) bats in Mengyin County, Shandong Province of China, including 1/3 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, 2/10 Rhinolophus pusillus, 9/16 Myotis fimbriatus, 1/5 Myotis ricketti, 14/58 Myotis pequinius. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Bartonella species detected in bats in this study clustered into ten groups, and some might be novel Bartonella species. An association between Bartonella species and bat species was demonstrated and co-infection with different Bartonella species in a single bat was also observed. Our findings expanded our knowledge on the genetic diversity of Bartonella in bats, and shed light on the ecology of bat-borne Bartonella species. PMID:28081122

  16. DBatVir: the database of bat-associated viruses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihong; Liu, Bo; Yang, Jian; Jin, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases remain a significant threat to public health. Most emerging infectious disease agents in humans are of zoonotic origin. Bats are important reservoir hosts of many highly lethal zoonotic viruses and have been implicated in numerous emerging infectious disease events in recent years. It is essential to enhance our knowledge and understanding of the genetic diversity of the bat-associated viruses to prevent future outbreaks. To facilitate further research, we constructed the database of bat-associated viruses (DBatVir). Known viral sequences detected in bat samples were manually collected and curated, along with the related metadata, such as the sampling time, location, bat species and specimen type. Additional information concerning the bats, including common names, diet type, geographic distribution and phylogeny were integrated into the database to bridge the gap between virologists and zoologists. The database currently covers >4100 bat-associated animal viruses of 23 viral families detected from 196 bat species in 69 countries worldwide. It provides an overview and snapshot of the current research regarding bat-associated viruses, which is essential now that the field is rapidly expanding. With a user-friendly interface and integrated online bioinformatics tools, DBatVir provides a convenient and powerful platform for virologists and zoologists to analyze the virome diversity of bats, as well as for epidemiologists and public health researchers to monitor and track current and future bat-related infectious diseases. Database URL: http://www.mgc.ac.cn/DBatVir/.

  17. Education to Action: Improving Public Perception of Bats.

    PubMed

    Hoffmaster, Eric; Vonk, Jennifer; Mies, Rob

    2016-01-15

    Public perception of bats has historically been largely negative with bats often portrayed as carriers of disease. Bats are commonly associated with vampire lore and thus elicit largely fearful reactions despite the fact that they are a vital and valuable part of the ecosystem. Bats provide a variety of essential services from pest control to plant pollination. Despite the benefits of bats to the environment and the economy, bats are suffering at the hands of humans. They are victims of turbines, human encroachment, pesticides, and, most recently, white nose syndrome. Because of their critical importance to the environment, humans should do what they can to help protect bats. We propose that humans will be more likely to do so if their perceptions and attitudes toward bats can be significantly improved. In a preliminary study we found some support for the idea that people can be educated about bats through bat oriented events and exhibits, and that this greater knowledge can inspire humans to act to save bats.

  18. [Trematodes (Trematoda) of bats (Chiroptera) from the Middle Volga Region].

    PubMed

    Kirillov, A A; Kirillova, N Iu; Vekhnik, V P

    2012-01-01

    The data on species diversity of trematodes from bats collected in the Middle Volga Region are summarized. According to original and literary data, 20 trematode species were recorded in bats of the region examined. Plagiorchis elegans, Lecithodendrium skrjabini, L. rysavyi, Prosthodendrium hurkovaae, and Pycnoporus megacotyle are specified for the bat fauna of Russia for the first time. For 11 species of parasites, new hosts are recorded. The analysis of bat helminthes demonstrated that the fauna of trematodes of the northern bat (12 species of trematodes), of the pond, and of the Brandt's bats is the most diverse, constituting more than 10 parasite species per bat species. The largest number of final hosts in the Middle Volga Region is characteristic of Plagiorchis koreanus and Prosthodendrium chilostomum; the latter species were revealed in 8 and 7 bat species, respectively. Trematodes of bats possess a high degree of host specificity. 17 species parasitize exclusively in bats out of 20 parasite species registered for the order Chiroptera. Only 3 species (Plagiorchis elegans, P. vespertilionis, and Prosthodendrium chilostomum) show wide degree of specificity, being found in other animals. Taxonomic position, the circle of hosts, collecting sites, and brief data in biology and geographical distribution for each helminth species are specified. Morphological descriptions and original figures for all the trematode species revealed in bats of the Middle Volga Region are given.

  19. Cryptogenic rabies, bats, and the question of aerosol transmission.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Robert V

    2002-05-01

    Human rabies is rare in the United States; however, an estimated 40,000 patients receive rabies postexposure prophylaxis each year. Misconceptions about the transmission of rabies are plentiful, particularly regarding bats. Most cases of human rabies caused by bat variants have no definitive history of animal bite. Three hypotheses are proposed and reviewed for the transmission of rabies from bats to human beings. They include nonbite transmission (including aerosol transmission), the alternate host hypothesis (an intermediate animal host that acquires rabies from a bat and then transmits rabies to human beings), and minimized or unrecognized bat bites. Nonbite transmission of rabies is very rare, and aerosol transmission has never been well documented in the natural environment. The known pathogenesis of rabies and available data suggest that all or nearly all cases of human rabies attributable to bats were transmitted by bat bites that were minimized or unrecognized by the patients.

  20. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  1. Evidence of Hantavirus Infection Among Bats in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sabino-Santos, Gilberto; Maia, Felipe Gonçalves Motta; Vieira, Thallyta Maria; de Lara Muylaert, Renata; Lima, Sabrina Miranda; Gonçalves, Cristieli Barros; Barroso, Patricia Doerl; Melo, Maria Norma; Jonsson, Colleen B; Goodin, Douglas; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2015-08-01

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses harbored by rodents, bats, and shrews. At present, only rodent-borne hantaviruses are associated with severe illness in humans. New species of hantaviruses have been recently identified in bats and shrews greatly expanding the potential reservoirs and ranges of these viruses. Brazil has one of the highest incidences of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in South America, hence it is critical to know what is the prevalence of hantaviruses in Brazil. Although much is known about rodent reservoirs, little is known regarding bats. We captured 270 bats from February 2012 to April 2014. Serum was screened for the presence of antibodies against a recombinant nucleoprotein (rN) of Araraquara virus (ARAQV). The prevalence of antibody to hantavirus was 9/53 with an overall seroprevalence of 17%. Previous studies have shown only insectivorous bats to harbor hantavirus; however, in our study, of the nine seropositive bats, five were frugivorous, one was carnivorous, and three were sanguivorous phyllostomid bats.

  2. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe.

    PubMed

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans Peter; Seidl, Hans Peter; Blehert, David S

    2010-08-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  3. Widespread Losses of Vomeronasal Signal Transduction in Bats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huabin; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2011-01-01

    The vertebrate vomeronasal system (VNS) detects intraspecific pheromones and environmental odorants. We sequenced segments of the gene encoding Trpc2, an ion channel crucial for vomeronasal signal transduction, in 11 species that represent all main basal lineages of Yinpterochiroptera, one of the two suborders of the order Chiroptera (bats). Our sequences show that Trpc2 is a pseudogene in each of the 11 bats, suggesting that all yinpterochiropterans lack vomeronasal sensitivity. The Trpc2 sequences from four species of Yangochiroptera, the other suborder of bats, suggest vomeronasal insensitivity in some but not all yangochiropterans. These results, together with the available morphological data from the bat VNS, strongly suggest multiple and widespread losses of vomeronasal signal transduction and sensitivity in bats. Future scrutiny of the specific functions of the VNS in the few bats that still retain the VNS may help explain why it is dispensable in most bats. PMID:20693241

  4. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Menzel, Michael A.; Ford, W. Mark; Edwards, John W.; Sheffield, Steven R.; Kilgo, John C.; Bunch, Mary S.

    2003-03-01

    Menzel. J.M., M.A. Menzel, W.M. Ford, J.W. Edwards, S.R. Sheffield, J.C. Kilgo, and M.S. Bunch. 2003. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina. Southeastern Nat. 2(1): 121-152. There is a paucity of information available about the distribution of bats in the southeastern United States. We synthesized records from museums, bat captures, and bats submitted for rabies testing to provide a more accurate and useful distribution for natural resource managers and those planning to research bats in South Carolina. Distributional information, including maps, collection localities within counties, and literature references, for all 14 species of bats that occur in South Carolina, has never been synthesized. To provide better information on the state's bat fauna, we have updated distributions for all species that occur in South Carolina.

  5. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P.M.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  6. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus. PMID:20678317

  7. Negative regulators of brown adipose tissue (BAT)-mediated thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bal Krishan; Patil, Mallikarjun; Satyanarayana, Ande

    2014-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for energy expenditure, a process called adaptive thermogenesis. PET-CT scans recently demonstrated the existence of metabolically active BAT in adult humans, which revitalized our interest in BAT. Increasing the amount and/or activity of BAT holds tremendous promise for the treatment of obesity and its associated diseases. PGC1α is the master regulator of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis in BAT. A number of proteins have been identified to influence thermogenesis either positively or negatively through regulating the expression or transcriptional activity of PGC1α. Therefore, BAT activation can be achieved by either inducing the expression of positive regulators of PGC1α or by inhibiting the repressors of the PGC1α/UCP1 pathway. Here, we review the most important negative regulators of PGC1α/UCP1 signaling and their mechanism of action in BAT-mediated thermogenesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. BAT2 GRB Catalog - Prompt Emission Properties of Swift GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Parsons, A.; Tueller, J.; Baumgartner, W.; Cummings, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Ukwatta, T.

    2010-10-15

    We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters and time-resolved spectral parameters measured by the BAT. The BAT T{sub 90} duration peaks at 70 s. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT short-duration GRBs are generally harder than those of the long-duration GRBs. The observed durations of the BAT high redshift GRBs are not systematically longer than those of the moderate redshift GRBs. Furthermore, the observed spectra of the BAT high redshift GRBs are similar to or harder than the moderate redshift GRBs.

  9. Bats Avoid Radar Installations: Could Electromagnetic Fields Deter Bats from Colliding with Wind Turbines?

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Barry; Racey, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by collisions with wind turbines, and there is at present no direct method of reducing or preventing this mortality. We therefore determine whether the electromagnetic radiation associated with radar installations can elicit an aversive behavioural response in foraging bats. Four civil air traffic control (ATC) radar stations, three military ATC radars and three weather radars were selected, each surrounded by heterogeneous habitat. Three sampling points matched for habitat type and structure, dominant vegetation species, altitude and surrounding land class were located at increasing distances from each station. A portable electromagnetic field meter measured the field strength of the radar at three distances from the source: in close proximity (<200 m) with a high electromagnetic field (EMF) strength >2 volts/metre, an intermediate point within line of sight of the radar (200–400 m) and with an EMF strength <2 v/m, and a control site out of sight of the radar (>400 m) and registering an EMF of zero v/m. At each radar station bat activity was recorded three times with three independent sampling points monitored on each occasion, resulting in a total of 90 samples, 30 of which were obtained within each field strength category. At these sampling points, bat activity was recorded using an automatic bat recording station, operated from sunset to sunrise. Bat activity was significantly reduced in habitats exposed to an EMF strength of greater than 2 v/m when compared to matched sites registering EMF levels of zero. The reduction in bat activity was not significantly different at lower levels of EMF strength within 400 m of the radar. We predict that the reduction in bat activity within habitats exposed to electromagnetic radiation may be a result of thermal induction and an increased risk of hyperthermia. PMID:17372629

  10. Bats avoid radar installations: could electromagnetic fields deter bats from colliding with wind turbines?

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Barry; Racey, Paul A

    2007-03-14

    Large numbers of bats are killed by collisions with wind turbines, and there is at present no direct method of reducing or preventing this mortality. We therefore determine whether the electromagnetic radiation associated with radar installations can elicit an aversive behavioural response in foraging bats. Four civil air traffic control (ATC) radar stations, three military ATC radars and three weather radars were selected, each surrounded by heterogeneous habitat. Three sampling points matched for habitat type and structure, dominant vegetation species, altitude and surrounding land class were located at increasing distances from each station. A portable electromagnetic field meter measured the field strength of the radar at three distances from the source: in close proximity (<200 m) with a high electromagnetic field (EMF) strength >2 volts/metre, an intermediate point within line of sight of the radar (200-400 m) and with an EMF strength <2 v/m, and a control site out of sight of the radar (>400 m) and registering an EMF of zero v/m. At each radar station bat activity was recorded three times with three independent sampling points monitored on each occasion, resulting in a total of 90 samples, 30 of which were obtained within each field strength category. At these sampling points, bat activity was recorded using an automatic bat recording station, operated from sunset to sunrise. Bat activity was significantly reduced in habitats exposed to an EMF strength of greater than 2 v/m when compared to matched sites registering EMF levels of zero. The reduction in bat activity was not significantly different at lower levels of EMF strength within 400 m of the radar. We predict that the reduction in bat activity within habitats exposed to electromagnetic radiation may be a result of thermal induction and an increased risk of hyperthermia.

  11. Bat use of a high-plains urban wildlife refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Everette, A.L.; O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stone, L.A.; McCance, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Bats are significant components of mammalian diversity and in many areas are of management concern. However, little attention has been given to bats in urban or prairie landscapes. In 1997 and 1998, we determined species richness, relative abundance, roosting habits, and echolocation activity of bats at Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (RMA), the largest urban unit in the United States refuge system, located on the high plains near Denver, Colorado. An inventory using mist nets revealed 3 species foraging at the site: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Big brown bats comprised 86% of captures (n=176). This pattern was consistent with continental-scale predictions of bat species richness and evenness based on availability of potential roosts. Relative abundance based on captures was similar to that revealed by echolocation detector surveys, except that the latter revealed the likely presence of at least 2 additional species (Myotis spp. and red bats [Lasiurus borealis]). Echolocation activity was significantly greater (P=0.009) in areas with tree or water habitat edges than in open prairie, suggesting that maintaining such features is important for bats. Big brown bats commuted greater distances (9.20-18.8 km) from roosts in urban core areas to foraging sites on the refuge than typically reported for this species elsewhere, emphasizing the value of the site to these bats. Urban refuges can provide habitat of importance to bat populations, but may be characterized by abundant bats that roost in buildings if a variety of other kinds of roosting habitats are unavailable.

  12. Bat Accelerated Regions Identify a Bat Forelimb Specific Enhancer in the HoxD Locus

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Mandy K.; VanderMeer, Julia E.; Zhao, Jingjing; Eckalbar, Walter L.; Logan, Malcolm; Illing, Nicola; Pollard, Katherine S.; Ahituv, Nadav

    2016-01-01

    The molecular events leading to the development of the bat wing remain largely unknown, and are thought to be caused, in part, by changes in gene expression during limb development. These expression changes could be instigated by variations in gene regulatory enhancers. Here, we used a comparative genomics approach to identify regions that evolved rapidly in the bat ancestor, but are highly conserved in other vertebrates. We discovered 166 bat accelerated regions (BARs) that overlap H3K27ac and p300 ChIP-seq peaks in developing mouse limbs. Using a mouse enhancer assay, we show that five Myotis lucifugus BARs drive gene expression in the developing mouse limb, with the majority showing differential enhancer activity compared to the mouse orthologous BAR sequences. These include BAR116, which is located telomeric to the HoxD cluster and had robust forelimb expression for the M. lucifugus sequence and no activity for the mouse sequence at embryonic day 12.5. Developing limb expression analysis of Hoxd10-Hoxd13 in Miniopterus natalensis bats showed a high-forelimb weak-hindlimb expression for Hoxd10-Hoxd11, similar to the expression trend observed for M. lucifugus BAR116 in mice, suggesting that it could be involved in the regulation of the bat HoxD complex. Combined, our results highlight novel regulatory regions that could be instrumental for the morphological differences leading to the development of the bat wing. PMID:27019019

  13. Bat Accelerated Regions Identify a Bat Forelimb Specific Enhancer in the HoxD Locus.

    PubMed

    Booker, Betty M; Friedrich, Tara; Mason, Mandy K; VanderMeer, Julia E; Zhao, Jingjing; Eckalbar, Walter L; Logan, Malcolm; Illing, Nicola; Pollard, Katherine S; Ahituv, Nadav

    2016-03-01

    The molecular events leading to the development of the bat wing remain largely unknown, and are thought to be caused, in part, by changes in gene expression during limb development. These expression changes could be instigated by variations in gene regulatory enhancers. Here, we used a comparative genomics approach to identify regions that evolved rapidly in the bat ancestor, but are highly conserved in other vertebrates. We discovered 166 bat accelerated regions (BARs) that overlap H3K27ac and p300 ChIP-seq peaks in developing mouse limbs. Using a mouse enhancer assay, we show that five Myotis lucifugus BARs drive gene expression in the developing mouse limb, with the majority showing differential enhancer activity compared to the mouse orthologous BAR sequences. These include BAR116, which is located telomeric to the HoxD cluster and had robust forelimb expression for the M. lucifugus sequence and no activity for the mouse sequence at embryonic day 12.5. Developing limb expression analysis of Hoxd10-Hoxd13 in Miniopterus natalensis bats showed a high-forelimb weak-hindlimb expression for Hoxd10-Hoxd11, similar to the expression trend observed for M. lucifugus BAR116 in mice, suggesting that it could be involved in the regulation of the bat HoxD complex. Combined, our results highlight novel regulatory regions that could be instrumental for the morphological differences leading to the development of the bat wing.

  14. Neurophysiological analysis of echolocation in bats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suga, N.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis of echolocation and signal processing in brown bats is presented. Data cover echo detection, echo ranging, echolocalization, and echo analysis. Efforts were also made to identify the part of the brain that carries out the most essential processing function for echolocation. Results indicate the inferior colliculus and the auditory nuclei function together to process this information.

  15. The wake of hovering flight in bats.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Jonas; Hedenström, Anders; Winter, York; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-08-06

    Hovering means stationary flight at zero net forward speed, which can be achieved by animals through muscle powered flapping flight. Small bats capable of hovering typically do so with a downstroke in an inclined stroke plane, and with an aerodynamically active outer wing during the upstroke. The magnitude and time history of aerodynamic forces should be reflected by vorticity shed into the wake. We thus expect hovering bats to generate a characteristic wake, but this has until now never been studied. Here we trained nectar-feeding bats, Leptonycteris yerbabuenae, to hover at a feeder and using time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry in conjunction with high-speed kinematic analysis we show that hovering nectar-feeding bats produce a series of bilateral stacked vortex loops. Vortex visualizations suggest that the downstroke produces the majority of the weight support, but that the upstroke contributes positively to the lift production. However, the relative contributions from downstroke and upstroke could not be determined on the basis of the wake, because wake elements from down- and upstroke mix and interact. We also use a modified actuator disc model to estimate lift force, power and flap efficiency. Based on our quantitative wake-induced velocities, the model accounts for weight support well (108%). Estimates of aerodynamic efficiency suggest hovering flight is less efficient than forward flapping flight, while the overall energy conversion efficiency (mechanical power output/metabolic power) was estimated at 13%.

  16. Personality variation in little brown bats.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Allyson K; Timonin, Mary E; McGuire, Liam P; Willis, Craig K R

    2013-01-01

    Animal personality or temperament refers to individual differences in behaviour that are repeatable over time and across contexts. Personality has been linked to life-history traits, energetic traits and fitness, with implications for the evolution of behaviour. Personality has been quantified for a range of taxa (e.g., fish, songbirds, small mammals) but, so far, there has been little work on personality in bats, despite their diversity and potential as a model taxon for comparative studies. We used a novel environment test to quantify personality in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) and assess the short-term repeatability of a range of behaviours. We tested the hypothesis that development influences values of personality traits and predicted that trait values associated with activity would increase between newly volant, pre-weaning young-of-the-year (YOY) and more mature, self-sufficient YOY. We identified personality dimensions that were consistent with past studies of other taxa and found that these traits were repeatable over a 24-hour period. Consistent with our prediction, older YOY captured at a fall swarming site prior to hibernation had higher activity scores than younger YOY bats captured at a maternity colony, suggesting that personality traits vary as development progresses in YOY bats. Thus, we found evidence of short-term consistency of personality within individuals but with the potential for temporal flexibility of traits, depending on age.

  17. Fire and the endangered Indiana bat

    Treesearch

    Matthew B. Dickinson; Michael J. Lacki; Daniel R. Cox

    2009-01-01

    Fire and Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) have coexisted for millennia in the central hardwoods region, yet past declines in populations of this endangered species, and the imperative of fire use in oak silviculture and ecosystem conservation, call for an analysis of both the risks and opportunities associated with using fires on landscapes in...

  18. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, John

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary The purpose of this paper is to review the literature pertaining to the bat faunas of the western Indian Ocean islands, particularly in light of the identification of many new species on Madagascar and the taxonomic reassignment of others, and to summarise details of their general biology, feeding ecology, reproduction and conservation. Abstract The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species. PMID:26486500

  19. The wake of hovering flight in bats

    PubMed Central

    Håkansson, Jonas; Hedenström, Anders; Winter, York; Johansson, L. Christoffer

    2015-01-01

    Hovering means stationary flight at zero net forward speed, which can be achieved by animals through muscle powered flapping flight. Small bats capable of hovering typically do so with a downstroke in an inclined stroke plane, and with an aerodynamically active outer wing during the upstroke. The magnitude and time history of aerodynamic forces should be reflected by vorticity shed into the wake. We thus expect hovering bats to generate a characteristic wake, but this has until now never been studied. Here we trained nectar-feeding bats, Leptonycteris yerbabuenae, to hover at a feeder and using time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry in conjunction with high-speed kinematic analysis we show that hovering nectar-feeding bats produce a series of bilateral stacked vortex loops. Vortex visualizations suggest that the downstroke produces the majority of the weight support, but that the upstroke contributes positively to the lift production. However, the relative contributions from downstroke and upstroke could not be determined on the basis of the wake, because wake elements from down- and upstroke mix and interact. We also use a modified actuator disc model to estimate lift force, power and flap efficiency. Based on our quantitative wake-induced velocities, the model accounts for weight support well (108%). Estimates of aerodynamic efficiency suggest hovering flight is less efficient than forward flapping flight, while the overall energy conversion efficiency (mechanical power output/metabolic power) was estimated at 13%. PMID:26179990

  20. Bats of the Colorado oil shale region

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.B. Jr.; Caire, W.; Wilhelm, D.E.

    1984-10-31

    New records for Myotis californicus, M. evotis, M. leibii, M. lucifugus, M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus hesperus, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasiurus cinereus, Plecotus townsendii, and Antrozous pallidus and their habitat occurrence in northwestern Colorado are reported. Mortality of 27 bats of six species trapped in an oil sludge pit is described. 7 references.

  1. Novel Lyssaviruses Isolated from Bats in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Botvinkin, Alexandr D.; Poleschuk, Elena M.; Borisova, Tatyana I.; Gazaryan, Suren V.; Yager, Pamela; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    Two new rabies-related viruses were discovered in Russia during 2002. Viruses were isolated from bats in Eastern Siberia near Baikal Lake and in the western Caucasus Mountains. After preliminary antigenic and genetic characterization, we found that both viruses should be considered as new putative lyssavirus genotypes. PMID:14720408

  2. Alopecia in bats from Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bello-Gutiérrez, Joaquín; Suzán, Gerardo; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea G; Salas, Gerardo

    2010-07-01

    We report alopecic syndrome (hair loss in areas of the body, including chest, abdomen, and back) in four frugivorous bat species (Artibeus jamaicensis, Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, and Sturnira ludovici) within urban and periurban areas of Villahermosa, Tabasco, México, during 2007 and 2008. The overall prevalence of alopecic syndrome was 5.25% (135/2,567 bats). The highest prevalence was found in A. lituratus (5.6%; 62/1,105), followed by A. jamaicensis (5%; 3/1,462). We found a higher prevalence in the dry season, when more than 90% of the alopecic individuals (n=122) were captured. Higher prevalence of alopecia was recorded in urban areas (80% of captured alopecic bats, n=108) than in periurban areas (20%, n=27). Histopathologic studies revealed no evidence of infectious agents. The syndrome may be related to nutritional or endocrinal deficiencies. Spatial and seasonal aggregation in urban areas suggests that anthropogenic activities may interfere with nutritional processes. Further studies are needed to confirm the etiology of the syndrome as well as its impact on population dynamics. This is the first report of alopecic syndrome in sylvatic bats.

  3. Personality Variation in Little Brown Bats

    PubMed Central

    Menzies, Allyson K.; Timonin, Mary E.; McGuire, Liam P.; Willis, Craig K. R.

    2013-01-01

    Animal personality or temperament refers to individual differences in behaviour that are repeatable over time and across contexts. Personality has been linked to life-history traits, energetic traits and fitness, with implications for the evolution of behaviour. Personality has been quantified for a range of taxa (e.g., fish, songbirds, small mammals) but, so far, there has been little work on personality in bats, despite their diversity and potential as a model taxon for comparative studies. We used a novel environment test to quantify personality in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) and assess the short-term repeatability of a range of behaviours. We tested the hypothesis that development influences values of personality traits and predicted that trait values associated with activity would increase between newly volant, pre-weaning young-of-the-year (YOY) and more mature, self-sufficient YOY. We identified personality dimensions that were consistent with past studies of other taxa and found that these traits were repeatable over a 24-hour period. Consistent with our prediction, older YOY captured at a fall swarming site prior to hibernation had higher activity scores than younger YOY bats captured at a maternity colony, suggesting that personality traits vary as development progresses in YOY bats. Thus, we found evidence of short-term consistency of personality within individuals but with the potential for temporal flexibility of traits, depending on age. PMID:24312205

  4. Novel lyssaviruses isolated from bats in Russia.

    PubMed

    Botvinkin, Alexandr D; Poleschuk, Elena M; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Borisova, Tatyana I; Gazaryan, Suren V; Yager, Pamela; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2003-12-01

    Two new rabies-related viruses were discovered in Russia during 2002. Viruses were isolated from bats in Eastern Siberia near Baikal Lake and in the western Caucasus Mountains. After preliminary antigenic and genetic characterization, we found that both viruses should be considered as new putative lyssavirus genotypes.

  5. Bat Rabies, Texas, 1996–2000

    PubMed Central

    Mayes, Bonny C.; Smith, Jean S.; Neill, Susan U.

    2004-01-01

    Bats submitted to the Texas Department of Health (1996–2000) were speciated and tested for rabies virus antigen by direct immunofluorescence microscopy. Antigenic analysis of rabies virus–positive specimens was performed with monoclonal antibodies against the nucleoprotein of the virus; atypical or unexpected results were confirmed by genetic analysis of nucleoprotein sequence. PMID:15200840

  6. Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lan-Xiang; Pan, Yong-Xin; Metzner, Walter; Zhang, Jin-Shuo; Zhang, Bing-Fang

    2015-01-01

    How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae) can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT), despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years.

  7. 77 FR 46131 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... No. SR-BATS-2012-029] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and... thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on July 16, 2012, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS... the Exchange's equity options platform (``BATS Options''), to modify the calculation of...

  8. Hybridization Hotspots at Bat Swarming Sites

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanowicz, Wiesław; Piksa, Krzysztof; Tereba, Anna

    2012-01-01

    During late summer and early autumn in temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere, thousands of bats gather at caves, mainly for the purpose of mating. We demonstrated that this swarming behavior most probably leads not only to breeding among bats of the same species but also interbreeding between different species. Using 14 nuclear microsatellites and three different methods (the Bayesian assignment approaches of STRUCTURE and NEWHYBRIDS and a principal coordinate analysis of pairwise genetic distances), we analyzed 375 individuals belonging to three species of whiskered bats (genus Myotis) at swarming sites across their sympatric range in southern Poland. The overall hybridization rate varied from 3.2 to 7.2%. At the species level, depending on the method used, these values ranged from 2.1–4.6% in M. mystacinus and 3.0–3.7% in M. brandtii to 6.5–30.4% in M. alcathoe. Hybrids occurred in about half of the caves we studied. In all three species, the sex ratio of hybrids was biased towards males but the observed differences did not differ statistically from those noted at the population level. In our opinion, factors leading to the formation of these admixed individuals and their relatively high frequency are: i) swarming behaviour at swarming sites, where high numbers of bats belonging to several species meet; ii) male-biased sex ratio during the swarming period; iii) the fact that all these bats are generally polygynous. The highly different population sizes of different species at swarming sites may also play some role. Swarming sites may represent unique hybrid hotspots, which, as there are at least 2,000 caves in the Polish Carpathians alone, may occur on a massive scale not previously observed for any group of mammal species in the wild. Evidently, these sites should be treated as focal points for the conservation of biodiversity and evolutionary processes. PMID:23300912

  9. Response of neotropical bat assemblages to human land use.

    PubMed

    García-Morales, Rodrigo; Badano, Ernesto I; Moreno, Claudia E

    2013-10-01

    Neotropical bats are sensitive to human-induced habitat changes, and some authors believe bats can be used as bioindicators. In the literature, however, the results are disparate. Some results show bat diversity deceases as disturbance increases, whereas others indicate no effect. Determining the general response patterns of bats when they encounter different degrees of human-induced disturbance across the Neotropics would help to determine their usefulness as bioindicators. In a series of meta-analyses, we compared the occurrence frequency of bat species between well-preserved forests and human-use areas. We obtained data through an extensive review of published peer-reviewed articles, theses, and reports. The overall effect size indicated that human-use areas harbored more bat species than well-preserved forests. Different response patterns emerged when meta-analyses were conducted separately by family, feeding habit, vegetation stratum, and conservation status. Our results suggest that bat assemblages display strong responses to forest loss and land-use change and that the direction and magnitude of these responses depends on the bat group under study and the type of disturbance. Our results are consistent with the idea that bats are useful for assessing the effects of habitat changes in the Neotropics. However, with our meta-analyses we could not detect fine differences in bat feeding habits, especially within Phyllostomidae, or elucidate the effect of landscape configuration.

  10. Mercury accumulation in bats near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Syaripuddin, Khairunnisa; Kumar, Anjali; Sing, Kong-Wah; Halim, Muhammad-Rasul Abdullah; Nursyereen, Muhammad-Nasir; Wilson, John-James

    2014-09-01

    In large man-made reservoirs such as those resulting from hydroelectric dam construction, bacteria transform the relatively harmless inorganic mercury naturally present in soil and the submerged plant matter into toxic methylmercury. Methylmercury then enters food webs and can accumulate in organisms at higher trophic levels. Bats feeding on insects emerging from aquatic systems can show accumulation of mercury consumed through their insect prey. In this study, we investigated whether the concentration of mercury in the fur of insectivorous bat species was significantly higher than that in the fur of frugivorous bat species, sampled near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia. Bats were sampled at Temenggor Lake and Kenyir Lake and fur samples from the most abundant genera of the two feeding guilds-insectivorous (Hipposideros and Rhinolophus) and frugivorous (Cynopterus and Megaerops) were collected for mercury analysis. We found significantly higher concentrations of total mercury in the fur of insectivorous bats. Mercury concentrations also differed significantly between insectivorous bats sampled at the two sites, with bats from Kenyir Lake, the younger reservoir, showing higher mercury concentrations, and between the insectivorous genera, with Hipposideros bats showing higher mercury concentrations. Ten bats (H. cf. larvatus) sampled at Kenyir Lake had mercury concentrations approaching or exceeding 10 mg/kg, which is the threshold at which detrimental effects occur in humans, bats and mice.

  11. Timing matters: sonar call groups facilitate target localization in bats.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Ninad B; Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F

    2014-01-01

    To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment.

  12. Timing matters: sonar call groups facilitate target localization in bats

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Ninad B.; Wohlgemuth, Melville J.; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2014-01-01

    To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment. PMID:24860509

  13. Renewed mining and reclamation: Imapacts on bats and potential mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.E.; Berry, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    Historic mining created new roosting habitat for many bat species. Now the same industry has the potential to adversely impact bats. Contemporary mining operations usually occur in historic districts; consequently the old workings are destroyed by open pit operations. Occasionally, underground techniques are employed, resulting in the enlargement or destruction of the original workings. Even during exploratory operations, historic mine openings can be covered as drill roads are bulldozed, or drills can penetrate and collapse underground workings. Nearby blasting associated with mine construction and operation can disrupt roosting bats. Bats can also be disturbed by the entry of mine personnel to collect ore samples or by recreational mine explorers, since the creation of roads often results in easier access. In addition to roost disturbance, other aspects of renewed mining can have adverse impacts on bat populations, and affect even those bats that do not live in mines. Open cyanide ponds, or other water in which toxic chemicals accumulate, can poison bats and other wildlife. The creation of the pits, roads and processing areas often destroys critical foraging habitat, or change drainage patterns. Finally, at the completion of mining, any historic mines still open may be sealed as part of closure and reclamation activities. The net result can be a loss of bats and bat habitat. Conversely, in some contemporary underground operations, future roosting habitat for bats can be fabricated. An experimental approach to the creation of new roosting habitat is to bury culverts or old tires beneath waste rock. Mining companies can mitigate for impacts to bats by surveying to identify bat-roosting habitat, removing bats prior to renewed mining or closure, protecting non-impacted roost sites with gates and fences, researching to identify habitat requirements and creating new artificial roosts.

  14. Genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi in bats, and multilocus phylogenetic and phylogeographical analyses supporting Tcbat as an independent DTU (discrete typing unit).

    PubMed

    Lima, Luciana; Espinosa-Álvarez, Oneida; Ortiz, Paola A; Trejo-Varón, Javier A; Carranza, Julio C; Pinto, C Miguel; Serrano, Myrna G; Buck, Gregory A; Camargo, Erney P; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2015-11-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a complex of phenotypically and genetically diverse isolates distributed in six discrete typing units (DTUs) designated as TcI-TcVI. Five years ago, T. cruzi isolates from Brazilian bats showing unique patterns of traditional ribosomal and spliced leader PCRs not clustering into any of the six DTUs were designated as the Tcbat genotype. In the present study, phylogenies inferred using SSU rRNA (small subunit of ribosomal rRNA), gGAPDH (glycosomal glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and Cytb (cytochrome b) genes strongly supported Tcbat as a monophyletic lineage prevalent in Brazil, Panama and Colombia. Providing strong support for Tcbat, sequences from 37 of 47 nuclear and 12 mitochondrial genes (retrieved from a draft genome of Tcbat) and reference strains of all DTUs available in databanks corroborated Tcbat as an independent DTU. Consistent with previous studies, multilocus analysis of most nuclear genes corroborated the evolution of T. cruzi from bat trypanosomes its divergence into two main phylogenetic lineages: the basal TcII; and the lineage clustering TcIV, the clade comprising TcIII and the sister groups TcI-Tcbat. Most likely, the common ancestor of Tcbat and TcI was a bat trypanosome. However, the results of the present analysis did not support Tcbat as the ancestor of all DTUs. Despite the insights provided by reports of TcIII, TcIV and TcII in bats, including Amazonian bats harbouring TcII, further studies are necessary to understand the roles played by bats in the diversification of all DTUs. We also demonstrated that in addition to value as molecular markers for DTU assignment, Cytb, ITS rDNA and the spliced leader (SL) polymorphic sequences suggest spatially structured populations of Tcbat. Phylogenetic and phylogeographical analyses, multiple molecular markers specific to Tcbat, and the degrees of sequence divergence between Tcbat and the accepted DTUs strongly support the definitive classification of Tcbat as a new DTU.

  15. Swift/BAT calibration and the estimated BAT hard x-ray survey sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Ann M.; Tueller, Jack; Krimm, Hans; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cummings, James; Markwardt, Craig; Hullinger, Derek; Gehrels, Neil; Fenimore, Ed; Palmer, David; Sato, Goro; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Okada, Yuu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Suzuki, Masaya; Tashiro, Makoto

    2004-02-01

    In addition to providing the initial gamma-ray burst trigger and location, the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) will also perform an all-sky hard x-ray survey based on serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts. BAT was designed with a very wide field-of-view (FOV) so that it can observe roughly 1/7 of the sky at any time. Since gamma-ray bursts are uniformly distributed over the sky, the final BAT survey coverage is expected to be nearly uniform. BAT's large effective area and long sky exposures will produce a 15 - 150 keV survey with up to 30 times better sensitivity than any previous hard x-ray survey (e.g. HEAO A4). Since the sensitivity of deep exposures in this energy range is systematics limited, the ultimate survey sensitivity depends on the relative sizes of the statistical and systematic errors in the data. Many careful calibration experiments were performed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center to better understand the BAT instrument's response to 15-150 keV gamma-rays incident from any direction within the FOV. Using radioactive sources of gamma-rays with known locations and energies, the Swift team can identify potential systematic errors in the telescope's performance and estimate the actual Swift hard x-ray survey sensitivity in flight. These calibration results will be discussed and a preliminary parameterization of the BAT instrument response will be presented. While the details of the individual BAT CZT detector response will be presented elsewhere in these proceedings, this talk will focus on the translation of the calibration experimental data into overall hard x-ray survey sensitivity.

  16. A Brazilian Oz?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Both the American author, L. Frank Baum, and his Brazilian counterpart, Jose Monteiro Lobato, created children's books that featured alternative worlds, peopled by characters who fascinated many generations of young readers. The authors were both born in the second half of the nineteenth century into families of privilege, and both enjoyed idyllic…

  17. A Brazilian Oz?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Both the American author, L. Frank Baum, and his Brazilian counterpart, Jose Monteiro Lobato, created children's books that featured alternative worlds, peopled by characters who fascinated many generations of young readers. The authors were both born in the second half of the nineteenth century into families of privilege, and both enjoyed idyllic…

  18. Migration of bats past a remote island offers clues toward the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, P.M.; Brown, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Wind energy is rapidly becoming a viable source of alternative energy, but wind turbines are killing bats in many areas of North America. Most of the bats killed by turbines thus far have been migratory species that roost in trees throughout the year, and the highest fatality events appear to coincide with autumn migration. Hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) are highly migratory and one of the most frequently killed species at wind turbines. We analyzed a long-term data set to investigate how weather and moonlight influenced the occurrence of hoary bats at an island stopover point along their migration route. We then related our results to the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines. We found that relatively low wind speeds, low moon illumination, and relatively high degrees of cloud cover were important predictors of bat arrivals and departures, and that low barometric pressure was an additional variable that helped predict arrivals. Slight differences in the conditions under which bats arrived and departed from the island suggest that hoary bats may be more likely to arrive on the island with passing storm fronts in autumn. These results also indicate that fatalities of hoary bats at wind turbines may be predictable events, that the species may be drawn to prominent landmarks that they see during migration, and that they regularly migrate over the ocean. Additional observations from this and other studies suggest that the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines may be associated with flocking and autumn mating behaviors.

  19. Brazilian women in politics.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  20. Monitoring Sensitive Bat Species at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenberg, Kari M.

    2014-01-15

    Bats play a critical role in ecosystems and are vulnerable to disturbance and disruption by human activities. In recent decades, bat populations in the United States and elsewhere have decreased tremendously. There are 47 different species of bat in the United States and 28 of these occur in New Mexico with 15 different species documented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and surrounding areas. Euderma maculatum(the spotted bat) is listed as “threatened” by the state of New Mexico and is known to occur at LANL. Four other species of bats are listed as “sensitive” and also occur here. In 1995, a four year study was initiated at LANL to assess the status of bat species of concern, elucidate distribution and relative abundance, and obtain information on roosting sites. There have been no definitive studies since then. Biologists in the Environmental Protection Division at LANL initiated a multi-year monitoring program for bats in May 2013 to implement the Biological Resources Management Plan. The objective of this ongoing study is to monitor bat species diversity and seasonal activity over time at LANL. Bat species diversity and seasonal activity were measured using an acoustic bat detector, the Pettersson D500X. This ultrasound recording unit is intended for long-term, unattended recording of bat and other high frequency animal calls. During 2013, the detector was deployed at two locations around LANL. Study sites were selected based on proximity to water where bats may be foraging. Recorded bat calls were analyzed using Sonobat, software that can help determine specific species of bat through their calls. A list of bat species at the two sites was developed and compared to lists from previous studies. Species diversity and seasonal activity, measured as the number of call sequences recorded each month, were compared between sites and among months. A total of 17,923 bat calls were recorded representing 15 species. Results indicate that there is a

  1. Studies on antigenic and genomic properties of Brazilian rabies virus isolates.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, R; Batista, H B R; Franco, A C; Rijsewijk, F A M; Roehe, P M

    2005-05-20

    Despite the recognized stability of rabies virus, differences among isolates from different species have been found. This work was carried out with the aim to identify antigenic and genomic differences in Brazilian rabies virus isolates and to verify whether such alterations would bear any relationship with the different hosts for the virus in nature. For that, 79 Brazilian rabies viruses isolated from different host species and from distinct regions within Brazil were submitted to antigenic characterization with a panel of 11 monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) directed to lyssavirus antigens and to genomic analyses by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of the N gene followed by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA). In addition, the nucleotide sequences of part of the N gene (225 bp) of seven isolates, taken as representative of the majority of the viruses under study, were determined. The analyses with the Mabs and RT-PCR/REA allowed the identification of two major groups of variants, the first formed by most isolates of cattle and bats and the second formed by viruses of dog origin. Partial sequencing of the N gene confirmed the similarity among isolates from cattle origin and those of vampire bats. However, viruses from non-haematophagous bats exhibited consistent differences from those of vampire bat isolates. Such findings suggest that the variants have evolved fairly stable modifications, which are not altered after passage in a dead-end host of a distinct species. No association could be established between antigenic or genomic alterations and geographic distribution of the isolates, which suggests that evolution of the virus has been directed to adaptation to the host species.

  2. Scaling of wingbeat frequency with body mass in bats and limits to maximum bat size.

    PubMed

    Norberg, Ulla M Lindhe; Norberg, R Åke

    2012-03-01

    The ability to fly opens up ecological opportunities but flight mechanics and muscle energetics impose constraints, one of which is that the maximum body size must be kept below a rather low limit. The muscle power available for flight increases in proportion to flight muscle mass and wingbeat frequency. The maximum wingbeat frequency attainable among increasingly large animals decreases faster than the minimum frequency required, so eventually they coincide, thereby defining the maximum body mass at which the available power just matches up to the power required for sustained aerobic flight. Here, we report new wingbeat frequency data for 27 morphologically diverse bat species representing nine families, and additional data from the literature for another 38 species, together spanning a range from 2.0 to 870 g. For these species, wingbeat frequency decreases with increasing body mass as M(b)(-0.26). We filmed 25 of our 27 species in free flight outdoors, and for these the wingbeat frequency varies as M(b)(-0.30). These exponents are strikingly similar to the body mass dependency M(b)(-0.27) among birds, but the wingbeat frequency is higher in birds than in bats for any given body mass. The downstroke muscle mass is also a larger proportion of the body mass in birds. We applied these empirically based scaling functions for wingbeat frequency in bats to biomechanical theories about how the power required for flight and the power available converge as animal size increases. To this end we estimated the muscle mass-specific power required for the largest flying extant bird (12-16 kg) and assumed that the largest potential bat would exert similar muscle mass-specific power. Given the observed scaling of wingbeat frequency and the proportion of the body mass that is made up by flight muscles in birds and bats, we estimated the maximum potential body mass for bats to be 1.1-2.3 kg. The largest bats, extinct or extant, weigh 1.6 kg. This is within the range expected if it

  3. Bats, cats, and rabies in an urban community.

    PubMed

    Hoff, G L; Mellon, G F; Thomas, M C; Giedinghagen, D H

    1993-10-01

    Bats are the primary vectors of rabies in humans in the United States. In the urban environment they generally are found within buildings where they may bite people or be attacked by cats or dogs. Given the high probability that any bat that bites a person may be rabid, antirabies prophylaxis should be administered as soon as possible after the incident. This should not be delayed pending laboratory results on the bat. Children should be taught to avoid contact with moribund bats. Cats are more likely to be involved with rabid bats than dogs, but they are less likely to be vaccinated against rabies. The occasional rabid cat in an urban community may have acquired its infection from a bat. Therefore, it is vital that communities enforce rabies vaccination for cats as well as dogs.

  4. Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats.

    PubMed

    Cryan, Paul M; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Turner, Gregory G; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michelle; Russell, Robin E; Castle, Kevin T

    2013-04-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

  5. Innate recognition of water bodies in echolocating bats

    PubMed Central

    Greif, Stefan; Siemers, Björn M.

    2010-01-01

    In the course of their lives, most animals must find different specific habitat and microhabitat types for survival and reproduction. Yet, in vertebrates, little is known about the sensory cues that mediate habitat recognition. In free flying bats the echolocation of insect-sized point targets is well understood, whereas how they recognize and classify spatially extended echo targets is currently unknown. In this study, we show how echolocating bats recognize ponds or other water bodies that are crucial for foraging, drinking and orientation. With wild bats of 15 different species (seven genera from three phylogenetically distant, large bat families), we found that bats perceived any extended, echo-acoustically smooth surface to be water, even in the presence of conflicting information from other sensory modalities. In addition, naive juvenile bats that had never before encountered a water body showed spontaneous drinking responses from smooth plates. This provides the first evidence for innate recognition of a habitat cue in a mammal. PMID:21045825

  6. Naturally Acquired Rabies Virus Infections in Wild-Caught Bats

    PubMed Central

    Gordy, Paul; Rudd, Robert; Jarvis, Jodie A.; Bowen, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The study of a zoonotic disease requires an understanding of the disease incidence in animal reservoirs. Rabies incidence in bats submitted to diagnostic laboratories does not accurately reflect the true incidence in wild bat populations as a bias exists for testing bats that have been in contact with humans or pets. This article details the rabies incidence in two species of bats collected from natural settings without such bias. In this study, brain smears from 0.6% and 2.5% of wild-caught and apparently healthy Tadarida brasiliensis and Eptesicus fuscus, respectively, were positive for rabies virus (RV) antigen. Conversely, 92% of the grounded T. brasiliensis were positive for RV. Serology performed on captive colony and sick bats reveal an immune response to rabies. This work illustrates the complex interplay between immunity, disease state, and the conundrum of RV maintenance in bats. PMID:21923271

  7. Potential exposure to Australian bat lyssavirus, Queensland, 1996-1999.

    PubMed Central

    McCall, B. J.; Epstein, J. H.; Neill, A. S.; Heel, K.; Field, H.; Barrett, J.; Smith, G. A.; Selvey, L. A.; Rodwell, B.; Lunt, R.

    2000-01-01

    Two human deaths caused by Australian bat lyssavirus (ABL) infection have been reported since 1996. Information was obtained from 205 persons (mostly adults from south Brisbane and the South Coast of Queensland), who reported potential ABL exposure to the Brisbane Southside Public Health Unit from November 1,1996, to January 31, 1999. Volunteer animal handlers accounted for 39% of potential exposures, their family members for 12%, professional animal handlers for 14%, community members who intentionally handled bats for 31%, and community members with contacts initiated by bats for 4%. The prevalence of Lyssavirus detected by fluorescent antibody test in 366 sick, injured, or orphaned bats from the area was 6%. Sequelae of exposure, including the requirement for expensive postexposure prophylaxis, may be reduced by educating bat handlers and the public of the risks involved in handling Australian bats. PMID:10827115

  8. Bartonella species in bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) from western Africa.

    PubMed

    Billeter, S A; Hayman, D T S; Peel, A J; Baker, K; Wood, J L N; Cunningham, A; Suu-Ire, R; Dittmar, K; Kosoy, M Y

    2012-03-01

    Bat flies are obligate ectoparasites of bats and it has been hypothesized that they may be involved in the transmission of Bartonella species between bats. A survey was conducted to identify whether Cyclopodia greefi greefi (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) collected from Ghana and 2 islands in the Gulf of Guinea harbour Bartonella. In total, 137 adult flies removed from Eidolon helvum, the straw-coloured fruit bat, were screened for the presence of Bartonella by culture and PCR analysis. Bartonella DNA was detected in 91 (66·4%) of the specimens examined and 1 strain of a Bartonella sp., initially identified in E. helvum blood from Kenya, was obtained from a bat fly collected in Ghana. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to report the identification and isolation of Bartonella in bat flies from western Africa.

  9. Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Turner, Gregory G.; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michelle L.; Russell, Robin E.; Castle, Kevin T.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

  10. Enzootic and epizootic rabies associated with vampire bats, peru.

    PubMed

    Condori-Condori, Rene Edgar; Streicker, Daniel G; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002-2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non-vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans.

  11. Enzootic and Epizootic Rabies Associated with Vampire Bats, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Streicker, Daniel G.; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002–2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non–vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans.

  12. Great tits search for, capture, kill and eat hibernating bats

    PubMed Central

    Estók, Péter; Zsebők, Sándor; Siemers, Björn M.

    2010-01-01

    Ecological pressure paired with opportunism can lead to surprising innovations in animal behaviour. Here, we report predation of great tits (Parus major) on hibernating pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) at a Hungarian cave. Over two winters, we directly observed 18 predation events. The tits specifically and systematically searched for and killed bats for food. A substantial decrease in predation on bats after experimental provisioning of food to the tits further supports the hypothesis that bat-killing serves a foraging purpose in times of food scarcity. We finally conducted a playback experiment to test whether tits would eavesdrop on calls of awakening bats to find them in rock crevices. The tits could clearly hear the calls and were attracted to the loudspeaker. Records for tit predation on bats at this cave now span more than ten years and thus raise the question of whether cultural transmission plays a role for the spread of this foraging innovation. PMID:19740892

  13. Naturally acquired rabies virus infections in wild-caught bats.

    PubMed

    Davis, April; Gordy, Paul; Rudd, Robert; Jarvis, Jodie A; Bowen, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    The study of a zoonotic disease requires an understanding of the disease incidence in animal reservoirs. Rabies incidence in bats submitted to diagnostic laboratories does not accurately reflect the true incidence in wild bat populations as a bias exists for testing bats that have been in contact with humans or pets. This article details the rabies incidence in two species of bats collected from natural settings without such bias. In this study, brain smears from 0.6% and 2.5% of wild-caught and apparently healthy Tadarida brasiliensis and Eptesicus fuscus, respectively, were positive for rabies virus (RV) antigen. Conversely, 92% of the grounded T. brasiliensis were positive for RV. Serology performed on captive colony and sick bats reveal an immune response to rabies. This work illustrates the complex interplay between immunity, disease state, and the conundrum of RV maintenance in bats.

  14. The role of BAT in cardiometabolic disorders and aging.

    PubMed

    Blondin, Denis P; Carpentier, André C

    2016-08-01

    The demonstration of the presence of metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans using positron emission tomography (PET) over the past decade has lead to the rapid development of our knowledge regarding the role of BAT in energy metabolism in animal models and in humans. Although animal models continue to provide highly valuable information regarding the mechanisms regulating BAT development, mass and metabolic functions, these studies led to many assumptions that have been at best only partially verified in humans so far. Combined to some limitations of the current investigation approaches used in humans, this has lead to speculation on the potential role of BAT dysfunction in the development of cardiometabolic disorders and on the potential of BAT metabolic activation to treat these conditions. Here we propose a critical review of the evidence for the implication of BAT in cardiometabolic health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Great tits search for, capture, kill and eat hibernating bats.

    PubMed

    Estók, Péter; Zsebok, Sándor; Siemers, Björn M

    2010-02-23

    Ecological pressure paired with opportunism can lead to surprising innovations in animal behaviour. Here, we report predation of great tits (Parus major) on hibernating pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) at a Hungarian cave. Over two winters, we directly observed 18 predation events. The tits specifically and systematically searched for and killed bats for food. A substantial decrease in predation on bats after experimental provisioning of food to the tits further supports the hypothesis that bat-killing serves a foraging purpose in times of food scarcity. We finally conducted a playback experiment to test whether tits would eavesdrop on calls of awakening bats to find them in rock crevices. The tits could clearly hear the calls and were attracted to the loudspeaker. Records for tit predation on bats at this cave now span more than ten years and thus raise the question of whether cultural transmission plays a role for the spread of this foraging innovation.

  16. Genomic Mining Reveals Deep Evolutionary Relationships between Bornaviruses and Bats

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jie; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Bats globally harbor viruses in order Mononegavirales, such as lyssaviruses and henipaviruses; however, little is known about their relationships with bornaviruses. Previous studies showed that viral fossils of bornaviral origin are embedded in the genomes of several mammalian species such as primates, indicative of an ancient origin of exogenous bornaviruses. In this study, we mined the available 10 bat genomes and recreated a clear evolutionary relationship of endogenous bornaviral elements and bats. Comparative genomics showed that endogenization of bornaviral elements frequently occurred in vesper bats, harboring EBLLs (endogenous bornavirus-like L elements) in their genomes. Molecular dating uncovered a continuous bornavirus-bat interaction spanning 70 million years. We conclude that better understanding of modern exogenous bornaviral circulation in bat populations is warranted. PMID:26569285

  17. Seroprevalence Dynamics of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 in a Multispecies Bat Colony

    PubMed Central

    López-Roig, Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Lavenir, Rachel; Serra-Cobo, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    We report an active surveillance study of the occurrence of specific antibodies to European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 (EBLV-1) in bat species, scarcely studied hitherto, that share the same refuge. From 2004 to 2012, 406 sera were obtained from nine bat species. Blood samples were subjected to a modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test to determine the antibody titer. EBLV-1-neutralizing antibodies were detected in six of the nine species analyzed (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, Hypsugo savii, Plecotus austriacus, Eptesicus serotinus and Tadarida teniotis). Among all bats sampled, female seroprevalence (20.21%, 95% CI: 14.78%–26.57%) was not significantly higher than the seroprevalence in males (15.02%, 95% CI: 10.51%–20.54%). The results showed that the inter-annual variation in the number of seropositive bats in T. teniotis and P. austriacus showed a peak in 2007 (>70% of EBLV-1 prevalence). However, significant differences were observed in the temporal patterns of the seroprevalence modeling of T. teniotis and P. austriacus. The behavioral ecology of these species involved could explain the different annual fluctuations in EBLV-1 seroprevalence. PMID:25192547

  18. Leishmania (L.) mexicana infected bats in Mexico: novel potential reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology.

  19. Leishmania (L.) mexicana Infected Bats in Mexico: Novel Potential Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R.; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F.; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology. PMID:25629729

  20. Sensory Ecology of Water Detection by Bats: A Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Danilo; Cistrone, Luca; Jones, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Bats face a great risk of dehydration, so sensory mechanisms for water recognition are crucial for their survival. In the laboratory, bats recognized any smooth horizontal surface as water because these provide analogous reflections of echolocation calls. We tested whether bats also approach smooth horizontal surfaces other than water to drink in nature by partly covering watering troughs used by hundreds of bats with a Perspex layer mimicking water. We aimed 1) to confirm that under natural conditions too bats mistake any horizontal smooth surface for water by testing this on large numbers of individuals from a range of species and 2) to assess the occurrence of learning effects. Eleven bat species mistook Perspex for water relying chiefly on echoacoustic information. Using black instead of transparent Perspex did not deter bats from attempting to drink. In Barbastella barbastellus no echolocation differences occurred between bats approaching the water and the Perspex surfaces respectively, confirming that bats perceive water and Perspex to be acoustically similar. The drinking attempt rates at the fake surface were often lower than those recorded in the laboratory: bats then either left the site or moved to the control water surface. This suggests that bats modified their behaviour as soon as the lack of drinking reward had overridden the influence of echoacoustic information. Regardless of which of two adjoining surfaces was covered, bats preferentially approached and attempted to drink from the first surface encountered, probably because they followed a common route, involving spatial memory and perhaps social coordination. Overall, although acoustic recognition itself is stereotyped and its importance in the drinking process overwhelming, our findings point at the role of experience in increasing behavioural flexibility under natural conditions. PMID:23133558

  1. Geographic Translocation of Bats: Known and Potential Problems

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Natural, accidental, and intentional translocation of bats, both intra- and intercontinentally, has been documented. Some bats have been translocated while incubating infectious diseases, including rabies or related lyssavirus infections; others have escaped confinement en route to or at their destinations, while others have been released deliberately. Known events and potential consequences of bat translocation are reviewed, including a proposed solution to the attendant problems. PMID:12533276

  2. An Investigation of bat durability by wood species

    Treesearch

    Eric Ruggiero; James Sherwood; Patrick Drane; David Kretschmann

    2012-01-01

    Northern white ash had been the wood of choice for Major League Baseball (MLB) bats until the introduction of hard maple in the late 1990s. Since the introduction of maple to the game, there has been a perceived increase in the rate of bats to exhibit multi-piece failures (MPF)—both ash and maple. Lab and field data indicate that while a maple bat is as...

  3. Nipah virus infection in bats (order Chiroptera) in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed Central

    Yob, J. M.; Field, H.; Rashdi, A. M.; Morrissy, C.; van der Heide, B.; Rota, P.; bin Adzhar, A.; White, J.; Daniels, P.; Jamaluddin, A.; Ksiazek, T.

    2001-01-01

    Nipah virus, family Paramyxoviridae, caused disease in pigs and humans in peninsular Malaysia in 1998-99. Because Nipah virus appears closely related to Hendra virus, wildlife surveillance focused primarily on pteropid bats (suborder Megachiroptera), a natural host of Hendra virus in Australia. We collected 324 bats from 14 species on peninsular Malaysia. Neutralizing antibodies to Nipah virus were demonstrated in five species, suggesting widespread infection in bat populations in peninsular Malaysia. PMID:11384522

  4. Causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines: Hypotheses and predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, P.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of industrial-scale wind turbines are being built across the world each year to meet the growing demand for sustainable energy. Bats of certain species are dying at wind turbines in unprecedented numbers. Species of bats consistently affected by turbines tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Although considerable progress has been made in recent years toward better understanding the problem, the causes of bat fatalities at turbines remain unclear. In this synthesis, we review hypothesized causes of bat fatalities at turbines. Hypotheses of cause fall into 2 general categoriesproximate and ultimate. Proximate causes explain the direct means by which bats die at turbines and include collision with towers and rotating blades, and barotrauma. Ultimate causes explain why bats come close to turbines and include 3 general types: random collisions, coincidental collisions, and collisions that result from attraction of bats to turbines. The random collision hypothesis posits that interactions between bats and turbines are random events and that fatalities are representative of the bats present at a site. Coincidental hypotheses posit that certain aspects of bat distribution or behavior put them at risk of collision and include aggregation during migration and seasonal increases in flight activity associated with feeding or mating. A surprising number of attraction hypotheses suggest that bats might be attracted to turbines out of curiosity, misperception, or as potential feeding, roosting, flocking, and mating opportunities. Identifying, prioritizing, and testing hypothesized causes of bat collisions with wind turbines are vital steps toward developing practical solutions to the problem. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  5. The distribution of the bats of South Carolina

    Treesearch

    Jennifer M. Menzel; Michael A. Menzel; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards; Steven R. Sheffield; John C. Kilgo; Mary S. Bunch

    2003-01-01

    There is a paucity of information available about the distribution of bats in the southeastern United States. Golley (1966) recorded the distribution and gave a brief summary of the natural history of 11 of 14 species of bats that occur in South Carolina and DiSalvo et al. (2002) recently reported on the distribution of 13 species of bats that occur in South Carolina...

  6. Sensory ecology of water detection by bats: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Russo, Danilo; Cistrone, Luca; Jones, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Bats face a great risk of dehydration, so sensory mechanisms for water recognition are crucial for their survival. In the laboratory, bats recognized any smooth horizontal surface as water because these provide analogous reflections of echolocation calls. We tested whether bats also approach smooth horizontal surfaces other than water to drink in nature by partly covering watering troughs used by hundreds of bats with a Perspex layer mimicking water. We aimed 1) to confirm that under natural conditions too bats mistake any horizontal smooth surface for water by testing this on large numbers of individuals from a range of species and 2) to assess the occurrence of learning effects. Eleven bat species mistook Perspex for water relying chiefly on echoacoustic information. Using black instead of transparent Perspex did not deter bats from attempting to drink. In Barbastella barbastellus no echolocation differences occurred between bats approaching the water and the Perspex surfaces respectively, confirming that bats perceive water and Perspex to be acoustically similar. The drinking attempt rates at the fake surface were often lower than those recorded in the laboratory: bats then either left the site or moved to the control water surface. This suggests that bats modified their behaviour as soon as the lack of drinking reward had overridden the influence of echoacoustic information. Regardless of which of two adjoining surfaces was covered, bats preferentially approached and attempted to drink from the first surface encountered, probably because they followed a common route, involving spatial memory and perhaps social coordination. Overall, although acoustic recognition itself is stereotyped and its importance in the drinking process overwhelming, our findings point at the role of experience in increasing behavioural flexibility under natural conditions.

  7. Diseases in free-ranging bats from Germany

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence of important viral diseases and their potential threat to humans has increased the interest in bats as potential reservoir species. Whereas the majority of studies determined the occurrence of specific zoonotic agents in chiropteran species, little is known about actual bat pathogens and impacts of disease on bat mortality. Combined pathological and microbiological investigations in free-ranging bats are sparse and often limited by small sample sizes. In the present study about 500 deceased bats of 19 European species (family Vespertilionidae) were subjected to a post-mortem examination followed by histo-pathological and bacteriological investigations. The bat carcasses originated from different geographical regions in Germany and were collected by bat researchers and bat rehabilitation centers. Results Pathological examination revealed inflammatory lesions in more than half of the investigated bats. Lung was the predominantly affected organ (40%) irrespective of bat species, sex and age. To a lesser extent non-inflammatory organ tissue changes were observed. Comparative analysis of histo-pathology and bacteriology results identified 22 different bacterial species that were clearly associated with pathological lesions. Besides disease-related mortality, traumatic injuries represented an additional major cause of death. Here, attacks by domestic cats accounted for almost a half of these cases. Conclusions The present study shows that free-ranging bats not only serve as a reservoir of infectious agents, they are also vulnerable to various infectious diseases. Some of these microbial agents have zoonotic potential, but there is no evidence that European bats would pose a higher health hazard risk to humans in comparison to other wildlife. PMID:22008235

  8. Models of Eucalypt phenology predict bat population flux.

    PubMed

    Giles, John R; Plowright, Raina K; Eby, Peggy; Peel, Alison J; McCallum, Hamish

    2016-10-01

    Fruit bats (Pteropodidae) have received increased attention after the recent emergence of notable viral pathogens of bat origin. Their vagility hinders data collection on abundance and distribution, which constrains modeling efforts and our understanding of bat ecology, viral dynamics, and spillover. We addressed this knowledge gap with models and data on the occurrence and abundance of nectarivorous fruit bat populations at 3 day roosts in southeast Queensland. We used environmental drivers of nectar production as predictors and explored relationships between bat abundance and virus spillover. Specifically, we developed several novel modeling tools motivated by complexities of fruit bat foraging ecology, including: (1) a dataset of spatial variables comprising Eucalypt-focused vegetation indices, cumulative precipitation, and temperature anomaly; (2) an algorithm that associated bat population response with spatial covariates in a spatially and temporally relevant way given our current understanding of bat foraging behavior; and (3) a thorough statistical learning approach to finding optimal covariate combinations. We identified covariates that classify fruit bat occupancy at each of our three study roosts with 86-93% accuracy. Negative binomial models explained 43-53% of the variation in observed abundance across roosts. Our models suggest that spatiotemporal heterogeneity in Eucalypt-based food resources could drive at least 50% of bat population behavior at the landscape scale. We found that 13 spillover events were observed within the foraging range of our study roosts, and they occurred during times when models predicted low population abundance. Our results suggest that, in southeast Queensland, spillover may not be driven by large aggregations of fruit bats attracted by nectar-based resources, but rather by behavior of smaller resident subpopulations. Our models and data integrated remote sensing and statistical learning to make inferences on bat ecology

  9. Group A Rotaviruses in Chinese Bats: Genetic Composition, Serology, and Evidence for Bat-to-Human Transmission and Reassortment.

    PubMed

    He, Biao; Huang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Fuqiang; Tan, Weilong; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Qin, Shaomin; Xu, Lin; Zhao, Zihan; Yang, Ling'en; Wang, Quanxi; Hu, Tingsong; Bao, Xiaolei; Wu, Jianmin; Tu, Changchun

    2017-06-15

    Bats are natural reservoirs for many pathogenic viruses, and increasing evidence supports the notion that bats can also harbor group A rotaviruses (RVAs), important causative agents of diarrhea in children and young animals. Currently, 8 RVA strains possessing completely novel genotype constellations or genotypes possibly originating from other mammals have been identified from African and Chinese bats. However, all the data were mainly based on detection of RVA RNA, present only during acute infections, which does not permit assessment of the true exposure of a bat population to RVA. To systematically investigate the genetic diversity of RVAs, 547 bat anal swabs or gut samples along with 448 bat sera were collected from five South Chinese provinces. Specific reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) screening found four RVA strains. Strain GLRL1 possessed a completely novel genotype constellation, whereas the other three possessed a constellation consistent with the MSLH14-like genotype, a newly characterized group of viruses widely prevalent in Chinese insectivorous bats. Among the latter, strain LZHP2 provided strong evidence of cross-species transmission of RVAs from bats to humans, whereas strains YSSK5 and BSTM70 were likely reassortants between typical MSLH14-like RVAs and human RVAs. RVA-specific antibodies were detected in 10.7% (48/448) of bat sera by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA). Bats in Guangxi and Yunnan had a higher RVA-specific antibody prevalence than those from Fujian and Zhejiang provinces. These observations provide evidence for cross-species transmission of MSLH14-like bat RVAs to humans, highlighting the impact of bats as reservoirs of RVAs on public health.IMPORTANCE Bat viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), Ebola, Hendra, and Nipah viruses, are important pathogens causing outbreaks of severe emerging infectious diseases. However, little is known about bat viruses capable of

  10. Bat flight generates complex aerodynamic tracks.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, A; Johansson, L C; Wolf, M; von Busse, R; Winter, Y; Spedding, G R

    2007-05-11

    The flapping flight of animals generates an aerodynamic footprint as a time-varying vortex wake in which the rate of momentum change represents the aerodynamic force. We showed that the wakes of a small bat species differ from those of birds in some important respects. In our bats, each wing generated its own vortex loop. Also, at moderate and high flight speeds, the circulation on the outer (hand) wing and the arm wing differed in sign during the upstroke, resulting in negative lift on the hand wing and positive lift on the arm wing. Our interpretations of the unsteady aerodynamic performance and function of membranous-winged, flapping flight should change modeling strategies for the study of equivalent natural and engineered flying devices.

  11. Discovery of a Novel Bat Gammaherpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Host, Kurtis M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zoonosis is the leading cause of emerging infectious diseases. In a recent article, R. S. Shabman et al. (mSphere 1[1]:e00070-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00070-15) report the identification of a novel gammaherpesvirus in a cell line derived from the microbat Myotis velifer incautus. This is the first report on a replicating, infectious gammaherpesvirus from bats. The new virus is named bat gammaherpesvirus 8 (BGHV8), also known as Myotis gammaherpesvirus 8, and is able to infect multiple cell lines, including those of human origin. Using next-generation sequencing technology, the authors constructed a full-length annotated genomic map of BGHV8. Phylogenetic analysis of several genes from BGHV8 revealed similarity to several mammalian gammaherpesviruses, including Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). PMID:27303690

  12. Reciprocal food sharing in the vampire bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    1984-03-01

    Behavioural reciprocity can be evolutionarily stable1-3. Initial increase in frequency depends, however, on reciprocal altruists interacting predominantly with other reciprocal altruists either by associating within kin groups or by having sufficient memory to recognize and not aid nonreciprocators. Theory thus suggests that reciprocity should evolve more easily among animals which live in kin groups. Data are available separating reciprocity from nepotism only for unrelated nonhuman animals4. Here, I show that food sharing by regurgitation of blood among wild vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) depends equally and independently on degree of relatedness and an index of opportunity for recipro cation. That reciprocity operates within groups containing both kin and nonkin is supported further with data on the availability of blood-sharing occasions, estimates of the economics of shar ing blood, and experiments which show that unrelated bats will reciprocally exchange blood in captivity.

  13. The First Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Barbier, L.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; hide

    2007-01-01

    We present the first Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), which contains bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2007 June 16. This catalog (hereafter BAT1 catalog) contains burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, and time averaged spectral parameters for each of 237 GRBs, as measured by the BAT. The BAT-determined position reported here is within 1.75' of the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT)-determined position for 90% of these GRBs. The BAT T(sub 90) and T(sub 50) durations peak at 80 and 20 seconds, respectively. From the fluence-fluence correlation, we conclude that about 60% of the observed peak energies, E(sup obs)(sub peak) of BAT GRBs could be less than 100 keV. We confirm that GRB fluence to hardness and GRB peak flux to hardness are correlated for BAT bursts in analogous ways to previous missions' results. The correlation between the photon index in a simple power-law model and E(sup obs)(sub peak) is also confirmed. We also report the current status for the on-orbit BAT calibrations based on observations of the Crab Nebula.

  14. Evolutionary change in the brain size of bats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lu; Brown, J-P; Stampanoni, Marco; Marone, Federica; Isler, Karin; Martin, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that mammal brain size predominantly increases over evolutionary time. Safi et al. [Biol Lett 2005;1:283-286] questioned the generality of this trend, arguing that brain size evolution among bats involved reduction in multiple lineages as well as enlargement in others. Our study explored the direction of change in the evolution of bat brain size by estimating brain volume in fossil bats, using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy. Virtual endocasts were generated from 2 Hipposideros species: 3 specimens of Oligocene Hipposideros schlosseri (∼35 Ma) and 3 of Miocene Hipposideros bouziguensis (∼20 Ma). Upper molar tooth dimensions (M(2) length × width) collected for 43 extant insectivorous bat species were used to derive empirical formulae to estimate body mass in the fossil bats. Brain size was found to be relatively smaller in the fossil bats than in the average extant bat both with raw data and after allowing for phylogenetic inertia. Phylogenetic modeling of ancestral relative brain size with and without fossil bats confirmed a general trend towards evolutionary increase in this bat lineage.

  15. Bat white-nose syndrome: an emerging fungal pathogen?

    PubMed

    Blehert, David S; Hicks, Alan C; Behr, Melissa; Meteyer, Carol U; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M; Buckles, Elizabeth L; Coleman, Jeremy T H; Darling, Scott R; Gargas, Andrea; Niver, Robyn; Okoniewski, Joseph C; Rudd, Robert J; Stone, Ward B

    2009-01-09

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a condition associated with an unprecedented bat mortality event in the northeastern United States. Since the winter of 2006*2007, bat declines exceeding 75% have been observed at surveyed hibernacula. Affected bats often present with visually striking white fungal growth on their muzzles, ears, and/or wing membranes. Direct microscopy and culture analyses demonstrated that the skin of WNS-affected bats is colonized by a psychrophilic fungus that is phylogenetically related to Geomyces spp. but with a conidial morphology distinct from characterized members of this genus. This report characterizes the cutaneous fungal infection associated with WNS.

  16. Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance.

    PubMed

    George, Dylan B; Webb, Colleen T; Farnsworth, Matthew L; O'Shea, Thomas J; Bowen, Richard A; Smith, David L; Stanley, Thomas R; Ellison, Laura E; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-06-21

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

  17. Neotropical Bats from Costa Rica harbour Diverse Coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Soto, A; Taylor-Castillo, L; Vargas-Vargas, N; Rodríguez-Herrera, B; Jiménez, C; Corrales-Aguilar, E

    2015-11-01

    Bats are hosts of diverse coronaviruses (CoVs) known to potentially cross the host-species barrier. For analysing coronavirus diversity in a bat species-rich country, a total of 421 anal swabs/faecal samples from Costa Rican bats were screened for CoV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences by a pancoronavirus PCR. Six families, 24 genera and 41 species of bats were analysed. The detection rate for CoV was 1%. Individuals (n = 4) from four different species of frugivorous (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata and Carollia castanea) and nectivorous (Glossophaga soricina) bats were positive for coronavirus-derived nucleic acids. Analysis of 440 nt. RdRp sequences allocated all Costa Rican bat CoVs to the α-CoV group. Several CoVs sequences clustered near previously described CoVs from the same species of bat, but were phylogenetically distant from the human CoV sequences identified to date, suggesting no recent spillover events. The Glossophaga soricina CoV sequence is sufficiently dissimilar (26% homology to the closest known bat CoVs) to represent a unique coronavirus not clustering near other CoVs found in the same bat species so far, implying an even higher CoV diversity than previously suspected.

  18. Bats and Emerging Infections: An Ecological and Virological Puzzle.

    PubMed

    Serra-Cobo, Jordi; López-Roig, Marc

    2016-10-09

    More than 200 viruses have been detected in bats. Some unique bat characteristics can explain the roles played in the maintenance and transmission of viruses: long phylogenetic history can have originated coevolution processes, great number of species are adapted to live in different environments, big mobility, long lifespan and gregarious behaviour of many species.To analyse zoonoses long longitudinal studies are needed with a multidisciplinary approximation to obtain the following eco-epidemiological data: colony size, number of bats per species, population structure, behaviour of each species, degree of contact between bats, social structure, remaining time of bats in the colony, colony type, foraging area, turnover rate of individuals, shelter temperature, relationship with other colonies and co-infection processes. These data allows assessing the epidemiological risk and which preventive measures are necessary to take.The str