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Sample records for brazilian pantanal south

  1. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  2. Habitat mapping of the Brazilian Pantanal using synthetic aperture radar imagery and object based image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Teresa Lynne

    The Brazilian Pantanal, a continuous tropical wetland located in the center of South America, has been recognized as one of the largest and most important wetland ecosystems globally. The Pantanal exhibits a high biodiversity of flora and fauna species, and many threatened habitats. The spatial distribution of these habitats influence the distribution, abundance and interactions of animal species, and the change or destruction of habitat may cause alteration of key biological processes. The Pantanal may be divided into several distinct subregions based on geology and hydrology: flooding in these subregions is distinctly seasonal, but the timing, amplitude and duration of inundation vary considerably as a result of both the delayed release of floodwaters and regional rainfall patterns. Given the ecological importance of the Pantanal wetland ecosystem, the primary goal of this research was to utilize a dual season set of L-band (ALOS/PALSAR) and C-band (RADARSAT-2 and ENVISAT/ASAR) imagery, a comprehensive set of ground reference data, and a hierarchical object-oriented approach. This primary goal was achieved through two main research tasks. The first task was to define the diverse habitats of the Lower Nhecolândia subregion of the Pantanal at both a fine spatial resolution (12.5 m), and a relatively medium spatial resolution (50 m), thus evaluating the accuracy of the differing spatial resolutions for land cover classification of the highly spatially heterogeneous subregion. The second task was to define on a regional scale, using the 50 m spatial resolution imagery, the wetland habitats of each of the hydrological subregions of the Pantanal, thereby producing a final product covering the entire Pantanal ecosystem. The final classification maps of the Lower Nhecolândia subregion resulted in overall accuracies of 83% and 72% for the 12.5 m and 50 m spatial resolutions, respectively, and defined seven land cover classes. In general, the highest degree of confusion

  3. Growth of Caiman crocodilus yacare in the Brazilian Pantanal

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Zilca; Mourão, Guilherme; Coutinho, Marcos; Magnusson, William E.

    2014-01-01

    We studied growth of the caiman, Caiman crocodilus yacare, in the Brazilian Pantanal for 27 years between 1987 and 2013.We recaptured 647 of 7769 C. c. yacare initially marked in an area of 50 km2, in two ranches. We were able to determine size at age accurately for 24 male and17 female caimans that had been marked at hatching or less than 1 year old, and recaptured over periods of 5 to 24 years. The other 606 caimans were used to evaluate short-term growth rates. Age-size relationships were estimated using growth models from the Richards family of curves (full model, von Bertalanffy and monomolecular). The form of the relationships differed between analyses based on caimans of known age and analyses based on integration of growth rate on size relationships for caimans whose ages were not known. Individuals showed large variation in short-term growth rates, but data on known-age animals indicated little between-individual variability in long-term growth rates. There was evidence of a small effect of rainfall, but not temperature, on short-term growth of small caimans, but most variation in growth rates was unexplained by variables other than age and sex. Data on known-age individuals indicated that female C. c. yacare generally reach sexual maturity between 10 and 15 years of age. Because of the asymptotic relationship between age and size, deviations of observations from the model for age are larger than for size, and estimates of age at a given size have greater errors than estimates of size at a given age. Integration of growth rate on size relationships may be adequate for estimating size from age in many cases, but accurate estimates of age from size require data on known-age individuals over the size range of the species. PMID:24586719

  4. New species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Thrichomys fosteri and Clyomys laticeps (Rodentia: Echimyidae) of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; Viana, Lúcio André; Santos, Filipe Martins; de Oliveira Porfírio, Grasiela Edith; Perdomo, Alessandra Cabral; da Silva, Alanderson Rodrigues; de Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques; de Oliveira, Michel Angelo Constantino; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; de Andrade, Gisele Braziliano

    2017-09-05

    The echimyid rodents Thrichomys fosteri and Clyomys laticeps are among the most commonly recorded small mammals in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil. These species play important ecological roles since they are the basis of the food chain of some predators and are parasitized by some pathogens. Knowledge of the eimerians that parasitize echimyid rodents in Brazil is absent, and only one report is available for South America. We therefore investigated parasitism by coccidians in the echimyids T. fosteri and C. laticeps in the Pantanal. Using morphological and morphometric features and associated statistical analyses, we describe five new eimerian species parasitizing T. fosteri (Eimeria nhecolandensis n. sp., Eimeria jansenae n. sp., and Eimeria fosteri n. sp.) and C. laticeps (E. nhecolandensis n. sp., Eimeria corumbaensis n. sp., and Eimeria laticeps n. sp.) in different types of infection associations. We document the developmental forms in the tissues, and describe lesions in the enteric tract of some infected animals. We also discuss some approaches regarding epidemiological and ecological data. Our results demonstrate that echimyid rodents in the Brazilian Pantanal are important hosts for the maintenance of enteric coccidia. Moreover, in some circumstances, this parasitism may threaten the health of the hosts.

  5. New records of three species of nematodes in Cerdocyon thous from the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ana Paula Nascimento; Olifiers, Natalie; Santos, Michele Maria Dos; Simões, Raquel de Oliveira; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    We report the occurrence of nematodes collected from the gut of roadkilled crab-eating foxes (two adult males and one juvenile female), Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), found on the BR 262 highway in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil in 2011. Three helminth species were identified: Ancylostoma buckleyi, Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) pluripectinata, and Ascaridia galli. These nematodes are reported for the first time to infect C. thous from the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands, thereby expanding their geographical distribution.

  6. Ambush behavior of the tick Amblyomma sculptum (Amblyomma cajennense complex) (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa do Nascimento; Osava, Carolina Fonseca; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2017-02-27

    We herein describe the ambush behavior of Amblyomma sculptum (Berlese 1888), a widespread and epidemiologically important tick in Brazil. Along two years of sampling by visual search in the Brazilian Pantanal, A. sculptum ticks were observed on the vegetation and in the leaf litter. Most of the ticks were observed between 10 and 50cm above ground level and less than five percent of the total were positioned below 10cm, indicating that they are seeking for middle or large-sized hosts. In both seasons, vapor saturation deficit was low during the morning. No significant relationship was found between questing ticks and daytime interval of observation or saturation deficit. However, questing tick numbers seem be higher in the end of the morning, when saturation deficit reaches its peak. Behavioral patterns of A. sculptum ticks observed in Pantanal underscore the occurrence of this tick and human contact at green anthropogenic sites. Considering A. sculptum questing behavior, inferences on human behavioral patterns that enhance or avoid contact with ticks are discussed.

  7. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa) of Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed Central

    Lessa, SS; Paes, RCS; Santoro, PN; Mauro, RA; Vieira-da-Motta, O

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36) and enterococci (186) strains. Among Gram-negative (GN) bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247) mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105), Escherichia coli (50), and Enterobacter spp. (40) and specimens not identified (7). Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%). Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%), ampicillin (94%) and tetracycline (90%), and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%), clindamycin (83%), and cotrimoxazole (54%). In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%), AMC (66%) and AMP (60%) and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%), AMP, TOB (98%), GEN, CLO (95%), CFO, CIP (93%). The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated. PMID:24031689

  8. Complementary data on four methods for sampling free-living ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa do Nascimento; Osava, Carolina Fonseca; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, four methods for sampling free-living ticks that are used in ecological and human tick-bite risk studies were evaluated. Cloth dragging, carbon dioxide traps and visual searches and inspection of plant litter on the ground were used in field and forest areas within the Brazilian Pantanal. Among the three tick species collected, Amblyomma sculptum predominated, followed by Amblyomma parvum and Amblyomma ovale. Dragging, a cheap and simple technique, yielded the highest numbers of ticks, particularly nymphs. The visual search detected a high number of adult ticks and provided information on tick questing height. Even though laborious, plant litter examination showed that large numbers of ticks may use this stratum. Carbon dioxide (CO2) traps are expensive and difficult to handle, but they are highly efficient for adult ticks, especially A. parvum. These data indicate that one method alone is incapable of providing a representative sample of the tick fauna in a particular area and that multiple techniques should be used for tick population studies.

  9. Azospirillum spp. from native forage grasses in Brazilian Pantanal floodplain: biodiversity and plant growth promotion potential.

    PubMed

    Souza, Mayara S T; de Baura, Valter A; Santos, Sandra A; Fernandes-Júnior, Paulo Ivan; Reis Junior, Fábio B; Marques, Maria Rita; Paggi, Gecele Matos; da Silva Brasil, Marivaine

    2017-04-01

    A sustainable alternative to improve yield and the nutritive value of forage is the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) that release nutrients, synthesize plant hormones and protect against phytopathogens (among other mechanisms). Azospirillum genus is considered an important PGPB, due to the beneficial effects observed when inoculated in several plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of new Azospirillum isolates and select bacteria according to the plant growth promotion ability in three forage species from the Brazilian Pantanal floodplain: Axonopus purpusii, Hymenachne amplexicaulis and Mesosetum chaseae. The identification of bacterial isolates was performed using specific primers for Azospirillum in PCR reactions and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes. The isolates were evaluated in vitro considering biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. Based on the results of BNF and IAA, selected isolates and two reference strains were tested by inoculation. At 31 days after planting the plant height, shoot dry matter, shoot protein content and root volume were evaluated. All isolates were able to fix nitrogen and produce IAA, with values ranging from 25.86 to 51.26 mg N mL(-1) and 107-1038 µmol L(-1), respectively. The inoculation of H. amplexicaulis and A. purpusii increased root volume and shoot dry matter. There were positive effects of Azospirillum inoculation on Mesosetum chaseae regarding plant height, shoot dry matter and root volume. Isolates MAY1, MAY3 and MAY12 were considered promising for subsequent inoculation studies in field conditions.

  10. Neutralising antibodies for West Nile virus in horses from Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Morales, Maria Alejandra; Levis, Silvana; Figueiredo, Luis Tadeu Moraes; Couto-Lima, Dinair; Campos, Zilca; Nogueira, Marcia Furlan; da Silva, Edson Elias; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Schatzmayr, Hermann Gonçalves

    2011-06-01

    Despite evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) activity in Colombia, Venezuela and Argentina, this virus has not been reported in most South American countries. In February 2009, we commenced an investigation for WNV in mosquitoes, horses and caimans from the Pantanal, Central-West Brazil. The sera of 168 horses and 30 caimans were initially tested using a flaviviruses-specific epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (blocking ELISA) for the detection of flavivirus-reactive antibodies. The seropositive samples were further tested using a plaque-reduction neutralisation test (PRNT90) for WNV and its most closely-related flaviviruses that circulate in Brazil to confirm the detection of specific virus-neutralising antibodies. Of the 93 (55.4%) blocking ELISA-seropositive horse serum samples, five (3%) were seropositive for WNV, nine (5.4%) were seropositive for St. Louis encephalitis virus, 18 (10.7%) were seropositive for Ilheus virus, three (1.8%) were seropositive for Cacipacore virus and none were seropositive for Rocio virus using PRNT90, with a criteria of ≥ four-fold antibody titre difference. All caimans were negative for flaviviruses-specific antibodies using the blocking ELISA. No virus genome was detected from caiman blood or mosquito samples. The present study is the first report of confirmed serological evidence of WNV activity in Brazil.

  11. School Children's Knowledge and Perceptions of Jaguars, Pumas, and Smaller Cats around a Mosaic of Protected Areas in the Western Brazilian Pantanal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfirio, Grasiela; Sarmento, Pedro; Fonseca, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Surveys to assess environmental knowledge are elementary tools to ensure successful environmental education. Felines are considered key components of the environment, acting as flagships for conservation. Nevertheless, they are threatened by loss of habitat, prey reductions, and poaching. In the mosaic of protected areas in the Brazilian Pantanal,…

  12. School Children's Knowledge and Perceptions of Jaguars, Pumas, and Smaller Cats around a Mosaic of Protected Areas in the Western Brazilian Pantanal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfirio, Grasiela; Sarmento, Pedro; Fonseca, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Surveys to assess environmental knowledge are elementary tools to ensure successful environmental education. Felines are considered key components of the environment, acting as flagships for conservation. Nevertheless, they are threatened by loss of habitat, prey reductions, and poaching. In the mosaic of protected areas in the Brazilian Pantanal,…

  13. Sedentary nestlings of Wood Stork as monitors of mercury contamination in the gold mining region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    SciTech Connect

    Nassif Del Lama, Silvia; Dosualdo Rocha, Cristiano; Figueiredo Jardim, Wilson; Tsai, Jo-Szu; Frederick, Peter Crawford

    2011-11-15

    Sedentary organisms that are at top trophic levels allow inference about the level of local mercury contamination. We evaluated mercury contamination in feather tissue of nestling Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), sampled in different parts of the Brazilian Pantanal that were variably polluted by mercury releases from gold mining activities. Levels of mercury in feathers sampled in seven breeding colonies were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the mean value of mercury concentration was 0.557 {mu}g/g, dry weight (n=124), range 0.024-4.423 {mu}g/g. From this total sample, 21 feathers that represent 30% of nestlings collected in Porto da Fazenda and Tucum colonies, in the northern region, ranged from 1.0 to 4.43 {mu}g/g, dry weight (median value=1.87 {mu}g/g). We found significant differences among regions (H=57.342; p=0<0.05). Results suggest that permanently flooded areas, or along mainstream rivers are more contaminated by mercury than dry areas, regardless of the distance from the gold mining center, which is located in the northern Pantanal. Highest values found in nestlings feathers were similar to those found in feathers of adult birds and in tissues of adult mammals that are less sedentary and were captured in the same region of Pantanal. These findings indicate that mercury released has been biomagnified and it is present in high concentrations in tissues of top consumers. We suggest a program to monitor mercury availability in this ecosystem using sedentary life forms of top predators like Wood Storks or other piscivorous birds. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sedentary stork nestlings were used for the first time to show local mercury contamination of Pantanal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences were found among regions but they are not explained only by distance from the gold mining. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permanently flooded areas and areas along mainstream rivers are more contaminated than dry areas. Black

  14. Sedentary nestlings of Wood Stork as monitors of mercury contamination in the gold mining region of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Del Lama, Silvia Nassif; Dosualdo Rocha, Cristiano; Figueiredo Jardim, Wilson; Tsai, Jo-Szu; Frederick, Peter Crawford

    2011-11-01

    Sedentary organisms that are at top trophic levels allow inference about the level of local mercury contamination. We evaluated mercury contamination in feather tissue of nestling Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), sampled in different parts of the Brazilian Pantanal that were variably polluted by mercury releases from gold mining activities. Levels of mercury in feathers sampled in seven breeding colonies were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the mean value of mercury concentration was 0.557 μg/g, dry weight (n=124), range 0.024-4.423 μg/g. From this total sample, 21 feathers that represent 30% of nestlings collected in Porto da Fazenda and Tucum colonies, in the northern region, ranged from 1.0 to 4.43 μg/g, dry weight (median value=1.87 μg/g). We found significant differences among regions (H=57.342; p=0<0.05). Results suggest that permanently flooded areas, or along mainstream rivers are more contaminated by mercury than dry areas, regardless of the distance from the gold mining center, which is located in the northern Pantanal. Highest values found in nestlings feathers were similar to those found in feathers of adult birds and in tissues of adult mammals that are less sedentary and were captured in the same region of Pantanal. These findings indicate that mercury released has been biomagnified and it is present in high concentrations in tissues of top consumers. We suggest a program to monitor mercury availability in this ecosystem using sedentary life forms of top predators like Wood Storks or other piscivorous birds.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for Equine Infectious Anemia in Poconé municipality, northern Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alice M C M; Silva, Lucas G; Nogueira, Márcia F; Oliveira, Anderson C S; Segri, Neuber J; Ferreira, Fernando; Witter, Rute; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2013-08-01

    Serum samples collected from 547 equids in the Pantanal region of Brazil were evaluated for antibodies to Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) by the agar gel immunodiffusion test. Risk factors associated with EIAV seropositivity were evaluated and spatial dependence investigated using a Spatial Lag Model. EIAV prevalence on farms in the Pantanal was 52.0% (13/25) with adjusted prevalence between equids of 31.5% (17.4-48.8% 95% CI). Intra-herd prevalence ranged from 5.0 to 77.0%. Statistical analysis demonstrated that farms and animals in regularly flooded areas had respectively 60 and 146 fold higher chance to be sero-positive than farms and animals located in non-flooded areas. Spatial Lag Model results were generally consistent with this conclusion although there was a negative spatial correlation between farms located within in regularly inundated regions, suggesting that other factors, such as management practices, probably play a significant role in transmission of EIAV. Equids with clinical signs were 3.74-fold more likely to be sero-positive than those without clinical signs. The results of this work reveal a high prevalence of EIAV in the Pantanal area of Brazil demonstrating that equids reared in this region are at great risk of infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Phenotypic and molecular fingerprinting of fast growing rhizobia of field-grown pigeonpea from the eastern edge of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Costa, F M; Schiavo, J A; Brasil, M S; Leite, J; Xavier, G R; Fernandes, P I

    2014-01-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of rhizobial isolates obtained from root nodules of pigeonpea plants grown at the eastern edge of the Brazilian Pantanal. The bacterial isolates were isolated from root nodules from field-growing pigeonpea grown in two rural settlements of the Aquidauana municipality. The bacterial isolates were characterized phenotypically by means of cultural characterization, intrinsic antibiotic resistance (IAR), salt and high incubation temperature tolerance, and amylolytic and cellulolytic activities. The molecular characterization of the bacterial isolates was carried out using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and Box-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. In addition, the symbiotic performance of selected rhizobial isolates was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment using sterile substrate. The phenotypic characterization revealed that the bacterial strains obtained from pigeonpea root nodules presented characteristics that are uncommon among rhizobial isolates, indicating the presence of new species nodulating the pigeonpea plants in the Brazilian Pantanal. The molecular fingerprinting of these bacterial isolates also showed a highly diverse collection, with both techniques revealing less than 25% similarity among bacterial isolates. The evaluation of symbiotic performance also indicated the presence of microorganisms with high potential to increase the growth and nitrogen content at the shoots of pigeonpea plants. The results obtained in this study indicate the presence of a highly diversified rhizobial community nodulating the pigeonpea at the eastern edge of the Brazilian Pantanal.

  17. Patterns of Woody Growth for Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado) Trees in the Cuiaba Basin and Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappia, A. J.; Vourlitis, G. L.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Brazilian savanna, locally known as cerrado, is a major ecosystem that covers a vast majority of central Brazil. Little is known about how woody growth within the cerrado is affected by soil properties such as texture and/or nutrient availability. Thus, in this study we assessed the relationship between woody growth and soil properties in the Cuiaba Basin and Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We sampled 4-5 vegetation stands in each site that varied in hydrology, soil type, and vegetation composition and structure, and measured diameter at breast height, wood density, and soil nutrient concentration and physical properties every 5-10 m along a 100 m long transect. We hypothesized that as tree diameter at breast height increases, annual tree growth rate will decrease and that woody carbon (C) storage will increase as a function of soil nutrient availability. Our preliminary data support our hypotheses. Tree growth rates declined with tree size in both the Cuiaba Basin and the Pantanal. Rates of woody C storage, both on a per tree basis (kgC tree-1 year-1) and on a per unit ground area basis (kgC m-2 year-1) were significantly positively correlated with soil extractable phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and clay content, while only woody C storage on a per tree basis was positively correlated with potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and cation exchange capacity (CEC). These data suggest that rates of woody C storage in cerrado are nutrient limited, while correspondence between C storage and soil physical properties could indicate both nutrient and water limitations to C storage.

  18. Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) and ticks within the Brazilian Pantanal: ecological relationships.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Franco, Ana Helena A; Rodrigues, Vinicius S; Nava, Santiago; Szabó, Matias P J

    2016-02-01

    Pantanal is a huge floodplain mostly in Brazil, and its main economic activity is extensive cattle raising, in farms characterized by an extremely wildlife-rich environment. We herein describe tick infestations of cattle and of the natural environment in Pantanal of Nhecolândia in Brazil, at areas with and without cattle during both dry and wet seasons. Environmental sampling resulted in three tick species: Amblyomma sculptum (423 nymphs and 518 adults), Amblyomma parvum (7 nymphs and 129 adults), Amblyomma ovale (3 adults) as well as three clusters and two individuals of Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significantly higher number of adult A. sculptum ticks was found in areas with cattle in the wet season. From 106 examinations of bovines 1710 ticks from three species were collected: Rhipicephalus microplus (55.7% of the total), A. sculptum (38%) and A. parvum (4.1%), as well as 32 Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significant similarity was found between Amblyomma tick fauna from environment and on cattle during both seasons. All A. sculptum females on bovines were flat whereas many of A. parvum females and A. sculptum nymphs were engorging. Although R. microplus was the most abundant tick species on cattle, overall highest tick prevalence on bovines in the dry season was of A. sculptum nymphs. Lack of R. microplus in environmental sampling, relationship between cattle and increase in adult A. sculptum numbers in the environment as well as suitability of bovine for the various tick species are discussed.

  19. Ecosystem-scale CH4 and CO2 fluxes in a seasonally flooded scrub forest of the Brazilian Pantanal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlitis, G. L.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Arruda, P. H. Z. D.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.; Lobo, F. D. A.; Couto, E. G.; Nogueira, J. D. S.; Johnson, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Pantanal is the largest floodplain in South America, comprised of a mixture of savannah vegetation with patches of semi-deciduous and seasonally flooded forests. In this study we investigated ecosystem-scale methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and the possible factors that control these fluxes, such as the water level soil temperature and the soil redox potential. Trace gas fluxes were measured using an eddy covariance system installed on a 28 m tall tower. The study area was chosen because it is densely vegetated and experiences a seasonal flood pulse of about 6 months, which is typical for the Northern Pantanal. The measurements were performed over two flood cycles, from December to June 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. Methane fluxes showed a seasonal progression, with higher emission rates during the flooding period and near zero fluxes prior to inundation and again after recession. Major peaks of CH4 (0.30 μmol m-2 s-1) were observed after the soil became completely flooded and soil redox values were < -200 mV. The average (± sd) values of CH4 flux for the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons were 0.10 ± 0.06 μmol m-2 s-1 and 0.14 ± 0.04 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In contrast, CO2 fluxes are strongly negative during the flooded period, indicating net CO2 uptake by the forest, with average (± sd) values of -4.12 ± 3.34 μmol m-2 s-1 for 2013/2014 and -4.14 ± 2.62 μmol m-2 s-1 for 2014/2015. These data indicate that seasonally flooded forests of the Pantanal are potentially large sinks for CO2 but strong sources for CH4, especially during the flood pulse when anaerobic soil conditions concomitantly enhance CH4 production and limit CO2 production

  20. Mercury content in the fur of jaguars (Panthera onca) from two areas under different levels of gold mining impact in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    May, Joares A; Quigley, Howard; Hoogesteijn, Rafael; Tortato, Fernando R; Devlin, Allison; Carvalho, Rui M DE; Morato, Ronaldo G; Sartorello, Leonardo R; Rampim, Lilian E; Haberfeld, Mario; Paula, Rogério C DE; Zocche, Jairo José

    2017-08-17

    The Pantanal is the largest inland wetland in the world and is under increasing anthropogenic threats, including long-term regionally intensive gold mining practices. Gold mining activities are known to cause the release of harmful pollutants such as mercury (Hg) to the surrounding environment. Jaguars (Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758)) are apex predators, and therefore show great potential to accumulate Hg by biomagnification. We hypothesize that total Hg content in the fur of jaguars from two sites within the Brazilian Pantanal would be significantly different as a function of distance from active gold mining operations. The Hg content was determined by fluorescence spectrometry. The mean ± SD Hg content in jaguars from the study site influenced by gold mining (SB) was compared to jaguars sampled in the area free of gold mining activities (CA) using a one-way ANOVA. The mean Hg content in jaguars from SB (673.0 ± 916.8 µg g-1) is significantly different from jaguars sampled in CA (29.7 ± 23.3 µg g-1), p = 0.03. The maximum recorded content of Hg was 2,010.4 ± 150.5 µg g-1, highest level ever recorded in a wild animal. The data indicate that Hg is an important threat to jaguars within at-risk regions of the Pantanal.

  1. Extreme Emission of N2O from Tropical Wetland Soil (Pantanal, South America)

    PubMed Central

    Liengaard, Lars; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Priemé, Anders; Elberling, Bo; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Kühl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and ozone depleter, but the global budget of N2O remains unbalanced. Currently, ∼25% of the global N2O emission is ascribed to uncultivated tropical soils, but the exact locations and controlling mechanisms are not clear. Here we present the first study of soil N2O emission from the Pantanal indicating that this South American wetland may be a significant natural source of N2O. At three sites, we repeatedly measured in situ fluxes of N2O and sampled porewater nitrate (NO3-) during the low water season in 2008 and 2009. In 2010, 10 sites were screened for in situ fluxes of N2O and soil NO3- content. The in situ fluxes of N2O were comparable to fluxes from heavily fertilized forests or agricultural soils. An important parameter affecting N2O emission rate was precipitation, inducing peak emissions of >3 mmol N2O m−2 day−1, while the mean daily flux was 0.43 ± 0.03 mmol N2O m−2 day−1. Over 170 days of the drained period, we estimated non-wetted drained soil to contribute 70.0 mmol N2O m−2, while rain-induced peak events contributed 9.2 mmol N2O m−2, resulting in a total N2O emission of 79.2 mmol N2O m−2. At the sites of repeated sampling, the pool of porewater nitrate varied (0.002-7.1μmolNO3-gdW-1) with higher concentrations of NO3- (p < 0.05) found in drained soil than in water-logged soil, indicating dynamic shifts between nitrification and denitrification. In the field, O2 penetrated the upper 60 cm of drained soil, but was depleted in response to precipitation. Upon experimental wetting the soil showed rapid O2 depletion followed by N2O accumulation and a peak emission of N2O (2.5 - 3.0mmolN2Om-2day-1). Assuming that the observed emission of N2O from these wetland soils is generally representative to the Pantanal, we suggest that this undisturbed tropical wetland potentially contributes ∼1.7% to the global N2O emission budget, a significant

  2. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST INFLUENZA VIRUS IN NON-VACCINATED EQUINES FROM THE BRAZILIAN PANTANAL

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucas Gaíva E; Borges, Alice Mamede Costa Marques; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custodio Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Siquetin; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Braga, Ísis Assis; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1%) with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5%) and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) (61.7%) were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region. PMID:25351542

  3. Prevalence of antibodies against influenza virus in non-vaccinated equines from the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Gaíva e Silva, Lucas; Borges, Alice Mamede Costa Marques; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custodio Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Siquetin; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Braga, Isis Assis; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1%) with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5%) and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) (61.7%) were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region.

  4. Stigma receptivity, mode of reproduction, and mating system in Mesosetum chaseae Luces (Poaceae), a native grass of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Silva, L A C; Pagliarini, M S; Santos, S A; Valle, C B

    2013-10-25

    Mesosetum chaseae Luces, known regionally as "grama-do-cerrado", is abundant in the Pantanal region in Brazil and contributes significantly to livestock and environmental conservation. This species is under basic studies at Embrapa Pantanal (Nhecolândia subregion, Pantanal, Corumbá, MS, Brazil). In this study, we present data about stigma receptivity, mode of reproduction, and mating system for 10 accessions collected in Nhecolândia subregion (Pantanal). Stigma receptivity was optimal, producing innumerous oxygen bubbles upon testing with hydrogen peroxidase. Clarified ovaries analyzed under interference microscopy showed an embryo sac of the Polygonum type, typical of sexual species. The mating system, tested in protected flowers, indicated allogamy. These data are important for subsidizing future breeding programs for this species.

  5. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the

  6. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal

    PubMed Central

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D’Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the

  7. Population Genetics of Jaguars (Panthera onca) in the Brazilian Pantanal: Molecular Evidence for Demographic Connectivity on a Regional Scale.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Haag, Taiana; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Silveira, Leandro; Cavalcanti, Sandra M C; Salzano, Francisco M; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are important threats to carnivores worldwide, and can be especially intense for large predators. Jaguars have already been extirpated from over half of their original area of distribution, and few regions still maintain large populations. For these, detailed understanding is crucial for setting appropriate recovery targets in impacted areas. The Pantanal is among the best examples of a region with a large jaguar population in a healthy environment. Here, we analyzed 12 microsatellite loci to characterize genetic diversity and population structure of 52 jaguars sampled in 4 localities of the southern Pantanal, and compared them with prior studies of heavily fragmented populations of the Atlantic Forest. Although we observed some internal structure among the Pantanal localities, our results indicated that this area comprises a single population with high genetic variability. Moreover, our comparative analyses supported the hypothesis that the strong population structure observed in the Atlantic Forest derives from recent, anthropogenic fragmentation. We also observed significant but low levels of genetic differentiation between the Pantanal and Atlantic Forest populations, indicating recent connectivity between jaguars occurring in these biomes. Evidence for admixture between the Pantanal and a population on the western boundary of the Atlantic Forest corroborates the transitional nature of the latter area, where the jaguar population has already been extirpated. Our results can be used to understand jaguar population dynamics in a region that is less disturbed than the Atlantic forest, and to support the design of conservation strategies that maintain and restore natural connectivity among currently isolated areas.

  8. New records of mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in two Brazilian biomes: Pantanal and Caatinga.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Martins, Mayara Almeida; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves; Peracchi, Adriano Lucio; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues

    2016-01-01

    A first survey of mite species that ectoparasitize bats in the states of Ceará and Mato Grosso was conducted. The specimens of bats and their mites were collected in areas of the Caatinga and Pantanal biomes. A total of 450 spinturnicids representing two genera and ten species was collected from 15 bat species in the Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Serra das Almas, Ceará State, Northeast Brazil and 138 spinturnicids represented by two genera and four species were found in seven bats species collected in Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Sesc Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Central-Western Brazil. The occurrence of Cameronieta genus and the species Mesoperiglischrus natali as well as four new associations (Periglischrus iheringi - Chiroderma vizottoi; P. micronycteridis - Micronycteris sanborni; P. paracutisternus - Trachops cirrhosus; Spinturnix americanus - Myotis riparius) are registered for the first time in Brazil.

  9. Novel Babesia and Hepatozoon agents infecting non-volant small mammals in the Brazilian Pantanal, with the first record of the tick Ornithodoros guaporensis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Rafael William; Aragona, Mônica; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Pinto, Leticia Borges; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Braga, Isis Assis; Costa, Jackeliny dos Santos; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Marcili, Arlei; Pacheco, Richard de Campos; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2016-04-01

    Taking into account the diversity of small terrestrial mammals of the Pantanal, the present study aimed to verify the occurrence of infection by Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Babesia spp. and parasitism by ticks in non-volant small mammals collected in the Brazilian Pantanal. Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected from 64 captured animals, 22 marsupials and 42 rodents. Pathogen detection was performed by the use of genus-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. Ticks collected from the animals consisted of Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma triste nymphs, and Ornithodoros guaporensis larvae. None of the vertebrate samples (blood, liver, or spleen) yielded detectable DNA of Rickettsia spp. or Ehrlichia spp. The blood of the rodent Hylaeamys megacephalus yielded an Anaplasma sp. genotype (partial 16S rRNA gene) 99% similar to multiple Anaplasma spp. genotypes around the world. The blood of three rodents of the species Calomys callosus were positive for a novel Hepatozoon sp. agent, phylogenetically related (18S rDNA gene) to distinct Hepatozoon genotypes that have been detected in rodents from different parts of the world. One marsupial (Monodelphis domestica) and three rodents (Thrichomys pachyurus) were positive to novel piroplasmid genotypes, phylogenetically (18S rDNA gene) related to Theileria bicornis, Cytauxzoon manul, and Cytauxzoon felis. The present study provides the first molecular detection of Hepatozoon sp. and piroplasmids in small mammals in Brazil. Additionally, we expanded the distribution of O. guaporensis to Brazil, since this tick species was previously known to occur only in Bolivia.

  10. Exposure of free-living jaguars to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Crawshaw-Junior, Peter Gransden; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; May-Júnior, Joares Adenílson; Pacheco, Thábata dos Anjos; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona are related apicomplexan parasites that cause reproductive and neurological disorders in a wide range of domestic and wild animals. In the present study, the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was used to investigate the presence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum and S. neurona in the sera of 11 free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in two protected areas in the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Ten jaguars (90.9%) showed seropositivity for T. gondii, eight (72.7%) for S. neurona, and seven (63.6%) for N. caninum antigens. Our findings reveal exposure of jaguars to these related coccidian parasites and circulation of these pathogens in this wild ecosystem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first serological detection of N. caninum and S. neurona in free-living jaguars.

  11. Complexity and multi-factoriality of Trypanosoma cruzi sylvatic cycle in coatis, Nasua nasua (Procyonidae), and triatomine bugs in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Alves, Fernanda Moreira; de Lima, Juliane Saab; Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2016-07-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is dispersed in nature through many transmission mechanisms among a high diversity of vectors and mammalian species, representing particular behaviors and habitats. Thus, each locality has a unique set of conditions underlying the maintenance of this parasite in the wild. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the life-cycle of T. cruzi in free-ranging coatis from the central region of the Brazilian Pantanal using a multi-factorial approach. Three methodological blocks were used in the present study: (i) We evaluated T. cruzi infection using serological (ELISA) and parasitological (hemoculture) tests in free-ranging coatis captured from October 2010 to March 2012. In addition, we characterized T. cruzi isolates as DTUs (Discrete Typing Units); (ii) We evaluated Trypanosoma infection in species of Triatoma and Rhodnius inhabiting coati arboreal nests from May to September 2012 using parasitological and molecular assays; and (iii) We analyzed a set of longitudinal data (from 2005 to 2012) concerning the effects of T. cruzi infection on this coati population. Herein, we investigated whether seasonality, host sex, and host age influence T. cruzi prevalence and patterns of infection. The 2010-2012 period presented high seroprevalence on coatis (72.0 % ELISA) and a high percentage of individuals with infectivity competence (20.5 % positive hemoculture). All isolates presented TcI band patterns, occurring in single (n = 3) and mixed infections (1 TcI/T. rangeli; 4 with undefined characterization). Both male and female individuals presented the same transmission potential, expressed as positive hemoculture, which was only detected in the summer. However, overall, the data (2005-2012) highlighted the importance of females for T. cruzi maintenance in the winter. Moreover, twenty-three (67.6 %) bugs from five coati nests (71.4 %) were infected with flagellated forms. Seventeen samples were characterized as T. cruzi (TcI and TcIII genotypes

  12. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity, and wind speed on seminal traits in Braford and Nellore bulls at the Brazilian Pantanal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegassi, Silvio Renato Oliveira; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Bremm, Carolina; Koetz, Celso; Lopes, Flávio Guiselli; Fiorentini, Eduardo Custódio; McManus, Concepta; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; da Rocha, Marcela Kuczynski; Lopes, Rubia Branco; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioclimatic thermal stress assessed by Equivalent Temperature Index (ETI) and Temperature Humidity Index (THI) on Braford and Nellore bulls sperm quality during the reproductive seasons at the tropical region in the Brazilian Pantanal. We used 20 bulls aged approximately 24 months at the beginning of the study. Five ejaculates per animal were collected using an electroejaculator. Temperature, air humidity, and wind speed data were collected every hour from the automatic weather station at the National Institute of Meteorology. Infrared thermography images data were collected to assess the testicular temperature gradient in each animal. Data were analyzed with ANOVA using MIXED procedure of SAS and means were compared using Tukey's HSD test. The THI and ETI at 12 days (epididymal transit) were higher in January (89.7 and 28.5, respectively) and February (90.0 and 29.0, respectively) compared to other months ( P < 0.01). Total seminal defects differ only in Bradford bulls between the months of November and February. Nellore bulls had lower major defects (MaD) and total defects (TD) compared to Braford. Nellore bulls showed correlation between minor defects (MiD) and THI for 30 days (0.90) and 18 days (0.88; P < 0.05). Braford bulls showed correlation for MaD (0.89) in ETI for 12 days ( P < 0.05). Infrared thermography showed no difference between animals. Reproductive response to environmental changes is a consequence of Nellore and Braford adaptation to climate stress conditions. Both THI and ETI environmental indexes can be used to evaluate the morphological changes in the seminal parameters in Nellore or Braford bulls; however, more experiments should be performed focusing on larger sample numbers and also in reproductive assessment during the consecutive years to assess fertility potential.

  13. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity, and wind speed on seminal traits in Braford and Nellore bulls at the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Menegassi, Silvio Renato Oliveira; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Bremm, Carolina; Koetz, Celso; Lopes, Flávio Guiselli; Fiorentini, Eduardo Custódio; McManus, Concepta; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; da Rocha, Marcela Kuczynski; Lopes, Rubia Branco; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioclimatic thermal stress assessed by Equivalent Temperature Index (ETI) and Temperature Humidity Index (THI) on Braford and Nellore bulls sperm quality during the reproductive seasons at the tropical region in the Brazilian Pantanal. We used 20 bulls aged approximately 24 months at the beginning of the study. Five ejaculates per animal were collected using an electroejaculator. Temperature, air humidity, and wind speed data were collected every hour from the automatic weather station at the National Institute of Meteorology. Infrared thermography images data were collected to assess the testicular temperature gradient in each animal. Data were analyzed with ANOVA using MIXED procedure of SAS and means were compared using Tukey's HSD test. The THI and ETI at 12 days (epididymal transit) were higher in January (89.7 and 28.5, respectively) and February (90.0 and 29.0, respectively) compared to other months (P < 0.01). Total seminal defects differ only in Bradford bulls between the months of November and February. Nellore bulls had lower major defects (MaD) and total defects (TD) compared to Braford. Nellore bulls showed correlation between minor defects (MiD) and THI for 30 days (0.90) and 18 days (0.88; P < 0.05). Braford bulls showed correlation for MaD (0.89) in ETI for 12 days (P < 0.05). Infrared thermography showed no difference between animals. Reproductive response to environmental changes is a consequence of Nellore and Braford adaptation to climate stress conditions. Both THI and ETI environmental indexes can be used to evaluate the morphological changes in the seminal parameters in Nellore or Braford bulls; however, more experiments should be performed focusing on larger sample numbers and also in reproductive assessment during the consecutive years to assess fertility potential.

  14. Distribution, composition and seasonality of aquatic birds in the Nhecolândia sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Donatelli, R J; Posso, S R; Toledo, M C B

    2014-11-01

    Despite remarkable significance of Pantanal for the conservation of aquatic birds, the status of their populations, the spatiotemporal patterns of distribution and habitat use and structure of communities are little known. Thus, we studied three aquatic environments (Negro river, bays and salines) from 2007 to 2009 in the Nhecolândia Pantanal to verify the distribution and composition of aquatic birds and also if there is significant seasonal influence on these aspects. We adopted the transect method (288 hours of sampling) and recorded 135 species (7.834 individuals). The Negro river showed the highest diversity, while the salines the lowest. The similarity of aquatic bird communities was higher between bays and salines, followed by Negro river and bays and lower between salines and Negro river. The equidistribution is more variable in the salines and more stable in the Negro river. The environments strongly differ from each other in aquatic bird composition in space (habitat use and distribution) and time (seasonal water fluctuations). The diversity of bird community in the dry season varies significantly in the salines, followed by the bays and more stable in the Negro river. The Negro river, regardless of large annual amplitude of flow, is more seasonally stable since its riparian vegetation is continuous (not isolated) and constant. These aspects provide better conditions to stay all year, contributing to decrease the seasonal nomadic tendencies of aquatic birds. Finally, all these data provide strong arguments to the preservation of all phytophysiognomies in the Nhecolândia sub- region of Pantanal, but with special attention to the salines widely used by many flocks of aquatic birds (mainly in the dry season) and migrant and/or rare species restricted to this habitat.

  15. Serosurvey for selected viral infections in free-ranging jaguars (Panthera onca) and domestic carnivores in Brazilian Cerrado, Pantanal, and Amazon.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; de Ramos Filho, José Domingues; Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Coelho, Claudio José; Cruz, Paula Sônia; Ikuta, Cassia Yumi; Jácomo, Anah Tereza de Almeida; Porfírio, Grasiela Edith de Oliveira; Silveira, Leandro; Sollmann, Rahel; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Ferreira Neto, José Soares

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the exposure of jaguar (Panthera onca) populations and domestic carnivores to selected viral infections in the Cerrado, Amazon, and Pantanal biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, we collected serum samples from 31 jaguars, 174 dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), and 35 domestic cats (Felis catus). Serologic analyses for antibodies to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen were conducted. The jaguars from Cerrado and Pantantal were exposed to rabies virus, while the jaguars from the Pantanal and the dogs from all three areas were exposed to CDV. Two cats from the Amazonian site were antigen-positive for FeLV, but no jaguars had FeLV antigen or FIV antibody. Canine distemper and rabies viruses should be carefully monitored and considered potential threats to these jaguar populations. Currently FIV and FeLV do not appear to represent a health threat for jaguar populations in this area. Domestic dogs and cats in these areas should be vaccinated, and the movement of domestic animals around protected areas should be restricted.

  16. Ilheus Virus Isolation in the Pantanal, West-Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Kenney, Joan L.; Couto-Lima, Dinair; Campos, Zilca M. S.; Nogueira, Rita M. R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The wetlands of the Brazilian Pantanal host large concentrations of diverse wildlife species and hematophagous arthropods, conditions that favor the circulation of zoonotic arboviruses. A recent study from the Nhecolândia sub-region of Pantanal reported serological evidence of various flaviviruses, including West Nile virus and Ilheus virus (ILHV). According to the age of seropositive horses, at least three flaviviruses, including ILHV, circulated in the Brazilian Pantanal between 2005 and 2009. To extend this study, we collected 3,234 adult mosquitoes of 16 species during 2009 and 2010 in the same sub-region. Mosquito pool homogenates were assayed for infectious virus on C6/36 and Vero cell monolayers and also tested for flaviviral RNA by a group-specific real-time RT-PCR. One pool containing 50 non-engorged female specimens of Aedes scapularis tested positive for ILHV by culture and for ILHV RNA by real-time RT-PCR, indicating a minimum infection rate of 2.5 per 1000. Full-length genomic sequence exhibited 95% identity to the only full genome sequence available for ILHV. The present data confirm the circulation of ILHV in the Brazilian Pantanal. PMID:23875051

  17. Serologic evidence of the recent circulation of Saint Louis encephalitis virus and high prevalence of equine encephalitis viruses in horses in the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal, Central-West Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Tavares, Fernando Neto; Costa, Eliane Veiga da; Burlandy, Fernanda Marcicano; Murta, Michele; Pellegrin, Aiesca Oliveira; Nogueira, Márcia Furlan; Silva, Edson Elias da

    2010-09-01

    As in humans, sub-clinical infection by arboviruses in domestic animals is common; however, its detection only occurs during epizootics and the silent circulation of some arboviruses may remain undetected. The objective of the present paper was to assess the current circulation of arboviruses in the Nhecolândia sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil. Sera from a total of 135 horses, of which 75 were immunized with bivalent vaccine composed of inactive Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Western equine encephalitis virus(WEEV) and 60 were unvaccinated, were submitted to thorough viral isolation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and neutralization tests for Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), EEEV, WEEV and Mayaro virus (MAYV). No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in horses older than seven months was 43.7% for SLEV in equines regardless of vaccine status, and 36.4% for WEEV and 47.7% for EEEV in unvaccinated horses. There was no evidence of MAYV infections. The serologic evidence of circulation of arboviruses responsible for equine and human encephalitis, without recent official reports of clinical infections in the area, suggests that the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal is an important area for detection of silent activity of arboviruses in Brazil.

  18. Chromosome number, microsporogenesis, microgametogenesis, and pollen viability in the Brazilian native grass Mesosetum chaseae (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, L A C; Pagliarini, M S; Santos, S A; Silva, N; Souza, V F

    2012-11-28

    The genus Mesosetum is a primarily South American genus with 42 species. Mesosetum chaseae, regionally known as 'grama-do-cerrado', is abundant in the Pantanal Matogrossense (Brazil); it is a valuable resource for livestock and for environmental conservation. We collected specimens from the Nhecolandia sub-region of the Brazilian Pantanal, located in Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We examined chromosome number, ploidy level, meiotic behavior, microgametogenesis, and pollen viability of 10 accessions. All the accessions were diploid, derived from x = 8, presenting 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes. Chromosomes paired as bivalents showing, predominantly, two terminal chiasmata. Interstitial chiasmata were rare. Meiosis was quite normal producing only a few abnormal tetrads in some accessions. Microgametogenesis, after two mitotic divisions, produced three-celled pollen grains. Pollen viability was variable among plant and accessions and was not correlated with meiotic abnormalities.

  19. Introduced species in the Pantanal: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R; Mamede, S; Bitencourt, K; Benites, M

    2011-04-01

    Land use and human occupation within the natural habitats of the Pantanal have facilitated introduction of invasive species of plants and animals, including domestic species. Exotic species threaten regional biodiversity because they modify ecological community structure, alter natural habitats and affect local biodiversity. An international organisation, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and the Brazilian government, identify invasive species as the third most important threat to biodiversity, following habitat loss and direct effect on species. In addition, exotic species carry pathogens or may function as vectors or reservoirs for diseases that affect regional biota.

  20. Bucrates lanista Rehn 1918 (Tettigoniidae: Conocephalinae): The First Record from the Brazilian Pantanal, the First Description of the Male, the First Karyotypic Report for the Genus, and the First Telomeric Hybridization of the Subfamily.

    PubMed

    Chamorro-Rengifo, Juliana; Olivier, Renan da Silva; Araujo, Douglas

    2016-10-01

    Bucrates lanista, the most southerly distributed species in the genus Bucrates Burmeister, was originally described from Brazil based on a female collected in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, but the species has not been recorded since 1918. In this work, we report that B. lanista inhabits the Pantanal Wetland in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and, for the first time, describe the male. Individuals of B. lanista are gregarious and present a brown/green color dimorphism; this behavior and color variation are also observed in species of closely related genera. Individuals from the Pantanal vary slightly from those of Rio Grande do Sul. The karyotype was determined to be 2n♂ = 21 = 20 + X0 and 2n♀ = 22 = 20 + XX. The X chromosome is metacentric and the largest of the complement, and all of the autosomes are submetacentrics. All chromosomes solely present telomeric (TTAGG)n repeats at their ends, and some chromosomes present positive and negative DAPI bands.

  1. Climatic variability of river outflow in the Pantanal region and the influence of sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos Batista; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates possible linear relationships between climate, hydrology, and oceanic surface variability in the Pantanal region (in South America's central area), over interannual and interdecadal time ranges. In order to verify the mentioned relations, lagged correlation analysis and linear adjustment between river discharge at the Pantanal region and sea surface temperature were used. Composite analysis for atmospheric fields, air humidity flux divergence, and atmospheric circulation at low and high levels, for the period between 1970 and 2003, was analyzed. Results suggest that the river discharge in the Pantanal region is linearly associated with interdecadal and interannual oscillations in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, making them good predictors to continental hydrological variables. Considering oceanic areas, 51 % of the annual discharge in the Pantanal region can be linearly explained by mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the Subtropical North Pacific, Tropical North Pacific, Extratropical South Pacific, and Extratropical North Atlantic over the period. Considering a forecast approach in seasonal scale, 66 % of the monthly discharge variance in Pantanal, 3 months ahead of SST, is explained by the oceanic variables, providing accuracy around 65 %. Annual discharge values in the Pantanal region are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) variability (with 52 % of linear correlation), making it possible to consider an interdecadal variability and a consequent subdivision of the whole period in three parts: 1st (1970-1977), 2nd (1978-1996), and 3rd (1997-2003) subperiods. The three subperiods coincide with distinct PDO phases: negative, positive, and negative, respectively. Convergence of humidity flux at low levels and the circulation pattern at high levels help to explain the drier and wetter subperiods. During the wetter 2nd subperiod, the air humidity convergence at low levels is much more evident than during the other two

  2. Climatic variability of river outflow in the Pantanal region and the influence of sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos Batista; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates possible linear relationships between climate, hydrology, and oceanic surface variability in the Pantanal region (in South America's central area), over interannual and interdecadal time ranges. In order to verify the mentioned relations, lagged correlation analysis and linear adjustment between river discharge at the Pantanal region and sea surface temperature were used. Composite analysis for atmospheric fields, air humidity flux divergence, and atmospheric circulation at low and high levels, for the period between 1970 and 2003, was analyzed. Results suggest that the river discharge in the Pantanal region is linearly associated with interdecadal and interannual oscillations in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, making them good predictors to continental hydrological variables. Considering oceanic areas, 51 % of the annual discharge in the Pantanal region can be linearly explained by mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the Subtropical North Pacific, Tropical North Pacific, Extratropical South Pacific, and Extratropical North Atlantic over the period. Considering a forecast approach in seasonal scale, 66 % of the monthly discharge variance in Pantanal, 3 months ahead of SST, is explained by the oceanic variables, providing accuracy around 65 %. Annual discharge values in the Pantanal region are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) variability (with 52 % of linear correlation), making it possible to consider an interdecadal variability and a consequent subdivision of the whole period in three parts: 1st (1970-1977), 2nd (1978-1996), and 3rd (1997-2003) subperiods. The three subperiods coincide with distinct PDO phases: negative, positive, and negative, respectively. Convergence of humidity flux at low levels and the circulation pattern at high levels help to explain the drier and wetter subperiods. During the wetter 2nd subperiod, the air humidity convergence at low levels is much more evident than during the other two

  3. Antiviral activity of south Brazilian medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Simões, C M; Falkenberg, M; Mentz, L A; Schenkel, E P; Amoros, M; Girre, L

    1999-07-01

    Brazilian plants are potential sources of useful edible and medicinal plants. Hydromethanolic extracts prepared from 54 medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat infections were screened for antiviral properties against five different viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, poliovirus type 2, adenovirus type 2 and VSV). Fifty-two percent of the plant extracts exhibited antiviral against one or more tested viruses. More specifically, 42.6% showed activity against HSV-1 (herpes simplex virus type 1), 42.6% against HSV-2 (herpes simplex virus type 2), 26% against poliovirus and 24% against VSV (vesicular stomatitis virus). None of the extracts was active against adenovirus. Trixis praestans (Vell.) Cabr. and Cunila spicata Benth. extracts were further characterized for antiviral activity.

  4. Diet Overlap and Foraging Activity between Feral Pigs and Native Peccaries in the Pantanal

    PubMed Central

    Galetti, Mauro; Camargo, Hiléia; Siqueira, Tadeu; Keuroghlian, Alexine; Donatti, Camila I.; Jorge, Maria Luisa S. P.; Pedrosa, Felipe; Kanda, Claudia Z.; Ribeiro, Milton C.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-specific competition is considered one of the main selective pressures affecting species distribution and coexistence. Different species vary in the way they forage in order to minimize encounters with their competitors and with their predators. However, it is still poorly known whether and how native species change their foraging behavior in the presence of exotic species, particularly in South America. Here we compare diet overlap of fruits and foraging activity period of two sympatric native ungulates (the white-lipped peccary, Tayassu pecari, and the collared peccary, Pecari tajacu) with the invasive feral pig (Sus scrofa) in the Brazilian Pantanal. We found high diet overlap between white-lipped peccaries and feral pigs, but low overlap between collared peccaries and feral pigs. Furthermore, we found that feral pigs may influence the foraging period of both native peccaries, but in different ways. In the absence of feral pigs, collared peccary activity peaks in the early evening, possibly allowing them to avoid white-lipped peccary activity peaks, which occur in the morning. In the presence of feral pigs, collared peccaries forage mostly in early morning, while white-lipped peccaries forage throughout the day. Our results indicate that collared peccaries may avoid foraging at the same time as white-lipped peccaries. However, they forage during the same periods as feral pigs, with whom they have lower diet overlap. Our study highlights how an exotic species may alter interactions between native species by interfering in their foraging periods. PMID:26536608

  5. The "3-Basins" Project in Mid South America and the Geometry of the Deep Nazca Subducted Slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpcao, M.; Bianchi, M.; Rocha, M., Sr.; Azevedo, P. A. D.

    2016-12-01

    A multi-national two-year deployment of 50 stations covering SW Brazil, Eastern Bolivia, Paraguay, NE Argentina and NW Uruguay will better map the crustal and upper mantle structure in this yet unexplored part of the South American plate. We aim at studying how deep structure and mantle convection controls the evolution of three intracratonic basins: Pantanal, Chaco-Paraná, and Paraná. The Quaternary Pantanal Basin is especially interesting because of its present subsidence and possible influence from Andean flexural effects as well as from deep mantle convection associated with the Nazca slab . The Nazca slab has a flat segment, just above the 660-km discontinuity (beneath the Chaco Basin in Paraguay), and then plunges beneath the Pantanal Basin reaching about 1000 km depth in SE Brazil (Schimmel et al., 2003; Rocha et al. 2011; Simmons et al., 2012). To the north of the Pantanal Basin, the Nazca slab seems to plunge directly through the transition zone without any deep flat segment. Initial studies of receiver functions from the transition zone were made using stations of the permanent Brazilian Seismic Network: the cold Nazca slab makes the 660-km discontinuity deeper between the Peru-Brazil border and the Pantanal basin, but does not affect the discontinuity depth beneath the Paraná basin further to the east. It is expected that the newly deployed temporary stations will significantly improve the maping of the geometry of the Nazca slab within and below the upper mantle transition zone in South America. Work supported by FAPESP grant 2103/24215-6.

  6. Ticks on humans in the Pantanal wetlands, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Osava, Carolina F; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabó, Matias P J

    2014-09-01

    Information on ticks biting humans in Brazil is very restricted. In fact, many times when human tick-borne diseases are diagnosed, the involved vector tick is not identified, although this may be clinically helpful. Pantanal is one of the world's largest floodplains, has an exuberant wildlife, and is place of extensive cattle ranching, ecotourism, and fishing. We herein report tick species found on humans in a 13-month survey in a region with both cattle and wildlife handling in the Brazilian Pantanal. From February 2012 to February 2013, a total of 280 ticks was collected from humans (n=22), 121 of which were attached. Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato nymphs were the main tick species and stage found attached to humans (n=93) especially during the dry months (winter). In the wet season (summer), Amblyomma parvum adults were the main ticks found attached to humans (n=19) followed by A. cajennense s.l. adults (n=9). Only one unattached nymph of A. parvum was collected in this study. These results reinforce that A. cajennense s.l. nymphs are an important parasite of humans (and vectors) in Brazil and draw also attention to A. parvum adults as frequent human parasites as well.

  7. Growing Brazilian demand to spur gas network in South America

    SciTech Connect

    Deffarges, E.H. ); Maurer, L.I.A. )

    1993-01-18

    A recent combination in South America of economic and geopolitical factors is prompting development of a new integrated gas-pipeline network in the continent's Southern Cone. The crucial factors include privatization, regional integration, economic growth, and environmental concerns. The area, Latin America's largest regional entity, includes Brazil (population 150 million and a 1990 GNP of about $375 billion, 9th largest in the world), Argentina (population 32 million and the third largest Latin American economy after Brazil and Mexico), Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay are members of the MercoSur economic bloc whose objective is to develop free trade in the region. There are very few integrated pipeline networks in the world. Besides the giant North American system, with hundreds of producers and pipelines, there is only one other large integrated network. It connects continental European countries to their outside suppliers such as Norway, the C.I.S., and Algeria. The emergence of a new pipeline system is therefore important for the natural-gas industry worldwide and even more so if it occurs in a region now growing rapidly after a decade of economic difficulties.

  8. Petroleum systems of the Brazilian South Atlantic margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mello, M.R.; Koutsoukos, E.A.M.; Mohriak, W.U.; Bacoccoli, G.

    1996-08-01

    The characterization of a major petroleum system in the Sergipe Basin, NE Brazil, was undertaken using a multidisciplinary approach. The Lura-Muriboca (!) petroleum system, taken as a representative example for the proto-marine evaporitic stage in the South Atlantic margin, comprises the Carmopolis oil field, which is the largest onshore oil field in Brazil, with about 1.2 MM bbl of oil in place. The hydrocarbons sourced by the proto-marine Aptian marls and calcareous black shales, started migration during the Paleocene, reaching the maximum at the late Oligocene continuing up to now in some parts of the basin. The hydrocarbons were mainly accumulated in Lower Cretaceous alluvial fans/fan deltas coarse clastics reservoirs, and fractured Precambrian basement. The reservoirs trapping were structured during the Cretaceous. Seals are the evaporates and marine shales deposited during the Aptian and Albian times. Mapping the geographic extent of the petroleum system emphasizes the association of the Carmopolis oil field with the proposed offshore pod of active Aptian source rocks. The integration of these data with a geochemical modelling allowed the prediction and characterization, in time and space, of the petroleum pathways from source to trap in the basin.

  9. Parapharyngodon hugoi n. sp., a new nematode (Oxyuroidea: Pharyngodonidae) of the tree frog Trachycephalus typhonius (Linnaeus) from the Brazilian Pantanal, including a key to the congeners from amphibians of the American continent.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe B; Campião, Karla M; Luque, José L; Tavares, Luiz E R

    2017-06-01

    A new nematode Parapharyngodon hugoi n. sp. (Oxyuroidea: Pharyngodonidae) is described parasitising the large intestine of the tree frog Trachycephalus typhonius (Linnaeus) (Anura: Hylidae) from the wetlands of Pantanal, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The new species exhibits a unique structure of the posterior cloacal lip in males, which is supported by a rigid V-shaped structure. Parapharyngodon hylidae parasitic in hylid frogs, including T. typhonius, from Mexico, is the most similar congener to P. hugoi n. sp. but is distinguished from the new species by the presence of a gubernaculum (vs absence), by the lateral alae in males ending far anterior to cloacal opening (vs near to it) and because in gravid females the ovaries encircle the oesophageal corpus. Additionally, the new species differs from its congeners as well as from species of Thelandros Wedl, 1862, a very closely related genus, by the combination of features such as spicule length, number of caudal papillae, morphology of the anterior cloacal lip, which is echinate, and position of ovaries. The geographical distribution of hosts seems to play an important role in the speciation process of Parapharyngodon spp.; however, due the lack of molecular data this issue along with the validity of both Thelandros and Parapharyngodon are still questions to be solved in the future, after improvement of the genetic database. A key to the species of Parapharyngodon parasitic in amphibians from the American continent is provided.

  10. Hydrochemical variability at the Upper Paraguay Basin and Pantanal wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende Filho, A. T.; Furian, S.; Victoria, R. L.; Mascré, C.; Valles, V.; Barbiero, L.

    2012-08-01

    Compartmentalization is a prerequisite to understand large wetlands that receive water from several sources. However, it faces the heterogeneity in space and time, resulting from physical, chemical and biological processes that are specific to wetlands. The Pantanal is a vast seasonally flooded continental wetland located in the centre of South America. The chemical composition of the waters that supply the Pantanal (70 rivers) has been studied in order to establish a compartmentalization of the wetland based on soil-water interactions. A PCA-based EMMA (End-Members Mixing Analysis) procedure shows that the chemistry of the rivers can be viewed as a mixture of 3 end-members, influenced by lithology and land use, and delimiting large regions. Although the chemical composition of the end-members changed between dry and wet seasons, their spatial distribution was maintained. The results were extended to the floodplain by simple tributary mixing calculation according to the hydrographical network and to the areas of influence for each river when in overflow conditions. The resulting map highlights areas of high geochemical contrast on either side of the river Cuiaba in the north, and of the rivers Aquidauana and Abobral in the south. The PCA-based treatment on a sampling conducted in the Nhecolândia, a large sub region of the Pantanal, allowed the identification and ordering of the processes that control the geochemical variability of the surface waters. Despite an enormous variability in electrical conductivity and pH, all data collected were in agreement with an evaporation process of the Taquari River water, which supplies the region. Evaporation and associated saline precipitations (Mg-calcite, Mg-silicates K-silicates) explained more than 77% of the total variability in the chemistry of the regional surface water sampling.

  11. Hydrochemical variability at the Upper Paraguay Basin and Pantanal wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende Filho, A. T.; Furian, S.; Victoria, R. L.; Mascré, C.; Valles, V.; Barbiero, L.

    2012-03-01

    Compartmentalization is a prerequisite to understand large wetlands that receive water from several sources. However, it faces the heterogeneity in space and time, resulting from physical, chemical and biological processes that are specific to wetlands. The Pantanal is a vast seasonally flooded continental wetland located in the centre of South America. The chemical makeup of the waters that supply the Pantanal (70 rivers) has been studied in order to establish a compartmentalization of the wetland based on soil-water interactions. A PCA-based EMMA (End-Members Mixing Analysis) procedure shows that the chemistry of the rivers can be regarded as a mixture of 3 end-members, influenced by lithology and land use, and delimiting large regions. Although the chemical composition of the end-members changed between dry and wet seasons, their spatial distribution was maintained. The results were extended to the floodplain by simple tributary mixing calculation according to the hydrographical network and to the areas of influence for each river when in overflow conditions. The resulting document highlights areas of high geochemical contrast on either side of the river Cuiaba in the north, and of the rivers Aquidauana and Abobral located in the south. The PCA-based treatment on a sampling conducted in the Nhecolândia, a large sub region of the Pantanal floodplain, allowed for the identification and prioritization of the processes that control the geochemical variability of the surface waters. Despite an enormous variability in Electrical Conductivity and pH, all data collected were in agreement with an evaporation process of the Taquari River water, which supplies the region. Evaporation and associated saline precipitations (Mg-calcite, Mg-silicates K-silicates) explained more than 77% of the total variability in the chemistry of the regional surface water sampling.

  12. Dental erosion among South Brazilian adolescents: A 2.5-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Brusius, C D; Alves, L S; Susin, C; Maltz, M

    2017-07-20

    This population-based longitudinal study investigated the incidence, progression and risk factors for dental erosion among South Brazilian adolescents. Eight hundred and one schoolchildren attending 42 public and private schools were clinically examined at 12 years of age; clinical examinations were repeated after 2.5 years (SD=0.3). After tooth cleaning and drying, permanent incisors and first molars were classified using the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) scoring criteria. Questionnaires were used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, dietary habits, toothbrushing frequency and general health. Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the association between dental erosion incidence and explanatory variables, with adjusted incidence risk ratios (IRR) and 95% CI estimated. Among those who did not have dental erosion at baseline, 49 of 680 schoolchildren (7.1%; 95% CI=5.2-9.1) developed erosive lesions over the follow-up period. Among schoolchildren who had dental erosion at baseline, 31 of 121 (25.4%; 95% CI=17.6-33.3) had new or more severe lesions. Boys were more likely to develop dental erosion than girls (IRR=1.88; 95% CI=1.06-3.32). A moderate incidence of dental erosion was observed among South Brazilian adolescents, with boys being at higher risk. The high progression rate of 25% observed here is very concerning, and it should be taken in consideration when designing preventive strategies for dental erosion. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Chemical Characterization and Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of South Brazilian Organic Propolis.

    PubMed

    Tiveron, Ana Paula; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Franchin, Marcelo; Lacerda, Risia Cristina Coelho; Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Benso, Bruna; Denny, Carina; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Alencar, Severino Matias de

    2016-01-01

    South Brazilian organic propolis (OP), which has never been studied before, was assessed and its chemical composition, scavenging potential of reactive oxygen species, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities are herein presented. Based on the chemical profile obtained using HPLC, OP was grouped into seven variants (OP1-OP7) and all of them exhibited high scavenging activity, mainly against superoxide and hypochlorous acid species. OP1, OP2, and OP3 had the smallest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus aureus (12.5-100 μg/mL). OP1, OP2, OP3, and OP4 were more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative), with MIC values ranging from 100 to 200 μg/mL. OP6 showed anti-inflammatory activity by decreasing NF-kB activation and TNF-α release in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and expressing the NF-κB-luciferase reporter stable gene. Therefore, south Brazilian OP can be considered an excellent source of bioactive compounds with great potential of application in the pharmaceutical and food industry.

  14. Chemical Characterization and Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of South Brazilian Organic Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Tiveron, Ana Paula; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Franchin, Marcelo; Lacerda, Risia Cristina Coelho; Bueno-Silva, Bruno; Benso, Bruna; Denny, Carina; Ikegaki, Masaharu; de Alencar, Severino Matias

    2016-01-01

    South Brazilian organic propolis (OP), which has never been studied before, was assessed and its chemical composition, scavenging potential of reactive oxygen species, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities are herein presented. Based on the chemical profile obtained using HPLC, OP was grouped into seven variants (OP1–OP7) and all of them exhibited high scavenging activity, mainly against superoxide and hypochlorous acid species. OP1, OP2, and OP3 had the smallest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus aureus (12.5–100 μg/mL). OP1, OP2, OP3, and OP4 were more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative), with MIC values ranging from 100 to 200 μg/mL. OP6 showed anti-inflammatory activity by decreasing NF-kB activation and TNF-α release in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and expressing the NF-κB-luciferase reporter stable gene. Therefore, south Brazilian OP can be considered an excellent source of bioactive compounds with great potential of application in the pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:27802316

  15. Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius) in Florida and South America: Evidence of a possible niche shift driven by hybridization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae) was introduced into Florida from South America in the 1800s and commercialized as an ornamental plant. Based on herbaria records and available literature, it began to escape cultivation and invade ruderal and natural habitats in t...

  16. Neutralising antibodies for Mayaro virus in Pantanal, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Campos, Zilca; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV), eastern (EEEV), western (WEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no history of immunisation, 10 (1.3%) were seropositive for MAYV and two (0.3%) for VEEV using criteria of a ≥ 4-fold antibody titre difference. Among the 484 equids without history of immunisation, 48 (9.9%) were seropositive for EEEV and four (0.8%) for WEEV using the same criteria. Among the sheep, five were sero- positive for equine encephalitis alphaviruses, with one (0.4%) for EEEV, one (0.4%) for WEEV and three (1.3%) for VEEV. Regarding free-ranging caimans, one (1.1%) and three (3.4%), respectively, had low titres for neutralising antibodies to VEEV and undetermined alphaviruses. The neurological disorder outbreak could not be linked to the alphaviruses tested. Our findings represent strong evidence that MAYV and all equine encephalitis alphaviruses circulated in the Pantanal. PMID:25742272

  17. Neutralising antibodies for Mayaro virus in Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Campos, Zilca; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2015-02-03

    The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV), eastern (EEEV), western (WEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no history of immunisation, 10 (1.3%) were seropositive for MAYV and two (0.3%) for VEEV using criteria of a ≥ 4-fold antibody titre difference. Among the 484 equids without history of immunisation, 48 (9.9%) were seropositive for EEEV and four (0.8%) for WEEV using the same criteria. Among the sheep, five were sero- positive for equine encephalitis alphaviruses, with one (0.4%) for EEEV, one (0.4%) for WEEV and three (1.3%) for VEEV. Regarding free-ranging caimans, one (1.1%) and three (3.4%), respectively, had low titres for neutralising antibodies to VEEV and undetermined alphaviruses. The neurological disorder outbreak could not be linked to the alphaviruses tested. Our findings represent strong evidence that MAYV and all equine encephalitis alphaviruses circulated in the Pantanal.

  18. Neutralising antibodies for Mayaro virus in Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Campos, Zilca; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2015-02-01

    The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV), eastern (EEEV), western (WEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no history of immunisation, 10 (1.3%) were seropositive for MAYV and two (0.3%) for VEEV using criteria of a ≥ 4-fold antibody titre difference. Among the 484 equids without history of immunisation, 48 (9.9%) were seropositive for EEEV and four (0.8%) for WEEV using the same criteria. Among the sheep, five were sero- positive for equine encephalitis alphaviruses, with one (0.4%) for EEEV, one (0.4%) for WEEV and three (1.3%) for VEEV. Regarding free-ranging caimans, one (1.1%) and three (3.4%), respectively, had low titres for neutralising antibodies to VEEV and undetermined alphaviruses. The neurological disorder outbreak could not be linked to the alphaviruses tested. Our findings represent strong evidence that MAYV and all equine encephalitis alphaviruses circulated in the Pantanal.

  19. [Prevalence and alcohol user profile in adult population in a south Brazilian city].

    PubMed

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Traebert, Jefferson; Loguercio, Alessandro; Kehrig, Ruth Terezinha

    2010-05-01

    This is an observational cross-sectional survey which included 707 individuals from a south Brazilian city (Joaçaba, in Santa Catarina State) aiming to know the alcohol user prevalence as well as the profile of the user. The results showed that 45.5% (322) of that population consume alcohol on regular basis and had used it at least once in the last month. The regular alcohol consumption occurs predominantly on males (p <0.001), in people under 39 years old (p =0.007), occurring predominantly with ones working comparing to the ones not working, (p <0.001), have more than 8 years of education (p <0.001) and with income greater than 1738.00 reais - Brazilian currency (p <0.001). The regular alcohol consumption was greater on those who classified his health status as regular, good or very good (p <0.006), also this relation happen to those people who haven't been under hospital internment in the last year (p <0.013). The depression levels scored by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) showed low levels to those who regularly consume alcohol (p <0.047).

  20. Distribution of planktonic cnidarians in response to South Atlantic Central Water intrusion in the South Brazilian Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira Júnior, Miodeli; Brandini, Frederico P.; Codina, Juan C. U.

    2014-10-01

    Five oceanographic cruises were made between November 2005 and June 2006, sampling a cross-shelf transect off the South Brazilian Bight (SBB; 26°46‧S) to follow the seasonal development of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) intrusion over the shelf and its influence on the assemblage of planktonic cnidarians. An onshore wind-driven bottom intrusion of the SACW was clearly perceptible, reaching the coast in January. From March onward, the SACW influence was gradually displaced seaward due to wind and tidal mixing. By late June the SACW influence was offshore and the inshore was dominated by low-salinity waters (<34.5). The abundance, distribution, and general taxonomic composition of both medusae and siphonophores were strongly influenced by the onshore intrusion of the SACW. An inshore-offshore gradient was clear. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis suggested that coastal species - dominated by Liriope tetraphylla, actinula larvae and Muggiaea kochi - were mostly related to food availability and a vertically mixed environment inshore, and their abundance and extent were reduced during intrusion periods. In contrast, species with offshore affinities tended to increase their abundance and distribution during intrusion periods, and were mostly related to the presence of thermal stratification and a deep chlorophyll maximum layer. Most of these offshore species, such as Aglaura hemistoma, Rhopalonema velatum and many calycophorans, are associated with the warm upper layer. However, high concentrations of large (>20 mm in diameter) Solmaris corona were observed exclusively in cold waters, suggesting this medusa is a SACW indicator.

  1. Underwater soundscape of marine protected areas in the south Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gendriz, I; Padovese, L R

    2016-04-15

    The Laje de Santos Marine State Park (LSMSP) and Xixová-Japuí State Park (XJSP) are two protected areas (PA), close to the Santos Bay in the south Brazilian coast. The region encompasses both important biodiversity and anthropogenic activities. This study aims to serve as a first reference survey of the underwater soundscape of these PAs. Additionally it evaluates the presence of the anthropogenic and biological sound in these areas. One month of continuous recorded underwater sound, at selected locations in XJSP and LSMSP, is used in this study. The data were characterized by its spectral content and by the temporal evolution of Sound Pressure Levels (SPL). Both locations showed sound events with daily periodicities, mainly related with boats and fish chorus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Geomorphology and habitat diversity in the Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Mercante, M A; Rodrigues, S C; Ross, J L S

    2011-04-01

    The present study deals with the inter-relations in the relief which forms the Bacia do Alto Rio Paraguay (BAP) in mid-west Brazil. The overall aim is to discuss the relationship between relief forms and the biodiversity of the Pantanal. The BAP is a natural environmental system with contrasts in two of the compartments on which it is formed: the plateau, the most elevated compartment, highly transformed by human activities, and the plain which forms the Pantanal, which is more preserved and less transformed in relation to productive activities. The analysis was performed based on publications with a geomorphologic focus, examining the different relief units of the BAP and the dynamics of the revealing processes of landscape change which the Pantanal has undergone since the end of the Pleistocene.

  3. Digenetic trematodes in South American sea lions from southern Brazilian waters.

    PubMed

    Pereira, E M; Müller, G; Secchi, E; Pereira, J; Valente, A L S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to perform a systematic study to detect and quantify the digenetic trematode infections in South American sea lions from the southern Brazilian coast. Twenty-four South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otaridae), were found dead along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, between June 2010 and September of 2011. Two trematode species were found in the intestines of O. flavescens, i.e., Stephanoprora uruguayense (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa (Digenea: Heterophyidae). Ascocotyle (P.) longa reached a prevalence of 33.3% and mean intensity of 248,500, whereas S. uruguayense showed a prevalence of 4.2% and mean intensity of 202. The 2 trematode species infecting sea lions were likely transmitted by feeding on mullets, Mugil platanus, that commonly harbor heterophyid metacercariae. The present work is the first report of digenetic trematodes infecting O. flavescens in Brazil. The high prevalence and mean intensity values of the 2 trematode species infecting sea lions in the present study suggest caution in human consumption of mullets and other fish, which can be infected with the metacercariae of these trematodes known to have zoonotic potential.

  4. Terrestrial and aquatic mammals of the Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R; Camargo, G; Fischer, E

    2011-04-01

    Different works have registered the number of mammal species within the natural habitats of the Pantanal based on currently known records, with species richness ranging from 89 to 152 of annotated occurrences. Our present list sums 174 species. However, at least three factors have to be emphasised to deal with recorded numbers: 1) to establish the ecotone limit between the floodplain (which is the Pantanal) and its neighbouring domain like the Cerrado, besides the existence of maps recently produced; 2) the lack of intensive surveys, especially on small mammals, rodents and marsupials; and 3) the constant taxonomic revision on bats, rodents and marsupials. Some species are very abundant--for example the capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous, and some are rare, and others are still intrinsically rare--for example, the bush dog Speothos venaticus. Abundance of species is assumed to reflect ecological resources of the habitat. Local diversity and number of individuals of wild rodents and marsupials also rely on the offering of ecological resources and behavioural specialisation to microhabitat components. A large number of species interact with the type of the vegetation of the habitat, by means of habitat selection through active patterns of ecological behaviour, resulting on dependency on arboreal and forested habitats of the Pantanal. In addition, mammals respond to seasonal shrinking-and-expansion of habitats due to flooding regime of the Pantanal. The highest number of species is observed during the dry season, when there is a considerable expansion of terrestrial habitats, mainly seasonally flooded grassland. Major threats to mammal species are the loss and alteration of habitats due to human intervention, mainly deforestation, unsustainable agricultural and cattle-ranching practices, which convert the natural vegetation into pastures. The Pantanal still harbours about a dozen of species officially listened as in danger.

  5. A catalogue of the scaleworm genus Lepidonotus (Polynoidae, Polychaeta) from South America, with two new records for Brazilian waters

    PubMed Central

    De Assis, José Eriberto; de Brito, Rafael Justino; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; de Souza, José Roberto Botelho

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Lepidonotus is the largest in number of species within the Polynoidae, with more than 70 described species and subspecies. A catalogue of 18 nominal species and subspecies of Lepidonotus from South America is provided, with valid names, synonyms and original citations. Redescriptions and illustrations of two species based on new specimens collected along the littoral of the State of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil are included. Lepidonotus carinulatus and Lepidonotus natalensis are reported for the first time for Brazilian waters. A comparative table of characters for all reported species and subspecies of Lepidonotus from South America is provided. PMID:26668541

  6. Genetic structure and conservation of Mountain Lions in the South-Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Camila S.; Marins-Sá, Luiz G.; Benedet, Rodrigo C.; Freitas, Thales R.O.

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, observed and expected heterozygosity, linkage disequilibrium, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, FIS, effective population size and genetic structure (MICROCHECKER, CERVUS, GENEPOP, FSTAT, ARLEQUIN, ONESAMP, LDNe, PCAGEN, GENECLASS software), we also determine whether there was evidence of a bottleneck (HYBRIDLAB, BOTTLENECK software) that might influence the future viability of the population in south Brazil. 106 alleles were identified, with the number of alleles/locus ranging from 2 to 11. Mean observed heterozygosity, mean number of alleles and polymorphism information content were 0.609, 5.89, and 0.6255, respectively. This population presented evidence of a recent bottleneck and loss of genetic variation. Persistent regional poaching constitutes an increasing in the extinction risk. PMID:22481876

  7. Occupancy dynamics of South American sea-lions in Brazilian haul-outs.

    PubMed

    Pavanato, H; Silva, K G; Estima, S C; Monteiro, D S; Kinas, P G

    2013-11-01

    Along the Brazilian coast only two haul-outs of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) are known: Ilha dos Lobos and Molhe Leste, both located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul. Most sea lions observed in these haul-outs are adult and sub-adult males. It is supposed that the species' presence in these areas is due to food supply and absence of parental assistance by males. This study analysed the use of these haul-outs by O. flavescens between 1993 and 2002 based on counting data of observed individuals. Bayesian generalised linear mixed models were used to evaluate differences in abundance between areas, long term trends and seasonal patterns. Results showed that for O. flavescens abundance had a long term trend of increased average occupancy over the study period, with seasonal variation reaching the highest within-year value in August (Ilha dos Lobos) and October (Molhe Leste). The novel application of this powerful statistical modelling approach resulted in a useful tool to quantify occupancy dynamic.

  8. Association between oral health status and nutritional status in south Brazilian independent-living older people.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Renato José; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Padilha, Dalva Maria Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Evidence suggests that older people with partial tooth loss and edentulism change their diet and lack specific nutrients, but few studies have assessed whether poor oral status is associated with risk of malnutrition and malnutrition in independent-living older people. We evaluated if poor oral status was associated with risk of malnutrition and malnutrition in this population. A random sample of 471 south Brazilians > or =60 y of age was evaluated. Measurements included a questionnaire to assess sociodemographic, behavioral, general, and oral health data; nutritional status assessment, according to the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA); and oral status assessment, by means of oral examinations assessing the number of teeth and use of dental prostheses. Correlates of risk of malnutrition/malnutrition according to the MNA were assessed by means of multivariate logistic regression. Participants who reported dissatisfaction with their gingival health and edentulous persons wearing only one denture were more likely to be at risk of malnutrition, according to the screening MNA. Dissatisfaction with gingival health was a risk indicator, whereas having one to eight natural teeth was protective against the risk of malnutrition/malnutrition according to the full MNA. In the present study, older people with a compromised oral status had higher odds for risk of malnutrition. The maintenance of a few teeth had a crucial role in increasing the chance of maintaining an adequate nutritional status in the studied population. In cases where edentulism was present, complete dental prosthetic use was associated with better nutritional status.

  9. South Brazilian wines: culturable yeasts associated to bottled wines produced in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Castrillón, Mauricio; Mendes, Sandra Denise Camargo; Valente, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the presence and role of yeasts in bottled wines helps to know and control the organoleptic quality of the final product. The South Region of Brazil is an important wine producer, and the state of "Rio Grande do Sul" (RS) accounts for 90% of Brazilian wines. The state of "Santa Catarina" (SC) started the production in 1975, and is currently the fifth Brazilian producer. As there is little information about yeasts present in Brazilian wines, our main objective was to assess the composition of culturable yeasts associated to bottled wines produced in RS and SC, South of Brazil. We sampled 20 RS and 29 SC bottled wines produced between 2003 and 2011, and we isolated culturable yeasts in non-selective agar plates. We identified all isolates by sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of LSU rDNA or ITS1-5.8 S-ITS2 region, and comparison with type strain sequences deposited in GenBank database. Six yeast species were shared in the final product in both regions. We obtained two spoilage yeast profiles: RS with Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Pichia membranifaciens (Dekkera bruxellensis was found only in specific table wines); and SC with Dekkera bruxellensis and Pichia manshurica. Knowledge concerning the different spoilage profiles is important for winemaking practices in both regions.

  10. A conservation agenda for the Pantanal's biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R; Sabino, J

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal's biodiversity constitutes a valuable natural resource, in economic, cultural, recreational, aesthetic, scientific and educational terms. The vegetation plus the seasonal productivity support a diverse and abundant fauna. Many endangered species occur in the region, and waterfowl are exceptionally abundant during the dry season. Losses of biodiversity and its associated natural habitats within the Pantanal occur as a result of unsustainable land use. Implementation of protected areas is only a part of the conservation strategy needed. We analyse biodiversity threats to the biome under seven major categories: 1) conversion of natural vegetation into pasture and agricultural crops, 2) destruction or degradation of habitat mainly due to wild fire, 3) overexploitation of species mainly by unsustainable fishing, 4) water pollution, 5) river flow modification with implantation of small hydroelectric plants, 6) unsustainable tourism, and 7) introduction of invasive exotic species.

  11. Biodiversity of the Pantanal: response to seasonal flooding regime and to environmental degradation.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R

    2008-11-01

    Seasonal flooding is the most important ecological phenomenon in the Pantanal. Every year many parts of the biome change from terrestrial into aquatic habitats and vice-versa. The degree of inundation creates a range of major habitats. Flooding occupies about 80% of the whole Pantanal. In contrast, during the dry season, most of the flooded areas stay dry, when the water returns to the river beds or evaporates. The Pantanal is a large continental savanna wetland (147,574 km(2) in Brazil), touching Bolivia to the north and Paraguay to the south. The maze of fluctuating water levels, nutrients, and biota forms a dynamic ecosystem. The vegetation comprises 1,863 phanerogam plant species listed for the floodplain and 3,400 for the whole basin and 250 species of aquatic plants. The complex vegetation cover and seasonal productivity support a diverse and abundant fauna within the floodplain: 263 species of fish, 41 of amphibians, 113 of reptiles (177 for the basin), 463 of birds and 132 mammal species. Many endangered species occur, including jaguar (Panthera onca Linnaeus, 1758). Waterfowl are exceptionally abundant during the dry season. Analysis of the root causes of the threats to biodiversity indicated that deforestation (17% of the Pantanal and 63% of the surrounding uplands) with modification and loss of natural habitats due to cattle ranching, unsustainable agriculture, mining, environmental contamination (including mercury, pesticides, urban sewage), non organized tourism, fire, disturbances at the upstream region modifying hydrological flow, erosion, weak implementation and enforcement of legislation are the major issues to face conservation action and sustainable use. Under an evolutionary focus, local biodiversity seems to be well adapted to seasonal shrinking and expansion of natural habitats due to flooding. However, the conversion of natural vegetation due to human occupation is a real threat to biodiversity.

  12. Spider Trait Assembly Patterns and Resilience under Fire-Induced Vegetation Change in South Brazilian Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Podgaiski, Luciana R.; Joner, Fernando; Lavorel, Sandra; Moretti, Marco; Ibanez, Sebastien; Mendonça, Milton de S.; Pillar, Valério D.

    2013-01-01

    Disturbances induce changes on habitat proprieties that may filter organism's functional traits thereby shaping the structure and interactions of many trophic levels. We tested if communities of predators with foraging traits dependent on habitat structure respond to environmental change through cascades affecting the functional traits of plants. We monitored the response of spider and plant communities to fire in South Brazilian Grasslands using pairs of burned and unburned plots. Spiders were determined to the family level and described in feeding behavioral and morphological traits measured on each individual. Life form and morphological traits were recorded for plant species. One month after fire the abundance of vegetation hunters and the mean size of the chelicera increased due to the presence of suitable feeding sites in the regrowing vegetation, but irregular web builders decreased due to the absence of microhabitats and dense foliage into which they build their webs. Six months after fire rosette-form plants with broader leaves increased, creating a favourable habitat for orb web builders which became more abundant, while graminoids and tall plants were reduced, resulting in a decrease of proper shelters and microclimate in soil surface to ground hunters which became less abundant. Hence, fire triggered changes in vegetation structure that lead both to trait-convergence and trait-divergence assembly patterns of spiders along gradients of plant biomass and functional diversity. Spider individuals occurring in more functionally diverse plant communities were more diverse in their traits probably because increased possibility of resource exploitation, following the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. Finally, as an indication of resilience, after twelve months spider communities did not differ from those of unburned plots. Our findings show that functional traits provide a mechanistic understanding of the response of communities to environmental change

  13. Spider trait assembly patterns and resilience under fire-induced vegetation change in South Brazilian grasslands.

    PubMed

    Podgaiski, Luciana R; Joner, Fernando; Lavorel, Sandra; Moretti, Marco; Ibanez, Sebastien; Mendonça, Milton de S; Pillar, Valério D

    2013-01-01

    Disturbances induce changes on habitat proprieties that may filter organism's functional traits thereby shaping the structure and interactions of many trophic levels. We tested if communities of predators with foraging traits dependent on habitat structure respond to environmental change through cascades affecting the functional traits of plants. We monitored the response of spider and plant communities to fire in South Brazilian Grasslands using pairs of burned and unburned plots. Spiders were determined to the family level and described in feeding behavioral and morphological traits measured on each individual. Life form and morphological traits were recorded for plant species. One month after fire the abundance of vegetation hunters and the mean size of the chelicera increased due to the presence of suitable feeding sites in the regrowing vegetation, but irregular web builders decreased due to the absence of microhabitats and dense foliage into which they build their webs. Six months after fire rosette-form plants with broader leaves increased, creating a favourable habitat for orb web builders which became more abundant, while graminoids and tall plants were reduced, resulting in a decrease of proper shelters and microclimate in soil surface to ground hunters which became less abundant. Hence, fire triggered changes in vegetation structure that lead both to trait-convergence and trait-divergence assembly patterns of spiders along gradients of plant biomass and functional diversity. Spider individuals occurring in more functionally diverse plant communities were more diverse in their traits probably because increased possibility of resource exploitation, following the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. Finally, as an indication of resilience, after twelve months spider communities did not differ from those of unburned plots. Our findings show that functional traits provide a mechanistic understanding of the response of communities to environmental change

  14. Health assessment of wild lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) populations in the Atlantic Forest and Pantanal biomes, Brazil (1996-2012).

    PubMed

    Medici, Emília Patrícia; Mangini, Paulo Rogerio; Fernandes-Santos, Renata Carolina

    2014-10-01

    Abstract The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in South America and is listed as Vulnerable to Extinction by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species. Health issues, particularly infectious diseases, are potential threats for the species. Health information from 65 wild tapirs from two Brazilian biomes, Atlantic Forest (AF) and Pantanal (PA), were collected during a long-term study (1996-2012). The study included physic, hematologic and biochemical evaluations, microbiologic cultures, urinalysis, and serologic analyses for antibodies against 13 infectious agents (viral and bacterial). The AF and PA tapirs were significantly different for several hematologic and biochemical parameters. Ten bacteria taxa were identified in the AF and 26 in the PA. Antibodies against five viruses were detected: Bluetongue virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, western equine encephalitis virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and porcine parvovirus. A high prevalence of exposure to Leptospira interrogans (10 serovars: Autumnalis, Bratislava, Canicola, Copenhageni, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Hebdomadis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, and Pyrogenes) was detected in both the AF and PA sites. A greater diversity of serovars and higher antibody titers were found in the PA. Statistically significant differences between sites were found for L. interrogans, equine encephalitis virus, and porcine parvovirus. Based on physical evaluations, both AF and PA populations were healthy. The differences in the overall health profile of the AF and PA tapir populations appear to be associated with environmental factors and infectious diseases ecology. The extensive datasets on hematology, biochemistry, urinalysis, and microbiology results from this paper can be used as reference values for wild tapirs.

  15. Assessment of total and organic mercury levels in blue sharks (Prionace glauca) from the south and southeastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Gabriel Gustinelli Arantes; Degaspari, Iracema Alves Manoel; Branco, Vasco; Canário, João; de Amorim, Alberto Ferreira; Kennedy, Valerie Helen; Ferreira, José Roberto

    2014-06-01

    Mercury occurrence was evaluated in samples of edible muscle tissue of 27 blue sharks (Prionace glauca) caught in the Atlantic Ocean, adjacent to the south and southeastern Brazilian coast, indicating a slight increase in comparison with previous data obtained for the same studied area and being higher than those fish caught at different sites of the Atlantic Ocean. Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.46 to 2.40 mg kg(-1) with the organic Hg fraction ranging between 0.44 and 2.37 mg kg(-1). A negative correlation between total Hg concentration in muscle tissue and blue shark size was obtained, and 40% of samples analyzed had Hg concentrations higher than 1.0 mg kg(-1) Hg, the maximum concentration permitted in Brazilian predator fish. Data obtained showed that total Hg can be used as a reliable predictor of organic Hg in blue shark muscle because 95 to 98% of the total Hg measured was found to be organic mercury. The wide range of Hg concentrations obtained for our set of samples can be explained by the heterogeneity of sampled population and the large size of the studied area. Given the adverse toxicological effects of Hg on animals and humans, a regular monitoring program of Hg contamination in Brazilian marine ecosystem can be recommended.

  16. Camera-trap study of ocelot and other secretive mammals in the northern Pantanal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trolle, M.; Kery, M.

    2005-01-01

    Reliable information on abundance of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is scarce. We conducted the first camera-trap study in the northern part of the Pantanal wetlands of Brazil, one of the wildlife hotspots of South America. Using capture-recapture analysis, we estimated a density of 0.112 independent individuals per km2 (SE 0.069). We list other mammals recorded with camera traps and show that camera-trap placement on roads or on trails has striking effects on camera-trapping rates.

  17. Molecular Phylogeny of the Myxobolus and Henneguya Genera with Several New South American Species

    PubMed Central

    Carriero, Mateus Maldonado; Adriano, Edson A.; Silva, Márcia R. M.; Ceccarelli, Paulo S.; Maia, Antonio A. M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study consists of a detailed phylogenetic analysis of myxosporeans of the Myxobolus and Henneguya genera, including sequences from 12 Myxobolus/Henneguya species, parasites of South American pimelodids, bryconids and characids. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses, based on 18 S rDNA gene sequences, showed that the strongest evolutionary signal is the phylogenetic affinity of the fish hosts, with clustering mainly occurring according to the order and/or family of the host. Of the 12 South American species studied here, six are newly described infecting fish from the Brazilian Pantanal wetland. Henneguya maculosus n. sp. and Myxobolus flavus n. sp. were found infecting both Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum; Myxobolus aureus n. sp. and Myxobolus pantanalis n. sp. were observed parasitizing Salminus brasiliensis and Myxobolus umidus n. sp. and Myxobolus piraputangae n. sp. were detected infecting Brycon hilarii. PMID:24040037

  18. The genus Zelurus Hahn, 1826, in Brazilian caves: description of new species and comments on the potential distribution of the genus in South America.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marina Izabel Grave; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R

    2016-09-23

    A survey on species of the genus Zelurus Hahn, 1826 (Reduviidae) occurring in Brazilian caves is provided. Zelurus tambejua sp. n. and Zelurus gerevatinga sp. n. collected from caves in Brazil are described. Comments about the current and potential distribution of the genus as a whole and of species of Zelurus found in caves for South America are also provided.

  19. Mapping Brazilian Pepper Infestations in South Texas with Spatial Information Technologies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius), an evergreen shrub or tree indigenous to Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina, was introduced into the United States as an ornamental. This plant has an aggressive growth habit that allows it to establish, spread, and displace native vegetation, resulting in ...

  20. Health and epidemiological approaches of Trypanosoma evansi and equine infectious anemia virus in naturally infected horses at southern Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Parreira, Daniela R; Jansen, Ana M; Abreu, Urbano G P; Macedo, Gabriel C; Silva, Antônia R S; Mazur, Carlos; Andrade, Gisele B; Herrera, Heitor M

    2016-11-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and Trypanossoma evansi are endemic in Brazilian Pantanal Biome, an important area for livestock production. In this sense, we evaluated the epidemiological single and co-infection effects of T. evansi and EIAV in naturally infected horses in the southern Pantanal wetland by serological tests and hematological assays. Both higher seroprevalence and heath poor condition of the sampled animals were associated with differences in horse management between farms. We found that the negative animals for both infectious agents (NN) represented the major group in F1 (37%), and the smallest group in F2 (19%). Furthermore, we recorded higher EIAV seroprevalence (56%) in F2, compared to F1 (38%). We observed that T. evansi infection was mostly related to young horses, as seen by their higher seroprevalence, ranging from 70.7% in the beginning of the rainy season to 81% in the end of flood period, in comparison with the values of 42% and 68%, respectively, in working animals. on the other hand, working animals showed a higher seroprevalence for EIAV (48%) in both seasons than young horses. We observed that the management of working horses could be a risk factor of EIAV infection. On the other hand, as T. evansi is maintained in the study region by many species of wild mammals, the mechanical transmission through blood-sucking vectors ensures the infection to horses since early. Our results showed that single or co-infection by EIAV and T. evansi caused different degree of anemia in the infected animals. Moreover, the health of horses in Brazilian Pantanal is also influenced by differences in horse management and environmental circumstances.

  1. The Role of the Brazilian Air Force in the Defense of the South Atlantic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    16 square kin), belong to Brazil and constitute important assets to the dufcn e of its territorial integrity and other interests. Fernando de . Noronha ...bases or forward sentinals on tM? sea to defend the South Atlantic and South America. Two of them, Fernando de Noronha (25 squar-e km) and Trindade...countries in the South Atlantic region, Brazil has geopolitical, economic, and strategic interests with respect to that ocean. These interests can be

  2. Effects of Severe Floods and Droughts on Wildlife of the Pantanal Wetland (Brazil)—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Alho, Cleber J. R.; Silva, João S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary The Pantanal is a wetland in the center of South America, (140,000 km² in Brazil), in the Upper Paraguay River Basin. Because of its diverse and abundant wildlife, it is recognized as one of the most important freshwater ecosystems in the world. Many endangered species occur there, including jaguar; waterfowl are exceptionally abundant. Relief varies between the low, and flat floodplain, and the surrounding non-flooded plateau areas. Rainfall shows inter-annual variability, influencing the flooding patterns. Historical climate instability of severe multi-annual flood and dry events has affected animals’ habitats as well as their community structure, population size and behavioral ecology. Abstract Flooding throughout the Pantanal is seasonal. The complex vegetative cover and high seasonal productivity support a diverse and abundant fauna. A gradient in flood level supports a range of major habitats in a complex mosaic with annual seasonality. The rivers and streams are lined with gallery forests, and other arboreal habitats exist in the more elevated areas. The remainder is either grasslands or seasonally flooded grasslands. The regional flora and fauna are adapted to annual water fluctuation. However, an inter-annual series of higher or lower rainfalls has caused either severe floods or drastic dry seasons. Large scale climate phenomena such as greenhouse gases, El Niño and La Niña influence the seasonality of floods and droughts in the Pantanal. Knowledge of severe floods and droughts, which characterize natural disasters, is fundamental for wildlife management and nature conservation of the Pantanal. Plants and wild animals, for example, are affected by tree mortality in riparian forest after extreme flooding, with consequent habitat modification for wild animals. In addition, human activities are also affected since cattle ranching and ecotourism are economically important in the region, and when seasons with unusual floods or droughts occur

  3. New species of Pseudonannolene Silvestri, 1895 from Brazilian limestone caves with comments on the potential distribution of the genus in South America (Spirostreptida: Pseudonannolenidae).

    PubMed

    Iniesta, Luiz Felipe Moretti; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2014-08-04

    Ten new species of Pseudonannolene Silvestri, 1895 are described from Brazilian limestone caves. The species are separated by the morphology of their gonopods and the processes of the first pair of legs of males. A pictorial identification key for the cave-dwelling species from Brazil is provided, besides comments on the distribution of the genus with a potential distribution map of Pseudonannolene and Epinannolene in South and Central America. 

  4. Diel Vertical Dynamics of Gelatinous Zooplankton (Cnidaria, Ctenophora and Thaliacea) in a Subtropical Stratified Ecosystem (South Brazilian Bight)

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira Júnior, Miodeli; Brandini, Frederico Pereira; Codina, Juan Carlos Ugaz

    2015-01-01

    The diel vertical dynamics of gelatinous zooplankton in physically stratified conditions over the 100-m isobath (~110 km offshore) in the South Brazilian Bight (26°45’S; 47°33’W) and the relationship to hydrography and food availability were analyzed by sampling every six hours over two consecutive days. Zooplankton samples were taken in three depth strata, following the vertical structure of the water column, with cold waters between 17 and 13.1°C, influenced by the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) in the lower layer (>70 m); warm (>20°C) Tropical Water in the upper 40 m; and an intermediate thermocline with a deep chlorophyll-a maximum layer (0.3–0.6 mg m-3). Two distinct general patterns were observed, emphasizing the role of (i) physical and (ii) biological processes: (i) a strong influence of the vertical stratification, with most zooplankton absent or little abundant in the lower layer. The influence of the cold SACW on the bottom layer apparently restricted the vertical occupation of most species, which typically inhabit epipelagic warm waters. Even among migratory species, only a few (Aglaura hemistoma, Abylopsis tetragona eudoxids, Beroe sp., Thalia democratica, Salpa fusiformis) crossed the thermocline and reached the bottom layer. (ii) A general tendency of partial migrations, with variable intensity depending on the different species and developmental stages; populations tended to be more widely distributed through the water column during daylight, and to become more aggregated in the upper layer during the night, which can be explained based on the idea of the “hunger-satiation hypothesis”, maximizing feeding and minimizing the chances of being predated. PMID:26637179

  5. Diel Vertical Dynamics of Gelatinous Zooplankton (Cnidaria, Ctenophora and Thaliacea) in a Subtropical Stratified Ecosystem (South Brazilian Bight).

    PubMed

    Nogueira Júnior, Miodeli; Brandini, Frederico Pereira; Codina, Juan Carlos Ugaz

    2015-01-01

    The diel vertical dynamics of gelatinous zooplankton in physically stratified conditions over the 100-m isobath (~110 km offshore) in the South Brazilian Bight (26°45'S; 47°33'W) and the relationship to hydrography and food availability were analyzed by sampling every six hours over two consecutive days. Zooplankton samples were taken in three depth strata, following the vertical structure of the water column, with cold waters between 17 and 13.1°C, influenced by the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) in the lower layer (>70 m); warm (>20°C) Tropical Water in the upper 40 m; and an intermediate thermocline with a deep chlorophyll-a maximum layer (0.3-0.6 mg m-3). Two distinct general patterns were observed, emphasizing the role of (i) physical and (ii) biological processes: (i) a strong influence of the vertical stratification, with most zooplankton absent or little abundant in the lower layer. The influence of the cold SACW on the bottom layer apparently restricted the vertical occupation of most species, which typically inhabit epipelagic warm waters. Even among migratory species, only a few (Aglaura hemistoma, Abylopsis tetragona eudoxids, Beroe sp., Thalia democratica, Salpa fusiformis) crossed the thermocline and reached the bottom layer. (ii) A general tendency of partial migrations, with variable intensity depending on the different species and developmental stages; populations tended to be more widely distributed through the water column during daylight, and to become more aggregated in the upper layer during the night, which can be explained based on the idea of the "hunger-satiation hypothesis", maximizing feeding and minimizing the chances of being predated.

  6. K-Ar ages and the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean: Basaltic rock from the Brazilian margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fodor, R.V.; McKee, E.H.; Asmus, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    New K-Ar ages for 13 samples of basalt, gabbro, wehrlite, and trachyandesite drilled from the Brazilian continental shelf and coastline yield information about the timing of the opening of the South Atlantic and the nature of the crust seaward from the Brazil margin. The oldest basalt is 138.1 ?? 3.5 m.y. old and from offshore at 24.5??S; it represents Serra Geral flood basalt on attenuated crust in the Santos basin. Basalts from the coastline at 19.5??S are mixed with terrigenous graben sediments, and their ages confirm that rifting was underway before 130 m.y. Offshore sites in the Campos basin, ???22??-23??S, 41??W, have basalt ranging from 124 to 112 m.y. in age and mostly continental flood basalt in composition. One 112-m.y. basalt, however, is MORB-like and could therefore represent oceanic lithosphere mixed with continental crust about 50 km from the shoreline at ???22.5??S. Other samples reveal compositionally varied intraplate, passive-margin magmatism occurring 75-43 m.y. ago. They correlate with profuse contemporary alkalic magmatism on the southeastern Brazil coast and probably represent reactivation of zones of "weakness" (i.e., fracture zone-lineaments). ?? 1983.

  7. Feeding biology of a guild of benthivorous fishes in a sandy shore on south-eastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Zahorcsak, P; Silvano, R A; Sazima, I

    2000-08-01

    The feeding biology of eight species of benthivorous fishes was studied in a sandy shore at Anchieta Island, south-eastern Brazilian coast. The fishes fed mainly on Amphipoda and Mysidacea crustaceans. The diet of the most abundant species, the drum Umbrina coroides, was analyzed in three standard length classes (20-55, 56-90 and 91-135 mm). This sciaenid showed an ontogenetic diet shift from Mysidacea to Amphipoda. The feeding behaviour of the sciaenid U. coroides and the gerreid Eucinostomus gula was recorded while snorkeling. During their foraging both species uncovered small organisms buried in the sand. Notwithstanding general similarities in diet, U. coroides and E. gula presented differences in feeding behaviour and morphology. Two carangid species of the genus Trachinotus differed in diet composition and consumed a larger array of food items than the remaining fish species. Differences in diet and feeding activity between the remaining benthivorous species were noted. These differences possibly reduce overlap in resource use and favour the coexistence of guilds of benthivorous fishes on sandy shores.

  8. Mercury content in shark species from the South-Eastern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, L D; Paraquetti, H H; Marins, R V; Rezende, C E; Zalmon, I R; Gomes, M P; Farias, V

    2000-11-01

    We present here the first results of Hg concentrations in three small shark species (Rhizoprionodon lalandei, R. porosus and Mustelus higmani) from the SE Brazilian coast. Mercury concentrations in R. lalandei ranged from 21.5 to 280.0 ng.g-1 dry weight (d.w.) (average 74.6 ng.g-1 d.w.; 17.9 ng.g-1 wet weight). In R. porosus, concentrations ranged from 7.6 to 90.5 ng.g-1 d.w. (average 42.2 ng.g-1 d.w., 9.4 ng.g-1 wet weight), whereas in M. higmani, concentrations ranged from 13.0 to 162.8 ng.g-1 d.w. (average 54.9 ng.g-1 d.w., 13.4 ng.g-1 wet weight). These concentration ranges are very low compared with values reported for other large shark species of the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. There was a significant positive correlation between Hg concentrations and individual size, suggesting that biomagnification is occurring in these animals.

  9. Serological Evidence of Widespread Circulation of West Nile Virus and Other Flaviviruses in Equines of the Pantanal, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Campos, Zilca; Juliano, Raquel; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    A recent study reported neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) in horses from four ranches of southern Pantanal. To extend that study, a serosurvey for WNV and 11 Brazilian flaviviruses was conducted with 760 equines, 238 sheep and 61 caimans from 17 local cattle ranches. Among the tested equines, 32 were collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. The sera were initially screened by using a blocking ELISA and then titrated by 90% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) for 12 flaviviruses. Employing the criterion of 4-fold greater titer, 78 (10.3%) equines were seropositive for Ilheus virus, 59 (7.8%) for Saint Louis encephalitis virus, 24 (3.2%) for WNV, two (0.3%) for Cacipacore virus and one (0.1%) for Rocio virus. No serological evidence was found linking the neurological disease that affected local equines to WNV. All caimans and sheep were negative by blocking ELISA for flaviviruses. There were no seropositive equines for Bussuquara, Iguape, Yellow fever and all four Dengue virus serotypes. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in ten ranches and ILHV and SLEV-seropositive equines in fourteen ranches of two different sub-regions of Pantanal is strong evidence of widespread circulation of these flaviviruses in the region. PMID:24551266

  10. A survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs and their ticks in the Pantanal biome, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, A L T; Witter, R; Martins, T F; Pacheco, T A; Alves, A S; Chitarra, C S; Dutra, V; Nakazato, L; Pacheco, R C; Labruna, M B; Aguiar, D M

    2016-03-01

    Tick and blood samples collected from domestic dogs in the Brazilian Pantanal were tested by molecular methods for the presence of tick-borne protozoa and bacteria. Among 320 sampled dogs, 3.13% were infected by Babesia vogeli (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae), 8.75% by Hepatozoon canis (Eucoccidiorida: Hepatozoidae), 7.19% by Anaplasma platys (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and 0.94% by an unclassified Anaplasma sp. In three tick species collected from dogs, the following tick-borne agents were detected: (a) B. vogeli, An. platys and Ehrlichia canis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks; (b) H. canis, an unclassified Anaplasma sp. and Rickettsia amblyommii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), infecting Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks, and (c) Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, an emerging human pathogen, infecting Amblyomma ovale ticks. Molecular analysis, based on a mitochondrial gene, revealed that the Am. cajennense s.l. ticks of the present study corresponded to Amblyomma sculptum, a member of the Am. cajennense species complex, and that Rh. sanguineus s.l. belonged to the tropical lineage. Whereas dogs are exposed to a number of tick-borne bacterial and protozoan agents in the Pantanal biome, humans are potentially exposed to infection by spotted fever group rickettsiae (e.g. R. amblyommii and Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest) because both Am. sculptum and Am. ovale are among the most important human-biting ticks in Brazil. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  11. Limnogeological evidence of tropical floodplain responses to environmental change on a distal fluvial megafan, Pantanal, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, E. L.; McGlue, M. M.; Silva, A.; Bergier, I.; Yeager, K. M.; Macedo, H. D. A.; O'Dell, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Floodplains and their wetlands are host to major components of tropical biogeochemical and nutrient cycles, but these environments are changing in response to increasingly variable climate patterns. As the world's largest freshwater tropical wetland, the Pantanal (South America) is an ideal study site due to its largely pristine state and sensitivity to variability in climate stemming from linkages with Paraguay River flooding. Because of the ability to record aspects of climate, tectonics, and landscape, lakes and their sediments can help with understanding environmental change in tropical floodplain systems. This initial study examined sedimentary indicators of change in Lake Uberaba, which is located at the distal Paraguay megafan along the border of Brazil and Bolivia. Bathymetry measurements, surface sediments, and water samples were collected from the lake in 2015 and 2016, to characterize the contemporary limnogeological system. During the surveys, the lake was 230 km2 with a maximum depth of 3.5 m in the southern part of the lake. Eight short cores (< 1m) were obtained to assess spatial variability in facies, and temporal changes to fluvio-lacustrine environments. Sediment samples were evaluated for elemental composition, clastic grain size, organic carbon, carbonate, radionuclides (137Cs, 210Pb) and biogenic silica. Initial results showed that surface sediment in the lake is primarily silty, with sand concentrated in the center of the lake. Prograding sediments of the Paraguay megafan are filling the lake from north to south, aided by aquatic macrophytes, which stabilize the sediment as woody vegetation becomes more common. Several of the cores contained a pronounced transition from dense, oxidized silty clay to organic-rich clayey silt, which suggested a shift in depositional setting from distal floodplain to an open lacustrine environment. Future work will use radiocarbon (14C) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) to constrain the timing of

  12. Estimation of ocelot density in the pantanal using capture-recapture analysis of camera-trapping data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trolle, M.; Kery, M.

    2003-01-01

    Neotropical felids such as the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) are secretive, and it is difficult to estimate their populations using conventional methods such as radiotelemetry or sign surveys. We show that recognition of individual ocelots from camera-trapping photographs is possible, and we use camera-trapping results combined with closed population capture-recapture models to estimate density of ocelots in the Brazilian Pantanal. We estimated the area from which animals were camera trapped at 17.71 km2. A model with constant capture probability yielded an estimate of 10 independent ocelots in our study area, which translates to a density of 2.82 independent individuals for every 5 km2 (SE 1.00).

  13. Nutrient Distribution and Benthic Foraminiferal Assemblages on the South Brazilian Shelf: Relationship With Water Masses and Freshwater Influx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, B. B.; Sen Gupta, B. K.; Eichler, P. P.; Braga, E. S.; Campos, E. J.; Berbel, G. G.; Rodrigues, A. R.

    2005-05-01

    Using distributions of nutrients and benthic foraminifera, we tracked water masses on the South Brazilian Shelf and assessed the seasonality of continental runoff and the dilution of coastal waters. The data were obtained from water and sediment samples collected in winter 2003 and summer 2004. Silicate concentrations were 0.02-83.52 ?YM in winter and 0.05-41.16 ?YM in summer. The high silicate content in the surface water was associated with low salinity (minima 21.22 in winter and 21.96 in summer), confirming a significant input of freshwater. Phosphate values, a secondary tracer of the terrestrial input, were 0.00-3.30 ?YM in winter and 0.03-2.26 ?YM in summer, with the shallow-water phosphate content indicating a freshwater influence. The nitrate evidence showed the presence of new water in the region, derived from South Atlantic Central Water by upwelling processes. Nitrate, nitrite, and oxygen correlations indicated a denitrification process in bottom water, associated with the oxygen minimum layer, and with the suspended matter content. Dissolved oxygen values were 3.41-7.06 mL.L-1 in winter and 2.65 mL-6.85 mL.L-1 in summer. The lowest salinities were frequently associated with >20°C temperatures. In winter, an inner-shelf salinity front was present, and the strong influence of freshwater led to a silicate maximum (27.79 &?YM), increased concentrations of phosphate (2.70 ?YM), Si(OH)4 (10.88 ?YM), NO3 (1.01 ?YM), and Total Dissolved Nitrogen (22.98 ?YM), together with a high value of suspended matter (44.80 mg/L). The terrestrial input was significantly reduced with increasing distance from the coast, but high values of nutrients were maintained in subsurface waters, because of SACW upwelling. At shallow sampling stations, the influence of freshwater runoff was also demonstrated by (1) the dominance of benthic foraminifera such as lagoon-related Elphidium spp. and several agglutinated species, including Gaudryina exillis and Trochammina spp; and (2) an

  14. Phylogenetic and morphological characterization of trypanosomes from Brazilian armoured catfishes and leeches reveal high species diversity, mixed infections and a new fish trypanosome species.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Moara; Fermino, Bruno R; Simas-Rodrigues, Cíntia; Hoffmann, Luísa; Silva, Rosane; Camargo, Erney P; Teixeira, Marta M G; Souto-Padrón, Thaïs

    2015-11-06

    Several Trypanosoma species transmitted by leeches infect marine and freshwater fish worldwide. To date, all South American fish trypanosome species identified have been based on unreliable morphological parameters. We recently isolated and cultured trypanosomes from the Brazilian armoured catfishes Hypostomus luetkeni and H. affinis. Here, we report the first phylogenetic analyses of South American (Brazilian) trypanosomes isolated from fish, and from leeches removed from these fish. We also analysed morphologically and morphometrically the different forms of fish, leech and cultured trypanosomes. V7V8 SSU rRNA and gGAPDH sequences were used for phylogenetic analysis of Brazilian fish and leech trypanosomes. Trypanosomes from cultures, fish blood and leech samples were also characterized morphologically and morphometrically by light and electron microscopy. In blood smears from fish high trypanosome prevalence (90-100 %) and parasitemia (0.9-1.0x10(2)) were observed. Phylogenetic relationships using SSU rRNA and gGAPDH showed that, despite relevant sequence divergence, all Brazilian fish (and derived cultures) and leech trypanosomes clustered together into a single clade. The Brazilian clade clustered with European, North American and African fish trypanosomes. Based on sequence analysis, we uncovered a new species of Brazilian fish trypanosome, Trypanosoma abeli n. sp. Trypanosoma abeli cultures contained pleomorphic epimastigotes, small trypomastigotes and rare sphaeromastigotes. Ultrastructural features of T. abeli included a cytostome-cytopharynx complex in epi- and trypomastigotes, a compact rod-like kinetoplast, lysosome-related organelles (LROs) and multivesicular bodies. Trypanosomes found in fish blood smears and leech samples were highly pleomorphic, in agreement with sequence data suggesting that catfishes and leeches often have mixed trypanosome infections. Trypanosoma abeli n. sp. is the first trypanosome from South American fishes isolated in

  15. Freshwater Influence Over the South Brazilian Continental Shelf: Indications From Foraminiferal Species Dominance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, P. P.; Sen Gupta, B. K.; Eichler, B. B.; Campos, E. J.

    2005-05-01

    transect (75, 109m) is dominated by Uvigerina peregrina and Cassidulina subglobosa, which indicates the presence of the cold, nutrient-rich South Atlantic Central Water (SACW).

  16. Age-related and stand-wise estimates of carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass of wetland forests in the northern Pantanal, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöngart, J.; Arieira, J.; Felfili Fortes, C.; Cezarine de Arruda, E.; Nunes da Cunha, C.

    2011-11-01

    In this study we use allometric models combined with tree ring analysis to estimate carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass (AGWB) of wetland forests in the Pantanal, located in central South America. In four 1-ha plots in stands characterized by the pioneer tree species Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae) forest inventories (trees ≥10 cm diameter at breast height, D) have been performed and converted to estimates of AGWB by two allometric models using three independent parameters (D, tree height H and wood density ρ). We perform a propagation of measurement errors to estimate uncertainties in the estimates of AGWB. Carbon stocks of AGWB vary from 7.8 ± 1.5 to 97.2 ± 14.4 Mg C ha-1 between the four stands. From models relating tree ages determined by dendrochronological techniques to C-stocks in AGWB we derived estimates for C-sequestration which differs from 0.50 ± 0.03 to 3.34 ± 0.31 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Maps based on geostatistic techniques indicate the heterogeneous spatial distribution of tree ages and C-stocks of the four studied stands. This distribution is the result of forest dynamics due to the colonizing and retreating of V. divergens and other species associated with pluriannual wet and dry episodes in the Pantanal, respectively. Such information is essential for the management of the cultural landscape of the Pantanal wetlands.

  17. Implications of climatic seasonality on activity patterns and resource use by sympatric peccaries in northern Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Gabriel Selbach; Coelho, Igor Pfeifer; Bastazini, Vinicius Augusto Galvão; Cordeiro, José Luís Passos; de Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion Barbosa

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the effects of climate seasonality from a thermal and water availability perspective on the activity patterns and resource use of Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari during wet and dry seasons in the northeastern Brazilian Pantanal. We used camera traps and temperature sensors to record species activity patterns in relation to temperature, established five habitat categories based on flooding intensity and local vegetation characteristics, assessed the activity patterns of each species in dry and wet periods and in artificial water bodies using circular statistical metrics, and calculated niche amplitude and overlap on three axes (temperature, time, and habitat) in both periods. Peccaries shared a strong resemblance in resource use and in their responses to seasonal variations in the tested gradients. The activity patterns of both species exhibited a significant correlation with air temperature on all the evaluated measures, and both species strongly reduced their activity when the air temperature exceeded 35 °C. High temperatures associated with low water availability were most likely responsible for the changes in species activity patterns, which resulted in an increased temporal overlap in habitat use throughout the dry season. However, the peccaries avoided intensively flooded habitats; therefore, the habitat gradient overlap was greater during the wet period. Our results show that an increase in niche overlap on the environmental gradient as a result of climatic seasonality may be partially compensated by a reduction in other niche dimensions. In this case, temporal partitioning appears to be an important, viable mechanism to reduce competition by potentially competing species.

  18. Modeling the hydrological patterns on Pantanal wetlands, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, A. A.; Cuartas, A.; Coe, M. T.; Koumrouyan, A.; Panday, P. K.; Lefebvre, P.; Padovani, C.; Costa, M. H.; de Oliveira, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Pantanal of Brazil is one of the world's largest wetland regions. It is located within the 370,000 km2 Alto Paraguai Basin (BAP). In wet years almost 15% of the total area of the basin can be flooded (approximately 53,000 km2). The hydrological cycle is particularly important in the Pantanal in the transport of materials, and the transfer of energy between atmospheric, aquatic, and terrestrial systems. The INLAND (Integrated Land Surface Model) terrestrial ecosystem model is coupled with the THMB hydrological model to examine the hydrological balance and water dynamics for this region. The INLAND model is based on the IBIS dynamic vegetation model, while THMB represents the river, wetland and lake dynamics of the land surface. The modeled hydrological components are validated with surface and satellite-based estimates of precipitation (gridded observations from CRU v. 3.21, reanalysis data from ERA-interim, and TRMM estimates), evapotranspiration (MODIS and Land Flux-Eval dataset), total runoff (discharge data from ANA-Agência Nacional das Águas - Brazil), and terrestrial water storage (GRACE). Results show that the coupled hydrological model adequately represents the water cycle components, the river discharge and flooded areas. Model simulations are further used to study the influences of climatic variations on the hydrological components, river network, and the inundated areas in the Pantanal.

  19. Deep chlorophyll maximum and plankton community response to oceanic bottom intrusions on the continental shelf in the South Brazilian Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira Brandini, Frederico; Nogueira, Miodeli; Simião, Monica; Carlos Ugaz Codina, Juan; Almeida Noernberg, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    The continental shelf of the South Brazilian Bight (Lat 23-28.5°S) is subject to bottom intrusions of the oceanic and nutrient-rich South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW) in summer, to compensate for the Ekman transport of surface waters offshore by northeasterly winds. In winter, shelf waters tend to overturn vertically due to tidal circulation and Ekman convergence of outer-shelf waters driven by southerly winds. From 9 November 2005 to 22 June 2006 the shelf off Santa Catarina State was surveyed to investigate hydrographic conditions and the seasonal dynamics of the plankton cross-shelf distribution and community structure. A strong wind-driven onshore bottom intrusion of the SACW with the formation of two independent deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) layers on the shelf was clear. Chlorophyll concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 6.2 mg m-3 and phytoplankton carbon biomass from 0.2 to 511 μgC L-1, mostly as large centric diatoms and in spite of the numerical dominance of small pennates. The mid-shelf DCM was 12 m thick between 38 and 50 m (1-5% of irradiance) with mean chlorophyll concentrations up to 1.8 mg m-3. The DCM on the outer shelf was formed between 60 and 70 m depth (1-0.01% surface light) by small pennate diatoms and small phytoflagellates, with chlorophyll concentrations of 0.5-0.7 mg m-3. Both DCMs were maintained independently from January to April 2006, and dispersed in June due to water column turnover during cold seasons. In the mid-shelf, the DCM was geographically extended towards the inner shelf and became thicker compared to pre- and post-intrusion periods. The freshwater species Aulacoseira granulata and large centric diatoms including the invasive Coscinodiscus wailesii were frequent along the shelf throughout the sampling period. Oncaea waldemari, Ctenocalanus vanus and Oithona plumifera usually dominated the zooplankton, which ranged from 23 to 7970 individuals m-3. Abundances were always higher on the inner shelf regardless of the season of

  20. Limnogeology in Brazil's "forgotten wilderness": a synthesis from the large floodplain lakes of the Pantanal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGlue, Michael M.; Silva, Aguinaldo; Corradini, Fabricio A.; Zani, Hiran; Trees, Mark A.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Parolin, Mauro; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Assine, Mario L.

    2011-01-01

    Sediment records from floodplain lakes have a large and commonly untapped potential for inferring wetland response to global change. The Brazilian Pantanal is a vast, seasonally inundated savanna floodplain system controlled by the flood pulse of the Upper Paraguay River. Little is known, however, about how floodplain lakes within the Pantanal act as sedimentary basins, or what influence hydroclimatic variables exert on limnogeological processes. This knowledge gap was addressed through an actualistic analysis of three large, shallow (2- > Si4+ > Ca2+), mildly alkaline, freshwater systems, the chemistries and morphometrics of which evolve with seasonal flooding. Lake sills are bathymetric shoals marked by siliciclastic fans and marsh vegetation. Flows at the sills likely undergo seasonal reversals with the changing stage of the Upper Paraguay River. Deposition in deeper waters, typically encountered in proximity to margin-coincident topography, is dominated by reduced silty-clays with abundant siliceous microfossils and organic matter. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, plus hydrogen index measured on bulk organic matter, suggest that contributions from algae (including cyanobacteria) and other C3-vegetation dominate in these environments. The presence of lotic sponge spicules, together with patterns of terrigenous sand deposition and geochemical indicators of productivity, points to the importance of the flood pulse for sediment and nutrient delivery to the lakes. Flood-pulse plumes, waves and bioturbation likewise affect the continuity of sedimentation. Short-lived radioisotopes indicate rates of 0.11-0.24 cm year-1 at sites of uninterrupted deposition. A conceptual facies model, developed from insights gained from modern seasonal processes, can be used to predict limnogeological change when the lakes become isolated on the floodplain or during intervals associated with a strengthened flood pulse. Amplification of the seasonal cycle over longer time scales

  1. Host-Parasite Relationship of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae and Argasidae) and Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Nhecolândia Region of the Pantanal Wetlands in Mato Grosso do Sul

    PubMed Central

    Cançado, P. H. D.; Faccini, J. L. H.; Herrera, H. M.; Tavares, L. E. R.; Mourão, G. M.; Piranda, E. M.; Paes, R. C. S.; Ribeiro, C. C. D. U.; Borghesan, T. C.; Piacenti, A. K.; Kinas, M. A.; Santos, C. C.; Ono, T. M.; Paiva, F.

    2013-01-01

    Feral pigs (S. scrofa) were introduced to the Pantanal region around 200 years ago and the population appears to be in expansion. Its eradication is considered to be impossible. The population of feral pigs in the Pantanal wetlands is currently estimated at one million. Two scientific excursions were organized. The first was conducted during the dry season, when 21 feral pigs were captured and the second was during the wet season, when 23 feral pigs were captured. Ticks were collected and the oviposition and hatching process were studied to confirm the biological success of each tick species. Three tick species were found to be feeding on feral pigs: Amblyomma cajennense, A. parvum, and Ornithodoros rostratus. During the dry season, 178 adult A. cajennense were collected, contrasting with 127 A. cajennense specimens in the wet season. This suggests that the seasonality of these ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands could be different from other regions. The results indicate that A. parvum and A. cajennense are biologically successful parasites in relation to feral pigs. A. cajennense appears to have adapted to this tick-host relationship, as well as the areas where feral pigs are abundant, and could play a role in the amplification of this tick population. PMID:27335855

  2. Rickettsial infection in ticks from wild birds from Cerrado and the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso, midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Dirceu G de S; Melo, Andréia L T; Martins, Thiago F; Alves, Alvair da S; Pacheco, Thábata dos A; Pinto, Letícia B; Pinho, João B; Labruna, Marcelo B; Dutra, Valéria; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C

    2015-09-01

    The involvement of different species of ticks and wild animals, such as birds, play an important role in the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. Birds may serve as reservoirs for some tick-borne diseases, and may carry and spread hematophagous ectoparasites mechanically. This study aimed to show the diversity of ticks on birds and molecular detection of rickettsial infection in ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, two similar Brazilian biomes characterized by hydrological seasons. During two years, August 2012 to May 2014, ticks were collected from birds and from the environment in total of 14 visits for collecting samples, distributed in all hydrological seasons. A total of 674 birds were captured representing 113 species from 26 families. In total, 71 birds were parasitized (10.5%), and 155 ticks of the following 7 tick species (in decreasing order of prevalence) were identified: Amblyomma longirostre Koch, Amblyomma nodosum Neumann, Amblyomma cajennense Fabricius sensu lato (s.l.), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann, Ornithodoros mimon Kohls, Clifford & Jones, Amblyomma ovale Koch, and Amblyomma triste Koch. Among free-living ticks collected in the environment, A. cajennense s.l. was the most common. This is the first occurrence of O. mimon on birds, and of A. triste on Passeriformes in Brazil. Molecular analyses revealed that 6 A. longirostre ticks were infected by 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', whereas 1 A. nodosum was infected by a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent, previously reported as Rickettsia sp. strain NOD. Spotted fever group (SFG) agents were, for the first time, reported in ticks from birds captured in Pantanal biome, and the potential involvement of these agents as human pathogens should be considered in further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. DETECTION OF Leptospira spp. AND Brucella abortus ANTIBODIES IN FREE-LIVING JAGUARS (Panthera onca) IN TWO PROTECTED AREAS OF NORTHERN PANTANAL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    ONUMA, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; KANTEK, Daniel Luis Zanella; CRAWSHAW, Peter Gransden; MORATO, Ronaldo Gonçalves; MAY-JÚNIOR, Joares Adenilson; de MORAIS, Zenaide Maria; FERREIRA, José Soares; de AGUIAR, Daniel Moura

    2015-01-01

     This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2%) jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01). All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection. PMID:25923900

  4. Detection of Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus antibodies in free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in two protected areas of northern Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Crawshaw Júnior, Peter Gransden; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; May-Júnior, Joares Adenilson; Morais, Zenaide Maria de; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2%) jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01). All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection.

  5. Temporal Variation in Water Quality Parameters under Different Vegetative Communities in Two Flooded Forests of the Northern Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couto, E. G.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Johnson, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Pantanal is one of the largest flood plains in the world, and is characterized by large variability in vegetative communities and flooding dynamics. Some woody plant species have been observed to colonize large areas forming monospecific stands. We measured chemical parameters of flood waters including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3), dissolved oxygen (DO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as physical parameters such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature (Tw), turbidity (Turb) and water levels (WL). These chemical and physical measurements were conducted with the intent to characterize spatial and temporal differences of monospecific stands in order to understand if these different formations alter the biogeochemistry of the Pantanal waters. Water sample campaigns were conducted during the inundation period of January to May 2013 in two areas located in the Private Reserve of the Brazilian Social Service of Commerce (RPPN-SESC) near Poconé, Mato Grosso. Research sites included: (1) a flooded tall-stature forest (known as Cambarazal) dominated by the Vochysia divergens species; and (2) in a flooded scrub forest (known as Baia das Pedras) dominated by the Combretum lanceolatum species. Results showed three principal factors which explained 80% of variance in aquatic physical and chemical parameters. The first factor (PCA-1) explained 38% of variance (DO, PAR and WL), PCA-2 explained 23% (NO3, Tw, DOC), while PCA-3 explained only 19% of variance (CO2 and Turb). During the entire study period, the major concentration of variables were observed in the flooded forest. Physical variables presented small alterations, with the exception of water levels, that were greater in the flooded forest. With respect to temporal variables, all chemical parameters were greater at the beginning of the inundation and gradually dropped with the water level. With this work, we observed that the different monospecific formations influenced water

  6. Analysis of the CCR5 gene coding region diversity in five South American populations reveals two new non-synonymous alleles in Amerindians and high CCR5*D32 frequency in Euro-Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) molecule is an important co-receptor for HIV. The effect of the CCR5*D32 allele in susceptibility to HIV infection and AIDS disease is well known. Other alleles than CCR5*D32 have not been analysed before, neither in Amerindians nor in the majority of the populations all over the world. We investigated the distribution of the CCR5 coding region alleles in South Brazil and noticed a high CCR5*D32 frequency in the Euro-Brazilian population of the Paraná State (9.3%), which is the highest thus far reported for Latin America. The D32 frequency is even higher among the Euro-Brazilian Mennonites (14.2%). This allele is uncommon in Afro-Brazilians (2.0%), rare in the Guarani Amerindians (0.4%) and absent in the Kaingang Amerindians and the Oriental-Brazilians. R223Q is common in the Oriental-Brazilians (7.7%) and R60S in the Afro-Brazilians (5.0%). A29S and L55Q present an impaired response to β-chemokines and occurred in Afro- and Euro-Brazilians with cumulative frequencies of 4.4% and 2.7%, respectively. Two new non-synonymous alleles were found in Amerindians: C323F (g.3729G > T) in Guarani (1.4%) and Y68C (g.2964A > G) in Kaingang (10.3%). The functional characteristics of these alleles should be defined and considered in epidemiological investigations about HIV-1 infection and AIDS incidence in Amerindian populations. PMID:21637640

  7. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  8. Brazilian consensus on photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; Cunha, José Antônio Jabur da; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva dos; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection.

  9. Compared leaf anatomy of Nymphaea (Nymphaeaceae) species from Brazilian flood plain.

    PubMed

    Catian, G; Scremin-Dias, E

    2013-11-01

    Nymphaea has seven species already catalogued in the flood prone areas of the Brazilian Pantanal. However, some species remain difficult to identify and descriptions of the anatomy of vegetative organs are an important tool for infrageneric separation to aid in group taxonomy. The species collected in the Pantanal and prepared according to the usual techniques for anatomical studies showed similar structural characteristics, and data on the arrangement of vascular bundles in the midrib and petiole, as well as the form and distribution of sclereids, were consistent. Nymphaea oxypetala stands out from the other evaluated species for having a greater number of differential characters, including angular collenchyma and the absence of bicollateral bundles in the petiole. Nymphaea lingulata stands out as the only species to feature bicollateral bundles in the leaf blade. The results, summarised in the dichotomous key, facilitate the identification of species that use the flower as the main differentiation, but are in a vegetative stage.

  10. Long-term dynamics of a floodplain shallow lake in the Pantanal wetland: Is it all about climate?

    PubMed

    Silio-Calzada, Ana; Barquín, José; Huszar, Vera L M; Mazzeo, Nestor; Méndez, Fernando; Álvarez-Martínez, Jose Manuel

    2017-12-15

    Hydrological variability over seasonal and multi-annual timescales strongly shapes the ecological structure and functioning of floodplain ecosystems. The current IPCC climate scenario foresees an increase in the frequency of extreme events. This, in conjunction with other anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., river regulation or land-use changes) poses a serious threat to the natural functioning of these ecosystems. In this study we aimed to i) evaluate the long-term variability of the flooded area of the third largest floodplain lake in the Brazilian Pantanal using remote sensing techniques, and ii) analyze the possible factors influencing this variability. Changes in open-water and riparian floodplain-wetland vegetation areas were mapped by applying an ad hoc-developed remote-sensing method (including a newly developed normalized water index, NWI) to 221 Landsat-Thematic Mapper (TM)/Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images, acquired between 1984 and 2011. Added to the lake's natural swing between riparian floodplain-wetland vegetation expansion and retraction, our analyses revealed large interannual changes, grouped into three main periods within the studied time interval. Moreover, our results indicate that this floodplain-lake system is losing open-water area, paired with an increase in riparian floodplain-wetland vegetation. The system's long-term dynamics are not all climate related, but are the result of a combination of drivers. The start of the Manso dam's operation upstream of the studied system, and the subsequent river regulation because of the dam operation, coupled with climatic oscillation appear to be responsible for the observed changes. However, other factors which were not considered in this study might also be important in this process and contributing to the reduction of the system's resilience to droughts (e.g., land-use changes). This study illustrates the serious conservation risks that the Pantanal faces in the near future, given the current

  11. Mercury and methyl mercury ratios in caimans (Caiman crocodilus yacare) from the Pantanal area, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, L M; Nunes, V da S; Amaral, M C do A; Oliveira, A C; Hauser-Davis, R A; Campos, R C

    2011-02-01

    The Pantanal region is the largest floodplain area in the world and of great biological importance due to its unique flora and fauna. This area is continuously undergoing increasing anthropogenic threats, and has also experienced mercury contamination associated with gold mining and other anthropogenic activities. Pantanal caimans are top-level predators, and, as such, show great potential to accumulate mercury (Hg) by biomagnification. In this study 79 specimens from four locations in the Pantanal were analyzed for total Hg and methyl mercury (MeHg) by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Total Hg contents ranged from 0.02 to 0.36 µg g(-1) (ww), and most specimens presented MeHg ratios above 70%. One of the sites, impacted by anthropogenic activities, presented significantly higher total Hg in comparison to three less impacted sites, supporting the hypothesis that caimans can, in fact, be considered effective bioindicators of ecosystem health.

  12. Concluding remarks: overall impacts on biodiversity and future perspectives for conservation in the Pantanal biome.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal biome is characterised by seasonal flooding which determines specific ecosystem processes, with the occurrence of adapted plants and animals to the annual shrinking and expansion of habitats due to the seasonal hydrological regime. Biodiversity abundance varies during the dry and wet seasons. The Pantanal's biodiversity is a fundamental component of ecosystem services for human society, including nutrient cycling, fish production, ecotourism, carbon storage, flood control, among others, which are relevant to regional and global environmental consequences. The biome has been impacted by the conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural fields and pasture for cattle raising, with alteration and loss of natural habitats and biodiversity. Major negative impacts occur in uplands, with drastic deforestation of savanna vegetation, where main rivers feeding the Pantanal have their springs. This article discusses future needs and priorities for ecological research, in order to better understand the biome's natural system, to achieve conservation and sustainable use.

  13. Molecular identification of the fish fauna from the pantanal flood plain area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Shimabukuro-Dias, Cristiane Kioko; Costa Silva, Guilherme José da; Ashikaga, Fernando Yuldi; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2017-07-01

    The Pantanal is under the influence of the Paraguay River flood regime is considered to be one of the largest wetlands of the world, and has rich biodiversity, including fishes. Until now, the identification of fish species in this biome has only considered the morphological characteristics of individuals, and the present work aimed to identify the fish species of the Pantanal region through the DNA barcode methodology for investigating the biodiversity in this region. The genetic analysis of 638 samples via the GMYC approach identified 137 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to 127 species that have previously been described according to their morphological characteristics. Data suggest that 10 cases of morphospecies (Eigenmannia trileneata, E. virescens, Pimelodella gracilis, Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus, Brachyhypopomus sp., Ancistrus sp., Hyphessobrycon eques, Jupiaba acanthogaster, and Serrapinnus calliurus) represent complexes of cryptic species, and the number of species described in the Pantanal region has thus potentially been underestimated.

  14. Arbuscular and Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Associated with the Invasive Brazilian Pepper Tree (Schinus terebinthifolius) and Two Native Plants in South Florida

    PubMed Central

    Dawkins, Karim; Esiobu, Nwadiuto

    2017-01-01

    The potential role of soil fungi in the invasion of the Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius—BP) in Florida is not known; although the low biotic resistance of Florida soils is often invoked to explain the prevalence of many invasive species. To gain an initial insight into BP's mycorrhizal associations, this study examined the rhizobiome of BP and two native plants (Hamelia patens and Bidens alba) across six locations. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with the roots of the target plants and bulk soil was characterized by spore morphotyping. Sequence analysis of metagenomic DNA from lateral roots/rhizosphere of BP (n = 52) and a native shrub H. patens (n = 37) on the same parcel yielded other fungal associates. Overall, the total population of AMF associated with BP was about two folds greater than that of the two native plants (p = 0.0001) growing on the same site. The dominant AMF under Schinus were members of the common Glomus and Rhizophagus spp. By contrast, the most prevalent AMF in the bulk soil and rhizosphere of the two Florida native plants, Acaulospora spp (29%) was sharply diminished (9%) under BP rhizosphere. Analysis of the ITS2 sequences also showed that Schinus rhizosphere had a high relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal fungi (76.5%) compared to the native H. patens (2.6%), with the species Lactifluus hygrophoroides (Basidiomycota) being the most prevalent at 61.5% (p < 0.05). Unlike the native plants where pathogenic fungi like Phyllosticta sp., Phoma sp., and Neofusicoccum andium were present (8.1% for H. patens), only one potentially pathogenic fungal taxon was detected (3.9%) under BP. The striking disparity in the relative abundance of AMF and other fungal types between BP and the native species is quite significant. Fungal symbionts could aide plant invasion via resource-use efficiency and other poorly defined mechanisms of protection from pathogens in their invaded range. This report exposes a potentially

  15. Arbuscular and Ectomycorrhizal Fungi Associated with the Invasive Brazilian Pepper Tree (Schinus terebinthifolius) and Two Native Plants in South Florida.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Karim; Esiobu, Nwadiuto

    2017-01-01

    The potential role of soil fungi in the invasion of the Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius-BP) in Florida is not known; although the low biotic resistance of Florida soils is often invoked to explain the prevalence of many invasive species. To gain an initial insight into BP's mycorrhizal associations, this study examined the rhizobiome of BP and two native plants (Hamelia patens and Bidens alba) across six locations. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with the roots of the target plants and bulk soil was characterized by spore morphotyping. Sequence analysis of metagenomic DNA from lateral roots/rhizosphere of BP (n = 52) and a native shrub H. patens (n = 37) on the same parcel yielded other fungal associates. Overall, the total population of AMF associated with BP was about two folds greater than that of the two native plants (p = 0.0001) growing on the same site. The dominant AMF under Schinus were members of the common Glomus and Rhizophagus spp. By contrast, the most prevalent AMF in the bulk soil and rhizosphere of the two Florida native plants, Acaulospora spp (29%) was sharply diminished (9%) under BP rhizosphere. Analysis of the ITS2 sequences also showed that Schinus rhizosphere had a high relative abundance of ectomycorrhizal fungi (76.5%) compared to the native H. patens (2.6%), with the species Lactifluus hygrophoroides (Basidiomycota) being the most prevalent at 61.5% (p < 0.05). Unlike the native plants where pathogenic fungi like Phyllosticta sp., Phoma sp., and Neofusicoccum andium were present (8.1% for H. patens), only one potentially pathogenic fungal taxon was detected (3.9%) under BP. The striking disparity in the relative abundance of AMF and other fungal types between BP and the native species is quite significant. Fungal symbionts could aide plant invasion via resource-use efficiency and other poorly defined mechanisms of protection from pathogens in their invaded range. This report exposes a potentially significant

  16. Serological and molecular investigation of the prevalence of Aujeszky's disease in feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the subregions of the Pantanal wetland, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paes, Rita de Cássia da Silva; Fonseca, A A; Monteiro, L A R C; Jardim, G C; Piovezan, U; Herrera, H M; Mauro, R A; Vieira-da-Motta, O

    2013-08-30

    The feral swine (FS) originated from the domestic pig and is present throughout the Brazilian wetland plain (the Pantanal). Aujeszky's disease (AD) was first serologically confirmed in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) in 2001; however, there was no viral confirmation. The aim of this study was to investigate antibodies against-SuHV-1 in the sera of feral swine in the studied areas, detect SuHV-1 through PCR and classify the viral genome. Among the 218 animals sampled, 186 were analyzed by ELISA, resulting in 88 (47.3%) reactive samples. In the serum neutralization test (SN), 57/179 (31.8%) samples presented antibodies against the AD virus (SuHV-1). By nested PCR, 104 DNA samples were extracted for analysis and confirmed with amplification of a fragment of glycoprotein B (gB) in five samples. The SuHV-1 was detected in 12 samples by using primers for glycoprotein E (gE) and viral genome was classified as Type I by ul44 partial sequencing. The amplification of SuHV-1 glycoprotein fragments in the fetuses of seropositive sows indicate that the vertical transmission contribute to maintain SuHV-1 in a free-living feral swine population. The origin of AD in the feral swine populations of the Pantanal is unknown, however, the determination of viral latency, the vertical transmission of the antigen by the amplification of SuHV-1 glycoprotein fragments in the fetuses of seropositive sows and genome typing contribute to the elucidation of the epidemiology of this disease in the wetlands of MS, Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Serological detection of West Nile virus in horses and chicken from Pantanal, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Melandri, Vanessa; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Komar, Nicholas; Nogueira, Maurício L; Mondini, Adriano; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Alencar, Jeronimo; Bosch, Irene

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to detect West Nile virus (WNV) in Brazil, we sampled serum from horses and chickens from the Pantanal region of the state of Mato Grosso and tested for flavivirus-reactive antibodies by blocking ELISA. The positive samples were further confirmed for serological evidence of WNV infection in three (8%) of the 38 horses and one (3.2%) of the 31 chickens using an 80% plaque-reduction neutralisation test (PRNT80). These results provide evidence of the circulation of WNV in chickens and horses in Pantanal. PMID:23295763

  18. Morphological and morphometric features of nematode-cysts in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus liver in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Gizela Melina; Rodrigues, Robson Andrade; Marcondes, Sandriely Fernanda; Soares, Priscilla; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric measures and morphological aspects of nematode-cysts in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, and the presence of melanomacrophage centers (MMCs) associated with the periphery of cysts and in the liver parenchyma. Adult specimens, 34 female (123.1 ± 43.9g) and 45 male (135.5 ± 43.4g), from Paraguay River, Corumbá, Brazil, were used. The number of nematode-cysts was determined in 79 livers and 25 of them randomly selected for histopathological analysis and morphometric measures of nematode-cysts (mean diameter, thickness of collagen layer, and cyst-wall layer). The percentage of cysts with MMCs on the periphery and density in the liver parenchyma was estimated. The average number of macroscopic cysts was of 48.7 ± 2.78. Granulomatous reaction was observed surrounding the cysts. Diameter, collagen layer and cyst-wall measurements were 293.0 ± 75.18 (µm), 17.72 ± 6.01 (µm) and 12.21 ± 9.51 (µm), respectively. The number of nematode-cysts was correlated with hepatosomatic index, (r=0.26, P<0.05). Collagen layer was correlated with cyst diameter (r=0.62, P<0.01). Pericystic and parenchymatous MMCs were moderately (r=0.48) and highly (r=0.90) correlated with nematode-cysts number. Morphological characteristics of hepatic tissue and cysts-nematodes measures suggest that G. inaequilabiatus acts as a paratenic host to nematodes in the larval stage.

  19. Detection of rabies virus antibodies in Brazilian free-ranging wild carnivores.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Rodrigo Silva Pinto; Pereira, Monicque Silva; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; Scheffer, Karin C; Carnieli, Pedro; Ferreira, Fernando; Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; Kashivakura, Cyntia Kayo; Silveira, Leandro; Jacomo, Anah T A; Lima, Edson Souza; de Paula, Rogério Cunha; May-Junior, Joares Adenílson

    2010-10-01

    Rabies virus is a pathogen of major concern in free-ranging wild carnivores in several regions of the world, but little is known about its circulation in Brazilian wild carnivores. Sera from 211 free-ranging wild carnivores, captured from 2000 to 2006 in four locations of two Brazilian biomes (Pantanal and Cerrado), were tested for rabies antibodies. Twenty-six individuals (12.3%) had neutralizing antibody titers ≥0.10 IU/ml. The four sampled locations had antibody-positive animals, suggesting that Rabies virus circulates in all of these regions. Results underscore the risk posed by rabies for conservation of Brazilian carnivores and the possibility of the animals acting as reservoirs for the Rabies virus.

  20. Developing seed cryobank strategies for Tabebuia heptaphylla (Bignoniaceae), a hardwood tree of the Brazilian South Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Higa, T C; Paulilo, M Ts; Benson, E E; Pedrotti, E; Viana, A M

    2011-01-01

    The conservation of Tabebuia heptaphylla, an economically significant, endangered tree of the South Atlantic Forest is confined to arboreta. Although its seeds are orthodox, they do not withstand long-term storage in conventional seed banks, motivating the development of cryopreservation for this species. Seeds within the moisture content (MC) range of 7.5 percent (0.08 g water g dry mass) to 8.4 percent (0.09 g water g dry mass) germinated after storage in liquid nitrogen (LN). Storage duration (15 min to 26 weeks) and rewarming regime (slow and rapid) did not significantly influence germination, which ranged between 54-67 percent. As no additional cryoprotective treatments were required, the protocol is time-, cost- and technically-efficient. Because transport of seeds in LN is problematic for safety, logistic and technical reasons, the feasibility of implementing germplasm transfer using T. heptaphylla seeds recovered from cryobanks was also tested. Viability was not negatively affected in seeds that had been rewarmed, recovered and maintained at room temperature for 2 weeks, allowing safe germplasm transfer in the unfrozen state. The vigor of seedlings from cryopreserved seeds, which was evaluated 90 days after transfer to soil was not influenced by LN storage compared to the controls.

  1. Epidemiology of Acne Vulgaris in 18-Year-Old Male Army Conscripts in a South Brazilian City.

    PubMed

    Pereira Duquia, Rodrigo; da Silva Dos Santos, Iná; de Almeida, Hiram; Martins Souza, Paulo Ricardo; de Avelar Breunig, Juliano; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2017-06-14

    Prevalence of acne varies worldwide. Several factors (age, skin color, body fat, diet, and smoking) have been investigated as risk factors. A total of 2,201 18-year-old males living in Pelotas, South Brazil, were evaluated in order to examine the prevalence of acne and associated factors. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted. A dermatologist performed the clinical examination of the face and trunk for identification of acne lesions. Acne was evaluated as clinically noninflammatory, inflammatory, and acne with both types of lesions. Skin color, schooling, height, smoking, skinfolds, waist circumference, BMI, and dietary dairy intake were the independent variables used. A response rate of 97.2% was obtained. Individuals without any acne lesion were 241 (10.9%); 161 (7.3%) only had noninflammatory lesions, 404 (18.4%) only inflammatory lesions; and 1,395 (63.4%) presented both types of lesions. In multivariate analysis, the type of lesions was different in light and dark skin phototype adolescents, with more common inflammatory lesions in the light phototype and noninflammatory ones in the dark phototype patients. Height was directly associated with the occurrence of all types of acne, whereas lower fat mass was associated with the occurrence of noninflammatory acne. While daily consumption of whole milk or yogurt was found to be associated with inflammatory acne in crude analysis, the association with milk was not detected and that with yogurt was low in multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that future studies should explore determinants of noninflammatory and inflammatory acne separately, especially if mixed populations are studied. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The 2009 earthquake, magnitude mb 4.8, in the Pantanal Wetlands, west-central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fábio L; Assumpção, Marcelo; Facincani, Edna M; França, George S; Assine, Mario L; Paranhos, Antônio C; Gamarra, Roberto M

    2016-09-01

    The main goal of this paper is to characterize the Coxim earthquake occurred in June 15th, 2009 in the Pantanal Basin and to discuss the relationship between its faulting mechanism with the Transbrasiliano Lineament. The earthquake had maximum intensity MM V causing damage in farm houses and was felt in several cities located around, including Campo Grande and Goiânia. The event had an mb 4.8 magnitude and depth was 6 km, i.e., it occurred in the upper crust, within the basement and 5 km below the Cenozoic sedimentary cover. The mechanism, a thrust fault mechanism with lateral motion, was obtained by P-wave first-motion polarities and confirmed by regional waveform modelling. The two nodal planes have orientations (strike/dip) of 300°/55° and 180°/55° and the orientation of the P-axis is approximately NE-SW. The results are similar to the Pantanal earthquake of 1964 with mb 5.4 and NE-SW compressional axis. Both events show that Pantanal Basin is a seismically active area, under compressional stress. The focal mechanism of the 1964 and 2009 events have no nodal plane that could be directly associated with the main SW-NE trending Transbrasiliano system indicating that a direct link of the Transbrasiliano with the seismicity in the Pantanal Basin is improbable.

  3. Analysis of the landscape complexity and heterogeneity of the Pantanal wetland.

    PubMed

    Miranda, C S; Gamarra, R M; Mioto, C L; Silva, N M; Conceição, A P; Pott, A

    2017-08-17

    This is the first report on analysis of habitat complexity and heterogeneity of the Pantanal wetland. The Pantanal encompasses a peculiar mosaic of environments, being important to evaluate and monitor this area concerning conservation of biodiversity. Our objective was to indirectly measure the habitat complexity and heterogeneity of the mosaic forming the sub-regions of the Pantanal, by means of remote sensing. We obtained free images of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the sensor MODIS and calculated the mean value (complexity) and standard deviation (heterogeneity) for each sub-region in the years 2000, 2008 and 2015. The sub-regions of Poconé, Canoeira, Paraguai and Aquidauana presented the highest values of complexity (mean NDVI), between 0.69 and 0.64 in the evaluated years. The highest horizontal heterogeneity (NDVI standard deviation) was observed in the sub-region of Tuiuiú, with values of 0.19 in the years 2000 and 2015, and 0.21 in the year 2008. We concluded that the use of NDVI to estimate landscape parameters is an efficient tool for assessment and monitoring of the complexity and heterogeneity of the Pantanal habitats, applicable in other regions.

  4. Biogeography of the lizard genus Tropidurus Wied-Neuwied, 1825 (Squamata: Tropiduridae): distribution, endemism, and area relationships in South America.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, André Luiz Gomes; de Britto, Marcelo Ribeiro; Fernandes, Daniel Silva

    2013-01-01

    Based on comprehensive distributional records of the 23 species currently assigned to the lizard genus Tropidurus, we investigated patterns of endemism and area relationships in South America. Two biogeographic methods were applied, Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) and Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA). Two areas of endemism were detected by PAE: the first within the domains of the semiarid Brazilian Caatinga, which includes seven endemic species, and the second in the region of the Serranía de Huanchaca, eastern Bolivia, in which three endemic species are present. The area cladograms recovered a close relationship between the Atlantic Forest and areas of the South American open corridor. The results revealed a close relationship among the provinces Caatinga (Cerrado, Parana Forest (Pantanal+Chaco)). The uplift of the Brazilian Central Plateau in the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene (4-2 Myr BP) has been interpreted as a major event responsible for isolation and differentiation of biotas along these areas. However, we emphasize that without the establishment of a temporal framework concerning the diversification history of Tropidurus it is premature to correlate cladogenetic events with specific time periods or putative vicariant scenarios. The limiting factors hampering the understanding of the biogeographic history of this genus include (1) the absence of temporal references in relation to the diversification of distinct clades within Tropidurus; (2) the lack of an appropriate taxonomic resolution of the species complexes currently represented by widely distributed forms; and (3) the need for a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis. We suggest that these three important aspects should be prioritized in future investigations.

  5. Biogeography of the Lizard Genus Tropidurus Wied-Neuwied, 1825 (Squamata: Tropiduridae): Distribution, Endemism, and Area Relationships in South America

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, André Luiz Gomes; de Britto, Marcelo Ribeiro; Fernandes, Daniel Silva

    2013-01-01

    Based on comprehensive distributional records of the 23 species currently assigned to the lizard genus Tropidurus, we investigated patterns of endemism and area relationships in South America. Two biogeographic methods were applied, Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) and Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA). Two areas of endemism were detected by PAE: the first within the domains of the semiarid Brazilian Caatinga, which includes seven endemic species, and the second in the region of the Serranía de Huanchaca, eastern Bolivia, in which three endemic species are present. The area cladograms recovered a close relationship between the Atlantic Forest and areas of the South American open corridor. The results revealed a close relationship among the provinces Caatinga (Cerrado, Parana Forest (Pantanal+Chaco)). The uplift of the Brazilian Central Plateau in the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene (4-2 Myr BP) has been interpreted as a major event responsible for isolation and differentiation of biotas along these areas. However, we emphasize that without the establishment of a temporal framework concerning the diversification history of Tropidurus it is premature to correlate cladogenetic events with specific time periods or putative vicariant scenarios. The limiting factors hampering the understanding of the biogeographic history of this genus include (1) the absence of temporal references in relation to the diversification of distinct clades within Tropidurus; (2) the lack of an appropriate taxonomic resolution of the species complexes currently represented by widely distributed forms; and (3) the need for a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis. We suggest that these three important aspects should be prioritized in future investigations. PMID:23527261

  6. PREFACE: VII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plascak, Joao Antonio; Rosas, Alexandres

    2014-03-01

    This special issue includes invited and selected articles of the VIIth Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP), held in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, from the 5th to 10th August, 2013. This is the seventh such meeting, and the first one to have contributed papers published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The previous meetings in the BMSP series took place in the mountains of Minas Gerais and in the region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Now, for the first time, the Meeting was held in the pleasant shores of João Pessoa, the capital of the Paraíba state. The VIIth BMSP brought together more than 50 researchers from all over the world for a vibrant and productive period. As in the previous meetings, the talks and posters highlighted recent advances in applications, algorithms, and implementations of computer simulation methods for the study of condensed matter, materials, out of equilibrium, quantum and biologically motivated systems. We are sure that this meeting series will continue to provide a valuable venue for people working in simulational physics to exchange ideas and discuss the state of art of this always expanding field. We are very glad to realize this special issue, and are most appreciative to the editors of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for making this publication possible. We are grateful for the outstanding work of the João Pessoa team, for the financial support of the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPESQ, and of the Federal Universities UFPB and UFMG. At last, but not least, we would like to acknowledge all of the authors of this special issue for their contributions. João Antonio Plascak Alexandre Rosas Guest Editors Conference photograph

  7. Brazilian research on extremophiles in the context of astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Nóbrega, Felipe; Nakayama, Cristina R.; Pellizari, Vivian H.

    2012-10-01

    Extremophiles are organisms adapted to grow at extreme ranges of environmental variables, such as high or low temperatures, acid or alkaline medium, high salt concentration, high pressures and so forth. Most extremophiles are micro-organisms that belong to the Archaea and Bacteria domains, and are widely spread across the world, which include the polar regions, volcanoes, deserts, deep oceanic sediments, hydrothermal vents, hypersaline lakes, acid and alkaline water bodies, and other extreme environments considered hostile to human life. Despite the tropical climate, Brazil has a wide range of ecosystems which include some permanent or seasonally extreme environments. For example, the Cerrado is a biome with very low soil pH with high Al+3 concentration, the mangroves in the Brazilian coast are anaerobic and saline, Pantanal has thousands of alkaline-saline lakes, the Caatinga arid and hot soils and the deep sea sediments in the Brazilian ocean shelf. These environments harbour extremophilic organisms that, coupled with the high natural biodiversity in Brazil, could be explored for different purposes. However, only a few projects in Brazil intended to study the extremophiles. In the frame of astrobiology, for example, these organisms could provide important models for defining the limits of life and hypothesize about life outside Earth. Brazilian microbiologists have, however, studied the extremophilic micro-organisms inhabiting non-Brazilian environments, such as the Antarctic continent. The experience and previous results obtained from the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR) provide important results that are directly related to astrobiology. This article is a brief synopsis of the Brazilian experience in researching extremophiles, indicating the most important results related to astrobiology and some future perspectives in this area.

  8. The Brazilian Twin Registry.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Junqueira, Daniela R; Cisneros, Lígia C; Ferreira, Lucas C; Murphy, Kate; Ordoñana, Juan R; Hopper, John L; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.

  9. A Comparison of HIV-Related Factors among Seropositive Brazilian, South American, and Puerto Rican Gay Men in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Fernanda T.; Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J.; Echeverry, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Latino men who have sex with men are a group at high risk for HIV infection. Much of the research addressing attitudes and behaviors related to HIV among Latinos in the United States has overlooked differences based on nationality. Brazilian immigrants, in particular, are an understudied subgroup of Latinos. This study compared HIV-positive…

  10. A Comparison of HIV-Related Factors among Seropositive Brazilian, South American, and Puerto Rican Gay Men in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Fernanda T.; Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J.; Echeverry, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Latino men who have sex with men are a group at high risk for HIV infection. Much of the research addressing attitudes and behaviors related to HIV among Latinos in the United States has overlooked differences based on nationality. Brazilian immigrants, in particular, are an understudied subgroup of Latinos. This study compared HIV-positive…

  11. Foraging of Great Kiskadees (Pitangus sulphuratus) and food items offered to nestlings in the Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Munin, R L; Fischer, E; Longo, J M

    2012-08-01

    Feeding of Pitangus sulphuratus (Tyrannidae) nestlings have been poorly studied. Here we describe the foraging behavior of a P. sulphuratus pair and the searching and offering time of food items to nestlings in the Pantanal, Brazil. Data collection was carried out over 25 days on the outskirts of the Base de Estudos do Pantanal building, inhabited by insectivorous bats. Records were based on direct observations with the help of binocular. The pair required little time for searching for small insects and fruits, but these items comprised a little amount of food per event of capture. Some large prey was more time-costly for searching, but the long period that these food items were offered to nestlings overcompensated the searching time. Considering the time of feeding nestlings (benefit) in relation to the searching time by the parents (cost), bats and snails are the most advantageous items for P. sulphuratus parents feeding nestlings at the study site.

  12. Modeling the reflection of Photosynthetically active radiation in a monodominant floodable forest in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso State using multivariate statistics and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Curado, Leone F A; Musis, Carlo R DE; Cunha, Cristiano R DA; Rodrigues, Thiago R; Pereira, Vinicius M R; Nogueira, José S; Sanches, Luciana

    2016-09-01

    The study of radiation entrance and exit dynamics and energy consumption in a system is important for understanding the environmental processes that rule the biosphere-atmosphere interactions of all ecosystems. This study provides an analysis of the interaction of energy in the form of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in the Pantanal, a Brazilian wetland forest, by studying the variation of PAR reflectance and its interaction with local rainfall. The study site is located in Private Reserve of Natural Heritage, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, where the vegetation is a monodominant forest of Vochysia divergens Phol. The results showed a high correlation between the reflection of visible radiation and rainfall; however, the behavior was not the same at the three heights studied. An analysis of the hourly variation of the reflected waves also showed the seasonality of these phenomena in relation to the dry and rainy seasons. A predictive model for PAR was developed with a neural network that has a hidden layer, and it showed a determination coefficient of 0.938. This model showed that the Julian day and time of measurements had an inverse association with the wind profile and a direct association with the relative humidity profile.

  13. Soil CO2 concentrations and efflux dynamics of a tree island in the Pantanal wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuillière, Michael J.; Pinto, Osvaldo B.; Johnson, Mark S.; Jassal, Rachhpal S.; Dalmagro, Higo J.; Leite, Nei K.; Speratti, Alicia B.; Krampe, Daniela; Couto, Eduardo G.

    2017-08-01

    The Pantanal is the largest tropical wetland on the planet, and yet little information is available on the biome's carbon cycle. We used an automatic station to measure soil CO2 concentrations and oxidation-reduction potential over the 2014 and 2015 flood cycles of a tree island in the Pantanal that is immune to inundation during the wetland's annual flooding. The soil CO2 concentration profile was then used to estimate soil CO2 efflux over the two periods. In 2014, subsurface soil saturation at 0.30 m depth created conditions in that layer that led to CO2 buildup close to 200,000 ppm and soil oxidation-reduction potential below -300 mV, conditions that were not repeated in 2015 due to annual variability in soil saturation at the site. Mean CO2 efflux over the 2015 flood cycle was 0.023 ± 0.103 mg CO2-C m-2 s-1 representing a total annual efflux of 593 ± 2690 mg CO2-C m-2 y-1. Unlike a nearby tree island site that experiences full inundation during the wet season, here the soil dried quickly following repeated rain events throughout the year, which led to the release of CO2 pulses from the soil. This study highlights not only the complexity and heterogeneity in the Pantanal's carbon balance based on differences in topography, flood cycles, and vegetation but also the challenges of applying the gradient method in the Pantanal due to deviations from steady state conditions.

  14. Detection of wild animals as carriers of Leptospira by PCR in the Pantanal biome, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Anahi S; Narduche, Lorena; Martins, Gabriel; Schabib Péres, Igor A H F; Zimmermann, Namor P; Juliano, Raquel S; Pellegrin, Aiesca O; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2016-11-01

    Leptospiral infection is widespread in wildlife. In this context, wild ecosystems in tropical countries hold a vast biodiversity, including several species that may act as potential reservoirs of leptospires. The Pantanal biome presents highly favorable environmental conditions for the occurrence of leptospirosis, such as high temperatures, constant flooding, and high biodiversity. The purpose of this study was to detect wild animals as carriers of Leptospira sp. using direct methods (PCR and culture) in the Pantanal biome, Brazil. A total of 35 animals were studied, namely Cerdocyon thous, Nasua nasua, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, and Sus scrofa species. Blood for serology (MAT) and urine for bacteriological culturing and PCR was sampled. The most prevalent serogroups were Javanica and Djasiman. Additionally, 40.6% of these animals presented PCR positive reactions. Seroreactivity associated with the high frequency of leptospiral carriers among the different studied species suggests a high level of exposure of the studied animals to pathogenic Leptospira strains. Our results are still limited and the actual role of the studied animals in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in the Pantanal region remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Leishmania (V.) braziliensis infecting bats from Pantanal wetland, Brazil: First records for Platyrrhinus lineatus and Artibeus planirostris.

    PubMed

    de Castro Ferreira, Eduardo; Pereira, Agnes Antônio Sampaio; Silveira, Maurício; Margonari, Carina; Marcon, Glaucia Elisete Barbosa; de Oliveira França, Adriana; Castro, Ludiele Souza; Bordignon, Marcelo Oscar; Fischer, Erich; Tomas, Walfrido Moraes; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira

    2017-08-01

    In the New World genus Leishmania parasites are etiological agents of neglected zoonoses known as leishmaniasis. Its epidemiology is very complex due to the participation of several species of sand fly vectors and mammalian hosts, and man is an accidental host. Control is very difficult because of the different epidemiological patterns of transmission observed. Studies about Leishmania spp. infection in bats are so scarce, which represents a large gap in knowledge about the role of these animals in the transmission cycle of these pathogens, especially when considering that Chiroptera is one of the most abundant and diverse orders among mammals. Leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil are remarkably frequent, probably due to the abundance of its regional mastofauna. The recent record of L. braziliensis in bats from this state indicates the need to clarify the role of these mammals in the transmission cycle. In this study we evaluated the presence of Leishmania parasites in the skin of different species of bats, using PCR directed to Leishmania spp. kDNA for screening followed by PCR/RFLP analysis of the hsp70 gene for the identification of parasite species. Leishmania species identification was confirmed by PCR directed to the G6PD gene of L. braziliensis, followed by sequencing of the PCR product. Samples from 47 bats were processed, of which in three specimens (6.38%) was detected the presence of Leishmania sp. kDNA. PCR/RFLP and sequencing identified the species involved in the infection as L. braziliensis in all of them. This is the first report of Leishmania braziliensis in bats from Pantanal ecosystem and the first record of this species in Platyrrhinus lineatus and Artibeus planirostris, bats with a wide distribution in South America. These results reinforce the need to deepen the knowledge about the possibility of bats act as reservoirs of Leishmania spp. especially considering their ability of dispersion and occupation of anthropic environments

  16. Brazilian gemstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro

    1981-04-01

    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  17. Improving precipitation simulation from updated surface characteristics in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Gabriel; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Moraes, Elisabete Caria; Chiquetto, Júlio Barboza; da Silva Cardozo, Francielle

    2017-07-01

    Land use and land cover maps and their physical-chemical and biological properties are important variables in the numerical modeling of Earth systems. In this context, the main objective of this study is to analyze the improvements resulting from the land use and land cover map update in numerical simulations performed using the Regional Climate Model system version 4 (RegCM4), as well as the seasonal variations of physical parameters used by the Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). In general, the update of the South America 2007 land use and land cover map, used by the BATS, improved the simulation of precipitation by 10 %, increasing the mean temporal correlation coefficient, compared to observed data, from 0.84 to 0.92 (significant at p < 0.05, Student's t test). Correspondingly, the simulations performed with adjustments in maximum fractional vegetation cover, in visible and shortwave infrared reflectance, and in the leaf area index, showed a good agreement for maximum and minimum temperature, with values closer to observed data. The changes in physical parameters and land use updating in BATS/RegCM4 reduced overestimation of simulated precipitation from 19 to 7 % (significant at p < 0.05, Student's t test). Regarding evapotranspiration and precipitation, the most significant differences due to land use updating were located (1) in the Amazon deforestation arc; (2) around the Brazil-Bolivia border (in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands); (3) in the Northeast region of Brazil; (4) in northwestern Paraguay; and (5) in the River Plate Basin, in Argentina. Moreover, the main precipitation differences between sensitivity and control experiments occurred during the rainy months in central-north South America (October to March). These were associated with a displacement in the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) positioning, presenting a spatial pattern of alternated areas with higher and lower precipitation rates. These important differences occur due to the

  18. Improving precipitation simulation from updated surface characteristics in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Gabriel; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Moraes, Elisabete Caria; Chiquetto, Júlio Barboza; da Silva Cardozo, Francielle

    2016-04-01

    Land use and land cover maps and their physical-chemical and biological properties are important variables in the numerical modeling of Earth systems. In this context, the main objective of this study is to analyze the improvements resulting from the land use and land cover map update in numerical simulations performed using the Regional Climate Model system version 4 (RegCM4), as well as the seasonal variations of physical parameters used by the Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS). In general, the update of the South America 2007 land use and land cover map, used by the BATS, improved the simulation of precipitation by 10 %, increasing the mean temporal correlation coefficient, compared to observed data, from 0.84 to 0.92 (significant at p < 0.05, Student's t test). Correspondingly, the simulations performed with adjustments in maximum fractional vegetation cover, in visible and shortwave infrared reflectance, and in the leaf area index, showed a good agreement for maximum and minimum temperature, with values closer to observed data. The changes in physical parameters and land use updating in BATS/RegCM4 reduced overestimation of simulated precipitation from 19 to 7 % (significant at p < 0.05, Student's t test). Regarding evapotranspiration and precipitation, the most significant differences due to land use updating were located (1) in the Amazon deforestation arc; (2) around the Brazil-Bolivia border (in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands); (3) in the Northeast region of Brazil; (4) in northwestern Paraguay; and (5) in the River Plate Basin, in Argentina. Moreover, the main precipitation differences between sensitivity and control experiments occurred during the rainy months in central-north South America (October to March). These were associated with a displacement in the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) positioning, presenting a spatial pattern of alternated areas with higher and lower precipitation rates. These important differences occur due to the

  19. A phylogenetic lineage of closely related trypanosomes (Trypanosomatidae, Kinetoplastida) of anurans and sand flies (Psychodidae, Diptera) sharing the same ecotopes in brazilian amazonia.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Robson C; De Souza, Adelson A; Freitas, Rui A; Campaner, Marta; Takata, Carmem S A; Barrett, Toby V; Shaw, Jeffrey J; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the phylogenetic relationships among trypanosomes from vertebrates and invertebrates disclosed a new lineage of trypanosomes circulating among anurans and sand flies that share the same ecotopes in Brazilian Amazonia. This assemblage of closely related trypanosomes was determined by comparing whole SSU rDNA sequences of anuran trypanosomes from the Brazilian biomes of Amazonia, the Pantanal, and the Atlantic Forest and from Europe, North America, and Africa, and from trypanosomes of sand flies from Amazonia. Phylogenetic trees based on maximum likelihood and parsimony corroborated the positioning of all new anuran trypanosomes in the aquatic clade but did not support the monophyly of anuran trypanosomes. However, all analyses always supported four major clades (An01-04) of anuran trypanosomes. Clade An04 is composed of trypanosomes from exotic anurans. Isolates in clades An01 and An02 were from Brazilian frogs and toads captured in the three biomes studied, Amazonia, the Pantanal and the Atlantic Forest. Clade An01 contains mostly isolates from Hylidae whereas clade An02 comprises mostly isolates from Bufonidae; and clade An03 contains trypanosomes from sand flies and anurans of Bufonidae, Leptodactylidae, and Leiuperidae exclusively from Amazonia. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing morphological and growth features, and molecular phylogenetic affiliation of trypanosomes from anurans and phlebotomines, incriminating these flies as invertebrate hosts and probably also as important vectors of Amazonian terrestrial anuran trypanosomes.

  20. Heterocyte-forming cyanobacteria from Brazilian saline-alkaline lakes.

    PubMed

    Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Andreote, Ana Paula Dini; Vaz, Marcelo Gomes Marçal Vieira; Fiore, Marli Fátima

    2017-04-01

    Studies investigating the diversity of cyanobacteria from tropical environments are scarce, especially those devoted to the isolation and molecular characterization of the isolated strains. Among the Brazilian biomes, Pantanal has mainly been examined through microscopic observation of environmental samples, resulting in lists of morphotypes without any genetic information. Recently, two studies were conducted evaluating the morphologic and genetic diversity of cultured non-heterocytous cyanobacteria in this biome, which resulted in the separation and description of two novel genera. In order to complement the diversity of cultured cyanobacteria from saline-alkaline lakes in Pantanal, the present study is dedicated to the examination of cultured nitrogen-fixing heterocytous cyanobacteria from this extreme and underexplored environment. A total of fourteen cyanobacterial strains were isolated. According to morphological examination they belong to the order Nostocales and to the subsections IV.I and IV.II, according to the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants and the Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, respectively. Phylogenetic evaluation of their 16S rRNA gene sequences resulted in the formation of five clusters. Among them, one is clearly related to the genus Anabaenopsis whilst the remaining clusters may represent new genetic lineages. These novel sequences aid in the delimitation of problematic groups, especially those containing sequences belonging to mixed genera. The application of both morphologic and phylogenetic studies has proven to be an important tool in resolving problematic groups in cyanobacteria systematics. This strategy is essential in order to detect novel cyanobacteria genera from other tropical environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of flooding cycles in the Pantanal on the turnover of soil nitrogen pools and emission of N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liengaard, L.; Nielsen, L. P.; Revsbech, N. P.; Elberling, B.; Priemé, A.; Prast, A. E.; Kühl, M.

    2011-06-01

    The global nitrous oxide (N2O) budget remains unbalanced. Currently, ~25 % of the global N2O emission is ascribed to uncultivated tropical soils, but the exact locations and controlling mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we present the first detailed study of the dynamics of soil nitrogen pools and flux of N2O from the world's largest wetland Pantanal, South America. At three long-term measurement sites we measured porewater pH, NO3-, NH4+ , N2O and O2 as well as N2O dynamics in soil slurry, and in situ fluxes of N2O and CO2. The pool of inorganic nitrogen changed (7.1-92 μg NH4+-N g dw-1, and 0.1-201 μg NO3--N g dw-1) with the seasonal flooding and drying cycles, indicating dynamic shifts between ammonification, nitrification and denitrification. In the field, O2 penetrated to a depth of 60 cm in dry soil, but O2 was rapidly depleted in response to precipitation. Soil pH fluctuated from pH 7-7.5 in flooded soil to pH 3.5-4.5 in the same drained soil. Microsensor measurements showed rapid N2O accumulation reaching >500-1000 Pa in soil slurries due to incomplete denitrification. In situ fluxes of N2O were comparable to heavily fertilized forest or agricultural soils. The dominating parameter affecting N2O emission rate was precipitation inducing peak emissions of >3 mmol N2O m-2 d-1, while the mean daily flux was 0.43 mmol N2O m-2 d-1. Single measurement based screening of in situ activity at 10 Pantanal sites during dry conditions averaged 0.39 mmol N2O m-2 d-1. The in situ N2O fluxes were only weakly correlated (r2 = 0.177) with NO3- and pH value, showing a tendency (p = 0.063) for NO3- concentration to be positively correlated with the in situ N2O flux and a weaker tendency (p = 0.138) for the pH value to be negatively correlated with the in situ N2O flux. Over 170 days of the drained period we estimated non-wetted drained soil to contribute 70.0 mmol N2O m-2, while rain induced peak events contributed 9.2 mmol N2O m-2, resulting in a total N2O emission

  2. Birds' nesting parameters in four forest types in the Pantanal wetland.

    PubMed

    Pinho, J B; Marini, M A

    2014-11-01

    We tested the heterogeneity/productivity hypothesis with respect to the abundance and richness of birds and the vegetation density hypothesis with respect to birds' nest predation rates, and determined the relative importance of forested vegetation formations for the conservation of birds in the Pantanal. We estimated the apparent nesting success, and the abundance and richness of nesting birds' in four forest types, by monitoring nests during two reproductive seasons in four forested physiognomies (two high productivity/heterogeneity evergreen forests = Cambará and Landi; two low productivity/heterogeneity dry forests = Cordilheira and Carvoeiro) in the Pantanal wetland in Poconé, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We found 381 nests of 46 species (35 Passeriformes and 11 non-Passeriformes) in the four forest types. Of these, we monitored 220 active nests belonging to 44 species, 101 during the reproductive season of 2001 and 119 in 2002. We supported the productivity/heterogeneity hypothesis since the two evergreen forests had higher nest abundance and one of them (Cambará) had higher nesting species richness than the dry forests. The number of nests found in each habitat differed with most nests monitored in the Cambará forest (82%), followed by Landi (9%), Cordilheira (6%) and Carvoeiro (3%) forests. The total number of nests monitored was significantly higher in evergreen forests than in dry forests. Also, more species nested in evergreen (37 species) than in dry (16 species) forests. A Correspondence Analysis revealed that only Carvoeiros had a different nesting bird community. The overall apparent nesting success of 220 nests was 26.8%. We did not support the vegetation density hypothesis since nest predation rates were similar between evergreen (73.5%) and dry (70%) forests, and were higher in the Landi (85%) than in the other three forests (69.2 to 72.2%). Our data indicate that Cambará forests seem to be a key nesting habitat for many bird species of the

  3. The floristic heterogeneity of the Pantanal and the occurrence of species with different adaptive strategies to water stress.

    PubMed

    Scremin-Dias, E; Lorenz-Lemke, A P; Oliveira, A K M

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal is characterised by a diversity of environments with areas ranging from periodic or permanent heavy flooding to areas with low flood levels, and even environments that never flood. Plant species which inhabit the floodplain are distributed in specific niches, with influence of various phytogeographic domains, including the Seasonal Semi-deciduous Forest, Amazon Rainforest, Cerrado and Chaco, as well rocky remnants, with a wide ecological span in their components. In intensely flooded areas, aquatic macrophytes are widely distributed, with their dynamics closely linked to time, depth and extent of flooding. Although the term "Pantanal" suggests a huge swamp-type wetland, water level variation during a seasonal cycle does not directly reach the root system of many plants. The landscape diversity of the Pantanal wetland is molded by the flood pulse, which interferes with the dynamics of plant communities. Therefore, the retraction and expansion of populations or communities is reflected in important ecological characteristics, considering the variety of morphological, anatomical and ecophysiological features of the species, whose phenotype is the result of a particular genotype. The present study discusses peculiar issues in the adaptation of species distributed in the Pantanal biome and underscores the importance of multidisciplinary approaches to obtain conclusive data on adaptive studies.

  4. Characterization of the fishes and of subsistence fishing in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, R D; de B Nogueira, F M

    2000-08-01

    Fishing is one of the oldest human activities in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso in Central Brazil. In the of Bento Gomes River Basin (Pantanal of Poconé) the presence of fishermen is very common. The objective of this study is to describe the fishing activity in the basin in view of the elaboration of proposals for the sustainable use of this natural resource. Of the 256 fishermen that were registered most are fishing for their subsistence (92%) and the rest (8%) are occasional fishermen (locally called "de lufada" fishermen). "Traíra" (Hoplias malabaricus) and "piranhas" (Serrasalmus marginatus, Serrasalmus spilopleura and Pygocentrus nattereri) were the species most frequently captured for human consumption. The fishing is more intensive during the ebb season and at the beginning of the drought season, when the waters begin to recede for the river channel, as the catch is facilitated by the concentration of fishes at the river margin. The fishermen and their families consume fish three to four times a week, twice a day. Fish meat is one of the only means of obtaining animal protein for dozens of poor families in the area. The number of fishermen, as well as the actual number of catches do not appear to compromise the natural fish stocks, although no specific capture criteria is obeyed by the fishing activity.

  5. Cross-Sectional Study of Hepatitis A Virus Infection in the Pantanal Population before Vaccine Implementation in Brazil: Usage of Non-Invasive Specimen Collection

    PubMed Central

    Tourinho, Renata Santos; de Almeida, Adilson José; Villar, Livia Melo; Murat, Paula Guerra; Capelin, Gina Jonasson Mousquer; Motta Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra; de Paula, Vanessa Salete

    2015-01-01

    Population-based prevalence studies are essential tools for screening of hepatitis A and provide important data on susceptible groups. However, surveillance in isolated communities is difficult because of the limited access to these areas and the need for blood sample collection. This study aimed to determine the anti-HAV prevalence using oral fluid samples to provide an alternative tool for epidemiological studies that might be useful for vaccination-related decisions. The study population was composed of 224 volunteers from South Pantanal, aged 3 to 86 years old. This study was performed using oral fluids, previously standardized for anti-HAV antibody detection, which were collected using a ChemBio device. Eluates were tested using modified commercial EIA to detect anti-HAV antibodies. The overall prevalence was 79.1%, corresponding to 178 reactive EIA tests out of 224 samples. The age stratified data revealed a prevalence of 47.8% between 0–10 years, 84% in 11–20 years and 91.9% in subjects older than 21 years. Results indicate that hepatitis A prevalence was higher in adolescents and adults, corroborating the literature reports. Thus, oral fluid samples could replace serum in HAV epidemiological studies in isolated communities as they are efficient at detecting anti-HAV antibodies. PMID:26133128

  6. Cross-Sectional Study of Hepatitis A Virus Infection in the Pantanal Population before Vaccine Implementation in Brazil: Usage of Non-Invasive Specimen Collection.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Renata Santos; de Almeida, Adilson José; Villar, Livia Melo; Murat, Paula Guerra; Capelin, Gina Jonasson Mousquer; Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta; de Paula, Vanessa Salete

    2015-06-30

    Population-based prevalence studies are essential tools for screening of hepatitis A and provide important data on susceptible groups. However, surveillance in isolated communities is difficult because of the limited access to these areas and the need for blood sample collection. This study aimed to determine the anti-HAV prevalence using oral fluid samples to provide an alternative tool for epidemiological studies that might be useful for vaccination-related decisions. The study population was composed of 224 volunteers from South Pantanal, aged 3 to 86 years old. This study was performed using oral fluids, previously standardized for anti-HAV antibody detection, which were collected using a ChemBio device. Eluates were tested using modified commercial EIA to detect anti-HAV antibodies. The overall prevalence was 79.1%, corresponding to 178 reactive EIA tests out of 224 samples. The age stratified data revealed a prevalence of 47.8% between 0-10 years, 84% in 11-20 years and 91.9% in subjects older than 21 years. Results indicate that hepatitis A prevalence was higher in adolescents and adults, corroborating the literature reports. Thus, oral fluid samples could replace serum in HAV epidemiological studies in isolated communities as they are efficient at detecting anti-HAV antibodies.

  7. The Brazilian Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, Charles D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the unusually aggressive Brazilian honeybee, which exhibits many of the attributes of its African antecedants. Describes its abundance and distribution, behaviorial characteristics, future spread, and the potential impact of the Brazilian bee in North America. (JR)

  8. The Brazilian Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, Charles D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the unusually aggressive Brazilian honeybee, which exhibits many of the attributes of its African antecedants. Describes its abundance and distribution, behaviorial characteristics, future spread, and the potential impact of the Brazilian bee in North America. (JR)

  9. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  10. Brazilian Space Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilha, Antonio; Takahashi, Hisao; de Paula, Eurico; Sawant, Hanumant; de Campos Velho, Haroldo; Vitorello, Icaro; Costa, Joaquim; Souza, Jonas; Cecatto, José; Mendes, Odim; Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter Demétrio

    A space weather program is being initiated at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) to study events from their initiation on the sun to their impacts on the earth, including their effects on space-based and ground-based technological systems. The program is built on existing capabilities at INPE, which include scientists with a long tradition and excellence in the observation, analysis and modeling of solar and solar-terrestrial phenomena and an array of geophysical instruments that spans all over the Brazilian territory from the north to south of the magnetic dip equator. Available sensors include solar radio frequency receivers and telescopes, optical instruments and solar imagers, GNSS receivers, ionosondes, radars, allsky imagers, magnetometers and cosmic ray detectors. In the equatorial region, ionosphere and thermosphere constitute a coupled system with electrodynamical and plasma physical processes being responsible for a variety of peculiar phenomena. The most important of them are the equatorial electrojet current system and its instabilities, the equatorial ionization anomaly, and the plasma instabilities/irregularities of the night-time ionosphere (associated with the plasma bubble events). In addition, space weather events modify the equatorial ionosphere in a complex and up to now unpredictable manner. Consequently, a main focus of the program will be on monitoring the low, middle and upper atmosphere phenomena and developing a predictive model of the equatorial ionosphere through data assimilation, that could help to mitigate against the deleterious effects on radio communications and navigation systems. The technological, economic and social importance of such activities was recognized by the Brazilian government and a proposal for funding was approved for the period 2008-2011. New ground instruments will be installed during this period allowing us to extend our current capability to provide space weather observations, accurate

  11. New prospects for biological control of Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), is an invasive weed from South America that has been spread to many countries. It was introduced into the USA about 100 years ago as an ornamental. Escaping cultivation, it now occurs in three south-eastern states of the USA, Cali...

  12. Effects of Litter Removal and Addition on the Nutrient Mineralization Dynamics in Hyperseasonal Tropical Savannas of the Brazilian Pantanal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentz, C. S.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.; Vourlitis, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    The tropical savanna of Brazil (cerrado) is extremely species diverse and it encompasses many different physiognomic features, which are influenced by rainfall, fire, and soil nutrient availability. Plant litter decomposition recycles nutrients to the soil, and in turn, assists plant growth. However the rate at which these nutrients become available to the soil is poorly understood. Thus, a six month field experiment that encompassed the wet and dry seasons was conducted to assess how different quantities of litter inputs affect nutrient (P, N, C, K, Ca, and Mg) availability. It was hypothesized that nutrient mineralization would be significantly influenced by manipulation of the surface litter and that there would be a positive correlation between soil moisture and nutrient mineralization. Initial results indicate that there were significant differences in mineralization over time for all nutrients, except P, supporting our hypothesis of changes in mineralization with soil moisture. However, there were no significant differences between litter treatments and net mineralization rates for all the nutrients tested. Our results indicate that litterpool size has little effect on short-term nutrient mineralization dynamics.

  13. Systematic screening of plant extracts from the Brazilian Pantanal with antimicrobial activity against bacteria with cariogenic relevance.

    PubMed

    Brighenti, F L; Salvador, M J; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Delbem, Ádina Cleia Bottazzo; Oliveira, M A C; Soares, C P; Freitas, L S F; Koga-Ito, C Y

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes a bioprospection methodology regarding the antimicrobial potential of plant extracts against bacteria with cariogenic relevance. Sixty extracts were obtained from ten plants--(1) Jatropha weddelliana, (2) Attalea phalerata, (3) Buchenavia tomentosa, (4) Croton doctoris, (5) Mouriri elliptica, (6) Mascagnia benthamiana, (7) Senna aculeata, (8) Unonopsis guatterioides, (9) Allagoptera leucocalyx and (10) Bactris glaucescens--using different extraction methods - (A) 70° ethanol 72 h/25°C, (B) water 5 min/100°C, (C) water 1 h/55°C, (D) water 72 h/25°C, (E) hexane 72 h/25°C and (F) 90° ethanol 72 h/25°C. The plants were screened for antibacterial activity at 50 mg/ml using the agar well diffusion test against Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 19039, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35688, Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556, Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 33478 and Streptococcus mitis ATCC 9811. The active extracts were tested to determine their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), cytotoxicity and chemical characterization. Forty-seven extracts (78%) were active against at least one microorganism. Extract 4A demonstrated the lowest MIC and MBC for all microorganisms except S. gordonii and the extract at MIC concentration was non-cytotoxic. The concentrated extracts were slightly cytotoxic. Electrospray ionization with tandem mass spectrometry analyses demonstrated that the extract constituents coincided with the mass of the terpenoids and phenolics. Overall, the best results were obtained for extraction methods A, B and C. The present work proved the antimicrobial activity of several plants. Particularly, extracts from C. doctoris were the most active against bacteria involved in dental caries disease.

  14. In vitro activities of plant extracts from the Brazilian Cerrado and Pantanal against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Ligia Miranda Ferreira; Nicácio, José; Alves, Reginaldo Dias; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2013-07-01

    A total of 73 ethanol extracts from different anatomical parts of 44 plant species belonging to 24 families, native to the Mid-Western region of Brazil, were assessed in vitro for their effect on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, using the adult immersion test. All extracts were evaluated at the concentration of 0.2 % and, among the extracts tested, the one obtained from the fruits of Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae) proved to be highly efficacious, showing 99.1 % of product effectiveness. Extracts from other three species were shown to be moderately active, namely Nymphaea amazonum trunk (Nymphaeaceae) [51.7 %], Strychnos pseudoquina trunk (Loganiaceae) [48 %] [corrected] and Ocotea lancifolia leaves (Lauraceae) [34.5 %], while the remaining extracts were shown to be weakly active or inactive. This is the first report on the bioactivity of these species on egg production by engorged females of R. microplus.

  15. Evidence for herbaceous seed dispersal by small-bodied fishes in a Pantanal seasonal wetland.

    PubMed

    Silveira, R M L; Weiss, B

    2014-08-01

    We analysed the germination of seeds after their passage through the digestive tract of small floodplain fishes. Samples were collected in five open flooded fields of the northern Pantanal in March 2011. All fishes were sacrificed and their intestinal contents were removed. The fecal material was weighed and stored at 4°C in a GF/C filter wrapped in aluminum foil. The material was then transferred to a receptacle containing sterilised soil from the sampling area. The fecal samples were kept in a germination chamber for 68 days and then transferred to a greenhouse for another 67 days. We collected a total of 45 fish species and 1014 individuals which produced a total amount of 32 g of fresh fecal mass and 11 seedlings. We were able to identify six seedlings: two Banara arguta, two Steinchisma laxa, one Hymenachne amplexicaulis and one Luziola sp.. The fish species that produced samples with seedlings were Astyanax assuncionensis, Metynnis mola, Plesiolebias glaucopterus, Acestrorhyncus pantaneiro and Anadoras wendelli. With the exception of B. arguta the remaining plant species and all fish species were not known to be associated with the seed dispersal process of these plants. We found a ratio of 0.435 seedlings.g-1 of fresh fecal material, which is 100 times higher than the amount of seedlings encountered in fresh soil mass (92,974 grams) in seed bank studies conducted in the same study area. In particular, Astyanax assuncionensis and Metynnis mola were among the most frequent and most abundant fish taxa in the area. Together with the high seed concentration in the fish fecal material, this evidence allows us to conclude that such fish species may play an important role in seed dispersal in the herbaceous plants of the Pantanal.

  16. Tick-borne bacteria in free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Cynthia E; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Almeida, Aliny P; Ferreira, Fernando; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2011-08-01

    Tick-borne bacteria were investigated in 10 free-living jaguars and their ticks in the Pantanal biome, Brazil. Jaguar sera were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody assays using Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, Rickettsia amblyommii, Rickettsia rhipicephali, Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia bellii, Ehrlichia canis, and Coxiella burnetii as crude antigens. All 10 jaguar sera reacted (titer ≥ 64) to at least one Rickettsia species; 4 and 3 sera reacted with E. canis and C. burnetii, respectively. One jaguar presented antibody titer to R. parkeri at least fourfold higher than those to any of the other five Rickettsia antigens, suggesting that this animal was infected by R. parkeri. Ticks collected from jaguars included the species Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma triste, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. No Rickettsia DNA was detected in jaguar blood samples, but an A. triste specimen collected on a jaguar was shown by PCR to be infected by R. parkeri. The blood of two jaguars and samples of A. triste, A. cajennense, and Amblyomma sp. yielded Ehrlichia DNA by PCR targeting the ehrlichial genes 16S rRNA and dsb. Partial DNA sequences obtained from PCR products resulted in a new ehrlichial strain, here designated as Ehrlichia sp. strain Jaguar. A partial DNA sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of this novel strain showed to be closest (99.0%) to uncultured strains of Ehrlichia sp. from Japan and Russia and 98.7% identical to different strains of Ehrlichia ruminantium. The ehrlichial dsb partial sequence of strain jaguar showed to be at most 80.7% identical to any Ehrlichia species or genotype available in GenBank. Through phylogenetic analysis, Ehrlichia sp. strain jaguar grouped in a cluster, albeit distantly, with different genotypes of E. ruminantium. Results highlight risks for human and animal health, considering that cattle ranching and ecotourism are major economic activities in the Pantanal region of Brazil.

  17. Seed banks on Attalea phalerata (Arecaceae) stems in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Christiane E; Fischer, Erich; Santos, Flavio A M dos

    2012-03-01

    Seeds can accumulate in the soil or elsewhere, such as on the stems of palms when these are covered by persistent sheaths. These sheaths could act as a safe site for some species. Here, we studied whether persistent sheaths of the palm Attalea phalerata (Arecaceae) are available sites for seed accumulation in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil. We also investigated whether the composition, richness and diversity of species of seeds in the persistent sheaths are determined by habitat (riparian forest and forest patches) and/or season (wet and dry). All accumulated material was collected from ten persistent sheaths along the stems of 64 A. phalerata individuals (16 per habitat and 16 per season). The material was then individually inspected under a stereomicroscope to record seed species and number. Of the 640 sheaths sampled, 65 % contained seeds (n = 3468). This seed bank included 75 species belonging to 12 families, and was primarily composed of small, endozoochoric seeds, with a few abundant species (Cecropia pachystachya and Ficus pertusa). Moraceae was the richest family (four species) and Urticaceae the most abundant (1594 seeds). Stems of A. phalerata in the riparian forest had 1·8 times more seeds and 1·3 times more species than those in forest patches. In the wet season we sampled 4·1 times more seeds and 2·2 more species on palm stems than in the dry season. Richness did not differ between habitats, but was higher in the wet season. Abundance was higher in forest patches and in the wet season. Attalea phalerata stems contain a rich seed bank, comparable to soil seed banks of tropical forests. As most of these seeds are not adapted to grow in flooding conditions, palm stems might be regarded as safe sites for seeds (and seedlings) to escape from the seasonal flooding of the Pantanal.

  18. Reactivation of inherited structures during the opening of the South Atlantic: a low-temperature thermochronology study on the Araçuaí orogenic belt (east Brazilian margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Ranst, Gerben; De Grave, Johan; Pedrosa-Soares, Antonio Carlos; Tack, Luc; Baudet, Daniel; Novo, Tiago

    2017-04-01

    A subject that has historically been regarded with increasing interest in geology are the supercontinent-cycles. This still poses questions about tectonic evolution on a regional scale, more precisely on the role of reactivation of older, pre-existing structures (inheritance), in which the same faults or weak zones are reactivated rather than the emergence of new systems. A region that is ideally suited for this research is the Araçuaí-West Congo Orogenic belt (AWCO), which is situated partly in eastern Brazil (Gonçalves et al., 2014) and partly in western Africa (D.R. Congo, Congo Brazza, Gabon and Angola; Frimmel et al., 2006; Tack et al., 2001). This orogenic belt was formed during the Cambrian as a result of a series of extension and compression events, of which the final phase is known as the Braziliano-Pan-African orogenesis (e.g. Pedrosa-Soares & Alkmim, 2011). During the break-up of Gondwana and the opening of the South Atlantic, the AWCO became separated. The main part is situated in east Brazil, known as the Araçuaí orogeny, while on the west African margin, the West Congo Belt is a witness to this event. In order to gain a better understanding, the tectonic movements should be placed in an absolute timeframe. Multi-method low-temperature thermochronology lends itself as an ideal tool for this purpose. In this study samples from N-S and E-W profiles in east Brazil (Caparáo-Vitória-Gov. Valadares) have been acquired. These samples are investigated using the apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) methods. In a later phase the samples which were taken on profiles in the D.R. Congo (Lower Congo) will be analysed by the same methods. Preliminary results for the Brazilian margin indicate cooling ages ranging between 55 Ma and c. 80 Ma.

  19. The ecology of the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycle: Dispersion of zymodeme 3 (Z3) in wild hosts from Brazilian biomes.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Cristiane Varella; Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2009-10-28

    Two main genotypes in Trypanosoma cruzi subpopulations can be distinguished by PCR amplification of sequences from the mini-exon gene non-transcribed spacer, respectively, T. cruzi I (TCI) and T. cruzi II (TCII). This technique is also capable of distinguishing a third assemblage of subpopulations that do not fit in these genotypes and that remain known as zymodeme Z3 (Z3). The distribution pattern as well as the mammalian host range of this latter T. cruzi sublineage still remains unclear. Thus, the intention of our study was to increase the information regarding these aspects. The mini-exon analysis of T. cruzi isolates obtained from sylvatic animals in the Amazon Forest, Atlantic Rainforest, Caatinga and Pantanal showed that prevalence of the Z3 subpopulation in nature was low (15 out of 225 isolates, corresponding to 7%). A higher prevalence of Z3 was observed in the Caatinga (15%) and the Pantanal (12%). Infection by Z3 was observed in mammalian hosts included in Carnivora, Chiroptera, Didelphimorphia, Rodentia and Xernathra. The T. cruzi Z3 subpopulation was observed also in mixed infections (33%) with TCI (n=2) and TCII (n=3). These results demonstrate that T. cruzi Z3 displays a wider distribution and host range than formerly understood as it has been demonstrated to be able infect species included in five orders of mammalian host species dispersed through all forest strata of the four Brazilian biomes evaluated.

  20. Exposure of free-ranging wild carnivores, horses and domestic dogs to Leptospira spp in the northern Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Rodrigo Silva Pinto; Ferreira, Fernando; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Vasconcellos, Silvio de Arruda; Lima, Edson de Souza; Morais, Zenaide Maria de; Souza, Gisele Oliveira de

    2011-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease affecting most mammals and is distributed throughout the world. Several species of domestic and wild animals may act as reservoirs for this disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure of free-ranging wild carnivores, horses and domestic dogs on a private reserve located in the northern Pantanal (Brazil) and the surrounding areas to Leptospira spp from 2002-2006, 75 free-ranging wild carnivores were captured in the Pantanal and serum samples were collected. In addition, samples from 103 domestic dogs and 23 horses in the region were collected. Serum samples were tested for the presence of Leptospira antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test. Thirty-two wild carnivores (42.7%) were considered positive with titres ≥ 100, and 18 domestic dogs (17.5%) and 20 horses (74.1%) were also found to be positive. Our study showed that horses, dogs and several species of free-ranging wild carnivores have been exposed to Leptospira spp in the Pantanal, suggesting that the peculiar characteristics of this biome, such as high temperatures and an extended period of flooding, may favour bacterial persistence and transmission. In this region, wild carnivores and horses seem to be important hosts for the epidemiology of Leptospira species.

  1. Soil Oxidation-Reduction Potential and Plant Photosynthetic Capacity in the Northern Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Couto, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    Plant communities of the Pantanal wetland are able to survive long periods of climatic and physiological stress in the dry and wet seasons. During inundation, soil oxygen demand increases dramatically as reducing soil conditions create stress in the root system with possible impacts on photosynthetic capacity of plants. We look at inundation cycles of a tree island (locally known as a cordilheira) in the Northern Pantanal near Poconé, Mato Grosso, and relate soil oxidation-reduction potential and soil oxygen depletion to the photosynthetic capacity of two plant communities of flooded scrub forest (Vochysia divergens and Curatela americana). Results show a drop in soil oxidation-reduction potential of over 400 mV, to levels below the absolute value of -200 mV, following inundation around the tree island. Both plant species showed increased carbon assimilation at highest soil oxygen demand despite a change in stomatal conductance, suggesting adaptation to the inundated environment. Absolute values of soil oxidation-reduction potential also allow for the determination of specific soil chemical reactions characteristic of the tree island environment, namely the reduction of iron(III), or carbon dioxide which in turn produces methane. Our combined analysis of soil chemistry with plant ecophysiology allows for a better understanding of soil-plant interactions in the Pantanal, specifically the drivers of biogeochemical processes between inundation periods.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of a variability in rock thermal conductivity concerning implications on the thermal evolution of the Brazilian South Atlantic passive continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stippich, Christian; Krob, Florian; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton; Hackspacher, Peter Christian

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the research is to quantify the long-term evolution of the western South Atlantic passive continental margin (SAPCM) in SE-Brazil. Excellent onshore outcrop conditions and extensive pre-rift to post-rift archives between São Paulo and Laguna allow a high precision quantification of exhumation, and rock uplift rates, influencing physical parameters, long-term acting forces, and process-response systems. The research integrates published (Karl et al., 2013) and partly published thermochronological data from Brazil, and test lately published new concepts on causes of long-term landscape and lithospheric evolution in southern Brazil. Six distinct lithospheric blocks (Laguna, Florianópolis, Curitiba, Ilha Comprida, Peruibe and Santos), which are separated by fracture zones (Karl et al., 2013) are characterized by individual thermochronological age spectra. Furthermore, the thermal evolution derived by numerical modeling indicates variable post-rift exhumation histories of these blocks. In this context, we will provide information on the causes for the complex exhumation history of the Florianópolis, and adjacent blocks. Following up on our latest publication (Braun et al., 2016) regarding the effect of variability in rock thermal conductivity on exhumation rate estimates we performed a sensitivity analysis to quantify the effect of a differentiated lithospheric crust on the thermal evolution of the Florianópolis block versus exhumation rates estimated from modelling a lithospheric uniform crustal block. The long-term landscape evolution models with process rates were computed with the software code PECUBE (Braun, 2003; Braun et al., 2012). Testing model solutions obtained for a multidimensional parameter space against the real thermochronological and geomorphological data set, the most likely combinations of parameters, values, and rates can be constrained. References Braun, J., 2003. Pecube: A new finite element code to solve the 3D heat transport

  3. Earth's Largest Meteorite Impact Craters discovered in South America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellndorfer, J. M.; Schmidt-Falkenberg, H.

    2014-12-01

    Novel analysis of high resolution InSAR-based digital elevation data from the year 2001 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission combined with a recently produced dataset of pan-tropical vegetation height from ALOS-1 SAR and IceSAT/GLAS Lidar estimates led to the quasi-bald-Earth discovery of four sizable near-perfect circle arcs in South America under dense tropical forests ranging in length from 216 km to 441 km. Terrain elevation profiles of cross-sections across the arcs show a distinct vertical rising and falling in elevations of hundreds of meters over a horizontal distance of tens of kilometers. It is hypothesized that these sizable arcs and associated rim-like topographic terrain features are remnants of huge meteorite impact craters with diameters ranging from 770 km to 1,310 km, thus forming potentially the largest known impact carter structures discovered on Earth today. The potential impact crater rim structures are located north of the eastern Amazon River, in the coastal region of Recife and Natal, and in the Brazilian, Bolivian and Paraguayan border region encompassing the Pantanal. Elevation profiles, hillshades and gray-shaded elevation maps were produced to support the geomorphologic analysis. It is also speculated whether in three of the four potential impact craters, central uplift domes or peaks, which are typical for complex impact crater structures can be identified. The worlds largest iron ore mining area of Carajás in Para, Brazil, falls exactly in the center of the largest hypothesized circular impact crater showing topographic elevations similar to the rim structure discovered 655 km to the north-north-west. Based on the topographic/geomorphologic driven hypothesis, geologic exploration of these topographic features is needed to test whether indeed meteorite impact craters could be verified, what the more exact ellipsoidal shapes of the potential impact craters might be, and to determine when during geologic times the impacts would have taken

  4. [The internationalization of health: contextual elements and institutional frameworks of Brazilian cooperation].

    PubMed

    Pires-Alves, Fernando A; Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção; de Santana, José Paranaguá

    2012-12-01

    The article contextualizes the emergence of an international policy for the Brazilian Unified Health System as the common agenda of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. For this purpose, two contextual axes were explored throughout the work. The first discusses the explicit relationship between the development-cooperation-health triad from an international perspective. The second examines the recent evolution of Brazilian foreign policy, particularly with respect to the role it is playing in South-South cooperation on health matters. The contextual framework that defines Brazilian international cooperation with PAHO is emphasized, above all with regard to the implementation of a specific cooperation agreement. The article concludes that this agreement, within the framework of South-South cooperation, is one of the principal institutional mechanisms established to bring about technical cooperation in health in the current setting.

  5. Occurrence and molecular characterization of hemoplasmas in domestic dogs and wild mammals in a Brazilian wetland.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Secato, Caroline Tostes; Oliveira, André do Vale; Santos, Filipe Martins; Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho; de Andrade Pinto, Pedro Cordeiro Estrela; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Costa, Mirela Tinucci; André, Marcos Rogério

    2017-03-30

    Hemotropic mycoplasmas are known to cause anemia in several mammalian species. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Mycoplasma spp. in wild mammals, domestic dogs and their respective ectoparasites, in southern Pantanal region, central-western Brazil. Between August 2013 and March 2015, 31 Nasua nasua, 78 Cerdocyon thous, seven Leopardus pardalis, 42 dogs, 110 wild rodents, and 30 marsupials were trapped and ectoparasites (ticks and fleas) found parasitizing the animals were collected. Mammals and ectoparasites DNA samples were submitted to conventional PCR assays for Mycoplasma spp. targeting 16S rRNA and RnaseP genes. Twenty-four N. nasua, three C. thous, two domestic dogs, one L. pardalis and one wild rodent were positive for 16S rRNA PCR protocols. Fourteen N. nasua samples were also positive in RnaseP PCR. No marsupial or arthropod showed positivity for Mycoplasma spp. The phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene showed that all sequences obtained from dogs, two sequences obtained from C. thous and ten sequences obtained from N. nasua showed to be closely related to Mycoplasma haemocanis/Mycoplasma haemofelis species. Genotypes closely related to 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and Mycoplasma haemomuris were detected in the L. pardalis and in the wild rodent, respectively. Probably a novel Mycoplasma genotype, closely related to a sequence obtained from a Brazilian capybara was detected in 14 N. nasua, based on a concatenated phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and RnaseP genes. The present study revealed that wild animals in southern Pantanal region, Brazil, are exposed to different species of hemoplasmas.

  6. Lacustrine records of Holocene flood pulse dynamics in the Upper Paraguay River watershed (Pantanal wetlands, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlue, Michael M.; Silva, Aguinaldo; Zani, Hiran; Corradini, Fabrício A.; Parolin, Mauro; Abel, Erin J.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Assine, Mario L.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Trees, Mark A.; Kuerten, Sidney; Gradella, Frederico dos Santos; Rasbold, Giliane Gessica

    2012-09-01

    The Pantanal is the world's largest tropical wetland and a biodiversity hotspot, yet its response to Quaternary environmental change is unclear. To address this problem, sediment cores from shallow lakes connected to the Upper Paraguay River (PR) were analyzed and radiocarbon dated to track changes in sedimentary environments. Stratal relations, detrital particle size, multiple biogeochemical indicators, and sponge spicules suggest fluctuating lake-level lowstand conditions between ~ 11,000 and 5300 cal yr BP, punctuated by sporadic and in some cases erosive flood flows. A hiatus has been recorded from ~ 5300 to 2600 cal yr BP, spurred by confinement of the PR within its channel during an episode of profound regional drought. Sustained PR flooding caused a transgression after ~ 2600 cal yr BP, with lake-level highstand conditions appearing during the Little Ice Age. Holocene PR flood pulse dynamics are best explained by variability in effective precipitation, likely driven by insolation and tropical sea-surface temperature gradients. Our results provide novel support for hypotheses on: (1) stratigraphic discontinuity of floodplain sedimentary archives; (2) late Holocene methane flux from Southern Hemisphere wetlands; and (3) pre-colonial indigenous ceramics traditions in western Brazil.

  7. Lacustrine records of Holocene flood pulse dynamics in the Upper Paraguay River watershed (Pantanal wetlands, Brazil)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGlue, Michael M.; Silva, Aquinaldo; Zani, Hiran; Corradini, Fabricio A.; Parolin, Mauro; Abel, Erin J.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Assine, Mario L.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Trees, Mark A.; Kuerten, Sidney; Gradella, Frederico dos Santos; Rasbold, Giliane Gessica

    2012-01-01

    The Pantanal is the world's largest tropical wetland and a biodiversity hotspot, yet its response to Quaternary environmental change is unclear. To address this problem, sediment cores from shallow lakes connected to the UpperParaguayRiver (PR) were analyzed and radiocarbon dated to track changes in sedimentary environments. Stratal relations, detrital particle size, multiple biogeochemical indicators, and sponge spicules suggest fluctuating lake-level lowstand conditions between ~ 11,000 and 5300 cal yr BP, punctuated by sporadic and in some cases erosive flood flows. A hiatus has been recorded from ~ 5300 to 2600 cal yr BP, spurred by confinement of the PR within its channel during an episode of profound regional drought. Sustained PR flooding caused a transgression after ~ 2600 cal yr BP, with lake-level highstand conditions appearing during the Little Ice Age. Holocene PR floodpulsedynamics are best explained by variability in effective precipitation, likely driven by insolation and tropical sea-surface temperature gradients. Our results provide novel support for hypotheses on: (1) stratigraphic discontinuity of floodplain sedimentary archives; (2) late Holocene methane flux from Southern Hemisphere wetlands; and (3) pre-colonial indigenous ceramics traditions in western Brazil.

  8. [The human life fragility/resistance in rural communities of Pantanal (MT, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Pignatti, Marta Gislene; Castro, Sueli Pereira

    2010-10-01

    The human life fragility/resistance taken in the ambiguous/complexity sense suggests an eye to the dynamics of life of specific groups. The study of the community around the Private Reserve of Natural Patrimony of the Social Service Commerce (RPPN Sesc) Pantanal, situated in Joselândia rural district, municipality of Barão de Melgaço - Mato Grosso state - Brasil, 2003 at 2005, used qualitative methods to apprehend the lifestyle of this population, articulating the explanation of the health-ill process with historical, economic and social aspects of the respective community and the singularity of the cure practices that happened on site. It was used historical records, testimonials of residents, population survey, interviews and observations. The results indicate changes in the solidarity bonds among residents at work and at food production. Popular cure practices are frequently used to reduce symptoms and diseases. The fragility/resistance of this specific group is observed while resistance based in solidarity and familiar relations and the fragility in the difficulty of access of work, health services and public equipments.

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Endophytic Actinomycetes Isolated from the Medicinal Plant Vochysia divergens (Pantanal, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Gos, Francielly M W R; Savi, Daiani C; Shaaban, Khaled A; Thorson, Jon S; Aluizio, Rodrigo; Possiede, Yvelise M; Rohr, Jürgen; Glienke, Chirlei

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes from medicinal plants produce a wide diversity of secondary metabolites (SM). However, to date, the knowledge about endophytes from Brazil remains scarce. Thus, we analyzed the antimicrobial potential of 10 actinomycetes isolated from the medicinal plant Vochysia divergens located in the Pantanal sul-mato-grossense, an unexplored wetland in Brazil. Strains were classified as belonging to the Aeromicrobium, Actinomadura, Microbacterium, Microbispora, Micrococcus, Sphaerisporangium, Streptomyces, and Williamsia genera, through morphological and 16S rRNA phylogenetic analyzes. A susceptibility analysis demonstrated that the strains were largely resistant to the antibiotics oxacillin and nalidixic acid. Additionally, different culture media (SG and R5A), and temperatures (28 and 36°C) were evaluated to select the best culture conditions to produce the active SM. All conditions were analyzed for active metabolites, and the best antibacterial activity was observed from metabolites produced with SG medium at 36°C. The LGMB491 (close related to Aeromicrobium ponti) extract showed the highest activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with a MIC of 0.04 mg/mL, and it was selected for SM identification. Strain LGMB491 produced 1-acetyl-β-carboline (1), indole-3-carbaldehyde (2), 3-(hydroxyacetyl)-indole (4), brevianamide F (5), and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) (6) as major compounds with antibacterial activity. In this study, we add to the knowledge about the endophytic community from the medicinal plant V. divergens and report the isolation of rare actinomycetes that produce highly active metabolites.

  10. Carbon dynamics in aboveground coarse wood biomass of wetland forests in the northern Pantanal, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöngart, J.; Arieira, J.; Felfili Fortes, C.; Cezarine de Arruda, E.; Nunes da Cunha, C.

    2008-05-01

    This is the first estimation on carbon dynamics in the aboveground coarse wood biomass (AGWB) of wetland forests in the Pantanal, located in Central Southern America. In four 1-ha plots in stands characterized by the pioneer species Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae) forest inventories (trees ≥10 cm diameter at breast height, DBH) have been performed and converted to predictions of AGWB by five different allometric models using two or three predicting parameters (DBH, tree height, wood density). Best prediction has been achieved using allometric equations with three independent variables. Carbon stocks (50% of AGWB) vary from 7.4 to 100.9 Mg C ha-1 between the four stands. Carbon sequestration differs 0.50-4.24 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 estimated by two growth models derived from tree-ring analysis describing the relationships between age and DBH for V. divergens and other tree species. We find a close correlation between estimated tree age and C-stock, C-sequestration and C-turnover (mean residence of C in AGWB).

  11. Seasonality and relative abundance of Tabanidae (Diptera) captured on horses in the Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, A T

    2001-10-01

    Once a month, from June 1992 to May 1993, collections of tabanids on horse were conducted in the Nhecolândia, Pantanal State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Tabanid catches using hand nets were conducted from sunrise to sunset at grassland and cerradão (dense savanna) habitats. A total of 3,442 tabanids from 21 species,12 genera, and 3 subfamilies were collected. Although species abundance varied seasonally depending on habitat, no habitat specificity was observed for the most abundant species. In the grassland, 1,625 (47.2%) tabanids belonging to 19 species were collected, while 1,817 (52.8%) tabanids from 17 species were caught in the cerradão. The number of tabanid species varied from 7 during winter (July/August) to 15 in the spring (October). Tabanus importunus (56%) was the most abundant species, followed by T. occidentalis (8.2%), and T. claripennis (8.1%). The tabanid peak, in October, coincided with the beginning of the rainy season. The population peak of most species, including those with higher vector potential, suggests that the rainy season can be considered as the period of potentially higher risk of mechanical transmission of pathogens by tabanids to horses in the region.

  12. Endemic shrimp Macrobrachium pantanalense as a test species to assess potential contamination by pesticides in Pantanal (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Soares, Mayara Pereira; Jesus, Fátima; Almeida, Ana Rita; Zlabek, Vladimir; Grabic, Roman; Domingues, Inês; Hayd, Liliam

    2017-02-01

    Pantanal is a biome characterized by an extraordinary diversity and abundance of wildlife and houses several endemic species such as the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium pantanalense. However, the increase in agriculture and husbandry activities in the region has contributed with residues of pesticides reaching aquatic systems. The main objective of this study is to assess the sensitivity of the endemic shrimp M. pantanalense compared with other freshwater species: the shrimp M. amazonicum, the crustacean Daphnia similis and the fish Danio rerio. The sensitivity of these organisms was assessed through acute exposure to copper and cypermethrin (through the formulation Barrage(®), widely used in Pantanal). For copper the species sensitivity decreased in the following order: D. similis (48 h-EC50 0.051 mg/L) > M. pantanalense > D. rerio > M. amazonicum (48 h-LC50 26.34 mg/L). Copper caused reduced length of shrimps and zebrafish and reduced heartbeat of zebrafish embryos. For cypermethrin the species sensitivity decreased in the following order: M. pantanalense (96 h-LC50 0.05 μg/L) > M. amazonicum > D. similis > D. rerio (144 h-LC50 1680 μg/L). Major effects of cypermethrin included reduced length of shrimps and zebrafish, as well as early hatching and increased incidence of developmental deformities in zebrafish embryos. This study highlights the importance of using endemic species for risk evaluations in sensitive biomes such as Pantanal. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of testing pesticides toxicity as commercial formulations. Furthermore, we suggest that the endemic shrimp species M. pantanalense can be successfully used as a test species in ecotoxicology.

  13. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Fabio; Salles, João; Hamdy, Osama; Coutinho, Walmir; Regina Baptista, Deise; Benchimol, Alexander; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Mechanick, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy) and regular physical activity (structured exercise) represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained. PMID:26340638

  14. EDITORIAL: XVI Brazilian Colloquium on Orbital Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo, Cristiano F.; Macau, Elbert E. N.; Prado, Antonio B. A.; Hetem Jnr, Annibal

    2013-10-01

    The XVI Brazilian Colloquium on Orbital Dynamics was held from 26-30 November 2012, at the Biazi Grand Hotel, Serra Negra, São Paulo, Brazil. The Brazilian Colloquia on Orbital Dynamics are scientific events that occur bi-annually and are designed to develop those areas of research in celestial mechanics, orbital dynamics, planetary science, fundamental astronomy, aerospace engineering, and nonlinear systems and chaos. The meeting has been held for 30 years and it brings together researchers, professors and students from South American and also from other continents. Acknowledgements National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level - CAPES São Paulo Research Foundation - FAPESP

  15. Evaluation of soil contamination risk under climate change scenarios using Pantanal model in a Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh; Anaya-Romero, María; Jordán, Antonio; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; de la Rosa, Diego

    2013-04-01

    In this research, contamination vulnerability of Mediterranean soils was evaluated, using Andalusia (southern Spain; 87,600 km2) as a pilot area. The following components of the agro-ecological decision support system MicroLEIS DSS have been used: 1) SDBm, soil profile database, 2) CDBm, agroclimate database 3) MDBm, database of agricultural management, and 4) Pantanal model, specific assessment model for the vulnerability of soil contamination focus on nitrogen, phosphorous, heavy metals and pesticides. After the application of the model, results may be grouped into five vulnerability classes: V1-none, V2-low, V3-moderate, V4-high and V5-extreme for each specific contaminant. Physical and chemical data, and morphological description of 62 selected soil profiles from the study area were used in this study. Soil profiles were classified at sub-group level of USDA Soil Taxonomy, resulting in 37 units included in orders Inceptisols (26,9%), Entisols (21.2%), Alfisols (19.8%), Vertisols (17.9%), Mollisols (7.2%), Ultisols (4.3%) and Aridisols (2.8%). The CDBm database contains monthly average values of climate variables: mean temperature, maximum and minimum monthly rainfall, number of days of rain and humidity, collected during a consecutive period of 30 years that represent current climate scenario, and future climate scenarios (2040, 2070 and 2100). These scenarios have been calculated using climate change variation values from the State Meteorological Agency (AEMET, 2011). The MDBm contains information about agricultural use and management of wheat crop. The Pantanal expert model was applied to each soil-unit. Results showed that 9.0%, 11.6%, 29.5% and 50.8% of the total studied area was classified as V1, V2, V3, and V4, respectively, for pesticide contamination under the current climatic scenario. Under the future climate change scenario, 7.7%, 10.0%, 17.7% and 64.6% of the total studied area was classified as V1, V2, V3 and V4, respectively, for pesticide

  16. Floral variation and environmental heterogeneity in a tristylous clonal aquatic of the Pantanal wetlands of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leme da Cunha, Nicolay; Fischer, Erich; Lorenz-Lemke, Aline P.; Barrett, Spencer C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The balance between stochastic forces and frequency-dependent mating largely governs style morph frequencies in heterostylous populations. In clonal species, deviations from equal morph ratios often result from founder events and unfavourable conditions for sexual reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether different flooding regimes, because of their influence on sexual vs. clonal reproduction, are associated with regional variation in morph frequencies and floral trait differentiation in populations of the clonal, tristylous, aquatic Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the Pantanal wetlands of Brazil. Methods Style morph frequencies were sampled from 73 populations distributed across four flooding regimes differing in depth and duration. Measurements of flower size, sex-organ dimension, pollen size and pollen production were made in selected populations, and pollinator assemblages and their functional traits were recorded. Key Results Most populations of E. azurea were tristylous (78 %), but the majority exhibited uneven morph ratios. The frequency of the mid-styled morph was significantly lower than that of the long- and short-styled morphs. Morph evenness was positively associated with population size but not with flooding regime. There were significant phenotypic differences among flooding regimes for all floral traits, including populations with reduced flower size, sex-organ length and smaller pollen. Pollinator assemblages varied with flood duration. Conclusions The similar morph structure and evenness of populations, regardless of flooding regime, suggest that sexual reproduction and clonal dispersal are sufficiently common to prevent the signature of founder events from dominating in a region. However, the pervasive occurrence of biased morph ratios in most populations suggests that many are in a non-equilibrium state. The reduced frequency of the mid-styled morph in trimorphic and dimorphic populations may be

  17. Historical reconstruction of floodplain inundation in the Pantanal (Brazil) using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantin-Cruz, Ibraim; Pedrollo, Olavo; Castro, Nilza M. R.; Girard, Pierre; Zeilhofer, Peter; Hamilton, Stephen K.

    2011-03-01

    SummaryThe relations between hydrology, geomorphology and vegetation provide the basis for understanding the ecological processes in the floodplains of rivers. In this paper, long-term (1969-2009) local flood characteristics (magnitude, duration, frequency, return period) are quantified for the floodplain of the Cuiabá River (Pantanal wetland in Brazil), using a predictive model based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) with input given by the historic river-level record. Morphological features were then described and their relation to vegetation analyzed and used to reconstruct floods. In addition to the river-level data used to train and validate a three-layer ANN, data were also used from 11 floodplain gauges across a 12 km transect lateral to the river, which were monitored during the annual floods of 2004-2007. The resulting neural network gave satisfactory estimates of water depth over the floodplain, with an absolute error of 0.09 m not exceeded in 95% of occurrences. The ANN showed that in almost all years, the level reached by the river was high enough to flood the profile completely: the exceptions were 1971 and 2001 when only 50% and 58% was flooded, to mean depths of 0.34 and 0.48 m, respectively. The highest flood was that of 1995 when the floodplain was flooded to a mean depth of 2.56 m. The median flood event (return period 2 years) produced a mean flood depth 1.80 m and lasted 119 days. Among the most important morphological features is the presence of palaeo-channels which provide hydrological connectivity between the river and the floodplain. The distribution of phytophysiognomic units is significantly influenced by local geomorphology, which determines spatial variation in the magnitude, duration, and frequency of flooding.

  18. Diet and resource partitioning among anurans in irrigated rice fields in Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Piatti, L; Souza, F L

    2011-08-01

    Artificial ponds or irrigated systems scattered throughout farmlands can offer important habitats for anurans and can be interesting sites for research on species resources use in a changing landscape. This study describes the diet and resource partitioning among anurans inhabiting irrigated rice fields in the Pantanal region. Twenty categories of prey were found in the stomachs of Leptodactylus chaquensis, L. elenae, L. podicipinus and Rhinella bergi, the most frequent being Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, larvae of Hexapoda, Hemiptera, Diptera and Orthoptera. The great differences found in the diet of these species in rice fields compared to other locations, according to available records in the literature, was the increased importance of Hemipitera and Orthoptera and the decrease in importance of Hymenoptera in the diet of leptodactylids. These differences might be attributed to changes in the availability of resources in response to habitat modification. Although diet composition was very similar among species, niche overlap was larger than expected by chance, suggesting that the competition for food resources is not, or has not been, a significant force in determining the structure of this frog community. Two non-exclusive hypotheses could be considered as a justification for this result: 1) the high niche overlap could result from resource availability, which is sufficient to satisfy all species without any strong competition; 2) or the high values of niche overlap could be a selective force driving species to compete, but there has not been enough time to express a significant divergence in the species diet because the study area is characterised as a dynamic habitat influenced by frequent and cyclical changes.

  19. Knowledge and use of wild edible plants in rural communities along Paraguay River, Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, Ieda Maria; Amorozo, Maria Christina de Mello; Neto, Germano Guarim; Oldeland, Jens; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves

    2015-05-30

    Wild plants are used as food for human populations where people still depend on natural resources to survive. This study aimed at identifying wild plants and edible uses known in four rural communities of the Pantanal-Brazil, estimating the use value and understanding how distance to the urban areas, gender, age and number of different environments available in the vicinity can influence the knowledge and use of these plants by local people. Data on edible plants with known uses by communities were obtained through semi-structured interviews. A form with standardized information was used for all communities in order to obtain comparable data for analysis. For the quantitative analysis of the factors that could influence the number of species known by the population, a generalized linear model (GLM) was conducted using a negative binomial distribution as the data consisted of counts (number of citations). A total of 54 wild species were identified with food uses, included in 44 genera and 30 families of angiosperms. Besides food use, the species are also known as medicine, bait, construction, technology and other. The species with the highest use value was Acrocomia aculeata. Older people, aged more than 60 years, and those living in more remote communities farther from cities know more wild edible plants. Statistical analysis showed no difference regarding gender or number of vegetation types available in the vicinity and the number of plants known by locals. This study indicated more knowledge retained in communities more distant from the urban area, indifference in distribution of knowledge between genders and the higher cultural competence of elderly people in respect to knowledge of wild edible botanicals.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions in the Brazilian semiarid region: environmental, climate and social constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa-Neto, Eráclito; Ometto, Jean

    2014-05-01

    The process of removing a forest to open new agricultural lands, which has been very intensive in developing countries like Brazil during the last decades (Lapola et al, 2014), contributes to about 12% of the global anthropogenic emissions (Le Quéré et al., 2009). Forest cover removal releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GEE) like methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a result of burning trees, followed by gradual decomposition of the forest biomass left on the ground while pasture or crop plantations are being established (Ramankutty et al., 2007). In Brazil, the 2nd Brazilian National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), presents the mean annual net CO2 emissions caused by changes in land use in each Brazilian biome and the first place in the ranking is occupied by the Amazon Rainforest Biome (860,874 Gg), followed by Savannah (302,715 Gg), Atlantic Forest (79,109 Gg), Caatinga (37,628 Gg), Pantanal (16,172 Gg) and Pampa (-102 Gg) (MCT 2010). Despite these results, the estimates of CO2 emissions caused by land use changes in the Brazilian semiarid region (Caatinga) are very limited and scarce, and associated to uncertainties which are directly related to the estimated biomass in different types of vegetation which are spatially distributed within the biome, as well as the correct representation of the dynamics of the deforestation process itself, and the more accurate mapping use and land cover. Based on such facts, this project is estimating the emissions of the main greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) caused by land use changes in an area of Caatinga biome in Pernambuco State through the model INPE-EM. So far, it is known that from decades of 1940 up to 1995, Caatinga biome has contributed with about 3.2 % to total land use change emissions in the country (Leite et al, 2012), and recently (1990-2005), the contributions of Caatinga are even higher (over 30%), according to the 2nd

  1. Conceptual model for calculation of greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation in the Brazilian Caatinga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa Neto, E. R.; Ometto, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The process of removing a forest to open new agricultural lands, which has been very intensive in developing countries like Brazil during the last decades, contributes to about 12% of the global anthropogenic emissions (Le Quéré et al., 2009). Forest cover removal releases carbon and other greenhouse gases like methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a result of burning trees, followed by gradual decomposition of the forest biomass left on the ground while pasture or crop plantations are being established (Ramankutty et al., 2007). In Brazil, the 2nd Brazilian National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), presents the mean annual net CO2 emissions caused by changes in land use in each Brazilian biome and the first place in the ranking is occupied by the Amazon Rainforest Biome (860,874 Gg), followed by Savannah (302,715 Gg), Atlantic Forest (79,109 Gg), Caatinga (37,628 Gg), Pantanal (16,172 Gg) and Pampa (-102 Gg) (MCT 2010). The estimates of CO2 emissions caused by land use changes in the Brazilian semiarid region (Caatinga) are very limited and scarce, and associated to uncertainties which are directly related to the estimated biomass in different types of vegetation which are spatially distributed within the biome, as well as the correct representation of the dynamics of the deforestation process itself, and the more accurate mapping use and land cover. This project aims to estimate carbon emissions from land use changes in Pernambuco State, Brazil, by using the INPE-EM model. The model will incorporate the temporal dynamics related to the deforestation process, and accounts for the biophysical and socioeconomic heterogeneity of the region in study

  2. [The Brazilguayans, Brazilian migrants in Paraguay].

    PubMed

    Pebayle, R

    1994-01-01

    "Since the 1950s, the population of Eastern regions of Paraguay has grown with the steady influx of Brazilian immigrants. Planters from Parana and Sao Paulo, mechanized wheat and soy farmers from the southern campos and cattle farmers from the Matto Grosso do Sul have joined mixed farmers, descendants of European settlers from the south of Brazil. Despite some local conflicts, the Brazilguayans...[in] Oriente [province] seem to be on the road to integration in Paraguay." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA AND POR)

  3. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  4. Floral variation and environmental heterogeneity in a tristylous clonal aquatic of the Pantanal wetlands of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leme da Cunha, Nicolay; Fischer, Erich; Lorenz-Lemke, Aline P; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2014-12-01

    The balance between stochastic forces and frequency-dependent mating largely governs style morph frequencies in heterostylous populations. In clonal species, deviations from equal morph ratios often result from founder events and unfavourable conditions for sexual reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether different flooding regimes, because of their influence on sexual vs. clonal reproduction, are associated with regional variation in morph frequencies and floral trait differentiation in populations of the clonal, tristylous, aquatic Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the Pantanal wetlands of Brazil. Style morph frequencies were sampled from 73 populations distributed across four flooding regimes differing in depth and duration. Measurements of flower size, sex-organ dimension, pollen size and pollen production were made in selected populations, and pollinator assemblages and their functional traits were recorded. Most populations of E. azurea were tristylous (78 %), but the majority exhibited uneven morph ratios. The frequency of the mid-styled morph was significantly lower than that of the long- and short-styled morphs. Morph evenness was positively associated with population size but not with flooding regime. There were significant phenotypic differences among flooding regimes for all floral traits, including populations with reduced flower size, sex-organ length and smaller pollen. Pollinator assemblages varied with flood duration. The similar morph structure and evenness of populations, regardless of flooding regime, suggest that sexual reproduction and clonal dispersal are sufficiently common to prevent the signature of founder events from dominating in a region. However, the pervasive occurrence of biased morph ratios in most populations suggests that many are in a non-equilibrium state. The reduced frequency of the mid-styled morph in trimorphic and dimorphic populations may be associated with the weak self-incompatibility of this

  5. Identification of structural breaks in hydrological maxima time series in Paraguay River, Pantanal Region, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Marcus; Lima, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological time series of the Paraguay River located in the Pantanal region of Brazil exhibits a complex and interesting behavior, which includes long memory characteristics, monotonic trends, multiple breaks and strong seasonality. Particularly, several abrupt changes from low to high flows and vice versa have been observed on annual maxima time series and have been responsible for the major flood damages in the region, even more significant than the largest floods that occurred in the period post 1974. The year of 1974 is historically known as the year of the most significant flood impact in region, especially on agriculture and cattle. Therefore, the identification and attribution of such step changes in the series is of particular interest to improve the flood management systems across the region. Here we apply the cumulative sum (CUSUM) procedure to identify the timing of the abrupt changes. Preliminary results for the Ladario streamflow gauge reveal multiple structural changes in 1936 (high flows to low flows), 1961 (high/low), 1974 (low/high) and 1999 (high/low). Rainfall records were also analyzed and the results obtained suggest that the Paraguay River basin in its upper reach, monitored by Caceres gauging station (32,400 km²) and Cuiabá river basin (23,500 km²) are the factors that most contribute to low frequencies oscillations in the Ladario maxima time series (253,000 km²). These sub-basins are both located in the northern part of the catchment along with the boundary of the Amazon River basin, where the average rainfall is more expressive. In both basins the rainfall records show a structural break in 1973. Simple linear regression using rainfall and flow records in those sub-basins show that the rainfall data accounts for around 70% of the flow variance, indicating that the internal dynamics of the catchment plays a minor role on the streamflow variability. Low frequency variability is also observed in both rainfall series and may be the

  6. Fishes of the family Ipnopidae (Teleostei: Aulopiformes) collected on the Brazilian continental slope between 11 degrees and 23 degrees S.

    PubMed

    Franco, M A L; Braga, A C; Nunan, G W A; Costa, P A S

    2009-09-01

    A collection of fishes from the Brazilian continental slope between 11 degrees and 23 degrees S obtained through trawling revealed nine species of Ipnopidae. Bathypterois bigelowi and Bathytyphlops marionae represent first records from the south-western Atlantic Ocean and Bathypterois grallator is reported off Brazil for the first time. Four species have their distribution extended in Brazilian waters: Bathypterois phenax, Bathypterois quadrifilis, Bathypterois viridensis and Ipnops murrayi. An identification key of Ipnopidae species from the south-western Atlantic Ocean is included.

  7. A Brazilian Oz?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Both the American author, L. Frank Baum, and his Brazilian counterpart, Jose Monteiro Lobato, created children's books that featured alternative worlds, peopled by characters who fascinated many generations of young readers. The authors were both born in the second half of the nineteenth century into families of privilege, and both enjoyed idyllic…

  8. A Brazilian Oz?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Both the American author, L. Frank Baum, and his Brazilian counterpart, Jose Monteiro Lobato, created children's books that featured alternative worlds, peopled by characters who fascinated many generations of young readers. The authors were both born in the second half of the nineteenth century into families of privilege, and both enjoyed idyllic…

  9. Lerneca inalata beripocone subsp. nov. (Orthoptera: Phalangopsidae; Luzarinae): a new taxon for the northern Pantanal of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Raysa Martins; Martins, Luciano De Pinho; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Ganchev, Todor D; Jahn, Olaf; Lhano, Marcos Gonçalves; Marques, Marinêz Isaac; Schuchmann, Karl-L

    2016-10-17

    The first record of the Orthoptera species Lerneca inalata for Brazil is presented here. The taxon is represented by a new subspecies Lerneca inalata beripocone subsp. nov. (Phalangopsidae, Luzarinae), collected in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. This work includes morphological and morphometric data as well as descriptions of female genitalia and calling song. The new subspecies has as diagnostic features the male genitalia with six ventral spines on the B sclerite, the first spine having a subtle bifurcation; the mid-region of the strongly sclerotized pseudepiphallus; inclination of C sclerite with slightly concave curvature; tegmina-length ratio and the speculum (syn. mirror) width approximately three times the length of the apical area. The description of the female genitalia and the calling song is presented for the first time for the species Lerneca inalata. A distribution map covers the local occurrence of its subspecies.

  10. Brazilian women in politics.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  11. Mercury distribution in organs of fish species and the associated risk in traditional subsistence villagers of the Pantanal wetland.

    PubMed

    Ceccatto, Ana P S; Testoni, Magalei C; Ignácio, Aurea R A; Santos-Filho, Manoel; Malm, Olaf; Díez, Sergi

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the risk to human health from mercury (Hg) exposure through fish consumption in the Pantanal, Brazil. In order to address these risks, Hg concentrations and accumulation patterns were determined in target organs of predatory fish (Crenicichla lepidota and Pygocentrus nattereri). Levels of Hg were analysed during the two phases of the flood pulse (flood and drought) in fish from different local ecosystems, such as the Bento Gomes and Paraguay rivers. Although the former study area is directly affected by gold mining, a higher, but not significantly different, Hg concentration in fish was found compared with fish at the Paraguay River, which is regarded as pristine area. Moreover, no seasonal variability was found in either river. Although total mercury levels in fish did not exceed the maximum FAO/WHO threshold (0.5 μg g(-1)), according to dietary habits in riverine communities of the Pantanal (up to 6 oz of fish per day), there is reason for concern over the potential for deleterious health effects that could be caused by high Hg intake. In fact, the estimated daily intake in the present study ranged from 0.49 to 1.08 μg Hg kg(-1) day(-1), for adults (including women of childbearing age) and children, respectively. Because of high Hg intakes in riverine groups, which exceed the recommended reference dose value, these communities could be considered at risk. Therefore, it is necessary to consider regulatory measures and public education regarding fish consumption, particularly in vulnerable groups (i.e. children, pregnant women and women of childbearing age).

  12. Spatiotemporal analysis of sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis at Pantanal, central South America.

    PubMed

    Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Monaco, Neiva Zandonaide Nazario; de Oliveira, Everton Falcão; Eguchi, Gabriel Utida; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Pereira, Luciana Escalante; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Mateus, Nathália Lopes Fontoura; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2014-08-15

    Environmental changes caused by urbanization can cause alterations in the ecology and behavior of sandflies and in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. Geotechnological tools allow the analysis and recognition of spatiotemporal patterns by monitoring and mapping risk areas of this vector-borne disease. This study aims to describe the sandfly fauna in the municipality of Corumbá and to compare it with the data described in a three-year period from 1984 to 1986 by Galati. A further aim was to analyze the influence of environmental changes on the composition of the fauna. Captures were conducted weekly from April 2012 to March 2013, in intra and peridomicile areas with automatic light traps, from 6:00 pm to 6:00 am. The following indices were calculated for both periods analyzed: Standardized Index of Species Abundance (SISA), Shannon's diversity index (H) and Pielou's index (J). The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was extracted from a remote sensing LANDSAT-5 image. In total, 7,370 specimens (6,169 males and 1,201 females) were collected, distributed among 12 species. Lutzomyia cruzi was the most frequent species (93,79%) and the first in the ranking of standardized species abundance index in both studies. The dominance of the species Lu. cruzi in the neighborhoods of Maria Leite and Centro was demonstrated by the low equitability index. The neighborhood of Cristo Redentor had the greatest diversity of sandflies in the present study and the second greatest in the study performed by Galati et al. (Rev Saúde Pública 31:378-390, 1997). Analyzing the satellite images and the NDVI from 1984 and 2010, the largest amount of dense vegetation was found in the neighborhood of Cristo Redentor. It was, therefore, possible to show how changes caused due to urbanization have affected the density and distribution of Lu. cruzi and other species over time. Moreover, the data suggest that different populations of sandflies adapt in different ways according to environmental conditions and the adaptation does not necessarily depends on the presence of high vegetation cover.

  13. Geostatistics as a tool to improve sampling and statistical analysis in wetlands: a case study on dynamics of organic matter distribution in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, F; Couto, E G; Bernardi, C J

    2002-11-01

    The Pantanal of Mato Grosso presents distinct landscape units: permanently, occasionally and periodically flooded areas. In the last ones, sampling is especially difficult due to the high heterogeneity occurring inter and intrastratas. This paper presents a comparison of different methodological approaches showing that they can influence decisively the knowledge of distribution organic matter dynamics. In such an area in order to understand the role of the flood pulse in the distribution dynamics of organic matter in a wetland at the Pantanal, we considered that there is spatial dependence between points. This consideration contradicts the classical statistic principle that focuses on the aleatority, and allowed the obtainment of a larger volume of information from a minor sampling effort, which means better performance, with time and money economy.

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Brazilian Semiarid Region: Environmental, Climate and Social Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa Neto, E. R.; Ometto, J. P.; Aguiar, A. P. D.; Mata, M. V.

    2014-12-01

    Removing a forest to open new agricultural lands, which has been very intensive in countries like Brazil during the last decades, contributes to about 12% of the global anthropogenic emissions. Forest cover removal releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GEE) like methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a result of burning trees, followed by gradual decomposition of the forest biomass left on the ground while pasture or crop plantations are being established. In Brazil, the 2nd Brazilian National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) presents the mean annual net CO2 emissions caused by changes in land use (LUC) in each Brazilian biome and the first place in the ranking is occupied by the Amazon Rainforest Biome (860,874 Gg), followed by Savannah (302,715 Gg), Atlantic Forest (79,109 Gg), Caatinga (37,628 Gg), Pantanal (16,172 Gg) and Pampa (-102 Gg) (MCT 2010). Despite these results, the estimates of CO2 emissions caused by LUC in the Brazilian semiarid region (Caatinga) are very limited and scarce, and associated to uncertainties directly related to the estimated biomass in different types of vegetation which are spatially distributed within the biome, as well as the correct representation of the dynamics of the deforestation process itself, and the more accurate mapping use and land cover. Based on such facts, this project is estimating the emissions of the main greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) caused by land use changes in an area of Caatinga biome in Pernambuco State through the model INPE-EM. So far, it is known that from decades of 1940 up to 1995, Caatinga biome has contributed with about 3.2 % to total land use change emissions in the country, and recently (1990-2005), the contributions of Caatinga are even higher (over 30%), according to the 2nd Brazilian National Communication (2010). By means means of the model INPE-EM (data still being acquired), we are trying to diminish the

  15. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524

  16. Brazilian minister sets global goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    Marco Antonio Raupp, the mathematical physicist who is now Brazil's minister of science, technology and innovation, talks to Physics World about the challenges and opportunities for Brazilian research.

  17. The AIDS Epidemic and the Mozambican Society of Medicines: an analysis of Brazilian cooperation.

    PubMed

    Fedatto, Maíra da Silva

    2017-07-01

    This article analyzes the Brazilian South South Cooperation in Health in Mozambique, specifically the fight against the AIDS Epidemic through the Antiretroviral Factory, in light of the concept of Structural Cooperation in Health, and with a basis in the literature on Cooperation for Development and Global Health. Thus, the article is divided into four parts: (i) a historical-bibliographic review of health as an International Relations issue; (ii) an overview of the field of health in Mozambique; (iii) an historical-political-conceptual debate about both types of International Cooperation for Development: North-South Cooperation and South-South Cooperation; (iv) a study about the antiretroviral factory, better known as the Mozambican Society of Medicines (Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos). Through a case study, our goal is to verify if the Brazilian actions in Mozambique are in accordance with the concepts defended by the Structural Cooperation in Health, as well as to create new inquiries for academic debate.

  18. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  19. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  20. Origin of mounds in the Pantanal wetlands: An integrated approach between geomorphology, pedogenesis, ecology and soil micromorphology.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Junior, Jairo Calderari; Beirigo, Raphael Moreira; Chiapini, Mariane; do Nascimento, Alexandre Ferreira; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Vegetated mounds are an important geomorphological feature of the Pantanal, where the influence of floods dictates not only hydropedological processes, but also the distribution and ecology of the flora and fauna. This work aimed to identify factors and processes that influence the formation and spatial distribution of the mounds, which are commonly associated with termite activity. In order to characterize pedological processes, macro and micro morphological descriptions, satellite image interpretation, dating of the sandy sedimentary material using OSL and carbon dating using 14C AMS were carried out. This dating of the materials indicates that the sediments in which the soils were formed were deposited during the Pleistocene, while the carbonates are from the Holocene. The basin-like format of the laminar structures suggests that part of the more clayey material was deposited in lacustrine environments. The more humid climate in the Holocene intensified argilluviation, which at an advanced stage, led to a more pronounced textural gradient, reducing drainage and leading to ferrolysis and thickening of the E horizon. Besides pedogenic processes, more erosive flooding during the Holocene began reducing and rounding the landscape's more elevated structures (paleolevees). In the final stage, these structures were occupied by termites to shelter from flooding. Thereafter, the bio-cementation action of the termite nests has increased the resistance of the vegetated mounds to processes of erosion.

  1. [The fragility/strength of human life in rural communities of the Pantanal wetlands, Mato Grosso State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pignatti, Marta Gislene; Castro, Sueli Pereira

    2008-01-01

    From an ambiguous/complex standpoint, the fragility/strength of human life suggests an approach based on observations of the life-style dynamics of specific population groups. Conducted between 2003 and 2005, this study of a community living alongside the Pantanal Wetlands Private Natural Heritage Reserve established by the Social Enterprise Support Centre (RPPN/ SESC) in the Joselândia Rural District, Barão de Melgaço Municipality, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, explores its life-style, linking explanations of the health/disease process to historical, economic and social aspects of this community and the singularity of local healing practices, using historical documentary records, statements from local residents, a population poll, interviews and observations. Changes were noted in the links of solidarity among community members at work and for growing food. Healing practices based on folk-medicine are alternatives used to relieve symptoms and diseases. The fragility/strength of this specific community is established through strength based on solidarity and family ties, while its fragility is due to difficulties in accessing work, healthcare services and public facilities.

  2. Microscopic features of tick-bite lesions in anteaters and armadillos: Emas National Park and the Pantanal region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima e Silva, M F; Szabó, M P J; Bechara, G H

    2004-10-01

    The naturally occurring wildlife host associations between ticks and tick-borne pathogens found in the neotropics are poorly described. Understanding tick-bite lesions is important as these are the site of host reaction to and pathogen delivery by ticks. As part of a comprehensive study concerning established and emerging tick-host relationships. the present work describes some aspects of tick-bite lesions in anteaters and armadillos captured at the Emas National Park and the Pantanal region of Brazil. Biopsies were of skin were taken and examine. Tick feeding sites of all animals displayed an eosinophilic homogeneous mass, the cement cone, and, occasionally, a feeding cavity underneath the tick attachment site. At these locations the epidermis was usually thickened due to keratinocyte hyperplasia. The main dermal changes included tissue infiltration with a varying number of inflammatory cells, edema, hemorrhage. and vascular dilatation. Cellular infiltration of the dermis was predominantly composed of mononuclear cells, neutrophils. and eosinophils. Mast cells were also seen in both non-parasitized and parasitized skin but were found in higher numbers at perivascular sites and in parasitized skin. Basophils were not seen at tick attachment sites of anteaters or armadillos.

  3. [Helminth parasites of capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) on sub-region of Nhecolândia, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul].

    PubMed

    Costa, C A; Catto, J B

    1994-02-01

    A sequence of 23 necropsies was carried out on capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from the central area of Nhecolândia, Pantanal region, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from December 1984 to December 1986. The helminths identified and their respective prevalences and mean intensity were: Trichostrongylus axei--60.9 and 14, Viannella hydrochoeri--95.6 and 1031, Strongyloides chapini--47.8 and 1014, Yatesia hydrochoerus--44.4 and 6, Cruorifilaria tuberocauda--40.0 and 8, Capillaria hydrochoeri--86.9 and 156, Protozoophaga obesa--100.0 and 7212, Taxorchis schistocotyle--56.5 and 43, Hippocrepis hippocrepis--34.8 and 3832, Nudacotyle tertius--8.7 and 133, Monoecocestus hydrochoeri--54.5 and 62, and Monoecocestus hagmanni--80.0 and 75. Y. hydrochoerus was registered for the first time in Brazil. The helminths C. tuberocauda, V. hydrochoeri, S. chapini and H. hippocrepis has characteristics that induce clinical and subclinical parasitosis. Although multiple infections predominated, no interactions among the helminth parasites of the same organ were observed. The prevalences and abundances of S. chapini, Y. hydrochoerus and C. hydrochoeri were influenced by the age of the host. So, S. chapini presented higher values in young animals, while Y. hydrochoerus and C. hydrochoeri showed an opposite tendency.

  4. Injuries caused by the venomous catfish pintado and cachara (Pseudoplatystoma genus) in fishermen of the Pantanal region in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Giuliano N R DE; Souza, Celso C DE; Haddad, Vidal; Sabino, José

    2016-09-01

    the fishing activity throughout the Upper Paraguay River Basin has huge financial and biological importance. This retrospective study investigated the occurrence of injuries caused by fish of the Pseudoplatystoma genus (spotted catfish or pintado and striped catfish or cachara) in professional fishermen of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul State. we collected information through a questionnaire, showing that fishing is carried out by workers with low level of education, mainly adults or seniors with low financial gains. in Miranda town, 126 of 315 fishermen were interviewed and 38 individuals reported injuries (30.16%). In Corumbá town, 355 of 627 fishermen were interviewed, and 111 (56,61%) reported injuries. The lacerated lesions were the most common, associate with edema, erythema, radiating pain to the root of the limb, paresthesias and local necrosis. More rarely, they reported the occurrence of fever, cardiac arrhythmias and cold sweating. These manifestations may be associated with late secondary infections or envenomations caused by the toxins in the stingers of the fish. Many questionable and inappropriate treatments are used, sometimes aggravating the injuries. the freshwater professional fishermen need guidance on first aid measures and prevention of accidents caused by these venomous fish.

  5. Selection of common bean genotypes for the Cerrado/Pantanal ecotone via mixed models and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, A M; Pereira, M I S; de Abreu, H K A; Sharon, T; de Melo, C L P; Ito, M A; Teodoro, P E; Bhering, L L

    2016-10-17

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is predominantly grown on small farms and lacks accurate genotype recommendations for specific micro-regions in Brazil. This contributes to a low national average yield. The aim of this study was to use the methods of the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values (HMRPGV) and the centroid, for selecting common bean genotypes with high yield, adaptability, and stability for the Cerrado/Pantanal ecotone region in Brazil. We evaluated 11 common bean genotypes in three trials carried out in the dry season in Aquidauana in 2013, 2014, and 2015. A likelihood ratio test detected a significant interaction between genotype x year, contributing 54% to the total phenotypic variation in grain yield. The three genotypes selected by the joint analysis of genotypic values in all years (Carioca Precoce, BRS Notável, and CNFC 15875) were the same as those recommended by the HMRPGV method. Using the centroid method, genotypes BRS Notável and CNFC 15875 were considered ideal genotypes based on their high stability to unfavorable environments and high responsiveness to environmental improvement. We identified a high association between the methods of adaptability and stability used in this study. However, the use of centroid method provided a more accurate and precise recommendation of the behavior of the evaluated genotypes.

  6. Molecular Basis of KELnull Phenotype in Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    Boturão-Neto, Edmir; Yamamoto, Mihoko; Chiba, Akemi Kuroda; Kimura, Elisa Yuriko Sugano; de Oliveira, Maria do Carmo Valgueiro Costa; do Monte Barretto, Cláudia Lumack; Nunes, Mércia Maria Alves; Albuquerque, Sérgio Roberto Lopes; de Deus Santos, Marcos Daniel; Bordin, José Orlando

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background KELnull (K0) persons can produce clinically significant anti-KEL5 antibody after transfusion and/or pregnancy, requiring K0 blood transfusion when indicated. 37 K0 alleles have been reported in studies over different populations, but none in Amerindian-Caucasian descendants from South America. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular basis of K0 phenotype in Brazilians. Methods We investigated three K0 samples from different Brazilian blood banks (Recife, Manaus, and Vila Velha) in women with anti-KEL5. KEL antigen typing was performed by serologic techniques, and the K0 status was confirmed by flow cytometry. PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing of the KEL coding and exon-intron regions were also performed. Results RBCs of the 3 patients were phenotyped as KEL:-1,−2,−3,−4,−7. The 3 patients had the same KEL*02/02 genotype and were negative for KEL*02.03 and KEL*02.06 alleles. The Recife K0 patient was homozygous for IVS16 + 1g>a mutation (KEL*02N.31 allele). The flow cytometry with anti-KEL1, anti-KEL2, anti-KEL3, anti-KEL4, and anti-CD238 confirmed the K0 phenotype. In addition, we found the c.10423C>T mutation (KEL*02N.04 allele) in both the Manaus K0 and the Vila Velha K0 patients. Conclusion This report represents the first study of K0 molecular basis performed in Amerindian-Caucasian descendants from South America. PMID:25960716

  7. The Brazilian mineral resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beurlen, Hartmut; Cassedanne, Jacques Pierre

    1981-04-01

    The activity of the first generation of Brazilian geologists began in the early sixties. Systematic exploration work since then has evidenced some important new mineral reserves in Brazil. The most important examples are the 18 × 10 9 tons of high-grade iron ore (Carajás District), formed by supergene enrichment on iron formations older than 1800 m.y., the 2.5 × 10 9 tons of bauxite and similar reserves of kaolinite as residual enrichment in Cenozoic sediments in the Amazonas Basin (Oriximina, Capim); the potash and magnesium-rich evaporites near Aracajú(Sergipe); the large residual concentrations of phosphate, anatase, pyrochlore and rare earths related to Cretaceous alkaline complexes with carbonatites; and some garnierite and asbestos deposits related to ultramafic rocks in the states of Goiás and Piauí.

  8. Streptococcus iniae outbreaks in Brazilian Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L:) farms.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, H C P; Netto, L Nobrega; Leal, C A G; Pereira, Ulisses P; Mian, Glaúcia F

    2012-04-01

    This is the first report of outbreaks of Streptococcus iniae in Nile tilapia farms in South America. Seven isolates were identified by biochemical, serological and molecular tests. Their 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 100% similarity with S. iniae ATCC 29178 and two distinct PFGE patterns were observed for Brazilian isolates.

  9. Off-Farm Work among Rural Households: A Case Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWey, Leah; Vithayathil, Trina

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes off-farm work among subsistence-level farmers in the Santarem region of the Brazilian Amazon. We build on the literature on rural livelihoods in the Global South by exploring how the opportunity to work off the farm is embedded in social relationships. We additionally differentiate our analysis by type of off-farm work, and…

  10. Off-Farm Work among Rural Households: A Case Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWey, Leah; Vithayathil, Trina

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes off-farm work among subsistence-level farmers in the Santarem region of the Brazilian Amazon. We build on the literature on rural livelihoods in the Global South by exploring how the opportunity to work off the farm is embedded in social relationships. We additionally differentiate our analysis by type of off-farm work, and…

  11. New genus, new species of Acanthocephala (Echinorhynchidae) from the Brazilian frog Hylodes phyllodes (Anura: Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Vrcibradic, Davor; Hatano, Fabio H; Rocha, Carlos Frederico D

    2006-04-01

    Anuracanthorhynchus tritaxisentis n. gen., n. sp. from the intestines of the Brazilian frog Hylodes phyllodes (Leptodactylidae) is described and illustrated. Anuracanthorhynchus tritaxisentis n. gen., n. sp., is unique among the echinorhynchid Acanthocephala by possessing a spherical proboscis supporting a small number of hooks of equal size. It is the sixth acanthocephalan species reported from South American anurans.

  12. Implementation of the Brazilian National Repository - RBMN Project - 13008

    SciTech Connect

    Cassia Oliveira de Tello, Cledola

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). Besides this NPP, in the National Energy Program is previewed the installation of four more plants, by 2030. In November 2008, CNEN launched the Project RBMN (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes), which aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (authors)

  13. [Phenology of Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the northern region of Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Fatima R J da; Marques, Marinêz I; Battirola, Leandro D; Lhano, Marcos G

    2010-01-01

    Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) has Eichhornia crassipes, E. azurea, Pontederia cordata and P. lanceolata (Pontederiaceae) as the known host plants. This grasshopper species is cited as a possible agent of biological control for native aquatic macrophytes E. azurea and E. crassipes. This study, carried out from March, 2006 to February, 2007, aimed to evaluate the phenology and age structure of the population of C. aquaticum associated with E. azurea in Piuval bay, Pantanal of Poconé, MT, and to identify possible relationships of its life cycle to abiotic factors such as insolation, temperature and precipitation. Monthly collections of 50 individuals were carried out according to the protocol defined by the "Host - Insect Coevolution on Waterhyacinth" project. Adults and nymphs were separated and the females dissected in order to evaluate ovary maturation. The population presented adults and nymphs during the whole year, suggesting the occurrence of more than one reproductive period. The nymphs from the first stage predominated in August 2006 and the adults in September and October 2006, synchronized with the dry period and beginning of the flooding period, respectively. The highest relative abundance of the females with mature ovaries occurred in July 2006 (50%), indicating that this may be a more propitious period for reproduction. The data suggest that C. aquaticum is a species in continual reproduction in Piuval bay and its cycle is associated with the environmental conditions guided by the flood pulse in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso.

  14. Variation in the parasite community of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus (Actinopterygii: Characidae) from the Medalha lagoon in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa-Pereira, R; Paiva, F; Tavares, L E R

    2014-09-01

    In July 2009 and July 2010 (two dry periods separated by an atypically large flood in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil), 34 and 33 specimens of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus were collected, respectively, for the study of the metazoan parasite community of this species. Parasite ecological and community descriptors were calculated for both host samples, and possible similarities were tested statistically. Five species of metazoan parasites were identified, four of which were common to both host samples. A total of 61 metazoan parasites were collected from all fish hosts (17 specimens in July 2009 (mean: 0.5 ± 0.66 parasites/fish) and 44 specimens in July 2010 (mean: 1.33 ± 1.41 parasites/fish)). The nematode Procamallanus hilarii and the monogenean Anacanthorus sp. were the most prevalent and abundant species in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The mean total abundance and species richness were significantly higher in 2010. Parasite communities in both samples of T. nematurus were characterized by species with low prevalence, abundance, mean total abundance and species richness, thus indicating low parasite diversity. Significant differences in the prevalence and abundance of P. hilarii and Anacanthorus sp. between the two samples allowed the discrimination of infracommunities, which were united in two distinct groups. This appears to be the first evidence that the peculiar hydrological dynamics of the southern Pantanal wetland (Brazil) exert an important influence over the structure of the parasite community.

  15. Spatial distribution and impact of cattle-raising on ticks in the Pantanal region of Brazil by using the CO(2) tick trap.

    PubMed

    Cançado, Paulo Henrique D; Piranda, Eliane M; Mourão, Guilherme M; Faccini, João Luiz H

    2008-07-01

    This study evaluates the impact of cattle-raising on ticks associated with wildlife in the Pantanal region of Brazil, by trapping free-living ticks using a CO(2) tick trap. The traps were equally distributed in two areas: a 600-ha protected area (PA) and the Nhumirim Ranch (NR). Both areas are contiguous and located at the sub-region of Nhecolândia (18 degrees 59'S; 56 degrees 39'W), Pantanal, Brazil. In each area, four habitat types were selected: cerrado (tropical savanna), forest patches, lakes and soda lakes. The last two are temporary lagoons of fresh and salted water, respectively. A total of 980 nymphs, 613 adults and 13 larvae of ticks Amblyomma were collected in 256 h of collection. In a pen of calves infested by Ornithodoros rostratus 114 specimens were collected, including larvae, nymphs and adults. Adults of A. cajennense and A. parvum were more abundant in the savanna at NR, but not differed among habitat types at PA. There was a tendency of having more nymphs in NR than in PA. The higher number of ticks found in the NR in comparison to the PA is not due to the presence of cattle itself but probably due to introduced dogs and horses, habitat alteration.

  16. Soil CO₂ dynamics in a tree island soil of the Pantanal: the role of soil water potential.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark S; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Pinto, Osvaldo B; Milesi, Juliana; Santos Amorim, Ricardo S; Messias, Indira A M; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2013-01-01

    The Pantanal is a biodiversity hotspot comprised of a mosaic of landforms that differ in vegetative assemblages and flooding dynamics. Tree islands provide refuge for terrestrial fauna during the flooding period and are particularly important to the regional ecosystem structure. Little soil CO₂ research has been conducted in this region. We evaluated soil CO₂ dynamics in relation to primary controlling environmental parameters (soil temperature and soil water). Soil respiration was computed using the gradient method using in situ infrared gas analyzers to directly measure CO₂ concentration within the soil profile. Due to the cost of the sensors and associated equipment, this study was unreplicated. Rather, we focus on the temporal relationships between soil CO₂ efflux and related environmental parameters. Soil CO₂ efflux during the study averaged 3.53 µmol CO₂ m⁻² s⁻¹, and was equivalent to an annual soil respiration of 1220 g C m⁻² y⁻¹. This efflux value, integrated over a year, is comparable to soil C stocks for 0-20 cm. Soil water potential was the measured parameter most strongly associated with soil CO₂ concentrations, with high CO₂ values observed only once soil water potential at the 10 cm depth approached zero. This relationship was exhibited across a spectrum of timescales and was found to be significant at a daily timescale across all seasons using conditional nonparametric spectral Granger causality analysis. Hydrology plays a significant role in controlling CO₂ efflux from the tree island soil, with soil CO₂ dynamics differing by wetting mechanism. During the wet-up period, direct precipitation infiltrates soil from above and results in pulses of CO₂ efflux from soil. The annual flood arrives later, and saturates soil from below. While CO₂ concentrations in soil grew very high under both wetting mechanisms, the change in soil CO₂ efflux was only significant when soils were wet from above.

  17. Soil CO2 Dynamics in a Tree Island Soil of the Pantanal: The Role of Soil Water Potential

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark S.; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Pinto Jr, Osvaldo B.; Milesi, Juliana; Santos Amorim, Ricardo S.; Messias, Indira A. M.; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2013-01-01

    The Pantanal is a biodiversity hotspot comprised of a mosaic of landforms that differ in vegetative assemblages and flooding dynamics. Tree islands provide refuge for terrestrial fauna during the flooding period and are particularly important to the regional ecosystem structure. Little soil CO2 research has been conducted in this region. We evaluated soil CO2 dynamics in relation to primary controlling environmental parameters (soil temperature and soil water). Soil respiration was computed using the gradient method using in situ infrared gas analyzers to directly measure CO2 concentration within the soil profile. Due to the cost of the sensors and associated equipment, this study was unreplicated. Rather, we focus on the temporal relationships between soil CO2 efflux and related environmental parameters. Soil CO2 efflux during the study averaged 3.53 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1, and was equivalent to an annual soil respiration of 1220 g C m−2 y−1. This efflux value, integrated over a year, is comparable to soil C stocks for 0–20 cm. Soil water potential was the measured parameter most strongly associated with soil CO2 concentrations, with high CO2 values observed only once soil water potential at the 10 cm depth approached zero. This relationship was exhibited across a spectrum of timescales and was found to be significant at a daily timescale across all seasons using conditional nonparametric spectral Granger causality analysis. Hydrology plays a significant role in controlling CO2 efflux from the tree island soil, with soil CO2 dynamics differing by wetting mechanism. During the wet-up period, direct precipitation infiltrates soil from above and results in pulses of CO2 efflux from soil. The annual flood arrives later, and saturates soil from below. While CO2 concentrations in soil grew very high under both wetting mechanisms, the change in soil CO2 efflux was only significant when soils were wet from above. PMID:23762259

  18. Cyanobacteria enhance methylmercury production: a hypothesis tested in the periphyton of two lakes in the Pantanal floodplain, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, Wilkinson L; Guimarães, Jean Remy D; Ignácio, Aurea R A; Da Silva, Carolina J; Díez, Sergi

    2013-07-01

    The toxic potential of mercury (Hg) in aquatic systems is due to the presence and production of methylmercury (MeHg). Recent studies in tropical floodplain environments showed that periphyton associated with the roots of aquatic macrophytes produce MeHg. Periphyton communities are the first link in the food chain and one of the main MeHg sources in aquatic environments. The aim of this work was to test the hypotheses that the algal community structure affects potential methylation, and ecologically distinct communities with different algal and bacterial densities directly affect the formation of MeHg in the roots of macrophytes. To evaluate these, net MeHg production in the roots of Eichhornia crassipes in relation to the taxonomic structure of associated periphytic algae was evaluated. Macrophyte root samples were collected in the dry and flood season from two floodplain lakes in the Pantanal (Brazil). These lakes have different ecological conditions as a function of their lateral hydrological connectivity with the Paraguay River that is different during times of drought. Results indicated that MeHg production was higher in the flood season than in the dry season. MeHg production rates were higher in the disconnected lake in comparison to the connected lake during the dry season. MeHg production exhibited a strong positive co-variation with cyanobacteria abundance (R(2)=0.78; p<0.0001 in dry; R(2)=0.40; p=0.029 in flood) and with total algal biomass (R(2)=0.86; p<0.0001), and a negative co-variation with Zygnemaphyceae (R(2)=0.50; p=0.0018) in the lake community in dry season. This indicates that ecological conditions that favour the establishment and development of cyanobacteria are associated with higher rates of methylation in aquatic systems. This suggests that cyanobacteria could be a proxy for sites of MeHg production in some natural aquatic environments.

  19. Rotator cuff repair in the Brazilian Unified Health System: Brazilian trends from 2003 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Assunção, Jorge Henrique; Beraldo, Rodrigo Alves; Pinto, Gustavo de Mello Ribeiro; Gracitelli, Mauro Emilio Conforto; Ferreira Neto, Arnaldo Amado

    2017-01-01

    To assess the historical trend of rotator cuff repairs in Brazil between 2003 and 2015, using the database of the Brazilian Unified Health System's (Sistema Único de Saúde [SUS]) Department of Informatics (DataSUS). Historical series using DataSUS. Surgeries performed between 2003 and 2015 were included and data relating to cuff tear repair were assessed, including decompression procedures were included. The numerator was the total number of rotator cuff repair and the denominator, the total population of the assessed locality. Population data were based on information from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). During the period, 50,207 surgeries were performed. The rate was presented as number of procedures per 100,000 inhabitants, and increased from 0.83 to 2.81, a growth of 238%. In 2015, the South region had the highest rate, 6.32, followed by the Southeast, 3.62, while the North had the lowest rate, 0.13. The growing trend can be observed in the Southeast, South, and Midwest, while the rate is stable in the North and Northeast. The rate of rotator cuff repairs in Brazil performed through the SUS increased from 0.83 to 2.81 between 2003 and 2015, representing a growth of 238%, but remains lower than that of developed countries. A trend of growth can be observed in the Southeast, South, and Midwest, while the rate is stable in the North and Northeast.

  20. Anaglyph, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.

    Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.

    East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.

    North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.

    South of the Amazon, the Brazilian

  1. PREFACE: XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-07-01

    The XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics (or XXXVII RTFNB 2014) gave continuity to a long sequence of workshops held in Brazil, devoted to the study of the different aspects of nuclear physics. The meeting took place in the Maresias Beach Hotel, in the town of Maresias (state of São Paulo) from 8th to 12th September 2014. Offering gentle weather, a charming piece of green land of splendid natural beauty with beach and all amenities, the place had all the conditions for very pleasant and fruitful discussions. The meeting involved 162 participants and attracted undergraduate and graduate students, Brazilian and South American physicists and invited speakers from overseas (USA, Italy, Spain, France, England, Switzerland, Germany and South Corea). In the program we had plenary morning sessions with review talks on recent developments in theory, computational techniques, experimentation and applications of the many aspects of nuclear physics. In the parallel sessions we had a total of 58 seminars. This volume contains 60 written contributions based on these talks and on the poster sessions. Evening talks and poster sessions gave still more insight and enlarged the scope of the scientific program. The contributed papers, representing mainly the scientific activity of young physicists, were exhibited as posters and are included in the present volume. Additional information about the meeting can be found at our website: http://www.sbfisica.org.br/~rtfnb/xxxvii-en Support and sponsorship came from brazilian national agencies: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnoógico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ); Sociedade Brasileira de Física (SBF) and Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo (IFUSP). We honored Professor Alejandro Szanto de Toledo, who completed

  2. Interventional rheumatology: the competence of Brazilian rheumatologists.

    PubMed

    Landa, Aline Teixeira de; Natour, Jamil; Furtado, Rita Nely Vilar

    2017-06-19

    Describe Brazilian rheumatologists's competence in interventional rheumatology; assess the association between this ability and demographic and training variables. A cross-sectional study with 500 Brazilian rheumatologists. Participants were assessed by self-administered questionnaire consisting of demographics, training, practice in office and knowledge in interventional rheumatology data. 463 participants had their data analyzed. The mean age was 40.2 years (±11.2). 70% had performed periarticular injections and 78% had performed intra-articular injections. The sample was divided into three groups: non-interventionist, little interventionist and very interventionist. The non-interventionist group showed (p<0.001-0.04) higher mean age, lower proportion of university bond, lower training history, higher proportion of graduates in the Southeast country, and higher proportion of graduates in the 1980s to 1989. The very interventionist group showed higher (p<0.001-0.018) proportion of adult rheumatologists, higher proportion of university bond, longer training time with greater practice of complex procedures, and higher proportion of graduates, trained and with private practice in the South country. Variables most associated with the very interventionist subgroup are performing axial intra-articular injections (OR: 7.4, p<0.001), synovial biopsy (OR: 5.75, p=0.043), image-guided IAI (OR: 4.16, p<0.001), viscosupplementation (OR=3.41, p<0.001), joint lavage (OR=3.22, p=0.019), salivary gland biopsy (OR=2.16, p=0.034) and over 6-month training (OR: 2.16, p=0.008). Performing more complex invasive procedures and over 6-month training in interventional rheumatology were variables associated with enhanced interventional profile. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  3. South American sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Urien, C.M.

    1984-04-01

    More than 64 sedimentary basins have been identified on the South American continent. According to their regional structural character and tectonic setting, they are classified in 4 super groups. About 20 interior or intracratonic basins occur on South American cratons (Guayanas, Brazilian, and Patagonian). In most cases, their sedimentary fill is Paleozoic or early Mesozoic. Rift or transverse grabens resulting from incipient sea floor spreading extend towards the continental margin. Seventeen basins are located along the Atlantic stable margin, and consist primarily of half grabens with downfaulted seaward blocks. These rifts (or pull-apart basins) were separated as results of the migration of the African and American continental blocks. Therefore the sedimentation is chiefly Cretaceous and Tertiary. On the western edge of South American cratons, almost 20 basins of downwarped blocks extend from Orinoco down to the Malvinas plateau in a relatively uninterrupted chain of retroarc basins, bordered by the Andean orogen. They lie on a flexured Precambrian and Paleozoic basement, and are highly deformed in the west (Subandean belt) due to the action of compressional forces caused by the tectonic influence of the Mesozoic Andean batholith. Westward, the Pacific margin is bordered by 27 foreland and forearc basins, which alternate from north to south on an unstable or quasistable margin, fringed by a trench and slope complex where the ocean crust is subducted beneath the continental plate.

  4. Influence of South America orography on summertime precipitation in Southeastern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junquas, C.; Li, L.; Vera, C. S.; Le Treut, H.; Takahashi, K.

    2016-06-01

    Impacts of the main South American orographic structures (the Andes, the Brazilian Plateau and the Guiana shield) on the regional climate and associated global teleconnection are investigated through numerical experiments in which some of these features are suppressed. Simulations are performed with a ``two-way nesting'' system coupling interactively the regional and global versions of the LMDZ4 atmospheric general circulation model. At regional scale, the simulations confirm previous studies, showing that both the Andes and the Brazilian Plateau exert a control on the position and strength of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ), mainly through their impact on the low-level jet and the coastal branch of the subtropical anticyclones. The northern topography of South America appears to be crucial to determine the leading mode of rainfall variability in eastern South America, which manifests itself as a dipole-like pattern between Southeastern South America and the SACZ region. The suppression of South America orography also shows global-scale effects, corresponding to an adjustment of the global circulation system. Changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation are found in remote areas on the globe, being the consequences of various teleconnection mechanisms. When the Brazilian Plateau and the Andes are suppressed, there is a decrease of precipitation in the SACZ region, associated with a weakening of the large-scale ascendance. Changes are described in terms of anomalies in the Walker circulation, meridional displacements of the mid-latitude jet stream, Southern annular mode anomalies and modifications of Rossby wave train teleconnection processes.

  5. Geochemistry of Brazilian oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, C.C.

    1983-02-01

    A general survey of the main brazilian oil shale formations presenting their location, oil reserve, age and stratigraphy introduces this paper. It is followed by a comparative survey of the data on chemical composition (elementary, minerals and organic constituents/biological markers) and of thermal alteration indexes in order to define their maturity. The geochemical phenomena involved with a large diabase intrusion in the Irati formation is particularly stressed. The analytical methods of Solid Phase Extraction and Functional Group Marker developed for the analysis of bitumens and kerogens and the results obtained from the application of these methods to brazilian oil shales are discussed. The paper ends with a brief description of a comprehensive analytical bibliography on brazilian oil shales prepared to serve as a data base for these organites.

  6. Characterization of Juquitiba virus in Oligoryzomys fornesi from Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Guterres, Alexandro; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Fernandes, Jorlan; Strecht, Liana; Casado, Flavia; Gomes de Oliveira, Flavio Cesar; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; Schrago, Carlos Guerra; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba Regina

    2014-03-26

    The Juquitiba virus, an agent of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome, is one of the most widely distributed hantavirus found in South America. It has been detected in Oligoryzomys nigripes, Akodon montensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon paranaensis in Brazil and in O. nigripes, Oryzomys sp. and Oligoryzomys fornesi rodents in Argentine, Paraguay and Uruguay. Here, we report the genomic characterization of the complete S segment from the Juquitiba strain, isolated from the lung tissues of O. fornesi, the presumed rodent reservoir of Anajatuba virus in Brazilian Amazon, captured in the Cerrado Biome, Brazil.

  7. The first species of Aplastodiscus endemic to the Brazilian Cerrado (Anura, Hylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Berneck, Bianca V. M.; Giaretta, Ariovaldo A.; Brandão, Reuber A.; Cruz, Carlos A. G.; Haddad, Célio F. B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The genus Aplastodiscus includes 14 nominal species in four monophyletic groups with occurrence in the Atlantic Forest and Brazilian Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) of South America. A recent study reviewed the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the genus and suggested a third species for the Aplastodiscus perviridis Group. Herein, on the basis of morphology and advertisement call, we describe this species and test its monophyly. The new species is the only Aplastodiscus with endemic occurrence in the Cerrado Biome. In addition, its geographical distribution and conservation status are discussed. PMID:28138301

  8. The first species of Aplastodiscus endemic to the Brazilian Cerrado (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Berneck, Bianca V M; Giaretta, Ariovaldo A; Brandão, Reuber A; Cruz, Carlos A G; Haddad, Célio F B

    2017-01-01

    The genus Aplastodiscus includes 14 nominal species in four monophyletic groups with occurrence in the Atlantic Forest and Brazilian Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) of South America. A recent study reviewed the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the genus and suggested a third species for the Aplastodiscus perviridis Group. Herein, on the basis of morphology and advertisement call, we describe this species and test its monophyly. The new species is the only Aplastodiscus with endemic occurrence in the Cerrado Biome. In addition, its geographical distribution and conservation status are discussed.

  9. First records of Synoeca septentrionalis Richards, 1978 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Epiponini) in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Rodolpho S. T.; Andena, Sergio R.; Carvalho, Antonio F.; Costa, Marco A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nests of Synoeca septentrionalis were collected in two Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest localities (Itabuna and Santa Terezinha, in the state of Bahia and Alfredo Chaves in the state of Espírito Santo). Synoeca septentrionalis was previously recorded only from Central America and northwestern South America. This findingextends its geographical distribution to Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil, and represents the first record for Synoeca septentrionalis in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain forest, raising to three the number of Synoeca species known from Bahia State. PMID:22368453

  10. First records of Synoeca septentrionalis Richards, 1978 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Epiponini) in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Rodolpho S T; Andena, Sergio R; Carvalho, Antonio F; Costa, Marco A

    2011-01-01

    Nests of Synoeca septentrionalis were collected in two Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest localities (Itabuna and Santa Terezinha, in the state of Bahia and Alfredo Chaves in the state of Espírito Santo). Synoeca septentrionalis was previously recorded only from Central America and northwestern South America. This findingextends its geographical distribution to Northeast and Southeast regions of Brazil, and represents the first record for Synoeca septentrionalis in the Brazilian Atlantic Rain forest, raising to three the number of Synoeca species known from Bahia State.

  11. Description and biology of Paectes longiformis Pogue, a new species from Brazil (Lepidoptera: Euteliidae) as a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), a native weed from South America, has invaded different habitats throughout south and central Florida. In recent surveys of natural enemies conducted in Salvador, Brazil (native range), a new euteliid species in the genus Paectes ...

  12. D-loop haplotype diversity in Brazilian horse breeds

    PubMed Central

    Ianella, Patrícia; Albuquerque, Maria do Socorro Maués; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; do Egito, Andréa Alves; Almeida, Leonardo Daniel; Sereno, Fabiana T. P. S.; Carvalho, Luiz Felipe Ramos; Mariante, Arthur da Silva; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The first horses were brought to Brazil by the colonizers after 1534. Over the centuries, these animals evolved and adapted to local environmental conditions usually unsuitable for exotic breeds, thereby originating locally adapted Brazilian breeds. The present work represents the first description of maternal genetic diversity in these horse breeds based on D-loop sequences. A D-Loop HSV-I fragment of 252 bp, from 141 horses belonging to ten Brazilian breeds / genetic groups (locally adapted and specialized breeds) were analysed. Thirty-five different haplotypes belonging to 18 haplogroups were identified with 33 polymorphic sites. Haplotype diversity (varying from 0.20 to 0.96) and nucleotide diversity (varying from 0.0039 to 0.0239) was lower for locally adapted than for specialized breeds, with the same pattern observed for FST values. Haplogroups identified in Brazilian breeds are in agreement with previous findings in South American samples. The low variability observed mainly in locally adapted breeds, indicates that, to ensure conservation of these breeds, careful reproductive management is needed. Additional genetic characterization studies are required to support accurate decision-making. PMID:28863209

  13. D-loop haplotype diversity in Brazilian horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Ianella, Patrícia; Albuquerque, Maria do Socorro Maués; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Egito, Andréa Alves do; Almeida, Leonardo Daniel; Sereno, Fabiana T P S; Carvalho, Luiz Felipe Ramos; Mariante, Arthur da Silva; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2017-01-01

    The first horses were brought to Brazil by the colonizers after 1534. Over the centuries, these animals evolved and adapted to local environmental conditions usually unsuitable for exotic breeds, thereby originating locally adapted Brazilian breeds. The present work represents the first description of maternal genetic diversity in these horse breeds based on D-loop sequences. A D-Loop HSV-I fragment of 252 bp, from 141 horses belonging to ten Brazilian breeds / genetic groups (locally adapted and specialized breeds) were analysed. Thirty-five different haplotypes belonging to 18 haplogroups were identified with 33 polymorphic sites. Haplotype diversity (varying from 0.20 to 0.96) and nucleotide diversity (varying from 0.0039 to 0.0239) was lower for locally adapted than for specialized breeds, with the same pattern observed for FST values. Haplogroups identified in Brazilian breeds are in agreement with previous findings in South American samples. The low variability observed mainly in locally adapted breeds, indicates that, to ensure conservation of these breeds, careful reproductive management is needed. Additional genetic characterization studies are required to support accurate decision-making.

  14. Gramscian Thought and Brazilian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dore, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    In the history of Brazilian education, it is only since the 1980s, during the redemocratization of Brazil, that proposals for public education in a socialist perspective have been presented. The past two decades have been marked by a growing interest in Gramscian thought, mainly in the educational field, making possible the elaboration of…

  15. Sustainability in Brazilian Federal Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palma, Lisiane Celia; de Oliveira, Lessandra M.; Viacava, Keitiline R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the number of courses related to sustainability offered in bachelor degree programs of business administration in Brazilian federal universities. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory research was carried out based on a descriptive scope. The process of mapping federal universities in Brazil…

  16. [Bioethics and Brazilian health policies].

    PubMed

    Zoboli, Elma; Fortes, Paulo Antonio de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    In Brazil, bioethics has developed within specific social circumstances taking into account public health issues. In addition, this article analyses the ethical principles of the Brazilian healthcare system issued from the 1988 Federal Constitution which made healthcare a universal right for all citizens. The goal of this system is to provide universal care through an equity policy pertaining to the distribution of resources.

  17. Gramscian Thought and Brazilian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dore, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    In the history of Brazilian education, it is only since the 1980s, during the redemocratization of Brazil, that proposals for public education in a socialist perspective have been presented. The past two decades have been marked by a growing interest in Gramscian thought, mainly in the educational field, making possible the elaboration of…

  18. Sustainability in Brazilian Federal Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palma, Lisiane Celia; de Oliveira, Lessandra M.; Viacava, Keitiline R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the number of courses related to sustainability offered in bachelor degree programs of business administration in Brazilian federal universities. Design/methodology/approach: An exploratory research was carried out based on a descriptive scope. The process of mapping federal universities in Brazil…

  19. Genetic diversity among brazilian isolates of beauveria bassiana: comparisons with non-brazilian isolates and other beauveria species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Moraes, A.M.L.; Pacheco, R.S.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Bittencourt, V.R.E.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana was investigated by comparing isolates of this species to each other (49 from different geographical regions of Brazil and 4 from USA) and to other Beauveria spp. Methods and Results: The isolates were examined by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and rDNA sequencing. MLEE and AFLP revealed considerable genetic variability among B. bassiana isolates. Several isolates from South and Southeast Brazil had high similarity coefficients, providing evidence of at least one population with clonal structure. There were clear genomic differences between most Brazilian and USA B. bassiana isolates. A Mantel test using data generated by AFLP provided evidence that greater geographical distances were associated with higher genetic distances. AFLP and rDNA sequencing demonstrated notable genotypic variation between B. bassiana and other Beauveria spp. Conclusion: Geographical distance between populations apparently is an important factor influencing genotypic variability among B. bassiana populations in Brazil. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study characterized many B. bassiana isolates. The results indicate that certain Brazilian isolates are considerably different from others and possibly should be regarded as separate species from B. bassiana sensu latu. The information on genetic variation among the Brazilian isolates, therefore, will be important to comprehending the population structure of B. bassiana in Brazil. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Structural framework, stratigraphy, and evolution of Brazilian marginal basins

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, H.A.O.

    1982-06-01

    The structural framework of the Brazilian continental margin is basically composed of eight structural types: antithetic tilted step-fault blocks, synthetic untilted step-fault blocks, structural inversion axes, hinges with compensation grabens, homoclinal structures, growth faults with rollovers, diapirs, and igneous structures. The antithetic tilted and synthetic untilted step-fault blocks are considered as synchronous, complementary structural systems, separated by an inversion axis. Two evaporitic cycles (Paripueira and Ibura) were differentiated in the Sergipe-Alagoas type basin and tentatively correlated to the evaporitic section of other Brazilian marginal basis. Four phases are considered in the evolution of the Brazilian marginal basins: pre-rift, rift, transitional, and drift. During the pre-rift phase (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous), continental sediments were deposited in peripheral intracratonic basins. In the rift phase (Early Cretaceous), the breakup of the continental crust of the Gondwana continent gave rise to a central graben and rift valleys where lacustrine sediments were deposited. The transitional phase (Aptian) developed under relative tectonic stability, when evaporitic and clastic lacustrine sequences were being deposited. In the drift phase (Albian to Holocene), a regionl homoclinal structure developed, consisting of two distinct sedimentary sequences, a lower clastic-carbonate and an upper clastic. From the Albian to the Holocene Epoch, structures associated to plastic displacement of salt or shale developed in many Brazilian marginal basins. Two phases of major igneous activity occurred: one in the Early Cretaceous associated with the rift phase of the Gondwana continent, and the other in the Tertiary during the migration phase of the South American and African plates.

  1. Molecular detection of Hepatozoon spp. in domestic dogs and wild mammals in southern Pantanal, Brazil with implications in the transmission route.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques; Fernandes, Marina Pugnaghi; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Santos, Filipe Martins; Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho; Campos, João Bosco; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; de Andrade Pinto, Pedro Cordeiro Estrela; Battesti, Darci Barros; Piranda, Eliane Mattos; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2017-04-15

    Hepatozoon parasites comprise intracellular apicomplexan parasites transmitted to vertebrate animals by ingestion of arthropods definitive hosts. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Hepatozoon spp. in wild animals, domestic dogs and their respective ectoparasites, in southern Pantanal region, central-western Brazil, by molecular techniques. Between August 2013 and March 2015, 31 coatis (Nasua nasua), 78 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), seven ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 42 dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), 110 wild rodents (77 Thichomys fosteri, 25 Oecomys mamorae, and 8 Clyomys laticeps), 30 marsupials (14 Thylamys macrurus, 11 Gracilinanus agilis, 4 Monodelphis domestica and 1 Didelphis albiventris), and 1582 ticks and 80 fleas collected from the sampled animals were investigated. DNA samples were submitted to PCR assays for Hepatozoon spp. targeting 18S rRNA gene. Purified amplicons were directly sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. A high prevalence of Hepatozoon among carnivores (C. thous [91.02%], dogs [45.23%], N. nasua [41.9%] and L. pardalis [71.4%]) was found. However, ticks and fleas were negative to Hepatozoon PCR assays. By phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA sequences, Hepatozoon sequences amplified from crab-eating foxes, dogs, coatis and ocelots clustered with sequences of H. canis, H. americanum and H. felis. The closely related positioning of Hepatozoon sequences amplified from wild rodents and T. macrurus marsupial to Hepatozoon from reptiles and amphibians suggest a possible transmission of those Hepatozoon species between hosts by ectoparasites or by predation. Hepatozoon haplotypes found circulating in wild rodents seem to present a higher degree of polymorphism when compared to those found in other groups of animals. Although rodents seem not to participate as source of Hepatozoon infection to wild carnivores and domestic dogs, they may play an important role in the transmission of Hepatozoon to reptiles

  2. An Original Processing Method of Satellite Altimetry for Estimating Water Levels and Volume Fluctuations in a Series of Small Lakes of the Pantanal Wetland Complex in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Costa, Paulo; Oliveira Pereira, Eric; Maillard, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Satellite altimetry is becoming a major tool for measuring water levels in rivers and lakes offering accuracies compatible with many hydrological applications, especially in uninhabited regions of difficult access. The Pantanal is considered the largest tropical wetland in the world and the sparsity of in situ gauging station make remote methods of water level measurements an attractive alternative. This article describes how satellites altimetry data from Envisat and Saral was used to determine water level in two small lakes in the Pantanal. By combining the water level with the water surface area extracted from satellite imagery, water volume fluctuations were also estimated for a few periods. The available algorithms (retrackers) that compute a range solution from the raw waveforms do not always produce reliable measurements in small lakes. This is because the return signal gets often "contaminated" by the surrounding land. To try to solve this, we created a "lake" retracker that rejects waveforms that cannot be attributed to "calm water" and convert them to altitude. Elevation data are stored in a database along with the water surface area to compute the volume fluctuations. Satellite water level time series were also produced and compared with the only nearby in situ gauging station. Although the "lake" retracker worked well with calm water, the presence of waves and other factors was such that the standard "ice1" retracker performed better on the overall. We estimate our water level accuracy to be around 75 cm. Although the return time of both satellites is only 35 days, the next few years promise to bring new altimetry satellite missions that will significantly increase this frequency.

  3. Comparative chromosome mapping of U2 snRNA and 5S rRNA genes in Gymnotus species (Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae): evolutionary dynamics and sex chromosome linkage in G . pantanal.

    PubMed

    Utsunomia, Ricardo; Scacchetti, Priscilla C; Pansonato-Alves, José C; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    A comparative mapping of U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes was performed in 6 Gymnotus species. All species analyzed presented the U2 snDNA organized in conspicuous blocks and not co-located with rRNA genes. In addition, 5 species showed the U2 snDNA located in a single pair of chromosomes, which seems to be a conserved trait in this genus. Conversely, G. pantanal was the only species displaying several terminal signals in different chromosome pairs, including the X1 sex chromosome but not the Y chromosome. This is the first report of U2 snRNA genes in sex chromosomes of fishes. The absence of sites in the Y chromosome of G. pantanal indicates a possible loss of terminal segments of the chromosomes involved in the Y formation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Natural infection of gastrointestinal nematodes in long-nosed armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 from Pantanal wetlands, Aquidauana sub-region, Mato Grosso do Sul State, with the description of Hadrostrongylus speciosum n. gen. et n. sp. (Molineidae: Anoplostrongylinae).

    PubMed

    Lux Hoppe, Estevam G; do Nascimento, Adjair Antonio

    2007-03-15

    This study evaluated the gastrointestinal helminth fauna of long-nosed armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus, from the Pantanal wetlands, Aquidauana sub-region, Aquidauana County, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Thirteen species of nematodes, comprising seven genera and four families, were recovered from their gastrointestinal tracts. The following descriptors of infection were determined: prevalence, variation of intensity, average intensity and abundance. Hadrostrongylus speciosum n. gen. et n. sp. is first described here.

  5. Overweight and obesity in Brazilian schoolchildren aged 10 to 15 years: data from a Brazilian sports project.

    PubMed

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Petroski, Edio Luiz; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Gaya, Adroaldo César Araujo

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Brazilian schoolchildren according to gender, age and geographic region. A descriptive association study was conducted on 36,976 schoolchildren (20,914 boys and 16,062 girls aged 10 to 15 years) between 2004 and 2005 using secondary data originating from a school-based cross-sectional epidemiological survey. The cut-off body mass index proposed by the International Obesity Task Force was used as diagnostic criterion for overweight and obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 11.9% and 2.6%, respectively, with a higher proportion of overweight among girls and of obesity among boys. An association was observed between overweight, age and region, with the demonstration of higher odds ratios for overweight among children aged 10 to 13 years and children from the South, Center-West and Southeast regions. Obesity was significantly associated with gender, age and region, indicating higher odds ratios among boys, children aged 10 to 13 years and children from the South and Southeast regions. Although lower than that observed in most developed countries, the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Brazilian schoolchildren is a matter of concern. In this respect, health policies and strategies should take into account gender and age of the individuals and geographic region of the country.

  6. [Brazilian migration to North America].

    PubMed

    Goza, F

    1992-01-01

    "This article is a comparative study of Brazilian immigration to Canada and the United States. Analyses of recently collected data, in Toronto, Ontario, as well as in a medium sized U.S. community permit this study to examine the adaptation and adjustment experiences of a new group of immigrants to North America. This article begins with a discussion of the origins of this recent immigrant group, and its rapid expansion. Next, this study focuses on the labor force activities of Brazilian immigrants and compares and contrasts their experiences in the U.S. and Canada. A final section examines social adaptation in North America by exploring linguistic and cultural dimensions." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  7. Brazilian immigration to North America.

    PubMed

    Goza, F

    1994-01-01

    "This article is a comparative study of Brazilian immigration to Canada and the United States. Analysis of recently collected data in Toronto, Ontario and in a medium-size U.S. community facilitated the examination of the adaptation and adjustment experiences of a new group of immigrants to North America. This article begins with a discussion of the origins of this recent immigrant group and its rapid expansion. Next, it focuses on the labor force activities of Brazilian immigrants and compares and contrasts their experiences in the United States and Canada. A final section examines social adaptation in North America by exploring linguistic and cultural dimensions. This article closes with a section on the future aspirations of these immigrants."

  8. Natural radioactivity in Brazilian groundwater.

    PubMed

    Godoy, José Marcus; Godoy, Maria Luiza

    2006-01-01

    More than 220 groundwater samples were analyzed for 228Ra, 226Ra, 222Rn, 210Pb, U(nat), Th(nat), pH, conductivity, fluoride and some additional elements determined by ICP-MS. Since samples from several Brazilian states were taken, involving areas with quite different geologies, no general trend was observed relating the chemical composition and the natural radionuclide content. On the other hand, 210Pb strongly depends on the water content of its progenitor, 222Rn. The values obtained during the present work were compared with those reported by Hainberger et al. [Hainberger, P.L., de Oliveira Paiva, I.R., Salles Andrade, H.A., Zundel, G., Cullen, T.L., 1974. Radioactivity in Brazilian mineral waters. Radiation Data and Reports, 483-488.], when more than 270 groundwater samples were analyzed, mainly, for 226Ra. Based on the results of both works, it was possible to build a database including the results of both works, generating a set with the radium content of circa 350 groundwater sources. It was demonstrated that 228Ra, 226Ra, 222Rn, 210Pb and U(nat) content in Brazilian groundwater follows a lognormal distribution and the obtained geometric mean were 0.045, 0.014, 57.7, 0.040 BqL(-1) and 1.2 microgL(-1), respectively.

  9. Floristic and structural patterns in South Brazilian coastal grasslands.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Luciana S; Müller, Sandra C; Overbeck, Gerhard E

    2015-01-01

    The natural vegetation of Southern Brazil's coastal region includes grasslands formations that are poorly considered in conservation policy, due to the lack of knowledge about these systems. This study reports results from a regional-scale survey of coastal grasslands vegetation along a 536 km gradient on southern Brazil. We sampled 16 sites along the coastal plain with 15 plots (1 m²) per site. All sites were grazed by cattle. We estimated plant species cover, vegetation height, percentage of bare soil, litter and manure, and classified species according to their growth forms. We found 221 species, 14 of them exotic and two threatened. The prostate grasses: Axonopus aff.affinis, Paspalum notatum and P. pumilumwere among the most important species. Prostrate graminoids species represented the most important vegetation cover, followed by cespitose grasses. Vegetation height, bare soil, litter and manure were similar among all areas, highlighting the homogeneity of sampling sites due to similar management. In comparison to other grasslands formations in Southern Brazil, the coastal grasslands presented rather low species richness. The presence of high values for bare soil at all sampling sites indicates the need to discuss management practices in the region, especially with regard to the intensity of livestock grazing.

  10. Sandstream on the northeast Brazilian shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianna, Marcio L.; Solewicz, Reynaldo; Cabral, Alexandre P.; Testa, Viviane

    1991-06-01

    A preliminary characterization of seabed morphology and mapping of algal patches within a sandstream on the northeast Brazilian continental shelf off Cape Calcanhar (where the South American coast turns sharply to the west) is presented. The study area (30 km × 30 km) is swept by unidirectional, wind-driven, tidally rectified currents, under the influence of the North Brazil Current. The study was made by use of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data of the seafloor down to 40 m depth, digital bathymetric data from smooth sheets furnished by the Brazilian Navy, echo-sounder profiling and underwater surveying by SCUBA diving. A mesoscale shore-parallel natural zonation of the sandstream was observable on the TM-images: (a) an inner zone dominated by sediment resuspension caused by wave-driven turbulence and tidal currents; (b) an intermediate zone dominated by sand ribbons and other longitudinal bedforms; (c) an outer zone dominated by large-scale sand waves (underwater sand dunes) limited offshore by shore-parallel sandbanks. Image-assisted in situ work, carried out on the latter zone, gave the following results: (1) Morphology and sand composition—the asymmetric sand waves are made of medium quartz sand, with almost straight crests of lengths up to 4 km, heights between 3 and 7 m, and avalanche lee slopes of 30°; on the stoss sides we recorded the presence of ripples and absence of megaripples and benthic ecosystems; on interdune areas, benthic ecosystem patches dominated by foliaceous and calcareous algae were found.(2) Sediment transport—active bedload transport was observable only during the winter season, when the strongest wind-forced currents induce flow separation at the crests and avalanche streams on the lee slope. Within the interdune areas, under the influence of the lee vortices, benthic community data confirms no appreciable abrasion due to sand transport.(3) Biology—species composition and biomass estimates from the algal patches in the first

  11. New records of Primnoidae (Cnidaria: Octocorallia) in Brazilian deep waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantes, Renata C. M.; Loiola, Livia L.

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of octocorals occurring in Brazilian deep waters is still lacking, with only a few studies conducted so far, most of which focused on large-scale marine habitats characterization. Primnoidae are common and characteristic of seamounts and deepwater coral banks, often providing habitat for other marine species. Although primnoids occur in all ocean basins, only Primnoella and Plumarella species were recorded along the Brazilian coast before this study. Primnoid specimens were obtained through dredging and remotely operated vehicles (ROV) sampling, collected by research projects conducted off the Brazilian coast, between 15 and 34°S. Taxonomic assessment resulted in 5 new records of Primnoidae genera in Brazil: Calyptrophora, Candidella, Dasystenella, Narella and Thouarella. The occurrences of Narella-off Salvador and Vitória, and in Campos Basin (935-1700 m), and Calyptrophora-in Campos Basin (1059-1152 m), are herein reported for the first time in the South Atlantic. Calyptrophora microdentata was previously known in Lesser Antilles, New England and Corner Rise Seamounts, between 686 and 2310 m. Candidella imbricata geographical distribution includes Western and Eastern Atlantic (514-2063 m and 815-2139 m, respectively), being registered herein in Campos Basin, between 1059 and 1605 m. Dasystenella acanthina collected off Rio Grande do Sul state (810 m) and occurs also off Argentina and Southern Ocean, between 150 and 5087 m. Plumarella diadema, which type locality is off São Sebastião, Brazil, has its geographical range extended northwards, occurring in Campos Basin (650 m). Thouarella koellikeri previously known for Patagonia and Antartic Peninsula, is registered for the off Brazil for the first time, in Campos Basin and off São Sebastião (609-659 m). There is a lot of work yet to be done in terms of taxonomic knowledge of Brazilian deep-sea octocorals. Research projects focusing on the investigations, including ROV sampling, of other

  12. ERICA: prevalences of hypertension and obesity in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Szklo, Moyses; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; Schaan, Beatriz; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of arterial hypertension and obesity and the population attributable fraction of hypertension that is due to obesity in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from participants in the Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which was the first national school-based, cross-section study performed in Brazil were evaluated. The sample was divided into 32 geographical strata and clusters from 32 schools and classes, with regional and national representation. Obesity was classified using the body mass index according to age and sex. Arterial hypertension was defined when the average systolic or diastolic blood pressure was greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the reference curve. Prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of arterial hypertension and obesity, both on a national basis and in the macro-regions of Brazil, were estimated by sex and age group, as were the fractions of hypertension attributable to obesity in the population. RESULTS We evaluated 73,399 students, 55.4% female, with an average age of 14.7 years (SD = 1.6). The prevalence of hypertension was 9.6% (95%CI 9.0-10.3); with the lowest being in the North, 8.4% (95%CI 7.7-9.2) and Northeast regions, 8.4% (95%CI 7.6-9.2), and the highest being in the South, 12.5% (95%CI 11.0-14.2). The prevalence of obesity was 8.4% (95%CI 7.9-8.9), which was lower in the North region and higher in the South region. The prevalences of arterial hypertension and obesity were higher in males. Obese adolescents presented a higher prevalence of hypertension, 28.4% (95%CI 25.5-31.2), than overweight adolescents, 15.4% (95%CI 17.0-13.8), or eutrophic adolescents, 6.3% (95%CI 5.6-7.0). The fraction of hypertension attributable to obesity was 17.8%. CONCLUSIONS ERICA was the first nationally representative Brazilian study providing prevalence estimates of hypertension in adolescents. Regional and sex differences were observed. The study indicates

  13. ERICA: prevalences of hypertension and obesity in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Szklo, Moyses; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; Schaan, Beatriz; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Moraes, Ana Julia Pantoja; Borges, Ana Luíza; de Oliveira, Ana Mayra Andrade; Tavares, Bruno Mendes; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; Giannini, Denise Tavares; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; Santos, Eduardo Lima; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Azevedo, George Dantas; Brunken, Gisela Soares; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Faria Neto, José Rocha; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; de Carvalho, Kenia Mara B; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Monteiro, Maria Inês; Santos, Marize M; Jardim, Paulo César B Veiga; Ferreira, Pedro Antônio Muniz; Montenegro, Renan Magalhães; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Vianna, Rodrigo Pinheiro; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of arterial hypertension and obesity and the population attributable fraction of hypertension that is due to obesity in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from participants in the Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which was the first national school-based, cross-section study performed in Brazil were evaluated. The sample was divided into 32 geographical strata and clusters from 32 schools and classes, with regional and national representation. Obesity was classified using the body mass index according to age and sex. Arterial hypertension was defined when the average systolic or diastolic blood pressure was greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the reference curve. Prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of arterial hypertension and obesity, both on a national basis and in the macro-regions of Brazil, were estimated by sex and age group, as were the fractions of hypertension attributable to obesity in the population. RESULTS We evaluated 73,399 students, 55.4% female, with an average age of 14.7 years (SD = 1.6). The prevalence of hypertension was 9.6% (95%CI 9.0-10.3); with the lowest being in the North, 8.4% (95%CI 7.7-9.2) and Northeast regions, 8.4% (95%CI 7.6-9.2), and the highest being in the South, 12.5% (95%CI 11.0-14.2). The prevalence of obesity was 8.4% (95%CI 7.9-8.9), which was lower in the North region and higher in the South region. The prevalences of arterial hypertension and obesity were higher in males. Obese adolescents presented a higher prevalence of hypertension, 28.4% (95%CI 25.5-31.2), than overweight adolescents, 15.4% (95%CI 17.0-13.8), or eutrophic adolescents, 6.3% (95%CI 5.6-7.0). The fraction of hypertension attributable to obesity was 17.8%. CONCLUSIONS ERICA was the first nationally representative Brazilian study providing prevalence estimates of hypertension in adolescents. Regional and sex differences were observed. The study indicates that the

  14. State of South Carolina Cooperative Aquatic Plant Control Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    waters of South Carolina in the in- terest of navigation, flood control, agriculture, fish and wildlife, public health , and other related purposes...navigation, flood control, agriculture, fish and wildlife, public health , and other related purposes. Target species include alligator weed, Brazilian...of aquatic plants would * improve drainage and navigation, reduce potential public health problems by. * reducing mosquito breeding areas, and improve

  15. South Pole

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-02

    As spring progresses at the south pole, the surface reacts to the change of season. This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows a region of the south pole that is monitored throughout spring, summer, and fall at the south pole.

  16. The Security of the South Atlantic: Is It a Case for ’SATO’--South Atlantic Treaty Organization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-10

    and 14th. Also, the Fernando de Noronha Island had its defenses reinforced and its role as an outpost off the Brazilian coast was emphasized. The air...SATO -- THE NAVAL POWER IN THE SOUTH ATLANTIC I.* Brazil .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .125 II. Argentina...153 ... ...... CRAPTER 6. THE ROAD TO SATO -- THE POLITICAL WILL I. Brazil ... . . . . . . ......... . . . . . . . . . . . 165 II

  17. Fiocruz as an actor in Brazilian foreign relations in the context of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries: an untold story.

    PubMed

    Roa, Alejandra Carrillo; Baptista e Silva, Felipe Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian foreign policy paradigms and changes in the global scenario since the Cold War created conditions for stronger ties between Brazil and Portuguese-speaking African countries. Recently, Brazil took the lead in regional integration processes and in South-South cooperation initiatives. These strategies and Fiocruz's acknowledged technical expertise resulted in its direct involvement in Brazilian foreign public health policy in the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries. Fiocruz developed cooperation projects in various areas, sharing its know-how and best practices in the most critical fields in partner countries, consolidating "public health framework cooperation" and contributing to diversifying Brazil's partners and promoting Brazil as a global actor.

  18. The new Brazilian national forest inventory

    Treesearch

    Joberto V. de Freitas; Yeda M. M. de Oliveira; Doadi A. Brena; Guilherme L.A. Gomide; Jose Arimatea Silva; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The new Brazilian national forest inventory (NFI) is being planned to be carried out through five components: (1) general coordination, led by the Brazilian Forest Service; (2) vegetation mapping, which will serve as the basis for sample plot location; (3) field data collection; (4) landscape data collection of 10 x 10-km sample plots, based on high-resolution...

  19. Sociocultural Influences on Brazilian Children's Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Reports on insights about sociocultural influences on Brazilian children's drawings, using visual anthropology to examine children's drawings that depicted what they like to do. Discusses visual anthropology, provides information on Brazilian educational influences, and presents the context and findings of the study. (CMK)

  20. Sociocultural Influences on Brazilian Children's Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Reports on insights about sociocultural influences on Brazilian children's drawings, using visual anthropology to examine children's drawings that depicted what they like to do. Discusses visual anthropology, provides information on Brazilian educational influences, and presents the context and findings of the study. (CMK)

  1. Working conditions of Brazilian immigrants in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Eduardo Siqueira, C; Jansen, Tiago

    2012-06-01

    Brazilian immigration to Massachusetts and other states in the US grew significantly in the last two decades. There is a lack of data about the working conditions and health and safety hazards faced by Brazilian immigrant workers. We surveyed over 500 workers in Eastern Massachusetts through a community-based participatory research project to explore occupational and immigration factors that may represent a risk to the health of Brazilian immigrant workers, who mostly work in the construction, housecleaning, and food services segments of the state labor force. Our pilot study suggests that Brazilian immigrant workers are exposed to chemical, ergonomic, physical, and psychosocial job hazards and have experienced a variety of health symptoms that may be associated with these work environment exposures. Since most Brazilian workers have not received proper training to recognize the hazards, there is an urgent need for the implementation of culturally adequate training programs and enforcement of safety and health regulations to prevent occupational injuries and fatalities.

  2. The first Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Anjos Candeiro, Carlos Roberto; da Silva Marinho, Thiago

    2015-08-01

    The 1st Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium gathered paleontologists, geologists, and paleoartists in the city of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from April 21st to 24th, 2013. The Dinosaur Symposium in the Pontal Campus of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil provided an opportunity to share many new results of dinosaur research being conducted around the world. The symposium coincided with a new dawn of scientific advances in dinosaur paleontology further expanding its importance, interest and credibility worldwide.

  3. Proalcohol: the Brazilian alcohol program

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    Examines the Brazilian National Alcohol Plan - Proalcohol - which has as its immediate aim, 20% replacement of all gasoline with alcohol. Future plans call for replacement of virtually all gasoline by alcohol and a significant fraction of diesel fuels by 1986. Issues which are looked at separately are: agronomic, industrial (alcohol production), utilization, institutional, social, environmental, and scientific. Economic issues pervade all of these and are considered in the conclusions. There is a brief discussion of methanol production and the lessons for the United States.

  4. The increase of diabetes mortality burden among Brazilian adults.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Passos, Valeria Maria Azeredo; Almeida, Suzanne Kelly Ferreira; Assis, Tiago Duarte

    2007-10-01

    To estimate diabetes-related deaths among Brazilian adults between 1999 and 2003 and to investigate demographic factors associated with reporting diabetes as an associated cause of death. All deaths with diabetes as the underlying or associated cause were identified using the Brazilian Mortality Data System. Analysis was performed by sex, age, year, state of residence, and place of death. Mortality rates were age standardized by the 2000 Brazilian population. A total of 237 946 deaths (8.8%) were related to diabetes; in 4.2% of deaths it was the underlying cause and in 4.6% it was an associated cause. Between 1999 and 2003, age-standardized mortality rates for diabetes as the underlying cause increased 14% among males and 9% among females, while mortality with diabetes as an associated cause increased 22% and 28%, respectively. Diabetes appeared more often as an associated cause in death certificates among older individuals and in those residing in São Paulo State; it appeared less often as an associated cause among women, brown- and black-skinned populations, and in deaths occurring outside hospitals. Cardiovascular diseases accounted for 54.5% of the underlying causes of death when diabetes was an associated cause. Diabetes was related to almost 9% of the deaths in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. Mortality from diabetes is increasing, especially deaths with diabetes as an associated cause. The probability of having diabetes as the underlying cause of death is greater among women and nonwhite individuals. Our results reinforce the importance of using multiple causes of death to monitor diabetes, because half the individuals with the disease will die of another cause, especially cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Effects of a diversion hydropower facility on the hydrological regime of the Correntes River, a tributary to the Pantanal floodplain, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantin-Cruz, Ibraim; Pedrollo, Olavo; Girard, Pierre; Zeilhofer, Peter; Hamilton, Stephen K.

    2015-12-01

    Facilities that produce hydroelectricity by diversion of part of the river's flow, which are often considered to have lower environmental impact than conventional hydropower dams, are being built in large numbers on river systems throughout the world, yet their cumulative impacts are not well understood. This study evaluated the hydrological effects of operation of a diversion hydropower facility on the Correntes River in Brazil (mean discharge 73 m3 s-1), which is potentially important because of the ecological implications for the floodplains of the Pantanal into which it flows. Many similar dams are built or proposed on rivers feeding the Pantanal. The 210-MW facility known as Ponte de Pedra diverts part of the river flow into a diversion channel in a nearly "run-of-river" design. The natural (reconstructed) and regulated (observed) flow regimes were characterized using Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) and Flow Duration Curves (FDC). Seven parameters of IHA were significantly altered by the reservoir formation (magnitude of lowest monthly flow, minimum flows of 1, 3 and 7 days, maximum flow of 90 days and counts of high and low pulses). Among these, Principal Components Analysis identified the maximum flow of 90 days and the count of high flow pulses as integrators of hydrological alterations. The FDC showed that the reservoir also changed the seasonal regime of the flows, with greater changes in the lowest flow season. The reduction of river-floodplain connectivity and loss of associated ecosystem services are the major downstream ecological implications of this altered flow regime. To maintain the seasonal flooding regime while meeting the requirements for hydroelectric production, proposed limits for flow regime alterations are up to ±18% in low flow, ±24% in the rising limb and ±22% in high flow and the falling limb, relative to the natural flow. Operational changes to maintain flows with these limits could easily be implemented because the

  6. Distribution of CYP2D6 Alleles and Phenotypes in the Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Sortica, Vinicius A.; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; de Moraes, Maria Elizabete; Pena, Sergio D. J.; dos Santos, Ândrea K. Ribeiro; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Hutz, Mara H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The CYP2D6 enzyme is one of the most important members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. This enzyme metabolizes approximately 25% of currently prescribed medications. The CYP2D6 gene presents a high allele heterogeneity that determines great inter-individual variation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of CYP2D6 alleles, genotypes and predicted phenotypes in Brazilians. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms and CYP2D6 duplications/multiplications were genotyped by TaqMan assays in 1020 individuals from North, Northeast, South, and Southeast Brazil. Eighteen CYP2D6 alleles were identified in the Brazilian population. The CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*2 alleles were the most frequent and widely distributed in different geographical regions of Brazil. The highest number of CYPD6 alleles observed was six and the frequency of individuals with more than two copies ranged from 6.3% (in Southern Brazil) to 10.2% (Northern Brazil). The analysis of molecular variance showed that CYP2D6 is homogeneously distributed across different Brazilian regions and most of the differences can be attributed to inter-individual differences. The most frequent predicted metabolic status was EM (83.5%). Overall 2.5% and 3.7% of Brazilians were PMs and UMs respectively. Genomic ancestry proportions differ only in the prevalence of intermediate metabolizers. The IM predicted phenotype is associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry and a lower proportion of European ancestry in Brazilians. PM and UM classes did not vary among regions and/or ancestry proportions therefore unique CYP2D6 testing guidelines for Brazilians are possible and could potentially avoid ineffective or adverse events outcomes due to drug prescriptions. PMID:25329392

  7. Distribution of CYP2D6 alleles and phenotypes in the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Deise C; Genro, Júlia P; Sortica, Vinicius A; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; de Moraes, Maria Elizabete; Pena, Sergio D J; dos Santos, Andrea K Ribeiro; Romano-Silva, Marco A; Hutz, Mara H

    2014-01-01

    The CYP2D6 enzyme is one of the most important members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. This enzyme metabolizes approximately 25% of currently prescribed medications. The CYP2D6 gene presents a high allele heterogeneity that determines great inter-individual variation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of CYP2D6 alleles, genotypes and predicted phenotypes in Brazilians. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms and CYP2D6 duplications/multiplications were genotyped by TaqMan assays in 1020 individuals from North, Northeast, South, and Southeast Brazil. Eighteen CYP2D6 alleles were identified in the Brazilian population. The CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*2 alleles were the most frequent and widely distributed in different geographical regions of Brazil. The highest number of CYPD6 alleles observed was six and the frequency of individuals with more than two copies ranged from 6.3% (in Southern Brazil) to 10.2% (Northern Brazil). The analysis of molecular variance showed that CYP2D6 is homogeneously distributed across different Brazilian regions and most of the differences can be attributed to inter-individual differences. The most frequent predicted metabolic status was EM (83.5%). Overall 2.5% and 3.7% of Brazilians were PMs and UMs respectively. Genomic ancestry proportions differ only in the prevalence of intermediate metabolizers. The IM predicted phenotype is associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry and a lower proportion of European ancestry in Brazilians. PM and UM classes did not vary among regions and/or ancestry proportions therefore unique CYP2D6 testing guidelines for Brazilians are possible and could potentially avoid ineffective or adverse events outcomes due to drug prescriptions.

  8. Anaglyph, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.

    Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.

    East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.

    North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.

    South of the Amazon, the Brazilian

  9. Anaglyph, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.

    Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.

    East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.

    North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.

    South of the Amazon, the Brazilian

  10. Spiders associated with Psychotria carthagenensis Jacquin. (Rubiaceae): vegetative branches versus inflorescences, and the influence of Crematogaster sp. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae), in South-Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Faria, R R; Lima, T N

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze: i) the spider community in vegetative and reproductive branches of Psychotria carthagenensis concerning relative abundance, guild composition and body size distribution; ii) ant abundance in different types of branches and iii) the spider behavior when experimentally put in contact with inflorescences covered with ants. There was no difference between vegetative and reproductive branches in relation to spider abundance, composition of guilds and body size distribution of spiders. However, there was a significant difference in ant abundance. In the behavioral experiment, 90% of the spiders were expelled from inflorescences by ants; in control treatment, 100% remained in the inflorescences. The ant density in different parts of the plant may explain the spider distribution.

  11. Political Liberalization, Black Consciousness, and Recent Afro-Brazilian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, James H.

    1986-01-01

    Accounts for the surge in Afro-Brazilian literacy production of the late 1970s and early 1980s from the perspective of Brazil's changing political life and a growth of racial consciousness. Presents a broad overview of recent Brazilian political and literary history. Focuses on racial politics and Afro-Brazilians in the Brazilian literary market.…

  12. Political Liberalization, Black Consciousness, and Recent Afro-Brazilian Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, James H.

    1986-01-01

    Accounts for the surge in Afro-Brazilian literacy production of the late 1970s and early 1980s from the perspective of Brazil's changing political life and a growth of racial consciousness. Presents a broad overview of recent Brazilian political and literary history. Focuses on racial politics and Afro-Brazilians in the Brazilian literary market.…

  13. Hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus (Labridae) confirmed in the south-western Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, C L S; Santander-Neto, J; Costa, T L A

    2016-09-01

    Based on material deposited in collections, photographic records and other reports from fishermen and divers, the occurrence of the hogfish Lachnolaimus maximus (Labridae) is confirmed in the south-western Atlantic Ocean, near the Brazilian coast as far south as southern Brazil. The recognized range of this species should therefore be extended c. 3000 km further south. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Publication in a Brazilian journal by Brazilian scientists whose papers have international impact.

    PubMed

    Meneghini, R

    2010-09-01

    Nine Brazilian scientists with an outstanding profile of international publications were invited to publish an original article in the same issue of a Brazilian Journal (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências). The objective was to measure the impact of the papers on the number of citations to the articles, the assumption being that these authors would carry their international prestige to the Brazilian periodical. In a 2-year period there was a larger number of citations of these articles compared to others published in the same journal. Nevertheless, the number of citations in Brazilian journals did not equal the number of citations obtained by the other papers by the same authors in their international publications within the same 2-year period. The reasons for this difference in the number of citations could be either that less significant invited articles were submitted or that it was due to the intrinsic lack of visibility of the Brazilian journals, but this could not be fully determined with the present data. Also relevant was a comparison between the citations of Brazilian journals and the publication in Brazilian journals by these selected authors. A clear imbalance due to a remarkable under-citation of Brazilian authors by authors publishing in Brazilian journals raises the possibility that psychological factors may affect the decision of citing Brazilian journals.

  15. [Nutritional status of elderly Brazilians: a multilevel approach].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ingrid Freitas da Silva; Spyrides, Maria Helena Constantino; Andrade, Lára de Melo Barbosa

    2016-06-03

    The objectives of this study were to diagnose the nutritional status of the elderly Brazilian population and to identify associated factors. The study used data from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey (2008/2009) for 20,114 elderly, whose nutritional status was assessed by body mass index (BMI). Associated factors were tested with the Pearson chi-square test and multilevel linear models. The hierarchical analysis showed a significant effect of state of Brazil on BMI variance (p-value = 0.001). The individual level showed a negative association (p-value < 0.001) with Asian-descendant race, male gender, living alone, and older age and a positive association with per capita income. Underweight was more prevalent among elderly in rural areas (26.3%) and in the Northeast (23.7%) and Central regions (20.9%), and obesity was more prevalent in the South (45.1%) and Southeast (38.3%) and in cities (39%). The study suggests the importance of further in-depth research on nutritional status of elderly based on contextual variables.

  16. Clinical investigations for SUS, the Brazilian public health system.

    PubMed

    Paula, Ana Patrícia de; Giozza, Silvana Pereira; Pereira, Michelle Zanon; Boaventura, Patrícia Souza; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Sachetti, Camile Giaretta; Tamayo, César Omar Carranza; Kowalski, Clarissa Campos Guaragna; Elias, Flavia Tavares Silva; Serruya, Suzanne Jacob; Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2012-01-01

    Scientific and technological development is crucial for advancing the Brazilian health system and for promoting quality of life. The way in which the Brazilian Ministry of Health has supported clinical research to provide autonomy, self-sufficiency, competitiveness and innovation for the healthcare industrial production complex, in accordance with the National Policy on Science, Technology and Innovation in Healthcare, was analyzed. Descriptive investigation, based on secondary data, conducted at the Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Health. The Ministry of Health's research management database, PesquisaSaúde, was analyzed from 2002 to 2009, using the key word "clinical research" in the fields "primary sub-agenda" or "secondary sub-agenda". The 368 projects retrieved were sorted into six categories: basic biomedical research, preclinical studies, expanded clinical research, clinical trials, infrastructure support and health technology assessment. From a structured review on "clinical research funding", results from selected countries are presented and discussed. The amount invested was R$ 140 million. The largest number of projects supported "basic biomedical research", while the highest amounts invested were in "clinical trials" and "infrastructure support". The southeastern region had the greatest proportion of projects and financial resources. In some respects, Brazil is ahead of other BRICS countries (Russia, India, China and South Africa), especially with regard to establishing a National Clinical Research Network. The Ministry of Health ensured investments to encourage clinical research in Brazil and contributed towards promoting cohesion between investigators, health policies and the healthcare industrial production complex.

  17. Brazilian physicists take centre stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Susan

    2014-06-01

    With the FIFA World Cup taking place in Brazil this month, Susan Curtis travels to South America's richest nation to find out how its physicists are exploiting recent big increases in science funding.

  18. Karyological studies in Brazilian species of Lippia L. (Verbenaceae).

    PubMed

    Sousa, Saulo M; Torres, Giovana A; Viccini, Lyderson F

    2012-12-01

    The genus Lippia (Verbenaceae) comprise around 160 species spread out mainly in South and Central Americas with few African species, some of them with potential medicinal use. Brazil is one the most important centers of diversity with approximately 75% of the species described so far. Innumerous species are endemic and poorly studied especially at a cytological level. Here, chromosomal length, karyomorphology and chromosome asymmetry of twelve Brazilian species of Lippia were evaluated [L. alba (Miller) N.E.Brown, L. diamantinensis Glaz., L. florida Cham., L. hermanioides Cham., L. lacunosa Mart. & Schauer, L. lupulina Cham., L. pohliana Schauer, L. pseudothea (St. Hil) Schauer, L. rosella Moldenke, L. rotundifolia Cham., L. rubella Moldenke and L. sidoides Cham.]. The analysis suggested that the genus has a variable chromosome number (from 2n = 20 to 2n = 56) originated by dysploidy and polyploidy. This is the first description of chromosome morphology for 11 of the 12 Lippia species studied.

  19. Dental anthropology of a Brazilian sample: Frequency of nonmetric traits.

    PubMed

    Tinoco, Rachel Lima Ribeiro; Lima, Laíse Nascimento Correia; Delwing, Fábio; Francesquini, Luiz; Daruge, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Dental elements are valuable tools in a study of ancient populations and species, and key-features for human identification; among the dental anthropology field, nonmetric traits, standardized by ASUDAS, are closely related to ancestry. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of six nonmetric traits in a sample from Southeast Brazil, composed by 130 dental casts from individuals aged between 18 and 30, without foreign parents or grandparents. A single examiner observed the presence or absence of shoveling, Carabelli's cusp, fifth cusp, 3-cusped UM2, sixth cusp, and 4-cusped LM2. The frequencies obtained were different from the ones shown by other researches to Amerindian and South American samples, and related to European and sub-Saharan frequencies, showing the influence of this groups in the current Brazilian population. Sexual dimorphism was found in the frequencies of Carabelli's cusp, 3-cusped UM2, and sixth cusp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tide-topography interaction along the eastern Brazilian shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, A. F.; Belém, A. L.; Castro, Belmiro M.; Geremias, R.

    2005-08-01

    In the Tropics, continental shelves governed by western boundary currents are considered to be among the least productive ocean margins in the world, unless eddy-induced shelf-edge upwelling becomes significant. The eastern Brazilian shelf in the Southwest Atlantic is one of these, and since the slight nutrient input from continental sources is extremely oligotrophic. It is characterized by complex bathymetry with the presence of shallow banks and seamounts. In this work, a full three-dimensional nonlinear primitive equation ocean model is used to demonstrate that the interaction of tidal currents and the bottom topography of the east Brazil continental shelf is capable of producing local upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water, bringing nutrients up from deep waters to the surface layer. Such upper layer enrichment is found to be of significance in increasing local primary productivity.

  1. Evolutionary history of trypanosomes from South American caiman (Caiman yacare) and African crocodiles inferred by phylogenetic analyses using SSU rDNA and gGAPDH genes.

    PubMed

    Viola, L B; Almeida, R S; Ferreira, R C; Campaner, M; Takata, C S A; Rodrigues, A C; Paiva, F; Camargo, E P; Teixeira, M M G

    2009-01-01

    In this study, using a combined data set of SSU rDNA and gGAPDH gene sequences, we provide phylogenetic evidence that supports clustering of crocodilian trypanosomes from the Brazilian Caiman yacare (Alligatoridae) and Trypanosoma grayi, a species that circulates between African crocodiles (Crocodilydae) and tsetse flies. In a survey of trypanosomes in Caiman yacare from the Brazilian Pantanal, the prevalence of trypanosome infection was 35% as determined by microhaematocrit and haemoculture, and 9 cultures were obtained. The morphology of trypomastigotes from caiman blood and tissue imprints was compared with those described for other crocodilian trypanosomes. Differences in morphology and growth behaviour of caiman trypanosomes were corroborated by molecular polymorphism that revealed 2 genotypes. Eight isolates were ascribed to genotype Cay01 and 1 to genotype Cay02. Phylogenetic inferences based on concatenated SSU rDNA and gGAPDH sequences showed that caiman isolates are closely related to T. grayi, constituting a well-supported monophyletic assemblage (clade T. grayi). Divergence time estimates based on clade composition, and biogeographical and geological events were used to discuss the relationships between the evolutionary histories of crocodilian trypanosomes and their hosts.

  2. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    PubMed

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment.

  3. Chlamydophila psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Raso, Tânia; Seixas, Gláucia Helena Fernandes; Guedes, Neiva Maria Robaldo; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2006-10-31

    Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) infection was evaluated in 77 free-living nestlings of Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Tracheal and cloacal swab samples from 32 wild parrot and 45 macaw nestlings were submitted to semi-nested PCR, while serum samples were submitted to complement fixation test (CFT). Although all 32 Amazon parrot serum samples were negative by CFT, cloacal swabs from two birds were positive for Chlamydophila DNA by semi-nested PCR (6.3%); these positive birds were 32 and 45 days old. In macaws, tracheal and cloacal swabs were positive in 8.9% and 26.7% of the samples, respectively. Complement-fixing antibodies were detected in 4.8% of the macaw nestlings; macaw nestlings with positive findings were between 33 and 88 days old. These results indicate widespread dissemination of this pathogen in the two evaluated psittacine populations. No birds had clinical signs suggestive of chlamydiosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on C. psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and Hyacinth macaws in Brazil.

  4. Can Scat Analysis Describe the Feeding Habits of Big Cats? A Case Study with Jaguars (Panthera onca) in Southern Pantanal, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Perilli, Miriam L. L.; Lima, Fernando; Rodrigues, Flávio H. G.; Cavalcanti, Sandra M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Large cats feeding habits have been studied through two main methods: scat analysis and the carcasses of prey killed by monitored animals. From November 2001 to April 2004, we studied jaguar predation patterns using GPS telemetry location clusters on a cattle ranch in southern Pantanal. During this period, we recorded 431 carcasses of animals preyed upon by monitored jaguars. Concurrently, we collected 125 jaguar scats opportunistically. We compared the frequencies of prey found through each method. We also compared the prey communities using Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. These comparisons allowed us to evaluate the use of scat analysis as a means to describe jaguar feeding habits. Both approaches identified prey communities with high similarity (Bray-Curtis coefficient > 70). According to either method, jaguars consume three main prey: cattle (Bos taurus), caiman (Caiman yacare) and peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu). The two methods did not differ in the frequency of the three main prey over dry and wet seasons or years sampled. Our results show that scat analysis is effective and capable of describing jaguar feeding habits. PMID:27002524

  5. Can Scat Analysis Describe the Feeding Habits of Big Cats? A Case Study with Jaguars (Panthera onca) in Southern Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Perilli, Miriam L L; Lima, Fernando; Rodrigues, Flávio H G; Cavalcanti, Sandra M C

    2016-01-01

    Large cats feeding habits have been studied through two main methods: scat analysis and the carcasses of prey killed by monitored animals. From November 2001 to April 2004, we studied jaguar predation patterns using GPS telemetry location clusters on a cattle ranch in southern Pantanal. During this period, we recorded 431 carcasses of animals preyed upon by monitored jaguars. Concurrently, we collected 125 jaguar scats opportunistically. We compared the frequencies of prey found through each method. We also compared the prey communities using Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. These comparisons allowed us to evaluate the use of scat analysis as a means to describe jaguar feeding habits. Both approaches identified prey communities with high similarity (Bray-Curtis coefficient > 70). According to either method, jaguars consume three main prey: cattle (Bos taurus), caiman (Caiman yacare) and peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu). The two methods did not differ in the frequency of the three main prey over dry and wet seasons or years sampled. Our results show that scat analysis is effective and capable of describing jaguar feeding habits.

  6. [Arthropod community associated with the canopy of Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae) during the flood period of the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Battirola, Leandro D; Adis, Joachim; Marques, Marinêz I; Silva, Fábio H O

    2007-01-01

    Six trees of the palm species Attalea phalerata Mart. were sampled during high water (aquatic phase) of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso (February 2001), by canopy fogging. The composition, structure, and biomass of the arthropod community associated with their canopies were analysed, as well as the influence the flood pulse renders on it. Each tree was fogged once, followed by three consecutive collections. A total of 63,657 arthropods (643.0 +/-; 259.87 ind./m(2)) were collected, representing 25 orders in the classes Insecta, Arachnida, Diplopoda and Crustacea. The dominant groups were Acari (40.0%; 257.2 +/- 116.50 ind./m(2)), Coleoptera (12.0%; 77.5 +/- 64.93 ind./m(2)), Psocoptera (9.2%; 59.0 +/- 38.00 ind./m(2)), Diptera (8.4%; 54.1 +/- 18.72 ind./m(2)), Collembola (8.3%; 53.4 +/- 26.24 ind./m(2)) and Hymenoptera (7.9%; 50.6 +/- 21.40 ind./m(2)), the latter mostly represented by Formicidae (49.2%). Arthropod biomass amounted to 8.86 g dry weight and 0.18 mg/m(2). Coleoptera, Blattodea, Orthoptera, Araneae and Hymenoptera were the most representative taxa. The hydrological regime (flood pulse), as well as seasonality, appear to strongly affect the composition and structure of this canopy community.

  7. Microbispora sp. LGMB259 endophytic actinomycete isolated from Vochysia divergens (Pantanal, Brazil) producing β-carbolines and indoles with biological activity.

    PubMed

    Savi, Daiani C; Shaaban, Khaled A; Vargas, Nathalia; Ponomareva, Larissa V; Possiede, Yvelise M; Thorson, Jon S; Glienke, Chirlei; Rohr, Jürgen

    2015-03-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes encompass bacterial groups that are well known for the production of a diverse range of secondary metabolites. Vochysia divergens is a medicinal plant, common in the "Pantanal" region (Brazil) and was focus of many investigations, but never regarding its community of endophytic symbionts. During a screening program, an endophytic strain isolated from the V. divergens, was investigated for its potential to show biological activity. The strain was characterized as Microbispora sp. LGMB259 by spore morphology and molecular analyze using nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Strain LGMB259 was cultivated in R5A medium producing metabolites with significant antibacterial activity. The strain produced 4 chemically related β-carbolines, and 3 Indoles. Compound 1-vinyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid displayed potent activity against the Gram-positive bacterial strains Micrococcus luteus NRRL B-2618 and Kocuria rosea B-1106, and was highly active against two human cancer cell lines, namely the prostate cancer cell line PC3 and the non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line A549, with IC50 values of 9.45 and 24.67 µM, respectively. 1-Vinyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid also showed moderate activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC204508, as well as the phytopathogenic fungi Phyllosticta citricarpa LGMB06 and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides FDC83.

  8. Seroprevalence and risk factors to Ehrlichia spp. and Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the Pantanal Region of Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, Andréia L T; Martins, Thiago F; Horta, Maurício C; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Pacheco, Richard C; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2011-12-01

    Sera of 320 dogs from urban and rural areas of a Pantanal region of Brazil were evaluated for rickettsial (Rickettsia rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. amblyommii, R. rhipicephali, R. felis, and R. bellii) and ehrlichial (Ehrlichia canis) infection by the immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Risk factors for ehrlichiosis or rickettsiosis were also evaluated. Positive reaction against Ehrlichia spp. was detected in 227 (70.9%) dogs, 119 (74.3%) from an urban area and 108 (67.5%) from rural areas (P>0.05). For Rickettsia spp., 152 (47.5%) dogs were positive, 31 (19.3%) from urban and 121 (75.6%) from rural areas (P<0.05). Highest anti-Rickettsia spp. endpoint titers were observed for R. amblyommii, suggesting homologous reactions to this agent or a very closely related organism. While most of the urban dogs were found parasitized by the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus, infestations on rural dogs were predominated by Amblyomma cajenennse. Rickettsial infection was significantly higher (P<0.05) in rural dogs, in dogs with hunting practice, or in A. cajennense-infested dogs.

  9. Modeling the spawning strategies and larval survival of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Daniela Faggiani; Pezzi, Luciano Ponzi; Gherardi, Douglas Francisco Marcolino; Camargo, Ricardo

    2014-04-01

    An Individual Based Model (IBM), coupled with a hydrodynamic model (ROMS), was used to investigate the spawning strategies and larval survival of the Brazilian Sardine in the South Brazil Bight (SBB). ROMS solutions were compared with satellite and field data to assess their representation of the physical environment. Two spawning experiments were performed for the summer along six years, coincident with ichthyoplankton survey cruises. In the first one, eggs were released in spawning habitats inferred from a spatial model. The second experiment simulated a random spawning to test the null hypothesis that there are no preferred spawning sites. Releasing eggs in the predefined spawning habitats increases larval survival, suggesting that the central-southern part of the SBB is more suitable for larvae development because of its thermodynamic characteristics. The Brazilian sardine is also capable of exploring suitable areas for spawning, according to the interannual variability of the SBB. The influence of water temperature, the presence of Cape Frio upwelling, and surface circulation on the spawning process was tested. The Cape Frio upwelling plays an important role in the modulation of Brazilian sardine spawning zones over SBB because of its lower than average water temperature. This has a direct influence on larval survival and on the interannual variability of the Brazilian sardine spawning process. The hydrodynamic condition is crucial in determining the central-southern part of SBB as the most suitable place for spawning because it enhances simulated coastal retention of larvae.

  10. Generating Extreme Inequality: Schooling, Earnings, and Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital in South Africa and Brazil. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, David

    Large household surveys are used to analyze links between schooling inequality and earnings inequality in Brazil and South Africa, countries that have long had among the highest levels of income inequality in the world. The studies were the 1995 South African October Household Survey (32,000 households) and the 1995 Brazilian Pesquisa Nacional de…

  11. ERICA: leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cureau, Felipe Vogt; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Belfort, Dilson Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Kênia Mara Baiocchi; de Leon, Elisa Brosina; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Ekelund, Ulf; Schaan, Beatriz D

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents and their association with geographical and sociodemographic variables. METHODS The sample was composed by 74,589 adolescents participating in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This cross-sectional study of school basis with national scope involved adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years in Brazilian cities with more than 100 thousand inhabitants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was categorized according to the volume of weekly practice (< 300; 0 min). The prevalences were estimated for the total sample and by sex. Poisson regression models were used to assess associated factors. RESULTS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity was 54.3% (95%CI 53.4-55.2), and higher for the female sex (70.7%, 95%CI 69.5-71.9) compared to the male (38.0%, 95%CI 36.7-39.4). More than a quarter of adolescents (26.5%, 95%CI 25.8-27.3) reported not practicing physical activity in the leisure time, a condition more prevalent for girls (39.8%, 95%CI 38.8-40.9) than boys (13.4%, 95%CI 12.4-14.4). For girls, the variables that were associated with physical inactivity were: reside in the Northeast (RP = 1.13, 95%CI 1.08-1.19), Southeast (RP = 1.16, 95%CI 1.11-1.22) and South (RP = 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18); have 16-17 years (RP = 1.06, 95%CI 1.12-1.15); and belong to the lower economic class (RP = 1.33, 95%CI 1.20-1.48). The same factors, except reside in the Southeast and South, were also associated with not practicing physical activity in the leisure time for the same group. In males, as well as the region, being older (p < 0.001) and declaring to be indigenous (RP = 0.37, 95%CI 0.19-0.73) were also associated with not practicing physical activities in the leisure time. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity in Brazilian adolescents is high. It presents regional variations and is associated with age and low

  12. Food cravings among Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Queiroz de Medeiros, Anna Cecília; Pedrosa, Lucia de Fatima Campos; Yamamoto, Maria Emilia

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a Brazilian version of the Food Craving Inventory (FCI-Br), adapted to the cultural-gastronomic context of Brazil, and to explore this behavior among adult Brazilians. The Study 1 population consisted of 453 adults from all regions of Brazil. Participants responded to a preliminary form of the instrument online. Exploratory factor analysis revealed an FCI-Br presenting 23 items and three factors: High Fat, Sweet Food and Traditional Meal. The FCI-Br overall reliability was considered adequate (α = 0.82), as were each of the sub-scales. The food items receiving higher average scores from the application of the instrument were chocolate (3.14 ± 1.28; women) and bread (2.94 ± 1.44, men). A significant association was observed between the specific-craving for Sweet Food and female respondents. Most participants reported experiencing more frequent episodes of food craving when alone (68.0%; n = 391) and during the afternoon (32.2%; n = 127) or evening (43.8%; n = 173) hours. Application of the FCI-Br in a population of 649 university students (Study 2) demonstrated a good adjustment of the model developed according to the Confirmatory factor analysis (χ(2)/gl = 2.82, CFI = 0.94; TLI = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.06). The current findings indicate that the FCI-Br has adequate psychometric properties to measure craving behavior with respect to specific food groups in the resident population of Brazil. The results of this study also shed light on the importance of considering the cultural diversity of a population when investigating eating behaviors.

  13. ASTER: A Brazilian Mission to an Asteroid.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, O. C.; Macau, E. E. N.; de Campos Velho, H.; Carruba, V.

    2012-05-01

    The first Brazilian mission to an asteroid is being planned. The target is the asteroid 2001 SN263, which has a NEA orbit of class AMOR. The mission is scheduled to be launched in 2015, reaching the asteroid in 2019.

  14. Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide in a gradient of elevation in the coastal Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Treesearch

    E. Sousa Neto; J.B. Carmo; Michael Keller; S.C. Martins; L.F. Alves; S.A. Vieira; M.C. Piccolo; P. Camargo; H.T.Z. Couto; C.A. Joly; L.A. Martinelli

    2011-01-01

    Soils of tropical forests are important to the global budgets of greenhouse gases. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is the second largest tropical moist forest area of South America, after the vast Amazonian domain. This study aimed to investigate the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes along an altitudinal transect and the...

  15. Biological control of the invasive weed, Brazilian Peppertree, Schinus Terebinthifolia: a review of the project with an update on the proposed agents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolia (Anacardiaceae), is a South American plant that has become invasive in many countries around the world. It was introduced into the USA about 100 years ago as an ornamental. Escaping cultivation, it now occurs in three southeastern states of the USA, Cali...

  16. Atypical disseminated leishmaniasis similar to post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in a Brazilian AIDS patient infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi: a case report.

    PubMed

    Carnaúba, Dimas; Konishi, Cassiana Tami; Petri, Valéria; Martinez, Isabel Cristina Pedro; Shimizu, Laura; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2009-11-01

    We report the case of an atypical disseminated leishmaniasis with similar clinical characteristics to post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis, an uncommon disease in South America. This occurred in a Brazilian patient with AIDS, 3 years after the first episode of American visceral leishmaniasis.

  17. Teachers Explore Earth Science in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, Michael; Krusche, Nisia; Carneiro, Celso D. R.

    2010-11-01

    Rain, Rocks, and Climate: A Geophysical Information for Teachers Workshop; Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, 8-9 August 2010; Classroom teachers and university professors from two continents joined to learn about “rocks, rain, and climate” in the Geophysical Information for Teachers (GIFT) workshop at the AGU Meeting of the Americas held in Brazil. This was the first GIFT workshop in South America. GIFT workshops have long been part of AGU Fall Meetings in San Francisco, European Geosciences Union Spring Meetings in Vienna, and other AGU conferences. Two Brazilian geoscience professors, Celso Dal Ré Carneiro of State University of Campinas and Nisia Krusche of Federal University of Rio Grande, organized the program, together with a high-school teacher from the United States, Michael J. Passow of Dwight Morrow High School, Englewood, N. J. Joining the presenters were 15 Brazilian teachers and another teacher from New Jersey.

  18. [Concept of clientele: discourse analysis of the benevolence in the context of the Brazilian psychiatrich reform].

    PubMed

    de Pinho, Leandro Barbosa; Hernández, Antonio Miguel Bañon; Kantorski, Luciane Prado

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to know the dynamic and controversial which is the practice in mental health. For that, it's analyzes the discourse of workers of mental health about the concept of on the concept of the clientele of the service. The corpus of this work is composed for interviews applied to 17 of the 25 professionals of mental health who work in a service substitute of a city of the Brazilian South Region. The theoretical-philosophical referential was the Critical Discourse Análisis. The methodological device was the "axiologic-discursive diagram". The results demonstrate that the workers assume relations of benevolence because the clientele conceptual undefinition, fruit of the difficulty in establishing what is normal and pathological in mental health. We wait that the study it contributes to problematize the process of consolidation of the Brazilian psychiatric reform.

  19. [The situation of Brazilian children and adolescents with regard to mental health and violence].

    PubMed

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Avanci, Joviana Quintes; Pesce, Renata Pires; Ximenes, Liana Furtado

    2009-01-01

    This article reflects about the situation of mental health and violence against Brazilian children and adolescents, proposing a discussion about the need for public health policies including these extremely relevant issues in their priority agenda. In Brazil, the debate about this problem has occurred in a fragmented and not very consistent way. This article presents a non-systematic selection of epidemiological investigations on this subject conducted in Brazilian schools and communities. The great variety and prevalence of familiar and community violence and of mental health problems is pointed out and the methodological differences between the studies and the concentration of studies in the South and Southeastern regions of the country are emphasized. The article still highlights to the scarce service network for dealing with this kind of problem and the lack of concern with the prevention of mental disorders and promotion of mental health.

  20. Genetic structure and natal origins of immature hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in Brazilian waters.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Maira C; Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis Fernando; Rodriguez-Zarate, Clara; Marcovaldi, Maria A; Monteiro, Danielle S; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation. Brazil hosts important hawksbill feeding areas, but few studies have focused on how they connect with nesting populations in the Atlantic. Here, we (1) characterized mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes of immature hawksbills feeding along the coast of Brazil (five areas ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes, 157 skin samples), (2) analyzed genetic structure among Atlantic hawksbill feeding populations, and (3) inferred natal origins of hawksbills in Brazilian waters using genetic, oceanographic, and population size information. We report ten haplotypes for the sampled Brazilian sites, most of which were previously observed at other Atlantic feeding grounds and rookeries. Genetic profiles of Brazilian feeding areas were significantly different from those in other regions (Caribbean and Africa), and a significant structure was observed between Brazilian feeding grounds grouped into areas influenced by the South Equatorial/North Brazil Current and those influenced by the Brazil Current. Our genetic analysis estimates that the studied Brazilian feeding aggregations are mostly composed of animals originating from the domestic rookeries Bahia and Pipa, but some contributions from African and Caribbean rookeries were also observed. Oceanographic data corroborated the local origins, but showed higher connection with West Africa and none with the Caribbean. High correlation was observed between origins estimated through genetics/rookery size and oceanographic/rookery size data, demonstrating that ocean currents and population sizes influence haplotype distribution of Brazil's hawksbill populations. The information presented here highlights the importance of national conservation strategies and international cooperation for the recovery of endangered hawksbill turtle populations.

  1. Genetic Structure and Natal Origins of Immature Hawksbill Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in Brazilian Waters

    PubMed Central

    Proietti, Maira C.; Reisser, Julia; Marins, Luis Fernando; Rodriguez-Zarate, Clara; Marcovaldi, Maria A.; Monteiro, Danielle S.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation. Brazil hosts important hawksbill feeding areas, but few studies have focused on how they connect with nesting populations in the Atlantic. Here, we (1) characterized mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes of immature hawksbills feeding along the coast of Brazil (five areas ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes, 157 skin samples), (2) analyzed genetic structure among Atlantic hawksbill feeding populations, and (3) inferred natal origins of hawksbills in Brazilian waters using genetic, oceanographic, and population size information. We report ten haplotypes for the sampled Brazilian sites, most of which were previously observed at other Atlantic feeding grounds and rookeries. Genetic profiles of Brazilian feeding areas were significantly different from those in other regions (Caribbean and Africa), and a significant structure was observed between Brazilian feeding grounds grouped into areas influenced by the South Equatorial/North Brazil Current and those influenced by the Brazil Current. Our genetic analysis estimates that the studied Brazilian feeding aggregations are mostly composed of animals originating from the domestic rookeries Bahia and Pipa, but some contributions from African and Caribbean rookeries were also observed. Oceanographic data corroborated the local origins, but showed higher connection with West Africa and none with the Caribbean. High correlation was observed between origins estimated through genetics/rookery size and oceanographic/rookery size data, demonstrating that ocean currents and population sizes influence haplotype distribution of Brazil's hawksbill populations. The information presented here highlights the importance of national conservation strategies and international cooperation for the recovery of endangered hawksbill turtle populations. PMID:24558419

  2. Revisiting the Genetic Ancestry of Brazilians Using Autosomal AIM-Indels

    PubMed Central

    Saloum de Neves Manta, Fernanda; Pereira, Rui; Vianna, Romulo; Rodolfo Beuttenmüller de Araújo, Alfredo; Leite Góes Gitaí, Daniel; Aparecida da Silva, Dayse; de Vargas Wolfgramm, Eldamária; da Mota Pontes, Isabel; Ivan Aguiar, José; Ozório Moraes, Milton; Fagundes de Carvalho, Elizeu; Gusmão, Leonor

    2013-01-01

    There are many different studies that contribute to the global picture of the ethnic heterogeneity in Brazilian populations. These studies use different types of genetic markers and are focused on the comparison of populations at different levels. In some of them, each geographical region is treated as a single homogeneous population, whereas other studies create different subdivisions: political (e.g., pooling populations by State), demographic (e.g., urban and rural), or ethnic (e.g., culture, self-declaration, or skin colour). In this study, we performed an enhanced reassessment of the genetic ancestry of ~ 1,300 Brazilians characterised for 46 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs). In addition, 798 individuals from twelve Brazilian populations representing the five geographical macro-regions of Brazil were newly genotyped, including a Native American community and a rural Amazonian community. Following an increasing North to South gradient, European ancestry was the most prevalent in all urban populations (with values up to 74%). The populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of Native American ancestry that was about two times higher than the African contribution. Conversely, in the Northeast, Center-West and Southeast, African ancestry was the second most prevalent. At an intrapopulation level, all urban populations were highly admixed, and most of the variation in ancestry proportions was observed between individuals within each population rather than among population. Nevertheless, individuals with a high proportion of Native American ancestry are only found in the samples from Terena and Santa Isabel. Our results allowed us to further refine the genetic landscape of Brazilians while establishing the basis for the effective application of an autosomal AIM panel in forensic casework and clinical association studies within the highly admixed Brazilian populations. PMID:24073242

  3. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  4. Practices for caring in nursing: Brazilian research groups.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, A L; de Andrade, S R; de Mello, A L Ferreira; Klock, P; do Nascimento, K C; Koerich, M Santos; Backes, D Stein

    2011-09-01

    The present study considers the production of knowledge and the interactions in the environment of research and their relationships in the system of caring in nursing and health. To elaborate a theoretical model of the organization of the practices used for caring, based on the experiences made by the research groups of administration and management in nursing, in Brazil. The study is based on grounded theory. Twelve leaders of research groups, working as professors in public universities in the south and the south-east of Brazil, distributed in sample groups, were interviewed. The core phenomenon 'research groups of administration and management in nursing: arrangements and interactions in the system of caring in nursing' was derived from the categories: conceptual bases and contexts of the research groups; experiencing interactions in the research groups; functionality of the research groups; and outputs of the research groups. The research groups are integrated in the system of caring in nursing. The activities of the Brazilian administration and management in nursing research groups are process oriented and in a process of constant renovation, socially relevant, operate in a complex scenario and contribute to the advancement of the organizations of the system of caring in nursing through strengthening the connection among academia, service and community. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  5. South Layers

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-05-20

    This MOC image shows remnants of layered materials near the west rim of South Crater, Mars. The composition of these layered rocks is unknown -- are they the remains of sedimentary rocks or accumulations of dust and ice?

  6. Effects of land-cover change on soil loss in the Sao Gabriel do Oeste area (Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disperati, Leonardo; Righini, Gaia; Salvini, Riccardo; Ciali, Alessandro; Coscini, Nicola; Fantozzi, Pier L.; Carmignani, Luigi; Fiori, Alberto P.; Paranhos Filho, Antonio C.; Bocci, Michele

    1999-12-01

    In the Sao Gabriel do Oeste area (Pantanal, Brazil), since the '60s, zootechnics and farming activities have developed and arable lands and pastures replaced shrubs and forests. The 1966 to 1996 land-cover change was investigated through Remote Sensing and GIS methodologies. The effect on soil loss was evaluated through the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). By integrating supervised classification and visual interpretation techniques, geo-coded land-cover data bases were built from aerial photographs and Landsat TM images (years 1966, 1985, 1996). Multi-temporal land-cover data bases were produced through 'post-classification comparison.' The application of the USLE in the ARC/INFO$CPY Grid environment enabled to perform the multi-temporal analysis of the potential soil loss. The R, K, C and P factors of such equation were assumed from the literature. The flowdirection and flowaccumulation Grid functions and the DEM allowed calculating the L and S factors. The results show that from 1966 to 1985 large extent of forest and shrubs were deforested. After 1985, deforestation rate decreased and part of burnt areas and pastures changed to secondary forest. The land-cover transformations induced a meaningful growth of the computed average soil loss per unit area (A) from 1966 to 1985 ((Delta) A approximately equals 3.7 t(DOT)ha-1(DOT)y-1). On the contrary, the reduction of A from 1985 to 1996 ((Delta) A approximately equals 0.8 t(DOT)ha-1(DOT)y-1) suggests that more recently the human impact became steady.

  7. The Brazilian scientific balloon program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Joao

    The Brazilian scientific balloon program is based almost entirely at the National Institute for Space Research -INPE, which has a facility for research and development of scientific balloon systems such as telemetry, command, power supply, separation and flight train devices, ballast control systems, ATC transponders, shock absorbers and especially different launching tech-niques. The Balloon Launching Center of INPE operates since the early 70s, when the first launches were performed in cooperation with French groups for astronomical gamma-ray obser-vations. Since then, the center was involved in a large numbers of international collaborations with France, Japan, United Kingdom, USA, Italy, Germany and Tasmania. INPEs high-energy astrophysics group developed several X and Gamma-ray experiments that were launched in balloons since the early 80s. The most complex of these payloads is the MASCO experiment, launched in 2004. It consists in a 2-ton experiment with a large gamma-ray imaging coded-mask telescope and an attitude control system developed at INPE. Currently, the high-energy group is developing a prototype balloon experiment for the MIRAX satellite, named protoMIRAX. Others scientists at INPE have also used balloons for cosmic rays, geophysics and atmospheric electricity experiments.

  8. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Fearnside, P.M )

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  9. Aflatoxins in Brazilian Peanut Confection.

    PubMed

    2016-04-07

    The study's objectives were to evaluate a method for the determination of aflatoxins (AFs) in the Brazilian peanut confection "Paçoca" and to apply the method in investigating AF concentrations in Paçoca marketed in São Paulo State throughout 2013. Results of another survey conducted between 1994 and 2002 with another method were also reported. The current method consists of immunoaffinity column cleanup, LC with postcolumn derivatization for AF fluorescence enhancement, and fluorescence determination for the toxins. The mean recovery and mean RSDr values were 88.6 and 7.9%, respectively. The LODs for aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, and aflatoxin G2 were 0.04, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.01 ng/g; and the LOQs were 0.15, 0.04, 0.07, and 0.04 ng/g, respectively. Results of the two survey studies indicate that the contamination of AFs in Paçoca remains a public health problem. In the 2013 survey, 71 of 100 samples (71%) had AFs contamination ranging from 0.3 to 41.8 ng/g, with 12 samples (12%) containing >20 ng/g of the toxins, whereas in the 1994-2002 survey, 73 of 150 samples (51%) had AFs contamination ranging from 9 to 1439 ng/g with 65 samples (45%) containing levels >20 ng/g.

  10. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  11. Brazilian Cerrado Soil Actinobacteria Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Suela Silva, Monique; Naves Sales, Alenir; Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes, Karina; Ribeiro Dias, Disney; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah) soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora) and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry). The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production. PMID:23555089

  12. Seismicity around Brazilian dam reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Coelho, P.E.F.P. )

    1987-01-01

    More than 30 cases of seismicity associated with dam reservoir sites are known throughout the world. Despite the lack of data in some areas, where seismicity occurred after reservoir impounding, there have been distinct seismic patterns observed in seismic areas after dam projects implantation. This has demonstrated that reservoir loading can trigger earthquakes. A mechanism of earthquake generation by reservoir impounding is proposed here with particular application to the Brazilian cases and to areas subject to low confining stress conditions in stable regions. Six artificial lakes are described and the associated earthquake sources are discussed in terms of natural or induced seismicity. Earthquake monitoring in Brazil up to 1967, when Brasilia's seismological station started operation, was mainly based in personal communications to the media. Therefore, there is a general lack of seismic records in relatively uninhabited areas, making it difficult to establish a seismic risk classification for the territory and to distinguish natural from induced seismicity. Despite this, cases reported here have shown an alteration of the original seismic stability in dam sites after reservoir loading, as observed by the inhabitants or records from Brasilia's seismological station. All cases appear to be related to an increase in pore pressure in permeable rocks or fracture zones which are confined between impermeable rock slabs or more competent rock. It is apparent that some cases show some participation of high residual stress conditions in the area.

  13. Group dialogue empowers Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Badiani, R; Becker, J

    1995-11-01

    In response to an alarming rise in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Brazilian women during the early 1990s, the Sociedade Civil Bem-Estar Familiar no Brazil (BEMFAM) developed a project that integrates HIV prevention with clinical services, community-based prevention activities, and sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. Preliminary interviews with clinic clients revealed that women's fears they would be considered unfaithful were impeding their ability to suggest condom use to their sexual partners. Condom use within a relationship was considered appropriate only for pregnancy prevention. To facilitate dialogue about sexual health, BEMFAM developed a women's group intervention project. All women who attend a BEMFAM clinic are invited to participate in a one-hour group discussion before receiving medical services. Novela-style booklets with stories and characters women can relate to their own lives are used to stimulate discussion. Participants learn to use condoms correctly by putting them on a penis model and anticipate situations in which they would be able to negotiate condom use. The group setting enables women to gain confidence and practice assertiveness in a non-threatening, supportive environment. Their identification with other women's stories empowers women to take control of their health and sexual lives. Between October 1994 and July 1995, 3464 women participated in group discussions organized by BEMFAM and 40,688 condoms were distributed; 18% of these women returned to the clinic for additional condoms.

  14. Dominance of foreign citations in Brazilian orthopedics journals.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Rosa, Rita de Cássia Rodrigues; de Barros, Rui Sergio Monteiro; Botelho, Nara Macedo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether there is any preference for citing journals from other countries to the detriment of Brazilian journals, in three Brazilian orthopedics journals. All the references of articles published in 2011 by the journals Acta Ortopédica Brasileira, Coluna/Columna and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia were evaluated to as certain how many of these came from Brazilian journals and how many from foreign journals. 3813 references distributed among 187 articles were analyzed. Out of this total, 306 (8.02%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no difference between the three journals analyzed. There were 76 articles (40.64%) without any citations of articles in Brazilian journals and only two articles (1%) cited more Brazilian articles than articles published elsewhere. There is a need for Brazilian researchers to cite articles from Brazilian journals more often.

  15. The Brazilian "Indian Emancipation Decree": Emancipation or Genocide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shand, Hope

    1978-01-01

    Reviewing the proposed Brazilian "Indian Emancipation Decree," a recent development in Brazilian Indian policy, this article asserts there is no evidence that this legislation was either proposed or petitioned by Indian people in their own self-interest. (RTS)

  16. Initiated by the south. South - South Cooperation.

    PubMed

    Parsons, J S

    1993-12-01

    The UNFPA Deputy Chief of the Asia and Pacific Division explains how relations between representatives of developing countries to the South have often been less than congenial and how efforts have been made to smooth the way for greater cooperation between neighbors in the region. President Soeharto of Indonesia at a G-15 submeeting of Non-Aligned Countries in Malaysia in 1990 made the first overtures to his peers. He offered to work more closely with other interested countries economically and in terms of technical assistance. Prime Minister Von Van Kiet of Vietnam took him up on his offer and visited the President in Indonesia in January 1992 to discuss family planning issues. The subsequent assistance rendered by Indonesia to Vietnam in developing its family planning program was unique in bilateral relations in the region in that it was initiated by the nonaligned countries without outside interference. The author thinks that the UNFPA should play a facilitating role financially and organizationally in what may be the beginning of a trend toward greater South-South cooperation. Any help which developing countries could render to other developing nations will certainly be appreciated in this period of waning resources from developed countries for international population programs. The author also argues that service quality in donor countries is likely to improve.

  17. 13. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW SOUTH, ROUTE 130 SOUTH FROM ROUTE 130 SOUTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  18. Trends in water balance components across the Brazilian Cerrado

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna) is considered one of the most important biomes for Brazilian water resources; however, little is known about the components of the water balance in this biome. In this study, we reviewed the available literature on the water balance components in the Brazilian Cerrado...

  19. The Brazilian national system of forest permanent plots

    Treesearch

    Yeda Maria Malheiros de Oliveira; Maria Augusta Doetzer Rosot; Patricia Povoa de Mottos; Joberto Veloso de Freitas; Guilherme Luis Augusto Gomide; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian National System of Forest Permanent Plots (SisPP) is a governmental initiative designed and being implemented in partnership by the Ministry of Environment (MMA), represented by the National Forest Programme (PNF) and the Brazilian Forest Service (SFB) and the Embrapa Forestry (a research center of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa...

  20. Indoor air quality in Brazilian universities.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Sonia R; Bankoff, Antônia D P; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-07-11

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3) in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively). The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  1. Origin and dynamics of admixture in Brazilians and its effect on the pattern of deleterious mutations.

    PubMed

    Kehdy, Fernanda S G; Gouveia, Mateus H; Machado, Moara; Magalhães, Wagner C S; Horimoto, Andrea R; Horta, Bernardo L; Moreira, Rennan G; Leal, Thiago P; Scliar, Marilia O; Soares-Souza, Giordano B; Rodrigues-Soares, Fernanda; Araújo, Gilderlanio S; Zamudio, Roxana; Sant Anna, Hanaisa P; Santos, Hadassa C; Duarte, Nubia E; Fiaccone, Rosemeire L; Figueiredo, Camila A; Silva, Thiago M; Costa, Gustavo N O; Beleza, Sandra; Berg, Douglas E; Cabrera, Lilia; Debortoli, Guilherme; Duarte, Denise; Ghirotto, Silvia; Gilman, Robert H; Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Marrero, Andrea R; Muniz, Yara C; Weissensteiner, Hansi; Yeager, Meredith; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L; Lima-Costa, M Fernanda; Pereira, Alexandre C; Rodrigues, Maíra R; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2015-07-14

    While South Americans are underrepresented in human genomic diversity studies, Brazil has been a classical model for population genetics studies on admixture. We present the results of the EPIGEN Brazil Initiative, the most comprehensive up-to-date genomic analysis of any Latin-American population. A population-based genome-wide analysis of 6,487 individuals was performed in the context of worldwide genomic diversity to elucidate how ancestry, kinship, and inbreeding interact in three populations with different histories from the Northeast (African ancestry: 50%), Southeast, and South (both with European ancestry >70%) of Brazil. We showed that ancestry-positive assortative mating permeated Brazilian history. We traced European ancestry in the Southeast/South to a wider European/Middle Eastern region with respect to the Northeast, where ancestry seems restricted to Iberia. By developing an approximate Bayesian computation framework, we infer more recent European immigration to the Southeast/South than to the Northeast. Also, the observed low Native-American ancestry (6-8%) was mostly introduced in different regions of Brazil soon after the European Conquest. We broadened our understanding of the African diaspora, the major destination of which was Brazil, by revealing that Brazilians display two within-Africa ancestry components: one associated with non-Bantu/western Africans (more evident in the Northeast and African Americans) and one associated with Bantu/eastern Africans (more present in the Southeast/South). Furthermore, the whole-genome analysis of 30 individuals (42-fold deep coverage) shows that continental admixture rather than local post-Columbian history is the main and complex determinant of the individual amount of deleterious genotypes.

  2. Origin and dynamics of admixture in Brazilians and its effect on the pattern of deleterious mutations

    PubMed Central

    Kehdy, Fernanda S. G.; Gouveia, Mateus H.; Machado, Moara; Magalhães, Wagner C. S.; Horimoto, Andrea R.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Moreira, Rennan G.; Leal, Thiago P.; Scliar, Marilia O.; Soares-Souza, Giordano B.; Rodrigues-Soares, Fernanda; Araújo, Gilderlanio S.; Zamudio, Roxana; Sant Anna, Hanaisa P.; Santos, Hadassa C.; Duarte, Nubia E.; Fiaccone, Rosemeire L.; Figueiredo, Camila A.; Silva, Thiago M.; Costa, Gustavo N. O.; Beleza, Sandra; Berg, Douglas E.; Cabrera, Lilia; Debortoli, Guilherme; Duarte, Denise; Ghirotto, Silvia; Gilman, Robert H.; Gonçalves, Vanessa F.; Marrero, Andrea R.; Muniz, Yara C.; Weissensteiner, Hansi; Yeager, Meredith; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Barreto, Mauricio L.; Lima-Costa, M. Fernanda; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Rodrigues, Maíra R.; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    While South Americans are underrepresented in human genomic diversity studies, Brazil has been a classical model for population genetics studies on admixture. We present the results of the EPIGEN Brazil Initiative, the most comprehensive up-to-date genomic analysis of any Latin-American population. A population-based genome-wide analysis of 6,487 individuals was performed in the context of worldwide genomic diversity to elucidate how ancestry, kinship, and inbreeding interact in three populations with different histories from the Northeast (African ancestry: 50%), Southeast, and South (both with European ancestry >70%) of Brazil. We showed that ancestry-positive assortative mating permeated Brazilian history. We traced European ancestry in the Southeast/South to a wider European/Middle Eastern region with respect to the Northeast, where ancestry seems restricted to Iberia. By developing an approximate Bayesian computation framework, we infer more recent European immigration to the Southeast/South than to the Northeast. Also, the observed low Native-American ancestry (6–8%) was mostly introduced in different regions of Brazil soon after the European Conquest. We broadened our understanding of the African diaspora, the major destination of which was Brazil, by revealing that Brazilians display two within-Africa ancestry components: one associated with non-Bantu/western Africans (more evident in the Northeast and African Americans) and one associated with Bantu/eastern Africans (more present in the Southeast/South). Furthermore, the whole-genome analysis of 30 individuals (42-fold deep coverage) shows that continental admixture rather than local post-Columbian history is the main and complex determinant of the individual amount of deleterious genotypes. PMID:26124090

  3. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, S T; Lombardi Junior, I; Berg, K O; Ramos, L R; Natour, J

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65). The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments) and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001) and 0.98 (P < 0.001), respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001) and 0.97 (P < 0.001), respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  4. Several Different Lactase Persistence Associated Alleles and High Diversity of the Lactase Gene in the Admixed Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Deise C.; Santos, Sidney E. B.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea K. C.; Hutz, Mara H.

    2012-01-01

    Adult-type hypolactasia is a common phenotype caused by the lactase enzyme deficiency. The −13910 C>T polymorphism, located 14 Kb upstream of the lactase gene (LCT) in the MCM6 gene was associated with lactase persistence (LP) in Europeans. This polymorphism is rare in Africa but several other variants associated with lactase persistence were observed in Africans. The aims of this study were to identify polymorphisms in the MCM6 region associated with the lactase persistence phenotype and to determine the distribution of LCT gene haplotypes in 981 individuals from North, Northeast and South Brazil. These polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR based methods and sequencing. The −13779*C,−13910*T, −13937*A, −14010*C, −14011*T LP alleles previously described in the MCM6 gene region that acts as an enhancer for the LCT gene were identified in Brazilians. The most common LP allele was −13910*T. Its frequency was highly correlated with European ancestry in the Brazilian populations investigated. The −13910*T was higher (0.295) in southern Brazilians of European ancestry and lower (0.175) in the Northern admixed population. LCT haplotypes were derived from the 10 LCT SNPs genotyped. Overall twenty six haplotypes previously described were identified in the four Brazilian populations studied. The Multidimensional Scaling analysis showed that Belém, in the north, was closer to Amerindians. Northeastern and southern Afro-descendants were more related with Bantu-speaking South Africans whereas the Southern population with European ancestry grouped with Southern and Northern Europeans. This study shows a high variability considering the number of LCT haplotypes observed. Due to the highly admixed nature of the Brazilian populations, the diagnosis of hypolactasia in Brazil, based only in the investigation of the −13910*T allele is an oversimplification. PMID:23029545

  5. Several different lactase persistence associated alleles and high diversity of the lactase gene in the admixed Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Deise C; Santos, Sidney E B; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea K C; Hutz, Mara H

    2012-01-01

    Adult-type hypolactasia is a common phenotype caused by the lactase enzyme deficiency. The -13910 C>T polymorphism, located 14 Kb upstream of the lactase gene (LCT) in the MCM6 gene was associated with lactase persistence (LP) in Europeans. This polymorphism is rare in Africa but several other variants associated with lactase persistence were observed in Africans. The aims of this study were to identify polymorphisms in the MCM6 region associated with the lactase persistence phenotype and to determine the distribution of LCT gene haplotypes in 981 individuals from North, Northeast and South Brazil. These polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR based methods and sequencing. The -13779*C,-13910*T, -13937*A, -14010*C, -14011*T LP alleles previously described in the MCM6 gene region that acts as an enhancer for the LCT gene were identified in Brazilians. The most common LP allele was -13910*T. Its frequency was highly correlated with European ancestry in the Brazilian populations investigated. The -13910*T was higher (0.295) in southern Brazilians of European ancestry and lower (0.175) in the Northern admixed population. LCT haplotypes were derived from the 10 LCT SNPs genotyped. Overall twenty six haplotypes previously described were identified in the four Brazilian populations studied. The Multidimensional Scaling analysis showed that Belém, in the north, was closer to Amerindians. Northeastern and southern Afro-descendants were more related with Bantu-speaking South Africans whereas the Southern population with European ancestry grouped with Southern and Northern Europeans. This study shows a high variability considering the number of LCT haplotypes observed. Due to the highly admixed nature of the Brazilian populations, the diagnosis of hypolactasia in Brazil, based only in the investigation of the -13910*T allele is an oversimplification.

  6. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  7. [New migratory flows of the Brazilian population].

    PubMed

    Sales, T

    1991-01-01

    "This article focuses [on] the recent emigration of Brazilians abroad. In the post World War II period, a new type of international migration was observed, caused by demands for labor in the receiving countries, where immigrants are integrated into the secondary labor market. The programs created to stimulate temporary foreign migrations resulted in the recent illegal migrations of Brazilians, most of them working in unskilled jobs. The study is based on data from a preliminary survey on the migratory flow from the city of Governador Valadares in the State of Minas Gerais, to Boston, in the U.S." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  8. Influence of El Nino and ITCZ on Brazilian River Streamflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, A.; Dracup, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    This study analyzes effects of climatic phenomena El Nino and ITCZ latitudinal movements on streamflow patterns in major Brazilian river basins: Amazon (north), Araguaia-Tocantins (central-north), Parana (central-south) and Sao Francisco (central-northeast). Multiple correlation between annual streamflows and the NINO 3.4 and North Tropical Atlantic SST indexes (NTA) were analyzed for each river basin using different annual periods in order to account for the delay in streamflow response. The data consists of unimpaired river discharge time series at key points (from the Brazilian National Water Agency (ANA)); normalized yearly averaged NINO3.4 index characterizing El Nino (from NOAA); and NTA index (from NOAA), as a surrogate of the latitudinal movement of the ITCZ, since it is correlated to the Atlantic SST gradient. As a result, each river basin showed a different response. At the Amazon river basin, almost all dry years occurred when NINO3.4 was above average (El Nino years). Moreover, in almost every year when NINO3.4 was below average (La Nina) the streamflows were above average. Thus, it seems that La Nina have strong effects in floods in Amazon river. Moreover, El Nino events seem to be a necessary, but not sufficient condition for low streamflows at Amazon river. A weaker relationship was found for Xingu river basin, since it is probably affected by cold fronts from the south. As the location of river basins changes towards the south, the effect of El Nino events gets weaker as for Araguaia-Tocantins and Sao Francisco river basins. At the Parana river basin, the relationship is reversed. Almost all extreme wet years occurred during El Nino years. The correlation between streamflows and the NTA indexes were very weak for all river basins except for the Amazon. When the NTA anomaly is negative, wet years occurs, since the ITCZ moves southwards and stays longer at that position, increasing rainfall over the Amazon and Northeast of Brazil. In contrast, almost

  9. Development of normative data for the Brazilian adaptation of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test.

    PubMed

    Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio; dos Santos, Clayson Alan; Bezerra, Thiago Freire Pinto; Pinna, Fábio de Rezende; Voegels, Richard Louis; Doty, Richard L

    2015-02-01

    It is well established that olfactory dysfunction has significant implications for safety, nutrition, and quality of life. The more reliable standardized tests of olfactory function, such as the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), assess odor identification ability. Unfortunately, cultural factors can influence such tests, as a number of odors are not universally recognized. In this study, a Portuguese language version of the UPSIT was administered to an age- and sex-stratified prospective sample of 1820 Brazilian subjects. Normative data were developed for a subset of 1578 subjects who reported having no difficulties smelling or tasting. Individuals with a history of head trauma or, in the case of those over the age of 64 years, Mini-Mental State Examination Scores <24, were excluded from analysis. As in other populations, the test scores were significantly influenced by age and sex. The median overall difference between the North American and Brazilian UPSIT scores was 2.2 points for men and 0.8 points for women, although subtle age-related differences were also apparent. This research represents that largest clinical study of olfaction ever performed in South America. Correction factors based upon age and sex are provided to allow for direct comparisons of Brazilian test scores to those based upon North American norms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Discrimination And Biophysical Characterization Of Brazilian Cerrado Physiognomies With Eo-1 Hyperspectral Hyperion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, Tomoaki; Huete, Alfredo R.; Ferreira, Laerte G.; Sano, Edson E.

    2004-01-01

    The savanna, typically found in the sub-tropics and seasonal tropics, are the dominant vegetation biome type in the southern hemisphere, covering approximately 45% of the South America. In Brazil, the savanna, locally known as "cerrado," is the most intensely stressed biome with both natural environmental pressures (e.g., the strong seasonality in weather, extreme soil nutrient impoverishment, and widespread fire occurrences) and rapid/aggressive land conversions (Skole et al., 1994; Ratter et al., 1997). Better characterization and discrimination of cerrado physiognomies are needed in order to improve understanding of cerrado dynamics and its impact on carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Brazilian cerrado biome. Satellite remote sensing have been known to be a useful tool for land cover and land use mapping (Rougharden et al., 1991; Hansen et al., 2000). However, attempts to discriminate and classify Brazilian cerrado using multi-spectral sensors (e.g., Landsat TM) and/or moderate resolution sensors (e.g., NOAA AVHRR NDVI) have often resulted in a limited success due partly to small contrasts depicted in their multiband, spectral reflectance or vegetation index values among cerrado classes (Seyler et al., 2002; Fran a and Setzer, 1998). In this study, we aimed to improve discrimination as well as biophysical characterization of the Brazilian cerrado physiognomies with hyperspectral remote sensing. We used Hyperion, the first satellite-based hyperspectral imager, onboard the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) platform.

  11. Genetic Characterisation and Analysis of Infectious Bronchitis Virus Isolated from Brazilian flocks between 2010 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Carranza, Claudia; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Santander Parra, Silvana H; Nuñez, Luis F N; Penzes, Zoltan; Chacón, Jorge L; Sesti, Luiz; Chacón, Ruy D; Piantino Ferreira, Antonio J

    2017-08-14

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variants in Brazil were isolated during 2010-2015 for epidemiological and molecular analysis to characterise the different variants and perform a bioinformatic analysis to compare with sequences of variants collected over the previous 40 years. Of the 453 samples examined, 61.4% were positive for IBV and 75.9% of these were considered to have the BR-I genotype and were detected in birds of all ages distributed in all five Brazilian regions. The ratio of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous site (dN) to synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (dS), i.e. dN/dS, revealed a predominance of codons with non-synonymous substitutions in the first third of the S1 gene and a dN/dS ratio of 0.67. Additionally, prediction of N-glycosylation sites showed that most of the BR-I variants (from 2003 to early 2014) had an extra site at amino acid position 20, whereas the newest variants lacked this extra site. These results suggest that Brazilian IBV variants probably underwent drastic mutations at various points between 1983 and 2003 and that the selection processes became silent after achieving a sufficiently effective antigenic structure for invasion and replication in their hosts. Brazilian IBV genotype BR-I is currently the predominant genotype circulating in Brazil and South America.

  12. Do the Brazilian sardine commercial landings respond to local ocean circulation?

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Mainara B; Gherardi, Douglas F M; Lentini, Carlos A D; Dias, Daniela F; Campos, Paula C

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, flow intensity and mesoscale ocean processes, all affect sardine production, both in eastern and western boundary current systems. Here we tested the hypothesis whether extreme high and low commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine fisheries in the South Brazil Bight (SBB) are sensitive to different oceanic conditions. An ocean model (ROMS) and an individual based model (Ichthyop) were used to assess the relationship between oceanic conditions during the spawning season and commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine one year later. Model output was compared with remote sensing and analysis data showing good consistency. Simulations indicate that mortality of eggs and larvae by low temperature prior to maximum and minimum landings are significantly higher than mortality caused by offshore advection. However, when periods of maximum and minimum sardine landings are compared with respect to these causes of mortality no significant differences were detected. Results indicate that mortality caused by prevailing oceanic conditions at early life stages alone can not be invoked to explain the observed extreme commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine. Likely influencing factors include starvation and predation interacting with the strategy of spawning "at the right place and at the right time".

  13. [Evaluation of population data quality and coverage of registration of deaths for the Brazilian regions].

    PubMed

    Paes, N A; Albuquerque, M E

    1999-02-01

    The evaluation of the quality of population data and coverage of death statistics for all Federal Brazilian Units by sex in 1990. The population data came from censuses and the recorded death data from "Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística" and the Health Ministry. The population data were evaluated by applying classical demographic methods. Three techniques were chosen to evaluate the extent of death registration coverage. The degree of precision of the age statement for the majority of the Brazilian regions improved the status from "low precision" or "moderate" to "precise" during the 80's. The coverage of deaths in 1990 was classified as "good" or "satisfactory" for all Federal Units in the South, Southeast and Centre-West and for the Northeastern States below Rio Grande do Norte. All the remaining states were classified as "regular" or "unsatisfactory". There was a significant improvement in the quality of the census population data and an increase in the coverage of death. It is possible to obtain get reliable mortality indicators for many Brazilian States.

  14. Do the Brazilian sardine commercial landings respond to local ocean circulation?

    PubMed Central

    Gherardi, Douglas F. M.; Lentini, Carlos A. D.; Dias, Daniela F.; Campos, Paula C.

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, flow intensity and mesoscale ocean processes, all affect sardine production, both in eastern and western boundary current systems. Here we tested the hypothesis whether extreme high and low commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine fisheries in the South Brazil Bight (SBB) are sensitive to different oceanic conditions. An ocean model (ROMS) and an individual based model (Ichthyop) were used to assess the relationship between oceanic conditions during the spawning season and commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine one year later. Model output was compared with remote sensing and analysis data showing good consistency. Simulations indicate that mortality of eggs and larvae by low temperature prior to maximum and minimum landings are significantly higher than mortality caused by offshore advection. However, when periods of maximum and minimum sardine landings are compared with respect to these causes of mortality no significant differences were detected. Results indicate that mortality caused by prevailing oceanic conditions at early life stages alone can not be invoked to explain the observed extreme commercial landings of the Brazilian sardine. Likely influencing factors include starvation and predation interacting with the strategy of spawning “at the right place and at the right time”. PMID:28489925

  15. Characterization of the structure and tectonic of South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, G. R.; Lidiak, E. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Geologic studies of the South American plate were undertaken. The Guayana shield is reasonably well studied, and although data are sparce, the central Brazilian shield appears similar. Both the Amazon and Parnaiba basins seem to be related to an aulocogen structure. The collection of crustal structure information and the generation of measurement of surface wave dispersion in the shield areascontinues. Long period seismograms are digitized and analyzed. Exisiting crusted and upper mantle studies were indexed. Both MAGSAT scaler and vector magnetic anomaly data were used with regional gravity anomaly data to investigate the regional tectonic features of the South American plate.

  16. [South] Korea.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  17. South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  18. Perception of toothache in adults from state capitals and interior cities within the Brazilian geographic regions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies emphasizing toothache in adulthood are scarce in Brazil. A greater understanding of both the prevalence and the self-perception of pain among individuals in this age group (35 to 44 years old) is important, especially considering that this is an economically active population. To describe reports of oral pain and oral pain-related aspects in from Brazilian state capitals and interior cities. Methods The sample comprised 9779 adults residing in the state capitals and interior cities from each Brazilian region in the SB Brazil 2010 report, regarding reports of oral pain and their intensity in the last 6 months. The descriptive analysis comparing pain reports between and within the regions and regression analysis of pain related to socioeconomic aspects per region were performed considering α=0.05 difference. Results The highest prevalence of pain was found in the Southeast region (p<0.01), and there was also difference between the state capitals and interior cities in the South (p<0.01), where the prevalence was higher in the capitals, and in the Southeast, where the higher prevalence was in the interior cities (p=0.03). The Northern region had lower pain intensity than the Southeast and Midwest. Comparing pain intensity, only the Northeast region showed statistical difference between state capitals and the interior cities for pain intensity, where the interior cities had higher pain intensity than the three state capitals. Regarding dental office visitations, the Southeast capitals have the highest prevalence (100%) compared to the North and South. The toothache impact on daily activities was as follows: eating difficulty (29.8% to 72.7%), uncomfortable teeth brushing (over 50%), and sleep disturbance (above 13%). Between the Brazilian regions the socioeconomic aspects differ in relation to the pain; the exception being the association between pain, dental care and income, which occurred in the 5 regions. Users of public dental care services were

  19. Effects of Brazilian Schools on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, José Francisco; Alves, Maria Teresa Gonzaga; Xavier, Flavia Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Brazilian elementary schools on the chances of their students achieving at different levels of mathematics proficiency. Since student proficiency is classified at three levels--Insufficient, Basic and Proficient--the chosen model of analysis was the hierarchical multinomial model. The…

  20. Land Use Dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon

    Treesearch

    Robert Walker

    1996-01-01

    The articles presented in this special issue of Ecological Economics address the important theme of land use dynamics as it pertains to the Brazilian Amazon. Much environmental change is an ecological artifact of human agency, and such agency is often manifested in land use impacts, particularly in tropical areas. The critical problem of tropical deforestation is but...

  1. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Treesearch

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  2. Anthropometry of Brazilian Air Force pilots.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gilvan V; Halpern, Manny; Gordon, Claire C

    2017-10-01

    Anthropometric data are essential for the design of military equipment including sizing of aircraft cockpits and personal gear. Currently, there are no anthropometric databases specific to Brazilian military personnel. The aim of this study was to create a Brazilian anthropometric database of Air Force pilots. The methods, protocols, descriptions, definitions, landmarks, tools and measurements procedures followed the instructions outlined in Measurer's Handbook: US Army and Marine Corps Anthropometric Surveys, 2010-2011 - NATICK/TR-11/017. The participants were measured countrywide, in all five Brazilian Geographical Regions. Thirty-nine anthropometric measurements related to cockpit design were selected. The results of 2133 males and 206 females aged 16-52 years constitute a set of basic data for cockpit design, space arrangement issues and adjustments, protective gear and equipment design, as well as for digital human modelling. Another important implication is that this study can be considered a starting point for reducing gender bias in women's career as pilots. Practitioner Summary: This paper describes the first large-scale anthropometric survey of the Brazilian Air Force pilots and the development of the related database. This study provides critical data for improving aircraft cockpit design for ergonomics and comprehensive pilot accommodation, protective gear and uniform design, as well as digital human modelling.

  3. Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Parra, Flavia C; Amado, Roberto C; Lambertucci, José R; Rocha, Jorge; Antunes, Carlos M; Pena, Sérgio D J

    2003-01-07

    This work was undertaken to ascertain to what degree the physical appearance of a Brazilian individual was predictive of genomic African ancestry. Using a panel of 10 population-specific alleles, we assigned to each person an African ancestry index (AAI). The procedure was able to tell apart, with no overlaps, 20 males from northern Portugal from 20 males from São Tomé Island on the west coast of Africa. We also tested 10 Brazilian Amerindians and observed that their AAI values fell in the same range as the Europeans. Finally, we studied two different Brazilian population samples. The first consisted of 173 individuals from a rural Southeastern community, clinically classified according to their Color (white, black, or intermediate) with a multivariate evaluation based on skin pigmentation in the medial part of the arm, hair color and texture, and the shape of the nose and lips. In contrast to the clear-cut results with the African and European samples, our results showed large variances and extensive overlaps among the three Color categories. We next embarked on a study of 200 unrelated Brazilian white males who originated from cosmopolitan centers of the four major geographic regions of the country. The results showed AAI values intermediate between Europeans and Africans, even in southern Brazil, a region predominantly peopled by European immigrants. Our data suggest that in Brazil, at an individual level, color, as determined by physical evaluation, is a poor predictor of genomic African ancestry, estimated by molecular markers.

  4. Translating Ovide Decroly's Ideas to Brazilian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hai, Alessandra Arce; Simon, Frank; Depaepe, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to analyse, comprehend and apprehend the appropriation processes of Ovide Decroly's ideas in Brazil through the translation of his books and that of Amélie Hamaïde into Portuguese. The article discusses the following questions. Why did Brazilian intellectuals and teachers need to import Decroly's ideas to be applied in Brazilian…

  5. Motor Acquisition Rate in Brazilian Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Virlaine Bardella; de Lima, Carolina Daniel; Tudella, Eloisa

    2009-01-01

    This study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) with the aim of characterizing motor acquisition rate in 70 healthy 0-6-month-old Brazilian infants, as well as comparing both emergence (initial age) and establishment (final age) of each skill between the study sample and the AIMS normative data. New motor skills were continuously acquired…

  6. Translating Ovide Decroly's Ideas to Brazilian Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hai, Alessandra Arce; Simon, Frank; Depaepe, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to analyse, comprehend and apprehend the appropriation processes of Ovide Decroly's ideas in Brazil through the translation of his books and that of Amélie Hamaïde into Portuguese. The article discusses the following questions. Why did Brazilian intellectuals and teachers need to import Decroly's ideas to be applied in Brazilian…

  7. Hemoglobin Variant Profiles among Brazilian Quilombola Communities.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Rayra P; Oliveira, Rodrigo M; Soares, Leonardo F; Figueiredo, Camylla V B; Silva, Denise Oliveira; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ana F; Fiuza, Luciana M; Guarda, Caroline C; Adorno, Elisângela V; Barbosa, Cynara G; Gonçalves, Marilda S

    2017-03-01

    Brazilian Quilombolas are communities composed of African-derived populations that have their territories guaranteed by the Brazilian Constitution. The present study investigated the hemoglobin (Hb) variants among these population groups. This study was conducted in a total of 2843 individuals of Brazilian Quilombola communities of the Bahia, Pará, and Piauí states. All the participants had their Hb profiles evaluated. The Hb S (HBB: c.20A>T) variant was described in all the studied localities. However, the individuals in Bahia State had the highest frequency of the Hb C (HBB: c.19G>A) variant; individuals from Piauí State had a higher frequency of the Hb D-Punjab (HBB: c.364G>C) variant compared to the other states, and individuals from Pará State only carried the Hb S variant. The present study revealed a specific distribution of Hb variants that could represent different waves of African influence in these Brazilian populations.

  8. Internet Implementation in Brazilian K-12 Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joia, Luiz Antonio

    1997-01-01

    Presents a framework for implementing the Internet in Brazilian elementary and secondary schools. Topics include schools as assembly lines in the information society; pedagogical uses of the Internet, including research, educational projects, and video conferences; and obstacles to implementing the Internet, including cost, cultural differences,…

  9. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Rufino, R; Costa, C H; Lopes, A J; Maiworm, A I; Maynard, K; Silva, L M R A; Dias, R M

    2017-03-02

    The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%), 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%), and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT). This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index). From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method). Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9). The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5), and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  10. Internet Implementation in Brazilian K-12 Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joia, Luiz Antonio

    1997-01-01

    Presents a framework for implementing the Internet in Brazilian elementary and secondary schools. Topics include schools as assembly lines in the information society; pedagogical uses of the Internet, including research, educational projects, and video conferences; and obstacles to implementing the Internet, including cost, cultural differences,…

  11. Severe complications of a "Brazilian" bikini wax.

    PubMed

    Dendle, Claire; Mulvey, Sheila; Pyrlis, Felicity; Grayson, M Lindsay; Johnson, Paul D R

    2007-08-01

    A 20-year-old Australian woman with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes presented with life-threatening Streptococcus pyogenes and Herpes simplex infection of her external genitalia following a routine perineal "Brazilian" bikini wax. Extensive pubic hair removal is now common among young adults in Australia and elsewhere. However, the infectious risks of these practices, particularly among immunosuppressed individuals, are often underappreciated.

  12. Evaluating Legal Compliance in Brazilian Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastos, Lilia da Rocha; And Others

    1980-01-01

    By 1976, compliance of 13 Brazilian teacher education institutions in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo with the Educational Reform Law of 1971 was judged as poor. The law demanded radical institutional change and created a teacher profile which was too comprehensive and complex. (CP)

  13. Brazilian cuts put projects in peril

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Lopes, Reinaldo

    2015-10-01

    The soap opera surrounding Brazil's participation in the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has taken another twist after the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation said that the government is still “considering” what to do, even though physicist Sérgio Rezende - a former science minister - was behind the push for Brazilian membership.

  14. Effects of Brazilian Schools on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, José Francisco; Alves, Maria Teresa Gonzaga; Xavier, Flavia Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Brazilian elementary schools on the chances of their students achieving at different levels of mathematics proficiency. Since student proficiency is classified at three levels--Insufficient, Basic and Proficient--the chosen model of analysis was the hierarchical multinomial model. The…

  15. Vaccinia virus infection in monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Abrahão, Jônatas S; Silva-Fernandes, André T; Lima, Larissa S; Campos, Rafael K; Guedes, Maria I M C; Cota, Marcela M G; Assis, Felipe L; Borges, Iara A; Souza-Júnior, Milton F; Lobato, Zélia I P; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G

    2010-06-01

    To detect orthopoxvirus in the Brazilian Amazon, we conducted a serosurvey of 344 wild animals. Neutralizing antibodies against orthopoxvirus were detected by plaque-reduction neutralizing tests in 84 serum samples. Amplicons from 6 monkey samples were sequenced. These amplicons identified vaccinia virus genetically similar to strains from bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil.

  16. Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Flavia C.; Amado, Roberto C.; Lambertucci, José R.; Rocha, Jorge; Antunes, Carlos M.; Pena, Sérgio D. J.

    2003-01-01

    This work was undertaken to ascertain to what degree the physical appearance of a Brazilian individual was predictive of genomic African ancestry. Using a panel of 10 population-specific alleles, we assigned to each person an African ancestry index (AAI). The procedure was able to tell apart, with no overlaps, 20 males from northern Portugal from 20 males from São Tomé Island on the west coast of Africa. We also tested 10 Brazilian Amerindians and observed that their AAI values fell in the same range as the Europeans. Finally, we studied two different Brazilian population samples. The first consisted of 173 individuals from a rural Southeastern community, clinically classified according to their Color (white, black, or intermediate) with a multivariate evaluation based on skin pigmentation in the medial part of the arm, hair color and texture, and the shape of the nose and lips. In contrast to the clear-cut results with the African and European samples, our results showed large variances and extensive overlaps among the three Color categories. We next embarked on a study of 200 unrelated Brazilian white males who originated from cosmopolitan centers of the four major geographic regions of the country. The results showed AAI values intermediate between Europeans and Africans, even in southern Brazil, a region predominantly peopled by European immigrants. Our data suggest that in Brazil, at an individual level, color, as determined by physical evaluation, is a poor predictor of genomic African ancestry, estimated by molecular markers. PMID:12509516

  17. Virus infections in Brazilian honey bees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brazilian honey bees are famously resistant to disease, perhaps because of long-term introgression from Apis mellifera subsp. scutellata. Recently, colony losses were observed in the Altinópolis region of southeastern Brazil. We sampled 200 colonies from this region for Israeli acute paralysis vir...

  18. Myriam Krasilchik: A Brazilian Science Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bizzo, Nelio Marco Vincenzo; Kelly, Peter Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Tells the story of Brazilian science educator Myriam Krasilchik who, in 1990, became dean of the University of Sao Paolo's School of Education. She provided leadership in the creation of Science Teaching Centers in Brazil and has been active in international science education organizations. (SM)

  19. Vaccinia Virus Infection in Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Abrahão, Jônatas S.; Silva-Fernandes, André T.; Lima, Larissa S.; Campos, Rafael K.; Guedes, Maria I.M.C.; Cota, Marcela M.G.; Assis, Felipe L.; Borges, Iara A.; Souza-Júnior, Milton F.; Lobato, Zélia I.P.; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Ferreira, Paulo C.P.; Trindade, Giliane S.

    2010-01-01

    To detect orthopoxvirus in the Brazilian Amazon, we conducted a serosurvey of 344 wild animals. Neutralizing antibodies against orthopoxvirus were detected by plaque-reduction neutralizing tests in 84 serum samples. Amplicons from 6 monkey samples were sequenced. These amplicons identified vaccinia virus genetically similar to strains from bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil. PMID:20507750

  20. South Atlantic paleobathymetry since early Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, Lucía; Eagles, Graeme

    2017-09-18

    We present early Cretaceous to present paleobathymetric reconstructions and quantitative uncertainty estimates for the South Atlantic, offering a strong basis for studies of paleocirculation, paleoclimate and paleobiogeography. Circulation in an initially salty and anoxic ocean, restricted by the topography of the Falkland Plateau, Rio Grande Ridge and Walvis Rise, favoured deposition of thick evaporites in shallow water of the Brazilian-Angolan margins. This ceased as seafloor spreading propagated northwards, opening an equatorial gateway to shallow and intermediate circulation. This gateway, together with subsiding volcano-tectonic barriers would have played a key role in Late Cretaceous climate changes. Later deepening and widening of the South Atlantic, together with gateway opening at Drake Passage would lead, by mid-Miocene (∼15 Ma) to the establishment of modern-style thermohaline circulation.

  1. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R.; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  2. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbiero, Laurent; Berger, Gilles; Rezende Filho, Ary T; Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  3. The Brazilian INPE-UFSM NANOSATC-BR CubeSat Development Capacity Building Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Cupertino Durao, Otavio S.

    The Brazilian INPE-UFSM NANOSATC-BR CubeSat Development Capacity Building Program (CBP) and the results of the NANOSATC-BR1, the first Brazilian CubeSat launching, expected for 2014's first semester, are presented. The CBP consists of two CubeSats, NANOSATC-BR 1 (1U) & 2 (2U) and is expected operate in orbit for at least 12 months each, with capacity building in space science, engineering and computer sciences for the development of space technologies using CubeSats satellites. The INPE-UFSM’s CBP Cooperation is basically among: (i) the Southern Regional Space Research Center (CRS), from the Brazilian INPE/MCTI, where acts the Program's General Coordinator and Projects NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 Manager, having technical collaboration and management of the Mission’s General Coordinator for Engineering and Space Technology at INPE’s Headquarter (HQ), in São José dos Campos, São Paulo; (ii) the Santa Maria Space Science Laboratory (LACESM/CT) from the Federal University of Santa Maria - (UFSM); (iii) the Santa Maria Design House (SMDH); (iv) the Graduate Program in Microelectronics from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (MG/II/UFRGS); and (v) the Aeronautic Institute of Technology (ITA/DCTA/CA-MD). The INPE-UFSM’s CBP has the involvement of UFSM' undergraduate students and graduate students from: INPE/MCTI, MG/II/UFRGS and ITA/DCTA/CA-MD. The NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 Projects Ground Stations (GS) capacity building operation with VHF/UHF band and S-band antennas, are described in two specific papers at this COSPAR-2014. This paper focuses on the development of NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 and on the launching of NANOSATC-BR1. The Projects' concepts were developed to: i) monitor, in real time, the Geospace, the Ionosphere, the energetic particle precipitation and the disturbances at the Earth's Magnetosphere over the Brazilian Territory, and ii) the determination of their effects on regions such as the South American Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) and the Brazilian sector of the

  4. Discrimination of Multiple Magmatic Episodes in a Dike Swarm Along the Brazilian Southeast Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernesto, M.; Marques, L. S.; Piccirillo, E. M.; Bellieni, G.; de Min, A.

    2005-05-01

    Integrated paleomagnetic, geochemical and geochrological data allowed the identification of four magmatic episodes (Jurassic to Tertiary) within the NE-SW trending dike swarm that extends from Santos to Rio de Janeiro cities, along the southeast Brazilian border. The Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks were already known in literature and are discriminated by their tholeiitic (Early Cretaceous), and alkaline (Late Cretaceous and Tertiary) character, as well as by the magnetic polarities. The Jurassic dike group, however, has not yet been dated, and was recognized among the tholeiitic rocks by their distinct chemical signature and paleomagnetic characteristic magnetization. The corresponding paleomagnetic pole correlates with South American Early Jurassic poles putting some new constraints on the tectonic history of the South American margin before the Atlantic opening.

  5. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism in elderly Japanese-Brazilian immigrants does not explain the reduced cardiovascular risk factor incidence.

    PubMed

    Terra, N; Moriguchi, Y; Bittencourt, L; Trois, R S; Piccoli, J E C; Cruz, I B M

    2011-09-09

    Study of immigrant populations may contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology of diseases associated with the aging process. We examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, including apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphism, in elderly subjects who were born in Japan, migrated to South Brazil and have lived in that region for over 40 years, versus a group of elderly, locally born Brazilians living in the same region. These Japanese subjects came to Brazil after World War II (1950-1960) from several Japanese cities, mainly Nagasaki, Kumamoto and Hokkaido. Among 1007 subjects genotyped for ApoE polymorphism, we selected 540 elderly subjects (>60 years old), consisting of 270 Japanese-Brazilians and 270 Brazilians of European ancestry from Rio Grande do Sul State (Gaucha population). The Japanese-Brazilian group had significantly lower prevalences of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome than did the Gaucho population group. ApoE polymorphism frequencies were similar in the two groups. The differences in cardiovascular risk factors observed in the two populations cannot be explained by ApoE polymorphism; they could be related to conservation of Japanese lifestyle habits, such as diet.

  6. Dietary availability patterns of the brazilian macro-regions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological studies have raised concerns about the role of dietary patterns on the risk of chronic diseases and also in the formulation of better informed nutrition policies. Objective The development of a dietary availability patterns according to geographic regions in Brazil. Methodology The 2002-2003 Brazilian Household Budget Survey was conducted in 48,470 households. Dietary availability patterns were identified by Principal Component Analysis using as a unit of analysis the survey's Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) and purchased amounts for 21 food groups. Each of the extracted dietary availability patterns was regressed on socioeconomics categories. Results There were no differences in dietary availability patterns between urban and rural areas. In all regions, a rice and beans pattern was identified. This pattern explained 15% to 28% of the variance dependent on the region of the country. In South, Southeast and Midwest regions, a mixed pattern including at least 10 food groups explaining 8% to 16% of the variance. In the North region (Amazon forest included) the first pattern was based on fish and nuts and then it was designed as regional pattern. In multiple linear regression the rice and beans pattern was associated with the presence of adolescents in the households, except for North region, whereas the presence of adolescents was associated with the Regional pattern. A mixed patterns were associated with a higher income and education (p < 0.05), except in the South region. Conclusion The rice and beans and regional dietary availability patterns, both considered healthy eating patterns are still important in the country. Brazil has taken many actions to improve nutrition as part of their public health policies, the data of the Household Budget Survey could help to recognize the different food choices in the large regions of the country. PMID:21798035

  7. Committed effective dose determination in southern Brazilian cereal flours.

    PubMed

    Scheibel, V; Appoloni, C R

    2013-01-01

    The health impact of radionuclide ingestion from foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in eight commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, cornmeal, cassava, rye, oat, barley and rice flours). The radioactivity traces of (228)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, (7)Be and (137)Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing an HPGe detector of 66 % relative efficiency. The efficiency curve has taken into account the differences in densities and chemical composition between the matrix and the certified sample. The highest concentration levels of (228)Th and (40)K were 3.5±0.4 and 1469±17 Bq kg(-1) for soy flour, respectively, within the 95 % confidence level. The lower limit of detection for (137)Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq kg(-1). The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 μSv.y(-1) for (228)Ra in cassava flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the International Atomic Energy Agency dose limit of 1 mSv.y(-1), to the public exposure.

  8. Biological studies on Brazilian plants used in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C; Fronza, M; Goettert, M; Geller, F; Luik, S; Flores, E M M; Bittencourt, C F; Zanetti, G D; Heinzmann, B M; Laufer, S; Merfort, I

    2009-04-21

    n-Hexanic and ethanolic extracts from twelve plants (Brugmansia suaveolens Brecht. et Presl., Eupatorium laevigatum Lam., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Iresine herbstii Hook., Kalanchöe tubiflora Hamet-Ahti, Petiveria alliacea L., Pluchea sagittalis (Lam.) Cabrera, Piper regnellii DC., Schinus molle L., Sedum dendroideum Moç et Sessé ex DC., Waltheria douradinha St. Hill., Xanthium cavanillesii Schouw.) used in traditional South Brazilian medicine as wound healing agents were investigated in various biological assays, targeting different aspects in this complex process. The extracts were investigated on NF-kappaB DNA binding, p38alpha MAPK, TNF-alpha release, direct elastase inhibition and its release as well as on caspase-3. Fibroblasts migration to and proliferation into the wounded monolayers were evaluated in the scratch assay, the agar diffusion test for antibacterial and the MTT assay for cytotoxic effects. The hydrophilic extracts from Galinsoga parviflora, Petiveria alliacea, Schinus molle, Waltheria douradinha and Xanthium cavanillesii as well as the lipophilic extract of Waltheria douradinha turned out to be the most active ones. These results increase our knowledge on the wound healing effects of the investigated medicinal plants. Further studies are necessary to find out the effective secondary metabolites responsible for the observed effects.

  9. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    PubMed

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  10. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.

    Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.

    East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.

    North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.

    South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns

  11. The impact of the subtropical South Atlantic SST on South American precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taschetto, A. S.; Wainer, I.

    2008-11-01

    The Community Climate Model (CCM3) from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is used to investigate the effect of the South Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies on interannual to decadal variability of South American precipitation. Two ensembles composed of multidecadal simulations forced with monthly SST data from the Hadley Centre for the period 1949 to 2001 are analysed. A statistical treatment based on signal-to-noise ratio and Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) is applied to the ensembles in order to reduce the internal variability among the integrations. The ensemble treatment shows a spatial and temporal dependence of reproducibility. High degree of reproducibility is found in the tropics while the extratropics is apparently less reproducible. Austral autumn (MAM) and spring (SON) precipitation appears to be more reproducible over the South America-South Atlantic region than the summer (DJF) and winter (JJA) rainfall. While the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) region is dominated by external variance, the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) over South America is predominantly determined by internal variance, which makes it a difficult phenomenon to predict. Alternatively, the SACZ over western South Atlantic appears to be more sensitive to the subtropical SST anomalies than over the continent. An attempt is made to separate the atmospheric response forced by the South Atlantic SST anomalies from that associated with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Results show that both the South Atlantic and Pacific SSTs modulate the intensity and position of the SACZ during DJF. Particularly, the subtropical South Atlantic SSTs are more important than ENSO in determining the position of the SACZ over the southeast Brazilian coast during DJF. On the other hand, the ENSO signal seems to influence the intensity of the SACZ not only in DJF but especially its oceanic branch during MAM. Both local and remote influences, however

  12. Redescription of Spirura guianensis (Nematoda: Spiruridae) from a rare South American Gracile Opossum.

    PubMed

    Torres, E J Lopes; Maldonado, A; Anjos, D H da Silva; de Souza, W; Miranda, K

    2015-10-01

    Spirura genus Blanchard, 1849 comprise of nematode parasites that infect primate and marsupial species. Although several taxonomical studies have shown that the infection by this species occurs primarily in the esophagus of primates, evidence for the occurrence of these parasites in other hosts (marsupials, rodents and bats) has become the subject of investigation by several groups. In this work, we describe the presence of Spirura guianensis Ortlepp, 1924 in the marsupial Gracilinanus agilis (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) found in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state of Brazil. Structural characteristics of this nematode were identified using light microscopy (bright field and fluorescence stereomicroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) approaches. Details of the surface topography such as cephalic projections, ventral boss, details of the caudal papillae and cuticular ornamentations were shown, providing taxonomic characteristics that may help in the establishment of diagnostic protocols. In addition, the presence of this species in a new host and new geographical area of Brazil provide grounds for a revision on the distribution of S. guianensis in South America.

  13. Brazilian Vaccinia Viruses and Their Origins

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Giliane S.; Emerson, Ginny L.; Carroll, Darin S.; Kroon, Erna G.

    2007-01-01

    Although the World Health Organization (WHO) declared global smallpox eradicated in 1980, concerns over emergent poxvirus infections have increased. Most poxvirus infections are zoonotic; exploring their genetic diversity will illuminate the genetic and evolutionary aspects of poxvirus infections, ecology, and epidemiology. In recent decades, several strains of the orthopoxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) have been isolated throughout Brazil, including many genetically distinct isolates within the same outbreak. To further investigate the diversity and origins of these viruses, we analyzed molecular data from 8 Brazilian VACV isolates and compared several genes involved in virus structure and pathogenicity. Genetic variation among isolates suggests that ancestral Brazilian VACVs existed before the beginning of the WHO smallpox eradication vaccination campaigns and that these viruses continue to circulate. PMID:18214166

  14. Archaea in Natural and Impacted Brazilian Environments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, archaeal diversity surveys have received increasing attention. Brazil is a country known for its natural diversity and variety of biomes, which makes it an interesting sampling site for such studies. However, archaeal communities in natural and impacted Brazilian environments have only recently been investigated. In this review, based on a search on the PubMed database on the last week of April 2016, we present and discuss the results obtained in the 51 studies retrieved, focusing on archaeal communities in water, sediments, and soils of different Brazilian environments. We concluded that, in spite of its vast territory and biomes, the number of publications focusing on archaeal detection and/or characterization in Brazil is still incipient, indicating that these environments still represent a great potential to be explored. PMID:27829818

  15. Glyphosate sustainability in South American cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Christoffoleti, Pedro J; Galli, Antonio J B; Carvalho, Saul J P; Moreira, Murilo S; Nicolai, Marcelo; Foloni, Luiz L; Martins, Bianca A B; Ribeiro, Daniela N

    2008-04-01

    South America represents about 12% of the global land area, and Brazil roughly corresponds to 47% of that. The major sustainable agricultural system in South America is based on a no-tillage cropping system, which is a worldwide adopted agricultural conservation system. Societal benefits of conservation systems in agriculture include greater use of conservation tillage, which reduces soil erosion and associated loading of pesticides, nutrients and sediments into the environment. However, overreliance on glyphosate and simpler cropping systems has resulted in the selection of tolerant weed species through weed shifts (WSs) and evolution of herbicide-resistant weed (HRW) biotypes to glyphosate. It is a challenge in South America to design herbicide- and non-herbicide-based strategies that effectively delay and/or manage evolution of HRWs and WSs to weeds tolerant to glyphosate in cropping systems based on recurrent glyphosate application, such as those used with glyphosate-resistant soybeans. The objectives of this paper are (i) to provide an overview of some factors that influence WSs and HRWs to glyphosate in South America, especially in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay soybean cropped areas; (ii) to discuss the viability of using crop rotation and/or cover crops that might be integrated with forage crops in an economically and environmentally sustainable system; and (iii) to summarize the results of a survey of the perceptions of Brazilian farmers to problems with WSs and HRWs to glyphosate, and the level of adoption of good agricultural practices in order to prevent or manage it.

  16. Sports injuries in Brazilian blind footballers.

    PubMed

    Magno e Silva, M P; Morato, M P; Bilzon, J L J; Duarte, E

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes, 11 succumbed to some form of injury during the 5 competitions, which incorporated 23 matches, representing a prevalence of 84.6%. A total of 35 sports injuries were recorded, giving a clinical incidence of 2.7 injuries per athlete and an injury risk of 0.85 and an incidence rate of 0.12 injuries per match. Traumatic injuries (80%) were more common than overuse injuries (20%) (p<0.05). The highest distribution of injury was in the lower limbs (80%), followed by the head (8.6%), spine (5.7%) and upper limbs (5.7%). The body regions most affected were the knee (28.6%), feet (17.1%), ankle (11.4%) and thigh (11.4%). Contusions (31.4%), sprains (25.7%) and tendinopathy (8.6%) were the most frequent diagnoses. This is the first study to describe the nature and prevalence of sports-related injuries in 5-a-side football in blind athletes. The results are important in guiding strategies to inform the implementation of preventive pathways and provide a strong rationale for the compulsory use of additional protective equipment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    Rufino, R.; Costa, C.H.; Lopes, A.J.; Maiworm, A.I.; Maynard, K.; Silva, L.M.R.A.; Dias, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%), 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%), and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT). This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index). From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method). Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9). The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5), and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used. PMID:28273211

  18. Cyclodextrin-enclosed substances of Brazilian propolis.

    PubMed

    Nafady, Alaa Mohamed; El-Shanawany, Mohamed Ahmed; Mohamed, Mahmoud Hamed; Hassanean, Hashim Abdel-Halim; Nohara, Toshihiro; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Ono, Masateru; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Doi, Shima; Sasaki, Ken; Kuroda, Hirohisa

    2003-08-01

    By using beta-cyclodextrin-inclusion as a unique technique, an efficient separation of pharmacologically active phenolic compounds from Brazilian propolis was achieved to provide one new compound, 3-(3-hydroxy-3-methyl-butyl)-5-prenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, together with two common cinnamic acid derivatives, artepillin C and capillartemisin A, and two known flavanols, aromadendrin and 3,5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanol.

  19. Impacts of Prolonged Peace on Brazilian Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Southern Cone and Antarctica (Lynne Reinner Publishers, Colorado, 1988 ), 2. 14 Ibid., 34. 8 D. FOREIGN POLICY TOOLS AND DIPLOMACY IN BRAZIL 1... 1988 ), 8. 36 Ibid., 16. 17 3. Military Governments The Brazilian Generals seized power with promises to reinforce the threatened democratic...37 Skidmore 1988 , 8. 38 Ibid., 18. 39 Ibid., 105. 18 After Castelo’s term, Artur da Costa e Silva

  20. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes.

    PubMed

    Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Rossa, Giselle Ayres Razera; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Gennari, Solange Maria; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2014-04-01

    Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

  1. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes

    PubMed Central

    Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Rossa, Giselle Ayres Razera; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Gennari, Solange Maria; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2014-01-01

    Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil. PMID:24714968

  2. History of Soil Survey and Evolution of the Brazilian Soil Classification System - SiBCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha dos Anjos, Lúcia Helena; Csekö Nolasco de Carvalho, Claudia; Homem Antunes, Mauro Antonio; Muggler, Cristine Carole

    2014-05-01

    In Brazil soil surveys started around 1940 and the first map with soil information of São Paulo State was published in 1943. The Committee of Soils of the National Service for Agronomic Research was created in 1947 by the Agriculture Ministry and became an historical landmark for soil survey in Brazil. In 1953, the National Program of soil survey was approved and the first soil map and report of Rio de Janeiro State was released in 1958, followed by São Paulo State in 1960. This is also the origin of Embrapa Soil Research institution. Other milestones were the soil surveys published by the Agronomic Institute of Campinas (IAC) and the natural resources studies published within the RADAMBRASIL Project, initially planned for the Amazon region and later covering the whole country. Many soil studies followed and a comprehensive knowledge of tropical soils was achieved resulting in successful technologies for agriculture production, in lands considered by many as of "low fertility and acid soils with limited or no agricultural potential". However, detailed soil surveys are still lacking; only 5% of the country soils are mapped in 1:25.000 scales, and 15-20% in 1:100.000. In the first soil survey reports of Rio de Janeiro (1958) and São Paulo (1960), soil classes were defined according to Baldwin, Kellog & Thorp (Yearbook of Agriculture for 1938), and Thorp & Smith (Soil Science, 67, 1949) publications. It was already clear that the existing classification systems were not adequate to represent the highly weathered tropical soils of the large old landscapes in the cerrado (savanna like) region, or the soils formed on recent hydromorphic conditions at the Amazon Basin and Pantanal region. A national classification system to embody the country's large territory and environmental variation from tropical to subtropical and semiarid conditions, as well as the diversity of soil forming processes in old and new landscapes had to be developed. In 1964, the first attempt of a

  3. [Profile of clinical trials enrolling Brazilian children].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Jean Mendes de Lucena; Lima, Elisangela da Costa; Land, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot; Ventura, Miriam; Coelho, Helena Lutescia Luna

    2017-06-12

    This study aimed to characterize the clinical trials with medicines enrolling Brazilian children and adolescents, registered in the databases of Clinical Trials and the Brazilian Clinical Trials Network (ReBEC) from 1994 to 2014. Only 462 clinical trials enrolled Brazilian children and adolescents. There was an increase in registrations beginning in 2003, with an important drop in 2011. Among these trials, 35.5% were hosted in Brazil. The international clinical trials were mostly conducted by North American companies. In both cases, multinational industry was the principal source of funding. The clinical trials were predominantly phase III with injectable and solid oral pharmaceutical forms of antiviral drugs. Domestic clinical trials showed wider variation in the pharmaceutical forms and higher percentage of liquid formulations, when compared to the international trials. In addition to heavy external dependence for conducting clinical trials, the study emphasized the challenge for pediatric care in Brazil, which presents epidemiological peculiarities in an environment prone to the use of unlicensed medicines for children.

  4. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    PubMed Central

    Jurado, Sonia R.; Bankoff, Antônia D. P.; Sanchez, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC) (n = 15) and naturally ventilated (NV) (n = 15) classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, relative humidity (RH), wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively). The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 μg/m3) in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively). The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem. PMID:25019268

  5. Hydrocarbon source potential in Brazilian margin basins

    SciTech Connect

    Mello, M.R.; Estrella, G.D.O.; Gaglianone, P.C.

    1984-04-01

    Twenty thousand samples from the Brazilian continental shelf basins were analyzed to characterize and evaluate the hydrocarbon source potential of the areas. The geochemical evaluation of the rock and oil samples was performed by organic carbon determinations, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance, thermal alteration index, liquid and gas chromatographies, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and carbon isotope analyses. Three source rock systems have been identified: lower Neocomian shales deposited in a continental environment, upper Neocomian shales grading from continental to lagoonal environment, and Aptian shales related to evaporitic and lacustrine sequences. Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary open marine slope sediments are not considered as source rocks. Locally, these sediments present high organic carbon content but show an extremely poor hydrocarbon yield. Anoxic depositional conditions, nevertheless, can be traced locally along some levels of the Santonian to Cenomanian shales and marls. These sediments are generally immature in the Brazilian margin basins and no oil was generated from this section. Three oil families were distinguished through oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock correlations: the lower Neocomian continental type, the upper Neocomian continental to lagoonal type, and the Aptian evaporitic to lacustrine related sequences. The geochemical studies, together with geologic and geophysical data, provided the basis to display some models for the migration pathways and habitat of oils in the Brazilian margin basins.

  6. Determination of the geographical origin of Brazilian wines by isotope and mineral analysis.

    PubMed

    Dutra, S V; Adami, L; Marcon, A R; Carnieli, G J; Roani, C A; Spinelli, F R; Leonardelli, S; Ducatti, C; Moreira, M Z; Vanderlinde, R

    2011-09-01

    In the present research, we studied wines from three different south Brazilian winemaking regions with the purpose of differentiating them by geographical origin of the grapes. Brazil's wide territory and climate diversity allow grape cultivation and winemaking in many regions of different and unique characteristics. The wine grape cultivation for winemaking concentrates in the South Region, mainly in the Serra Gaúcha, the mountain area of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, which is responsible for 90% of the domestic wine production. However, in recent years, two new production regions have developed: the Campanha, the plains to the south and the Serra do Sudeste, the hills to the southeast of the state. Analysis of isotopic ratios of (18)O/(16)O of wine water, (13)C/(12)C of ethanol, and of minerals were used to characterize wines from different regions. The isotope analysis of δ(18)O of wine water and minerals Mg and Rb were the most efficient to differentiate the regions. By using isotope and mineral analysis, and discrimination analysis, it was possible to classify the wines from south Brazil.

  7. Mortality and Incidence of Hospital Admissions for Stroke among Brazilians Aged 15 to 49 Years between 2008 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Adami, Fernando; Figueiredo, Francisco Winter dos Santos; Paiva, Laércio da Silva; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Santos, Edige Felipe de Sousa; Martins, Bruno Luis; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The objective was to analyze rates of stroke-related mortality and incidence of hospital admissions in Brazilians aged 15 to 49 years according to region and age group between 2008 and 2012. Methods Secondary analysis was performed in 2014 using data from the Hospital and Mortality Information Systems and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Stroke was defined by ICD, 10th revision (I60–I64). Crude and standardized mortality (WHO reference) and incidence of hospital admissions per 100,000 inhabitants, stratified by region and age group, were estimated. Absolute and relative frequencies; and linear regression were also used. The software used was Stata 11.0. Results There were 35,005 deaths and 131,344 hospital admissions for stroke in Brazilians aged 15–49 years old between 2008 and 2012. Mortality decreased from 7.54 (95% CI 7.53; 7.54) in 2008 to 6.32 (95% CI 6.31; 6.32) in 2012 (β = -0.27, p = 0.013, r2 = 0.90). During the same time, incidence of hospital admissions stabilized: 24.67 (95% CI 24.66; 24.67) in 2008 and 25.11 (95% CI 25.10; 25.11) in 2012 (β = 0.09, p = 0.692, r2 = 0.05). There was a reduction in mortality in all Brazilian regions and in the age group between 30 and 49 years. Incidence of hospitalizations decreased in the South, but no significant decrease was observed in any age group. Conclusion We observed a decrease in stroke-related mortality, particularly in individuals over 30 years old, and stability of the incidence of hospitalizations; and also regional variation in stroke-related hospital admission incidence and mortality among Brazilian young adults. PMID:27332892

  8. Tick fauna from two locations in the Brazilian savannah.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Olegário, Maria Marlene Martins; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto

    2007-01-01

    The Cerrado is Brazil's tropical savannah, which is arguably under greater threat than the Amazon rainforest. The Cerrado Biome of tropical South America covers about 2 million km(2) and is considered a biodiversity hot spot which means that it is especially rich in endemic species and particularly threatened by human activities. The Cerrado is increasingly exposed to agricultural activities which enhance the likelihood of mixing parasites from rural, urban and wildlife areas. Information about ticks from the Cerrado biome is scarce. In this report tick species free-living, on domestic animals and on a few wild animals in two farms in the Cerrado biome (Nova Crixás and Araguapaz municipalities, Goiás State, Brazil) are described. Amblyomma cajennense was the first and Amblyomma parvum the second host-seeking tick species found. Only two other tick species were found free-living: one Amblyomma nodosum and three Amblyomma naponense nymphs. Cattle were infested with Boophilus microplus and A. cajennense. Buffalos were infested with B. microplus and A. parvum. Dogs were infested with A. cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, A. parvum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. Anocentor nitens, B. microplus, A. cajennense, and A. parvum were found on horses. Amblyomma auricularium were found attached to nine-banded armadillos and Amblyomma rotundatum to red-footed tortoise, cururu toads and a rattlesnake. The latter was also infested with an adult A. cajennense. No tick was found on a goat, a tropical rat snake and a yellow armadillo. Among the observations the infestation of several domestic animals with A. parvum seems be the main feature. It suggests that this species might become a pest. However, the life cycle of A. parvum in nature, as well as its disease vectoring capacity, are largely unknown. It would be important to determine if it is a species expanding its geographic range by adaptation to new hosts or if it has been maintained in high numbers at definite locations by

  9. ERICA: prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Schaan, Beatriz; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício T L

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated 37,504 adolescents who were participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, school-based, national study. The adolescents, aged from 12 to 17 years, lived in cities with populations greater than 100,000 inhabitants. The sample was stratified and clustered into schools and classes. The criteria set out by the International Diabetes Federation were used to define metabolic syndrome. Prevalences of metabolic syndrome were estimated according to sex, age group, school type and nutritional status. RESULTS Of the 37,504 adolescents who were evaluated: 50.2% were female; 54.3% were aged from 15 to 17 years, and 73.3% were from public schools. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% (95%CI 2.3-2.9), slightly higher in males and in those aged from 15 to 17 years in most macro-regions. The prevalence was the highest in residents from the South macro-region, in the younger female adolescents and in the older male adolescents. The prevalence was higher in public schools (2.8% [95%CI 2.4-3.2]), when compared with private schools (1.9% [95%CI 1.4-2.4]) and higher in obese adolescents when compared with nonobese ones. The most common combinations of components, referring to 3/4 of combinations, were: enlarged waist circumference (WC), low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) and high blood pressure; followed by enlarged WC, low HDL-c and high triglycerides; and enlarged WC, low HDL-c, high triglycerides and blood pressure. Low HDL was the second most frequent component, but the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (26.8%) was observed in the presence of high triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS ERICA is the first Brazilian nation-wide study to present the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and describe the role of its components. Despite the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome being low, the high prevalences of some

  10. Frequency of the CCR5-delta32 allele in Brazilian populations: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva-Carvalho, Wlisses Henrique Veloso; de Moura, Ronald Rodrigues; Coelho, Antonio Victor Campos; Crovella, Sergio; Guimarães, Rafael Lima

    2016-09-01

    The CCR5 is a chemokine receptor widely expressed by several immune cells that are engaged in inflammatory responses. Some populations have individuals exhibiting a 32bp deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5-delta32) that produces a truncated non-functional protein not expressed on the cell surface. This polymorphism, known to be associated with susceptibility to infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as osteomyelitis, pre-eclampsia, systemic lupus erythematous, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and HIV/AIDS, is more commonly found in European populations with average frequency of 10%. However, it is also possible to observe a significant frequency in other world populations, such as the Brazilian one. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of CCR5-delta32 genetic association studies in Brazilian populations throughout the country to estimate the frequency of this polymorphism. We also compared CCR5-delta32 frequencies across Brazilian regions. The systematic literature reviewed studies involving delta32 allele in Brazilian populations published from 1995 to 2015. Among the reviewed literature, 25 studies including 30 Brazilian populations distributed between the North, Northeast, South and Southeast regions were included in our meta-analysis. We observed an overall allelic frequency of 4% (95%-CI, 0.03-0.05), that was considered moderate and, notably, higher than some European populations, such as Cyprus (2.8%), Italy (3%) and Greece (2.4%). Regarding the regional frequency comparisons between North-Northeast (N-NE) and South-Southeast (S-SE) regions, we observed an allelic frequency of 3% (95%-CI, 0.02-0.04) and 4% (95%-CI, 0.03-0.05), respectively. The populations from S-SE regions had a slightly higher CCR5-delta32 frequency than N-NE regions (OR=1.41, p=0.002). Although there are several studies about the CCR5-delta32 polymorphism and its effect on the immune response of some infectious diseases, this report is the first meta

  11. Private Health Care Coverage in the Brazilian population, according to the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Pereira, Cimar Azeredo; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Oliveira, Martha; Reis, Arthur Chioro Dos

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present the percentages of the Brazilian population holding health insurance plans, itemized by social-demographic characteristics, based on the data of the National Health Survey carried out in 2013, and to compare this information with the administrative data of the National Supplementary Health Agency for the same year. Data from the National Health Survey, and from the Beneficiaries Information System of the National Health Agency for the year 2013, were used. The percentage of people having a health plan was described according to stratification for: all of Brazil, urban/rural, Brazilian official Regions, Brazilian States and state capitals, gender, age group, level of schooling, position in the workforce, ethnic classification, and self-assessed state of health. Results include the following: The percentage of people saying they had some health plan in Brazil was 27.9% (CI 95%: 27.1-28.8). A significant difference was found relating to level of schooling - the percentage being highest for those who stated they had complete secondary education (68.8% CI 95%: 67.2-70.4) and for those who said they were currently in work (32.5% CI 95%: 31.5-33.5). The increase in health plan coverage in the Brazilian population reflects the improvement of the suply of employment and the growth in the country's economy.

  12. Partnerships for Lifelong Learning Policies: A Brazilian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Brazilian inequality is the result of multiple complex determinations but the heterogeneity with which quality education is distributed among the population remains at its core. When we consider the Brazilian labour market we see that the heterogeneity in the levels of schooling of the workforce is the principle determinant for wage inequality…

  13. Brazilian Adaptation of the Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Nunes, Carlos Sancineto; Schelini, Patricia Waltz; Pasian, Sonia Regina; Homsi, Silvia Vertoni; Moretti, Lucia; Anache, Alexandra Ayach

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the standard battery of Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) for Brazilian children and youth was investigated. The sample was composed of 1094 students (54 percent girls), ages 7-17, living in Sao Paulo state (91 percent). Items from Brazilian school books as well as from the WJ-III Spanish version…

  14. An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Codas in Brazilian Portuguese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese allows only /s, N, l, r/ syllable finally, and of these, only /s/ is realized faithfully (as well as /r/ for some speakers). In order to avoid unacceptable codas, dialects of Brazilian Portuguese employ such strategies as epenthesis, nasal absorption, debucalization, and gliding. The current analysis argues that codas in…

  15. "Tupy or not Tupy?" Examining Hybridity in Contemporary Brazilian Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastos, Flavia M. C.

    2006-01-01

    Updating the 1920s notion of Anthropophagy developed to symbolize through cannibalistic ritual the process of cultural assimilation that influences art, this article examines issues of naming, describing, and representing contemporary Brazilian art. In the first part of the article, the work of four contemporary Brazilian artists recently…

  16. The Afro-Brazilian Fetish Cults: Religious Syncretism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, B. C.

    1967-01-01

    This paper treats the Afro-Brazilian fetish cults found throughout Brazil and examines the syncretism of these cults with Catholicism. The religious practices of the "macumbas" (deities of the Afro-Brazilian cults), ritual music, and the ethnicity of the Negroes from both southern and northern Brazil are discussed. Frequently, excerpts…

  17. A Brief History of the Brazilian Participation in CMB Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villela, Thyrso

    This contribution is a short report on the Brazilian participation in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observational programs. It includes brief descriptions of the experiments aiming to measure both CMB properties and Galactic microwave signals that hamper these measurements. The work done by Brazilian researchers involved in the development of these experiments and in the subsequent observations is briefly described as well.

  18. From Brazilian Portuguese to American English: Pronunciation Problems and Drills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Percilia

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of the sounds in American English and Brazilian Portuguese in order to focus on the problems that Brazilian students may encounter when learning to speak English. The comparative analysis of the consonants, vowels, and diphthongs describes how a given sound is pronounced in both languages. Particular…

  19. Comparison of peak muscle power between Brazilian and French girls.

    PubMed

    Nanci Maria, França; Eric, Doré; Mario, Bedu; Emmanuel, Van Praagh

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the muscle power of Brazilian circumpubertal girls and extended the analysis to a cross-cultural dimension. A total of 462 children, 123 Brazilian girls and 339 French girls, 9-18 years, participated in this investigation. Anthropometric data included body mass (BM), height, skinfold thicknesses, and estimated lean leg volume (LLV). All subjects completed a physical activity questionnaire. Cycling peak power was measured including the flywheel inertia of the device (CPPi). Brazilian girls self-assessed their maturation using pubic hair development. CPPi and optimal velocity (v(opt) = velocity at CPPi) increased with stages of puberty. A multiple stepwise regression with anthropometric variables as explanatory factors showed only LLV and age explaining the variance of CPPi (R2 = 0.40, P < 0.001). Therefore, 60% of the variance of CPPi in Brazilian girls was related to undetermined qualitative individual factors, which may be related to cycling skill. Even when normalized for anthropometric variables, the anaerobic performance (CPPi and v(opt)) of Brazilian girls was significantly lower than a cohort of French girls. The latter demonstrated a high participation in sport and training activities, while 50% of the Brazilian girls had only physical education classes in the form of regular physical activity. Moreover, most of the Brazilian girls demonstrated an ineffective sprint cycling skill. The data suggest that motor learning is an important issue in muscle power assessment and might, therefore, partially explain peak power differences in Brazilian compared with French girls.

  20. Factors Influencing Consonant Acquisition in Brazilian Portuguese-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceron, Marizete Ilha; Gubiani, Marileda Barichello; de Oliveira, Camila Rosa; Keske-Soares, Márcia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to provide valid and reliable data on the acquisition of consonant sounds in speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. Method: The sample comprised 733 typically developing monolingual speakers of Brazilian Portuguese (ages 3;0-8;11 [years;months]). The presence of surface speech error patterns, the revised percentage consonants…

  1. The Use and Perception of English in Brazilian Magazine Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Amanda Lira Gordenstein

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the uses of English in advertising in Brazil and the attitudes of Brazilians towards the use of different difficulty levels of English in advertising. Using a two part, mixed-methods approach, drawing from quantitative and qualitative methods, I utilized a corpus study to examine English uses in Brazilian magazines and a…

  2. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  3. An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Codas in Brazilian Portuguese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese allows only /s, N, l, r/ syllable finally, and of these, only /s/ is realized faithfully (as well as /r/ for some speakers). In order to avoid unacceptable codas, dialects of Brazilian Portuguese employ such strategies as epenthesis, nasal absorption, debucalization, and gliding. The current analysis argues that codas in…

  4. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  5. Brazilian Adaptation of the Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Nunes, Carlos Sancineto; Schelini, Patricia Waltz; Pasian, Sonia Regina; Homsi, Silvia Vertoni; Moretti, Lucia; Anache, Alexandra Ayach

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the standard battery of Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) for Brazilian children and youth was investigated. The sample was composed of 1094 students (54 percent girls), ages 7-17, living in Sao Paulo state (91 percent). Items from Brazilian school books as well as from the WJ-III Spanish version…

  6. The Use and Perception of English in Brazilian Magazine Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Amanda Lira Gordenstein

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the uses of English in advertising in Brazil and the attitudes of Brazilians towards the use of different difficulty levels of English in advertising. Using a two part, mixed-methods approach, drawing from quantitative and qualitative methods, I utilized a corpus study to examine English uses in Brazilian magazines and a…

  7. A time-transgressive Holocene onset from Globorotalia menardii records on Brazilian continental margin sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, F. S.; Costa, K. B.; Toledo, F. A. D. L.; Santarosa, A. C. A.; Chiessi, C. M.; Camillo, E., Jr.; Quadros, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The planktic foraminifer Globorotalia menardii presents a cyclic behavior within Pleistocene glacial cycles on Atlantic; it disappears during glacial periods and returns to this ocean after deglaciations. Therefore, G. menardii has been used to identify limits between those cycles and the last limit is recognized as the Holocene onset. The Holocene onset has been reported before as being more than 4 kyrs later than expected at the equatorial Atlantic Ocean based on a G. menardii record (Broecker & Pena, 2014). In this study, we explore the time-transgressive Holocene onset of G. menardii in the Atlantic from 21 piston cores collected along the Brazilian continental margin, between 7 ˚N and 33 ˚S. Radiocarbon dating was conducted on Globigerinoides ruber on samples prior to and after G. menardii reappearance in the cores. Reservoir-age corrected 14C dates vary between 17 and 6.5 cal kyrs; the older ages are found at ~14 ˚S and younger ages at 6 ˚N and 33 ˚S. From these ages and latitudes, we hypothesize that G. menardii's population has spread at higher rates southward. From the scenario observed on Brazilian coast it is possible to conclude that although ocean circulation has an important role on dispersion of planktonic foraminifera, it may be superimposed by ecological constraints of the species. G. menardii absence during glacials is linked to the Agulhas Leakage activity, which is prevented from getting to the Atlantic due the northern position of the Subtropical Convergence Zone during glacials. On interglacials, warm and saline waters carrying G. menardii are transported into the Subtropical Gyre currents, achieving Brazil's coast through the South Equatorial Current and spreading south and northward through Brazil Current and North Brazil Current, respectively. Nonetheless, from velocity and volume registered for this currents, we would expect a higher G. menardii dispersion rate northward. A faster southward dispersal during the deglaciation suggests

  8. Sickle cell disease in a Brazilian population from Sao Paulo: a study of the beta s haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, M S; Nechtman, J F; Figueiredo, M S; Kerbauy, J; Arruda, V R; Sonati, M F; Saad, S O; Costa, F F; Stoming, T A

    1994-01-01

    In this study we have determined the frequency of beta S haplotypes in a Brazilian sickle cell disease population from Sao Paulo, Brazil, by analyzing sequence variations in the immediate 5' flanking and second intervening sequence (IVSII) regions of the gamma globin genes. This association between sequence differences and beta s haplotype backgrounds was determined by screening genomic DNA samples using dot blot analysis of polymerase chain reaction products. We studied 148 beta s chromosomes, and found that haplotype 20 (CAR or Bantu) significantly predominated in this population. This is in agreement with the findings of the historical Portuguese Atlantic slave trade from Africa to South America.

  9. Necessity to review the Brazilian regulation about fluoride toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Caldarelli, Pablo Guilherme; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the Brazilian legislation about fluoride toothpaste. A search was conducted in LILACS, Medline and SciELO databases about the fluoride concentration found in Brazilians toothpastes, using descriptors on health. Publications since 1981 have shown that some Brazilian toothpastes are not able to maintain, during their expiration time, a minimum of 1,000 ppm F of soluble fluoride in the formulation. However, the Brazilian regulation (ANVISA, Resolution 79, August 28, 2000) only sets the maximum total fluoride (0.15%; 1,500 ppm F) that a toothpaste may contain but not the minimum concentration of soluble fluoride that it should contain to have anticaries potential, which according to systematic reviews should be 1,000 ppm F. Therefore, the Brazilian regulation on fluoride toothpastes needs to be revised to assure the efficacy of those products for caries control.

  10. Necessity to review the Brazilian regulation about fluoride toothpastes

    PubMed Central

    Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Caldarelli, Pablo Guilherme; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the Brazilian legislation about fluoride toothpaste. A search was conducted in LILACS, Medline and SciELO databases about the fluoride concentration found in Brazilians toothpastes, using descriptors on health. Publications since 1981 have shown that some Brazilian toothpastes are not able to maintain, during their expiration time, a minimum of 1,000 ppm F of soluble fluoride in the formulation. However, the Brazilian regulation (ANVISA, Resolution 79, August 28, 2000) only sets the maximum total fluoride (0.15%; 1,500 ppm F) that a toothpaste may contain but not the minimum concentration of soluble fluoride that it should contain to have anticaries potential, which according to systematic reviews should be 1,000 ppm F. Therefore, the Brazilian regulation on fluoride toothpastes needs to be revised to assure the efficacy of those products for caries control. PMID:26487295

  11. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: Brazilian survey

    PubMed Central

    Cotrim, Helma P.; Oliveira, Claudia P.; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio M.; Alvares-da-Silva, Mario R.; Nabuco, Leticia; Parise, Edison Roberto; Ivantes, Claúdia; Martinelli, Ana LC; Galizzi-Filho, João; Carrilho, Flair J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The majority of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma have been reported in individuals with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholism, but recently, the prevalence has become increasingly related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis around the world. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical and histophatological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazilians' patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at the present time. METHODS: Members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology were invited to complete a survey regarding patients with hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with a history of alcohol intake (>20 g/day) and other liver diseases were excluded. Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis was performed by liver biopsy or imaging methods according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases' 2011 guidelines. RESULTS: The survey included 110 patients with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from nine hepatology units in six Brazilian states (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul). The mean age was 67±11 years old, and 65.5% were male. Obesity was observed in 52.7% of the cases; diabetes, in 73.6%; dyslipidemia, in 41.0%; arterial hypertension, in 60%; and metabolic syndrome, in 57.2%. Steatohepatitis without fibrosis was observed in 3.8% of cases; steatohepatitis with fibrosis (grades 1-3), in 27%; and cirrhosis, in 61.5%. Histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was performed in 47.2% of the patients, with hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis accounting for 7.7%. In total, 58 patients with cirrhosis had their diagnosis by ultrasound confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of these, 55% had 1 nodule; 17%, 2 nodules; and 28%, ≥3 nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a relevant risk factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with and

  12. Brazilian Portuguese validation of Mood Disorder Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Gurgel, Wagner; Rebouças, Diego Barreto; Negreiros de Matos, Karla Julianne; Carneiro, Alexandre Henrique Silva; Gomes de Matos e Souza, Fábio

    2012-04-01

    The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) is a screening instrument for bipolar spectrum disorders already validated in many languages. Patients from 2 psychiatric outpatient facilities were diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD) type I and II and major depression according to the mood module of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (SCID), Axis I Disorders--Clinician Version. In addition, a control group of healthy subjects was selected. The diagnostic interviews were used as the gold standard against which to investigate the performance of the MDQ. The MDQ was administered to 153 subjects, distributed among 4 groups. We analyzed the test reliability and discriminative capacity of the MDQ for the detection of patients with BD. Based on the SCID, Axis I Disorders--Clinician Version, 52 subjects (33.3%) presented a bipolar spectrum disorder (type I, II, or not otherwise specified), 48 (32.4%) were diagnosed as having unipolar depressive disorder, whereas 54 (35.3%) were unaffected by any type of psychiatric disorder (had no psychiatric disorder according to SCID results). The sensitivity for bipolar disorder was 0.72 (bipolar I disorder, 0.81; bipolar II disorder, 0.58; and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified, 0.69), with specificity of 0.95. The Brazilian Portuguese MDQ demonstrated adequate internal consistency (Cronbach α = .87). Recruiting patients attending tertiary services may inflate the performance of the MDQ. The performance of the Brazilian Portuguese MDQ is comparable with other language validations. In a psychiatric outpatient sample, the Brazilian Portuguese MDQ proves to be a feasible and reliable screening instrument. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term landscape evolution of the southeast Brazilian highlands: comparison of two alkaline intrusions areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doranti Tiritan, Carolina; Hackspacher, Peter Christian; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton

    2016-04-01

    The southeast Brazilian highlands records a long history of tectonic and magmatic events that were consequence of the South Atlantic Ocean opening. After the rifting process has ceased, an epeirogenic uplift of the continental crust has started in response to the drifting of the South American Platform over a thermal anomaly that accompanied an intense alkaline and basaltic magmatism. Related Late Cretaceous alkaline intrusions are distributed from the southeast Brazilian coast to the interior of the South American Platform. The landscape evolution is associated with several distinct exhumation events at the South American passive continental margin (Hackspacher 2004; Doranti et al, 2014). The present study intent providing insights on the behaviour of the coupled magmatic tectonic-erosional system, comparing thermochronological data from two alkaline intrusions, Poços de Caldas Alkaline Massif (PCAM) and São Sebastião Island (SSI). The PCAM is the biggest alkaline structure located in the interior of the continent, 300km from the coastline (Rio de Janeiro). The structure is formed as a caldera, covering over 800km2, intruding Precambrian basement around 83Ma, nepheline syenites, phonolites and tinguaites intruded in a continuous and rapid sequence lasting between 1 to 2 Ma. Meanwhile, the SSI (236km²) is located at the coast, 200 km southeast of the city of São Paulo and is characterized by an intrusion in Precambrian granitic-gnaissic rocks affected by the Panafrican/Brazilian Orogen. This crystalline basement is intruded by Early Cretaceous subalkaline basic and acid dykes, as well as by Late Cretaceous alkaline stocks (syenites) and dykes (basanite to phonolite). The Apatite Fission-Track ages for PCAM range from 333.3±27.6 to 94.0±13.7 Ma at the surrounded metamorphic basement area, and 76.8±10.9 to 48.7±10.7 Ma in the alkaline Massif. The older ages, are concentrated on the lower topography region (700 until 1200m) in the north side alkaline massif

  14. Plasma lipid concentrations for some Brazilian lizards.

    PubMed

    Gillett, M P; Lima, V L; Costa, J C; Sibrian, A M

    1979-01-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides were determined for ten species of Brazilian lizards, Iguana iguana, Tropidurus torquatos and T. semitaeniatus (Iguanidae), Tupinambis teguixin, Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae), Mabuya maculata (Scincidae), Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae), Amphisbaenia vermicularis and Leposternon polystegum (Amphisbaenidae). 2. Considerable inter- and intra-species variations in plasma lipid concentrations were observed. 3. The percentage of total cholesterol esterified and the individual phospholipid composition of plasma were relatively constant for each species. 4. Over 60% of the cholesteryl esters present in plasma from three species each of iguanid and teiid lizards were polyenoic.

  15. Reverse logistics in the Brazilian construction industry.

    PubMed

    Nunes, K R A; Mahler, C F; Valle, R A

    2009-09-01

    In Brazil most Construction and Demolition Waste (C&D waste) is not recycled. This situation is expected to change significantly, since new federal regulations oblige municipalities to create and implement sustainable C&D waste management plans which assign an important role to recycling activities. The recycling organizational network and its flows and components are fundamental to C&D waste recycling feasibility. Organizational networks, flows and components involve reverse logistics. The aim of this work is to introduce the concepts of reverse logistics and reverse distribution channel networks and to study the Brazilian C&D waste case.

  16. Net Carbon Balance for the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    The general purpose of this research was to use recent satellite-based estimates of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia to calculate the net flux of carbon associated with deforestation and subsequent regrowth of secondary forests. We have made such a calculation, in the process comparing two estimates of deforestation and two estimates of biomass for the region. Both estimates were based on the RADAMBRASIL survey. They differed in the equations used to convert wood-volumes to total biomass. The net flux of carbon from changes in land use seems to vary from year to year, perhaps by as much as a factor of 4.

  17. Antibodies to Shiga toxins in Brazilian cattle.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Bruno B; Luz, Daniela; Abreu, Patrícia A E; Gotti, Tatiana B; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Piazza, Roxane M F; Horton, Denise S P Q

    2017-07-01

    Cattle are considered a reservoir of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). There is no information about the presence of antibodies against Shiga toxins in Brazilian bovine serum. Using ELISA, all sera tested showed antibodies against the two main STEC virulence factors; Stx1 and Stx2. Neutralizing antibodies against Stx1 and/or Stx2 were detected in all but one serum. In conclusion, our results indicated that these animals had been exposed to STEC producing both toxins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Novelties in Brazilian Tradescantia L. (Commelinaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Marco O. O.; Forzza, Rafaela C.; Sakuragui, Cassia M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We present a new record to the Brazilian territory (i.e. Tradescantia boliviana), the rediscovery of a species exclusively known from the cultivated type collection (i.e. T. valida), the description of a new taxon (i.e. T. chrysophylla), synonyms for T. crassula and T. boliviana, correct the typification of T. crassula, and designation of a lectotype for T. ambigua and T. ambigua var. pilosula. Furthermore, we present illustrations, comments, distribution maps, and identification keys for the studied taxa. PMID:28781555

  19. ESR dating of teeth from Brazilian megafauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, L. C.; Kinoshita, A.; Barreto, A. M. F.; Figueiredo, A. M.; Silva, J. L. L.; Baffa, O.

    2010-11-01

    The study of radiation defects created in biomaterials, such as bone and teeth, can be used in dating with importance to palaeontology and archaeology. Two Stegomastodon teeth (AL1 and AL2) from north-eastern Brazilian megafauna were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The samples were collected in Fazenda Ovo da Ema, (913349 / 3714965) UTM, Alagoas state, Brazil. The dating of these samples can contribute to the better knowledge of megafauna presence in this region as well as to the events associated to the extinction of these species.

  20. Brazilian exchange rate complexity: Financial crisis effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueira, José Roberto C.; Mortoza, Letícia Pelluci D.

    2012-04-01

    With the financial market globalization, foreign investments became vital for the economies, mainly in emerging countries. In the last decades, Brazilian exchange rates appeared as a good indicator to measure either investors' confidence or risk aversion. Here, some events of global or national financial crisis are analyzed, trying to understand how they influenced the "dollar-real" rate evolution. The theoretical tool to be used is the López-Mancini-Calbet (LMC) complexity measure that, applied to real exchange rate data, has shown good fitness between critical events and measured patterns.

  1. Brazilian keratin hair treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Weathersby, Courtney; McMichael, Amy

    2013-06-01

    Brazilian keratin treatments are widely available products that are used by women all over the world to straighten hair. Marketers of these products claim that the keratin treatments render naturally curly hair more manageable and frizz-free while enhancing color and shine, giving the hair a healthier appearance. Although widely used, there have been virtually no reports of adverse side effects. Unfortunately, many of the products that are applied by salon professionals contain formaldehyde or its derivatives and are being marketed as safe.

  2. Net Carbon Balance for the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    The general purpose of this research was to use recent satellite-based estimates of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia to calculate the net flux of carbon associated with deforestation and subsequent regrowth of secondary forests. We have made such a calculation, in the process comparing two estimates of deforestation and two estimates of biomass for the region. Both estimates were based on the RADAMBRASIL survey. They differed in the equations used to convert wood-volumes to total biomass. The net flux of carbon from changes in land use seems to vary from year to year, perhaps by as much as a factor of 4.

  3. The Brazilian Research and Teaching Center in Biomedicine and Aerospace Biomedical Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Russomano, T; Falcao, P F; Dalmarco, G; Martinelli, L; Cardoso, R; Santos, M A; Sparenberg, A

    2008-01-01

    The recent engagement of Brazil in the construction and utilization of the International Space Station has motivated several Brazilian research institutions and universities to establish study centers related to Space Sciences. The Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) is no exception. Method: The University initiated in 1993 the first degree course training students to operate commercial aircraft in South America (the School of Aeronautical Sciences. A further step was the decision to build the first Brazilian laboratory dedicated to the conduct of experiments in ground-based microgravity simulation. Established in 1998, the Microgravity Laboratory, which was located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas (IPCT), was supported by the Schools of Medicine, Aeronautical Sciences and Electrical Engineering/Biomedical Engineering. At the end of 2006, the Microgravity Laboratory became a Center and was transferred to the School of Engineering. Results: The principal activities of the Microgravity Centre are the development of research projects related to human physiology before, during and after ground-based microgravity simulation and parabolic flights, to aviation medicine in the 21st century and to aerospace biomedical engineering. Conclusion: The history of Brazilian, and why not say worldwide, space science should unquestionably go through PUCRS. As time passes, the pioneering spirit of our University in the aerospace area has become undeniable. This is due to the group of professionals, students, technicians and staff in general that have once worked or are still working in the Center of Microgravity, a group of faculty and students that excel in their undeniable technical-scientific qualifications. PMID:19048090

  4. Hepatitis B virus subgenotype A1: evolutionary relationships between Brazilian, African and Asian isolates.

    PubMed

    Lago, Bárbara V; Mello, Francisco C; Kramvis, Anna; Niel, Christian; Gomes, Selma A

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of low hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemicity in which the genotype A of HBV (HBV/A) is the most prevalent. The complete nucleotide sequences of 26 HBV/A isolates, originating from eight Brazilian states, were determined. All were adw2. Twenty-three belonged to subgenotype A1 and three to A2. By phylogenetic analysis, it was shown that all the 23 HBV/A1 isolates clustered together with isolates from Bangladesh, India, Japan, Nepal, the Philippines and United Arab Emirates, but not with those of Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Four amino acid residues in the polymerase (His138 in the terminal protein domain, Pro18 and His90 in the spacer, and Ser109 in the reverse transcriptase), and one (Phe17) in the precore region, predominated in Latin American and Asian HBV/A1 isolates, but were rarely encountered in African isolates, with the exception of those from Somalia. Specific variations of two adjacent amino acids in the C-terminal domain of the HBx protein, namely Ala146 and Pro147, were found in all the Brazilian, but rarely in the other HBV/A1 isolates. By Bayesian analysis, the existence of an 'Asian-American' clade within subgenotype A1 was supported by a posterior probability value of 0.996. The close relatedness of the Brazilian, Asian and Somalian isolates suggests that the HBV/A1 strains predominant in Brazil did not originate from the five million slaves who were imported from Central and Western Africa from 1551 to 1840, but rather from the 300-400,000 captives forcibly removed from southeast Africa at the middle of the 19th century.

  5. Bathymetric and regional changes in benthic macrofaunal assemblages on the deep Eastern Brazilian margin, SW Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardino, Angelo Fraga; Berenguer, Vanessa; Ribeiro-Ferreira, Venina P.

    2016-05-01

    Deep-sea continental slopes have valuable mineral and biological resources in close proximity to diverse, undersampled and fragile marine benthic ecosystems. The eastern Brazilian Continental Margin (19.01°S to 21.06°S, 37.88°W to 40.22°W) is an important economic region for both fishing and oil industries, but is poorly understood with respect to the structure of the soft-sediment benthic fauna, their regional distribution and their bathymetric patterns. To identify spatial and temporal patterns of benthic macrofaunal assemblages on the slope (400 to 3000 m), the Espirito Santo Basin Assessment Project (AMBES, coordinated by Cenpes-Petrobras) sampled 42 stations across the Brazilian Eastern Slope during both Summer 2012 and Winter 2013. We found a significant decrease in macrofaunal abundance at the 400 m isobath along the slope near the northern region of the Espirito Santo Basin, suggesting benthic responses to upwelling events towards the south in Campos Basin and southern Espirito Santo Basin. The taxonomic diversity and assemblage composition also changed significantly across depth zones with mid-slope peaks of diversity at 1000-1300 m. In general, macrofaunal assemblages were strongly related to slope depth, suggesting a strong influence of productivity gradients and water mass distribution on this oligotrophic margin. Sediment grain size was marginally important to macrofaunal composition on the upper slope. In general, macrofaunal assemblages on the slope of Espirito Santo Basin are similar to other areas of the SE Brazilian margin, but regional changes in response to productivity and depth need to be considered for management strategies in the face of increasing economic activities off-shore.

  6. Trends in alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian students: 1989 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Zila M; Prado, Mariangela Cainelli Oliveira; Sanudo, Adriana; Carlini, Elisaldo A; Nappo, Solange A; Martins, Silvia S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze temporal trends of the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian students. METHODS We analyzed data published between 1989 and 2010 from five epidemiological surveys on students from the 6th to the 12th grade of public schools from the ten largest state capitals of Brazil. The total sample consisted of 104,104 students and data were collected in classrooms. The same collection tool – a World Health Organization self-reporting questionnaire – and sampling and weighting procedures were used in the five surveys. The Chi-square test for trend was used to compare the prevalence from different years. RESULTS The prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use varied among the years and cities studied. Alcohol consumption decreased in the 10 state capitals (p < 0.001) throughout 21 years. Tobacco use also decreased significantly in eight cities (p < 0.001). The highest prevalence of alcohol use was found in the Southeast region in 1993 (72.8%, in Belo Horizonte) and the lowest one in Belem (30.6%) in 2010. The highest past-year prevalence of tobacco use was found in the South region in 1997 (28.0%, in Curitiba) and the lowest one in the Southeast in 2010 (7.8%, in Sao Paulo). CONCLUSIONS The decreasing trend in the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among students detected all over the Country can be related to the successful and comprehensive Brazilian antitobacco and antialcohol policies. Despite these results, the past-year prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year remained high in all Brazilian regions. PMID:26465662

  7. ERICA: use of screens and consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Brunken, Gisela Soares; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the length of exposure to screens and the prevalence of consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents in front of screens. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 12 to 17-year old adolescents from 1,247 schools in 124 Brazilian municipalities. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Its segment regarding nutrition contained questions about using TV, computers, and video game systems, having meals while watching TV, and consuming snacks in front of screens. Consumption of meals and snacks in front of screens was analyzed according to the following variables: geographical region, gender, age range, type of school (public or private), and school shift. The prevalences and their respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated under a complex sampling design. RESULTS A great deal of the adolescents (73.5%, 95%CI 72.3-74.7) reported spending two or more hours a day in front of screens. That habit was more frequent among male adolescents, private school students, morning shift students, and students from Brazil’s South region. More than half of the adolescents (56.6%, 95%CI 55.4-57.8) reported almost always or always having meals in front of TV, and 39.6% (95%CI 38.8-40.5) of them said they consumed snacks in front of screens exactly as often. Both situations were the most prevalent ones among the girls, who attended public schools and were from Brazil’s Midwest region. CONCLUSIONS Length of exposure to screens and consumption of meals and snacks almost always or always in front of screens are high among Brazilian adolescents. It is necessary to develop strategies aiming to reduce the length of screen use, considering the media reality that children and adolescents have been experiencing from earlier and earlier ages. That context must therefore be analyzed in an indissociable way. PMID:26910539

  8. The Brazilian research and teaching center in biomedicine and aerospace biomedical engineering.

    PubMed

    Russomano, T; Falcao, P F; Dalmarco, G; Martinelli, L; Cardoso, R; Santos, M A; Sparenberg, A

    2008-08-01

    The recent engagement of Brazil in the construction and utilization of the International Space Station has motivated several Brazilian research institutions and universities to establish study centers related to Space Sciences. The Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) is no exception. The University initiated in 1993 the first degree course training students to operate commercial aircraft in South America (the School of Aeronautical Sciences. A further step was the decision to build the first Brazilian laboratory dedicated to the conduct of experiments in ground-based microgravity simulation. Established in 1998, the Microgravity Laboratory, which was located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas (IPCT), was supported by the Schools of Medicine, Aeronautical Sciences and Electrical Engineering/Biomedical Engineering. At the end of 2006, the Microgravity Laboratory became a Center and was transferred to the School of Engineering. The principal activities of the Microgravity Centre are the development of research projects related to human physiology before, during and after ground-based microgravity simulation and parabolic flights, to aviation medicine in the 21st century and to aerospace biomedical engineering. The history of Brazilian, and why not say worldwide, space science should unquestionably go through PUCRS. As time passes, the pioneering spirit of our University in the aerospace area has become undeniable. This is due to the group of professionals, students, technicians and staff in general that have once worked or are still working in the Center of Microgravity, a group of faculty and students that excel in their undeniable technical-scientific qualifications.

  9. Understanding the Chronology and Occupation Dynamics of Oversized Pit Houses in the Southern Brazilian Highlands

    PubMed Central

    Gregorio de Souza, Jonas; Robinson, Mark; Corteletti, Rafael; Cárdenas, Macarena Lucia; Wolf, Sidnei; Iriarte, José; Mayle, Francis; DeBlasis, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    A long held view about the occupation of southern proto-Jê pit house villages of the southern Brazilian highlands is that these sites represent cycles of long-term abandonment and reoccupation. However, this assumption is based on an insufficient number of radiocarbon dates for individual pit houses. To address this problem, we conducted a programme of comprehensive AMS radiocarbon dating and Bayesian modelling at the deeply stratified oversized pit House 1, Baggio I site (Cal. A.D. 1395–1650), Campo Belo do Sul, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The stratigraphy of House 1 revealed an unparalleled sequence of twelve well preserved floors evidencing a major change in occupation dynamics including five completely burnt collapsed roofs. The results of the radiocarbon dating allowed us to understand for the first time the occupation dynamics of an oversized pit house in the southern Brazilian highlands. The Bayesian model demonstrates that House 1 was occupied for over two centuries with no evidence of major periods of abandonment, calling into question previous models of long-term abandonment. In addition, the House 1 sequence allowed us to tie transformations in ceramic style and lithic technology to an absolute chronology. Finally, we can provide new evidence that the emergence of oversized domestic structures is a relatively recent phenomenon among the southern proto-Jê. As monumental pit houses start to be built, small pit houses continue to be inhabited, evidencing emerging disparities in domestic architecture after AD 1000. Our research shows the importance of programmes of intensive dating of individual structures to understand occupation dynamics and site permanence, and challenges long held assumptions that the southern Brazilian highlands were home to marginal cultures in the context of lowland South America. PMID:27384341

  10. Nitrogen cycle and ecosystem services in the Brazilian La Plata Basin: anthropogenic influence and climate change.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Ortega, E; Bergier, I; Silva, J S V

    2012-08-01

    The increasing human demand for food, raw material and energy has radically modified both the landscape and biogeochemical cycles in many river basins in the world. The interference of human activities on the Biosphere is so significant that it has doubled the amount of reactive nitrogen due to industrial fertiliser production (Haber-Bosch), fossil fuel burning and land-use change over the last century. In this context, the Brazilian La Plata Basin contributes to the alteration of the nitrogen cycle in South America because of its huge agricultural and grazing area that meets the demands of its large urban centres - Sao Paulo, for instance - and also external markets abroad. In this paper, we estimate the current inputs and outputs of anthropogenic nitrogen (in kg N.km(-2).yr(-1)) in the basin. In the results, we observe that soybean plays a very important role in the Brazilian La Plata, since it contributes with an annual entrance of about 1.8 TgN due to biological nitrogen fixation. Moreover, our estimate indicates that the export of soybean products accounts for roughly 1.0 TgN which is greater than the annual nitrogen riverine exports from Brazilian Parana, Paraguay and Uruguay rivers together. Complimentarily, we built future scenarios representing changes in the nitrogen cycle profile considering two scenarios of climate change for 2070-2100 (based on IPCC's A2 and B2) that will affect land-use, nitrogen inputs, and loss of such nutrients in the basin. Finally, we discuss how both scenarios will affect human well-being since there is a connection between nitrogen cycle and ecosystem services that affect local and global populations, such as food and fibre production and climate regulation.

  11. The consumption of unhealthy foods by Brazilian children is influenced by their mother's educational level.

    PubMed

    Saldiva, Silvia Regina Dias Medici; Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; de Santana, Andréia Cardoso; da Silva Castro, Ana Lucia; Escuder, Maria Mercedes Loureiro; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo

    2014-04-03

    To evaluate the association between the consumption of unhealthy foods in children under one year and the education level of the mothers, data obtained from participants of the II Survey on the prevalence of breastfeeding in the Brazilian capitals and the Federal District in 2008 was analyzed. During the second stage of the campaign for multi-vaccination, a questionnaire on food consumption in the last 24 hours was given to mothers or guardians of children under one year old. We analyzed the consumption of unhealthy foods according to age group, maternal education, region of residence and breastfeeding status. The state capitals and the Federal District were grouped according to the five macro-regions of the country (North, Northeast, Southeast, South and West). Processed juice, soda, coffee, cookies/salted snacks and sugar and/or honey were defined as unhealthy foods. Prevalence ratios (RP) for the association between the consumption of unhealthy foods and maternal education were estimated using Poisson regression models. The study included 34,366 children. The consumption of sweet foods started early and was predominant until the age of six months; after this age, the consumption of biscuits and/or snacks became more prevalent. The consumption of these foods also differs in relation to the macro-region of residence. Consumption of unhealthy foods was higher among mothers with lower education levels. The consumption of unhealthy foods by Brazilian children under one year old was high, indicating a need for developing effective strategies to combat the consumption of unhealthy foods in Brazilian children as a way of preventing obesity and other future disorders.

  12. Hepatitis B Virus Subgenotype A1: Evolutionary Relationships between Brazilian, African and Asian Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Lago, Bárbara V.; Mello, Francisco C.; Kramvis, Anna; Niel, Christian; Gomes, Selma A.

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of low hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemicity in which the genotype A of HBV (HBV/A) is the most prevalent. The complete nucleotide sequences of 26 HBV/A isolates, originating from eight Brazilian states, were determined. All were adw2. Twenty-three belonged to subgenotype A1 and three to A2. By phylogenetic analysis, it was shown that all the 23 HBV/A1 isolates clustered together with isolates from Bangladesh, India, Japan, Nepal, the Philippines and United Arab Emirates, but not with those of Congo, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Four amino acid residues in the polymerase (His138 in the terminal protein domain, Pro18 and His90 in the spacer, and Ser109 in the reverse transcriptase), and one (Phe17) in the precore region, predominated in Latin American and Asian HBV/A1 isolates, but were rarely encountered in African isolates, with the exception of those from Somalia. Specific variations of two adjacent amino acids in the C-terminal domain of the HBx protein, namely Ala146 and Pro147, were found in all the Brazilian, but rarely in the other HBV/A1 isolates. By Bayesian analysis, the existence of an ‘Asian-American’ clade within subgenotype A1 was supported by a posterior probability value of 0.996. The close relatedness of the Brazilian, Asian and Somalian isolates suggests that the HBV/A1 strains predominant in Brazil did not originate from the five million slaves who were imported from Central and Western Africa from 1551 to 1840, but rather from the 300–400,000 captives forcibly removed from southeast Africa at the middle of the 19th century. PMID:25122004

  13. Colonization patterns of the invasive Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius, in Florida.

    PubMed

    Williams, D A; Muchugu, E; Overholt, W A; Cuda, J P

    2007-05-01

    Invasive species are believed to spread through a process of stratified dispersal consisting of short-distance diffusive spread around established foci and human mediated long-distance jumps. Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius), native to South America, was introduced twice as an ornamental plant into Florida, USA, just over 100 years ago. A previous study indicated that these two introductions were from genetically differentiated source populations in the native range. In this study, we took advantage of these contrasting genetic signatures to study the spatial spread of Brazilian peppertree across its entire range in Florida. A combination of spatial genetic and geostatistical analyses using chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite markers revealed evidence for both diffusive dispersal and long-distance jumps. Chloroplast DNA haplotype distributions and extensive bands of intra-specific hybridization revealed extensive dispersal by both introduced populations across the state. The strong genetic signature around the original introduction points, the presence of a general southeast to northwest genetic cline, and evidence for short-distance genetic spatial autocorrelation provided evidence of diffusive dispersal from an advancing front, probably by birds and small mammals. In the northernmost part of the range, there were patches having a high degree of ancestry from each introduction, suggesting long-distance jump dispersal, probably by the movement of humans. The evidence for extensive movement throughout the state suggests that Brazilian peppertree will be capable of rapidly recolonizing areas from which it has been eradicated. Concerted eradication efforts over large areas or the successful establishment of effective biocontrol agents over a wide area will be needed to suppress this species.

  14. Understanding the Chronology and Occupation Dynamics of Oversized Pit Houses in the Southern Brazilian Highlands.

    PubMed

    Gregorio de Souza, Jonas; Robinson, Mark; Corteletti, Rafael; Cárdenas, Macarena Lucia; Wolf, Sidnei; Iriarte, José; Mayle, Francis; DeBlasis, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    A long held view about the occupation of southern proto-Jê pit house villages of the southern Brazilian highlands is that these sites represent cycles of long-term abandonment and reoccupation. However, this assumption is based on an insufficient number of radiocarbon dates for individual pit houses. To address this problem, we conducted a programme of comprehensive AMS radiocarbon dating and Bayesian modelling at the deeply stratified oversized pit House 1, Baggio I site (Cal. A.D. 1395-1650), Campo Belo do Sul, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The stratigraphy of House 1 revealed an unparalleled sequence of twelve well preserved floors evidencing a major change in occupation dynamics including five completely burnt collapsed roofs. The results of the radiocarbon dating allowed us to understand for the first time the occupation dynamics of an oversized pit house in the southern Brazilian highlands. The Bayesian model demonstrates that House 1 was occupied for over two centuries with no evidence of major periods of abandonment, calling into question previous models of long-term abandonment. In addition, the House 1 sequence allowed us to tie transformations in ceramic style and lithic technology to an absolute chronology. Finally, we can provide new evidence that the emergence of oversized domestic structures is a relatively recent phenomenon among the southern proto-Jê. As monumental pit houses start to be built, small pit houses continue to be inhabited, evidencing emerging disparities in domestic architecture after AD 1000. Our research shows the importance of programmes of intensive dating of individual structures to understand occupation dynamics and site permanence, and challenges long held assumptions that the southern Brazilian highlands were home to marginal cultures in the context of lowland South America.

  15. ERICA: use of screens and consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Brunken, Gisela Soares; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the length of exposure to screens and the prevalence of consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents in front of screens. METHODS We evaluated 74,589 12 to 17-year old adolescents from 1,247 schools in 124 Brazilian municipalities. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Its segment regarding nutrition contained questions about using TV, computers, and video game systems, having meals while watching TV, and consuming snacks in front of screens. Consumption of meals and snacks in front of screens was analyzed according to the following variables: geographical region, gender, age range, type of school (public or private), and school shift. The prevalences and their respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated under a complex sampling design. RESULTS A great deal of the adolescents (73.5%, 95%CI 72.3-74.7) reported spending two or more hours a day in front of screens. That habit was more frequent among male adolescents, private school students, morning shift students, and students from Brazil's South region. More than half of the adolescents (56.6%, 95%CI 55.4-57.8) reported almost always or always having meals in front of TV, and 39.6% (95%CI 38.8-40.5) of them said they consumed snacks in front of screens exactly as often. Both situations were the most prevalent ones among the girls, who attended public schools and were from Brazil's Midwest region. CONCLUSIONS Length of exposure to screens and consumption of meals and snacks almost always or always in front of screens are high among Brazilian adolescents. It is necessary to develop strategies aiming to reduce the length of screen use, considering the media reality that children and adolescents have been experiencing from earlier and earlier ages. That context must therefore be analyzed in an indissociable way.

  16. Intraplate stress field in South America from earthquake focal mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpção, Marcelo; Dias, Fábio L.; Zevallos, Ivan; Naliboff, John B.

    2016-11-01

    We present an updated compilation of earthquake focal mechanisms in Brazil together with focal mechanisms from the sub-Andean region (mainly from global CMT catalogs). All earthquakes in the sub-Andean region show reverse (majority) or strike-slip faulting mechanisms. Focal mechanisms in Brazil show reverse, strike-slip and normal faulting. Focal mechanisms of nearby earthquakes in the same tectonic environment were grouped and inverted for the stress tensor. In the sub-Andean region, stresses are compressional, as expected, with the principal major compression (S1) roughly E-W, on average. A slight rotation of S1 can be observed and is controlled by the orientation of the Andean plateau. In the sub-Andean region, the intermediate principal stress (S2) is also compressional (i.e., larger than the lithostatic pressure, Sv), a feature that is not always reproduced in numerical models published in the literature. In mid-plate South America stresses seem to vary in nature and orientation. In SE Brazil and the Chaco-Pantanal basins, S1 tends to be oriented roughly E-W with S2 approximately equal to S3. This stress pattern changes to purely compressional (both SHmax and Shmin larger than Sv) in the São Francisco craton. A rotation of SHmax from E-W to SE-NW is suggested towards the Amazon region. Along the Atlantic margin, the regional stresses are very much affected by coastal effects (due to continent/ocean spreading stresses as well as flexural effects from sediment load at the continental margin). This coastal effect tends to make SHmax parallel to the coastline and Shmin (usually S3) perpendicular to the coastline. Few breakout data and in-situ measurements are available in Brazil and are generally consistent with the pattern derived from the earthquake focal mechanisms. Although numerical models of global lithospheric stresses tend to reproduce the main large-scale features in most mid-plate areas, the S1 rotation from ∼E-W in SE Brazil to SE-NW in the Amazon

  17. Predictive modelling of contagious deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges "bottom up", as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated-pre- and post-PPCDAM ("Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia")-the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is currently

  18. The possible role of Brazilian promontory in Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Youjia; Xi, Xiangying

    2014-09-01

    The Gulf Stream, one of the strongest currents in the world, transports approximately 31 Sv of water (Kelly and Gille, 1990; Baringer and Larsen, 2001; Leaman et al., 1995) and 1.3 × 1015 W (Larsen, 1992) of heat into the Atlantic Ocean, and warms the vast European continent. Thus any change of the Gulf Stream could lead to the climate change in the European continent, and even worldwide (Bryden et al., 2005). Past studies have revealed a diminished Gulf Stream and oceanic heat transport that was possibly associated with a southward migration of intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and may have contributed to Little Ice Age (AD ∼1200 to 1850) in the North Atlantic (Lund et al., 2006). However, the causations of the Gulf Stream weakening due to the southward migration of the ITCZ remain uncertain. Here we use satellite observation data and employ a model (oceanic general circulation model - OGCM) to demonstrate that the Brazilian promontory in the east coast of South America may have played a crucial role in allocating the equatorial currents, while the mean position of the equatorial currents migrates between northern and southern hemisphere in the Atlantic Ocean. Northward migrations of the equatorial currents in the Atlantic Ocean have little influence on the Gulf Stream. Nevertheless, southward migrations, especially abrupt large southward migrations of the equatorial currents, can lead to the increase of the Brazil Current and the significant decrease of the North Brazil Current, in turn the weakening of the Gulf Stream. The results from the model simulations suggest the mean position of the equatorial currents in the Atlantic Ocean shifted at least 180-260 km southwards of its present-day position during the Little Ice Age based on the calculations of simple linear equations and the OGCM simulations.

  19. Predictive Modelling of Contagious Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Isabel M. D.; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges “bottom up”, as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated–pre- and post-PPCDAM (“Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia”)–the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is

  20. [South] Yemen.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Yemen has an area of 112,000 square miles, the terrain is mountainous in the interior, and has a flat and sandy coast. The climate is extremely hot with little rainfall. 2.2 million is the population level with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The ethnic background is Arab, the religion is Islam and the language is Arabic. 50 years is the average life expectancy and the infant mortality rate is 142/1000. The labor force is 42% agriculture, fisheries, industry and commerce 31%, and services 27%. A republic formed in 1967, the government has a constitution approved in 1978. They have 1 party, the Yemeni Socialist Party with a executive presidium, a supreme people's council and a federal high court. Natural resources include oil and fish, and agricultural products are cotton, hides, skins, and coffee. In 1962 the Federation of South Arabia was formed and a treaty was signed in 1959 for independence by 1968. There was much turmoil from 1967 until 1986 when Haydar Bakr Al-Attus gained power, and there are still strong internal rivalries. The economy has been concentrated in the city of Aden, and with the loss of tourist trade in 1967, and closing of the British base, it has declined by more than 20% by 1968. Attempts are being made to build roads, fisheries, villages, a power plant, and agriculture and irrigation projects.

  1. Acute care surgeon South American model.

    PubMed

    Poggetti, Renato Sergio

    2008-08-01

    In the World Health Organization book by Murray and Lopez (The Global Burden of Disease), the authors make the point that there are major regional differences across the world for death from injury. In the European market economies, injuries accounted for 6% of all deaths, of which the majority were the result of road traffic accidents. In stark contrast, in Latin America and the Caribbean, injuries account for 12-13% of all deaths, and most of these are the result of violence. An estimated 30% of all male deaths are from external causes, and road traffic accidents are the number two cause of death. Within South American countries, trauma is the second most common cause of death in Columbia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Brazil. In other South American countries, it is the third or fourth most common cause of death. If one examines the Disability Adjusted Life Years, South America is the third highest in the world. Death from injury primarily affects people in the middle- and low-income group. Traffic accidents and suicide are the main causes of trauma in the high-income population. South America is made up of developing and poor countries that have trauma as a very important cause of death and disability. The author has reviewed information on injury from the World Health Organization, Pan American Health Organization, and Brazilian Health Ministry. In addition, a search of injury was performed through MEDLINE. The results of this review show that trauma is a major public health problem in South America. At the present time, there is a lack of statewide system development. In addition, there are difficulties in training surgeons to cope with these problems.

  2. Evidence of Natural Hybridization in Brazilian Wild Lineages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Raquel; Almeida, Pedro; Safar, Silvana V B; Santos, Renata Oliveira; Morais, Paula B; Nielly-Thibault, Lou; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Landry, Christian R; Gonçalves, Paula; Rosa, Carlos A; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2016-01-18

    The natural biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the best known unicellular model eukaryote, remains poorly documented and understood although recent progress has started to change this situation. Studies carried out recently in the Northern Hemisphere revealed the existence of wild populations associated with oak trees in North America, Asia, and in the Mediterranean region. However, in spite of these advances, the global distribution of natural populations of S. cerevisiae, especially in regions were oaks and other members of the Fagaceae are absent, is not well understood. Here we investigate the occurrence of S. cerevisiae in Brazil, a tropical region where oaks and other Fagaceae are absent. We report a candidate natural habitat of S. cerevisiae in South America and, using whole-genome data, we uncover new lineages that appear to have as closest relatives the wild populations found in North America and Japan. A population structure analysis revealed the penetration of the wine genotype into the wild Brazilian population, a first observation of the impact of domesticated microbe lineages on the genetic structure of wild populations. Unexpectedly, the Brazilian population shows conspicuous evidence of hybridization with an American population of Saccharomyces paradoxus. Introgressions from S. paradoxus were significantly enriched in genes encoding secondary active transmembrane transporters. We hypothesize that hybridization in tropical wild lineages may have facilitated the habitat transition accompanying the colonization of the tropical ecosystem.

  3. Assessing the ecological condition of streams in a southeastern Brazilian basin using a probabilistic monitoring design.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Valencia, Juliana; Kaufmann, Philip R; Sattamini, Ana; Mugnai, Riccardo; Baptista, Darcilio Fernandes

    2014-08-01

    Prompt assessment and management actions are required if we are to reduce the current rapid loss of habitat and biodiversity worldwide. Statistically valid quantification of the biota and habitat condition in water bodies are prerequisites for rigorous assessment of aquatic biodiversity and habitat. We assessed the ecological condition of streams in a southeastern Brazilian basin. We quantified the percentage of stream length in good, fair, and poor ecological condition according to benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage. We assessed the risk of finding degraded ecological condition associated with degraded aquatic riparian physical habitat condition, watershed condition, and water quality. We describe field sampling and implementation issues encountered in our survey and discuss design options to remedy them. Survey sample sites were selected using a spatially balanced, stratified random design, which enabled us to put confidence bounds on the ecological condition estimates derived from the stream survey. The benthic condition index indicated that 62 % of stream length in the basin was in poor ecological condition, and 13 % of stream length was in fair condition. The risk of finding degraded biological condition when the riparian vegetation and forests in upstream catchments were degraded was 2.5 and 4 times higher, compared to streams rated as good for the same stressors. We demonstrated that the GRTS statistical sampling method can be used routinely in Brazilian rain forests and other South American regions with similar conditions. This survey establishes an initial baseline for monitoring the condition and trends of streams in the region.

  4. Services available at the Brazilian Study and Monitoring of Space Weather (Embrace) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Lago, A.; Cecatto, J. R.; Costa, J. E. R.; Da Silva, L. A.; Rockenbach, M.; Braga, C. R.; Mendonca, R. R. S.; Mendes, O., Jr.; Koga, D.; Alves, L. R.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Wrasse, C. M.; Takahashi, H.; Banik de Padua, M.; De Nardin, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2008, Brazilian government has been supporting a Space Weather Program at the National Institute for Space Research (INPE). The main objective of the "Brazilian Study and Monitoring of Space Weather (Embrace) Program" is to proceed with data collection and maintenance of Space Weather observation, modeling processes of the Sun-Earth on a global and regional scale, provide information in real time and make Space Weather forecast, and provide diagnostics of their effects on different technology systems through the collection of satellite data, surface and computational modeling. Advantage was taken on the long lasting expertise of the local scientific community, specially regarding local phenomena, such as the equatorial ionosphere and effects of the South American Magnetic Anomaly. Since April 2012, weekly briefings are held where scientists discuss and evaluate in a comprehensive manner all the chains of events from the sun, interplanetary space, earth magnetosphere, radiation belts, ionosphere, upper atmosphere, and reaching the effects on ground. One unique aspect of Embrace program is the strong emphasis on ionospheric and upper atmospheric disturbances. Recently, strong focus on radiation belt variability is progressively been included. Another important particularity of this program is the use of cosmic ray observations to develop nowcasting and forecasting of solar wind structures. In this work, we present an overview of activities and contributions related to the EMBRACE Program.

  5. Estimating return periods for daily precipitation extreme events over the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eliane Barbosa; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; Santos e Silva, Cláudio Moisés

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims to model the occurrence of daily precipitation extreme events and to estimate the return period of these events through the extreme value theory (generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) and the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD)). The GEV and GPD were applied in precipitation series of homogeneous regions of the Brazilian Amazon. The GEV and GPD goodness of fit were evaluated by quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plot and by the application of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test, which compares the cumulated empirical distributions with the theoretical ones. The Q-Q plot suggests that the probability distributions of the studied series are appropriated, and these results were confirmed by the KS test, which demonstrates that the tested distributions have a good fit in all sub-regions of Amazon, thus adequate to study the daily precipitation extreme event. For all return levels studied, more intense precipitation extremes is expected to occur within the South sub-regions and the coastal area of the Brazilian Amazon. The results possibly will have some practical application in local extreme weather forecast.

  6. Evidence of Natural Hybridization in Brazilian Wild Lineages of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Raquel; Almeida, Pedro; Safar, Silvana V.B.; Santos, Renata Oliveira; Morais, Paula B.; Nielly-Thibault, Lou; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Landry, Christian R.; Gonçalves, Paula; Rosa, Carlos A.; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The natural biology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the best known unicellular model eukaryote, remains poorly documented and understood although recent progress has started to change this situation. Studies carried out recently in the Northern Hemisphere revealed the existence of wild populations associated with oak trees in North America, Asia, and in the Mediterranean region. However, in spite of these advances, the global distribution of natural populations of S. cerevisiae, especially in regions were oaks and other members of the Fagaceae are absent, is not well understood. Here we investigate the occurrence of S. cerevisiae in Brazil, a tropical region where oaks and other Fagaceae are absent. We report a candidate natural habitat of S. cerevisiae in South America and, using whole-genome data, we uncover new lineages that appear to have as closest relatives the wild populations found in North America and Japan. A population structure analysis revealed the penetration of the wine genotype into the wild Brazilian population, a first observation of the impact of domesticated microbe lineages on the genetic structure of wild populations. Unexpectedly, the Brazilian population shows conspicuous evidence of hybridization with an American population of Saccharomyces paradoxus. Introgressions from S. paradoxus were significantly enriched in genes encoding secondary active transmembrane transporters. We hypothesize that hybridization in tropical wild lineages may have facilitated the habitat transition accompanying the colonization of the tropical ecosystem. PMID:26782936

  7. The petroleum habitat in the post-rift sequences in the Brazilian sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    De Figueiredo, A.M.F.D.; Fernandes, G.J.F.; Guimaraes, P.T.M. )

    1991-03-01

    The post-rift sedimentary strata of the Brazilian coastal basins are made of two main sequences: the evaporite and carbonatic Albian-Aptian sequence, and the open-marine Late Albian to Recent sequence, both related to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. More than 40 billion barrels of oil-equivalent in place has been found in these sequences, mostly in siliciclastic reservoirs above and below the Aptian salt beds. The productive basins are Campos, Espirito Santo, Sergipe-Alagoas, Potiguar, Ceara, and Santos, but the first one is responsible for more than 60% of the original oil in place discovered in these basins. The hydrocarbon origin, migration, and accumulation models in these sequences are discussed and exemplified by some giant oil fields of Campos and Sergipe-Alagoas basins, where oil is trapped in Aptian conglomerates, Albian carbonates, and Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary turbidite sandstones. The cumulative production in these sequences reaches 958.6 million barrels and the proved exploitable reserve amounts reach 2.7 billion barrels of oil-equivalent. Petrobras' exploratory forecast indicates that the post-rift sequences are the most prolific ones in the Brazilian marginal basins. The oil-equivalent that is expected to be discovered, particularly in deep water areas, where giant oil fields (as the Marlim field) have been found, exceeds the amount that has been discovered until now.

  8. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Nursing Student Satisfaction Scale for use with Brazilian nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Carolina Domingues; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; Barlem, Jamila Geri Tomaschewski; Dalmolin, Graziele de Lima; Pereira, Liliane Alves; Ferreira, Amanda Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Nursing Student Satisfaction Scale (NSSS) for use with nursing students in the Brazilian context. Method: this was a quantitative exploratory and descriptive study using a cross-sectional design conducted with 123 undergraduate nursing students studying at a public university in the south of Brazil. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to international guidelines. Validation for use in a Brazilian context was performed using factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha. Results: based on the expert committee assessment and pre-test, face and content validity were considered satisfactory. Factor analysis resulted in three constructs: curriculum and teaching; professional social interaction, and learning environment. The internal consistency of the instrument was satisfactory: the value of Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93 for the instrument as a whole, and between 0.88 and 0.89 for the constructs. Conclusion: the Brazilian version of the Nursing Student Satisfaction Scale was shown to be reliable and validated for the evaluation of student satisfaction with undergraduate nursing programs, considering the aspects teaching activities, curriculum, professional social interaction, and learning environment. PMID:27579931

  9. Tax gene characterization of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 strains from Brazilian HIV-coinfected patients.

    PubMed

    Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Brigido, Luis Fernando de Macedo; Rodrigues, Rosangela; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele

    2012-12-01

    The tax gene of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) diverges among isolates according to geographic regions and has been classified into two genotypes: taxA and taxB. In Brazil, taxA is the most prevalent genotype in symptomatic and asymptomatic carriers. Few studies have been conducted in HIV-infected patients. The present study characterized the tax gene (1059 bp) in 13 Brazilian HIV-1/HTLV-1-coinfected patients from the south and southeast regions. The results confirmed the transcontinental HTLV-1 subgroup A of the Cosmopolitan subtype and showed high nucleotide similarity both among Brazilian sequences and in relation to the ATK prototype (99.5% and 99.2%, respectively). Six nucleotide substitutions were highly conserved among isolates, ranging from 76.9% to 100%: C7401T, T7914C, C7920T, C7982T, G8231A, and A8367C. The presence of the Brazilian molecular signature of genotype taxA was confirmed in all of the isolates, and they clustered into two Latin American clusters, which confirms the double introduction of HTLV-1 in Brazil.

  10. Changes in diversity, abundance, and structure of soil bacterial communities in Brazilian Savanna under different land use systems.

    PubMed

    Rampelotto, Pabulo Henrique; de Siqueira Ferreira, Adão; Barboza, Anthony Diego Muller; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Wurdig

    2013-10-01

    The Brazilian Savanna, also known as "Cerrado", is the richest and most diverse savanna in the world and has been ranked as one of the main hotspots of biodiversity. The Cerrado is a representative biome in Central Brazil and the second largest biome in species diversity of South America. Nevertheless, large areas of native vegetation have been converted to agricultural land including grain production, livestock, and forestry. In this view, understanding how land use affects microbial communities is fundamental for the sustainable management of agricultural ecosystems. The aim of this work was to analyze and compare the soil bacterial communities from the Brazilian Cerrado associated with different land use systems using high throughput pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Relevant differences were observed in the abundance and structure of bacterial communities in soils under different land use systems. On the other hand, the diversity of bacterial communities was not relevantly changed among the sites studied. Land use systems had also an important impact on specific bacterial groups in soil, which might change the soil function and the ecological processes. Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the most abundant groups in the Brazilian Cerrado. These findings suggest that more important than analyzing the general diversity is to analyze the composition of the communities. Since soil type was the same among the sites, we might assume that land use was the main factor defining the abundance and structure of bacterial communities.

  11. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  12. Brazilian obesity prevention and control initiatives.

    PubMed

    Jaime, P C; da Silva, A C F; Gentil, P C; Claro, R M; Monteiro, C A

    2013-11-01

    Obesity prevalence in the Brazilian adult population is 12.5% among men and 16.9% among women. Obesity control has been a subject of concern in Brazilian health policies since the publication of the National Food and Nutrition Policy in 1999. The initiatives include a comprehensive national intersectorial plan for obesity prevention and control focused on confronting its social and environmental causes, development of a food and nutrition education framework aimed at intersectorial public policies in the food and nutritional security field, promotion and provision of healthy food in school environments (linked to family farming), structuring nutrition actions in primary healthcare in the national healthcare system, promoting community physical activity, food regulation and control, and encouragement of public participation and food control. We conclude that several initiatives have been developed in Brazil to deal with the challenge of implementing an intergovernmental, intersectorial response to reverse the rising overweight and obesity rates. The success of this response will depend on a governance model that promotes joint and integrated action by different sectors and active participation of society to consolidate the actions, places and laws that protect health and promote healthy lifestyles. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  13. UNOSAT: the First University Brazilian Nanosatellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancato, F.; Oliveira, E. M. Manhas M., Jr.; Mendes, L. H.; Oliveira, G.

    2002-01-01

    In 2000 it was created in the Universidade Norte do Paraná, UNOPAR University, an educational undergraduate aerospace group called SPACE. During the 51st International Astronautical Congress in Brazil, the participant students got in contact with different small satellite programs from different universities. Motivated by these contacts they began the a nanosatellite project feasibility study. Contacts were made in the beginning of 2001 to see a launch possibility as secondary payload at the third qualification flight test of the VLS, the Brazilian launcher. Soon came the positive answer and the project began. A very simple nanosatellite project was chosen. The mission was going to download 5 parameters telemetry and one voice message. The different project parts were divided among the thirteen undergraduate students: structure, radio link, solar panels, energy controller module, telemetry and instrumentation. They were also responsible for the systems tests, integration and follow final tests. An outreach activity was also made. An local broadcast radio company did an competition among its listeners to select the message and the voice of the first Brazilian who would "speech" from the space. It was an unusual way also to get some funding from a sponsor who got free media. It is shown the program management strategy, what had worked and what not, funding strategy and the educational benefits.- The launch is scheduled to the 2002 second semester.

  14. [Chemical characterization of Brazilian oat genotypes].

    PubMed

    Beber, Rosane Costa; de Francisco, Alicia; Alves, Antonio Carlos; de Sá, Roberta Marins; Ogliari, Paulo

    2002-01-01

    The chemical composition of oats has been poorly studied in Brazil. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the main chemical constituents of Brazilian oat cultivars. This knowledge is essential for the utilization of this cereal in balanced diets, specially for individuals with high blood cholesterol, where the beta-glucans contribute to it's reduction. The analyzed genotipes were recommended by the Brazilian Oat Research Commission. The cultivars studied (CTC3, UFRGS7, UFRGS14, UPF7 and UPF16) showed high levels of protein (16.8%), lipids (6.84%) and beta-glucans (4.89%). The aminoacid profil of these samples was limiting only for lyisine, threonine and isoleucine. The other aminoacids had similar values to those recommended by the FAO. It was observed that all the studied variables suffered changes according to the interactions between genotype, locality and year of production. Cultivars UFRGS14, UFRGS7 and UPF16 were differentiated for their high contents of protein, lipids and beta-glucans, respectively.

  15. Lumbosacral plexus in Brazilian Common Opossum.

    PubMed

    Senos, R; Ribeiro, M S; Benedicto, H G; Kfoury Júnior, J R

    2016-01-01

    The opossum has been suggested as an animal model for biomedical studies due to its adaptability to captivity and number of births per year. Despite many studies on morphology and experimental neurology using this opossum model, the literature does not offer details of the nerves of the lumbosacral plexus in this species. Ten lumbosacral plexus were dissected to describe the peripheral innervations of the Brazilian Common Opossum (Didelphis aurita) and compare the results with Eutheria clade species. The tensor fasciae latae muscle was absent and there was only one sartorius muscle for each limb. The distribution of the nerves were similar to other mammals, except for the caudal gluteal nerve, sartorius muscle innervations and the position of the pudendal nerve which arose from the major ischiatic foramen together with the ischiatic nerve, the cranial gluteal nerve and the caudal gluteal nerve. No anatomical variation was found. The special position of the pudendal nerve suggested that the Brazilian Common Opossum is a better model than rats or rabbits in surgical procedures with that specific nerve. In addition, the study revealed that the pelvic limb nerves are not an invariable structure of reference for muscle homology and homonym as reported previously. New investigation using other species of opossums are necessary to best comprehend the lumbosacral plexus distribution in the Methatheria clade and to confirm that other opossum species is eligible as a good model for pudendal nerve studies.

  16. Brazilian law for scientific use of animals.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ruy Garcia; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Petroianu, Andy

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian scientific community claimed for a definitive systematization and for comprehensive and realistic national rules, to provide guidance and regulation, instead of sanctions, so that the question of scientific research involving animals could be better contemplated. This is beginning to occur now with Law no. 11.794, sanctioned by the President of the Republic on November 8, 2008. To describe the evolution of Brazilian regimentation for scientific use of animals and to analyze Law no. 11.794. The legislation about the use of animals in teaching and in scientific research in Brazil and in Rio de Janeiro State was identified and discussed. Until now, there was no updated general and systematizing rule regarding animal vivisection and experimentation for didactic or scientific purposes. The only specific law dates back to 1979 and was not regimented. More recent laws equated the practice of scientific experiments to acts of abuse and mistreatment of animals, when alternative technology was available. Municipal laws that restricted the scientific practice of vivisection and experimentation with animals were created in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Florianopolis. With the claim and collaboration of the scientific community, the sanction of Law no. 11.794 regarding the scientific use of animals represented an invaluable advance in spite of the presence of some points that eventually may require another type of treatment. The new Law states that it will be regimented within 180 (one-hundred-and-eighty) days, when some of these points could be better elucidated.

  17. [Mineral waters from several Brazilian natural sources].

    PubMed

    Rebelo, M A; Araujo, N C

    1999-01-01

    To divulge information on the chemical composition and physical-chemical features of some mineral waters from Brazilian natural sources that will be of useful protocol investigation and patient advice. The survey was based on bottle labels of non-gaseous mineral waters commercially available in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The íon concentration of each mineral was calculated from the salt content. 36 springs were enralled from different states of the country. The pH (25 degrees C), 4.1 to 9.3, varied on dependence of the source and it was linearey correlated with the cations calcium, magnesium and sodium and the anion bicarbonate. It was atributed to high alkalinity (about 70% of bicarbonate in the molecula-gram) of these salts. The calcium (0.3 to 42 mg/l), magnesium (0.0 to 18 mg/l) and bicarbonate (4 to 228 mg/l) contents are relatively low. The mineral content of the Brazilian springs enrolled in this survey is low; about 70% of the sources having calcium and magnesium less than 10 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l, respectively, similar to local tap water.

  18. Effects of Brazilian propolis on Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Diana Copi; Marcucci, Maria Cristina; Giorgio, Selma

    2007-05-01

    Leishmaniasis, an endemic parasitosis that leads to chronic cutaneous, mucocutaneous or visceral lesions, is part of those diseases, which still requires improved control tools. Propolis has shown activities against different bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In this study we investigated the effect of four ethanolic extracts of typified propolis collected in different Brazilian states, on Leishmania amazonensis performing assays with promastigote forms, extracellular amastigotes, and on infected peritoneal macrophages. Ethanolic extracts of all propolis samples (BRG, BRPG, BRP-1, and BRV) were capable to reduce parasite load as monitored by the percentage of infected macrophages and the number of intracellular parasites. BRV sample called red propolis, collected in the state of Alagoas, and containing high concentration of prenylated and benzophenones compounds, was the most active extract against L. amazonensis. The anti-Leishmania effect of BRV sample was increased in a concentration and time dependent manner. BRV treatment proved to be non-toxic to macrophage cultures. Since BRV extract at the concentration of 25 microg/ml reduced the parasite load of macrophages while presented no direct toxic to promastigotes and extracellular amastigotes, it was suggested that constituents of propolis intensify the mechanism of macrophage activation leading to killing of L. amazonensis. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that ethanolic extracts of Brazilian propolis reduce L. amazonensis infection in macrophages, and encourage further studies of this natural compound in animal models of leishmaniasis.

  19. Complex network study of Brazilian soccer players

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onody, Roberto N.; de Castro, Paulo A.

    2004-09-01

    Although being a very popular sport in many countries, soccer has not received much attention from the scientific community. In this paper, we study soccer from a complex network point of view. First, we consider a bipartite network with two kinds of vertices or nodes: the soccer players and the clubs. Real data were gathered from the 32 editions of the Brazilian soccer championship, in a total of 13411 soccer players and 127 clubs. We find a lot of interesting and perhaps unsuspected results. The probability that a Brazilian soccer player has worked at N clubs or played M games shows an exponential decay while the probability that he has scored G goals is power law. Now, if two soccer players who have worked at the same club at the same time are connected by an edge, then a new type of network arises (composed exclusively by soccer player nodes). Our analysis shows that for this network the degree distribution decays exponentially. We determine the exact values of the clustering coefficient, the assortativity coefficient and the average shortest path length and compare them with those of the Erdös-Rényi and configuration model. The time evolution of these quantities are calculated and the corresponding results discussed.

  20. Mapping Brazilian Cropland Expansion, 2000-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, V.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil is one of the world's leading producers and exporters of agricultural goods. Despite undergoing significant increases in its cropland area in the last decades, it remains one of the countries with the most potential for further agricultural expansion. Most notably, the expansion in production areas of commodity crops such as soybean, corn, and sugarcane has become the leading cause of land cover conversion in Brazil. Natural land covers, such as the Amazon and Cerrado forests, have been negatively affected by this agricultural expansion, causing carbon emissions, biodiversity loss, altered water cycles, and many other disturbances to ecosystem services. Monitoring of change in cropland area extent can provide relevant information to decision makers seeking to understand and manage land cover change drivers and their impacts. In this study, the freely-available Landsat archive was leveraged to produce a large-scale, methodologically consistent map of cropland cover at 30 m. resolution for the entire Brazilian territory in the year 2000. Additionally, we mapped cropland expansion from 2000 to 2013, and used statistical sampling techniques to accurately estimate cropland area per Brazilian state. Using the Global Forest Change product produced by Hansen et al. (2013), we can disaggregate forest cover loss due to cropland expansion by year, revealing spatiotemporal trends that could advance our understanding of the drivers of forest loss.

  1. Gout treatment: survey of Brazilian rheumatology residents.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Rodrigo Balbino Chaves; Vargas-Santos, Ana Beatriz; Pereira, Leticia Rocha; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, Geraldo

    2017-05-01

    To assess the current practices in gout management among Brazilian rheumatology residents. We performed a cross-sectional online survey among all the rheumatology residents and those rheumatologists who had just completed their training (post-residency (PR)) regarding their approach to gout management. Results were compared with the 2012 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) gout guidelines and with the responses of a previous survey with a representative sample of practicing Brazilian rheumatologists (RHE). We received 224 responses (83%) from 271 subjects. Among all respondents, the first-choice treatment for gout flares was the combination of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug + colchicine for otherwise healthy patients. A target serum urate <6 mg/dL for patients without tophi was reported by >75%. Less than 70% reported starting allopurinol at low doses (≤100 mg/day) for patients with normal renal function and <50% reported maintaining urate-lowering therapy indefinitely for patients without tophi. Among residents and PR, the residency stage was the main predictor of concordance with the ACR guidelines, with PR achieving the greatest rates. Reported practices were commonly concordant with the 2012 ACR gout guidelines, especially among PR. However, some important aspects of gout management need improvement. These results will guide the development of a physician education program to improve the management of gout patients in Brazil.

  2. 84. South Oregon St., 621 (residential), south and east facades, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. South Oregon St., 621 (residential), south and east facades, facade on right is South Oregon St., and facade on left is on Fifth Ave. - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  3. Twentieth-century astronomical heritage: the case of the Brazilian National Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboza, Christina Helena

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the UNESCO-IAU Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative's discussions by presenting the case study of a 20th-century observatory located in a South American country. In fact, the National Observatory of Brazil was created in the beginning of the 19th century, but its present facilities were inaugurated in 1921. Through this paper a brief description of the heritage associated with the Brazilian observatory is given, focused on its main historical instruments and the scientific and social roles it performed along its history. By way of conclusion, the paper suggests that the creation of the Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences with its multidisciplinary team of academic specialists and technicians was decisive for the preservation of that expressive astronomical heritage.

  4. Translating Population Difference: The Use and Re-Use of Genetic Ancestry in Brazilian Cancer Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Gibbon, Sahra

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the past ten years, there has been an expansion of scientific interest in population genetics linked to both understanding histories of human migration and the way that population difference and diversity may account for and/or be implicated in health and disease. In this article, I examine how particular aspects of a globalizing research agenda related to population differences and genetic ancestry are taken up in locally variant ways in the nascent field of Brazilian cancer genetics. Drawing on a broad range of ethnographic data from clinical and nonclinical contexts in the south of Brazil, I examine the ambiguities that attention to genetic ancestry generates, so revealing the disjunctured and diverse ways a global research agenda increasingly orientated to questions of population difference and genetic ancestry is being used and reused. PMID:26452039

  5. Multi-locus DNA sequencing of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from Brazilian pigs identifies genetically divergent strains

    PubMed Central

    Frazão-Teixeira, E.; Sundar, N.; Dubey, J. P.; Grigg, M. E.; de Oliveira, F. C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Five Toxoplasma gondii isolates (TgPgBr1–5) were isolated from hearts and brains of pigs freshly purchased at the market of Campos dos Goytacazes, Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Four of the five isolates were highly pathogenic in mice. Four genotypes were identified. Multi-locus PCR-DNA sequencing showed that each strain possessed a unique combination of archetypal and novel alleles not previously described in South America. The data suggest that different strains circulate in pigs destined for human consumption from those previously isolated from cats and chickens in Brazil. Further, multi-locus PCR-RFLP analyses failed to accurately genotype the Brazilian isolates due to the high presence of atypical alleles. This is the first report of multi-locus DNA sequencing of T. gondii isolates in pigs from Brazil. PMID:21051148

  6. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (proximal dominant form, HMSN-P) among Brazilians of Japanese ancestry.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kengo; Sugiura, Makoto; Kato, Hiroko; Sanada, Mitsuru; Kawai, Hiromichi; Yasuda, Hitoshi

    2007-11-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (proximal dominant form, HMSN-P) has been reported exclusively from Okinawa Prefecture in Japan. We herein report three brothers with HMSN-P who are among Brazilians of Japanese ancestry. They showed the typical clinical manifestations and were compatible with HMSN-P. Okinawa Prefecture has been a site of emigration to other countries, mainly in South America, since 1908. Although this is the first reported familial case of HMSN-P occurring outside Japan, it is estimated that there are 19 or 20 individuals with HMSN-P among these emigrants. Since HMSN-P might be misdiagnosed as familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or spinal muscular atrophy, neurologists in countries where individuals of Okinawan extraction reside should be aware of this hereditary neuropathy. HMSN-P should no longer be regarded as an endemic condition limited to Okinawa.

  7. Hydrodynamically-driven distribution of lanternfish larvae in the Southeast Brazilian Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, Cláudia; Katsuragawa, Mario; Napolitano, Dante Campagnoli; Zani-Teixeira, Maria de Lourdes; Mattos, Rafael Augusto de; Silveira, Ilson Carlos Almeida da

    2017-06-01

    This study analyzes the influence of the Brazil Current and Ekman transport on the distribution of lanternfish larvae in the Southeast Brazilian Bight during summer and winter. Larvae of 19 taxa of lanternfish were identified, and Diaphus spp. and M. affine were the most abundant. Three water masses were present in the area: Coastal Water, Tropical Water and South Atlantic Central Water. Lanternfish larvae were associated with the Tropical Water in both seasons. During summer, species of Lampanyctinae were associated with the shallowest layers and Myctophinae in the deepest layers. In winter most species of both subfamilies were associated with intermediate depths, probably because greater mixing of water masses occurred at the surface and 100 m depth, limiting their distribution. During both cruises, the presence of lanternfish larvae in the continental shelf was related to the pattern of Tropical Water intrusion, which was mostly driven by the mesoscale activity of the Brazil Current and its interaction with the continental shelf.

  8. Translating Population Difference: The Use and Re-Use of Genetic Ancestry in Brazilian Cancer Genetics.

    PubMed

    Gibbon, Sahra

    2016-01-01

    In the past ten years, there has been an expansion of scientific interest in population genetics linked to both understanding histories of human migration and the way that population difference and diversity may account for and/or be implicated in health and disease. In this article, I examine how particular aspects of a globalizing research agenda related to population differences and genetic ancestry are taken up in locally variant ways in the nascent field of Brazilian cancer genetics. Drawing on a broad range of ethnographic data from clinical and nonclinical contexts in the south of Brazil, I examine the ambiguities that attention to genetic ancestry generates, so revealing the disjunctured and diverse ways a global research agenda increasingly orientated to questions of population difference and genetic ancestry is being used and reused.

  9. Absence of the deltaccr5 mutation in indigenous populations of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Leboute, A P; de Carvalho, M W; Simões, A L

    1999-11-01

    Carriers of the deltaccr5 allele, which contains a deletion of 32 bases in relation to the normal allele of the beta-chemokine receptor gene (CCR5), have increased resistance to HIV-1 infection. The higher frequency of this mutation in Europeans than in Blacks and Asians, has generated interest in determining its distribution in other populations. The population of this study involved 300 Amerindians from four Brazilian Amazon tribes (Tikuna, Baniwa, Kashinawa, and Kanamari). All of the individuals were homozygous for the normal allele, which corroborates the hypothesis that the deltaccr5 allele has a European origin, and that its occurrence in urban populations in South America is the result of immigration.

  10. Is there publication bias towards brazilian articles on cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Luiz Victor Maia; Callegaro, Donato; Rocha, Altieres de Arruda; Prado, Bernard Lobato; Mutão, Taciana Sousa; Donnarumma, Carlos del Cistia; del Giglio, Auro

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate whether Brazilian articles on cancer are published in journals with an impact factor and/or repercussion (measured by the number of citations) inferior to those that come from foreign organizations. Methods: A search was carried out in PubMed for the MeSH term “neoplasm” with the limits clinical trial, affiliation of the Brazilian author(s), and interval from July 1st, 2009 to June 30, 2010. Selected for matching were non-Brazilian related articles published from three months prior to three months after the date of publication of the Brazilian study. The numbers of citations were obtained from two databases, as well as the impact factor for the journals in which the articles were published. Results: Fortythree national and 876 related international articles were identified. The Brazilian publications had a mean impact factor of 3.000 versus 3.430 of the international ones (p=0.041). There was no statistically significant difference as to the number of citations between the two groups. The affiliation of the first author with a Brazilian or foreign organization did not significantly influence the number of citations or the impact factor. Conclusion: Brazilian articles are significantly less accepted in journals with higher impact factors, although it does not compromise its repercussion on the scientific community. PMID:23579739

  11. Is there publication bias towards Brazilian articles on cancer?

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Luiz Victor Maia; Callegaro Filho, Donato; Rocha, Altieres de Arruda; Prado, Bernard Lobato; Mutão, Taciana Sousa; Donnarumma, Carlos del Cistia; del Giglio, Auro

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether Brazilian articles on cancer are published in journals with an impact factor and/or repercussion (measured by the number of citations) inferior to those that come from foreign organizations. A search was carried out in PubMed for the MeSH term "neoplasm" with the limits clinical trial, affiliation of the Brazilian author(s), and interval from July 1st, 2009 to June 30, 2010. Selected for matching were non-Brazilian related articles published from three months prior to three months after the date of publication of the Brazilian study. The numbers of citations were obtained from two databases, as well as the impact factor for the journals in which the articles were published. Forty-three national and 876 related international articles were identified. The Brazilian publications had a mean impact factor of 3.000 versus 3.430 of the international ones (p=0.041). There was no statistically significant difference as to the number of citations between the two groups. The affiliation of the first author with a Brazilian or foreign organization did not significantly influence the number of citations or the impact factor. Brazilian articles are significantly less accepted in journals with higher impact factors, although it does not compromise its repercussion on the scientific community.

  12. [Citation patterns in Portuguese and Brazilian biomedical journals].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Sílvia Costa; Santos, Tiago S; Lopes, Pedro Faria; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Bibliographic references of scientific articles are the source for calculating impact indexes frequently used for the assignment of funding to research projects. Different citation patterns may result in measurement bias of these impact indexes. To analyze citation patterns of Brazilian and Portuguese biomedical journals regarding the geographic origin of the sources cited. As part of the v+biomed project, a convenience sample of 11 biomedical journals, 4 Portuguese and 7 Brazilian, was gathered including the following subject categories: General and Internal Medicine, Public Health, Gynecology and Obstetrics, and Surgery. All the references from all the articles published in all the issues (except supplements) in 2009 and 2010 were retrieved. The type of source cited and its geographic origin were analyzed. A total of 102 issues from the 11 journals, containing 1430 articles, with a total of 32782 references were analyzed. No differences were found regarding the number of authors, pages or references between articles from Brazilian and Portuguese journals. Brazilian journals presented higher prevalence of English language and cited significantly more journals from their own country (30.1%) comparing to Portuguese journals (5.4%). Additionally, a lower citation rate to journals from the other country analyzed was evident in Brazilian (0.1%) when compared to Portuguese (3.2%) journals, as well as a higher self-citation of Brazilian journals (Brazil - 5.6%, Portugal - 2.1%). A different citation pattern between Portuguese and Brazilian biomedical journals was found, consisting of a higher citation rate from Brazilian to other Brazilian journals and to themselves. This differential in citation patterns may have implications on impact indexes determination which warrant further investigation.

  13. Experimental infection of dogs with a Brazilian strain of Rickettsia rickettsii: clinical and laboratory findings.

    PubMed

    Piranda, Eliane M; Faccini, João Luis H; Pinter, Adriano; Saito, Tais B; Pacheco, Richard C; Hagiwara, Mitika K; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2008-11-01

    The bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii is the etiological agent of an acute, severe disease called Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the United States or Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) in Brazil. In addition to these two countries, the disease has also been reported to affect humans in Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia and Argentina. Like humans, dogs are also susceptible to R. rickettsii infection. However, despite the wide distribution of R. rickettsii in the Western Hemisphere, reports of R. rickettsii-induced illness in dogs has been restricted to the United States. The present study evaluated the pathogenicity for dogs of a South American strain of R. rickettsii. Three groups of dogs were evaluated: group 1 (G1) was inoculated ip with R. rickettsii; group 2 (G2) was infested by R. rickettsii-infected ticks; and the control group (G3) was infested by uninfected ticks. During the study, no clinical abnormalities, Rickettsia DNA or R. rickettsii-reactive antibodies were detected in G3. In contrast, all G1 and G2 dogs developed signs of rickettsial infection, i.e., fever, lethargy, anorexia, ocular lesions, thrombocytopenia, anemia and detectable levels of Rickettsia DNA and R. rickettsii-reactive antibodies in their blood. Rickettsemia started 3-8 days after inoculation or tick infestation and lasted for 3-13 days. Our results indicate that a Brazilian strain of R. rickettsii is pathogenic for dogs, suggesting that canine clinical illness due to R. rickettsii has been unreported in Brazil and possibly in the other South American countries where BSF has been reported among humans.

  14. An overview of musical instruments used in South American dance traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Paul A.

    2002-11-01

    Musical instruments used in South American dances combine elements from Amerindian, African, and European musical traditions. The Amerindian influence can be seen in Andean instruments, such as the end-blown flute, panpipe, and charango (modified from the European guitar). The berimau, a musical bow used in the Brazilian capoeira dance, is an example of African influence. The bandoneon is a square-ended German concertina most famous for its use in the tango from Argentina. This paper provides an overview of the musical instruments commonly used in South American dance traditions in relationship to their origins. The acoustics of some of these instruments, such as the guitar, has been studied in detail, whereas others, like the Brazilian cuica, provide opportunity for new studies.

  15. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus

    PubMed Central

    Crainey, James L; da Silva, Túllio RR; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio LB

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource. PMID:26814648

  16. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    PubMed

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  17. Historical evolution of the Brazilian Annals of Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Costa, Izelda Maria Carvalho; Vallarelli, Andrelou Fralete Ayres; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel; Reis, Vitor Manoel da Silva

    2012-02-01

    In this special edition in celebration of the centennial of the Brazilian Society of Dermatology, the authors take a retrospective look at printed Brazilian dermatology from the very beginning onward, showing evidence of descriptive dermatology with rich discussions, illustrations and advertisements of medications much used at the time, such as bismuth for the treatment of syphilis, before the discovery of penicillin. This retrospective covers up to the current days, when publications in the Brazilian Annals of Dermatology have reached the modern era in electronics, science and layout as well.

  18. Assessing the impact of future land use and land cover changes on climate over Brazilian semiarid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, A. M.; Alvalá, R. S.; Kubota, P. Y.; Vieira, R.

    2013-12-01

    The continental surface vegetal cover has been considerably changed by human activities, mainly through natural vegetation conversion in grasslands. Such changes in surface cover may impact the regional and global climates, through of the changes in biophysical processes and CO2 exchanges between vegetation and atmosphere. In recent decades, most of the Brazilian territory has been presenting transformation in the land use/cover spatial patterns. The typical vegetation of the Brazilian semiarid, known as caatinga (closed shrubland) had been replaced by pasture lands. Based on that, the main objective of this work was to investigate the impacts of future land cover and land use changes (LCLUC) on surface processes and on the climate of Brazilian semiarid region. Numerical experiments using the AGCM/CPTEC/IBIS were performed in order to investigate the impacts of LCLUC on the climate of Brazilian semiarid due to the replacement of natural vegetation by pasture and degraded areas. The climate impacts of LUCC were assessed using climate simulations considering two scenarios of vegetation distribution: i) Potential Vegetation (Control) and ii) Future scenario of the vegetation: maximum pasture limited by areas of desert and semidesert. These degraded areas were obtained from the future projection of the biome distribution in South America developed by Salazar Velasquez (2009) using CPTEC PVMReg and emission scenarios A2 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In general, the simulation results showed that the LCLUC, due to the changes in relevant surface variables, has caused alterations in local and neighborhood regions climate. The LCLUC leads to a decrease in mean rainfall during dry season at study area. A meridional dipole pattern with near surface temperature increase (reduction) in the northern (southern) areas of semiarid was found. The results also highlight that LUCC led to changes in the components of the surface energy and carbon balance

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  20. An acoustic study of the Brazilian cuica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Paul A.

    2002-11-01

    The cuica is a friction drum of African origin played in the batucada (an ensemble of instruments used for the samba) during the Brazilian carnival. It is played by rubbing a bamboo rod which is connected to the center of a drum head, giving a rhythmic grunting sound. Pitch is changed by applying pressure to the membrane. This paper discusses several acoustic aspects of a folk cuica (made of a gourd) including the waveforms, spectra, and time envelopes produced. Rubbing the bamboo rod gives a primitive saw-toothed excitation, similar to a bowed violin string. This is connected to the center of a membrane which modifies and radiates the sound. The body of the cuica contributes little to the sound.

  1. μ-SRXRF characterization of Brazilian emeralds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curado, J. F.; Radtke, M.; Buzanich, G.; Reinholz, U.; Riesemeier, H.; Guttler, R. A. S.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to characterize emeralds from different mines of Brazil by using Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Microanalysis (μ-SRXRF). The advantage of this technique is that we can analyze a homogeneous, inclusion free area of the stone with the microbeam to distinguish the elemental fingerprint according to the provenance of the emerald. A total of 47 samples belonging to 5 different Brazilian mines were studied in this work and 28 elements were identified. By means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) it is possible to build different groups according to the provenance of the stones, which allows to assign samples of unknown origin to the according mine.

  2. Brazilian Decimetric Array (Phase-I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, H. S.; Ramesh, R.; Cecatto, J. R.; Faria, C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Rosa, R. R.; Andrade, M. C.; Stephany, S.; Cividanes, L. B. T.; Miranda, C. A. I.; Botti, L. C. L.; Boas, J. W. S. V.; Saito, J. H.; Moron, C. E.; Mascarenhas, N. D.; Subramanian, K. R.; Sundararajan, M. S.; Ebenezer, E.; Sankararaman, M. R.

    2007-05-01

    An East West, one-dimensional radio interferometer array consisting of five parabolic dish antennas has been set up at Cachoeira Paulista (longitude 45°0‧20″ W, latitude 22°41‧19″ S) for observations of the Sun and some of the strong sidereal sources by the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Brazil. This is Phase-I of the proposed Brazilian Decimetric Array and can be operated at any frequency in the range 1.2 1.7 GHz. The instrument has been in operation since November 2004 onwards at 1.6 GHz. The angular and temporal resolutions at this frequency are ˜3‧ and 100 ms, respectively. Details of the array, analog/digital receiver system, and a preliminary East West one-dimensional solar image at the 1.6 GHz are presented in this paper.

  3. Selective Logging in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Knapp, David E.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Oliveira, Paulo J. C.; Keller, Michael; Silva, Jose N.

    2005-10-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square kilometers per year (+/-14%) between 1999 and 2002, equivalent to 60 to 123% of previously reported deforestation area. Up to 1200 square kilometers per year of logging were observed on conservation lands. Each year, 27 million to 50 million cubic meters of wood were extracted, and a gross flux of ~0.1 billion metric tons of carbon was destined for release to the atmosphere by logging.

  4. Measuring complexity in Brazilian economic crises

    PubMed Central

    Mortoza, Letícia P. D.; Piqueira, José R. C.

    2017-01-01

    Capital flows are responsible for a strong influence on the foreign exchange rates and stock prices macroeconomic parameters. In volatile economies, capital flows can change due to several types of social, political and economic events, provoking oscillations on these parameters, which are recognized as economic crises. This work aims to investigate how these two macroeconomic variables are related with crisis events by using the traditional complex measures due to Lopez-Mancini-Calbet (LMC) and to Shiner-Davison-Landsberg (SDL), that can be applied to any temporal series. Here, Ibovespa (Bovespa Stock Exchange main Index) and the “dollar-real” parity are the background for calculating the LMC and SDL complexity measures. By analyzing the temporal evolution of these measures, it is shown that they might be related to important events that occurred in the Brazilian economy. PMID:28301506

  5. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Broadbent, Eben N; Oliveira, Paulo J C; Keller, Michael; Silva, Jose N

    2005-10-21

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square kilometers per year (+/-14%) between 1999 and 2002, equivalent to 60 to 123% of previously reported deforestation area. Up to 1200 square kilometers per year of logging were observed on conservation lands. Each year, 27 million to 50 million cubic meters of wood were extracted, and a gross flux of approximately 0.1 billion metric tons of carbon was destined for release to the atmosphere by logging.

  6. Sport participation motives of young Brazilian athletes.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Dartagnan P; Netto, Jose Evaristo S

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the motives for sport participation in a sample of young Brazilian athletes according to sex, age, and training history. A total of 1,517 participants (714 girls, 803 boys) ages 12 to 18 years were included in the study. The Portuguese version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire was used to identify motives for sport participation. The most important motives were Skill Development and Fitness, whereas the least important were Fun and Achievement/Status. Sex, age, type of sport, onset of training, duration of training, training volume, and competitive experience significantly influenced the motives for sport participation reported by the athletes. These results will contribute to establish intervention programs designed to reduce sport dropout rates among young athletes.

  7. Development of a Brazilian maize core collection

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate methods for developing a Brazilian maize core collection. For an initial survey of the active collection, passport information, as well as characterization and evaluation of accessions, were taken into consideration, these then being divided according to geographic region and kernel-type. Multiple sampling methods were evaluated. The strategy of constant sampling generated extensive alterations in extract accession frequency. The multivariate strategy with dispersion graphs and principal components associated with the Tocher method was considered efficient for identifying the most divergent genotypes. The multivariate strategy generated greater alterations in the variance of traits. The average number of traits revealed few modifications with the various sampling strategies used. Therefore, the active collection could be considered as possessing a satisfactory amount of information for most of its accessions. Moreover, the multivariate strategy generated modifications in the variance of the traits, independent of sampling intensity. PMID:21637517

  8. Virus infections in Brazilian honey bees.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Erica Weinstein; Chen, Yanping; Message, Dejair; Pettis, Jeff; Evans, Jay D

    2008-09-01

    This work describes the first molecular-genetic evidence for viruses in Brazilian honey bee samples. Three different bee viruses, Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Deformed wing virus (DWV) were identified during a screening of RNAs from 1920 individual adult bees collected in a region of southeastern Brazil that has recently shown unusual bee declines. ABPV was detected in 27.1% of colony samples, while BQCV and DWV were found in 37% and 20.3%, respectively. These levels are substantially lower than the frequencies found for these viruses in surveys from other parts of the world. We also developed and validated a multiplex RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of ABPV, BQCV, and DWV in Brazil.

  9. Chromosome X aneuploidy in Brazilian schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Leopoldo Silva; Khayat, André Salim; de Lima, Patrícia Danielle Lima; Lima, Eleonidas Moura; Pinto, Giovanny Rebouças; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    The identification of cytogenetic abnormalities in schizophrenic patients may provide clues to the genes involved in this disease. For this reason, a chromosomal analysis of samples from 62 schizophrenics and 70 controls was performed with trypsin-Giemsa banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization of the X chromosome. A clonal pericentric inversion on chromosome 9 was detected in one male patient, and we also discovered mosaicism associated with X chromosome aneuploidy in female patients, primarily detected in schizophrenic and normal female controls over 40 years old. When compared with age-matched female controls, the frequency of X chromosome loss was not significantly different between schizophrenics and controls, except for the 40- to 49-year-old age group. Our findings suggest that the X chromosome loss seen in schizophrenic patients is inherent to the normal cellular aging process. However, our data also suggest that X chromosome gain may be correlated with schizophrenia in this Brazilian population.

  10. South Fork Latrine, oblique view showing south and east sides; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine, oblique view showing south and east sides; view northwest - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  11. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, SOUTH APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, SOUTH APPROACH, LOOKING NORTH. - South San Gabriel River Bridge, Spanning South Fork of San Gabriel River at Georgetown at Business Route 35, Georgetown, Williamson County, TX

  12. GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, SOUTH ABUTMENT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF SOUTH SAN GABRIEL RIVER BRIDGE, SOUTH ABUTMENT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - South San Gabriel River Bridge, Spanning South Fork of San Gabriel River at Georgetown at Business Route 35, Georgetown, Williamson County, TX

  13. Phylogeny of culturable cyanobacteria from Brazilian mangroves.

    PubMed

    Silva, Caroline Souza Pamplona; Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Vaz, Marcelo Gomes Marçal Vieira; Fiore, Marli Fátima

    2014-03-01

    The cyanobacterial community from Brazilian mangrove ecosystems was examined using a culture-dependent method. Fifty cyanobacterial strains were isolated from soil, water and periphytic samples collected from Cardoso Island and Bertioga mangroves using specific cyanobacterial culture media. Unicellular, homocytous and heterocytous morphotypes were recovered, representing five orders, seven families and eight genera (Synechococcus, Cyanobium, Cyanobacterium, Chlorogloea, Leptolyngbya, Phormidium, Nostoc and Microchaete). All of these novel mangrove strains had their 16S rRNA gene sequenced and BLAST analysis revealed sequence identities ranging from 92.5 to 99.7% when they were compared with other strains available in GenBank. The results showed a high variability of the 16S rRNA gene sequences among the genotypes that was not associated with the morphologies observed. Phylogenetic analyses showed several branches formed exclusively by some of these novel 16S rRNA gene sequences. BLAST and phylogeny analyses allowed for the identification of Nodosilinea and Oxynema strains, genera already known to exhibit poor morphological diacritic traits. In addition, several Nostoc and Leptolyngbya morphotypes of the mangrove strains may represent new generic entities, as they were distantly affiliated with true genera clades. The presence of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, polyketide synthase, microcystin and saxitoxin genes were detected in 20.5%, 100%, 37.5% and 33.3%, respectively, of the 44 tested isolates. A total of 134 organic extracts obtained from 44 strains were tested against microorganisms, and 26% of the extracts showed some antimicrobial activity. This is the first polyphasic study of cultured cyanobacteria from Brazilian mangrove ecosystems using morphological, genetic and biological approaches.

  14. Highlights of the Brazilian Solar Spectroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, H. S.; Cecatto, J. R.; Mészárosová, H.; Faria, C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Karlický, M.; de Andrade, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    The digital, decimetric (950-2500 MHz) Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS, Sawant, H.S., Subramanian, K.R., Faria, C., et al. Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS). Solar Phys. 200, 167-176, 2001) with high time (10-1000 ms) and frequency (1-10 MHz) resolution is in regular operation since April, 1998, at the National Space Research Institute (INPE) at São José dos Campos, Brazil. The BSS has now been upgraded with a new digital data acquisition and data processing system. The new version of the BSS has improved the observational possibilities with the capability to record up to 200 frequency channels available in the selectable frequency range 950-2500 MHz. The GPS receiver permits the acquisition of data with time accuracy in the order of 0.1 ms. The software system of the BSS is composed by two distinct modules: the first, data acquisition system provides a flexible Graphical User Interface (GUI) that allows one to choose the observational parameters. The second module is the real time visualization system that permits real time visualization of the observed dynamic spectrum and additionally allows procedures for visualization and preliminary analysis of the recorded solar spectra. Using the new visualization system, we have realized two new types of dm-radio fine structures: narrow band type III bursts with positive as well as negative group frequency drift and dots emissions arranged in zebra-like and fiber-like chains. Furthermore, we have found flare generated fast wave trains according to their tadpole signature in wavelet power spectra for a decimetric type IV radio event (June 6, 2000 flare).

  15. The Brazilian tunable filter imager for SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Keith; Mendes de Oliveira, Cláudia; Laporte, Rene; Guzman, Christian D.; Ramirez Fernandez, Javier; Scarano, Sergio, Jr.; Ramos, Giseli; Plana, Henri; Lourenco, Fernando E.; Gach, Jean-Luc; Fontes, Fernando L.; Ferrari, Fabricio; Cavalcanti, Luiz; Gutierrez Castañeda, Edna C.; de Calasans, Alvaro; Balard, Philippe; Amram, Philippe; Andrade, Denis

    2010-07-01

    A scientific and engineering team led by the Department of Astronomy of the IAG, at the University of São Paulo, is engaged in the development of a highly versatile, new technology, optical imaging interferometer to be used both in seeing-limited mode and at high spatial resolution using the SOAR Adaptive Optics Module (SAM: the GLAO facility for the SOAR telescope). Such an instrument opens up important new science capabilities for the SOAR astronomical community: from studies of nearby galaxies and the ISM to statistical cosmological investigations. The Brazilian Tunable Filter Imager (BTFI) concept takes advantage of two new technologies that have been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory environment but have yet to be deployed in any astronomical instrument. The iBTF (imaging Bragg Tunable Filter) concept utilizes a Volume Phase Holographic Grating in double-pass configuration (Blais-Ouellette et al. 20061) while the new Fabry-Perot concept involves the use of commercially available technology allowing a single etalon to act over a very large range of interference orders. Both technologies will be used in the same instrument. The combination allows for highly versatile capabilities. Spectral resolutions spanning the full range between 5 and 35,000 can be achieved in the same instrument through the use of iBTF