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Sample records for brazilian soldiers returning

  1. Psychosocial factors related to returning to work in U.S. Army Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Julian, Christopher H; Valente, Juliana M

    2015-01-01

    Work provides daily structure, physical and mental activity, interpersonal contact, social status, self-esteem, respect of others, and the ability to use acquired skills. Wounded, ill, or injured soldiers are often removed from duty and assigned or attached to a Warrior Transition Unit during medical and rehabilitation management. Separation from meaningful employment can lead to negative physical and behavioral health outcomes that may impact an active duty soldier's ability to resume work. This cross-sectional study explored the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) psychosocial factors of Personal Causation, Values, Interests, Roles, Habits, and Perceptions of Environment related to returning to work in US Army Soldiers in a Warrior Transition Unit (WTU) at a large military medical center. Single data collection sessions were held for 34 soldiers using the following instruments: a demographic and work status questionnaire, the Role Checklist, and the Worker Role Interview (WRI). Descriptive statistics, Chi-square analysis, and the Mann Whitney U test were used to analyze the results. Analysis revealed that one WRI item related to Personal Causation and three items related to Roles and Habits were supportive factors for successfully returning to employment among soldiers that were working or engaged in returning to work. There are significant differences among psychosocial factors related to returning to work between soldiers who are currently working or have returned to work and those who have not. Longitudinal studies could help to clarify how these factors augment a soldier's rehabilitation at a WTU.

  2. Mild Head Trauma and Chronic Headaches in Returning US Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    multiple headache diagnoses. Two of the soldiers with migraine were also diagnosed with occipital neuralgia . One of these soldiers was diag- nosed with...13 (27) Occipital neuralgia 5 (15) 3 (6) Medication overuse headache 4 (12) 0 (0) Headache NOS 7 (21) 7 (14) Multiple headache types 10 (30) 16 (33

  3. Big and tall soldiers are more likely to survive battle: a possible explanation for the 'returning soldier effect' on the secondary sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2007-11-01

    It is widely known that more boys are born during and immediately after wars, but there has not been any ultimate (evolutionary) explanation for this 'returning soldier effect'. Here, I suggest that the higher sex ratios during and immediately after wars might be a byproduct of the fact that taller soldiers are more likely to survive battle and that taller parents are more likely to have sons. I analyze a large sample of British Army service records during World War I. Surviving soldiers were on average more than one inch (3.33 cm) taller than fallen soldiers. Conservative estimates suggest that the one-inch height advantage alone is more than twice as sufficient to account for all the excess boys born in the UK during and after World War I. While it remains unclear why taller soldiers are more likely to survive battle, I predict that the returning soldier effect will not happen in more recent and future wars.

  4. Readjustment stressors and early mental health treatment seeking by returning National Guard soldiers with PTSD.

    PubMed

    Interian, Alejandro; Kline, Anna; Callahan, Lanora; Losonczy, Miklos

    2012-09-01

    Readjustment stressors are commonly encountered by veterans returning from combat operations and may help motivate treatment seeking for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study examined rates of readjustment stressors (marital, family, and employment) and their relationship to early mental health treatment seeking among returning National Guard soldiers with PTSD. Participants were 157 soldiers who were surveyed approximately three months after returning from combat operations in Iraq and scored positive on the PTSD Checklist (PCL). The survey asked soldiers about their experience with nine readjustment stressors as well as their use of mental health care in the three months after returning. Many readjustment stressors were common in this cohort, and most soldiers experienced at least one stressor (72%). Univariate analyses showed that readjustment stressors were related to higher rates of treatment seeking. These findings remained significant after multivariate analyses adjusted for depression and PTSD severity but were no longer significant after adjustment for age and marital status. Readjustment stressors are common among soldiers returning from duty with PTSD and may be more predictive than PTSD symptom levels in treatment seeking. These effects appeared to be at least partially accounted for by demographic variables and the role of greater familial and occupational responsibilities among older veterans. Treatment seeking may be motivated by social encouragement or social interference and less by symptom severity.

  5. Return to Duty Rate of Amputee Soldiers in the Current Conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    major limb amputees that met inclusion criteria. Of those, 65 returned to active duty (16.5%). The average age of amputees returning to duty was more...amputation, and 30 amputees had not completed a PEB. The remaining 395 major limb amputations were in- cluded in this study. Of those, 65 (16.5%) amputees ...majority praised the informal group therapy , which is commonplace in such an environment. With designated amputee centers, the amputee soldier

  6. Infection reduces return-to-duty rates for soldiers with Type III open tibia fractures.

    PubMed

    Napierala, Matthew A; Rivera, Jessica C; Burns, Travis C; Murray, Clinton K; Wenke, Joseph C; Hsu, Joseph R

    2014-09-01

    Infection is a potentially devastating complication following severe lower extremity trauma, but its impact on the outcomes of combat casualties remains unclear. We hypothesize that orthopedic infectious complications will have a negative impact on holistic patient outcome as measured by return-to-duty (RTD) and disability ratings among wounded soldiers. We reviewed the medical records for 115 wounded soldiers who sustained a Type III open tibia fracture and tabulated the prevalence of infectious complications. We searched the Physical Evaluation Board database to determine the disability ratings of soldiers with and without an infection and how many of each group was able to return to active duty service. The average percent disability rating and RTD rates between groups were compared using an unpaired t test and χ test, respectively. Overall, 40% of our cohort had an infectious complication of their fractured limb. Twenty-one soldiers were able to RTD, while 94 could not and were medically retired. Of those medically retired, 44% had an infection. The average percent disability among soldiers with infection was 55%, compared with 47% for those who were not infected (p = 0.1407). Soldiers who experienced any type of infectious complication (p = 0.0470) and having osteomyelitis (p = 0.0335) had a lower chance of RTD compared with those who had no infection. Having a deep soft tissue infection alone showed a strong trend toward decreased RTD rate (p = 0.0558). Infectious complications following severe lower extremity trauma significantly decrease the rate of RTD. In addition, the presence of infectious complications demonstrates a trend toward higher disability ratings in the combat wounded. Prognostic study, level III.

  7. Mental health training with soldiers four months after returning from Iraq: randomization by platoon.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carl Andrew; Adler, Amy B; McGurk, Dennis; Bliese, Paul D

    2012-08-01

    Military personnel report significant and increasing mental health problems in the months following return from combat. Nevertheless, studies have not assessed the impact of mental health training with this at-risk population. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a prototype mental health training module designed for U.S. soldiers 3-6 months after returning from combat; the module was a component of the Battlemind Training system. Soldiers (N = 1,645) were randomly assigned by platoon to 1 hour of training or a survey-only control group. Baseline surveys were conducted immediately before training; a training satisfaction survey was administered immediately after training, and a follow-up survey was administered 6 months later. Immediate postsession surveys were conducted with 681 subjects, and follow-up surveys were conducted with 542 soldiers. The Battlemind Training module received positive ratings from participants, and those who received it reported significantly better adjustment in terms of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, depression, and life satisfaction at follow-up compared to those in the survey-only control group. Changes in attitudes about the stigma of seeking mental health care were found immediately posttraining, but not at follow-up. The findings demonstrate that brief mental health training can be effective in reducing mental health systems with at-risk occupational groups.

  8. The Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and Other Protozoan Parasites in Soldiers Returning from Peacekeeping Missions

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Aleksandra; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia; Lanocha, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a common intestinal parasite found in humans living in poor sanitary conditions, living in tropical and subtropical climates, exposed to infected animals, or consuming contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. hominis in Polish military personnel returning from peacekeeping missions in Iraq and Afghanistan. In total, 1,826 stool samples were examined. Gastrointestinal parasites were detected in 17% of the soldiers. The examined stool samples most frequently contained vacuolar forms of B. hominis (15.3%) and cysts of Entamoeba coli (1.0%) or Giardia lamblia (0.7%). In 97.1% of stool samples from infected soldiers, we observed less than five developmental forms of B. hominis in the field of view (40×). The parasite infections in soldiers were diagnosed in the autumn and the spring. There was no statistical correlation between age and B. hominis infection. Our results show that peacekeeping missions in countries with tropical or subtropical climates could be associated with risk for parasitic diseases, including blastocystosis. PMID:25732683

  9. The prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and other protozoan parasites in soldiers returning from peacekeeping missions.

    PubMed

    Duda, Aleksandra; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia; Lanocha, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a common intestinal parasite found in humans living in poor sanitary conditions, living in tropical and subtropical climates, exposed to infected animals, or consuming contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. hominis in Polish military personnel returning from peacekeeping missions in Iraq and Afghanistan. In total, 1,826 stool samples were examined. Gastrointestinal parasites were detected in 17% of the soldiers. The examined stool samples most frequently contained vacuolar forms of B. hominis (15.3%) and cysts of Entamoeba coli (1.0%) or Giardia lamblia (0.7%). In 97.1% of stool samples from infected soldiers, we observed less than five developmental forms of B. hominis in the field of view (40×). The parasite infections in soldiers were diagnosed in the autumn and the spring. There was no statistical correlation between age and B. hominis infection. Our results show that peacekeeping missions in countries with tropical or subtropical climates could be associated with risk for parasitic diseases, including blastocystosis. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. [A French soldier returns from the Central Africa Republic with hepatitis A: Vaccination failure is possible!].

    PubMed

    Ficko, C; Conan, P L; Bigaillon, C; Duron, S; Rapp, C

    2015-01-01

    In stays in tropical countries, the French military, and travelers in general, are exposed to diseases transmitted by the fecal-oral route, some of which are vaccine-preventable. Here we report a 42-yer-old soldier with hepatitis A, which first appeared on his return from a military operation in the Central African Republic. Despite its excellent immunogenicity and a duration of seroprotection extending beyond 20 years in the vast majority of cases, the hepatitis A vaccine can fail. This reminds us of the importance of combining vaccine and non-vaccine prevention in tropical countries, especially in precarious living conditions.

  11. Assessment of an alternative postdeployment reintegration strategy with soldiers returning from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Maurice L; Foran, Heather M; Wood, Michael D; Wright, Kathleen M; Barnhart, Vincent J; Riviere, Lyndon A; Adler, Amy B

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined behavioral health outcomes, risk behaviors, aggression, alcohol misuse, marital satisfaction, and attitudes toward reintegration associated with an alternative, front-loaded reintegration strategy compared with a more standardized reintegration process in soldiers returning from combat deployments. The type of reintegration strategy used did not predict differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, alcohol misuse, aggression, and marital satisfaction, although slightly higher reports of risk behaviors were found in the unit using the standard reintegration approach even after controlling for demographic covariates and combat exposure. These findings may help guide leadership when making decisions regarding reintegration approaches in the future.

  12. Longitudinal assessment of mental health problems among active and reserve component soldiers returning from the Iraq war.

    PubMed

    Milliken, Charles S; Auchterlonie, Jennifer L; Hoge, Charles W

    2007-11-14

    To promote early identification of mental health problems among combat veterans, the Department of Defense initiated population-wide screening at 2 time points, immediately on return from deployment and 3 to 6 months later. A previous article focusing only on the initial screening is likely to have underestimated the mental health burden. To measure the mental health needs among soldiers returning from Iraq and the association of screening with mental health care utilization. Population-based, longitudinal descriptive study of the initial large cohort of 88 235 US soldiers returning from Iraq who completed both a Post-Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA) and a Post-Deployment Health Re-Assessment (PDHRA) with a median of 6 months between the 2 assessments. Screening positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression, alcohol misuse, or other mental health problems; referral and use of mental health services. Soldiers reported more mental health concerns and were referred at significantly higher rates from the PDHRA than from the PDHA. Based on the combined screening, clinicians identified 20.3% of active and 42.4% of reserve component soldiers as requiring mental health treatment. Concerns about interpersonal conflict increased 4-fold. Soldiers frequently reported alcohol concerns, yet very few were referred to alcohol treatment. Most soldiers who used mental health services had not been referred, even though the majority accessed care within 30 days following the screening. Although soldiers were much more likely to report PTSD symptoms on the PDHRA than on the PDHA, 49% to 59% of those who had PTSD symptoms identified on the PDHA improved by the time they took the PDHRA. There was no direct relationship of referral or treatment with symptom improvement. Rescreening soldiers several months after their return from Iraq identified a large cohort missed on initial screening. The large clinical burden recently reported among veterans presenting to

  13. EFFECTS OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION INTERVENTION ON HANDGRIP STRENGTH OF BRAZILIAN HEALTHY SOLDIERS.

    PubMed

    Morel, Danielle Soares; Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Neto, Samuel Brandão Sobrinho; Domingos, Laisa Liane Paineiras; de Souza, Patrícia Lopes; Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha de Sá; Costa, Glenda Dias; de Figueiredo, Cláudia Ferreira; Carmo, Roberto Carlos Resende; de Paiva, Patrícia de Castro; Gonçalves, Cintia Renata Sousa; Kütter, Cristiane Ribeiro; de Aguiar, Eliane de Oliveira Guedes; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) exercises have been investigated as an alternative and complementary method to traditional resistance programs for fitness improvements in healthy subjects. Active militaries must have a high fitness level and have to improve some physical abilities to accomplish some specific tasks in Army, as climb ropes, climb walls and pull up. Seven young and healthy soldiers from Brazilian Army were exposed to mechanical vibration in a push-up position, with different frequencies, as 25 (first session), 30 (second session), 35 (third session), 40 (fourth session) and 45 Hz (fifth session). The WBV intervention consisted of five WBV sessions over a consecutive two and a half-weeks period of time. A WBV session consisted of twenty bouts, each one with 10- second vibration, interspersed with 10 seconds of passive rest and 4 minutes pause after the first 10 bouts. Handgrip strength was measured, as proposed by American Society of Hand Therapists - ASHT, before and after the session using 25 Hz of frequency and 45 Hz of frequency (1(st) and 5(th) sessions). No significant results were found between groups. Intervention of WBV exercises with 25 and 45 Hz of frequency applied by hands of healthy and young soldiers had no significant results. Further investigations should focus on the efficacy of WBV in the improvement of handgrip strength of young and healthy people.

  14. Chemical composition and biological activities of soldiers of the Brazilian termite species, Nasutitermes macrocephalus (Isoptera: Natutitermitinae).

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Márcia N S; Júnior, Helvécio M S; Oliveira, Denilson F; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Ferreira, Antonio G; Alviano, Daniela S; Rezende, Claudia M

    2013-01-01

    The defensive secretion of the frontal gland from termite soldiers is a mixture of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpenes, the latter being the most representative. Analyses of the dichloromethane extract from soldiers of the Brazilian termite, Nasutitermes macrocephalus (Silvestri, 1903) (Isoptera, Nasutitermitinae), described for the first time, allowed to identify the presence of two monoterpenes (alpha-pinene and limonene) and two sesquiterpenes (beta-trans-caryophyllene and gamma-selinene) [corrected] by GC-EIMS, and the isolation of one rippertane and six trinervitane diterpenes by RP-HPLC. The chemical structures of the purified compounds were elucidated by interpretation of their spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR, EIMS, HRESIMS, and specific optical rotation) and the complete unequivocal assignment of the 3a-hydroxy-trinervita-1(15),8(19)-dien-2-one (6) was included in this paper, to complement the lack of information in the literature. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines activities were evaluated. In particular, the compounds 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxytrinervita-l(15),8(19)-diene (2) and 3alpha-hydroxy-15-rippertene (7) exhibited the better activities against the clinically isolated Gram-positive bacterium methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus BMB 9393, both with a MIC value of 31.2 microg mL(-1). This is the first description of a rippertane diterpene (7) as an antibacterial agent.

  15. The Impact of Behavioral Health Issues on Soldiers Returning from Deployment -- Assessing the Programs for Reintegration of South Carolina National Guard Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-23

    home to begin a 30, 60, and 90-day cycle similar to the current system to ensure success in reintegration . Providing decompression immediately...and leads to a more successful transition into reintegration back into civilian life. A second recommendation is for the SCNG Family Programs to...RETURNING FROM DEPLOYMENT – ASSESSING THE PROGRAMS FOR REINTEGRATION OF SOUTH CAROLINA NATIONAL GUARD SOLDIERS BY COLONEL R. VAN MCCARTY United

  16. Validating the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist with Soldiers Returning from Combat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliese, Paul D.; Wright, Kathleen M.; Adler, Amy B.; Cabrera, Oscar; Castro, Carl A.; Hoge, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to assess the diagnostic efficiency of the Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Screen (PC-PTSD) and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) as clinical screening tools for active duty soldiers recently returned from a combat deployment. A secondary goal was to examine the item-level characteristics…

  17. Homecoming of soldiers who are citizens: Re-employment and financial status of returning Army National Guard soldiers from Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF).

    PubMed

    Griffith, James

    2015-01-01

    This study examined civilian employment among Army National Guard soldiers who had recently returned from Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF). Of specific interest were relationships of re-employment and financial difficulties to several conditions, such as amount of social support during and after deployment, combat exposure, negative feelings during and after deployment, and postdeployment adjustment symptoms. Survey data from the Army's Reintegration Unit Risk Inventory were used (4,546 soldiers in 50 units who were deployed during 2010). Few soldiers reported financial difficulties during deployment (7.1% of the sample) and after having returned (11.8%). Of those who reported postdeployment financial difficulties, nearly one-half had reported such difficulties during deployment, and not having resumed the predeployment job was associated with more postdeployment financial difficulties. Logistic regression analyses showed the relative contribution of the study variables to changed financial status, from deployment to postdeployment. Reported deployment support (e.g., trust in the unit chain-of-command and available support) was associated with decreased financial difficulties. In contrast, increased financial difficulties were associated with having seen others wounded or killed in combat. Other postdeployment experiences, such as feelings of anger and frustration and available support, were associated with increased financial difficulties, in addition to alcohol use, trouble sleeping and suicidal thoughts. Implications of results for policy and practice to lessen financial hardships and job loss associated with deployment are discussed.

  18. Alcohol misuse, alcohol-related risky behaviors, and childhood adversity among soldiers who returned from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Clarke-Walper, Kristina; Riviere, Lyndon A; Wilk, Joshua E

    2014-02-01

    Soldiers face a great number of traumatic combat exposures while deployed, which research has shown to contribute to the development of alcohol misuse. In addition to this known risk factor, we hypothesize that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) also contribute to the likelihood that soldiers will engage in these behaviors, even after adjusting for deployment-related factors (mental health problems and combat exposure). Soldiers were surveyed anonymously approximately 3 months upon return from Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) or Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) from 2003 to 2006. Six brigade combat teams were included in the analyses (n=7849). Participants were asked about ACEs, mental health symptoms, alcohol misuse, risky behaviors related to alcohol misuse, and combat exposure. Of the 7849 soldiers in the sample, 31.5% screened positive for alcohol misuse and of those almost half also screened positive for risky behaviors related to alcohol misuse (43.3%). Having an alcoholic in the household and experiencing sexual abuse were significantly associated with screening positive for alcohol misuse and alcohol misuse with risky behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse was a strongly associated ACE item, with an almost 2-fold increase in risk of both outcomes even after adjusting for mental health problems and combat exposure. Findings suggest that ACEs are a substantial risk factor for alcohol misuse with and without risky behaviors among soldiers returning from deployments and should be considered when directing prevention efforts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Battlemind debriefing and battlemind training as early interventions with soldiers returning from iraq: Randomization by platoon.

    PubMed

    Adler, Amy B; Bliese, Paul D; McGurk, Dennis; Hoge, Charles W; Castro, Carl Andrew

    2009-10-01

    Researchers have found that there is an increase in mental heath problems as a result of military-related traumatic events, and such problems increase in the months following return from combat. Nevertheless, researchers have not assessed the impact of early intervention efforts with this at-risk population. In the present study, the authors compared different early interventions with 2,297 U.S. soldiers following a year-long deployment to Iraq. Platoons were randomly assigned to standard postdeployment stress education, Battlemind debriefing, and small and large group Battlemind training. Results from a 4-month follow-up with 1,060 participants showed those with high levels of combat exposure who received Battlemind debriefing reported fewer posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression symptoms, and sleep problems than those in stress education. Small group Battlemind training participants with high combat exposure reported fewer posttraumatic stress symptoms and sleep problems than stress education participants. Compared to stress education participants, large group Battlemind training participants with high combat exposure reported fewer posttraumatic stress symptoms and lower levels of stigma and, regardless of combat exposure, reported fewer depression symptoms. Findings demonstrate that brief early interventions have the potential to be effective with at-risk occupational groups.

  20. Low Enteric Colonization with Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens in Soldiers Returning from Deployments- Experience from the Years 2007–2015

    PubMed Central

    Frickmann, Hagen; Wiemer, Dorothea; Frey, Claudia; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Hinz, Rebecca; Podbielski, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This assessment describes the enteric colonization of German soldiers 8–12 weeks after returning from mostly but not exclusively subtropical or tropical deployment sites with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Between 2007 and 2015, 828 stool samples from returning soldiers were enriched in nonselective broth and incubated on selective agars for Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), VRE and MRSA. Identification and resistance testing of suspicious colonies was performed using MALDI-TOF-MS, VITEK-II and agar diffusion gradient testing (bioMérieux, Marcy-l’Étoile, France). Isolates with suspicion of ESBL were characterized by ESBL/ampC disc-(ABCD)-testing and molecular approaches (PCR, Sanger sequencing). Among the returnees, E. coli with resistance against third-generation cephalosporins (37 ESBL, 1 ESBL + ampC, 1 uncertain mechanism) were found in 39 instances (4.7%). Associated quinolone resistance was found in 46.2% of these isolates. Beta-lactamases of the blaCTX-M group 1 predominated among the ESBL mechanisms, followed by the blaCTX-M group 9, and blaSHV. VRE of vanA-type was isolated from one returnee (0.12%). MRSA was not isolated at all. There was no clear trend regarding the distribution of resistant isolates during the assessment period. Compared with colonization with resistant bacteria described in civilians returning from the tropics, the colonization in returned soldiers is surprisingly low and stable. This finding, together with high colonization rates found in previous screenings on deployment, suggests a loss of colonization during the 8- to 12-week period between returning from the deployments and assessment. PMID:27598775

  1. Disease and diet in the construction of otherness between the soldiers of the Brazilian Imperial Army during the War of the Farrapos.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, José Iran

    2011-01-01

    During the War of the Farrapos, the imperial army called thousands of Brazilians to fight against the Rio Grande republicans. The ten years of conflict brought soldiers from different regions of Brazil together in one place, and reciprocal social interaction led to the construction of otherness relationships. A broad spectrum of accents, experiences and references came together, making the diversity of Brazilians from different regions visible. This diversity stimulated the demarcation of different and shared means of identification, among which we highlight diet and diseases, which served as signs to identify/differentiate the origins of the troops. These questions are analyzed based on handwritten documentation produced daily by Army administrators.

  2. Soldiering on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Coeli

    2010-01-01

    As community colleges welcome an influx of veterans returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan, administrators must focus on helping these soldiers--many who are pursuing higher education for the first time--obtain the knowledge and skills necessary to thrive in a changing economy. The process starts the moment these men and women set foot on…

  3. Soldiering on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Coeli

    2010-01-01

    As community colleges welcome an influx of veterans returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan, administrators must focus on helping these soldiers--many who are pursuing higher education for the first time--obtain the knowledge and skills necessary to thrive in a changing economy. The process starts the moment these men and women set foot on…

  4. Perceived organizational support, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and stigma in soldiers returning from combat.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Christie L; Britt, Thomas W; Adler, Amy B; Bliese, Paul D

    2014-05-01

    Research has shown that perceived organizational support (POS), or how much employees believe their organizations value their contributions and well-being, is an important predictor of employee mental health outcomes. To support employee mental health in high-risk occupations, organizations may want to identify variables that explain the relationship between POS and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Using a longitudinal design and a military sample, the present study found a relationship between POS and stigma as well as PTSD symptoms. Stigma partially mediated the relationship between POS at Time 1 and PTSD symptoms at Time 2. The partial mediation indicates that a supportive environment may also create a climate of reduced stigma in which soldiers may be comfortable addressing PTSD symptoms. Both results suggest positive actions that organizations can take to support employee mental health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Identification of Rickettsia conorii infection by polymerase chain reaction in a soldier returning from Somalia.

    PubMed

    Williams, W J; Radulovic, S; Dasch, G A; Lindstrom, J; Kelly, D J; Oster, C N; Walker, D H

    1994-07-01

    A soldier developed characteristic manifestations of boutonneuse fever shortly after leaving Somalia. Rickettsial DNA was detected in a biopsy sample of the tache noire by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in which primers derived from the 190-kD antigen gene of Rickettsia rickettsii were used. The source of this DNA was identified as Rickettsia conorii by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR product. R. conorii was also isolated from the skin biopsy specimen. The patient did not develop a significant increase in specific antibodies, as assessed by indirect fluorescent antibody testing, until several weeks after the onset of symptoms. This case demonstrates that the PCR/RFLP technique can be used for the direct identification of rickettsiae from clinical specimens. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed case of R. conorii infection in Somalia.

  6. A trial of prazosin for combat trauma PTSD with nightmares in active-duty soldiers returned from Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Raskind, Murray A; Peterson, Kris; Williams, Tammy; Hoff, David J; Hart, Kimberly; Holmes, Hollie; Homas, Dallas; Hill, Jeffrey; Daniels, Colin; Calohan, Jess; Millard, Steven P; Rohde, Kirsten; O'Connell, James; Pritzl, Denise; Feiszli, Kevin; Petrie, Eric C; Gross, Christopher; Mayer, Cynthia L; Freed, Michael C; Engel, Charles; Peskind, Elaine R

    2013-09-01

    The authors conducted a 15-week randomized controlled trial of the alpha-1 adrenoreceptor antagonist prazosin for combat trauma nightmares, sleep quality, global function, and overall symptoms in active-duty soldiers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) returned from combat deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan. Sixty-seven soldiers were randomly assigned to treatment with prazosin or placebo for 15 weeks. Drug was titrated based on nightmare response over 6 weeks to a possible maximum dose of 5 mg midmorning and 20 mg at bedtime for men and 2 mg midmorning and 10 mg at bedtime for women. Mean achieved bedtime doses were 15.6 mg of prazosin (SD=6.0) and 18.8 mg of placebo (SD=3.3) for men and 7.0 mg of prazosin (SD=3.5) and 10.0 mg of placebo (SD=0.0) for women. Mean achieved midmorning doses were 4.0 mg of prazosin (SD=1.4) and 4.8 mg of placebo (SD=0.8) for men and 1.7 mg of prazosin (SD=0.5) and 2.0 mg of placebo (SD=0.0) mg for women. Primary outcome measures were the nightmare item of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the change item of the Clinical Global Impressions Scale anchored to functioning. Secondary outcome measures were the 17-item CAPS, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Quality of Life Index. Maintenance psychotropic medications and supportive psychotherapy were held constant. Prazosin was effective for trauma nightmares, sleep quality, global function, CAPS score, and the CAPS hyperarousal symptom cluster. Prazosin was well tolerated, and blood pressure changes did not differ between groups. Prazosin is effective for combat-related PTSD with trauma nightmares in active-duty soldiers, and benefits are clinically meaningful. Substantial residual symptoms suggest that studies combining prazosin with effective psychotherapies might demonstrate further benefit.

  7. Brazilian cross-cultural adaptation of "Return-to-work self-efficacy" questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Silva, João Silvestre; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lagerveld, Suzanne E; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2017-03-02

    To describe the translation and early stages of cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire Verwachtingen over werken (or "Return-to-work self-efficacy") for workers in sick leave due to mental disorders, from the original in Dutch to the Brazilian Portuguese language. A panel gathering experts was formed to determine the questionnaire conceptual and item equivalence. For semantic equivalence, the Dutch-Portuguese Brazilian translations were consolidated and consensus meetings were held to structure versions of the instrument. Each version was back-translated from Brazilian Portuguese to Dutch and evaluated by one of the authors of the original version. The final version was submitted to two pre-tests for operational equivalence. The original questionnaire in Dutch was translated twice to Brazilian Portuguese. During the process, four consensus meetings of the experts' panel were performed to create the versions. Each version was back-translated to Dutch. One of the authors of the original questionnaire performed an evaluation on the first three versions until the definition of the final one, which was titled Expectativas sobre o trabalho (Expectations about work). Pre-tests' participants did not reported problems to fill the questionnaire. Results indicate that the Brazilian Portuguese cross-culturally adapted version maintains the original meaning of the questionnaire, while including characteristics peculiar to the Brazilian reality. Measurement and functional equivalence of this version must still be evaluated before its application can be recommended for workers who have been absent from work due to mental disorders.

  8. Battlemind Debriefing and Battlemind Training as Early Interventions with Soldiers Returning from Iraq: Randomization by Platoon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Amy B.; Bliese, Paul D.; McGurk, Dennis; Hoge, Charles W.; Castro, Carl Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have found that there is an increase in mental heath problems as a result of military-related traumatic events, and such problems increase in the months following return from combat. Nevertheless, researchers have not assessed the impact of early intervention efforts with this at-risk population. In the present study, the authors…

  9. Battlemind Debriefing and Battlemind Training as Early Interventions with Soldiers Returning from Iraq: Randomization by Platoon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Amy B.; Bliese, Paul D.; McGurk, Dennis; Hoge, Charles W.; Castro, Carl Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have found that there is an increase in mental heath problems as a result of military-related traumatic events, and such problems increase in the months following return from combat. Nevertheless, researchers have not assessed the impact of early intervention efforts with this at-risk population. In the present study, the authors…

  10. Identification of Rickettsia conorii Infection by Polymerase Chain Reaction in a Soldier Returning from Somalia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    tigues but never used insect repellant. He did not recall any tick bites or contact with animals. On his return trip to the United States. he stayed...maculopapular eruption involving the chest, abdomen . non 124]. Rickettsial antigens used in the immunoblots in- face. proximal upper extremities, and...the pul monarv manifestations of nonproductive cough and a radiographic infiltrate demonstrate that this patient had %ui’- stantial visceralI

  11. Brazilian cross-cultural adaptation of “Return-to-work self-efficacy” questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Silva, João Silvestre; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lagerveld, Suzanne E; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the translation and early stages of cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire Verwachtingen over werken (or “Return-to-work self-efficacy”) for workers in sick leave due to mental disorders, from the original in Dutch to the Brazilian Portuguese language. METHODS A panel gathering experts was formed to determine the questionnaire conceptual and item equivalence. For semantic equivalence, the Dutch-Portuguese Brazilian translations were consolidated and consensus meetings were held to structure versions of the instrument. Each version was back-translated from Brazilian Portuguese to Dutch and evaluated by one of the authors of the original version. The final version was submitted to two pre-tests for operational equivalence. RESULTS The original questionnaire in Dutch was translated twice to Brazilian Portuguese. During the process, four consensus meetings of the experts’ panel were performed to create the versions. Each version was back-translated to Dutch. One of the authors of the original questionnaire performed an evaluation on the first three versions until the definition of the final one, which was titled Expectativas sobre o trabalho (Expectations about work). Pre-tests’ participants did not reported problems to fill the questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS Results indicate that the Brazilian Portuguese cross-culturally adapted version maintains the original meaning of the questionnaire, while including characteristics peculiar to the Brazilian reality. Measurement and functional equivalence of this version must still be evaluated before its application can be recommended for workers who have been absent from work due to mental disorders. PMID:28273232

  12. Return to work after renal transplantation: a study of the Brazilian Public Social Security System.

    PubMed

    Messias, Alexandre Augusto; Reichelt, Angela J; Dos Santos, Edson F; Albuquerque, Galton C; Kramer, José S P; Hirakata, Vania N; Garcia, Valter D

    2014-12-15

    Return to work is an objective parameter used worldwide to evaluate the success of organ transplantation and is especially feasible after renal transplantation. This study sought to describe the frequency of return to work after renal transplantation and related characteristics. Retrospective cohort of 511 isolated kidney transplant recipients was recruited from a Brazilian referral center from January 2005 to December 2009; all were matched to the public social security database to determine inclusion and benefit awards, as well as the rate of resumption of contributions to the public social security system, a surrogate marker of work rehabilitation. Characteristics associated with work return were analyzed. No social security records were found for 28 subjects. The remaining 483 subjects had a mean age of 45±13 years; 62% were male; 401 (83%) received some public social security benefit; 298 were paying dues and could, therefore, receive temporary or permanent disability benefits. Of these, 78 subjects made social security payments after transplantation, resulting in a work return rate of 26% (95% confidence interval, 21-32). Younger age, living donor graft, and chronic glomerulonephritis were significantly associated with return to work. In Brazil, most renal transplant recipients are on social security benefits, but only a small proportion return to work after surgery. Clinical characteristics may help define work resumption trends.

  13. The challenge of diagnosing Plasmodium ovale malaria in travellers: report of six clustered cases in french soldiers returning from West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plasmodium ovale is responsible for 5% of imported malaria in French travellers. The clinical and biological features of six clustered cases of P. ovale malaria in an army unit of 62 French soldiers returning from the Ivory Coast are reported. Case report All patients were symptomatic and developed symptoms on average 50 days after their return and 20 days after the end of chemoprophylaxis (doxycycline). Clinical features included fever (6/6), mostly tertian (4/6), aches (6/6), nausea (3/6), abdominal pain (2/6), diarrhoea (2/6), or cough (2/6). Thrombocytopaenia was lower than 100,000/mm3 in half the cases only, and the haemoglobin count was normal for all patients. The diagnosis was made after at least three thick and thin blood smear searches. Parasitaemia was always lower than 0.5%. All rapid diagnostic tests were negative for HRP2 and pLDH antigens. Discussion Plasmodium ovale malaria is currently a problem to diagnose in travellers, notably in French soldiers returning from the Ivory Coast. Early attempts at diagnosis are difficult due to the lack of specific clinical features, the rarity of biological changes and the poor sensitivity of diagnostic tools to detect low parasitaemia. Thus, the diagnosis is commonly delayed or missed. Physicians should be aware of this diagnostic challenge to avoid relapses and provide prompt and adequate treatment with chloroquine and radical cure with primaquine. PMID:21143962

  14. Estimating return periods for daily precipitation extreme events over the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Eliane Barbosa; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; Santos e Silva, Cláudio Moisés

    2016-11-01

    This paper aims to model the occurrence of daily precipitation extreme events and to estimate the return period of these events through the extreme value theory (generalized extreme value distribution (GEV) and the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD)). The GEV and GPD were applied in precipitation series of homogeneous regions of the Brazilian Amazon. The GEV and GPD goodness of fit were evaluated by quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plot and by the application of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test, which compares the cumulated empirical distributions with the theoretical ones. The Q-Q plot suggests that the probability distributions of the studied series are appropriated, and these results were confirmed by the KS test, which demonstrates that the tested distributions have a good fit in all sub-regions of Amazon, thus adequate to study the daily precipitation extreme event. For all return levels studied, more intense precipitation extremes is expected to occur within the South sub-regions and the coastal area of the Brazilian Amazon. The results possibly will have some practical application in local extreme weather forecast.

  15. Use of qPCR and genomic sequencing to diagnose Plasmodium ovale wallikeri malaria in a returned soldier in the setting of a negative rapid diagnostic assay.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Robert; Feghali, Karla; Alemayehu, Saba; Komisar, Jack; Hang, Jun; Weina, Peter J; Coggeshall, Patricia; Kamau, Edwin; Zapor, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Plasmodium ovale is one of several clinically relevant malaria species known to cause disease in humans. However, in contrast to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, which are responsible for most cases of human malaria, P. ovale has a wide distribution but low prevalence in tropical regions. Here, we report the case of a soldier returning from Liberia with P. ovale wallikeri malaria. This case highlights the limitations of both microscopy and the malaria rapid diagnostic test for diagnosing infection with P. ovale and for distinguishing P. ovale wallikeri from P. ovale curtisi. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in which quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification using the Cytochrome B gene, coupled with genomic sequencing of the potra locus, was used for definitive diagnosis of P. ovale wallikeri malaria.

  16. [The visibility of the care given by a Brazilian Army nurse to a wounded soldier during World War II].

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Margarida Maria Rocha; Lopes, Gertrudes Teixeira; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco

    2005-03-01

    A historical-sociological study aimed at analyzing and describing the visibility of the performance of a Brazilian Army nurse engaged in the Força Expedicionária Brasileira--FEB (Brazilian Expeditionary Force) during the Second World War. Primary source: a photograph taken at the time, along with the oral testimony of nineteen agents. This mode of gathering data resulted in the creation of a new method of research, which we named Oral-Photographic Analysis. The photo was picked in the Brazilian Army's iconographic collection, located at the Comando Militar do Leste (Eastern Military Command), in Rio de Janeiro. Secondary sources: literature on the sociohistorical context of the period. We used Pierre Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, power and cultural capital. The results showed that, in order to face such challenge and care for the wounded, the volunteer nurses had to acquire new habitus through mandatory training given by the military.

  17. Returning to the "homeland": work-related ethnic discrimination and the health of Japanese Brazilians in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Takashi; Gee, Gilbert C; Nakayama, Kazuhiro; Niwa, Sayuri

    2008-04-01

    We investigated whether self-reported ethnic discrimination in the workplace was associated with well-being among Japanese Brazilians who had returned to Japan. Further, we examined interactions between discrimination and education on well-being. We obtained data from a cross-sectional survey of Japanese Brazilian workers (n = 313) conducted in 2000 and 2001. Outcomes were self-rated health, psychological symptoms as measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) score, and a checklist of somatic symptoms. Reports of ethnic discrimination were associated with increased risk of poor self-rated health and psychological symptoms (GHQ-12 score), after we controlled for self-assessed workload, supportive relations at work, physically dangerous working conditions, workplace environmental hazards, shift work, number of working hours, age, gender, marital status, income, education, Japanese lineage, length of residence, and Japanese language proficiency. Further, the relationship between discrimination and self-rated health and somatic symptoms was most robust for those with the least education. Ethnic discrimination appears to be a correlate of morbidity among Japanese Brazilian migrants. Future research should investigate how educational and workplace interventions may reduce discrimination and possibly improve health.

  18. Homecoming of Citizen Soldiers: Postdeployment Problems and Service Use Among Army National Guard Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Griffith, James

    2017-03-24

    The present study described the types and amount of problems and services sought among returned deployed Army National Guard soldiers (4568 soldiers in 50 units). The study responds to gaps in the research literature to better understand community intervention needs of reservists. About half (48%) of the soldiers reported one or two problems, mostly those of psychological well-being, such as feelings of anger and frustration, upsetting memories, and troubled sleep (34% of the study sample), followed by problems of social support (18%), alcohol use (17%), feelings of isolation including suicidal thoughts (13%), and financial difficulties (11%). Having engaged in direct combat and having wounded or killed someone showed positive relationships with reported problems. One-third (35%) of soldiers who reported having used services went to one service and, generally, soldiers went to services related to their expressed problems. Variance in self-reported problems explained by service use was low, suggesting unsought postdeployment services.

  19. Demystifying the Citizen Soldier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    of citizen soldiers, nationalsecurity policy will remain consistent with the will of the people-the ultimate requirement ofour democracy. For Meyer...controversial foreign wars, and-most important of all-embodied the ideals of citizen soldier. While most of todays debateabout the active-reserve...ability to prevent the United States from fighting controversial foreign wars* embodiment of the ideals of the citizen soldier.

  20. Changes in Soldier Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drucker, Eugene H.

    As part of a study for increasing motivation and preventing attitude deterioration among enlisted men, two studies were conducted: (1) to determine the attitudes of soldiers in 1970 (974 basic trainees at Fort Knox) and compare them with those of soldiers similarly questioned between 1945 and 1951; and (2) to review the literature on attitude…

  1. Soldier’s Radio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-14

    individual soldier. "t’s primary use is by individuals in squads or small units, but may also be used to interconnect into local and wide area...Velopilnq the concept for the Soldier’s Radio. The operation of the SR can be partitioned into two areas. The architecture required to provide intra- squad ... SQUAD CONMECTrVITY The basic radio ccmmunications architectures suitable for :cnsideration for the SR intra- squad operations include the Net, .tar

  2. Diagnosis and Management of Borrelia turicatae Infection in Febrile Soldier, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Anna M; Pietralczyk, Elizabeth; Lopez, Job E; Brooks, Christopher; Schriefer, Martin E; Wozniak, Edward; Stermole, Benjamin

    2017-05-01

    In August 2015, a soldier returned from field exercises in Texas, USA, with nonspecific febrile illness. Culture and sequencing of spirochetes from peripheral blood diagnosed Borrelia turicatae infection. The patient recovered after receiving doxycycline. No illness occurred in asymptomatic soldiers potentially exposed to the vector tick and prophylactically given treatment.

  3. Reintegration of National Guard Soldiers with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    It recommends procedures and policy that will provide better support for returning Guard veterans . REINTEGRATION OF NATIONAL GUARD SOLDIERS...OIF deployments started, the military had little recent experience with reintegrating Guard combat veterans back into their communities. 42 It was...and DOD led to the YRRP, a national combat veteran reintegration program that provides Guard soldiers and their families with information, services

  4. MILITARY PAY: Processes for Retaining Injured Army National Guard and Reserve Soldiers on Active Duty Have Been Improved, but Some Challenges Remain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    average length of stay of soldiers treated by civilian providers through CBHCI with the average length of stay of soldiers treated at MTFs...these metrics may be misleading. According to the Army’s metrics, the average length of stay , before being returned to duty or medically separated...for soldiers treated by civilian providers through CBHCI is 288 days whereas the average length of stay for soldiers

  5. Soldier-Computer Interface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-27

    understandable units. (5) Immediate Feedback : Operators should always be presented with readily understandable information so that they know...operation, system response time, and special commands. d. Feedback : Operators should always be presented with readily understandable information on...considerations (handedness, physical strength, wearing of eyeglasses, and facility of spoken English). TABLE 3. SOLDIER-COMPUTER INTERFACE CRITERIA

  6. The Student Soldier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Educating America's service men and women has long been a core mission of many community colleges, especially in cities and towns that host military bases and installations. Today, a soldier, sailor, or Marine can be stationed anywhere in the world and continue his or her education with the help of distance learning initiatives. Whether a soldier…

  7. The Student Soldier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Educating America's service men and women has long been a core mission of many community colleges, especially in cities and towns that host military bases and installations. Today, a soldier, sailor, or Marine can be stationed anywhere in the world and continue his or her education with the help of distance learning initiatives. Whether a soldier…

  8. Six legged soldiers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Jeffrey Lockwood has written a fascinating if at times depressing exploration of the role of insects in warfare. Dr. Lockwood reviews the martial use of insects, starting with stinging bees and wasps, which were in ancient and Medieval times widely used in war to induce panic among enemy soldiers. ...

  9. Public-academic partnerships: working together to meet the needs of Army National Guard soldiers: an academic-military partnership.

    PubMed

    Dalack, Gregory W; Blow, Adrian J; Valenstein, Marcia; Gorman, Lisa; Spinner, Jane; Marcus, Sheila; Kees, Michelle; McDonough, Susan; Greden, John F; Ames, Barbara; Francisco, Burton; Anderson, James R; Bartolacci, James; Lagrou, Robert

    2010-11-01

    The conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq have greatly increased the number of veterans returning home with combat exposure, reintegration issues, and psychiatric symptoms. National Guard soldiers face additional challenges. Unlike active duty soldiers, they do not return to military installations with access to military health services or peers. The authors describe the formation and activities of a partnership among two large state universities in Michigan and the Michigan Army National Guard, established to assess and develop programming to meet the needs of returning soldiers. The process of forming the partnership and the challenges, opportunities, and benefits arising from it are described.

  10. Soldier System Power Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-31

    capability 21 Photovoltaic Power Sources 23 Maximum Power Tracking in Solar Arrays 23 Optimum Configuration of Solar Array for Enhanced Power Generation...Sources", IEEE Transactions on Power Elec- tronics, vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 244-253, Jan. 2005. 9. S. Liu, R. Dougal, E. Solodovnik, "Maximum Power Tracking and...eguate FRetulat Fig. 5.5. Flow chart of control algorithm. 22 Soldier System Power Sources Final Project Report PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SOURCES MAXIMUM POWER

  11. Soldier systems sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, Kathryne M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper addresses sensor fusion and its applications in emerging Soldier Systems integration and the unique challenges associated with the human platform. Technology that,provides the highest operational payoff in a lightweight warrior system must not only have enhanced capabilities, but have low power components resulting in order of magnitude reductions coupled with significant cost reductions. These reductions in power and cost will be achieved through partnership with industry and leveraging of commercial state of the art advancements in microelectronics and power sources. As new generation of full solution fire control systems (to include temperature, wind and range sensors) and target acquisition systems will accompany a new generation of individual combat weapons and upgrade existing weapon systems. Advanced lightweight thermal, IR, laser and video senors will be used for surveillance, target acquisition, imaging and combat identification applications. Multifunctional sensors will provide embedded training features in combat configurations allowing the soldier to 'train as he fights' without the traditional cost and weight penalties associated with separate systems. Personal status monitors (detecting pulse, respiration rate, muscle fatigue, core temperature, etc.) will provide commanders and highest echelons instantaneous medical data. Seamless integration of GPS and dead reckoning (compass and pedometer) and/or inertial sensors will aid navigation and increase position accuracy. Improved sensors and processing capability will provide earlier detection of battlefield hazards such as mines, enemy lasers and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agents. Via the digitized network the situational awareness database will automatically be updated with weapon, medical, position and battlefield hazard data. Soldier Systems Sensor Fusion will ultimately establish each individual soldier as an individual sensor on the battlefield.

  12. Developing Soldier Cultural Competency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-03

    heavily on small patrols establishing personal relationships with the local populace -- understanding the culture is a key to success. The commander...the world, a Soldier’s cultural misstep can quickly turn a local , simple cultural misunderstanding into a situation with strategic implications -- “the...means for developing a Soldier’s cultural awareness is decentralized to local commanders. When assigned to a command overseas, Soldiers typically

  13. Indian Soldiers Need Eye Protection

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Combat-related eye injuries entail enormous financial, social and psychological cost. Military Combat Eye Protection (MCEP) decreases both the incidence and severity of eye injuries. Experts have recognised the need for MCEP for Indian soldiers. We aim to review the combat-related eye injuries and combat eye protection among the Indian soldiers. Global practices of MCEP are also reviewed. We also aim to offer our recommendations for Indian soldiers. We carried out Medline search for combat-related eye injuries and MCEP and separately searched for eye injuries among Indian soldiers during war and other operations. We present the findings as results. Recommendations are based on the opinions of the experts. Combat-related eye injuries increased from 3% of injured in the 1965 Indo-Pakistan War to 4.8% in 1971 war. During peace-keeping operations in Sri Lanka (1987-89) eye injuries increased to 10.5% of the injured. Statistics on eye injuries during counterinsurgency operations are not available. MCEP have shown reduction in eye injuries, and thus MCEP forms a part of personal equipment of the soldiers in developed countries. Indian soldiers do not have provision of MCEP. Combat-related eye injuries among Indian Army soldiers have been increasing. Data on eye injuries during counterinsurgency operations are not available. Indian soldiers do not have provision of MCEP. Provision of MCEP is therefore desirable. Awareness program among the commanders and the soldiers shall result in attitudinal changes and increased compliance. PMID:28384904

  14. Conspicuity of moving soldiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beintema, Jaap A.; Toet, Alexander; de Vries, Sjoerd J.

    2011-05-01

    The construction and validation of soldier combat models requires data on the conspicuity of camouflaged targets in the field, and human targets in particular. So far, this data is lacking. Also, it si currently unknown to what degree luminance contrast and motion contribute to target conspicuity. These data are needed to enable the validation and further development of human visual search performance modules in soldier combat models like SCOPE or IWARS. In this study we measured the conspicuity of a person wearing a Dutch army camouflage uniform, while he was either standing still, walking or running along a forest in the background, both for viewing with the naked eye (NE) and for viewing dynamic thermal scene recordings (IR). We varied the viewing distance (80m and 230 m), the camouflage pattern (woodland and desert), the type of background (pine-tree and deciduous forest), and season (summer and winter), The IR (thermal) conspicuity of the person was much larger than his NE (visual) conspicuity. In both cases the effects of movement were large and saturated as a function of retinal target speed. For NE, we find large effects of shading that can not explained by local luminance contrast variations. Also for NE, conspicuity was reduced in winter, probably as a result of an increase in scene clutter. The results suggest that conspicuity is not only a function of retinal target motion and global luminance contrast, but also depends on the amount of clutter in the scene.

  15. Robust Soldier Crab Ball Gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunji, Yukio-Pegio; Nishiyama, Yuta; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2011-09-01

    Based on the field observation of soldier crabs, we previously proposed a model for a swarm of soldier crabs. Here, we describe the interaction of coherent swarms in the simulation model, which is implemented in a logical gate. Because a swarm is generated by inherent perturbation, a swarm can be generated and maintained under highly perturbed conditions. Thus, the model reveals a robust logical gate rather than stable one. In addition, we show that the logical gate of swarms is also implemented by real soldier crabs (Mictyris guinotae).

  16. Leptospirosis in a British soldier after travel to Borneo.

    PubMed

    Burns, Daniel S; Clay, K A; Bailey, M S

    2016-12-01

    Undifferentiated febrile illness in a returning soldier is a common problem encountered by serving medical officers. A 32-year-old soldier presented to Birmingham Heartlands Hospital with fever and acute kidney injury after return from Borneo. Leptospirosis was suspected and empirical antibiotics were started before subsequent confirmation by serology and PCR. Leptospirosis is common in South-East Asia, and troops exercising in jungle areas, and in the UK, are at risk. Advice, including inpatient management when appropriate, is available from the UK Role 4 Military Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Service. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Soldier evaluation of the virtual reality Iraq.

    PubMed

    Reger, Greg M; Gahm, Gregory A; Rizzo, Albert A; Swanson, Robert; Duma, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Repeated combat deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan are resulting in increased rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among military personnel. Although exposure therapy is an effective treatment for this disorder, some personnel do not significantly respond to treatment, possibly due to poor activation of the trauma memory or a lack of emotional engagement during therapy. In addition, some service members do not seek mental healthcare due to treatment stigma. Researchers recently developed a virtual reality (VR) Iraq to attempt to improve activation of the traumatic memory during exposure therapy and to provide a treatment approach that may be more appealing to some service members, relative to traditional face-to-face talk therapy. Initial validation of the application requires an assessment of how well it represents the experiences of previously deployed service members. This study evaluated the realism of the VR Iraq application according to the subjective evaluation of 93 U.S. Army soldiers who returned from Iraq in the last year. Those screening negative for PTSD used and evaluated a VR tactical convoy and a VR dismounted patrol in a simulated Middle Eastern city. Results indicated that 86% of soldiers rated the overall realism of the VR convoy as ranging from adequate to excellent. Eighty-two percent of soldiers reported adequate-to-excellent overall realism of the city environment. Results provide evidence that the VR Iraq presents a realistic context in which VR exposure therapy can be conducted. However, clinical trials are needed to assess the efficacy of VR exposure therapy for Iraq veterans with PTSD.

  18. "It helps me transform in my life from the past to the new": the meaning of resources for former child soldiers.

    PubMed

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2013-08-01

    Although former child soldiers face considerable challenges after their return from the warring faction to the war-affected society, the presence of resources enables many to maintain well-being in the wake of child soldiering. Academic research has recently engaged with identifying these salient resources, but has left the question why they are helpful to former child soldiers largely unaddressed. This study therefore focuses on the meaning underlying certain phenomena that causes them to become resources. Semistructured in-depth interviews and a free-listing task on resources were conducted with 48 northern Ugandan former child soldiers. The phenomenological hermeneutical method is applied to analyze their lived experiences and the meaning they assign to resources. Four essential themes emerge from this study, representing the fourfold meaning of resources for former child soldiers in helping them (a) to break with their former existence as child soldiers, (b) to be able to overcome the challenges in their current life, (c) to belong to others and the environment to which they have returned, and (d) to become the person they aspire to be. Considering these research themes in the context of former child soldiers' return process, parallels with theories on transition are recognized and further explored so as to contextualize this emerging meaning. As such, this research delivers empirical evidence illustrating how resources help to pilot former child soldiers through transition in the wake of child soldiering.

  19. Differential Child Maltreatment Risk Across Deployment Periods of US Army Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Christine M; Ross, Michelle E; Wood, Joanne N; Griffis, Heather M; Harb, Gerlinde C; Mi, Lanyu; Song, Lihai; Strane, Douglas; Lynch, Kevin G; Rubin, David M

    2016-01-01

    We described the risk for maltreatment among toddlers of US Army soldiers over different deployment cycles to develop a systematic response within the US Army to provide families appropriate supports. We conducted a person-time analysis of substantiated maltreatment reports and medical diagnoses among children of 112,325 deployed US Army soldiers between 2001 and 2007. Risk of maltreatment was elevated after deployment for children of soldiers deployed once but not for children of soldiers deployed twice. During the 6 months after deployment, children of soldiers deployed once had 4.43 substantiated maltreatment reports and 4.96 medical diagnoses per 10,000 child-months. The highest maltreatment rate among children of soldiers deployed twice occurred during the second deployment for substantiated maltreatment (4.83 episodes per 10,000 child-months) and before the first deployment for medical diagnoses of maltreatment (3.78 episodes per 10,000 child-months). We confirmed an elevated risk for child maltreatment during deployment but also found a previously unidentified high-risk period during the 6 months following deployment, indicating elevated stress within families of deployed and returning soldiers. These findings can inform efforts by the military to initiate and standardize support and preparation to families during periods of elevated risk.

  20. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form in National Guard Soldiers Screening Positive for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbisi, Paul A.; Polusny, Melissa A.; Erbes, Christopher R.; Thuras, Paul; Reddy, Madhavi K.

    2011-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2 RF) was administered to 251 National Guard soldiers who had recently returned from deployment to Iraq. Soldiers were also administered questionnaires to identify posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). On the basis of responses to the…

  1. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form in National Guard Soldiers Screening Positive for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbisi, Paul A.; Polusny, Melissa A.; Erbes, Christopher R.; Thuras, Paul; Reddy, Madhavi K.

    2011-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2 RF) was administered to 251 National Guard soldiers who had recently returned from deployment to Iraq. Soldiers were also administered questionnaires to identify posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). On the basis of responses to the…

  2. Danish soldiers in Iraq: perceived exposures, psychological distress, and reporting of physical symptoms.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn; Guldager, Bernadette

    2011-10-01

    Using data from an occupational medical health surveillance program, we studied the associations between mental stressors and social support and the two outcome measures postdeployment psychological distress and multiple physical symptoms among Danish soldiers deployed to Iraq. The study was cross-sectional and questionnaire-based with soldiers returning from the mission as the target group. Witnessing atrocities, fear of being physically harmed, feeling of insecurity, feeling of meaninglessness, and having been in touch with prisoners were associated with both outcome measures. In conclusion, our findings support the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely related to increased psychological discomfort and certain mental stressors.

  3. Forced conscription of children during armed conflict: experiences of former child soldiers in northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Coppens, Kathleen; Derluyn, Ilse; De Schryver, Maarten; Loots, Gerrit; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-07-01

    Child soldiering can be considered as one of the worst practices of institutionalized child abuse. However, little is known about the scope and nature of this abuse and the consequent experiences of children enrolled in an armed faction. This research aims at enriching the knowledge on the experiences of child soldiers in the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) in northern Uganda. The databases of 4 former Interim Care Centres for returned child soldiers in northern Uganda, comprising socio-demographic information of 8,790 returnees, and additional data from the Rachele Rehabilitation Centre on war-related experiences of 1,995 former child soldiers, are analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of covariance and regression analysis. During on average 1.5 years in captivity, nearly all participants had various war-related experiences, whereby 88% witnessed and 76% forcibly participated in atrocities. Variations in exposure to warfare appear to be mainly associated with age of abduction, duration of captivity, location of captivity, being military trained, and being a rebel's wife. These findings testify to the vastness of abuse lived through by the child soldiers in this study. They fulfilled a multifaceted position in the LRA, which delivers a range of potential direct and indirect consequences. The variables decisive in differential experiences unveil trends in the strategic abduction by the LRA and in differential exposure to warfare among child soldiers. The variation in exposure to warfare urges for an individualized approach and monitoring of returning child soldiers. In order to address the potential indirect impact of child soldiering, support also needs to be oriented towards the child's network, based on a socio-ecological approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Dark Side of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidelson, Roy; Pilisuk, Marc; Soldz, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF), the focus of the January 2011 special issue of the "American Psychologist," is a $125 million resilience training initiative designed to reduce and prevent the adverse psychological consequences of combat for soldiers and veterans. These are worthy goals. Soldiers and veterans deserve the best care possible,…

  5. Traumatic experiences and posttraumatic stress disorder in soldiers following deployment abroad: how big is the hidden problem?

    PubMed

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Schönfeld, Sabine; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Thurau, Christin; Trautmann, Sebastian; Steudte, Susann; Klotsche, Jens; Höfler, Michael; Hauffa, Robin; Zimmermann, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Little is known about the frequency of traumatic event exposure and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among German soldiers serving in Afghanistan. We studied a random sample consisting of 1599 soldiers who had served in the 2009/2010 ISAF mission in Afghanistan, stratified by deployment location and unit. Twelve months after their return to Germany, the soldiers were assessed with a Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to establish the diagnoses of mental disorders and PTSD according to the DSM-IV. 889 similar soldiers who had not been deployed abroad were assessed in the same way. 49.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 46.4 to 52.1) of the deployed soldiers experienced at least one traumatic event during their deployment, and 13% experienced more than three. The 12-month prevalence of PTSD among returning soldiers was 2.9% (95% CI: 2.1 to 4.1), while the service-related incidence after deployment was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.5 to 1.6). These figures imply a two- to fourfold elevation of the risk of PTSD. The risk of PTSD was highest among soldiers who had served in Kunduz (Afghanistan) and in combat units. Only half of all soldiers with PTSD sought professional help. Deployment abroad is associated with a high frequency of traumatic experiences and a two- to fourfold elevation of the risk of PTSD. Each year, about 300 cases of PTSD develop for every 10 000 soldiers who return to Germany; thus, the cumulative number of returnees with PTSD from the beginning of German deployment abroad may currently run into the thousands. 45% of all PTSD cases, or about one in two, are neither diagnosed nor treated. Deployment abroad also substantially increases the risk of developing a number of other mental disorders.

  6. Soldier universal robot controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyams, Jeffrey; Batavia, Parag; Liao, Elizabeth; Somerville, Andrew

    2008-04-01

    The Soldier Universal Robot Controller (SURC) is a modular OCU designed for simultaneous control of heterogeneous unmanned vehicles. It has a well defined, published API., defined using XML schemas, that allows other potential users of the system to develop their own modules for rapid integration with SURC. The SURC architecture is broken down into three layers: User Interface, Core Functions, and Transport. The User Interface layer is the front end module which provides the human computer interface for user control of robots. The Core layer is further divided into the following modules: Capabilities, Tactical, Mobility, and World Model. The Capabilities module keeps track of the known robots and provides a list of specifications and services. The Mobility module provides path planning via D*, while the Tactical module provides higher level mission planning (multi-agent/multi-mission) capabilities for collaborative operations. The World Model module is a relational database which stores world model objects. Finally, a Transport module provides translation from the SURC architecture to the robot specific messaging protocols (such as JAUS). This allows fast integration of new robot protocols into an existing SURC implementation to enable a new system to rapidly leverage existing SURC capabilities. The communication between different modules within the SURC architecture is done via XML. This gives developers and users the flexibility to extend existing messages without breaking backwards compatibility. The modularity of SURC offers users and developers alike the capability to create custom modules and plug them into place, as long as they follow the pre defined messaging API for that module.

  7. Retention of Basic Soldiering Skills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    then make their own ’ decisions about which training to conduct and when. The commander knows what demands proficiency requirements make on his...34Variable Test Package"? Yes No (29) 13. Do you have your own copy of a Soldier’s Manual? Yes No (30) 14. What unit did you belong to durinig either Basic...SKILLS INTRODUCTION Assuming the next armed conflict will be a "come as you are" war, soldiers will not have time to significantly improve skills before

  8. What is a Quality Soldier?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-13

    Syrons, c0L, AR; R. W . Bilberry, LTC, A; M. H. Caram, LTC, IN; J . S. Luallin, LTC, IN;R. S. Mason, LTC, MI TILE: What is a Quality Soldier? FORMAT...CMDR [CO, bN: DRC9 B T! 2 ÷• W • w ’( 457) I STAFF OFF - NCO I 3 .’:***** ( J , I SGM ISG-AAC N 4 ********** ***** ***** C 490) I So LDR-PLT SGT-STAT 5 Soo...1982 ,dv• WHAT IS A QUALITY SOLDIER? by il• by OELECTE•! " SP 3 1982 COLONEL RODNEY W . SYMONS, AR S LIEUTENANT COLONEL RALPH W . BILBERRY, AG D

  9. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: Global Delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach.…

  10. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: Global Delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach.…

  11. To Stay a Soldier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    States return to duty.6 Clearly, something keeps these young people coming to and stay- ing in military service. Victor Frankl , a psychiatrist who...Carino, “Warrior Transition: Length of Stay in Process,” Department of the Army Office of the Surgeon General, 31 December 2007. 7. Victor Frankl , Man’s...Search for Meaning: An Introduction to Logotherapy (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984), 105. 8. Ibid., 124. 9. Fyodor Dostoyevsky, The Brothers

  12. Left Behind: Children of Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerles, Joe F.

    2011-01-01

    Recent international conflicts have increased the dangers of American military personnel. These soldiers are part of the growing contingent of military families with children. Because these children are more aware of the dangers, the stress and worry affects them in a variety of ways, especially in school-age children. This article investigates…

  13. Soldier-Scholars. Higher Education in the AEF, 1917-1919.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornebise, Alfred E.

    At the end of World War I, a system of education was created for the soldiers of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) who remained in Europe. This book documents the history of the ventures, organized by the Young Mens Christian Association and the army, that provided educational opportunities for two million men awaiting return to home.…

  14. Soldier-Scholars. Higher Education in the AEF, 1917-1919.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornebise, Alfred E.

    At the end of World War I, a system of education was created for the soldiers of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) who remained in Europe. This book documents the history of the ventures, organized by the Young Mens Christian Association and the army, that provided educational opportunities for two million men awaiting return to home.…

  15. Comparing Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy to Prolonged Exposure in the Treatment of Soldiers with PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    psychotropic medications. After returning home from a deployment, Soldiers commonly experience a period of psychological readjustment during...Ajzen’s Theory of Plarmed Behavior (13): Psychological Openness, Help-seeking Propensity, and Indifference to Stigma. Alpha coefficients for the...second measure is a scale adapted from an inventory concerning stigmatization associated with completing psychological assessments ( 15) (5). In

  16. Postdeployment mental health screening: an application of the Soldier Adaptation Model.

    PubMed

    Harmon, S Cory; Hoyt, Timothy V; Jones, Michael D; Etherage, Joseph R; Okiishi, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Global War on Terrorism and its corresponding frequent and long deployments have resulted in an increase in mental health concerns among active duty troops. To mitigate these impacts, the Department of Defense has implemented postdeployment screening initiatives designed to identify symptomatic soldiers and refer them for mental health care. Although the primary purpose of these screenings is to identify and provide assistance to individuals, macrolevel reporting of screening results for groups can assist Commanders, who are charged with ensuring the wellbeing of their soldiers, to make unit-level interventions. This study assesses the utility of a metatheory of occupational stress, the Soldier Adaptation Model, in organizing feedback information provided to Army Commanders on their units' postdeployment screening results. The results of a combat brigade of 2319 soldiers who completed post-deployment screening following return from Iraq were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling to assess the Soldier Adaptation Model's use for macrolevel reporting. Results indicate the Soldier Adaptation Model did not strengthen the macrolevel reporting; however, alcohol use and reckless driving were found to mediate the relationship between combat exposure and numerous mental health symptoms and disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, anger, depression, anxiety, etc.). Research and practice implications are discussed.

  17. "Once a Soldier, a Soldier Forever": Exiled Zimbabwean Soldiers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maringira, Godfrey; Carrasco, Lorena Núñez

    2015-01-01

    Through military training, soldiers' bodies are shaped and prepared for war and military-related duties. In the context these former Zimbabwean soldiers find themselves--that of desertion and 'underground life' in exile in South Africa--their military-trained bodies and military skills are their only resource. In this article, we explore the ways in which former soldiers maintain and 'reuse' their military-trained bodies in South Africa for survival, in a context of high unemployment and a violent, inner-city environment. We look at their social world and practices of soldiering--a term that refers to the specific forms of their social interaction in exile, through which they keep their memories of their military past alive. By attending to their subjectivities and the endurance of their masculine military identities and bodies, we aim to contribute to the discussion on demilitarization, which has largely focused on the failure of models of intervention to assist ex-combatants in postconflict contexts.

  18. Soldier Integrated Protective Ensemble: The Soldiers’ Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    enthusiastic about the sight despite limited experience. Four used the black hot polarity display for thermal, five used white hot; none could...soldier defending white hot said it was easier to detect with. Another articulated his preference for black hot. "[I use] black because the cross hairs...offered more flexibility. Active cooling vest (ACV)/Coolmax T shirt . The ACV interfaced with the air cooling system and the black Coolmax T shirt

  19. Victims and/or perpetrators? Towards an interdisciplinary dialogue on child soldiers.

    PubMed

    Derluyn, Ilse; Vandenhole, Wouter; Parmentier, Stephan; Mels, Cindy

    2015-10-14

    Worldwide, thousands of children are acting in different roles in armed groups. Whereas human rights activism and humanitarian imperatives tend to emphasize the image of child soldiers as incapable victims of adults' abusive compulsion, this image does not fully correspond with prevailing pedagogical and jurisprudential discourses, nor does it represent all child soldiers' own perceptions of their role. Moreover, contemporary warfare is often marked by fuzzy distinctions between perpetrators and victims. This article deepens on the question how to conceptualize the victim-perpetrator imaginary about child soldiers, starting from three disciplines, children's rights law, psychosocial approaches and transitional justice, and then proceeding into an interdisciplinary approach. We argue that the victim-perpetrator dichotomy in relation to child soldiers needs to be revisited, and that this can only be done successfully through a truly interdisciplinary approach. Key to this interdisciplinary dialogue is the growing awareness within all three disciplines, but admittedly only marginally within children's rights law, that only by moving beyond the binary distinction between victim- and perpetrator-hood, the complexity of childhood soldiering can be grasped. In transitional justice, the concept of role reversal has been instructive, and in psychosocial studies, emphasis has been put on the 'agency' of (former) child soldiers, whereby child soldiers sometimes account on how joining the armed force or group was (partially) out of their own free will. Hence, child soldiers' perpetrator-hood is not only part of the way child soldiers are perceived in the communities they return to, but equally of the way they see themselves. These findings plea for more contextualized approaches, including a greater participation of child soldiers, the elaboration of accountability mechanisms beyond criminal responsibility, and an intimate connection between individual, social and societal

  20. Soldier acceptability of a camouflage face paint combined with DEET insect repellent.

    PubMed

    Debboun, M; Coleman, R E; Sithiprasasna, R; Gupta, R K; Strickman, D

    2001-09-01

    Under operational conditions, current doctrine requires separate application of the standard military insect repellent and camouflage face paint. Working with an industrial partner, Amon Re, Inc., we developed a combined camouflage face paint and insect repellent that offers excellent protection from arthropod disease vectors. We undertook a study to determine whether the new product was acceptable to soldiers under field conditions. A new formulation of camouflage face paint containing the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide (DEET) was tested for user acceptability during a joint-service, multinational, military field training exercise (Operation Cobra Gold 1999) in Thailand. Soldiers testing the camouflage face paint were members of one of three companies (A, B, and C) of 1st Battalion, 21st Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division. Soldiers in A company (N = 98) received standard military camouflage face paint and the U.S. military's Extended Duration Topical Insect and Arthropod Repellent containing 33% DEET, soldiers in B company (N = 75) received a new formulation of camouflage face paint without DEET, and soldiers in C company (N = 88) received the new formulation of camouflage face paint containing 30% DEET. Every soldier who volunteered to participate completed the study and submitted responses to the questionnaire. The different treatments were evaluated while soldiers spent 4 days conducting simulated combat exercises in a hot, tropical environment in central Thailand. Soldiers were provided the test materials, given a briefing on the study, and completed an initial questionnaire on May 19, 1999. Soldiers completed a final questionnaire after they returned from the training exercise on May 24, 1999. Results of the study indicated that soldiers found the new formulation of 30% DEET camouflage face paint easier to apply (88% of respondents) and remove (77%) than the current standard issue camouflage face paint. Soldiers liked the new 30% DEET

  1. Eyekon: Distributed Augmented Reality for Soldier Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    Eyekon: Distributed Augmented Reality for Soldier Teams TOPIC: Information Superiority/Information Operations and Information Age... Augmented Reality for Soldier Teams 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...by ANSI Std Z39-18 Eyekon: Distributed Augmented Reality for Soldier Teams Abstract The battlefield is a place of violence ruled by

  2. Soldier Alienation: A Measureable Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    to the general question, "Who is today’s soldier and hoW should she/he be treated in order to maximize performance?" The technology exists to perform...modify expectations (Meglino, Youngblood, Randolph, Mobly , and DeNise, 1979). The approach suggested, then, would involve longitudinal research aired...In W. H. Truitt & G. Lolomons (Eds.), Science, Technology and Freedom. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1974. Lee, A. M. An obituary for alienation, Social

  3. Sleep and Resiliency in Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    were just resting (NSF). The timing of sleep is critical, therefore it is important for us to examine the time that Soldiers sleep in our study as...figure 1. 10 Figure 1 The black represents movement of the wrist ; the blue shaded area represents duration of sleep suggested by the lack of... wrist movement (Philips Respironics, 2009). The goal is to analyze the duration of the sleep periods, the quality of the sleep based on the number

  4. Civil Liberties of a Soldier.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The degree to which soldiers can exercise their First Amendment rights, defined as civil liberties, within the confines of the military establishment is the subject under discussion. Historical precedents for the exercise of such rights in Post World War I Austria and West Germany are cited and placed in juxtaposition to similiar liberties in the U.S. Army. The four liberties contained in the First Amendment are then discussed.

  5. Soldier Dimensions in Combat Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-07

    basic questions in this area of research. We urge our reviewers to provide constructive suggestions regarding ways to improve this plan. Moreover, we...experiment would last 3 full days and nights--a total of 72 hours. Randomly generated numbers from a simple BASIC program using the R•4D command could be...1%). Field hospital care: Excellent . The soldier you will be rating is operating a 25 mm cannon on a Bradley Fi’hting Vehicle. Read each item

  6. Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  7. Family Characteristics Associated With Child Maltreatment Across the Deployment Cycle of U.S. Army Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Strane, Douglas; Lynch, Kevin G; Griffis, Heather M; Taylor, Christine M; Harb, Gerlinde C; Mi, Lanyu; Song, Lihai; French, Benjamin; Rubin, David M

    2017-09-01

    Soldier deployment can create a stressful environment for U.S. Army families with young children. Prior research has identified elevated rates of child maltreatment in the 6 months immediately following a soldier's return home from deployment. In this study, we longitudinally examine how other child- and family-level characteristics influence the relationship of deployment to risk for maltreatment of dependent children of U.S. Army soldiers. We conducted a person-time analysis of substantiated reports and medical diagnoses of maltreatment among the 73,404 children of 56,087 U.S. Army soldiers with a single deployment between 2001 and 2007. Cox proportional hazard models estimated hazard rates of maltreatment across deployment periods and simultaneously considered main effects for other child- and family-level characteristics across periods. In adjusted models, maltreatment hazard was highest in the 6 months following deployment (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.63, p < 0.001). Children born prematurely or with early special needs independently had an increased risk for maltreatment across all periods (HR = 2.02, p < 0.001), as well as those children whose soldier-parent had been previously diagnosed with a mental illness (HR = 1.68, p < 0.001). In models testing for effect modification, during the 6 months before deployment, children of female soldiers (HR = 2.22, p = 0.006) as well as children of soldiers with a mental health diagnosis (HR = 2.78, p = 0.001) were more likely to experience maltreatment, exceeding the risk at all other periods. Infants and children are at increased risk for maltreatment in the 6 months following a parent's deployment, even after accounting for other known family- and child-level risk factors. However, the risk does not appear to be the same for all soldiers and their families in relation to deployment, particularly for female soldiers and those who had previously diagnosed mental health issues, for whom the risk appears most elevated before

  8. Soldier Representation in Modeling and Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-18

    33  Appendix A - TRAC-MTRY Recommended FY07 Soldier FACT CRAs ...A-1  Appendix B - TRAC-MTRY Recommended FY08 Soldier FACT CRAs ................................. B-1  Appendix C - Original Collaborative...1  iii iv List of Tables Table A-1. Recommended CRAs for FY07

  9. [The former soldiers becoming first aid trainers].

    PubMed

    Prieur, Joël

    2015-12-01

    The Order of Malta France is organising, through an innovative partnership with the French Army, the training of first aid instructors aimed at former soldiers injured in combat. One soldier, who received multiple wounds in Lebanon in 2011, describes his training experience.

  10. The Life of a Civil War Soldier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Barbara J.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan that is based on the Gettysburg National Military Park's "Life of a Civil War Soldier" traveling trunk program. Explains that this lesson offers a recipe for using a trunk to present the life of a Civil War soldier in the classroom. Includes activities and learning stations. (CMK)

  11. Postdeployment reintegration experiences of female soldiers from national guard and reserve units in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patricia J; Berkel, LaVerne A; Nilsson, Johanna E

    2014-01-01

    Women are an integral part of Reserve and National Guard units and active duty armed forces of the United States. Deployment to conflict and war zones is a difficult experience for both soldiers and their families. On return from deployment, all soldiers face the challenge of reintegration into family life and society, but those from the National Guard and Reserve units face the additional challenge of reintegration in relative isolation from other soldiers. There is limited research about the reintegration experiences of women and the functioning of the families during reintegration following deployment. The goal was to document postdeployment family reintegration experiences of women in the National Guard. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 42 female members of Midwestern National Guard units. Directed content analysis was used to identify categories of experiences related to women's family reintegration. Five categories of postdeployment experience for female soldiers and their families were identified: Life Is More Complex, Loss of Military Role, Deployment Changes You, Reestablishing Partner Connections, and Being Mom Again. The categories reflected individual and family issues, and both need to be considered when soldiers and their families seek care. Additional research is needed to fully understand the specific impact of gender on women's reintegration.

  12. [Posttraumtic stress disorder after deployment of German soldiers : does the risk increase with deployment duration?].

    PubMed

    Trautmann, S; Schönfeld, S; Höfler, M; Heinrich, A; Hauffa, R; Zimmermann, P; Wittchen, H-U

    2013-07-01

    International studies suggest a growing risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with an increasing duration of deployment. There are no data available for the German armed forces that would allow an assessment of the average mission duration of about 4 months. Analyses are based on a stratified random sample of 1,483 ISAF soldiers. Standardized diagnostic interviews were conducted about 12 months after soldiers returned from mission. Deployment duration was categorized into 1-2 months, 3-5 months, and 5-8 months. Additionally, dimensional analyses of deployment duration were performed. Deployment duration was associated with the number of stressful and traumatic events. Notwithstanding, we found no linear relationship between mission duration and PTSD risk, neither in the total sample nor in the defined subgroups. However, we found a bimodal distribution suggesting an increased PTSD risk in the first 2 months and - less pronounced and limited to the Kunduz location - for deployment durations of at least 6 months. There was no general increase in PTSD risk with increasing deployment durations for German soldiers in this naturalistic study. The higher risk for soldiers with short deployments might be explained by selection of vulnerable subjects and different deployment characteristics. Further, there is some evidence of an increased PTSD risk for soldiers deployed for longer periods to high-risk locations (e.g., Kunduz).

  13. The Comprehensive Female Soldier Support Model.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Daniel L; Kovacich, Joann; Rivers, Melvin J

    2017-04-25

    Women represent a small minority in the U.S. military and an even smaller minority in the military chaplaincy. Prior to this study, the U.S. Army chaplaincy did not have a gender-specific model for providing support to women soldiers. In this Delphi research project, wounded women soldiers and female military chaplains provided expert opinions to develop the comprehensive female soldier support model (CFS2). Ten military women and 11 female chaplains who had been deployed overseas contributed to the body of knowledge related to the understanding of the emotional and spiritual support needs of wounded female soldiers. Five key findings appeared in the study: (a) many women did not get the chaplain support they needed; (b) the gender of the chaplain was not significant; (c) the attitude of the chaplain was critical; (d) chaplain skills not found in literature were identified; and (e) the comprehensive female soldier support model was developed.

  14. Soldiers' experiences with military health care.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Bonnie M; Loan, Lori A; Heiner, Stacy L; Hemman, Eileen A; Swanson, Kristen M

    2005-12-01

    Patient satisfaction can be enhanced by narrowing gaps between what health care consumers experience and what they expect. A study was therefore conducted to better understand health care experiences and expectations among Army beneficiaries. Data collected using focus groups were analyzed by using qualitative research methods. A concept was identified and labeled "Soldier Care." It involves first-line care delivered at the unit level as well as the interface between first-line care and military treatment facilities. There are four features of Soldier Care, i.e., provider competence, the sick call cycle, getting appointments, and unit leadership. Together, these features affect soldiers' time from injury to recovery. Insights about Soldier Care can provide decision-makers with direction for initiating changes that may contribute to improved soldier satisfaction with health care.

  15. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: global delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness.

    PubMed

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach. The platform needed to be agile, provide powerful real-time reporting, and have the capacity to quickly transform to meet emerging requirements. Existing organizational applications, such as "Single Sign-On," and authoritative data sources were exploited to the maximum extent possible. Development of the "Soldier Fitness Tracker" is the most recent, and possibly the best, demonstration of the potential benefits possible when existing organizational capabilities are married to new, innovative applications. Combining the capabilities of the extant applications with the newly developed applications expedited development, eliminated redundant data collection, resulted in the exceeding of program objectives, and produced a comfortable experience for the end user, all in less than six months. This is a model for future technology integration.

  16. Soldier Quality of Life Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    being established overseas. In fact, over the past two decades over 1,000 contingency camps have been established (Army Technical Publication 3.37...within the past 24 months, though some of the National Guard Soldiers that were surveyed had deployed less recently – over 5 years ago in 11 cases...deployed over 5 years ago, 94.98% fell within a 36-month time frame. Across the sample, the mean period since the last deployment was 16.79 months (SD

  17. Cytokine production as a putative biological mechanism underlying stress sensitization in high combat exposed soldiers.

    PubMed

    Smid, Geert E; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Geuze, Elbert; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J; Vermetten, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Combat stress exposed soldiers may respond to post-deployment stressful life events (SLE) with increases in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), consistent with a model of stress sensitization. Several lines of research point to sensitization as a model to describe the relations between exposure to traumatic events, subsequent SLE, and symptoms of PTSD. Based on previous findings we hypothesized that immune activation, measured as a high in vitro capacity of leukocytes to produce cytokines upon stimulation, underlies stress sensitization. We assessed mitogen-induced cytokine production at 1 month, SLE at 1 year, and PTSD symptoms from 1 month up to 2 years post-deployment in soldiers returned from deployment to Afghanistan (N=693). Exploratory structural equation modeling as well as latent growth models were applied. The data demonstrated significant three-way interaction effects of combat stress exposure, cytokine production, and post-deployment SLE on linear change in PTSD symptoms over the first 2 years following return from deployment. In soldiers reporting high combat stress exposure, both high mitogen-stimulated T-cell cytokine production and high innate cytokine production were associated with increases in PTSD symptoms in response to post-deployment SLE. In low combat stress exposed soldiers as well as those with low cytokine production, post-deployment SLE were not associated with increases in PTSD symptoms. High stimulated T-cell and innate cytokine production may contribute to stress sensitization in recently deployed, high combat stress exposed soldiers. These findings suggest that detecting and eventually normalizing immune activation may potentially complement future strategies to prevent progression of PTSD symptoms following return from deployment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    psychological problems. As of 28 October 2011, 25 Soldiers who had sought behavioral health treatment had been interviewed. All of these Soldiers...military leaders to identify soldiers to participate in 12 focus groups regarding why soldiers do and do not receive treatment for psychological problems...3 each of soldiers in the following rank categories: E1-E4, E5-7, O1-O3, O4-O5, on issues involved in seeking treatment for psychological problems

  19. Watch Out for the Children: Army Policy and Child Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    of child soldier in the Child Soldier Prevention Act of 2008, which is consistent with the Optional Protocol to the Convention of the Rights of the...Child. The Child Soldier Prevention Act identifies a child soldier as any individual conscripted under the age of 18, or any individual under the age...study, “child soldier” will follow the United States’ definition, as outlined in the Child Soldier Prevention Act of 2008. As it has been shown

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among National Guard Soldiers Deployed to Iraq: Associations with Parenting Behaviors and Couple Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewirtz, Abigail H.; Polusny, Melissa A.; DeGarmo, David S.; Khaylis, Anna; Erbes, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this article, we report findings from a 1-year longitudinal study examining the impact of change in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following combat deployment on National Guard soldiers' perceived parenting and couple adjustment 1 year following return from Iraq. Method: Participants were 468 Army National Guard…

  1. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among National Guard Soldiers Deployed to Iraq: Associations with Parenting Behaviors and Couple Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewirtz, Abigail H.; Polusny, Melissa A.; DeGarmo, David S.; Khaylis, Anna; Erbes, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this article, we report findings from a 1-year longitudinal study examining the impact of change in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following combat deployment on National Guard soldiers' perceived parenting and couple adjustment 1 year following return from Iraq. Method: Participants were 468 Army National Guard…

  2. Training Soldiers to Decode Nonverbal Cues in Cross-Cultural Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    TEACHING WITH INTERACTIVE, COMPUTER-BASED TOOLS AND FILM-BASED CASES EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Research Requirement: Cultural and communication... teach accurate interpretation of NVCs. Two focus groups were held at Fort Riley, Kansas, with 11 Soldiers that had just returned from Iraq...Arab instructors to teach a broad range of topics from basic language to dealing with Arabian women during checkpoint inspections.1 Another example

  3. Treatment of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis with voriconazole and miltefosine in an immunocompetent soldier.

    PubMed

    Webster, Duncan; Umar, Imran; Umar, Imram; Kolyvas, George; Bilbao, Juan; Guiot, Marie-Christine; Duplisea, Kevin; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2012-10-01

    A 38-year-old male immunocompetent soldier developed generalized seizures. He underwent surgical debulking and a progressive demyelinating pseudotumor was identified. Serology and molecular testing confirmed a diagnosis of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba sp. in this immunocompetent male. The patient was treated with oral voriconazole and miltefosine with Acanthamoeba titers returning to control levels and serial imaging demonstrating resolution of the residual lesion.

  4. Treatment of Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis with Voriconazole and Miltefosine in an Immunocompetent Soldier

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Duncan; Umar, Imram; Kolyvas, George; Bilbao, Juan; Guiot, Marie-Christine; Duplisea, Kevin; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Visvesvara, Govinda S.

    2012-01-01

    A 38-year-old male immunocompetent soldier developed generalized seizures. He underwent surgical debulking and a progressive demyelinating pseudotumor was identified. Serology and molecular testing confirmed a diagnosis of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba sp. in this immunocompetent male. The patient was treated with oral voriconazole and miltefosine with Acanthamoeba titers returning to control levels and serial imaging demonstrating resolution of the residual lesion. PMID:22869634

  5. Predisposing factors and associated symptomatology of British soldiers requiring a mental health assessment.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, A; Finnegan, S; Jackson, C; Simpson, R; Ashford, R

    2010-06-01

    To critically evaluate the predisposing factors and symptomatology that resulted in serving officers and soldiers requiring a Mental Health (MH) assessment. 317 regular Army personnel who required a formal MH assessment completed a survey that detailed the predisposing factors and symptoms leading to the referral. SPSSv10 was used for data management and analysis of the data by descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Three quarter presented with at least two predisposing factors, the commonest being family issues (42%), relationship problems (40%) and general military stress (39%). Up to half of young male Soldiers required a MH assessment as a result of wanting to leave the Army, and were positively associated with self harming ideology. Female soldiers are significantly over represented. No-one reported feeling isolated. The majority of personnel accessing the Army MH Services present with multi-factorial problems and symptoms that should result in colleagues being aware of their distress, and every effort must be made to support these soldiers within unit lines. That no one reported feeling isolated, challenges the perception that soldiers with MH problems are stigmatised. In those young male soldiers who wish to leave the Army there are indicators that significant periods of notice to leave can have a negative impact on MH. It is unclear why females are more likely to require support. If the emerging themes noted in this study are addressed, and the lessons learnt encapsulated within a predictive theoretical model, then the result could be an improvement in operational capability through the early return of Army personnel and Officers to full duty.

  6. Return to Duty and Disability After Combat Related Hindfoot Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Return to Duty and Disability After Combat-Related Hindfoot Injury Andrew J. Sheean, MD,* Chad A. Krueger, MD,* and Joseph R. Hsu...MD† Objectives: To characterize the return-to-duty (RTD) rates and disability outcomes for soldiers who sustained combat-related hind- foot injuries ...Patients/Participants: All patients treated for combat-related hindfoot injuries between May 2005 and July 2011. Intervention: TTA or hindfoot

  7. [Soldier's social adaptation during the military service].

    PubMed

    Dedić, Gordana

    2004-01-01

    Soldier's social adaptation includes his interpersonal relationships with his environment integration into the military community and the ability to fulfill his role in the military environment and to function adequately outside of it. The aim of this study was to establish the dynamics of soldier's social adaptation during the military service. The study involved soldiers of two platoons of the Armed Forces of Serbia and Montenegro, divided into three groups according to the period of the study: after the first month, after the basic training and at the end of the military service. The instruments applied for the study were sociodemografic questionnaire and Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale. Statistical analysis of the obtained data was done using Stident's t-test. The results of the study that soldier's contentment with his professional role and with the quality of his interpersonal relations was highest during the basic training, but the quality of leisure activities was lowest at the end of the military service.

  8. Soldier Mental Fitness Psychological Construct Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    comments suggesting most journals will prefer measurement validity evidence for both military and non-military samples. An applied user guide is...example; in the past some questionnaires that investigators have used to assess self- perceptions of resilience have required Soldiers to respond to...Disagree Somewhat Agree Agree Strongly Agree 31). To be a good Soldier you need to be born with the basic qualities that will allow success

  9. Characterizing the Size of the Encumbered Soldier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Follow the procedures in DoD 5200.22-M, Industrial Security Manual, Section ll-19 or DoD 5200.1-R, Information Security Program Regulation, Chapter...thereby improve Soldier performance, survivability and comfort while reducing overall risk and/or 2) Soldier CIE should be sufficiently reduced so...SIZES(DIMENSIONS) HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING DESIGN CRITERIA PERFORMANCE(HUMAN) ARMY PERSONNEL CIE(CLOTHING AND INDIVIDUAL EQUIPMENT

  10. The Factors of Soldier’s Load

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-03

    captains of history , such as Frederick the Great, Napoleon, and Scharnhorst, all found it necessary to give personal guidance as to the packing lists of...soldier’s burdens through history and published its findings in 1922.10 The American Soldier-Author Brigadier General S. L. A. Marshall studied the...several others as well. First, what causative factors have emerged from history and previous study? This study examines these known factors to

  11. Embedded Training in a Ground Soldier System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    what a Soldier/leader sees via night vision goggles as well as enhanced goggles that fuse image intensification and thermal imagery. However, the...10 Can the conditions under which this task is performed (body position, combat situation, day/ night ) be quite varied, and practice /experience...What features must the virtual world incorporate specifically for ground Soldier systems? Night scenarios, not day, should be the default

  12. Cutaneous and Presumed Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Soldier Deployed to Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Woodrow, James P.; Hartzell, Joshua D.; Czarnik, Jim; Brett-Major, David M.; Wortmann, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    Leishmaniasis has been frequently diagnosed in US military personnel returning from duty in Southwest Asia. The majority of cases have demonstrated cutaneous disease, although a few cases of visceral disease have been documented. We present the case of an immunocompetent, HIV-negative, US Army soldier who suffered both visceral and cutaneous manifestations of leishmaniasis after returning from deployment in Afghanistan. Overlap of cutaneous and visceral involvement is rare and has not been reported in our cohort. Latent Plasmodium vivax infection may have been an exacerbating cofactor. We discuss this case and present a review of the literature. PMID:17415324

  13. Predicting the extent and stressfulness of problem rumors at home among Army wives of soldiers deployed overseas on a humanitarian mission.

    PubMed

    Schumm, W R; Bell, D B; Knott, B

    2001-08-01

    Nearly 500 civilian wives of enlisted soldiers from Fort Drum, New York were surveyed about the extent to which they experienced, as problems, rumors about what was happening in Somalia and when their soldier would return from the Operation Restore Hope deployment to Somalia in 1993. Rumors, as problems, were cited less frequently than loneliness, fears about the soldier's safety, or ignorance of the situation in Somalia but more frequently than problems with communication, finances, or legal issues. The strongest initial predictor of such problems was having communication problems with the soldier. Other significant predictors included length of deployment, soldier's rank, and unit support systems. More frequent use of telephone or regular mail, however, did not appear to reduce such rumors. Stressfulness of rumors appeared to be reduced by good unit leadership, good family support groups, and better emotional adaptability to deployment by spouses, while increased by reliance on surface mail for communication with one's deployed spouse. Subsequent analyses indicated that having fears about the safety of one's soldier or concerns about not knowing what was going on in Somalia were also significantly correlated with rumors as problems. Our results may support hypotheses that rumors serve to fill gaps in official information and justify spouses' anxieties regarding the safety of their deployed soldier.

  14. Psychotrauma and effective treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in soldiers and peacekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Vitzthum, Karin; Mache, Stefanie; Joachim, Ricarda; Quarcoo, David; Groneberg, David A

    2009-01-01

    Psychotrauma occurs as a result to a traumatic event, which may involve witnessing someone's actual death or personally experiencing serious physical injury, assault, rape and sexual abuse, being held as a hostage, or a threat to physical or psychological integrity. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder and was defined in the past as railway spine, traumatic war neurosis, stress syndrome, shell shock, battle fatigue, combat fatigue, or post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS). If untreated, post-traumatic stress disorder can impair relationships of those affected and strain their families and society. Deployed soldiers are especially at a high risk to be affected by PTSD but often receive inadequate treatment. Reviews to date have focused only on a single type of treatment or groups of soldiers from only one country. The aim of the current review was to evaluate characteristics of therapeutic methods used internationally to treat male soldiers' PTSD after peacekeeping operations in South Eastern Europe and the Gulf wars. This systematic literature review returned results pertaining to the symptoms, diagnosis, timing and effectiveness of treatment. Sample groups and controls were relatively small and, therefore, the results lack generalizability. Further research is needed to understand the influence and unique psychological requirements of each specific military operation on the internationally deployed soldiers. PMID:19643016

  15. Soldier formation regulated by a primer pheromone from the soldier frontal gland in a higher termite, Nasutitermes lujae

    PubMed Central

    Lefeuve, Patrick; Bordereau, Christian

    1984-01-01

    In the nasute higher termite Nasutitermes lujae, the differentiation of new soldiers is suppressed or delayed by the soldiers themselves. Experimental data strongly suggest that this inhibitory effect results from the action of a primer pheromone secreted by the frontal gland of soldiers. The pheromone must be contacted directly. Thus, the frontal gland of termite soldiers assumes a new role in addition to alarm and defense, although this extension cannot be generalized to all termite species. The soldier inhibitory pheromone is evidently only one of multiple factors contributing soldier regulation in termite societies. PMID:16578779

  16. Soldier formation regulated by a primer pheromone from the soldier frontal gland in a higher termite, Nasutitermes lujae.

    PubMed

    Lefeuve, P; Bordereau, C

    1984-12-01

    In the nasute higher termite Nasutitermes lujae, the differentiation of new soldiers is suppressed or delayed by the soldiers themselves. Experimental data strongly suggest that this inhibitory effect results from the action of a primer pheromone secreted by the frontal gland of soldiers. The pheromone must be contacted directly. Thus, the frontal gland of termite soldiers assumes a new role in addition to alarm and defense, although this extension cannot be generalized to all termite species. The soldier inhibitory pheromone is evidently only one of multiple factors contributing soldier regulation in termite societies.

  17. Religiosity as a Moderator of Self-Efficacy and Social Support in Predicting Traumatic Stress Among Combat Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Israel-Cohen, Yael; Kaplan, Oren; Noy, Smadar; Kashy-Rosenbaum, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    Based on a sample of 54 Israeli soldiers (51 % non-religious, 49 % religious) surveyed upon their return from combat, this study investigates the moderating role of religiosity as a factor that may strengthen cognitive processing tied to the belief in oneself to persevere (i.e., self-efficacy) after trauma and/or as a factor tied to enhanced external social support that religious individuals in particular may benefit from by their involvement in a religious community. Findings revealed (1) social support was tied to greater resilience within the general sample; (2) religious soldiers were less susceptible to traumatic stress than non-religious soldiers; and (3) religiosity moderated the relationship between self-efficacy and traumatic stress but not the relationship between social support and traumatic stress. Implications of findings are discussed.

  18. 3. OVERVIEW OF NORTH PART, SOLDIER FIELD, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OVERVIEW OF NORTH PART, SOLDIER FIELD, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM THE WALL ALONG THE WEST SIDE, OPPOSITE THE CHAPEL. NOTE STONE WALL AND PILASTERS IN THE FAR CENTRAL DISTANCE. - Presidio of Monterey, Soldier Field, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  19. Psychosocial factors and T lymphocyte counts in Brazilian peacekeepers

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro da Silva, Angela M; Speranza, Francisco A B; Ishii, Solange Kiyoko; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza; Milagres, Lucimar Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and peripheral blood CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte numbers in Brazilian peacekeepers. METHODS: Venous blood was collected from 759 peacekeepers who had just returned from a peace mission in Haiti. Among the 759 soldiers, 642 individuals completed the psychosocial measures. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte counts were measured by flow cytometry using a commercially available kit. Psychosocial factors, including military peace force stressors, clinical stress, anxiety and depression, were recorded. As a reference for T lymphocyte numbers, we measured T lymphocyte counts in 75 blood donors from the Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro. RESULTS: The median numbers of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood donors were 819 cells/µl and 496 cells/µl, respectively, with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 1.6. Significantly (p<0.05) lower CD4 T cell counts (759 cells/µl) were recorded for peacekeepers, with similar CD8 levels (548 cells/µl) and smaller CD4:CD8 ratios (1.3, p<0.001) compared to blood donors. These differences were due to a group of 14 military personnel with CD4 and CD8 medians of 308 and 266 cells/µl, respectively. Only one (7.1%) of these 14 individuals was diagnosed with clinical stress compared with 13.5% of the individuals with normal levels of CD4 T lymphocytes. One individual out of 628 (0.16%) had a Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory score of 3, indicating near exhaustion. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of psychological disorders was low and there were no associations with CD4 or CD8 T cell numbers. PMID:25789525

  20. Psychosocial factors and T lymphocyte counts in Brazilian peacekeepers.

    PubMed

    Silva, Angela M Monteiro da; Speranza, Francisco A B; Ishii, Solange Kiyoko; Hirata Jr, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza; Milagres, Lucimar Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and peripheral blood CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte numbers in Brazilian peacekeepers. Venous blood was collected from 759 peacekeepers who had just returned from a peace mission in Haiti. Among the 759 soldiers, 642 individuals completed the psychosocial measures. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte counts were measured by flow cytometry using a commercially available kit. Psychosocial factors, including military peace force stressors, clinical stress, anxiety and depression, were recorded. As a reference for T lymphocyte numbers, we measured T lymphocyte counts in 75 blood donors from the Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro. The median numbers of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood donors were 819 cells/µl and 496 cells/µl, respectively, with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 1.6. Significantly (p<0.05) lower CD4 T cell counts (759 cells/µl) were recorded for peacekeepers, with similar CD8 levels (548 cells/µl) and smaller CD4:CD8 ratios (1.3, p<0.001) compared to blood donors. These differences were due to a group of 14 military personnel with CD4 and CD8 medians of 308 and 266 cells/µl, respectively. Only one (7.1%) of these 14 individuals was diagnosed with clinical stress compared with 13.5% of the individuals with normal levels of CD4 T lymphocytes. One individual out of 628 (0.16%) had a Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory score of 3, indicating near exhaustion. The prevalence of psychological disorders was low and there were no associations with CD4 or CD8 T cell numbers.

  1. Occupational Stress, Health, and General Well Being among Soldiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartone, Paul T.; Hoover, Elizabeth

    A soldier's occupation is a very stressful one, especially for junior enlisted soldiers who have little control over their highly-regimented work lives. This prospective study examined the relationship between soldier occupational stress and health and well-being 8 to 10 months later. Through an ongoing, longitudinal study of attitudes, health,…

  2. Soldier/robot team acoustic detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Stuart H.; Scanlon, Michael V.

    2003-09-01

    The future battlefield will require an unprecedented level of automation in which soldier-operated, autonomous, and semi-autonomous ground, air, and sea platforms along with mounted and dismounted soldiers will function as a tightly coupled team. Sophisticated robotic platforms with diverse sensor suites will be an integral part of the Objective Force, and must be able to collaborate not only amongst themselves but also with their manned partners. The Army Research Laboratory has developed a robot-based acoustic detection system that will detect and localize on an impulsive noise event, such as a sniper's weapon firing. Additionally, acoustic sensor arrays worn on a soldier's helmet or equipment can enhance his situational awareness and RSTA capabilities. The Land Warrior or Objective Force Warrior body-worn computer can detect tactically significant impulsive signatures from bullets, mortars, artillery, and missiles or spectral signatures from tanks, helicopters, UAVs, and mobile robots. Time-difference-of-arrival techniques can determine a sound's direction of arrival, while head attitude sensors can instantly determine the helmet orientation at time of capture. With precision GPS location of the soldier, along with the locations of other soldiers, robots, or unattended ground sensors that heard the same event, triangulation techniques can produce an accurate location of the target. Data from C-4 explosions and 0.50-Caliber shots shows that both helmet and robot systems can localize on the same event. This provides an awesome capability - mobile robots and soldiers working together on an ever-changing battlespace to detect the enemy and improve the survivability, mobility, and lethality of our future warriors.

  3. Soldier Data Tag Study Effort. Appendices,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-10

    84-C-0146 on ,.a. SOLDIER DATA TAG " -:.,r .* STUDY EFFORT I T IT t APPENDICES to U.S. Army Soldier Support Center ATZI /ODS (Mr. Occhialini) Fort...SUPPORT CENTER * P2 DEN HARRISON, IN 46216 11 -:NG QVFZF N UAE AND ADORESS i REPORT DATE ATZI --DDS (MR. OCCHIALINI) JN 13 WAMSEROF PAGES 7-4 .’,kT N...Memorandum ATZI -DDS (14 Sep. 83) Subject: Input Requirements for SDT Cost/Benefits Analysis (CBA) , To Ch, Ofc of Analysis Spt From C, SDT, Date 5 Oct. 83

  4. Early mental health treatment-seeking among U.S. National Guard soldiers deployed to Iraq.

    PubMed

    Kehle, Shannon M; Polusny, Melissa A; Murdoch, Maureen; Erbes, Christopher R; Arbisi, Paul A; Thuras, Paul; Meis, Laura A

    2010-02-01

    The authors examined rates of and factors associated with postdeployment treatment-seeking in a panel of 424 National Guard soldiers who spent 16 months in Iraq. Soldiers completed a self-report, mailed survey 3- to 6-months after returning home. Approximately one third of respondents reported postdeployment mental health treatment. Those who screened positive for mental health problems were more likely to indicate that they had received treatment compared to those who screened negative, but over one half of those who screened positive were not engaged with mental health treatment. Variables related to reported treatment receipt included positive attitudes about mental health therapies, having been injured in-theater, illness-based need, and having received mental health treatment while in-theater. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  5. Can Anger Be Helpful?: Soldier Perceptions of the Utility of Anger.

    PubMed

    Adler, Amy B; Brossart, Daniel F; Toblin, Robin L

    2017-09-01

    Studies have found that soldiers returning from combat deployment report elevated levels of anger and aggression. The present study examined the perception that anger was helpful in performing occupationally related duties and whether this perception was associated with mental health problems, somatic symptoms, and functioning. Soldiers (N = 627) completed a survey 4 months after their deployment to Afghanistan and again 3 months later. When examining anger over time, findings revealed four groups of different latent classes: low stable (resilient), high stable (chronic), decreasing over time (improved), and increasing over time (delayed problems). For two of the groups (chronic and delayed problems), perceiving anger as helpful was closely related to anger reactions. Perceiving anger as helpful was also associated with worse mental health symptoms. Further work in understanding how to mitigate this positive perception of anger in prevention initiatives may be useful in addressing anger reactions.

  6. Tatanka Returns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes efforts of the InterTribal Bison Cooperative (Rapid City, SD) to reintroduce the buffalo for cultural purposes to American Indian reservations. Explains how the buffalo's return is contributing to community wellness. Discusses career opportunities for both Native and non-Native people in buffalo management. (LP)

  7. Declining Returns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Gerald H.; Perrin, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The Teachers Insurance and Annuities Association's (TIAA) College Retirement and Equity Fund is criticized for its low returns and its chief executive officer's recent salary raise. It is said to be in need of additional regulation and policyholder involvement. A TIAA vice president responds that the analysis given is inaccurate and misleading.…

  8. Tatanka Returns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes efforts of the InterTribal Bison Cooperative (Rapid City, SD) to reintroduce the buffalo for cultural purposes to American Indian reservations. Explains how the buffalo's return is contributing to community wellness. Discusses career opportunities for both Native and non-Native people in buffalo management. (LP)

  9. Enteric fever in a British soldier from Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Lucy G; Brown, M; Bailey, M S

    2016-06-01

    Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) remains a threat to British troops overseas and causes significant morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a soldier who developed typhoid despite appropriate vaccination and field hygiene measures, which began 23 days after returning from a deployment in Sierra Leone. The incubation period was longer than average, symptoms started 2 days after stopping doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis and initial blood cultures were negative. The Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi eventually isolated was resistant to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid and had reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. He was successfully treated with ceftriaxone followed by azithromycin, but 1 month later he remained fatigued and unable to work. The clinical and laboratory features of enteric fever are non-specific and the diagnosis should be considered in troops returning from an endemic area with a febrile illness. Multiple blood cultures and referral to a specialist unit may be required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Posttraumatic Resilience in Former Ugandan Child Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasen, Fionna; Oettingen, Gabriele; Daniels, Judith; Post, Manuela; Hoyer, Catrin; Adam, Hubertus

    2010-01-01

    The present research examines posttraumatic resilience in extremely exposed children and adolescents based on interviews with 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age = 11-17, female = 48.5%). Despite severe trauma exposure, 27.6% showed posttraumatic resilience as indicated by the absence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and clinically…

  11. Deployments, Stress, and Soldiers' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perot, Mindy

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on identifying whether certain factors affected the academic performance of Soldiers attending an Army educational institution. Academic performance was measured by the grade percentile average of the participant upon the completion of their course of enrollment. Factors that were considered within the study through…

  12. Distance Learning: The Soldiers’s Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    eligible soldiers access to college degree programs through the Internet. It involves creation of the largest online education system ever designed...this point. Although 85% of respon- dents expressed at least moderate confidence that they could com- plete an online education or training course, as

  13. Deployments, Stress, and Soldiers' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perot, Mindy

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on identifying whether certain factors affected the academic performance of Soldiers attending an Army educational institution. Academic performance was measured by the grade percentile average of the participant upon the completion of their course of enrollment. Factors that were considered within the study through…

  14. Soldier Integrated Headwear System: System Design Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Nationale Canada Abstract The aim of the Soldier Integrated Headwear System –Technology Demonstration Project (SIHS-TDP) is to empirically...determine the most promising headwear integration concept that significantly enhances the survivability and effectiveness of the future Canadian

  15. Diogenes, Dogfaced Soldiers, and Deployment Music Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Geoffrey; Williamson, Bill

    2010-01-01

    This webtext explores the cynical/kynical humor of soldier videos, suggesting that amateur videos paradoxically both undercut authority and honor effective leaders, both make light of and also publicly reveal deployment hardships, both distance the performers from military groupthink and celebrate unit camaraderie.

  16. Diogenes, Dogfaced Soldiers, and Deployment Music Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Geoffrey; Williamson, Bill

    2010-01-01

    This webtext explores the cynical/kynical humor of soldier videos, suggesting that amateur videos paradoxically both undercut authority and honor effective leaders, both make light of and also publicly reveal deployment hardships, both distance the performers from military groupthink and celebrate unit camaraderie.

  17. Posttraumatic Resilience in Former Ugandan Child Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasen, Fionna; Oettingen, Gabriele; Daniels, Judith; Post, Manuela; Hoyer, Catrin; Adam, Hubertus

    2010-01-01

    The present research examines posttraumatic resilience in extremely exposed children and adolescents based on interviews with 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age = 11-17, female = 48.5%). Despite severe trauma exposure, 27.6% showed posttraumatic resilience as indicated by the absence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and clinically…

  18. Letters of a Slave Turned Union Soldier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humanities, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the influx of Black soldiers into the Union army following the Emancipation Proclamation. Concentrates on the case of Private Spotswood Rice. Provides a short history of Rice, including copies of Rice's letters to his enslaved daughters, the daughter's slaveholders, and an angry retort from the slaveowner to the federal commander in…

  19. Child Soldiers: Rights Denied, Hope Restored

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carano, Kenneth T.; Bailey, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    The forceful induction of children as child soldiers is an abhorrent violation of human rights. It is very disturbing that while many children are forcibly recruited into armed conflicts, others actually volunteer, due to their nightmarish alternatives. Although the practice has recently gained worldwide attention, awareness alone will not end the…

  20. mTBI Effects on Emotion Symptoms, Neurocognitive Performance, and Functional Impairment: A Longitudinal Study of Deployed and Non-Deployed Army Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    New England Journal of Medicine , 358, 525...War Veterans. Washington, DC. Hoge, C. W. (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S soldiers returning from Iraq. The New England Journal of Medicine , 358...Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care. New England Journal of Medicine , 351(1), 13-22. King, D. W., King, L. A., Vogt, D.

  1. Brazilian gemstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro

    1981-04-01

    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  2. Q Fever in US Military Returning from Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    defervesced within 24 ours after starting empiric doxycycline, and his Q fever erology later returned positive. Both soldiers noted goats andering through the... Brucella , Ehrlichia, nd several Rickettsia species. Although it is endemic in Iraq, only 3 cases of Q fever ere reported during the Gulf War (1990-1991).3...most likely associated with the goats in the nvironment. In addition, although rheumatoid factor, ntiphospholipid antibodies, and smooth muscle

  3. Predicting Domestic and Community Violence by Soldiers Living in a Conflict Region.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Corina; Elbert, Thomas; Bambonye, Manassé; Weierstall, Roland; Reichert, Manfred; Zeller, Anja; Crombach, Anselm

    2017-03-09

    Past research revealed war trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as potential predictors for domestic and community violence in crisis regions and among soldiers in different armed conflicts. The impact of family violence and other adversities experienced in childhood as well as of a combat-enhanced appeal for aggressive behavior (appetitive aggression) remains to be specified. In the present study, the authors separately predicted violence against children, intimate partner violence and community violence in 381 Burundian soldiers returning from foreign deployment and living in a post- conflict region. Using path analysis, they aimed to disentangle the independent contributions and pathways of the following variables: Exposure to war trauma and childhood familial violence, PTSD and depression symptom severity, and appetitive aggression. Childhood familial violence had an independent effect on all contexts of violence and was the only significant predictor for violence against the soldiers' own children. Intimate partner violence was additionally predicted by depression symptom severity, while community violence was additionally predicted by PTSD symptom severity and appetitive aggression. Besides war-related mental ill-health and appetitive aggression, violent experiences during childhood development must not be overlooked as a factor fueling the cycle of violence in conflict regions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. [Therapeutic possibilities regarding somatoform disorders in soldiers].

    PubMed

    Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Florkowski, Antoni; Gruszczyński, Bartosz

    2002-01-01

    The authors used the ICD-10 classification and presented the most common psychopathological syndromes from the category "neurotic disorders connected to stress and somatoform disorders" present amongst recruited soldiers. Recruitment to the army is a "situation which is endangering to the mental health" (from the Act on mental health protection), however socio-political changes that took place in our country are an additional factor which can lead to such disorders. The limitations in treatment of these disorders, which are due to army specifications, cause for the majority of those soldiers affected to be unable to carry out their duty. As a consequence of this, civil units carry out the therapeutic processes. Particular attention, amongst the other disorders described, is attributed to the so-called organ neuroses. The authors stress upon the need for psychoprophylactic actions which would reduce the health consequences of being recruited into the army.

  5. Posttraumatic resilience in former Ugandan child soldiers.

    PubMed

    Klasen, Fionna; Oettingen, Gabriele; Daniels, Judith; Post, Manuela; Hoyer, Catrin; Adam, Hubertus

    2010-01-01

    The present research examines posttraumatic resilience in extremely exposed children and adolescents based on interviews with 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age = 11-17, female = 48.5%). Despite severe trauma exposure, 27.6% showed posttraumatic resilience as indicated by the absence of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and clinically significant behavioral and emotional problems. Among these former child soldiers, posttraumatic resilience was associated with lower exposure to domestic violence, lower guilt cognitions, less motivation to seek revenge, better socioeconomic situation in the family, and more perceived spiritual support. Among the youth with significant psychopathology, many of them had symptoms extending beyond the criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder, in keeping with the emerging concept of developmental trauma disorder. Implications for future research, intervention, and policy are discussed.

  6. Injury Prevention and Performance Enhancement in 101st Airborne Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Phase 1 Aim 2 To perform task and demand analyses of tactical operations training in Soldiers of the Army 101st Airborne and develop protocols for...were displayed by 30% of the Soldiers for shoulder strength, 95% for knee strength, 40% for hip strength, 49% for ankle strength, and 33% for torso...to ligamentous sprain and potential rupture. NUTRITION: Carbohydrate intake was below the recommended value for 85% of the Soldiers while

  7. Postmodern Chapel Services for Generation X and Millennial Generation Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    POSTMODERN CHAPEL SERVICES FOR GENERATION X AND MILLENNIAL GENERATION SOLDIERS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army...Services for Generation X and Millennial Generation Soldiers 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...majority of soldiers by age demographic. They are from two postmodern generations, Generation X and the Millennial Generation. The thesis examines

  8. Special Operations and the Soldier System: Critical Acquisition Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    dismounted soldier, vehicle crewmen (both air and ground), along with the capabilities required to support 9 the soldier, such as field and health...the lethality of infantry weapons, improve the living conditions of soldiers in the field, and correct deficiencies identified during Desert Shield...Power (Blower, Filter, Power, Air Distribution) * Load Bearing Equipment (Harness/Belt, Packs) * Weapon (Individual Weapon and Ammunition) TEISS will

  9. Development of Accommodation Models for Soldiers in Vehicles: Squad

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    in a squad mockup (Figure 1). Figure 1. Squad mockup . The current study used data from 144 men and women tested in the squad mockup . Table...measurements in the mockup . At the Advanced Combat Uniform (ACU) level, Soldiers wore their own advanced combat uniform consisting of a jacket, trousers...ensemble levels. Note that a Rifleman kit was included in the Seated Soldier Study but only worn by Soldiers tested in the driver mockup . All squad

  10. Weight Measurements and Standards for Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    evaluate the efficacy of the intervention, and 4) evaluate consumer satisfaction with the intervention. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nutrition , physical fitness... prevent overweight. 5 Introduction The primary aim of this investigation, entitled “Weight Measurement and Standards for Soldiers” was...to provide a non-clinical, environmental approach for weight gain prevention and modest weight loss for Soldiers of the 94th Regional Readiness

  11. Tailoring Multimedia Instruction to Soldier Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Psychology , Division 19 of the American Psychological Association . Paul (Norm) Blankenbeckler is a Training Manager with Northrop Grumman in Columbus...Fort Monroe, VA: Department of the Army, Training and Doctrine Command. U.S. Army. (2008). Soldier Training Publication No. 21-24-SMCT, Soldier’s Manual ...instructional design techniques could be applied to design IMI for learners’ specific needs, and (c) what outcomes are associated with different types of needs

  12. Genetic Screen for PTSD-Prone Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    for determining genotypes at 8 loci in the calcyon gene which is strongly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and...associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could be useful as an unbiased screen for PTSD-prone soldiers. Subjects participating... deficit / hyperactivity disorder . Mol. Psychiatry 10, 1117-1125. Li,J.Z., Absher,D.M., Tang,H., Southwick,A.M., Casto,A.M., Ramachandran,S., Cann,H.M

  13. Latino Soldiering: The Red, White, and Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conde, Carlos D.

    2006-01-01

    U.S. Latinos--particularly Mexican-Americans and Puerto Ricans--are known as exemplary soldiers. The record shows they have always answered the call to duty proudly and willingly no matter the cause or the burden. That is why they have won so many Congressional Medals of Honor. There are currently about 85,000 Hispanics on active military duty.…

  14. Cultural Adaptation of Second Language Soldiers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-05

    Although we interviewed second language soldiers from Korea, the Philippeans, Micronesia, Samoa, Guam, Italy, Turkey, Bolivia, Colombia and Vietnam, by far...we are citizens of the US." Interview #26 LTC Littlefield, Director, Transportation Career Development Division and MAJ Saylor, Coordinator... Transportation Officer Basic Course, Transporta- tion School, Ft Eustis, VA, 14 Jun 81. NARRATIVE 4. This interview dealt with the performance of Puerto Rican

  15. Making the Soldier Decisive on Future Battlefields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Our combat individuals enter engagements to win. To that end, this country has used its technical prowess and industrial capability to develop... country is now engaged in what has been identified as an “era of persistent conflict” in which the most important weapon is the dismounted soldier...should be engaged in combat with adversaries on a “level playing field”. Our combat individuals enter engagements to win. To that end, this country

  16. Iron supplementation and the female soldier.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Anthony E

    2006-04-01

    Twenty-two percent of women in the United States are iron deficient. Iron deficiency adversely affects immune function as well as physical and cognitive performance. Although the risk of developing iron deficiency is high for female soldiers, this risk can be minimized with proper nutritional guidance. Recommended dietary modifications include (1) heme iron consumption, (2) ingestion of vitamin C and protein with meals, and (3) discontinued tea and coffee consumption with meals.

  17. Women Soldiers in Korea: Troop Viewpoints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    27. Recreation/Education Services6-Satisfaction Score Analisis 121 29. Women-in Co--mba Attitude Sore Anaysis 123 28. then i Comy Atitude ,Scii Anaysis...The technical supplement also contains a series of analyses of score differences. The scores were simple suns of the number of ,times a person agreed or...QUESTIONNAIRE INVITATION TO PARTICIPATE TO: Persons Selected for This Survey 1. You have been selected from among all the soldiers in Eighth U.S

  18. MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), DETAIL SHOWING INSCRIPTION ON FRONT ELEVATION. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  19. VIEW OF CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS AND SAILORS MONUMENT, WITH MARYLAND MONUMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS AND SAILORS MONUMENT, WITH MARYLAND MONUMENT AND FLAGPOLE IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Point Lookout Confederate Cemetery, Point Lookout, Ridge, St. Mary's County, MD

  20. Friendly Forces: Returning Veterans Need Staunch Allies on College Campuses. Lumina Foundation Focus™. Spring 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulley, John

    2013-01-01

    The transition to college presents significant challenges to many returning veterans. These students are, in many ways, the most nontraditional of all nontraditional students. These soldier/scholars are set apart from their campus peers--by age, by life experience, by envelopment in the military culture, and all too often by a close-up view of…

  1. The Brazilian Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, Charles D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the unusually aggressive Brazilian honeybee, which exhibits many of the attributes of its African antecedants. Describes its abundance and distribution, behaviorial characteristics, future spread, and the potential impact of the Brazilian bee in North America. (JR)

  2. The Brazilian Honeybee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michener, Charles D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the unusually aggressive Brazilian honeybee, which exhibits many of the attributes of its African antecedants. Describes its abundance and distribution, behaviorial characteristics, future spread, and the potential impact of the Brazilian bee in North America. (JR)

  3. Efficacy of a pilot Internet-based weight management program (H.E.A.L.T.H.) and longitudinal physical fitness data in Army Reserve soldiers.

    PubMed

    Newton, Robert L; Han, Hongmei; Stewart, Tiffany M; Ryan, Donna H; Williamson, Donald A

    2011-09-01

    The primary aims of this article are to describe the utilization of an Internet-based weight management Web site [Healthy Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Training Headquarters (H.E.A.L.T.H.)] over a 12-27 month period and to describe concurrent weight and fitness changes in Army Reserve soldiers. The H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site was marketed to Army Reserve soldiers via a Web site promotion program for 27 months (phase I) and its continued usage was observed over a subsequent 12-month period (phase II). Web site usage was obtained from the H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site. Weight and fitness data were extracted from the Regional Level Application Software (RLAS). A total of 1499 Army Reserve soldiers registered on the H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site. There were 118 soldiers who returned to the H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site more than once. Registration rate reduced significantly following the removal of the Web site promotion program. During phase I, 778 Army Reserve soldiers had longitudinal weight and fitness data in RLAS. Men exceeding the screening table weight gained less weight compared with men below it (p < .007). Percentage change in body weight was inversely associated with change in fitness scores. The Web site promotion program resulted in 52% of available Army Reserve soldiers registering onto the H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site, and 7.9% used the Web site more than once. The H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site may be a viable population-based weight and fitness management tool for soldier use. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. Efficacy of a Pilot Internet-Based Weight Management Program (H.E.A.L.T.H.) and Longitudinal Physical Fitness Data in Army Reserve Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Robert L; Han, Hongmei; Stewart, Tiffany M; Ryan, Donna H; Williamson, Donald A

    2011-01-01

    Background The primary aims of this article are to describe the utilization of an Internet-based weight management Web site [Healthy Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Training Headquarters (H.E.A.L.T.H.)] over a 12–27 month period and to describe concurrent weight and fitness changes in Army Reserve soldiers. Methods The H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site was marketed to Army Reserve soldiers via a Web site promotion program for 27 months (phase I) and its continued usage was observed over a subsequent 12-month period (phase II). Web site usage was obtained from the H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site. Weight and fitness data were extracted from the Regional Level Application Software (RLAS). Results A total of 1499 Army Reserve soldiers registered on the H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site. There were 118 soldiers who returned to the H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site more than once. Registration rate reduced significantly following the removal of the Web site promotion program. During phase I, 778 Army Reserve soldiers had longitudinal weight and fitness data in RLAS. Men exceeding the screening table weight gained less weight compared with men below it (p < .007). Percentage change in body weight was inversely associated with change in fitness scores. Conclusions The Web site promotion program resulted in 52% of available Army Reserve soldiers registering onto the H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site, and 7.9% used the Web site more than once. The H.E.A.L.T.H. Web site may be a viable population-based weight and fitness management tool for soldier use. PMID:22027327

  5. Tyraminergic and Octopaminergic Modulation of Defensive Behavior in Termite Soldier

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Ken; Miura, Toru

    2016-01-01

    In termites, i.e. a major group of eusocial insects, the soldier caste exhibits specific morphological characteristics and extremely high aggression against predators. Although the genomic background is identical to the other non-aggressive castes, they acquire the soldier-specific behavioral character during the course of caste differentiation. The high aggressiveness and defensive behavior is essential for colony survival, but the neurophysiological bases are completely unknown. In the present study, using the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti, we focused on two biogenic amines, octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA), as candidate neuromodulators for the defensive behavior in soldiers. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that TA levels in the brain and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) and the OA level in brain were increased in soldiers than in pseudergates (worker caste). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TA/OA neurons that innervate specific areas, including the mandibular muscles, antennal nerve, central complex, suboesophageal ganglion, and thoracic and/or abdominal ganglia, were enlarged in a soldier-specific manner. Together with the results that pharmacological application of TA promoted the defensive behavior in pseudergates, these findings suggest that the increased TA/OA levels induce the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior in termite soldiers. The projection targets of these soldier-specific enlarged TA/OA neurons may have important roles in the higher aggressiveness and defensive behavior of the termite soldiers, inducing the neuronal transition that accompanies external morphological changes. PMID:27196303

  6. Finding "Another Great World": Australian Soldiers and Wartime Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugesen, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    This article is an exploration of the relationship between Australian soldiers and wartime libraries in the First and Second World Wars. It examines the way soldiers, as readers, used a variety of libraries, including those of charitable organizations, the education libraries organized by military authorities, and the libraries formed in Prisoner…

  7. 15. NORTHEAST CORNER, SOLDIER FIELD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST TOWARD THE GYMNASIUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. NORTHEAST CORNER, SOLDIER FIELD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST TOWARD THE GYMNASIUM, SHOWING EAST DITCH AND A SECTION OF LOW WALL. No date, probably ca. 1935. Photographer unknown. Original silver gelatin print measures 13.1 cm by 7.3 cm, flush mounted on mat board. - Presidio of Monterey, Soldier Field, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  8. Finding "Another Great World": Australian Soldiers and Wartime Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugesen, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    This article is an exploration of the relationship between Australian soldiers and wartime libraries in the First and Second World Wars. It examines the way soldiers, as readers, used a variety of libraries, including those of charitable organizations, the education libraries organized by military authorities, and the libraries formed in Prisoner…

  9. Soldier Education in the British Army, 1920-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This article surveys the history of compulsory education for soldiers' career advancement in the British army. It begins with an examination of the organizational context before analyzing the rationale, syllabus, teaching and assessment of soldier education. It concludes that for members of the army education organization their self-perception as…

  10. 11. Photocopy of engraving (from A. Witteman's Ohio Soldiers' and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of engraving (from A. Witteman's Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Home Near Sandusky, (New York: The Albertype Co.), 1894) VIEW SOUTH, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, COTTAGE 'H', COTTAGE 'I', COTTAGE 'K', ASSEMBLY HALL, COTTAGE 'L', COTTAGE 'M', COTTAGE 'N' - Ohio Soldiers' & Sailors' Home, U.S. Route 250 at DeWitt Avenue, Sandusky, Erie County, OH

  11. eArmyU Improves Educational Access for Soldiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotherton, Phaedra

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the Army's venture into distance learning, eArmyU, is proving to be a big success, with more than 12,000 soldiers enrolled since it began a year ago. Soldiers are lining up for the program that offers free tuition, a laptop, and Internet access. But historically black colleges and universities may be missing out due to distance…

  12. 13. Photocopy of engraving (from A. Witteman's Ohio Soldiers' and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of engraving (from A. Witteman's Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Home Near Sandusky, (New York: The Albertype Co.), 1894) VIEW EAST, COTTAGE 'L', (UPPER LEFT COTTAGE 'F', COTTAGE 'G'; UPPER RIGHT COTTAGE UNKNOWN) - Ohio Soldiers' & Sailors' Home, Cottage L, U.S. Route 250 at DeWitt Avenue, Sandusky, Erie County, OH

  13. Zinc: an essential trace element with potential benefits to soldiers.

    PubMed

    McClung, James P; Scrimgeour, Angus G

    2005-12-01

    Zinc is a trace element known to be an essential nutrient for life. It functions as a cofactor for numerous enzymes, including those involved in DNA and RNA replication and protein synthesis. Soldiers represent a unique population faced with intense metabolic and mental demands, as well as exposure to various immune challenges. Some of these factors may affect their dietary zinc requirements. Although severe zinc deficiency is unlikely to occur, some soldiers may experience less than optimal zinc status because of diminished intake coupled with increased requirements. For those soldiers, supplemental dietary zinc may serve a protective function in numerous disease states affecting modern warfighters. This review highlights the importance of adequate zinc nutriture to soldiers and discusses the potential benefits of supplemental zinc in a number of diseases currently affecting soldiers, including diarrhea, respiratory diseases, malaria, and leishmaniasis.

  14. Integrated soldier power and data system (ISPDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostroumov, Roman; Forrester, Thomas; Lee, Kang; Stephens, Robert; Lai, Anthony; Zahzah, Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    Physical Optics Corporation (POC) developed the body-worn Integrated Soldier Power and Data System (ISPDS), a configurable node for plug-in wired or wireless server/client or peer-to-peer computing with accommodations for power, sensor I/O interfaces, and energy harvesting. The enabling technology increases the efficacy of uniformed personnel and first responders and provides an option for reducing force structure associated with the need for hardware network infrastructure to enable a mobile digital communications architecture for dismounted troops. The ISPDS system addresses the DoD's need for an "intelligent" power control system in an effort to increase mission duration and maximize the first responders and warfighter's effectiveness without concern for the available energy resources (i.e., batteries). ISPDS maximizes durability and survivability, assesses influences that affect performance, and provides the network backbone and mobile node hardware. POC is producing two vest-integrated variants, one each for the U.S. Army PEO Ground Soldier and the Air Soldier, with each including state-of-the-art low-profile and robust wearable connectors, cabling, and harnesses, and an integrated low-profile power manager and conformal battery for data and power distribution. The innovative intelligent power controller (IPC), in the form of the ISPDS firmware and power sensing and control electronics, will enable ISPDS to optimize power levels both automatically and in accordance with manually set preferences. The IPC module is power dense and efficient, and adaptively provides lossless transfer of available harvested photovoltaic energy to the battery. The integrated systems were tested for suitable electrical, electromagnetic interference (EMI), and environmental performance as outlined in military standards such as MIL-STD- 810G and MIL STD-461F.

  15. Self-inflicted burns in soldiers.

    PubMed

    Gronovich, Yoav; Binenboym, Rami; Tuchman, Izhak; Eizenman, Nirit; Golan, Jacob

    2013-10-01

    Self-inflicted burns are a multidisciplinary medical challenge. In contrast to the more common motive of attempted suicide in self-infliction of a burn, usually of a serious degree, a second motive is malingering. Motivation of this nature has been exhibited among Israeli soldiers who inflict on themselves low- to moderate-degree burns to obtain dismissal from mandatory military service. The purpose of our study is to investigate and define this phenomenon. A retrospective analysis was performed on a population of 75 soldiers admitted to our Medical Center during the year 2010 with the diagnosis of any sort of burn. We set up a database including all relevant information about the burns including date and time of occurrence, cause, body location, depth of burn injury, area and shape of burn, etiology, and prescribed treatment. The summer was found to be the season with the highest incidence of burns. As far as the day of the week was influential, we found that the greater percentage of burns occurred at the beginning of the week. Most of the burns involved a minor surface area on the dorsal aspect of the foot. Scalding with hot water was the most common cause of burn. Eighty-one percent of the burns were atypical, being well demarcated.Most of the burn cases happened at home with no witnesses to the event. Sixty-one percent of the patients were not admitted to the hospital and were conservatively treated. Israeli soldiers tend to inflict burns on themselves for ulterior motives. Such burns are almost always minor with a small trauma area and sharp demarcations, and hence can be differentiated from other self-inflicted burns described in the literature. We found that most of the burns occur when the soldiers are on vacation at home. This is probably because the privacy allows them to carry out their act undisturbed. It is important to raise the awareness of attending physicians to the characteristics of these burns. Such patients should be evaluated by medical teams

  16. Breastfeeding during military deployment: a soldier's story.

    PubMed

    Sleutel, Martha Rider

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of women of childbearing age are serving and being deployed in the United States military. U.S. Department of Defense policies related to breastfeeding and deployment are inconsistent among the different branches of the military and sometimes conflict with evidence-based guidelines about optimal breastfeeding practices. This is the story of an active duty soldier who was deployed while breastfeeding and the obstacles she encountered trying to send breast milk home to her son. The article explores policy, health and professional practice implications.

  17. Child Soldiers: Children Associated with Fighting Forces.

    PubMed

    Song, Suzan J; de Jong, Joop

    2015-10-01

    Around the world, there are an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 children involved in armed conflict. Children can be abducted into a fighting force to fight or serve as sex slaves. Child soldiers have depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms; however, evidence is mixed because of methodologic limitations. Various mental health interventions have been tried, with promising results. Child and adolescent psychiatrists are uniquely trained in understanding and assisting youth to heal from such extraordinary experiences. A public health paradigm could include interventions that are based on a comprehensive assessment of interweaving developmental, biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk propensity and health risk behaviors in U.S. army soldiers with and without psychological disturbances across the deployment cycle.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Amanda M; Athy, Jeremy R; Cho, Timothy H; Erickson, Bradley; King, Melody; Cruz, Pedro

    2012-05-01

    Anecdotal and preliminary evidence suggests that Soldiers returning from a combat deployment engage in an increased number of health risk behaviors. Three potential factors driving this change were examined in this study; posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), concussion and traumatic brain injury (TBI), and perceived invincibility. We studied members of a combat arms brigade one month prior to a deployment to Iraq and approximately one month after their return (N = 319). Participants anonymously completed surveys characterizing attitudes about risk, risk propensity, invincibility, engagement in health risk behaviors, and personality. Using standardized screening instruments, participants were categorized with respect to PTSD and probable TBI. Results suggest that Soldiers engage in more alcohol use and reckless driving behaviors post-deployment. These changes were exaggerated in those who screened positive for PTSD. Perception of one's invincibility and survival skills increased post-deployment thus suggesting that participants felt less susceptible to adverse consequences and more adept at surviving dangerous situations. This study provides documentation of the pattern of health behavior in Soldiers engaged in the deployment cycle. Our findings suggest increases in the number of risks Soldiers' engage in post-deployment are not limited to those with PTSD symptomtotology. This study has implications for not only adjustment to life post-deployment at the individual level but also operational readiness. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home... eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers' and Airmen's Home will prescribe rules governing burial in the Soldiers' Home National Cemetery....

  20. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home... eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers' and Airmen's Home will prescribe rules governing burial in the Soldiers' Home National Cemetery....

  1. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home... eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers' and Airmen's Home will prescribe rules governing burial in the Soldiers' Home National Cemetery....

  2. Returning home: resettlement of formerly abducted children in Northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Corbin, Joanne N

    2008-06-01

    This exploratory qualitative study considers the subjective resettlement experiences of children forced into armed conflict in Northern Uganda from the perspectives of 11 former child combatants and 11 adult community members. A thematic analysis was performed on the narrative data. The bioecological model was used to provide a conceptual framework for key themes. Major findings included the overarching impact of ongoing armed conflict on returnees' lives, the important role of the family in supporting children's resettlement, the harassment of former child soldiers by community members, and the community's inability to support systematically the returning children in tangible ways. This study recommends that humanitarian services at all levels strengthen the capacity of families to care for the material and psychoemotional needs of former child soldiers within their communities.

  3. The Objective Force Soldier/Soldier Team. Volume II - The Science and Technology Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    SCIENCE BOARD FINAL REPORT November 2001 DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE ARMY (ACQUISITION, LOGISTICS AND TECHNOLOGY ) WASHINGTON...D.C. 20310-0103 VOLUME II THE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGES REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burder...Soldier Team - Volume II - The Science and Technology Challenges Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  4. The Objective Force Soldier/Soldier Team. Volume III - Background and Context

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    instability during the Objective Force soldier timeframe Threats-6 6 Population Growth and Urbanization Megacities Growth 1950 2000 2050 21001850 190018001750...and where most of the growth will occur in already overcrowded urban areas. This will give rise to a number of Zone II megacities and the inherent...Hostile to United States Chinese Military with New 5.8-mm Rifle Russia’s TOS-1 Heavy “Flame” Thrower Myanmar “Soldier” • Strategic Threats Endure, but

  5. Cleveland Clinic intelligent mouthguard: a new technology to accurately measure head impact in athletes and soldiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, Adam; Samorezov, Sergey

    2013-05-01

    Nearly 2 million Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) occur in the U.S. each year, with societal costs approaching $60 billion. Including mild TBI and concussion, TBI's are prevalent in soldiers returning from Iraq and Afghanistan as well as in domestic athletes. Long-term risks of single and cumulative head impact dosage may present in the form of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicide, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Quantifying head impact dosage and understanding associated risk factors for the development of long-term sequelae is critical toward developing guidelines for TBI exposure and post-exposure management. The current knowledge gap between head impact exposure and clinical outcomes limits the understanding of underlying TBI mechanisms, including effective treatment protocols and prevention methods for soldiers and athletes. In order to begin addressing this knowledge gap, Cleveland Clinic is developing the "Intelligent Mouthguard" head impact dosimeter. Current testing indicates the Intelligent Mouthguard can quantify linear acceleration with 3% error and angular acceleration with 17% error during impacts ranging from 10g to 174g and 850rad/s2 to 10000rad/s2, respectively. Correlation was high (R2 > 0.99, R2 = 0.98, respectively). Near-term development will be geared towards quantifying head impact dosages in vitro, longitudinally in athletes and to test new sensors for possible improved accuracy and reduced bias. Long-term, the IMG may be useful to soldiers to be paired with neurocognitive clinical data quantifying resultant TBI functional deficits.

  6. Transition from the Afghanistan and Iraqi battlefields to home: an overview of selected war wounds and the federal agencies assisting soldiers regain their health.

    PubMed

    Brown, Norman D

    2008-08-01

    Occupational health nurses are encountering veterans in the workplace who have served one or more tours of duty in Afghanistan or Iraq. Soldiers making the transition from combat to civilian life may have physical and mental injuries from war. Occupational health nurses who recognize the unique nature of these injuries and are knowledgeable about resources for meeting veterans' needs will be instrumental in facilitating their return to civilian life.

  7. Hydrologic data for Soldier Creek Basin, Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    1978-01-01

    Selected hydrologic data collected in the Soldier Creek basin in northeastern Kansas are available on magnetic tape in card-image format. Data on the tape include water discharge in fifteen-minute and daily time intervals; rainfall in fifteen-minute and daily time intervals; concentrations and particle sizes of suspended sediment; particle sizes of bed material; ground-water levels; and chemical quality of water in concentrations of selected constituents. The data-collection system includes: (1) 7 recording streamflow stations; (2) 5 recording rainfall stations; (3) 51 nonrecording rainfall stations located within and adjacent to the basin; (4) 31 ground-water observation wells (two recording); and (5) intermittent chemical quality of water and sediment sampling sites. Examples of the information on magnetic tape for each type of data collected are presented in computer-printout format. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Associations among Experiential Avoidance, Couple Adjustment, and Interpersonal Aggression in Returning Iraqi War Veterans and Their Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Madhavi K.; Meis, Laura A.; Erbes, Christopher R.; Polusny, Melissa A.; Compton, Jill S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of experiential avoidance (EA) in relationship adjustment, psychological aggression, and physical aggression among military couples. Method: The sample was composed of 49 male soldiers who recently returned from deployment to Iraq and their female partners. As part of a larger…

  9. Associations among Experiential Avoidance, Couple Adjustment, and Interpersonal Aggression in Returning Iraqi War Veterans and Their Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Madhavi K.; Meis, Laura A.; Erbes, Christopher R.; Polusny, Melissa A.; Compton, Jill S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of experiential avoidance (EA) in relationship adjustment, psychological aggression, and physical aggression among military couples. Method: The sample was composed of 49 male soldiers who recently returned from deployment to Iraq and their female partners. As part of a larger…

  10. [Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany].

    PubMed

    Zito, Dima

    2016-12-01

    Child Soldiers as Refugees in Germany How do former child soldiers cope with their potentially traumatic experiences, and how do the living conditions as refugees influence these coping processes? A dissertation at the faculty of human and social sciences at the University of Wuppertal, based on biographical-narrative interviews with 15 young refugees from six African countries, describes the characteristics of the traumatic sequences in the countries of origin and in exile, and elaborates typical coping processes. In order to survive a situation of absolute subjection within armed groups, children develop forms of adequate adaptation to the context like regulation and detachment of emotions e.g. with the use of drugs, assimilation to an idea of "hard masculinity" etc. They become victims, witnesses and often perpetrators of extreme violence (man-made-disaster), respectively traumatic processes can be seen in all sequences. After leaving the armed groups there is no way back into the families and communities destroyed by armed conflict, so they become refugees. In Germany, they are subjected to a bureaucratic and excluding asylum system, in which decisions on all relevant areas of life (age determination, place and right of residence, form of accommodation, access to education, etc.) are imposed on them. Especially the insecure right of residence and the living conditions in refugee camps are severe risk factors, impeding stabilization. Social support, e. g. by competent professionals, access to trauma- and culture-sensitive psychotherapy, societal inclusion, but also personal resilience are essential for coping with trauma and developing new future perspectives.

  11. Closeup of headstones in Section 4 of soldiers from Brazil, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up of headstones in Section 4 of soldiers from Brazil, Italy, Argentina, and Britain, view to southwest - Cypress Hills National Cemetery, Jamaica Avenue Unit, 625 Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  12. Soldier occupational load carriage: a narrative review of associated injuries.

    PubMed

    Orr, Robin Marc; Pope, Rodney; Johnston, Venerina; Coyle, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This narrative review examines injuries sustained by soldiers undertaking occupational load carriage tasks. Military soldiers are required to carry increasingly heavier occupational loads. These loads have been found to increase the physiological cost to the soldier and alter their gait mechanics. Aggregated research findings suggest that the lower limbs are the most frequent anatomical site of injury associated with load carriage. While foot blisters are common, other prevalent lower limb injuries include stress fractures, knee and foot pain, and neuropathies, like digitalgia and meralgia. Shoulder neuropathies (brachial plexus palsy) and lower back injuries are not uncommon. Soldier occupational load carriage has the potential to cause injuries that impact on force generation and force sustainment. Through understanding the nature of these injuries targeted interventions, like improved physical conditioning and support to specialised organisations, can be employed.

  13. REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), SECTION 43A, LOOKING SOUTH ALONG EAST OBELISK ROAD. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  14. FRONT ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), SECTION 43A, WITH HEADSTONES IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  15. SECTION C, WITH SOLDIERS AND SAILORS MONUMENT AT LEFT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTION C, WITH SOLDIERS AND SAILORS MONUMENT AT LEFT AND COMMITTAL SHELTER AT EXTREME RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST. - Bath National Cemetery, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Juan Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  16. VIEW OF SITE WITH CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS AND SAILORS MONUMENT, MARYLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SITE WITH CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS AND SAILORS MONUMENT, MARYLAND MONUMENT, FENCING, GATE, AND FLAGPOLE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Point Lookout Confederate Cemetery, Point Lookout, Ridge, St. Mary's County, MD

  17. Soldier and Food Service Personnel Attitudes Toward Nutrition Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-31

    TABLE 23. Attitudes Toward Nutrition of Nutritionally Aware and Unaware Soldiers Page 16 17 TABLE 24. Food Service Personnel’s Attitudes Towards...their responses to the item: How often do you choose foods based on nutrition content? SoIdiers who made nutritionally based choices at least weekly...were designated as nutritionally aware; soldiers who made choices based on nutrition less than weekly were designated as nutritionally unaware

  18. Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-2-0010 TITLE: Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Thomas W. Britt...SUBTITLE Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Sb. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0010 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT...the final version of the ’’Facilitating Mental Health Treatment (FMHT)" unit and leader training, gaining Institutional Review Board (and MRMC

  19. Weight Measurements and Standards for Soldiers, Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    be available for all population Soldiers during periods designated by the research study design. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Soldiers, standards, nutrition ...achieving healthy management of body weight, healthy nutrition , physical fitness, and combat readiness. The H.E.A.L.T.H. study is a cluster (group...of nutrition , fitness, sleep and mind/body health. During Year 7, final analyses for the LANG study will be conducted and further dissemination of

  20. Family Reintegration Experiences of Soldiers with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-26

    DATES COVERED 26 FEB 2014 Final 1 SEP 2011 - 31 DEC 2013 - 4. TITLE AND S UBTITLE I’· CONTRACT NUMBER I Family Reintegration Experiences of Soldiers...unlimited [ 13. SUPPLEMENTARY OTES I N/A 14. ABSTRACT I Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore family reintegration processes ofpost-mTBI...nurses who provide much of that care and who educate soldiers and their family members about mTBI. 15. SUBJECT TERMS family reintegration , deployment

  1. Understanding the elevated suicide risk of female soldiers during deployments.

    PubMed

    Street, A E; Gilman, S E; Rosellini, A J; Stein, M B; Bromet, E J; Cox, K L; Colpe, L J; Fullerton, C S; Gruber, M J; Heeringa, S G; Lewandowski-Romps, L; Little, R J A; Naifeh, J A; Nock, M K; Sampson, N A; Schoenbaum, M; Ursano, R J; Zaslavsky, A M; Kessler, R C

    2015-03-01

    The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) has found that the proportional elevation in the US Army enlisted soldier suicide rate during deployment (compared with the never-deployed or previously deployed) is significantly higher among women than men, raising the possibility of gender differences in the adverse psychological effects of deployment. Person-month survival models based on a consolidated administrative database for active duty enlisted Regular Army soldiers in 2004-2009 (n = 975,057) were used to characterize the gender × deployment interaction predicting suicide. Four explanatory hypotheses were explored involving the proportion of females in each soldier's occupation, the proportion of same-gender soldiers in each soldier's unit, whether the soldier reported sexual assault victimization in the previous 12 months, and the soldier's pre-deployment history of treated mental/behavioral disorders. The suicide rate of currently deployed women (14.0/100,000 person-years) was 3.1-3.5 times the rates of other (i.e. never-deployed/previously deployed) women. The suicide rate of currently deployed men (22.6/100,000 person-years) was 0.9-1.2 times the rates of other men. The adjusted (for time trends, sociodemographics, and Army career variables) female:male odds ratio comparing the suicide rates of currently deployed v. other women v. men was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1-6.8), became 2.4 after excluding soldiers with Direct Combat Arms occupations, and remained elevated (in the range 1.9-2.8) after adjusting for the hypothesized explanatory variables. These results are valuable in excluding otherwise plausible hypotheses for the elevated suicide rate of deployed women and point to the importance of expanding future research on the psychological challenges of deployment for women.

  2. A Review of the Soldier’s Equipment Burden

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    most common was the bivvy bag, which is a weather- proof outer to the sleeping bag. Camelbacks were also used by the majority of soldiers. Some also...type) Bivvy bag Cold Weather Uniform Gun oil bottle (larger) Caribena Pan Mess Kit Knife (combat) Gas bottle & burner Sleeping Bag Knife (utility...This report is not aiming to prove there is a soldier load carriage problem. The problem is so prevalent that no further proof is considered

  3. Tactical Behavior Mining of a Soldier-Based Gaming Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-23

    U.S. ARMY TANK AUTOMOTIVE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER Tactical Behavior Mining of a Soldier-Based Gaming Environment 5/23/2016 …Plus...risks • 50% did not include operational scenarios …But they DON’T SOURCE: Roberts, N., & Edson, R. (2008). System Concept of Operations: Standards ...Engineering Concepts TARDEC’s Digital-Prototyping Process Soldier Innovation Workshop CAE Performance Analysis C B OBJECTIVE DATA -and- SUBJECTIVE SURVEYS

  4. Stability and Change in Dimensions of Soldier Morale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-16

    Bartone, Ph.D 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 15. PAGE COUNT Scientific Report FROM Sep 87 To Dec 88 1989...soldiers over time . Over a one-year period, results showed stability in some factors but somewhat different from that of soldiers stationed in the US. For...regardless of location or proximity to a potential battlefield. Over time , however, different structures emerge that reflect increased understanding of

  5. Armor and anesthesia: exposure, feeling, and the soldier's body.

    PubMed

    MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2012-03-01

    For many civilians, the high-tech weapons, armor, and military medicine with which U.S. soldiers are equipped present an image of lethal capacity and physical invulnerability. But, as this article explores, soldiers themselves just as often associate the life-sustaining technology of modern warfare with feelings that range from a pragmatic ambivalence about exposure to harm all the way to profoundly unsettling vulnerability. This article, based on fieldwork among soldiers and military families at the U.S. Army's Ft. Hood, examines sensory and affective dimensions of soldiers' intimate bodily relationships with the technologies that alternately or even simultaneously keep them alive and expose them to harm. I argue that modern military discipline and technology conspire to cultivate soldiers as highly durable, capable, unfeeling, interchangeable bodies, or what might be called, after Susan Buck-Morss (1992), anesthetic subjects. But for soldiers themselves, their training, combat environment, protective gear, and weapons are a rich font of both emotional and bodily feeling that exists in complex tension with the also deeply felt military imperative to carry on in the face of extreme discomfort and danger.

  6. The invisible soldiers: understanding how the life experiences of girl child soldiers impacts upon their health and rehabilitation needs.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Amy Jane

    2014-05-01

    There are estimated 120,000 girl child soldiers worldwide. Recruitment makes girls vulnerable to the violence of war, torture, psychological trauma and sexual abuse with huge impact on their physical, mental and reproductive health. Despite this, girl soldiers often remain an invisible and marginalised group frequently neglected from disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration programmes. This is not just a local issue: with former child soldiers seeking asylum as refugees there is an increasing need for health workers in the destination countries to understand their health needs in order to inform appropriate holistic service provision. This review provides an overview of how the duties and life experiences of girl soldiers, including gender-specific abuses, impacts upon their health and concludes with a summary of recommendations as to how their rehabilitation needs can be addressed.

  7. Sexual violence and mental health symptoms among National Guard and Reserve soldiers.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan C; Cohen, Gregory H; Ursano, Robert; Gifford, Robert K; Fullerton, Carol S; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Reserve and National Guard (NG) soldiers report disproportionate mental health problems relative to active duty military upon returning from the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. However, few studies have examined whether exposure to particular types of traumatic events (e.g., lifetime sexual violence) is associated with this increased burden of psychopathology. The current study examined the prevalence of lifetime sexual violence exposure as well as the adjusted odds and population attributable fraction of psychopathology associated with sexual violence in a large sample of male and female Reserve and NG soldiers. Baseline structured telephone interviews were conducted in 2009. 1,030 Reserve (23 % female) and 973 NG (15 % female) soldiers. Four items assessed lifetime and deployment-related sexual violence. Probable lifetime and past-year posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression were assessed with the PTSD Checklist and the Patient Health Questionnaire, respectively. Lifetime sexual violence prevalence was 37.4 % and 27.6 % among Reserve and NG women, and 4.3 % and 3.7 % among Reserve and NG men, respectively. Recent deployment-related sexual violence ranged from 1.4 to 2.6 % for women and 0 % for men. Regression analyses indicated that the adjusted odds of probable past-year and lifetime PTSD and depression were 1.2 to 3.5 times greater among those reporting sexual violence relative to non-victims. The proportion of probable lifetime PTSD and depression attributable to sexual violence was 45.2 % and 16.6 %, respectively, in the Reserves, and 10.3 % and 6.2 %, respectively, in the NG. Lifetime sexual violence prevalence was high among female soldiers, with approximately one-third of Reserve and National Guard women reporting a history. The majority of sexual violence was not related to the most recent deployment; however, sexual violence contributed to a high burden of psychopathology. Findings emphasize a need to screen for lifetime sexual

  8. Disgust and the development of posttraumatic stress among soldiers deployed to Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Iris M; Olatunji, Bunmi O; de Jong, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Although the DSM-IV recognizes that events can traumatize by evoking horror, not just fear, the role of disgust in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received little research attention. In a study of soldiers deployed to Afghanistan, we examined whether reports of peritraumatic disgust and trait disgust vulnerability factors (disgust propensity and disgust sensitivity) predict PTSD-symptoms, independently of peritraumatic fear, neuroticism, and anxiety sensitivity. Participants (N = 174) enrolled in this study before deployment, and were retested around 6 months (N = 138; 79%) and, again, 15 months (N = 107; 62%) after returning home. The results showed that (1) greater peritraumatic disgust and fear independently predicted PTSD-symptom severity at 6 months, (2) greater disgust propensity predicted more peritraumatic disgust, but not PTSD-symptom severity, and (3) disgust sensitivity moderated the relationship between peritraumatic disgust and PTSD-symptom severity. Implications of these findings for broadening the affective vulnerabilities that may contribute to PTSD will be discussed.

  9. Readjustment Problems of Brazilian Returnees from Graduate Studies in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gama, Elizabeth M. P.; Pedersen, Paul

    This is a pilot study on the readjustment process of Brazilians returned from graduate study in the U.S. Subjects were 31 former exchange scholars who were interviewed by the senior author after they returned to Brazil. The family, professional and social problems experienced by those scholars as they tried to readjust to life in their home…

  10. Caffeine use among active duty US Army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Harris R; Stavinoha, Trisha; McGraw, Susan; White, Alan; Hadden, Louise; Marriott, Bernadette P

    2012-06-01

    Eighty-percent of the US adult population regularly consumes caffeine, but limited information is available on the extent and patterns of use. Caffeine use is a public health issue and its risks and benefits are regularly considered in scientific literature and the lay media. Recently, new caffeine-containing products have been introduced and are widely available on Army bases and are added to rations to maintain cognitive performance. This study surveyed caffeine consumption and demographic characteristics in 990 US Army soldiers. Data were weighted by age, sex, rank, and Special Forces status. Total caffeine intake and intake from specific products were estimated. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between caffeine use and soldier demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Eighty-two percent of soldiers consumed caffeine at least once a week. Mean daily caffeine consumption was 285 mg/day (347 mg/day among regular caffeine consumers). Male soldiers consumed, on average, 303 mg/day and females 163 mg/day (regular consumers: 365 mg/day for male soldiers, 216 mg/day for female soldiers). Coffee was the main source of caffeine intake. Among young males, energy drinks were the largest source of caffeine intake, but their intake was not greater than older males. Regression analysis indicated an association of higher caffeine intake with male sex, white race, and tobacco use (P<0.01). Most soldiers consume caffeine in levels accepted as safe, but some consume greater quantities than recommended, although definitive information on safe upper limits of caffeine intake is not available. Labels of caffeine-containing products should provide caffeine content so individuals can make informed decisions.

  11. 77 FR 61509 - Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 Memorandum for the Secretary of State Pursuant to section 404 of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 (CSPA) (title IV, Public Law 110-457), I hereby...

  12. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in U.S. Soldiers Returning from Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-31

    mild traumatic brain injury was no longer significantly associated with these physical health outcomes or symptoms, except for headache . Conclusions...problems, headache , and difficulty concentrating. As a re- sult, the Department of Defense and the Depart- ment of Veterans Affairs are implementing...18.5) 0.36 0.57 Arm, leg, or joint pain 45/121 (37.2) 105/252 (41.7) 168/423 (39.7) 387/1673 (23.1) 0.62 0.62 Headache 39/121 (32.2) 45/254 (17.7) 51

  13. Infection Reduces Return-to-duty Rates for Soldiers with Type III Open Tibia Fractures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Type III open tibia fracture and tabulated the prevalence of infectious complications.We searched the Physical Evaluation Board database to determine...disability among combat casualties, with an average disability rating of 42% based on the Physical Evaluation Board.8 In addition, it has been...redness, warmth , swelling, or purulence that required operative inter- vention. Osteomyelitis was defined as deep infection with positive bone cultures

  14. A Case of Ancylostoma ceylanicum Infection Occurring in an Australian Soldier Returned from Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Speare, Rick; Bradbury, Richard Stewart; Croese, John

    2016-01-01

    A 26-year-old male member of the Australian Defense Force presented with a history of central abdominal pain of 4 weeks duration and peripheral eosinophilia consistent with eosinophilic enteritis. Acute hookworm disease was diagnosed as the cause. Adult worms recovered from feces after therapy with albendazole were morphologically consistent with Ancylostoma ceylanicum. As the patient had been deployed with the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands for 6 months prior to this presentation, it is very likely that the A. ceylanicum was acquired in Solomon Islands. Until now, it has been assumed that any Ancylostoma spp. recovered from humans in Solomon Islands is A. duodenale. However, this case demonstrates that human hookworm infection acquired in the Solomon Islands could be caused by A. ceylanicum. PMID:27658607

  15. Why Do Staff Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Connie

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 211 returning staff from 25 camps and interviewed 19 returning staff to study factors that influence a counselor's decision to return to camp. Examined the following dimensions of motivation and hygiene factors: (1) stimulation or inspiration; (2) personal; (3) job-related experience; (4) living conditions and camp life; (5) camp…

  16. Intragenomic Conflict over Soldier Allocation in Polyembryonic Parasitoid Wasps.

    PubMed

    Rautiala, Petri; Gardner, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the selection pressures that have driven the evolution of sterile insect castes has been the focus of decades of intense scientific debate. An amenable empirical test bed for theory on this topic is provided by the sterile-soldier caste of polyembryonic parasitoid wasps. The function of these soldiers has been a source of controversy, with two basic hypotheses emerging: the "brood-benefit" hypothesis that they provide an overall benefit for their siblings and the "sex-ratio-conflict" hypothesis that the soldiers mediate a conflict between brothers and sisters by killing their opposite-sex siblings. Here, we investigate the divergent sex-ratio optima of a female embryo's maternal-origin and paternal-origin genes, to determine the potential for, and direction of, intragenomic conflict over soldiering. We then derive contrasting empirically testable predictions concerning the patterns of genomic imprinting that are expected to arise out of this intragenomic conflict, for the brood-benefit versus the sex-ratio-conflict hypothesis of soldier function.

  17. Head-mounted display systems and the special operations soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyd, Rodney B.

    1998-08-01

    In 1997, the Boeing Company, working with DARPA under the Smart Modules program and the US Army Soldier Systems Command, embarked on an advanced research and development program to develop a wearable computer system tailored for use with soldiers of the US Special Operations Command. The 'special operations combat management system' is a rugged advanced wearable tactical computer, designed to provide the special operations soldier with enhanced situation awareness and battlefield information capabilities. Many issues must be considered during the design of wearable computers for a combat soldier, including the system weight, placement on the body with respect to other equipment, user interfaces and display system characteristics. During the initial feasibility study for the system, the operational environment was examined and potential users were interviewed to establish the proper display solution for the system. Many display system requirements resulted, such as head or helmet mounting, Night Vision Goggle compatibility, minimal visible light emissions, environmental performance and even the need for handheld or other 'off the head' type display systems. This paper will address these issues and other end user requirements for display systems for applications in the harsh and demanding environment of the Special Operations soldier.

  18. The soldiers in societies: defense, regulation, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li; Zhou, Xuguo

    2014-01-01

    The presence of reproductively altruistic castes is one of the primary traits of the eusocial societies. Adaptation and regulation of the sterile caste, to a certain extent, drives the evolution of eusociality. Depending on adaptive functions of the first evolved sterile caste, eusocial societies can be categorized into the worker-first and soldier-first lineages, respectively. The former is marked by a worker caste as the first evolved altruistic caste, whose primary function is housekeeping, and the latter is highlighted by a sterile soldier caste as the first evolved altruistic caste, whose task is predominantly colony defense. The apparent functional differences between these two fundamentally important castes suggest worker-first and soldier-first eusociality are potentially driven by a suite of distinctively different factors. Current studies of eusocial evolution have been focused largely on the worker-first Hymenoptera, whereas understanding of soldier-first lineages including termites, eusocial aphids, gall-dwelling thrips, and snapping shrimp, is greatly lacking. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge on biology, morphology, adaptive functions, and caste regulation of the soldier caste. In addition, we discuss the biological, ecological and genetic factors that might contribute to the evolution of distinct caste systems within eusocial lineages.

  19. The Soldiers in Societies: Defense, Regulation, and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Li; Zhou, Xuguo

    2014-01-01

    The presence of reproductively altruistic castes is one of the primary traits of the eusocial societies. Adaptation and regulation of the sterile caste, to a certain extent, drives the evolution of eusociality. Depending on adaptive functions of the first evolved sterile caste, eusocial societies can be categorized into the worker-first and soldier-first lineages, respectively. The former is marked by a worker caste as the first evolved altruistic caste, whose primary function is housekeeping, and the latter is highlighted by a sterile soldier caste as the first evolved altruistic caste, whose task is predominantly colony defense. The apparent functional differences between these two fundamentally important castes suggest worker-first and soldier-first eusociality are potentially driven by a suite of distinctively different factors. Current studies of eusocial evolution have been focused largely on the worker-first Hymenoptera, whereas understanding of soldier-first lineages including termites, eusocial aphids, gall-dwelling thrips, and snapping shrimp, is greatly lacking. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge on biology, morphology, adaptive functions, and caste regulation of the soldier caste. In addition, we discuss the biological, ecological and genetic factors that might contribute to the evolution of distinct caste systems within eusocial lineages. PMID:24644427

  20. Beyond child soldiering: the interference of daily living conditions in former child soldiers' longer term psychosocial well-being in northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Coppens, Kathleen; De Schryver, Maarten; Loots, Gerrit; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2013-01-01

    Given the various developments in former child soldiers' psychosocial well-being over time, the question arises as to which factors are associated with the prevalence of psychological distress. An ongoing debate points to the plausible importance of child soldiering-related and post-child soldiering factors. This study is an exploratory analysis of both types of association with former child soldiers' psychosocial well-being in the longer term. Follow-up data on a convenience sample of 424 northern Ugandan former child soldiers are analysed. Psychological symptoms are assessed by a review of the intake and assessment forms of the Rachele Rehabilitation Centre, which were not validated and did not include a standardised translation into the local language. These psychological symptoms and possible associated factors are analysed using binary logistic regression analysis. Thereby, both child soldiering-related and post-child soldiering variables are accounted for. The outcomes reveal almost no significant main effects of child soldiering-related variables, while a range of post-child soldiering variables (number of meals a day, school attendance, insults and professional support) are clearly associated with the prevalence of the measured psychological symptoms in the longer term. These exploratory conclusions should be further investigated in representative samples of former child soldiers using validated assessment tools.

  1. Development of a Model of Soldier Effectiveness: Retranslation Materials and Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    sion training exercise with seven aggres- sors against one soldier, this soldier quickly found the best escape route and accomplished his mission...PERFORMANCE EFFECTIVENESS CATEGORY LEVEL 191. When apprehended for possession of mari- juana , this soldier agreed to work close- ly with his NCO to

  2. Army Reserve Components: Improvements Needed to Data Quality and Management Procedures to Better Report Soldier Availability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    military which details the policies and procedures for investigating the circumstances of a soldier’s disease , injury, or death. The Deputy Chief of...the soldier possesses a chronic or prolonged deployment- limiting medical or mental condition; or...soldiers whose service has been interrupted by injury, illness, disease , or death. Soldiers who are not medically ready with medical conditions that

  3. Scratching the Surface: A Comparison of Girl Soldiers from Three Geographic Regions of the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellings, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    Over 300,000 children are estimated to be conscripted participants in conflicts throughout the world. Depending on the particular armed group that employs child soldiers, girls represent 6 to 50% of child soldiers. Despite this prevalence of involvement, the experience of girls as soldiers in war and political conflict has rarely been…

  4. Scratching the Surface: A Comparison of Girl Soldiers from Three Geographic Regions of the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellings, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    Over 300,000 children are estimated to be conscripted participants in conflicts throughout the world. Depending on the particular armed group that employs child soldiers, girls represent 6 to 50% of child soldiers. Despite this prevalence of involvement, the experience of girls as soldiers in war and political conflict has rarely been…

  5. High Hopes, Grim Reality: Reintegration and the Education of Former Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Simmons, Stephanie; Borisova, Ivelina; Brewer, Stephanie E.; Iweala, Uzo; de la Soudiere, Marie

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies have explored aspects of education relating to the reintegration of former child soldiers into their communities. In particular, researchers have shown the negative effects of child soldiering on the educational and economic outcomes of former child soldiers. A few studies have discussed the relative benefits of education for…

  6. An Action Research Intervention for Improving Soldiers' Success in Their Off-Duty Education Pursuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferby, Clifford Jerome

    2013-01-01

    Many soldiers are interested in pursuing their college education but discover there are barriers and roadblocks that hamper their ability to take college courses. The notion of taking the classroom to the soldiers within their military unit should be studied further. The reason for this research was to improve soldiers' success in pursuing their…

  7. High Hopes, Grim Reality: Reintegration and the Education of Former Child Soldiers in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Simmons, Stephanie; Borisova, Ivelina; Brewer, Stephanie E.; Iweala, Uzo; de la Soudiere, Marie

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies have explored aspects of education relating to the reintegration of former child soldiers into their communities. In particular, researchers have shown the negative effects of child soldiering on the educational and economic outcomes of former child soldiers. A few studies have discussed the relative benefits of education for…

  8. 78 FR 63365 - Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...-- Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0..., 2013 Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 Memorandum for the Secretary of State Pursuant to section 404 of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 (CSPA) (title IV...

  9. 76 FR 65927 - Certification and Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ..., 2011 Certification and Determination With Respect to the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 Memorandum for the Secretary of State Pursuant to section 404 of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008... government-supported use of child soldiers and to ensure that no children are recruited, conscripted, or...

  10. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  11. Brazilian consensus on photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; Cunha, José Antônio Jabur da; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva dos; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection.

  12. Medically Documented Suicide Ideation Among U.S. Army Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Ursano, Robert J; Kessler, Ronald C; Stein, Murray B; Naifeh, James A; Nock, Matthew K; Aliaga, Pablo A; Fullerton, Carol S; Wynn, Gary H; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Dinh, Hieu M; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; McCarroll, James E; Cox, Kenneth L; Heeringa, Steven G

    2016-11-29

    We used administrative data to examine predictors of medically documented suicide ideation (SI) among Regular Army soldiers from 2006 through 2009 (N = 10,466 ideators, 124,959 control person-months). Enlisted ideators (97.8% of all cases) were more likely than controls to be female, younger, older when entering service, less educated, never or previously deployed, and have a recent mental health diagnosis. Officer ideators were more likely than controls to be female, younger, younger when entering service, never married, and have a recent mental health diagnosis. Risk among enlisted soldiers peaked in the second month of service and declined steadily, whereas risk among officers remained relatively stable over time. Risk of SI is highest among enlisted soldiers early in Army service, females, and those with a recent mental health diagnosis.

  13. Reintegration of child soldiers in Burundi: a tracer study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Substantial attention and resources are aimed at the reintegration of child soldiers, yet rigorous evaluations are rare. Methods This tracer study was conducted among former child soldiers (N=452) and never-recruited peers (N=191) who participated in an economic support program in Burundi. Socio-economic outcome indicators were measured retrospectively for the period before receiving support (T1; 2005–06); immediately afterwards (T2; 2006–07); and at present (T3; 2010). Participants also rated present functional impairment and mental health indicators. Results Participants reported improvement on all indicators, especially economic opportunity and social integration. At present no difference existed between both groups on any of the outcome indicators. Socio-economic functioning was negatively related with depression- and, health complaints and positively with intervention satisfaction. Conclusion The present study demonstrates promising reintegration trajectories of former child soldiers after participating in a support program. PMID:23095403

  14. Multiple trauma and mental health in former Ugandan child soldiers.

    PubMed

    Klasen, Fionna; Oettingen, Gabriele; Daniels, Judith; Adam, Hubertus

    2010-10-01

    The present study examines the effect of war and domestic violence on the mental health of child soldiers in a sample consisting of 330 former Ugandan child soldiers (age: 11-17 years, female: 49%). All children had experienced at least 1 war-related event and 78% were additionally exposed to at least 1 incident of domestic violence. Prevalences of posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder were 33%, and 36%, respectively. Behavioral and emotional problems above clinical cutoff were measured in 61%. No gender differences were found regarding mental health outcomes. War experience and domestic violence were significantly associated with all mental health outcomes. The authors' findings point to the detrimental effects of domestic violence in addition to traumatizing war experiences in child soldiers.

  15. Reintegration of child soldiers in Burundi: a tracer study.

    PubMed

    Jordans, Mark J D; Komproe, Ivan H; Tol, Wietse A; Ndayisaba, Aline; Nisabwe, Theodora; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2012-10-25

    Substantial attention and resources are aimed at the reintegration of child soldiers, yet rigorous evaluations are rare. This tracer study was conducted among former child soldiers (N=452) and never-recruited peers (N=191) who participated in an economic support program in Burundi. Socio-economic outcome indicators were measured retrospectively for the period before receiving support (T1; 2005-06); immediately afterwards (T2; 2006-07); and at present (T3; 2010). Participants also rated present functional impairment and mental health indicators. Participants reported improvement on all indicators, especially economic opportunity and social integration. At present no difference existed between both groups on any of the outcome indicators. Socio-economic functioning was negatively related with depression- and, health complaints and positively with intervention satisfaction. The present study demonstrates promising reintegration trajectories of former child soldiers after participating in a support program.

  16. [Attitudes of Brazilian pulmonologists toward nicotine dependence: a national survey].

    PubMed

    Viegas, Carlos Alberto de Assis; Valentim, Antonio Gabriel Teles; Amoras, Jaene Andrade Pacheco; Nascimento, Euler Junior Moreira

    2010-01-01

    Smoking is a medical condition, since there is drug dependence, and health professionals should treat it as a chronic disease. In order to understand the attitudes of Brazilian pulmonologists toward smokers, we conducted a national survey, using a questionnaire posted on the Internet, of 2,800 pulmonologists, 587 (21%) of whom completed and returned the questionnaires. We found that 3.2% of the respondents did not believe that smoking is a medical condition. Only 14.7% treated smokers, and 32.4% stated that they would refer smokers to another professional for treatment. These results suggest that Brazilian pulmonologists have insufficient knowledge of smoking cessation therapies.

  17. Past horrors, present struggles: the role of stigma in the association between war experiences and psychosocial adjustment among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Gilman, Stephen E; Williams, David R; Ellis, B Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Upon returning to their communities, children formerly associated with armed forces and armed groups--commonly referred to as child soldiers--often confront significant community stigma. Much research on the reintegration and rehabilitation of child soldiers has focused on exposure to past war-related violence and mental health outcomes, yet no empirical work has yet examined the role that post-conflict stigma plays in shaping long-term psychosocial adjustment. Two waves of data are used in this paper from the first prospective study of male and female former child soldiers in Sierra Leone. We examined the role of stigma (manifest in discrimination as well as lower levels of community and family acceptance) in the relationship between war-related experiences and psychosocial adjustment (depression, anxiety, hostility and adaptive behaviors). Former child soldiers differ from one another with regard to their post-war experiences, and these differences profoundly shape their psychosocial adjustment over time. Consistent with social stress theory, we observed that post-conflict factors such as stigma can play an important role in shaping psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers. We found that discrimination was inversely associated with family and community acceptance. Additionally, higher levels of family acceptance were associated with decreased hostility, while improvements in community acceptance were associated with adaptive attitudes and behaviors. We found that post-conflict experiences of discrimination largely explained the relationship between past involvement in wounding/killing others and subsequent increases in hostility. Stigma similarly mediated the relationship between surviving rape and depression. However, surviving rape continued to demonstrate independent effects on increases in anxiety, hostility and adaptive/prosocial behaviors after adjusting for other variables. These findings point to the complexity of psychosocial adjustment and

  18. Exoskeleton for Soldier Enhancement Systems Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.F.

    2000-09-28

    The development of a successful exoskeleton for human performance augmentation (EHPA) will require a multi-disciplinary systems approach based upon sound biomechanics, power generation and actuation systems, controls technology, and operator interfaces. The ability to integrate key components into a system that enhances performance without impeding operator mobility is essential. The purpose of this study and report are to address the issue of feasibility of building a fieldable EHPA. Previous efforts, while demonstrating progress and enhancing knowledge, have not approached the level required for a fully functional, fieldable system. It is doubtless that the technologies required for a successful exoskeleton have advanced, and some of them significantly. The question to be addressed in this report is have they advanced to the point of making a system feasible in the next three to five years? In this study, the key technologies required to successfully build an exoskeleton have been examined. The primary focus has been on the key technologies of power sources, actuators, and controls. Power sources, including internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, and hybrid sources have been investigated and compared with respect to the exoskeleton application. Both conventional and non-conventional actuator technologies that could impact EHPA have been assessed. In addition to the current state of the art of actuators, the potential for near-term improvements using non-conventional actuators has also been addressed. Controls strategies, and their implication to the design approach, and the exoskeleton to soldier interface have also been investigated. In addition to these key subsystems and technologies, this report addresses technical concepts and issues relating to an integrated design. A recommended approach, based on the results of the study is also presented.

  19. Muzzle flash localization for the dismounted soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy Scott, Will

    2015-05-01

    The ability to accurately and rapidly know the precise location of enemy fire would be a substantial capability enhancement to the dismounted soldier. Acoustic gun-shot detections systems can provide an approximate bearing but it is desired to precisely know the location (direction and range) of enemy fire; for example to know from `which window' the fire is coming from. Funded by the UK MOD (via Roke Manor Research) QinetiQ is developing an imaging solution built around an InGaAs camera. This paper presents work that QinetiQ has undertaken on the Muzzle Flash Locator system. Key technical challenges that have been overcome are explained and discussed in this paper. They include; the design of the optical sensor and processing hardware to meet low size, weight and power requirements; the algorithm approach required to maintain sensitivity whilst rejecting false alarms from sources such as close passing insects and sun glint from scene objects; and operation on the move. This work shows that such a sensor can provide sufficient sensitivity to detect muzzle flash events to militarily significant ranges and that such a system can be combined with an acoustic gunshot detection system to minimize the false alarm rate. The muzzle flash sensor developed in this work operates in real-time and has a field of view of approximately 29° (horizontal) by 12° (vertical) with a pixel resolution of 0.13°. The work has demonstrated that extension to a sensor with realistic angular rotation rate is feasible.

  20. Engagement in mental health treatment among veterans returning from Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Stecker, Tracy; Fortney, John; Hamilton, Francis; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Ajzen, Icek

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Many veterans return from combat experiencing a variety of mental health concerns. Previous research has documented a stigma associated with seeking treatment that interferes with the decision to seek treatment. This study, conceptualized using the theory of planned behavior, assessed beliefs about mental health treatment in order to understand mental health treatment seeking behavior among a group of returning National Guard soldiers who served in the war in Iraq. Methods: Participants were one hundred and fifty Operation Iraqi Freedom National Guard soldiers who screened positive for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder or alcohol abuse disorder on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing beliefs about mental health treatment and treatment-seeking behavior. Results: Beliefs related to symptom reduction and work were significantly related to mental health treatment-seeking behavior. Conclusions: Interventions developed to engage veterans into care must be directed toward cognitive factors that motivate treatment seeking in addition to traditionally targeted structural barriers. PMID:20390058

  1. Engagement in mental health treatment among veterans returning from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Stecker, Tracy; Fortney, John; Hamilton, Francis; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Ajzen, Icek

    2010-03-24

    Many veterans return from combat experiencing a variety of mental health concerns. Previous research has documented a stigma associated with seeking treatment that interferes with the decision to seek treatment. This study, conceptualized using the theory of planned behavior, assessed beliefs about mental health treatment in order to understand mental health treatment seeking behavior among a group of returning National Guard soldiers who served in the war in Iraq. Participants were one hundred and fifty Operation Iraqi Freedom National Guard soldiers who screened positive for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder or alcohol abuse disorder on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing beliefs about mental health treatment and treatment-seeking behavior. Beliefs related to symptom reduction and work were significantly related to mental health treatment-seeking behavior. Interventions developed to engage veterans into care must be directed toward cognitive factors that motivate treatment seeking in addition to traditionally targeted structural barriers.

  2. Predictors of Change in Substance Abuse Status in Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Mehrazmay, Alireza; Karambakhsh, Alireza; Salesi, Mahmood; Heydari, Mostafa; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Military service is a stressful task that influences the life style of army personnel. Several factors can make soldiers less capable of coping with stressful events; so they may try to start drug abuse or increase in the amount or diversity of substance abuse. Understanding factors responsible for this misbehavior among soldiers is crucial for their commanders to modify these factors. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the predictors of change in substance abuse status in soldiers. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional research was conducted to evaluate the substance abuse status among Iranian soldiers in 2010. The target population was the soldiers who had spent at least 3 months of their military service. Cluster sampling was done from army service garrisons in 12 provinces in Iran. A total of 3960 soldiers were selected with different levels of education and age. Data gathering was done with demographic questionnaires, Texas Christian university (TCU) drug screen II and ASI questionnaire (fifth edition). Four types of dependent variables were defined: “improvement”, “without change”, “deterioration”, and “severe deterioration”. Backward ordinal regression analysis was done and P values, OR, and SE were calculated by SPSS19 software. Results: Totally, 6.7% of soldiers improved, 82% remained without change, 6.1% deteriorated, and 5.2% severely deteriorated with regard to their substance abuse. Modifiable predictors were distance from home lower than 200 km (OR =1.54), bad relationship with commanders (OR = 1.88), service place dissatisfaction (OR = 1.39), and always feeling lonely (OR = 1.83). Non-modifiable factors were alcohol use within family and friends (P = 0.000); psychiatric drug use history (OR = 1.72); suicidal attempt history (OR = 1.31); divorce, separation, and extramarital contact (P = 0.001); unemployment (P = 0.019); leisure time dissatisfaction (P = 0.004); living alone (OR = 2.43); and substance abuse

  3. [Psychological impact on French soldiers in the Central African Republic].

    PubMed

    Le Pape, Erwan; de Montleau, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The many constraints and psychologically demanding situations to which French soldiers are subjected (living conditions, operational pace, scenes of exaction, hostile crowds, combat situations) have justified a psychiatrist being posted to the theatre of operation Sangaris, in the Central African Republic, soon after the military intervention began. While the psychiatrist's activity is typical of psychiatry in operational situations,.the configuration of the conflict- a civil war - and its impact on the psyche of the soldiers making up the task force have resulted in these practices being adapted and acknowledgement of the need to update skills.

  4. Soldier morphogenesis in a nasute termite: discovery of a disc-like structure forming a soldier nasus.

    PubMed Central

    Miura, T; Matsumoto, T

    2000-01-01

    Nasute termites belonging to the subfamily Nasutitermitinae, have a soldier caste that possesses a frontal projection (nasus) on the head, from which defensive substances are secreted. In the course of caste differentiation of the processional nasute termite Hospitalitermes medioflavus, the most dynamic morphogenesis occurs in the stage of moulting from male minor worker to presoldier (the stage preceding the soldier stage). We examined the presumptive nasus epithelium in minor workers and determined that the nasus develops rapidly just prior to the moulting to presoldiers. The rapid growth is associated with two folding layers of cuticle and epithelium, which we termed the soldier-nasus disc, and resembles the imaginal discs found in holometabolous insects. PMID:10902684

  5. A Soldier is a Soldier: Successful Gender Integration in the Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    l y a n d e m p i r i c a l l y d u b i o u s . ’󈧗 Dr. J u d i t h S t i ehm , a n o t e d po l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t , r e d u c...real world, wingmen get shotdown by small arms fire, even strong men break and run and sometimes our own soldiers die in friendly fire incidents...34putting yourself in the other guy’s shoes." Moskos points out that. in addition to educating whites, "these courses send a strong signal to blacks that

  6. Returning to practice.

    PubMed

    Holland, S

    1994-03-01

    All too often health visitors seeking to return to practice following a career break are met with negative response, writes Stevie Holland. Here she recounts the words and experiences of some of the health visitors who enrolled on the HVA's open learning 'Return to practice' courses in recent years. The health visiting profession needs to encourage the enthusiasm and innovation of returners if it is to survive in today's political climate, she warns.

  7. Assured crew return vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerimele, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Peterson, Wayne L. (Inventor); Zupp, George A., Jr. (Inventor); Stagnaro, Michael J. (Inventor); Ross, Brian P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A return vehicle is disclosed for use in returning a crew to Earth from low earth orbit in a safe and relatively cost effective manner. The return vehicle comprises a cylindrically-shaped crew compartment attached to the large diameter of a conical heat shield having a spherically rounded nose. On-board inertial navigation and cold gas control systems are used together with a de-orbit propulsion system to effect a landing near a preferred site on the surface of the Earth. State vectors and attitude data are loaded from the attached orbiting craft just prior to separation of the return vehicle.

  8. Enemy recognition is linked to soldier size in a polymorphic stingless bee.

    PubMed

    Grüter, Christoph; Segers, Francisca H I D; Santos, Luana L G; Hammel, Benedikt; Zimmermann, Uwe; Nascimento, Fabio S

    2017-10-01

    Many ant and termite colonies are defended by soldiers with powerful mandibles or chemical weaponry. Recently, it was reported that several stingless bee species also have soldiers for colony defence. These soldiers are larger than foragers, but otherwise lack obvious morphological adaptations for defence. Thus, how these soldiers improve colony fitness is not well understood. Robbing is common in stingless bees and we hypothesized that increased body size improves the ability to recognize intruders based on chemosensory cues. We studied the Neotropical species Tetragonisca angustula and found that large soldiers were better than small soldiers at recognizing potential intruders. Larger soldiers also had more olfactory pore plates on their antennae, which is likely to increase their chemosensory sensitivity. Our results suggest that improved enemy recognition might select for increased guard size in stingless bees. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Missing: Critical and Skeptical Perspectives on Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, James Campbell

    2011-01-01

    The author read with interest, and concern, the January 2011 issue of the "American Psychologist". The "Special Issue on Comprehensive Soldier Fitness" addressed a hugely consequential national issue and offered a vision for psychological resilience along with an elaborate set of supporting articles, concluding with some comments on "Objections"…

  10. Comprehensive Soldier Fitness: Building Resilience in a Challenging Institutional Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornum, Rhonda; Matthews, Michael D.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2011-01-01

    The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program is designed to increase psychological strength and positive performance and to reduce the incidence of maladaptive responses of the entire U.S. Army. Based on the principles of positive psychology, CSF is a historically unique approach to behavioral health in a large (1.1 million members)…

  11. The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program: Family Skills Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottman, John M.; Gottman, Julie S.; Atkins, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Field combat stress clinics and research have identified the signature event that precedes thoughts of suicide and homicide in combat soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan: a distressing personal relationship event with a stateside partner. In response to this alarming information, we have identified critical factors and precipitating incidents as well…

  12. Child Soldiers, Peace Education, and Postconflict Reconstruction for Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessells, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Worldwide, children are drawn into lives as soldiers and terrorism as the result of forced recruitment and also by extremist ideologies and their inability to obtain security, food, power, prestige, education, and positive life options through civilian means. Using an example from Sierra Leone, this article shows that peace education is an…

  13. Paul Mills Ireland III Portrait of a Soldier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the life and identity of Paul Mills Ireland, III. The qualitative study was conducted using the portraiture approach and was further developed by incorporating the holistic content approach of analysis in narrative research. This fifth generation soldier was the product of a strong military lineage, most of whom were…

  14. Active Army and Army Reserve Soldiers: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkan, JoJo T.; And Others

    A study determined whether chemical operations specialists at skill level 1 differ in terms of aptitude, job knowledge, job confidence, and perceptions of task difficulty, task importance, task frequency, and task training, depending on whether the specialists are active U.S. Army soldiers or are in the Army Reserve. The subjects for whom complete…

  15. Active Army and Army Reserve Soldiers: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkan, JoJo T.; And Others

    A study determined whether chemical operations specialists at skill level 1 differ in terms of aptitude, job knowledge, job confidence, and perceptions of task difficulty, task importance, task frequency, and task training, depending on whether the specialists are active U.S. Army soldiers or are in the Army Reserve. The subjects for whom complete…

  16. The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program: Family Skills Component

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottman, John M.; Gottman, Julie S.; Atkins, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Field combat stress clinics and research have identified the signature event that precedes thoughts of suicide and homicide in combat soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan: a distressing personal relationship event with a stateside partner. In response to this alarming information, we have identified critical factors and precipitating incidents as well…

  17. PEO Soldier Simulation Road Map V - The MATREX Federation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Integrated Casualty Estimation Model ( ICEM ). This includes conceptual modeling, KA/KE, model implementation, integration, and test Command and Control...prevent real-time linkage ^ith ICEM Rulesof Engagement IWARS Develop representations and soldier behaviorsthat capture the effects of IFF systems

  18. Paul Mills Ireland III Portrait of a Soldier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, John P.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the life and identity of Paul Mills Ireland, III. The qualitative study was conducted using the portraiture approach and was further developed by incorporating the holistic content approach of analysis in narrative research. This fifth generation soldier was the product of a strong military lineage, most of whom were…

  19. Comprehensive Soldier Fitness: Building Resilience in a Challenging Institutional Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornum, Rhonda; Matthews, Michael D.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2011-01-01

    The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program is designed to increase psychological strength and positive performance and to reduce the incidence of maladaptive responses of the entire U.S. Army. Based on the principles of positive psychology, CSF is a historically unique approach to behavioral health in a large (1.1 million members)…

  20. The Latin American Challenge and Army Hispanic Soldier Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-18

    assessment system. 6. Institute Hispanic cultural awareness , and acculturation training for second language soldiers, second language families, commanders...level evaluation through the English assessrent system. 6. Institute Hispanic cultural awareness and accul turation training for second language...attrition and mediocre junior officer performance a three part program of English language and intercultural communica- tion was begun in 1982. The

  1. Lives beyond Suffering: The Child Soldiers of African Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasgow, Jacqueline N.; Baer, Allison L.

    2011-01-01

    Sierra Leone is only one of the more than 50 armed conflicts currently going on around the world. It is estimated that 20 million children were either refugees or displaced internally, and some 300,000 children under the age of 18 were used in hostilities at any given time as government or rebel soldiers, with about one-third reportedly fighting…

  2. Radio and the Black Soldier during World War II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckiffe, Donald; Murray, Matthew

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the representation of race in the electronic media. Traces particular social, political, and institutional pressure influencing the production of the figure of the black soldier in U.S. radio during World War II. Shows how it served to varying degrees the immediate interests of the black press, the federal government,…

  3. Lives beyond Suffering: The Child Soldiers of African Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasgow, Jacqueline N.; Baer, Allison L.

    2011-01-01

    Sierra Leone is only one of the more than 50 armed conflicts currently going on around the world. It is estimated that 20 million children were either refugees or displaced internally, and some 300,000 children under the age of 18 were used in hostilities at any given time as government or rebel soldiers, with about one-third reportedly fighting…

  4. Ideological Eclecticism and Coherence among Black Soldiers: A Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigert, Kathleen Maas

    1980-01-01

    Data from a sample of Black soldiers are utilized to examine extent to which "eclecticism" (low interrelatedness between goal and means) rather than "coherence" (high interrelatedness between goal and means) characterizes the ideological profiles of members of this minority group. (GC)

  5. The spined soldier bug: an important biocontrol agent

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) is a generalist predator known to feed on over 75 insect species, several of which are important invasive insect pests. A substantial body of knowledge from our research studies on the ecology of this predator will be present...

  6. Streamflow characteristics and trends along Soldier Creek, Northeast Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2017-08-16

    Historical data for six selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages along Soldier Creek in northeast Kansas were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends. This information is required by the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation for the effective management of tribal water resources, including drought contingency planning. Streamflow data for the period of record at each streamgage were used to assess annual mean streamflow, annual mean base flow, mean monthly flow, annual peak flow, and annual minimum flow.Annual mean streamflows along Soldier Creek were characterized by substantial year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trends. On average, annual mean base flow accounted for about 20 percent of annual mean streamflow. Mean monthly flows followed a general seasonal pattern that included peak values in spring and low values in winter. Annual peak flows, which were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability, were most likely to occur in May and June and least likely to occur during November through February. With the exception of a weak yet statistically significant increasing trend at the Soldier Creek near Topeka, Kansas, streamgage, there were no pronounced long-term trends in annual peak flows. Annual 1-day, 30-day, and 90-day mean minimum flows were characterized by considerable year-to-year variability with no pronounced long-term trend. During an extreme drought, as was the case in the mid-1950s, there may be zero flow in Soldier Creek continuously for a period of one to several months.

  7. Soldier System Modeling and Integrated Unit Simulation System (IUSS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    SI_n~le’P_k:’Fact_or) Explicit Target Acquisition, Hit. Kill (P"x pllX pk) • Target Acquisition Model - Exchange Shot Models Circadian Rhythms I...to the effectiveness of the total Soldier System. A flow chart of an example three dimensional relationship for the Engagement sub- capability is

  8. Child Soldiers and Iconography: Portrayals and (Mis)Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denov, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, child soldiers have inundated the popular media. Images of boys armed with AK47s appear ubiquitous, providing a cautionary tale of innocent childhood gone awry. While these representations turn commonly held assumptions of a protected and innocuous childhood on its head, what they conceal is as provocative as what they…

  9. TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICANAMERICAN SOLDIERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICAN-AMERICAN SOLDIERS, POST IN 1939 (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1939.00.00.06, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  10. AFRICANAMERICAN CAVALRY SOLDIERS AND THEIR MOUNTS ENTER A CORRAL BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AFRICAN-AMERICAN CAVALRY SOLDIERS AND THEIR MOUNTS ENTER A CORRAL BETWEEN TWO OF THE 1916 STABLES. PHOTOGRAPH IS LOOKING TO THE WEST AND WAS TAKEN IN 1928 (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1928.00.00.13, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  11. Child Soldiers and Iconography: Portrayals and (Mis)Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denov, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, child soldiers have inundated the popular media. Images of boys armed with AK47s appear ubiquitous, providing a cautionary tale of innocent childhood gone awry. While these representations turn commonly held assumptions of a protected and innocuous childhood on its head, what they conceal is as provocative as what they…

  12. Marital Status & Risk Behaviors Among U.S. Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    who were not married. These findings are consistent with the extensive civilian research literature documenting the physical and mental health...had a greater likelihood of driving without a seatbelt compared to married soldiers. The findings indicate that marital status is an...married. These findings are consistent with the extensive civilian research literature documenting the physical and mental health advantage of being

  13. An Ex-Soldier Finds a New Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2012-01-01

    Matthew Reilly's roundabout journey to college took a painful, decisive turn after a nighttime crash in Iraq. In 2008, six months into his first combat tour with the Army, Mr. Reilly and nine soldiers from his platoon were pursuing an insurgent when their armored fighting vehicle slammed into a roadblock. It was 2 o'clock in the morning, and fresh…

  14. Digestive enzymes from workers and soldiers of termite Nasutitermes corniger.

    PubMed

    Lima, Thâmarah de Albuquerque; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Dornelles, Leonardo Prezzi; Amorim, Poliana Karla; Sá, Roberto Araújo; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2014-10-01

    The digestive apparatus of termites may have several biotechnological applications, as well as being a target for pest control. This report discusses the detection of cellulases (endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase), hemicellulases (β-xylosidase, α-l-arabinofuranosidase, and β-d-xylanase), α-amylase, and proteases (trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like, and keratinase-type) in gut extracts from Nasutitermes corniger workers and soldiers. Additionally, the effects of pH (3.0-11.0) and temperature (30-100°C) on enzyme activities were evaluated. All enzymes investigated were detected in the gut extracts of worker and soldier termites. Endoglucanase and β-xylanase were the main cellulase and hemicellulase, respectively. Zymography for proteases of worker extracts revealed polypeptides of 22, 30, and 43kDa that hydrolyzed casein, and assays using protease inhibitors showed that serine proteases were the main proteases in worker and soldier guts. The determined enzyme activities and their response to different pH and temperature values revealed that workers and soldiers contained a distinct digestive apparatus. The ability of these termites to efficiently digest the main components of lignocellulosic materials stimulates the purification of gut enzymes. Further investigation into their biotechnological potential as well as whether the enzymes detected are produced by the termites or by their symbionts is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An Ex-Soldier Finds a New Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2012-01-01

    Matthew Reilly's roundabout journey to college took a painful, decisive turn after a nighttime crash in Iraq. In 2008, six months into his first combat tour with the Army, Mr. Reilly and nine soldiers from his platoon were pursuing an insurgent when their armored fighting vehicle slammed into a roadblock. It was 2 o'clock in the morning, and fresh…

  16. Improving Employment Prospects for Soldiers Leaving the Regular Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    leadership, teamwork , persistence, and atten- tion to detail—allowing transitioning soldiers to cite them when communicating with potential employers. What...This occurs partly because soft skills identified in our approach—such as leadership, teamwork , and train- ing, coaching, and mentoring others—are

  17. Cowards, Comrades, and Killer Angels: The Soldier in Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Gole, Henry O. "Literature and History for Soldiers," MilitalY Review, 68 (May 1988), 2~15. Hemingway , Ernest . Across the River and Into the Trees. New...them. - Hemingway A Farewell to Arms Given similar combat settings, what separates the coward from the brave is neither the presence, nor even the

  18. Soldier-worn augmented reality system for tactical icon visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, David; Menozzi, Alberico; Clipp, Brian; Russler, Patrick; Cook, James; Karl, Robert; Wenger, Eric; Church, William; Mauger, Jennifer; Volpe, Chris; Argenta, Chris; Wille, Mark; Snarski, Stephen; Sherrill, Todd; Lupo, Jasper; Hobson, Ross; Frahm, Jan-Michael; Heinly, Jared

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the development and demonstration of a soldier-worn augmented reality system testbed that provides intuitive 'heads-up' visualization of tactically-relevant geo-registered icons. Our system combines a robust soldier pose estimation capability with a helmet mounted see-through display to accurately overlay geo-registered iconography (i.e., navigation waypoints, blue forces, aircraft) on the soldier's view of reality. Applied Research Associates (ARA), in partnership with BAE Systems and the University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), has developed this testbed system in Phase 2 of the DARPA ULTRA-Vis (Urban Leader Tactical, Response, Awareness, and Visualization) program. The ULTRA-Vis testbed system functions in unprepared outdoor environments and is robust to numerous magnetic disturbances. We achieve accurate and robust pose estimation through fusion of inertial, magnetic, GPS, and computer vision data acquired from helmet kit sensors. Icons are rendered on a high-brightness, 40°×30° field of view see-through display. The system incorporates an information management engine to convert CoT (Cursor-on-Target) external data feeds into mil-standard icons for visualization. The user interface provides intuitive information display to support soldier navigation and situational awareness of mission-critical tactical information.

  19. Telemedicine in US Army soldiers with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y Sammy; Cucura, Jon; Jain, Ram; Berry-Caban, Cristobal

    2015-10-01

    A retrospective study of a telemedicine clinic for active duty US Army soldiers with type 1 diabetes was conducted. Fifty-one consecutive patients (mean age 33.9 years) were enrolled into the clinic. All soldiers with known or newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes received three weekly office visits for intensive diabetes education. After this, all communication occurred via a messaging system consisting of texting, web-based download, and/or email to a diabetes management team. For urgent matters, 24/7 direct paging or telephone access was provided. Routine adjustments in insulin dosing were accomplished via email. Soldiers were followed for a mean of 17.1 months. Baseline, three-month, and end of study glycated hemoglobin (A1C) values were 9.8, 7.3, and 6.9, respectively. There were no significant differences in end of study A1C levels between patients with known vs. newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, nor were there any differences between those patients who received insulin via pump therapy vs. multiple daily injections. Telemedicine was safe and effective in lowering A1C levels in US Army soldiers with type 1 diabetes.

  20. Learning about the Civil War through Soldiers' Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This article describes how students in an American history class learned about the Civil War through soldiers' letters. Letters from the Civil War era come in a variety of styles and syntax. Some are easy to read while others are extremely difficult to transcribe. But every one of them speaks to the reader, revealing an unknown entity from another…

  1. Child Soldiers, Peace Education, and Postconflict Reconstruction for Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessells, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Worldwide, children are drawn into lives as soldiers and terrorism as the result of forced recruitment and also by extremist ideologies and their inability to obtain security, food, power, prestige, education, and positive life options through civilian means. Using an example from Sierra Leone, this article shows that peace education is an…

  2. Helping American Soldiers in Time of War: Reply to Comments on the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2011-01-01

    Seligman responds to the comments made about the January 2011 "American Psychologist" "Special Issue on Comprehensive Soldier Fitness" (CSF). Seligman proposed an entire issue of on the topic of CSF to encourage psychologists to come to the aid of our government, and he urges psychologists not to be discouraged by this tactic.…

  3. Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance: Translating State-of-the-Science Soldier Research for Operational Utility.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2015-11-01

    The Third International Congress on Soldiers' Physical Performance (ICSPP) was held on August 18-21, 2014 in Boston, MA, where it had a record attendance of 374 registrants from 27 countries. The Congress included 8 invited keynote lectures, 12 symposia, 1 featured science session, more than 200 oral and poster free communication sessions, 8 thematic poster sessions, and a Warfighter Readiness Roundtable. Collectively, the presentations focused on a fundamental premise that soldiers are the center of warfighting capability, and the human service member is the prime resource and key enabler of all warfighting systems. The intent of the ICSPP series is to focus on the soldier-the individual service member. As we move forward with focus placed on the human dimension of soldiering, the key to our scientific success and what will prove to be transformative will be the extent to which we can operationalize and disseminate our scientific knowledge for the benefit of our soldiers on the ground. The Congress fostered important scientific exchange, and dialog centered on improving military physical performance and readiness. As countries around the globe respond to current and emerging threats to their national security, it is increasingly clear that we must ensure optimal human performance of our military personnel. By taking advantage of the science and applications of physical fitness and injury prevention research, we can leverage our increased understanding for the optimal application of physical readiness processes while minimizing the injury risk potential. We believe that the continued scientific and evidence-based dialog across international partners will prove to be transformative in identifying the most effective strategies for human performance optimization in the 21st century. Innovation, leveraging current state-of-the-science, and international partnerships were all key themes throughout the Congress. From the ICSPP scientific program, it was clear that there

  4. Group dialogue empowers Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Badiani, R; Becker, J

    1995-11-01

    In response to an alarming rise in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Brazilian women during the early 1990s, the Sociedade Civil Bem-Estar Familiar no Brazil (BEMFAM) developed a project that integrates HIV prevention with clinical services, community-based prevention activities, and sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. Preliminary interviews with clinic clients revealed that women's fears they would be considered unfaithful were impeding their ability to suggest condom use to their sexual partners. Condom use within a relationship was considered appropriate only for pregnancy prevention. To facilitate dialogue about sexual health, BEMFAM developed a women's group intervention project. All women who attend a BEMFAM clinic are invited to participate in a one-hour group discussion before receiving medical services. Novela-style booklets with stories and characters women can relate to their own lives are used to stimulate discussion. Participants learn to use condoms correctly by putting them on a penis model and anticipate situations in which they would be able to negotiate condom use. The group setting enables women to gain confidence and practice assertiveness in a non-threatening, supportive environment. Their identification with other women's stories empowers women to take control of their health and sexual lives. Between October 1994 and July 1995, 3464 women participated in group discussions organized by BEMFAM and 40,688 condoms were distributed; 18% of these women returned to the clinic for additional condoms.

  5. Post traumatic stress disorder among former child soldiers attending a rehabilitative service and primary school education in northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ovuga, Emilio; Oyok, Thomas O; Moro, E B

    2008-09-01

    This study was prompted by the psychiatric hospitalization of 12 former child soldiers of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) at a rehabilitation school in northern Uganda with a case of mass psychotic behavior. To report the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder, depressed mood, and associated risk factors. Data on post-traumatic stress disorder, depressed mood, physical disabilities, socio-demographic variables, and the children's war experiences were collected in face-to-face interviews using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), a modified Hopkins Symptoms Check-List (HSCL), and a 15-item War Trauma Experience Check-list (WTECL-15). Data was analyzed with SPSS version 11.0. There were 58 girls and 44 boys. Eighty nine children (87.3%) reported having experienced ten or more war-related traumatic psychological events; 55.9% of the children suffered from symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, 88.2%, symptoms of depressed mood and 21.6% had various forms of physical disability. Nearly half of the children (42.2%) reported a positive family history of severe mental illness; 10.8%, a family history of suicide; 22.5%, a family history of suicide attempt; and 45.1%, a family history of alcohol abuse. Children who experienced 10 or more traumatic war events were more likely than the rest to experience depressed mood. Return through a reception center or through a cleansing ritual did not protect against depression. Post-traumatic stress disorder among former LRA child soldiers at a rehabilitation centre in northern Uganda is presented. The report highlights the huge unmet need for psychological services among former child soldiers of the LRA.

  6. Fungistatic Activity of Freshly Killed Termite, Nasutitermes acajutlae, Soldiers in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Claire A.

    2007-01-01

    Termites may have high exposure to both pathogenic and competitive fungal species. Previous studies have shown anti-fungal properties of the primary components (α-pinene and limonene) of Nasutitermes frontal glands that are present on soldiers. In this study, the termite Nasutitermes acajutlae (Isoptera: Termitidae) was used to examine if the growth of naturally occurring fungi was inhibited by soldiers, as compared to workers that do not have frontal glands. Soldiers and workers were killed, surface sterilized, and placed on nutrient agar either singly or in combinations with other termites. Time until appearance of fungus and growth of visible fungal colonies was determined. Fungus appeared significantly earlier in cultures with single workers than with single soldiers (P < 0.001). Once fungus appeared, there were no significant differences in growth rate. When worker and/or soldier fluids were combined in one culture, fungal growth appeared later in cultures containing soldiers; growth was significantly slower in colonies with 5 workers and 5 soldiers than in cultures with 5 workers alone; P < 0.001. Finally, growth appeared later in cultures with 5 soldiers than in cultures with one soldier, suggesting a dose-response. Fungi that grew from termites were mostly non-pathogenic, suggesting the anti-fungal properties of soldiers may inhibit both pathogens and competitors. PMID:20307241

  7. Fungistatic activity of freshly killed termite, Nasutitermes acajutlae, soldiers in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Claire A

    2007-01-01

    Termites may have high exposure to both pathogenic and competitive fungal species. Previous studies have shown anti-fungal properties of the primary components (alpha-pinene and limonene) of Nasutitermes frontal glands that are present on soldiers. In this study, the termite Nasutitermes acajutlae (Isoptera: Termitidae) was used to examine if the growth of naturally occurring fungi was inhibited by soldiers, as compared to workers that do not have frontal glands. Soldiers and workers were killed, surface sterilized, and placed on nutrient agar either singly or in combinations with other termites. Time until appearance of fungus and growth of visible fungal colonies was determined. Fungus appeared significantly earlier in cultures with single workers than with single soldiers (P < 0.001). Once fungus appeared, there were no significant differences in growth rate. When worker and/or soldier fluids were combined in one culture, fungal growth appeared later in cultures containing soldiers; growth was significantly slower in colonies with 5 workers and 5 soldiers than in cultures with 5 workers alone; P < 0.001. Finally, growth appeared later in cultures with 5 soldiers than in cultures with one soldier, suggesting a dose-response. Fungi that grew from termites were mostly non-pathogenic, suggesting the anti-fungal properties of soldiers may inhibit both pathogens and competitors.

  8. Meningitis and Meningoencephalitis among Israel Defense Force Soldiers: 20 Years Experience at the Hadassah Medical Centers.

    PubMed

    Pikkel, Yoav Y; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Eliahou, Ruth; Honig, Asaf

    2015-11-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis pose major risks of morbidity and mortality. To describe 20 years of experience treating infections of the central nervous system in Israel Defense Force (IDF) soldiers, including the common presentations, pathogens and sequelae, and to identify risk groups among soldiers. All soldiers who were admitted to the Hadassah University Medical Center (both campuses: Ein Kerem and Mt. Scopus) due to meningitis and meningoencephalitis from January 1993 to January 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical, laboratory and radiologic data were reviewed from their hospital and army medical corps files. Attention was given to patients' military job description, i.e., combat vs. non-combat soldier, soldiers in training, and medical personnel. We identified 97 cases of suspected meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Six were mistakenly filed and these patients were found to have other disorders. Four soldiers were diagnosed with epidural abscess and five with meningitis due to non-infectious in flammatory diseases. Eighty-two soldiers in active and reserve duty had infectious meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Of these, 46 (56.1%) were combat soldiers and 31 (37.8%) non-combat; 20 (29.2%) were soldiers in training, 10 (12.2%) were training staff and 8 (9.8%) were medical staff. The main pathogens were enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus an d Neisseria meningitidis. In our series, soldiers in training, combat soldiers and medical personnel had meningitis and meningoencephalitis more than other soldiers. Enteroviruses are highly infectious pathogens and can cause outbreaks. N. meningitidis among IDF soldiers is still a concern. Early and aggressive treatment with steroids should be considered especially in robust meningoencephalitis cases.

  9. A Brazilian Oz?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Both the American author, L. Frank Baum, and his Brazilian counterpart, Jose Monteiro Lobato, created children's books that featured alternative worlds, peopled by characters who fascinated many generations of young readers. The authors were both born in the second half of the nineteenth century into families of privilege, and both enjoyed idyllic…

  10. A Brazilian Oz?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Both the American author, L. Frank Baum, and his Brazilian counterpart, Jose Monteiro Lobato, created children's books that featured alternative worlds, peopled by characters who fascinated many generations of young readers. The authors were both born in the second half of the nineteenth century into families of privilege, and both enjoyed idyllic…

  11. Lightning return stroke models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y. T.; Uman, M. A.; Standler, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    We test the two most commonly used lightning return stroke models, Bruce-Golde and transmission line, against subsequent stroke electric and magnetic field wave forms measured simultaneously at near and distant stations and show that these models are inadequate to describe the experimental data. We then propose a new return stroke model that is physically plausible and that yields good approximations to the measured two-station fields. Using the new model, we derive return stroke charge and current statistics for about 100 subsequent strokes.

  12. Venus Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcomb, G.; Lebreton, J.; Scoon, G.

    The Venus Sample Return (VSR) mission was performed as an in-house activity within the European Space Agency's Science Directorate during a 4-month period. The selected baseline mission scenario involves two launches of the presently available Ariane 5 configuration. The first launch would inject a composite spacecraft consisting of an orbiter and a return capsule into a parking orbit around Venus. The second launch would deliver at Venus a lander composite, consisting of the entry, descent, sampling and ascent modules. The sampling strategy includes returning a surface (with possibly a core) sample and three atmospheric samples at high altitudes. This paper presents the design concept for the mission.

  13. Brazilian women in politics.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  14. POST‐SURGICAL REHABILITATION FOLLOWING FASCIOTOMIES FOR BILATERAL CHRONIC EXERTIONAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME IN A SPECIAL FORCES SOLDIER: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The etiology of Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS) is still unclear. The most commonly accepted theory suggests that it is a transient but debilitating process where there is an abnormally increased intracompartmental pressure during exercise/exertion due to non‐compliant expansion of the osteofascial tissues. This most commonly occurs in the lower leg. Surgical intervention is often performed for symptom relief. However, there has been limited scientifically‐based publication on post‐surgical rehabilitation, especially with regard to return to function in the military population. The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the utilization of a recommended post‐operative protocol in a Special Forces Soldier. Case Description: The subject presented as a 25‐year‐old US Army Special Forces Soldier, who failed 8 weeks of conservative management for the diagnosis of CECS and subsequently underwent bilateral lower leg fasciotomies of the anterior and lateral compartments. Outcomes: Following recommended protocol guidelines he was progressed rapidly and within three months deployed without restriction or complications in a demanding combat zone. Discussion: This case report illustrates that following clearly defined, scientifically‐based rehabilitation guidelines helped in addressing all of the involved structures and musculoskeletal dysfunctions that presented following the surgical intervention for CECS in a unique subject. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175149

  15. Buddy-to-Buddy, a citizen soldier peer support program to counteract stigma, PTSD, depression, and suicide.

    PubMed

    Greden, John F; Valenstein, Marcia; Spinner, Jane; Blow, Adrian; Gorman, Lisa A; Dalack, Gregory W; Marcus, Sheila; Kees, Michelle

    2010-10-01

    Citizen soldiers (National Guard and Reserves) represent approximately 40% of the two million armed forces deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq. Twenty-five to forty percent of them develop PTSD, clinical depression, sleep disturbances, or suicidal thoughts. Upon returning home, many encounter additional stresses and hurdles to obtaining care: specifically, many civilian communities lack military medical/psychiatric facilities; financial, job, home, and relationship stresses have evolved or have been exacerbated during deployment; uncertainty has increased related to future deployment; there is loss of contact with military peers; and there is reluctance to recognize and acknowledge mental health needs that interfere with treatment entry and adherence. Approximately half of those needing help are not receiving it. To address this constellation of issues, a private-public partnership was formed under the auspices of the Welcome Back Veterans Initiative. In Michigan, the Army National Guard teamed with the University of Michigan and Michigan State University to develop innovative peer-to-peer programs for soldiers (Buddy-to-Buddy) and augmented programs for military families. Goals are to improve treatment entry, adherence, clinical outcomes, and to reduce suicides. This manuscript describes training approaches, preliminary results, and explores future national dissemination.

  16. Old Sunspot Returns

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-07

    The large sunspot (called AR2665) that rotated out of view about two weeks ago has returned (Aug. 1-2, 2017). Though much reduced in size, it did blast a good-sized coronal mass ejection about a week ago on the far side of the sun. Sunspots can last from days to months, so for it to return again is not an unusual event. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21873

  17. Use of short message service (SMS) to improve malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance after returning from a malaria endemic area

    PubMed Central

    Ollivier, Lénaïck; Romand, Olivier; Marimoutou, Catherine; Michel, Rémy; Pognant, Corinne; Todesco, Alain; Migliani, René; Baudon, Dominique; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance is suboptimal among French soldiers despite the availability of free malaria chemoprophylaxis and repeated health education before, during and after deployment to malaria endemic areas. Methods In 2007, a randomized controlled study was performed among a cohort of French soldiers returning from Côte d'Ivoire to assess the feasibility and acceptability of sending a daily short message service (SMS) reminder message via mobile device to remind soldiers to take their malaria chemoprophylaxis, and to assess the impact of the daily reminder SMS on chemoprophylaxis compliance. Malaria chemoprophylaxis consisted of a daily dose of 100 mg doxycycline monohydrate, which began upon arrival in Côte d'Ivoire and was to be continued for 28 days following return to France. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed by questionnaire. Cohort members were followed for a 28 day period, with compliance assessed by use of an electronic medication monitoring device, from which several indicators were developed: daily proportion of compliant individuals, average number of pills taken, and early discontinuation. Results Among 424 volunteers randomized to the study, 47.6% were assigned to the SMS group and 52.3% to the control group. Approximately 90% of subjects assigned to the SMS group received a daily SMS at midday during the study. Persons of the SMS group agreed more frequently that SMS reminders were very useful and that the device was not annoying. Compliance did not vary significantly between groups across the compliance indicators. Conclusion SMS did not increase malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance above baseline, likely because the persons did not benefit from holidays after the return and stayed together. So the reminder by SMS was noted by all subjects of the study. Another study should be done to confirm these results on soldiers going on holidays from employment after return or with individual travellers. PMID:19852811

  18. Use of short message service (SMS) to improve malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance after returning from a malaria endemic area.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, Lénaïck; Romand, Olivier; Marimoutou, Catherine; Michel, Rémy; Pognant, Corinne; Todesco, Alain; Migliani, René; Baudon, Dominique; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2009-10-23

    Malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance is suboptimal among French soldiers despite the availability of free malaria chemoprophylaxis and repeated health education before, during and after deployment to malaria endemic areas. In 2007, a randomized controlled study was performed among a cohort of French soldiers returning from Côte d'Ivoire to assess the feasibility and acceptability of sending a daily short message service (SMS) reminder message via mobile device to remind soldiers to take their malaria chemoprophylaxis, and to assess the impact of the daily reminder SMS on chemoprophylaxis compliance. Malaria chemoprophylaxis consisted of a daily dose of 100 mg doxycycline monohydrate, which began upon arrival in Côte d'Ivoire and was to be continued for 28 days following return to France. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed by questionnaire. Cohort members were followed for a 28 day period, with compliance assessed by use of an electronic medication monitoring device, from which several indicators were developed: daily proportion of compliant individuals, average number of pills taken, and early discontinuation. Among 424 volunteers randomized to the study, 47.6% were assigned to the SMS group and 52.3% to the control group. Approximately 90% of subjects assigned to the SMS group received a daily SMS at midday during the study. Persons of the SMS group agreed more frequently that SMS reminders were very useful and that the device was not annoying. Compliance did not vary significantly between groups across the compliance indicators. SMS did not increase malaria chemoprophylaxis compliance above baseline, likely because the persons did not benefit from holidays after the return and stayed together. So the reminder by SMS was noted by all subjects of the study. Another study should be done to confirm these results on soldiers going on holidays from employment after return or with individual travellers.

  19. Missing: critical and skeptical perspectives on comprehensive soldier fitness.

    PubMed

    Quick, James Campbell

    2011-10-01

    The author read with interest, and concern, the January 2011 issue of the American Psychologist. The Special Issue on Comprehensive Soldier Fitness addressed a hugely consequential national issue and offered a vision for psychological resilience along with an elaborate set of supporting articles, concluding with some comments on "Objections" to psychologists working with the military. While a bold vision was offered and a game plan presented, no data or evidence are yet available (it is far too early in the process), and that should concern us all. The author hopes the American Psychological Association (APA) and the American Psychologist offer skeptical and critical views in future issues on the issue of the psychological health of our military and as evidence emerges regarding the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program.

  20. The German-Jewish soldier: from participant to victim.

    PubMed

    Penslar, Derek

    2011-01-01

    The story of German-Jewish soldiers and veterans of World War I illustrates how, under circumstances of inclusion (even if incomplete) rather than vicious persecution, Jewish suffering in wartime, and with it the forms of collective memory and strategies for commemoration of the dead, could closely parallel, even intersect with, the suffering of Germans as a whole. To be sure, the points of intersection were accompanied by points of deflection. Even when Jews served, fought, suffered and died as German soldiers, their interpretations of the war experience, and their communities’ postwar memory and commemorative practices, differed from those of other Germans. In many ways, however, German-Jewish veterans suffered the aftermath of the war as did other Germans; they shared the prevailing fury over war guilt and reparations, and they retained a strong pride in their military service, a pride through which they interpreted the events of 1933–1945.

  1. The Bluebirds: World War I Soldiers' Experiences of Occupational Therapy.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Judith; Robinson, Katie; Moloney, Stephanie

    More is known about the experience of occupational therapists than the experience of patients during the profession's early years. We examined soldiers' experiences of occupational therapy in American Base Hospital 9 in France during World War I through analysis of a 53-line poem by Corporal Frank Wren contained in the unpublished memoir of occupational therapy reconstruction aide Lena Hitchcock. Historical documentary research methods and thematic analysis were used to analyze the poem, the memoir, and the hospital's published history. The poem describes the activities engaged in during occupational therapy, equipment used, and the context of therapy. It articulates positive dimensions of the experience of engaging in activities, including emotional benefits, diversion, and orthopedic benefits. Previous historical research has identified core philosophical premises about the use of occupational therapy; in this article, the enactment of these principles is established through the analysis of a soldier's account of receiving occupational therapy.

  2. Front End Analysis of Soldier Individual Power Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    Engine," US Patent No. 2,963,853, issued to W. B. Wescott. Jr., 30 September 1960. 68 Front End Analysis of Soldier Indlvlidual , Pwr RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE...He3 - 269.9 - 453.8 3.2 Helium He4 -268.9 -452.0 4.2 Hydrogen H2 -252.8 -423.0 20.3 Deuterium D2 -249.5 -417.1 23.6 Tritium T2 -248.1 -414.6 25.0...Front End Analysis of Soldier Individual Power tS v nms 1992 Input # Power Peak Pwr Input Energy Equipment Name Of Units Watts Watts Utiliz. Watt-Hrs

  3. Nanocontamination of the Soldiers in a Battle Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, A. M.; Montanari, S.

    The paper deals with the unusual pathologies some soldiers contracted after exposure in battle theatres in Iraq and in the Balkans, and considers the hypotheses the Authors developed to explain the origin of those diseases, that proved to be lethal in a few cases. The scenario of particulate nanopollution generated by high-temperature combustions characteristic of some weapons is described. The electron-microscopy observations carried out in 37 soldiers' pathological tissues verified the internal dissemination of toxic metallic micro and nano-particles. The article considers the way of entrance of those nanopollutants: the lung for inhalation and the digestive system for the ingestion of polluted food. Battle theatre pollution is also discussed.

  4. Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter Extremity Infections in Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Kimberly A.; McAllister, C. Kenneth; Gray, Paula J.

    2005-01-01

    War wound infection and osteomyelitis caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter species have been prevalent during the 2003–2005 military operations in Iraq. Twenty-three soldiers wounded in Iraq and subsequently admitted to our facility from March 2003 to May 2004 had wound cultures positive for Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex. Eighteen had osteomyelitis, 2 burn infection, and 3 deep wound infection. Primary therapy for these infections was directed antimicrobial agents for an average of 6 weeks. All soldiers initially improved, regardless of the specific type of therapy. Patients were followed up to 23 months after completing therapy, and none had recurrent infection with Acinetobacter species. Despite the drug resistance that infecting organisms demonstrated in this series, a regimen of carefully selected extended antimicrobial-drug therapy appears effective for osteomyelitis caused by MDR Acinetobacter spp. PMID:16102310

  5. Resilience to traumatic exposure among soldiers deployed in combat.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, John M; Riolli, Laura T; Peng, Ann Chunyan; Spain, Everett S

    2011-01-01

    We examined the influence of positive psychological capital (PsyCap), a metaconstruct that combines established psychological predispositions to be resilient to stress, on the well-being of soldiers during combat deployment. Among U.S. Army personnel deployed in Iraq, cognitive appraisal of stress mediated the effects of trait PsyCap on health symptoms. The indirect effects through appraisal were moderated by levels of exposure to potentially traumatic stimuli. Trait PsyCap covaried more strongly with cognitive appraisals, and had stronger indirect effects through appraisal on health, among soldiers in units with higher levels of potentially traumatic exposures. We discuss implications for research on resilience to trauma in the workplace and for helping workers cope with potentially traumatic exposures.

  6. Satisfaction of active duty soldiers with family dental care.

    PubMed

    Chisick, M C

    1997-02-01

    In the fall of 1992, a random, worldwide sample of 6,442 married and single parent soldiers completed a self-administered survey on satisfaction with 22 attributes of family dental care. Simple descriptive statistics for each attribute were derived, as was a composite overall satisfaction score using factor analysis. Composite scores were regressed on demographics, annual dental utilization, and access barriers to identify those factors having an impact on a soldier's overall satisfaction with family dental care. Separate regression models were constructed for single parents, childless couples, and couples with children. Results show below-average satisfaction with nearly all attributes of family dental care, with access attributes having the lowest average satisfaction scores. Factors influencing satisfaction with family dental care varied by family type with one exception: dependent dental utilization within the past year contributed positively to satisfaction across all family types.

  7. Virtual reality exposure therapy for active duty soldiers.

    PubMed

    Reger, Greg M; Gahm, Gregory A

    2008-08-01

    Virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy is a promising treatment for a variety of anxiety disorders and has recently been extended to the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this article, the authors briefly review the rationale for VRE and its key processes. They illustrate the treatment with an active-duty Army soldier diagnosed with combat-related PTSD. Six sessions of VRE were provided using an immersive simulation of a military convoy in Iraq. Self-reported PTSD symptoms and psychological distress were reduced at posttreatment relative to pretreatment reports, as assessed by the PTSD Checklist-Military Version and the Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale-24. The case outcomes parallel those reported in the research with other disorders and suggest the applicability of VRE in treating active duty soldiers with combat-related PTSD.

  8. Soldiers Initiate Foraging Activities in the Subterranean Termite, Heterotermes tenuis

    PubMed Central

    Casarin, Fabiana Elaine; Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria

    2008-01-01

    Caste polyethism has been recorded in some termite species, however the foraging behavior of subterranean termites remains poorly known. Heterotermes tenuis Hagen (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) is a subterranean termite that is native to Brazil and is an agricultural and urban pest. The aim of this study was to investigate which caste acts as scouts when searching for food sources and determinate the percentages of each caste present in the foraging territories of field colonies of H. tenuis. Our results showed no significant differences among the caste proportions present in the foraging territories of the three colonies studied in the field. Laboratory experiments showed that minor soldiers were the most frequent initiators of foraging activities. This result suggests that the exploratory phase of the foraging behavior may be regulated by the number of soldiers present in the foraging territories of each colony. PMID:20345313

  9. Longitudinal effects of mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder comorbidity on postdeployment outcomes in national guard soldiers deployed to Iraq.

    PubMed

    Polusny, Melissa A; Kehle, Shannon M; Nelson, Nathaniel W; Erbes, Christopher R; Arbisi, Paul A; Thuras, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Troops deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan are at high risk for exposure to combat events resulting in mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) or concussion and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The longer-term impact of combat-related concussion/MTBI and comorbid PTSD on troops' health and well-being is unknown. To assess longitudinal associations between concussion/MTBI and PTSD symptoms reported in theater and longer-term psychosocial outcomes in combat-deployed National Guard soldiers. Longitudinal cohort study. Participants were surveyed in Iraq 1 month before returning home (time 1) and 1 year later (time 2). Self-reports of concussion/MTBI and PTSD were assessed at times 1 and 2. Based on time 1 concussion/MTBI status (defined as an injury during deployment with loss of consciousness or altered mental status) and time 2 postdeployment probable PTSD status, soldiers were compared on a range of time 2 psychosocial outcomes. Nine hundred fifty-three US National Guard soldiers. The time 1 sample was assessed during redeployment transition briefings held at military installations in the Iraq combat theater. The time 2 sample was assessed using mailed surveys sent to the homes of US National Guard service members. Postconcussive, depression, and physical symptoms; alcohol use; social functioning; and quality of life assessed at time 2 using valid clinical instruments. The rate of self-reported concussion/MTBI during deployment was 9.2% at time 1 and 22.0% at time 2. Soldiers with a history of concussion/MTBI were more likely than those without to report postdeployment postconcussive symptoms and poorer psychosocial outcomes. However, after adjusting for PTSD symptoms, concussion/MTBI was not associated with postdeployment symptoms or outcomes. Time 1 PTSD symptoms more strongly predicted postdeployment symptoms and outcomes than did concussion/MTBI history. Although combat-related PTSD was strongly associated with postconcussive symptoms and psychosocial outcomes 1

  10. Quantifying Soldier Shooting Performance of the M4 Carbine with and without a Vertical Grip

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying Soldier Shooting Performance of the M4 Carbine with and without a Vertical Grip by Samson V Ortega Jr, William H Harper, and...21005-5425 ARL-TR-7173 January 2015 Quantifying Soldier Shooting Performance of the M4 Carbine with and without a Vertical Grip...Quantifying Soldier Shooting Performance of the M4 Carbine with and without a Vertical Grip 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  11. Identification of Soldier Behaviors Associated with Search and Target Acquisition (STA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    3 UNCLASSIFIED different gaps. Each of these FACTs focused on several critical research areas ( CRAs ). The Fiscal Year (FY) 08 Soldier FACT Call...for Proposals identified the following CRA : Soldier Search and Target Acquisition (STA): Determine validity of current Soldier STA processes for...place him in a position where he can engage any threats (i.e., can see where to aim and shoot ). The order of behaviors for “audio cues” and

  12. Sustaining Comprehensive Soldier and Family Fitness: Critical for Army 2020

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    showing that the MRT skills are having a positive effect on Soldier-reported resilience and psychological health (R/ PH). The evaluation shows that MRT...operational commanders.”91 Resilience programs are about training, education, and culture, and therefore are best positioned outside of health and medical...The views expressed in this student academic research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the

  13. CERDEC Fuel Cell Team: Military Transitions for Soldier Fuel Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-27

    Fuel Cell (DMFC) (PEO Soldier) Samsung: 20W DMFC (CRADA) General Atomics & Jadoo: 50W Ammonia Borane Fueled PEMFC Current Fuel Cell Team Efforts...Continued Ardica: 20W Wearable PEMFC operating on Chemical Hydrides Spectrum Brands w/ Rayovac: Hydrogen Generators and Alkaline Fuel Cells for AA...100W Ammonia Borane fueled PEMFC Ultralife: 150W sodium borohydride fueled PEMFC Protonex: 250W RMFC and Power Manager (ARO) NanoDynamics: 250W SOFC

  14. Loads Carried by Soldiers: Historical, Physiological, Biomechanical and Medical Aspects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    most affected. " Winged scapula " was common in many cases. Symptoms were probably due to compression of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. In...Environmental .,;edicine Protocol No. PH-l-88, Natick, MA, 1988. 49. Hauser, CU and Martin WF. Two additional cases of traumatic winged scapula occurring in...Holder, HG. Winged scapula : case occwrring in soldiers from knapsacks. JAMA 120:448-449, 1942. 55. Jones, BH et al. Exercise induced stress fractures

  15. Ethics and the Military Profession. Values and the Professional Soldier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    endangered? A genuine relativist would have to forego such action. And what about the egoist? Egoism is the claim that self-interest is the focus of all...may not have made a careful study of egoism and may hold other moral views inconsistent with the egoist position. This would be true of the...professional soldier who thinks he accepts egoism ; without reconciling it to his commitment to military values. Because so much of what any person routinely

  16. The Effect of Physical Load and Environment on Soldier Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    that scores on perceptual tasks were higher after mild physical activity than during periods of no exercise and sleep deprivation . Gliner et al...Akerstedt, T.; Charles, A.; Bioulac, B. Fatigue, Sleepiness, and Performance in Simulated Versus Real Driving Conditions. Sleep 2005, 28 (12), 1511–1516...The Effect of Physical Load and Environment on Soldier Performance by Ellen C. Haas, Harrison Philip Crowell, and Kathy L. Kehring ARL-TR

  17. Facilitating Soldier Receipt of Needed Mental Health Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    climate associated with Soldiers getting mental health treatment. This report identifies the SOW and accomplishments for the third year of the grant...perceptions of mental health treatment based upon the Year 1 focus group and interview studies. This article highlights how new information ...time for mental health treatment. (.669) 5. Leaders do not adequately communicate how to go about getting treatment. (.710) 6. Leaders are too

  18. Using Research to Match the Soldier to the Job

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    of p •ary concern. 83 male and 44 female active duty troops assigned to the 24th Infantry Division were tested on a series of strength measures ...lifting movement were measured . These isometric strength measures were then compared to the amount of weight soldiers were able to lift to the height of a...stamina 2. Skinfold determination of percent body fat and lean body mass 3. Isometric 38cm upright pull force-a measure of static lifting strength 4

  19. Satisfaction with Military Dental Care by Active Duty Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    problem and may contribute to reducing the morale similar score in Table II would indicate a satisfaction level be- of soldiers as well . As Marine Corps...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) In fall 1992, a random, worldwide sample of 5,474 enlisted personnel and 4,036 officers was surveyed on satisfaction with twenty...composite overall satisfaction score using factor analysis. Composite scores were regressed on demographics, dental utilization, and access .barriers

  20. Cold Regions - Environmental Testing of Individual Soldier Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-17

    This Test Operations Procedure (TOP) provides testing guidelines for individual Soldier cold weather clothing and footwear in a cold regions...Cold weather clothing test Cold weather footwear test Environmental clothing test Environmental footwear test 16...1983; TOP 10-3-512 Cold Regions Environmental Test of Boot and Similar Footwear , dated 9 May 1980; and TOP 10-4-005 Arctic Environmental Test of

  1. Army Science Board 1991 Summer Study - Soldier as a System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    Dr. Gerald D. Godclen Mr. Marvin R. Hotter Dr. Walter B. LaBerge (Cont) _____________ 7.11PEIFORIKNG, ORGANIXATION NAWES) AND ADDRESSME) L. PWRORMINC...Cort) General James G. Lindsay (USA-Ret) Mr. Charles L. Malone Dr. Bruce Montgomery Dr. Edward J. Powers, Jr. Dr. Robert E. Weigle Dr. Stanley C. White ...the need is to get science and technology resources focused on Soldier System performance. Limitations of time and resources restricted the level of

  2. Soldier Performance on a New Marksmanship Course of Fire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 1924 Soldier Performance on a New...Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Department of the Army Deputy Chief of Staff, G1 Authorized and approved for distribution...and Social Sciences , Attn: DAPE-ARI-ZXM, 2511 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, Virginia 22202-3926. FINAL DISPOSITION: This Research Report

  3. After Action Review Tools for Dismounted Soldier Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    medical sensor subsystem that monitors and collects information regarding vital signs such as body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. Future...systems may also monitor hydration , stress levels, sleep status, body positioning and workload capacity of the Soldier. The PSM can notify medics and...Fort Benning, GA 31995-2086 9. SPONSORING/ MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. MONITOR ACRONYM U. S. Army Research Institute for the

  4. GENDER ISSUES: Medical Support for Female Soldiers Deployed to Bosnia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    as yeast infections and urinary tract infections . They could also test for pregnancy and dispense birth control. The clinics, however, were not...settings, including advice about avoiding urinary tract infections and yeast infections; (3) female-specific health care services available in- theater...Soldiers Deployed to Bosnia had provided information on preventing urinary tract infections and vaginal infections (see fig 1.2). Figure 1.2: Which

  5. Soldiers, Scholars, Diplomats: Educating Strategic Leaders at Foreign Staff Colleges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    Soldiers, Scholars, Diplomats: Educating Strategic Leaders at Foreign Staff Colleges A Monograph by MAJ Christopher Gin United States Army...SCHOLARS, DIPLOMATS: EDUCATING STRATEGIC LEADERS AT FOREIGN STAFF COLLEGES Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT...foreign staff colleges. It argues that the US Anny should educate more of its best field grade officers abroad to gain worldly, contextual intelligence

  6. PEO Soldier Simulation Roadmap: Initial Steps in Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Data Manger (EDM), AW Block 2 Helicopter Oxygen System (HOS) Laser Eye Protection (AW-LEP) Retinal Scanning Display (AW-RSD) SRU-37/P One Man Life Raft...AN/PVS-10 & Long Range SNS) Soldier Night Vision Devices (AN/PVS-7 NVG & AN/PVS-14 MNVD) STORM Micro-Laser Ranger Finder (MLRF) Target Acquisition...choice of weapon, engagement choice of optic, choice decisions of posture Engagement decision, actual target location, range, weather and terrain

  7. Anthropometry and Range of Motion of the Encumbered Soldier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    RANGE OF MOTION OF THE ENCUMBERED SOLDIER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 32 (Lighten the Load) 6. AUTHOR(S...motion ranges of the semi-nude or lightly clothed individual, limited information and data currently exists characterizing the space and movement ...for the grenadier than for the rifleman duty position. Because much of the bulk was added around the waist, movements that involved bending at the

  8. Soldier Performance and Mood States Following a Strenuous Road March

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    min after the march). Soldiers jumped as high as possible and marked a board at the highest point of the jump . The highest of 3 trials was recorded...improve shooting accuracy (15, 16). The grenade throw and vertical jump tests were used to evaluate explosive strength or power (6, 17). Under the...appear to affect leg power. Patton et al. (18) found no decline in peak or mean power on the Wingate test when subjects performed a loaded road march task

  9. FOCU:S--future operator control unit: soldier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Barry J.; Karan, Cem; Young, Stuart H.

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory's (ARL) Computational and Information Sciences Directorate (CISD) has long been involved in autonomous asset control, specifically as it relates to small robots. Over the past year, CISD has been making strides in the implementation of three areas of small robot autonomy, namely platform autonomy, Soldier-robot interface, and tactical behaviors. It is CISD's belief that these three areas must be considered as a whole in order to provide Soldiers with useful capabilities. In addressing the Soldier-robot interface aspect, CISD has begun development on a unique dismounted controller called the Future Operator Control Unit: Soldier (FOCU:S) that is based on an Apple iPod Touch. The iPod Touch's small form factor, unique touch-screen input device, and the presence of general purpose computing applications such as a web browser combine to give this device the potential to be a disruptive technology. Setting CISD's implementation apart from other similar iPod or iPhone-based devices is the ARL software that allows multiple robotic platforms to be controlled from a single OCU. The FOCU:S uses the same Agile Computing Infrastructure (ACI) that all other assets in the ARL robotic control system use, enabling automated asset discovery on any type of network. Further, a custom ad hoc routing implementation allows the FOCU:S to communicate with the ARL ad hoc communications system and enables it to extend the range of the network. This paper will briefly describe the current robotic control architecture employed by ARL and provide short descriptions of existing capabilities. Further, the paper will discuss FOCU:S specific software developed for the iPod Touch, including unique capabilities enabled by the device's unique hardware.

  10. Civilian Spouses of Female Soldiers: A Forgotten Breed?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-30

    the children during his absence. This too could have an impact on readiness and retention. In the child care arena, there remain societal expectations...this belief. If they are more traditional in their orientation, they expect the mother to take off from work when a child becomes ill. They do not...be absent because of family considerations. This could become especially acute if his soldier-wife is deployed and cannot share equally in child care

  11. Affirming the Soldier’s Spirit Through Intentional Dialogue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Shay’s observation through the application of contemplative prayer. Such prayer “is a time of quietness with the anticipation of one’s relationship with...0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing...psychological traumas. At the present time the Army lacks an intentional spiritual intervention or spirit- centric assessment for Soldiers. An optimal

  12. Development of Accommodation Models for Soldiers in Vehicles: Squad

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    male and female enlisted personnel at three Army posts as they sat in a squad mockup (Figure 1). Figure 1. Squad mockup . The current study...used data from 144 men and women tested in the squad mockup . Table 1 lists summary statistics for standard anthropometric variables for the combined...unlimited 10 Figure 2 shows the ensemble levels used for measurements in the mockup . At the Advanced Combat Uniform (ACU) level, Soldiers wore

  13. Prevalence of mental health problems and functional impairment among active component and National Guard soldiers 3 and 12 months following combat in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jeffrey L; Wilk, Joshua E; Riviere, Lyndon A; McGurk, Dennis; Castro, Carl A; Hoge, Charles W

    2010-06-01

    A growing body of literature has demonstrated the association of combat in Iraq and Afghanistan with postdeployment mental health problems, particularly posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. However, studies have shown varying prevalence rates of these disorders based on different case definitions and have not assessed functional impairment, alcohol misuse, or aggressive behavior as comorbid factors occurring with PTSD and depression. To (1) examine the prevalence rates of depression and PTSD using several case definitions including functional impairment, (2) determine the comorbidity of alcohol misuse or aggressive behaviors with depression or PTSD, and (3) compare rates between Active Component and National Guard soldiers at the 3- and 12-month time points following their deployment to Iraq. Population-based, cross-sectional study. United States Army posts and National Guard armories. A total of 18 305 US Army soldiers from 4 Active Component and 2 National Guard infantry brigade combat teams. Between 2004 and 2007, anonymous mental health surveys were collected at 3 and 12 months following deployment. Current PTSD, depression, functional impairment, alcohol misuse, and aggressive behavior. Prevalence rates for PTSD or depression with serious functional impairment ranged between 8.5% and 14.0%, with some impairment between 23.2% and 31.1%. Alcohol misuse or aggressive behavior comorbidity was present in approximately half of the cases. Rates remained stable for the Active Component soldiers but increased across all case definitions from the 3- to 12-month time point for National Guard soldiers. The prevalence rates of PTSD and depression after returning from combat ranged from 9% to 31% depending on the level of functional impairment reported. The high comorbidity with alcohol misuse and aggression highlights the need for comprehensive postdeployment screening. Persistent or increased prevalence rates at 12 months compared with 3 months

  14. On the skin of a soldier: The story of flogging.

    PubMed

    Garrisi, Diana

    2015-01-01

    After Farrier-Major Critton struck the 150th lash on the back of Private Frederick John White, at the end of a common disciplinary session at Hounslow Barracks, West London, in 1846, the soldier, whistling, walked himself to the infirmary to have his wounds dressed. His skin healed promptly, but 4 weeks later, he was found dead in his dormitory. The army medical officers, after performing an autopsy, reached the conclusion that the soldier had died from inflammation of internal organs but excluded any connection with flogging. This version of facts did not convince the coroner for Middlesex, who decided to open an inquest. After 3 more weeks of inquiry and 2 more postmortem examinations, the famous dermatologist Erasmus Wilson contradicted the army officers by affirming that the soldier had indeed died from the effects of flogging as the analysis of the cutaneous lesions and underneath would demonstrate. This contribution will detail how the inquest into the death of Private John White sparked a medical debate on the effects of military flogging to the skin. The discussion raised by the publication of the details of the autopsies demonstrated that different and opposing points of view coexisted in the Victorian period concerning the relation between external lacerations and internal organs in cases of flogging.

  15. The Felin soldier system: a tailored solution for networked operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Sueur, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    Sagem Defense Securite has been awarded a 800M euro contract for the French infantrymen modernisation programme. This programme covers the development, the qualification and the production of about 32 000 soldier systems to equip all the French infantry starting fielding in 2008. The FELIN soldier system provides the infantryman with an integrated system increasing dramatically the soldier capability in any dismounted close combat domains. Man remains at the centre of the system, which can interface equipments or systems already fielded and future equipments to match any customer's needs. Urban operations are carefully addressed thanks to a versatile and modular solution and a dedicated C4I system, Sagem Defense Securite is a European leader in defence electronics and takes part of this major French Army transformation programme, which will play a key role in the Info Centric Network initiatives promoted in France and other countries. This paper summarises the system solutions selected by the French Army with a focus on the networked capabilities and the optronic devices.

  16. Development of seating accommodation models for soldiers in vehicles.

    PubMed

    Zerehsaz, Yaser; Jin, Jionghua Judy; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P

    2017-04-01

    Data from a previous study of soldier driving postures and seating positions were analysed to develop statistical models for defining accommodation of driver seating positions in military vehicles. Regression models were created for seating accommodation applicable to driver positions with a fixed heel point and a range of steering wheel locations in typical tactical vehicles. The models predict the driver-selected seat position as a function of population anthropometry and vehicle layout. These models are the first driver accommodation models considering the effects of body armor and body-borne gear. The obtained results can benefit the design of military vehicles, and the methods can also be extended to be utilised in the development of seating accommodation models for other driving environments where protective equipment affects driver seating posture, such as vehicles used by law-enforcement officers and firefighters. Practitioner Summary: A large-scale laboratory study of soldier driving posture and seating position was designed to focus on tactical vehicle (truck) designs. Regression techniques are utilised to develop accommodation models suitable for tactical vehicles. These are the first seating accommodation models based on soldier data to consider the effects of personal protective equipment and body-borne gear.

  17. Soldiers' personal technologies on deployment and at home.

    PubMed

    Bush, Nigel E; Fullerton, Nicole; Crumpton, Rosa; Metzger-Abamukong, Melinda; Fantelli, Emily

    2012-05-01

    Personal technologies such as smartphones, computers, and gaming devices, are ubiquitous in the civilian world. Consequently they represent ideal vehicles for disseminating psychological and other health resources and interventions. However, almost nothing is known about personal technology use in the U.S. military. We conducted the most comprehensive survey to date of the use, availability, and need for personal technologies by U.S. military service members. Our survey asked detailed questions about computers and the Internet, phones and smartphones, other mobile or portable technologies, gaming devices, and TV and video media used during deployment and at permanent duty station or home. We collected data by paper-and-pencil survey in 2010 and 2011 from 331 active Army service members at a processing and registration center in a large military installation in the western United States. Two cohorts were surveyed: Soldiers who had previously been deployed to a warzone and soldiers who had never been deployed. We measured high rates of personal technology use by service members at home across all popular electronic media. Soldiers at home essentially resembled civilian consumers in their use of popular technologies. Some technologies, including the Internet, gaming, and TV, were widespread on deployment. Others, most notably cellphones, were more restricted by availability, connectivity, opportunity, and military regulation in the warzone. Results will enable researchers and technology developers target their efforts on the most promising and popular technologies for psychological health in the military.

  18. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance.

    PubMed

    Askew, Graham N; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E

    2012-02-22

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined the effects on physical performance. We found that the net cost of locomotion (C(met)) during armoured walking and running is much more energetically expensive than unloaded locomotion. C(met) for locomotion in armour was 2.1-2.3 times higher for walking, and 1.9 times higher for running when compared with C(met) for unloaded locomotion at the same speed. An important component of the increased energy use results from the extra force that must be generated to support the additional mass. However, the energetic cost of locomotion in armour was also much higher than equivalent trunk loading. This additional cost is mostly explained by the increased energy required to swing the limbs and impaired breathing. Our findings can predict age-associated decline in Medieval soldiers' physical performance, and have potential implications in understanding the outcomes of past European military battles.

  19. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance

    PubMed Central

    Askew, Graham N.; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E.

    2012-01-01

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined the effects on physical performance. We found that the net cost of locomotion (Cmet) during armoured walking and running is much more energetically expensive than unloaded locomotion. Cmet for locomotion in armour was 2.1–2.3 times higher for walking, and 1.9 times higher for running when compared with Cmet for unloaded locomotion at the same speed. An important component of the increased energy use results from the extra force that must be generated to support the additional mass. However, the energetic cost of locomotion in armour was also much higher than equivalent trunk loading. This additional cost is mostly explained by the increased energy required to swing the limbs and impaired breathing. Our findings can predict age-associated decline in Medieval soldiers' physical performance, and have potential implications in understanding the outcomes of past European military battles. PMID:21775328

  20. Sociality in Parasitic Flatworms: When Do Soldiers Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Vedrenne, A. E.

    2016-02-01

    Although not traditionally recognized as such, trematode infections in molluscan first intermediate hosts comprise colonies. When two trematode species simultaneously infect a snail host, one generally kills the other. Thus, there can be strong selective pressure for established trematode colonies to protect and defend against new infections. Recent findings demonstrate that some trematode species have a reproductive division of labor involving a reproductive and a soldier caste. Reproductives are larger and filled with offspring, while soldiers lack developing embryos, and are specialized for inter-trematode antagonism. This reproductive division of labor has now been documented for intramolluscan stages of fourteen trematode species from different geographic regions and host species. Further, literature descriptions of the life history of several species suggest that this phenomenon is widespread, although there are important intra- and inter-specific differences in colony structure. It has been predicted that trematode soldier castes would most likely evolve in taxa that are typically dominant in interspecific hierarchies, in situations of invasion risk, and among trematodes that infect longer lived hosts. Here I address these hypotheses and present the extent of evidence for trematode social organization.

  1. Supplemental genistein, quercetin, and resveratrol intake in active duty army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Sepowitz, John J; Fauser, Kristina R; Meyer, Stephanie A; Jackson, Steven J

    2015-05-01

    Previous reports indicate that the majority of U.S. Army soldiers consume dietary supplements (DSs) > 1 time/wk. However, these studies did not evaluate phytonutrient supplementation. A growing literature suggests inclusion of phytonutrients in DSs may pose a risk for toxicity, which could impact the performance of soldier duties, as well as long-term health and wellness. This study was conducted to assess and understand soldiers' motivations to consume phytonutrient-containing DSs, specifically genistein, quercetin, and resveratrol. The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive mixed-methods design using a survey and semistructured interviews. There were 436 soldiers stationed at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington who completed the survey, from which 36 soldiers completed an interview. Overall, 34% of soldiers reported taking a single or multicomponent phytonutrient DS > 1 time/wk, from which 41 soldiers took >1 supplement/wk. Soldiers' reasons for use included unsure (54%), weight loss (12%), and other, unspecified (24%). The majority of interviewees did not consume DSs based on inclusion of genistein, quercetin, or resveratrol. The majority of soldiers, in our study, appear unable to rationalize their phytonutrient DS choices. Findings from this study illuminate the need for future research to further explore DS practices within military populations and encourage informed use of DSs.

  2. Combined foraging strategies and soldier behaviour in Nasutitermes aff. coxipoensis (Blattodea: Termitoidea: Termitidae).

    PubMed

    Almeida, Camilla S; Cristaldo, Paulo F; Florencio, Daniela F; Cruz, Nayara G; Santos, Abraão A; Oliveira, Alexandre P; Santana, Alisson S; Ribeiro, Efrem J M; Lima, Ana P S; Bacci, Leandro; Araújo, Ana P A

    2016-05-01

    A range of behavioural strategies and sensory abilities allows animals to minimize costs involved in food search. By building a network of tunnels and presenting a large number of soldiers (i.e., trophically dependent individuals), Nasutitermes spp. termites feature behaviours that imply additional costs during this process. Here we evaluated N. aff. coxipoensis foraging strategies focusing on the role of soldiers during foraging. Field experiments were carried out via nests transplantation to dune areas, and laboratory experiments evaluated termite responses to sternal gland chemical signals from workers and soldiers. N. aff. coxipoensis presented primarily nocturnal foraging. Soldiers typically initiated foraging; however, in established trails, the number of workers was always higher than that of soldiers. The number of trails remained constant over time, while the number of tunnels increased linearly over time. A higher proportion of tunnels originated in surrounding areas than directly from the nests. At observation points with tunnels, there were more stationary than walking soldiers; the opposite was true at observation points without tunnels. In mixed groups, the workers chose to follow soldier chemical signals, and in these groups, soldiers were the first to follow trails. Our results allowed us to identify a not common foraging strategy in termite species; which included the establishment of trails followed by construction of tunnels. Such foraging strategies occur predominantly at night and soldiers play a key role in the foraging process. This foraging strategy reported here seems to be employed to optimize energetic gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Medical Symptom Validity Test in the evaluation of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom soldiers: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Kriscinda A; Shepard, Polly H; Williams, Amanda L; Davis, Jeremy J; Adams, Kenneth M

    2009-03-01

    The clinical utility of the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) for soldiers returning from service in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom was preliminarily investigated through retrospective chart review. Results showed that 17%, or 4 of 23, Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom patients at a Polytrauma Network Site (Level 2), performed below cut-offs on the MSVT. On "easy" subtests of the MSVT, the group of individuals who failed the MSVT performed significantly worse than the group of individuals who passed. However, there were no significant group differences on the "hard" subtests of the MSVT. When the profiles of individuals who failed the MSVT were examined, none of them met the criteria for the Dementia Profile. These preliminary findings and additional test data supported the conclusion that participants who failed the MSVT were exhibiting diminished symptom validity, suggesting that the specificity of the MSVT was 100%.

  4. A hypothesis: the conjunction of soldiers, gas, pigs, ducks, geese and horses in northern France during the Great War provided the conditions for the emergence of the "Spanish" influenza pandemic of 1918-1919.

    PubMed

    Oxford, J S; Lambkin, R; Sefton, A; Daniels, R; Elliot, A; Brown, R; Gill, D

    2005-01-04

    The Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919 was a cataclysmic outbreak of infection wherein over 50 million people died worldwide within 18 months. The question of the origin is important because most influenza surveillance at present is focussed on S.E. Asia. Two later pandemic viruses in 1957 and 1968 arose in this region. However we present evidence that early outbreaks of a new disease with rapid onset and spreadability, high mortality in young soldiers in the British base camp at Etaples in Northern France in the winter of 1917 is, at least to date, the most likely focus of origin of the pandemic. Pathologists working at Etaples and Aldershot barracks later agreed that these early outbreaks in army camps were the same disease as the infection wave of influenza in 1918. The Etaples camp had the necessary mixture of factors for emergence of pandemic influenza including overcrowding (with 100,000 soldiers daily changing), live pigs, and nearby live geese, duck and chicken markets, horses and an additional factor 24 gases (some of them mutagenic) used in large 100 ton quantities to contaminate soldiers and the landscape. The final trigger for the ensuing pandemic was the return of millions of soldiers to their homelands around the entire world in the autumn of 1918.

  5. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524

  6. Soldiers Under Threat: An Exploration of the Effect of Real Threat on Soldier’s Perceptions, Attitudes and Morale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    interpreted (Florian, Mikulincer & Taubmam, 1995; Bartone, Johnsen, Eid, Brun & Laberg , 2002; Bartone, 2006). As we focus on aspects of soldiers...Organizational responses to death in the military. Death Studies, 18, 23-39. Bartone, P.T., Johnsen, B.H., Eid, J. Brun, W. & Laberg , J.C. (2002...1997). General and personal mortality salience and nationalistic bias. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 884- 892. Neuberg, Steven L

  7. The Brazilian Twin Registry.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Junqueira, Daniela R; Cisneros, Lígia C; Ferreira, Lucas C; Murphy, Kate; Ordoñana, Juan R; Hopper, John L; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.

  8. Brazilian minister sets global goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    Marco Antonio Raupp, the mathematical physicist who is now Brazil's minister of science, technology and innovation, talks to Physics World about the challenges and opportunities for Brazilian research.

  9. Electrostatic Return of Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rantanen, R.; Gordon, T.

    2003-01-01

    A Model has been developed capable of calculating the electrostatic return of spacecraft-emitted molecules that are ionized and attracted back to the spacecraft by the spacecraft electric potential on its surfaces. The return of ionized contaminant molecules to charged spacecraft surfaces is very important to all altitudes. It is especially important at geosynchronous and interplanetary environments, since it may be the only mechanism by which contaminants can degrade a surface. This model is applicable to all altitudes and spacecraft geometries. In addition to results of the model will be completed to cover a wide range of potential space systems.

  10. PTSD in active combat soldiers: to treat or not to treat.

    PubMed

    Wangelin, Bethany C; Tuerk, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider ethical issues related to the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in combat zones, via exposure therapy. Exposure-oriented interventions are the most well-researched behavioral treatments for PTSD, and rigorous studies across contexts, populations, and research groups provide robust evidence that exposure therapy for PTSD is effective and can be widely disseminated. Clinical procedures for Prolonged Exposure therapy, a manualized exposure-oriented protocol for PTSD, are reviewed, and we illustrate the potential benefits, as well as the potential difficulties, associated with providing this treatment in combat zones. Several ethical considerations are identified: (1) Assuming successful treatment, is it ethical to send individuals with a known risk of developing PTSD back into combat? (2) If treatment is unsuccessful in theater (perhaps due to the confounding factor of ongoing danger), could that impact treatment effectiveness for soldiers who attempt therapy again post-deployment? (3) If the military finds combat-zone treatment effective and useful in maintaining an efficient work force, will treatment become mandatory for those diagnosed with PTSD? (4) What unintended consequences might be associated with large-scale dissemination of exposure therapy in or near combat, outside of mental health care infrastructures? (5) How would genetic variations known to be associated with PTSD risk influence decisions regarding who receives treatment or returns to combat? We conclude with a review of the personal and societal costs associated with not providing evidence-based PTSD treatments wherever possible. © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  11. Safety, Tolerability, and Compliance with Long-Term Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis in American Soldiers in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Saunders, David L; Garges, Eric; Manning, Jessica E; Bennett, Kent; Schaffer, Sarah; Kosmowski, Andrew J; Magill, Alan J

    2015-09-01

    Long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis is currently used by deployed U.S. military personnel. Previous small, short-term efficacy studies have shown variable rates of side effects among patients taking various forms of chemoprophylaxis, though reliable safety and tolerability data on long-term use are limited. We conducted a survey of troops returning to Fort Drum, NY following a 12-month deployment to Operation Enduring Freedom, Afghanistan from 2006 to 2007. Of the 2,351 respondents, 95% reported taking at least one form of prophylaxis during their deployment, and 90% were deployed for > 10 months. Compliance with daily doxycycline was poor (60%) compared with 80% with weekly mefloquine (MQ). Adverse events (AEs) were reported by approximately 30% with both MQ and doxycycline, with 10% discontinuing doxycycline compared with 4% of MQ users. Only 6% and 31% of soldiers reported use of bed nets and skin repellents, respectively. Compliance with long-term malaria prophylaxis was poor, and there were substantial tolerability issues based on these anonymous survey results, though fewer with MQ than doxycycline. Given few long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis options, there is an unmet medical need for new antimalarials safe for long-term use.

  12. Safety, Tolerability, and Compliance with Long-Term Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis in American Soldiers in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, David L.; Garges, Eric; Manning, Jessica E.; Bennett, Kent; Schaffer, Sarah; Kosmowski, Andrew J.; Magill, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis is currently used by deployed U.S. military personnel. Previous small, short-term efficacy studies have shown variable rates of side effects among patients taking various forms of chemoprophylaxis, though reliable safety and tolerability data on long-term use are limited. We conducted a survey of troops returning to Fort Drum, NY following a 12-month deployment to Operation Enduring Freedom, Afghanistan from 2006 to 2007. Of the 2,351 respondents, 95% reported taking at least one form of prophylaxis during their deployment, and 90% were deployed for > 10 months. Compliance with daily doxycycline was poor (60%) compared with 80% with weekly mefloquine (MQ). Adverse events (AEs) were reported by approximately 30% with both MQ and doxycycline, with 10% discontinuing doxycycline compared with 4% of MQ users. Only 6% and 31% of soldiers reported use of bed nets and skin repellents, respectively. Compliance with long-term malaria prophylaxis was poor, and there were substantial tolerability issues based on these anonymous survey results, though fewer with MQ than doxycycline. Given few long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis options, there is an unmet medical need for new antimalarials safe for long-term use. PMID:26123954

  13. Soldier-Specific Modification of the Mandibular Motor Neurons in Termites

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Miura, Toru

    2008-01-01

    Social insects exhibit a variety of caste-specific behavioral tendencies that constitute the basis of division of labor within the colony. In termites, the soldier caste display distinctive defense behaviors, such as aggressively attacking enemies with well-developed mandibles, while the other castes retreat into the colony without exhibiting any aggressive response. It is thus likely that some form of soldier-specific neuronal modification exists in termites. In this study, the authors compared the brain (cerebral ganglion) and the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) of soldiers and pseudergates (workers) in the damp-wood termite, Hodotermopsis sjostedti. The size of the SOG was significantly larger in soldiers than in pseudergates, but no difference in brain size was apparent between castes. Furthermore, mandibular nerves were thicker in soldiers than in pseudergates. Retrograde staining revealed that the somata sizes of the mandibular motor neurons (MdMNs) in soldiers were more than twice as large as those of pseudergates. The enlargement of MdMNs was also observed in individuals treated with a juvenile hormone analogue (JHA), indicating that MdMNs become enlarged in response to juvenile hormone (JH) action during soldier differentiation. This enlargement is likely to have two functions: a behavioral function in which soldier termites will be able to defend more effectively through relatively faster and stronger mandibular movements, and a developmental function that associates with the development of soldier-specific mandibular muscle morphogenesis in termite head. The soldier-specific enlargement of mandibular motor neurons was observed in all examined species in five termite families that have different mechanisms of defense, suggesting that such neuronal modification was already present in the common ancestor of termites and is significant for soldier function. PMID:18612458

  14. 78 FR 72789 - Delegation of Authority Pursuant to Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008, as Amended Memorandum for the Secretary of State... the authority conferred upon the President by the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 (title IV...

  15. 75 FR 75855 - Presidential Determination With Respect To Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Respect To Section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 Memorandum for the Secretary of... of America, pursuant to section 404(c) of the Child Soldiers Prevention Act of 2008 (CSPA), title IV...

  16. An Analysis of the Sources of Earnings Variation among Brazilian Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabos, Marcelo, Psacharopoulos, George

    1991-01-01

    Uses 1980 Brazilian census data to analyze sources of earnings variations, emphasizing the role of education, labor segmentation, geographic location, and sector of economic activity. Results indicate a sizable rate of return to investment in education across labor market segments, especially among rural and self-employed workers. Internal…

  17. An Analysis of the Sources of Earnings Variation among Brazilian Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabos, Marcelo, Psacharopoulos, George

    1991-01-01

    Uses 1980 Brazilian census data to analyze sources of earnings variations, emphasizing the role of education, labor segmentation, geographic location, and sector of economic activity. Results indicate a sizable rate of return to investment in education across labor market segments, especially among rural and self-employed workers. Internal…

  18. Return to Mt. Makiling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, George C.

    1977-01-01

    The National Arts Center of the Philippines, built to assist in the cultural enrichment of the Philippines through the development of young talents, stands today as the Filipino's tribute to the artist. The author discusses his return to Mt. Makiling comparing the development of the National Arts Center with his first visit in October 1973 at the…

  19. Return to Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  20. Sustainable Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Christie; Hancock, Sean; Laub, Joshua; Perry, Christopher; Ash, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Mars sample return mission will be completed using natural Martian resources for the majority of its operations. The system uses the following technologies: In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP), a methane-oxygen propelled Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a carbon dioxide powered hopper, and a hydrogen fueled balloon system (large balloons and small weather balloons). The ISPP system will produce the hydrogen, methane, and oxygen using a Sabatier reactor. a water electrolysis cell, water extracted from the Martian surface, and carbon dioxide extracted from the Martian atmosphere. Indigenous hydrogen will fuel the balloon systems and locally-derived methane and oxygen will fuel the MAV for the return of a 50 kg sample to Earth. The ISPP system will have a production cycle of 800 days and the estimated overall mission length is 1355 days from Earth departure to return to low Earth orbit. Combining these advanced technologies will enable the proposed sample return mission to be executed with reduced initial launch mass and thus be more cost efficient. The successful completion of this mission will serve as the next step in the advancement of Mars exploration technology.

  1. Lifting Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Stardust sample return capsule successfully landed at the U.S. Air Force Utah Test and Training Range at 2:10 a.m. Pacific time (3:10 a.m. Mountain time). The capsule contains cometary and interstellar samples gathered by the Stardust spacecraft.

    Here, the capsule is being lifted at the landing site.

  2. Sample Return Capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Stardust sample return capsule successfully landed at the U.S. Air Force Utah Test and Training Range at 2:10 a.m. Pacific time (3:10 a.m. Mountain time). The capsule contains cometary and interstellar samples gathered by the Stardust spacecraft.

  3. Higher Education Endowments Return

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahlmann, David; Walda, John D.; Sedlacek, Verne O.

    2012-01-01

    A new study of endowments by the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) and the Commonfund Institute has brought good news to college and universities: While endowment returns dropped precipitously in fiscal year 2009 as a result of the financial crisis and accompanying slide in equity markets, they climbed to an…

  4. Return to Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  5. Higher Education Endowments Return

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahlmann, David; Walda, John D.; Sedlacek, Verne O.

    2012-01-01

    A new study of endowments by the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) and the Commonfund Institute has brought good news to college and universities: While endowment returns dropped precipitously in fiscal year 2009 as a result of the financial crisis and accompanying slide in equity markets, they climbed to an…

  6. Stardust Sample Return

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-01-17

    This image shows the return capsule inside a protective covering. The capsule, which landed at 2:10 a.m. Pacific time 3:10 a.m. Mountain time, contains cometary and interstellar samples gathered by NASA Stardust spacecraft.

  7. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  8. CU @ The FOB: How the Forward Operating Base is Changing the Life of Combat Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    times a day.”17 Today’s soldiers would be hard pressed to claim they could not get enough to eat. An embedded journalist marveled over the culinary ...Times, March 27, 2005, p. A1. 5. While the researchers did not specify gender as a criterion for selecting soldiers to be interviewed, only male

  9. Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy--Implications of Science Education Research for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Colin

    1984-01-01

    Categorizes researchers as tinkers, tailors, soldiers, and spies and discusses how each group contributes to the improvement of science education. Tinkers direct attention to content of children's minds; tailors focus on cognitive processes and development; spies consider classroom interactions; and soldiers believe best solutions come from those…

  10. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Cemetery. 553.16 Section 553.16 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.16 Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers'...

  11. Undiagnosed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus as a cause of acute urinary retention in a young soldier.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Jin; Shin, Y S; Choi, H; Kim, M K; Jeong, Y B; Park, J K

    2016-10-01

    We present a case of undiagnosed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus as a cause of acute urinary retention in a 21-year-old male soldier. Soldiers live in close quarters, and have a regimented lifestyle that may not allow for frequent voiding; therefore, undiagnosed nephrogenic diabetes insipidus may result in acute urinary retention.

  12. The Problems of Authority and the Want of Apprenticeship in Soldiers' Character Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berghaus, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Militaries that take a character development approach in their moral education programs but rely heavily on authority figures as subject matter experts to teach soldiers face two serious problems. First, soldiers improperly defer to their instructors and, as a result, do not understand the moral virtues taught in class. Second, instructors are in…

  13. Phenotypically plastic traits regulate caste formation and soldier function in polyembryonic wasps.

    PubMed

    Smith, M S; Milton, I; Strand, M R

    2010-12-01

    Polyembryonic encyrtid wasps are parasitoids that have evolved a clonal form of embryogenesis and a caste system where some progeny become reproducing wasps whereas others develop into a sterile soldier caste. Theory based on the biology of Copidosoma floridanum predicts that the primary role of soldier larvae is to mediate conflict over sex ratio, which also favours female-biased soldier production. Other data, however, suggest that female-biased soldier production reflects a developmental constraint. Here, we assessed whether female-biased soldier function by polyembryonic wasps reflects sex-specific adaptation or constraint by conducting comparative studies with Copidosoma bakeri, a species that produces clutch sizes similar to C. floridanum yet rarely produces broods associated with sex ratio conflict. Our results indicate that the oviposition behaviour of adults, development of progeny and function of soldier larvae differ greatly between C. bakeri and C. floridanum. These findings indicate that caste formation and soldier function in polyembryonic encyrtid wasps are regulated by phenotypically plastic traits. Our results further suggest that the primary function of the soldier caste in some species is defence of host resources from competitors whereas in others it is the resolution of sex ratio conflict. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. PEO EIS Delivers Information Dominance to Soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    PEO EIS Delivers Information Dominance to Soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan Jill Finnie In the business world, it is common knowledge that superior...COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PEO EIS Delivers Information Dominance to Soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan 5a. CONTRACT

  15. The Problems of Authority and the Want of Apprenticeship in Soldiers' Character Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berghaus, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Militaries that take a character development approach in their moral education programs but rely heavily on authority figures as subject matter experts to teach soldiers face two serious problems. First, soldiers improperly defer to their instructors and, as a result, do not understand the moral virtues taught in class. Second, instructors are in…

  16. Heavy metal concentrations of the soldier crab (Mictyris brevidactylus) along the inshore area of Changhua, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hsiao-Chien; Chen, I-Ming; Chen, Ping; Wang, Wei-Hsien

    2009-06-01

    In order to compare with and assess the metal-accumulating ability of the soldier crab (Mictyris brevidactylus), the concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and cadmium of ambient water and the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) were investigated. Seawater, soldier crabs and Pacific oysters were simultaneously collected from the Changhua coastal area, located in West-Central Taiwan. The Pacific oyster and stream results proved that site B is contaminated by Cu, Zn and Pb from streams B-1 and B-2. The highest Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb concentrations in soldier crabs appeared at site B, and significant differences in the accumulated concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni in soldier crabs were found between the sites tested. The highest bioconcentration factors of Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb in soldier crabs appeared at site B, indicating that the soldier crab can accumulate Cu, Zn and Pb to the same degree as the Pacific oyster. In fact, soldier crabs can accumulate more Ni than Pacific oysters, better reflecting the conditions of the ambient environment. These phenomena, as well as the fact that the soldier crab is able to accumulate relatively high levels of Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni, suggest that this crab is a potential biomonitor of Pb and Ni pollution in aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Growing up in armed groups: trauma and aggression among child soldiers in DR Congo.

    PubMed

    Hermenau, Katharin; Hecker, Tobias; Maedl, Anna; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Child soldiers are often both victims and perpetrators of horrendous acts of violence. Research with former child soldiers has consistently shown that exposure to violence is linked to trauma-related disorders and that living in a violent environment is correlated with enhanced levels of aggression. To gain more insight into the experiences and the mental health status of former child soldiers, we conducted a survey with N=200 former child soldiers and adult combatants in the DR Congo. We conducted semi-structured interviews concerning military experiences, experienced and perpetrated violence, and mental health. Former child soldiers reported more experienced and perpetrated violence, a greater severity of trauma-related suffering, as well as higher appetitive aggression than adult ex-combatants. Appetitive aggression was related to more perpetrated violence, higher military ranks, voluntary recruitment and higher rates of reenlistments in former child soldiers. Our results indicate that growing up in an armed group is related to higher levels of trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior. This may explain the challenge of reintegrating former child soldiers. It is thus important to consider mental health problems, particularly trauma-related disorders and aggressive behavior, of former child soldiers for designing adequate reintegration programs.

  18. Revolting Soldiers: The Origins of Education in the Armies of the Empire in World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger

    1985-01-01

    Explores the circumstances surrounding the creation of education schemes in the armies of the British Empire. Discusses attitudes toward war and toward the soldier's role in the early 1900s, attitudes of the soldiers toward war, the University of Vimy Ridge, the Canadian Khaki University, the Oatlands program, and education for the New Zealand…

  19. Prior Health Care Utilization Patterns and Suicide among U.S. Army Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nicole S.; Harford, Thomas C.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Hollander, Ilyssa E.; Kay, Ashley B.

    2010-01-01

    Suicides among U.S. Army soldiers are increasing and, in January 2009, outpaced deaths due to combat. For this study, 1,873 army suicides identified through death, inpatient, and emergency room records were matched with 5,619 controls. In multivariate models, older, male, White, single, and enlisted soldiers with a prior injury (OR = 2.04, 95% CI…

  20. The Impact of Soldiers with Permanent Medical Profiles on Army Operational Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    legislation to automatically separate HIV positive soldiers. In Soraya S. Nelson’s, AIDS Likely to Cost the Military $3 Billion," he estimated HIV ... treatment cost for DOD is $3 billion between 1990 and 2000.59 That is $300 million a year to treat a handful of HIV positive soldiers left on active duty

  1. Prior Health Care Utilization Patterns and Suicide among U.S. Army Soldiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nicole S.; Harford, Thomas C.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Hollander, Ilyssa E.; Kay, Ashley B.

    2010-01-01

    Suicides among U.S. Army soldiers are increasing and, in January 2009, outpaced deaths due to combat. For this study, 1,873 army suicides identified through death, inpatient, and emergency room records were matched with 5,619 controls. In multivariate models, older, male, White, single, and enlisted soldiers with a prior injury (OR = 2.04, 95% CI…

  2. [Reconstructive investigations and identification measures in unknown soldiers of the Second World War].

    PubMed

    Jopp-van Well, Eilin; Gehl, Axel; Säring, Dennis; Amling, Michael; Hahn, Michael; Sperhake, Jan; Augustin, Christa; Krebs, Oliver; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The article reports on the exhumation and identification of unknown soldiers from the Second World War. With the help of medicolegal investigation and reconstruction methods an American pilot presumably murdered by a shot to the head (lynch law) and an interned Italian soldier could be identified after about 70 years and brought back home.

  3. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  4. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  5. Phenotypically plastic traits regulate caste formation and soldier function in polyembryonic wasps

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Margaret S.; Milton, Ian; Strand, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Polyembryonic encyrtid wasps are parasitoids that have evolved a clonal form of embryogenesis and a caste system where some progeny become reproducing wasps while others develop into a sterile soldier caste. Theory based on the biology of Copidosoma floridanum predicts the primary role of soldier larvae is to mediate conflict over sex ratio, which also favours female-biased soldier production. Other data, however, suggest female-biased soldier production reflects a developmental constraint. Here we assessed whether female-biased soldier function by polyembryonic wasps reflects sex specific adaptation or constraint by conducting comparative studies with Copidosma bakeri; a species that produces clutch sizes similar to C. floridanum yet rarely produces broods associated with sex ratio conflict. Our results indicate the oviposition behaviour of adults, development of progeny, and function of soldier larvae differs greatly between C. bakeri and C. floridanum. These findings indicate that caste formation and soldier function in polyembryonic encyrtid wasps are regulated by phenotypically plastic traits. Our results further suggest the primary function of the soldier caste in some species is defence of host resources from competitors while in others it is resolution of sex ratio conflict. PMID:21040070

  6. Assessment for the U.S. Army Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Program: The Global Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher; Park, Nansook; Castro, Carl A.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology and the U.S. military have a long history of collaboration. The U.S. Army Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program aims to measure the psychosocial strengths and assets of soldiers as well as their problems, to identify those in need of basic training in a given domain as well as those who would benefit from advanced training, and…

  7. Forced Conscription of Children during Armed Conflict: Experiences of Former Child Soldiers in Northern Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Coppens, Kathleen; Derluyn, Ilse; De Schryver, Maarten; Loots, Gerrit; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child soldiering can be considered as one of the worst practices of institutionalized child abuse. However, little is known about the scope and nature of this abuse and the consequent experiences of children enrolled in an armed faction. This research aims at enriching the knowledge on the experiences of child soldiers in the Lord's…

  8. Lithium Carbon Monofluoride: The Next Primary Chemistry for Soldier Portable Power Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    LITHIUM CARBON MONOFLUORIDE: THE NEXT PRIMARY CHEMISTRY FOR SOLDIER PORTABLE POWER SOURCES Arek Suszko RDECOM, CERDEC, Army Power Division...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lithium Carbon Monofluoride: The Next Primary Chemistry For Soldier Portable Power Sources 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  9. Forced Conscription of Children during Armed Conflict: Experiences of Former Child Soldiers in Northern Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Coppens, Kathleen; Derluyn, Ilse; De Schryver, Maarten; Loots, Gerrit; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child soldiering can be considered as one of the worst practices of institutionalized child abuse. However, little is known about the scope and nature of this abuse and the consequent experiences of children enrolled in an armed faction. This research aims at enriching the knowledge on the experiences of child soldiers in the Lord's…

  10. Social ecology interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder: what can we learn from child soldiers?

    PubMed

    Kohrt, Brandon

    2013-09-01

    Research with child soldiers is crucial to improving mental health services after war. This research also can illuminate innovative approaches to treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adult soldiers, veterans and other trauma survivors in high-income countries. A key contribution is the role of social ecology for trauma-healing interventions.

  11. Development of a Model of Soldier Effectiveness. Project A. Improving the Selection, Classification, and Utilization of Army Enlisted Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    previous experience with enlisted Army soldiers provided the basis for a preliminary conceptual model of individual soldier effectiveness. Behavioral ... analysis workshops involving 77 officers and noncommissioned officers then provided more than 1,300 examples of effective and ineffective soldier behavior

  12. Soldiers' Preferences Regarding Sperm Preservation, Posthumous Reproduction, and Attributes of a Potential "Posthumous Mother".

    PubMed

    Bokek-Cohen, Ya'arit; Ravitsky, Vardit

    2017-01-01

    We present study results regarding soldiers' willingness to conduct posthumous reproduction. Two hundred twelve Israeli soldiers filled in a questionnaire designed to examine their willingness to cryopreserve sperm and evaluate in which familial circumstances they would consent to posthumous reproduction. They ranked the desirability of 46 attributes of a potential mother and a life partner. Findings indicate a relatively high predisposition in favor of posthumous-assisted reproduction; the wishes of soldiers' parents had much more influence on soldiers' willingness to pursue this technology than those of a partner. Soldiers preferred "feminine" jobs for a potential mother that would allow her to dedicate herself to child-rearing. The desired traits of such a mother were rated similarly to partner preferences; however, significant differences were found in attributes that are most related to the potential mother's devotion to maternity. Interpretations of these findings are contextualized in relation to ethical and bereavement considerations.

  13. Comparing elite soldiers' perceptions of psychological and physical demands during military training.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jeffrey L; Adler, Amy B; Wittels, Peter; Enne, Robert; Johannes, Bernd

    2004-07-01

    This research examined the impact of psychological and physical demands on a group of elite soldiers (N = 9) before, during and after training exercises involving routine and unrehearse tasks. Based on the psychological concept of toughening, we expected soldier responses to unrehearsed demands to be les resilient than to routine training demands. As hypothesized soldiers rated their perceptions of physical and psychologica demands higher during the unrehearsed training phase of the study. It was also hypothesized that soldiers would recover more from physical demands than from psychological de mands after the training exercise. Although a trend in the data marginally supported this hypothesis, a note of caution is warranted because of the small sample size. Limitations and implications of the study are discussed, with particular emphasis on the dual importance of psychological and physical training in preparing soldiers for mission demands.

  14. Nutrition knowledge and supplement use among elite U.S. army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Bovill, Maria E; Tharion, William J; Lieberman, Harris R

    2003-12-01

    A U.S. Army Special Forces (SF) unit was studied to determine characteristics of supplement users, assess nutrition knowledge, and identify nutrition information sources. SF-qualified (n = 119) and non-SF, support soldiers (n = 38) participated. Most soldiers (87%) reported current supplement use with more SF (90%) than non-SF, support soldiers (76%) using supplements (p < or = 0.05). Supplements SF reported using most were multivitamins, sports bars/drinks, and vitamin C. The mean nutrition knowledge score for all soldiers was 48.5 +/- 15.2% correct responses. Most soldiers incorrectly believe protein is used for energy for short-term athletic events (64%) and that vitamins provide energy (58%). The most common information sources reportedly used were popular magazines/books (75%), friends/teammates (55%), physicians/nurses, radio/television (34%), and the Internet (31%).

  15. Sleep disturbances among Swedish soldiers after military service abroad.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Karolina; Saers, Johannes; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Aims Since 1956, more than 100,000 Swedish soldiers have served abroad on various international missions. The aim of this paper was to determine whether there was a connection between military service abroad and sleep disorders among Swedish soldiers. Methods The prevalence of sleep disturbances among 1,080 veterans from Kosovo and Afghanistan was compared with almost 27,000 Swedes from a general population sample, using propensity score matching and logistic regression. The sleep disturbances studied were habitual snoring, difficulty inducing sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakenings (EMA), and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Insomnia was defined as having at least one of DIS, DMS, or EMA. The covariates used in the matching and adjustments were age, gender, smoking habits, BMI, education, ever having had asthma, moist snuff, and exercise habits. Results The veterans had a significantly lower prevalence of insomnia (26.2% versus 30.4%) and EDS (22.7% versus 29.4%) compared with a matched group from the reference population, using propensity score matching. Analyses with logistic regression showed that belonging to the military population was related to a lower risk of having DMS (adjusted OR (95% CI) 0.77 (0.64-0.91)), insomnia (OR 0.82 (0.71-0.95)), and EDS (OR 0.74 (0.63-0.86)), whereas no significant difference was found for snoring, DIS, and EMA. Conclusion Swedish veterans have fewer problems with insomnia and daytime sleepiness than the general Swedish population. The explanation of our findings may be the selection processes involved in becoming a soldier and when sampling personnel for military assignments abroad.

  16. Soldiers' load carriage performance in high mountains: a physiological study.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tirthankar; Bhattacharyya, Debojyoti; Pramanik, Anilendu; Pal, Madhusudan; Majumdar, Deepti; Majumdar, Dhurjati

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate load carriage performance at extremely high altitudes with different loads and walking speeds in terms of physiological evaluation. The degree of maximum oxygen consumption changes at high altitudes was also examined. Twelve Indian Army soldiers were acclimatized at altitudes of 3,505 m and 4,300 m. They walked for 10 minutes on a motorized treadmill at 2.5 km/h and 3.5 km/h speeds during carrying no loads and three magnitudes of load (10.7 kg, 21.4kg, 30 kg) at both altitudes. Physiological parameters such as oxygen consumption, energy expenditure, heart rate, and ventilation were recorded for each breath using a gas analyzer. The rating of perceived exertion was also noted after each load carriage session. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was measured at sea level and the two high altitudes, and respective relative workloads (% of VO2max) were calculated from oxygen consumption. Repeated measure ANOVA was applied to reveal the significant effects of the independent variables. The participants had significant reductions in VO2max with rising altitude. Marked increases in almost all physiological parameters were observed with increasing load, altitude, and speed. The soldiers expressed heavy perceived exertion levels with higher loads at 3.5 km/h at the two high altitudes. Considering the physiological responses, expressions of perceived exertion and changes in relative work load at both of the high altitudes Indian soldiers are advised to walk slowly with adequate rest in between their schedules and to carry not more than 32% of their body weight.

  17. Risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries for soldiers deployed to Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Roy, Tanja C; Knapik, Joseph J; Ritland, Bradley M; Murphy, Nicole; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2012-11-01

    This study determined injury incidence and examined the association between musculoskeletal injuries and potential intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. This retrospective cohort study involved a survey of 593 volunteers from two battalions of a Stryker Brigade Combat Team upon completion of a 12-mo deployment to Afghanistan. The survey included questions on physical characteristics, work duties, equipment worn, fitness training, and injuries experienced during the deployment. Of the surveyed soldiers, 45% sustained an injury during the deployment. Total injuries resulted in 5049 d of limited duty, an average of 8.5 d per injury. The body regions with the largest numbers of injuries were the low back (17.4%), knee (12.7%), and shoulder (10.0%). The majority (65%) of injuries occurred while working. The most frequent activities soldiers reported as the cause of injury were lifting and carrying (9.8%), dismounted patrolling (9.6%), and physical training (8.0%). Older age, higher enlisted rank, female sex, months deployed, more time spent standing, longer strength training sessions, heaviest load worn, and heavier or more frequent lifting tasks were all associated with injury. Tasks requiring physical energy expenditure such as load carriage, lifting, or standing resulted in an increased risk of musculoskeletal injury in this study. Lifting/carrying, dismounted patrols, and physical training were associated with 26% of musculoskeletal injuries. The weight of loads carried and lifting may be exceeding the work capacity of the soldiers, resulting in injury. These injuries in turn limit available work days for military units, reducing combat power.

  18. Modelling of soldier fly halteres for gyroscopic oscillations.

    PubMed

    Parween, Rizuwana; Pratap, Rudra

    2015-01-08

    Nature has evolved a beautiful design for small-scale vibratory rate-gyro in the form of dipteran halteres that detect body rotations via Coriolis acceleration. In most Diptera, including soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, halteres are a pair of special organs, located in the space between the thorax and the abdomen. The halteres along with their connecting joint with the fly's body constitute a mechanism that is used for muscle-actuated oscillations of the halteres along the actuation direction. These oscillations lead to bending vibrations in the sensing direction (out of the haltere's actuation plane) upon any impressed rotation due to the resulting Coriolis force. This induced vibration is sensed by the sensory organs at the base of the haltere in order to determine the rate of rotation. In this study, we evaluate the boundary conditions and the stiffness of the anesthetized halteres along the actuation and the sensing direction. We take several cross-sectional SEM (scanning electron microscope) images of the soldier fly haltere and construct its three dimensional model to get the mass properties. Based on these measurements, we estimate the natural frequency along both actuation and sensing directions, propose a finite element model of the haltere's joint mechanism, and discuss the significance of the haltere's asymmetric cross-section. The estimated natural frequency along the actuation direction is within the range of the haltere's flapping frequency. However, the natural frequency along the sensing direction is roughly double the haltere's flapping frequency that provides a large bandwidth for sensing the rate of rotation to the soldier flies.

  19. Modelling of soldier fly halteres for gyroscopic oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Parween, Rizuwana; Pratap, Rudra

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nature has evolved a beautiful design for small-scale vibratory rate-gyro in the form of dipteran halteres that detect body rotations via Coriolis acceleration. In most Diptera, including soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, halteres are a pair of special organs, located in the space between the thorax and the abdomen. The halteres along with their connecting joint with the fly's body constitute a mechanism that is used for muscle-actuated oscillations of the halteres along the actuation direction. These oscillations lead to bending vibrations in the sensing direction (out of the haltere's actuation plane) upon any impressed rotation due to the resulting Coriolis force. This induced vibration is sensed by the sensory organs at the base of the haltere in order to determine the rate of rotation. In this study, we evaluate the boundary conditions and the stiffness of the anesthetized halteres along the actuation and the sensing direction. We take several cross-sectional SEM (scanning electron microscope) images of the soldier fly haltere and construct its three dimensional model to get the mass properties. Based on these measurements, we estimate the natural frequency along both actuation and sensing directions, propose a finite element model of the haltere's joint mechanism, and discuss the significance of the haltere's asymmetric cross-section. The estimated natural frequency along the actuation direction is within the range of the haltere's flapping frequency. However, the natural frequency along the sensing direction is roughly double the haltere's flapping frequency that provides a large bandwidth for sensing the rate of rotation to the soldier flies. PMID:25572422

  20. Repatriation and identification of the Finnish World War II soldiers.

    PubMed

    Palo, Jukka U; Hedman, Minttu; Söderholm, Niklas; Sajantila, Antti

    2007-08-01

    To present a summary of the organization, field search, repatriation, forensic anthropological examination, and DNA analysis for the purpose of identification of Finnish soldiers with unresolved fate in World War II. Field searches were organized, executed, and financed by the Ministry of Education and the Association for Cherishing the Memory of the Dead of the War. Anthropological examination conducted on human remains retrieved in the field searches was used to establish the minimum number of individuals and description of the skeletal diseases, treatment, anomalies, or injuries. DNA tests were performed by extracting DNA from powdered bones and blood samples from relatives. Mitochondrial DNA sequence comparisons, together with circumstantial evidence, were used to connect the remains to the putative family members. At present, the skeletal remains of about a thousand soldiers have been found and repatriated. In forensic anthropological examination, several injuries related to death were documented. For the total of 181 bone samples, mtDNA HVR-1 and HVR-2 sequences were successfully obtained for 167 (92.3%) and 148 (81.8%) of the samples, respectively. Five samples yielded no reliable sequence data. Our data suggests that mtDNA preserves at least for 60 years in the boreal acidic soil. The quality of the obtained mtDNA sequence data varied depending on the sample bone type, with long compact bones (femur, tibia and humerus) having significantly better (90.0%) success rate than other bones (51.2%). Although more than 60 years have passed since the World War II, our experience is that resolving the fate of soldiers missing in action is still of uttermost importance for people having lost their relatives in the war. Although cultural and individual differences may exist, our experience presented here gives a good perspective on the importance of individual identification performed by forensic professionals.

  1. Repatriation and Identification of Finnish World War II Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Palo, Jukka U.; Hedman, Minttu; Söderholm, Niklas; Sajantila, Antti

    2007-01-01

    Aim To present a summary of the organization, field search, repatriation, forensic anthropological examination, and DNA analysis for the purpose of identification of Finnish soldiers with unresolved fate in World War II. Methods Field searches were organized, executed, and financed by the Ministry of Education and the Association for Cherishing the Memory of the Dead of the War. Anthropological examination conducted on human remains retrieved in the field searches was used to establish the minimum number of individuals and description of the skeletal diseases, treatment, anomalies, or injuries. DNA tests were performed by extracting DNA from powdered bones and blood samples from relatives. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence comparisons, together with circumstantial evidence, were used to connect the remains to the putative family members. Results At present, the skeletal remains of about a thousand soldiers have been found and repatriated. In forensic anthropological examination, several injuries related to death were documented. For the total of 181 bone samples, mtDNA HVR-1 and HVR-2 sequences were successfully obtained for 167 (92.3%) and 148 (81.8%) of the samples, respectively. Five samples yielded no reliable sequence data. Our data suggests that mtDNA preserves at least for 60 years in the boreal acidic soil. The quality of the obtained mtDNA sequence data varied depending on the sample bone type, with long compact bones (femur, tibia and humerus) having significantly better (90.0%) success rate than other bones (51.2%). Conclusion Although more than 60 years have passed since the World War II, our experience is that resolving the fate of soldiers missing in action is still of uttermost importance for people having lost their relatives in the war. Although cultural and individual differences may exist, our experience presented here gives a good perspective on the importance of individual identification performed by forensic professionals. PMID:17696308

  2. Phobos Sample Return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, A.; Martynov, M.; Polischuk, G.

    Very mysterious objects of the Solar system are the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Attempt to study Phobos in situ from an orbiter and from landers have been done by the Russian mission FOBOS in 1988. However, due to a malfunction of the onboard control system the landers have not been delivered to the Phobos surface. A new robotics mission to Phobos is under development now in Russia. Its main goal is the delivery of samples of the Phobos surface material to the Earth for laboratory studies of its chemical, isotopic, mineral composition, age etc. Other goals are in situ studies of Phobos (regolith, internal structure, peculiarities in orbital and proper rotation), studies of Martian environment (dust, plasma, fields). The payload includes a number of scientific instruments: gamma and neutron spectrometers, gaschromatograph, mass spectrometers, IR spectrometer, seismometer, panoramic camera, dust sensor, plasma package. To implement the tasks of this mission a cruise-transfer spacecraft after the launch and the Earth-Mars interplanetary flight will be inserted into the first elliptical orbit around Mars, then after several corrections the spacecraft orbit will be formed very close to the Phobos orbit to keep the synchronous orbiting with Phobos. Then the spacecraft will encounter with Phobos and will land at the surface. After the landing the sampling device of the spacecraft will collect several samples of the Phobos regolith and will load these samples into the return capsule mounted at the returned vehicle. This returned vehicle will be launched from the mother spacecraft and after the Mars-Earth interplanetary flight after 11 monthes with reach the terrestrial atmosphere. Before entering into the atmosphere the returned capsule will be separated from the returned vehicle and will hopefully land at the Earth surface. The mother spacecraft at the Phobos surface carrying onboard scientific instruments will implement the "in situ" experiments during an year

  3. The major infectious epidemic diseases of Civil War soldiers.

    PubMed

    Bollet, Alfred Jay

    2004-06-01

    Two thirds of the 600,000 deaths of Civil War soldiers were caused by disease. Physicians during the war kept detailed records and reports, which were tabulated, discussed in detail, and published after the war. These records include case histories, autopsy descriptions, photographs, and photomicrographs; they are the best records of the medical experiences of any of America's wars, even those in the twentieth century. Because the Civil War occurred just before the discoveries of bacteriology, these records are of particular historical interest.

  4. Comprehensive Soldier Fitness and the future of psychology.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Martin E P; Fowler, Raymond D

    2011-01-01

    Psychology responded to the national needs in World War I and World War II and was itself transformed. National need calls a third time: unprecedented levels of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, suicide, and anxiety along with a need for a resilient Army capable of meeting the persistent warfare of the foreseeable future. As a large part of the Comprehensive Soldier Fitness program, positive psychology is meeting this need with new tests, with new fitness courses, and with resilience training. These developments may transform the practice of psychology and psychology's relation to medicine and education. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Assured Crew Return Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, D. A.; Craig, J. W.; Drone, B.; Gerlach, R. H.; Williams, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The developmental status is discussed regarding the 'lifeboat' vehicle to enhance the safety of the crew on the Space Station Freedom (SSF). NASA's Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) is intended to provide a means for returning the SSF crew to earth at all times. The 'lifeboat' philosophy is the key to managing the development of the ACRV which further depends on matrixed support and total quality management for implementation. The risk of SSF mission scenarios are related to selected ACRV mission requirements, and the system and vehicle designs are related to these precepts. Four possible ACRV configurations are mentioned including the lifting-body, Apollo shape, Discoverer shape, and a new lift-to-drag concept. The SCRAM design concept is discussed in detail with attention to the 'lifeboat' philosophy and requirements for implementation.

  6. STS-120 Crew Return

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-11-08

    JSC2007-E-098009 (8 Nov. 2007) --- Astronaut Clay Anderson waves to a crowd of well-wishers on hand Nov. 8 at Houston's Ellington Field to greet the returning STS-120 astronauts following the landing of Space Shuttle Discovery in Florida on Nov. 7. Anderson had been flight engineer onboard the International Space Station approximately five months before the undocking of the shuttle and station earlier this week.

  7. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  8. Brazilian Twin Registry: A Bright Future for Twin Studies/Twin Research: Twin Study of Alcohol Consumption and Mortality; Oxygen Uptake in Adolescent Twins/In the News: Superfecundated Twins In Vietnam; Adolescent Twin Relations; Twin and Triplet Co-Workers; A Special Twin Ultrasound; Monozygotic Twins With Different Skin Color; Identical Twin Returns from Space.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of the Brazilian Twin Registry for the study of genetic, social, and cultural influences on behavior is one of eleven newly funded projects in the Department of Psychology at the University of São Paulo. These 11 interrelated projects form the core of the university's Center for Applied Research on Well-Being and Human Behavior. An overview of the planned twin research and activities to date is presented. Next, two recent twin studies are reviewed, one on the relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality, and the other on factors affecting maximal oxygen uptake. Twins cited in the media include the first identified superfecundated twins in Vietnam, adolescent twin relations, twins and triplets who work together, monozygotic twins with different skin tones and a co-twin control study that addresses the effects of space travel.

  9. [Otoacoustic emission examinations in soldiers before and after shooting].

    PubMed

    Konopka, W; Pietkiewicz, P; Zalewski, P

    2000-01-01

    Firearms are a common source of impulse noise that may potentially damage hearing organ. The purpose of this study was evaluation of the click evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) before and after shooting and comparison with conventional pure tone audiometry. Standard pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, TEOAE and DPOAE were made before and 10-15 minutes after shooting. Ten male soldiers (20 ears) were exposed to impulse noise from automatic gunfire (15 single rounds of live ammunition). They did not use any earplugs. The reduction amplitude of the TEOAE after shooting was found especially for the frequency 3,4 kHz for the right ear and 1 and 2 kHz for the left ear. The DPOAE greatest reduction concerned frequency 2,5 and 4 kHz for the left ear. All our shooters were right-handed and probably the asymmetrical effect resulted from the shooting posture. Any differences existing between the audiometric threshold before and after shooting were not noticed. Clinical experience with OAE indicates that it may play a role as a screening method for the soldiers exposed to noise and as a tool for monitoring early changes in cochlea. Emissions seem to be more sensitive for monitoring early cochlear changes after shooting than pure tone audiometry.

  10. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics :soldier fatigue.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2005-10-01

    The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.

  11. Fusion solution for soldier wearable gunfire detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakiades, George; Desai, Sachi; Deligeorges, Socrates; Buckland, Bruce E.; George, Jemin

    2012-06-01

    Currently existing acoustic based Gunfire Detection Systems (GDS) such as soldier wearable, vehicle mounted, and fixed site devices provide enemy detection and localization capabilities to the user. However, the solution to the problem of portability versus performance tradeoff remains elusive. The Data Fusion Module (DFM), described herein, is a sensor/platform agnostic software supplemental tool that addresses this tradeoff problem by leveraging existing soldier networks to enhance GDS performance across a Tactical Combat Unit (TCU). The DFM software enhances performance by leveraging all available acoustic GDS information across the TCU synergistically to calculate highly accurate solutions more consistently than any individual GDS in the TCU. The networked sensor architecture provides additional capabilities addressing the multiple shooter/fire-fight problems in addition to sniper detection/localization. The addition of the fusion solution to the overall Size, Weight and Power & Cost (SWaP&C) is zero to negligible. At the end of the first-year effort, the DFM integrated sensor network's performance was impressive showing improvements upwards of 50% in comparison to a single sensor solution. Further improvements are expected when the networked sensor architecture created in this effort is fully exploited.

  12. Rearing methods for the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D Craig; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Joyce, John A; Kiser, Barbara C; Sumner, Sonya M

    2002-07-01

    The black soldier fly, Heretia illucens (L.), is a nonpest tropical and warm-temperate region insect that is useful for managing large concentrations of animal manure and other biosolids. Manure management relying on wild fly oviposition has been successful in several studies. However, confidence in this robust natural system was low and biological studies were hampered by the lack of a dependable source of eggs and larvae. Larvae had been reared easily by earlier investigators, but achieving mating had been problematic. We achieved mating reliably in a 2 by 2 by 4-m screen cage in a 7 by 9 by 5-m greenhouse where sunlight and adequate space for aerial mating were available. Mating occurred during the shortest days of winter if the sun was not obscured by clouds. Adults were provided with water, but no food was required. Techniques for egg collection and larval rearing are given. Larvae were fed a moist mixture of wheat bran, corn meal, and alfalfa meal. This culture has been maintained for 3 yr. Maintainance of a black soldier fly laboratory colony will allow for development of manure management systems in fully enclosed animal housing and in colder regions.

  13. Socioeconomic Differences in the Health of Black Union Army Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chulhee

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates patterns of socioeconomic difference in the wartime morbidity and mortality of black Union Army soldiers. Among the factors that contributed to a lower probability of contracting and dying from diseases were (1) lighter skin color, (2) a non-field occupation, (3) residence on a large plantation, and (4) residence in a rural area prior to enlistment. Patterns of disease-specific mortality and timing of death suggest that the differences in the development of immunity against diseases and in nutritional status prior to enlistment were responsible for the observed socioeconomic differences in wartime health. For example, the advantages of light-skinned soldiers over dark-skinned and of enlisted men formerly engaged in non-field occupations over field hands resulted from differences in nutritional status. The lower wartime mortality of ex-slaves from large plantations can be explained by their better-developed immunity as well as superior nutritional status. The results of this paper suggest that there were substantial disparities in the health of the slave population on the eve of the Civil War. PMID:22933827

  14. Dopamine regulates termite soldier differentiation through trophallactic behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Yaguchi, Hajime; Inoue, Takaya; Sasaki, Ken; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-01-01

    Caste polyphenism in social insects is regulated by social interactions among colony members. Trophallaxis is one of the most frequently observed interactions, but no studies have been conducted identifying the intrinsic factors involved in this behaviour and caste differentiation. Dopamine (DA) has multiple roles in the modulation of behaviours and physiology, and it produces species-specific behaviours in animals. Here, to verify the role of DA in termite soldier differentiation, we focused on the first soldier in an incipient colony of Zootermopsis nevadensis, which always differentiates from the oldest 3rd instar (No. 1 larva) via a presoldier. First, brain DA levels of the No. 1 larva at day 3 after its appearance were significantly higher than day 0. Second, DA synthesis gene expression levels were extraordinarily high in the No. 1 larva at day 0–1 after appearance. Finally, injection of a DA receptor antagonist into the No. 1 larva resulted in the inhibition of presoldier differentiation. Behavioural observations of the antagonist or control-injected larvae suggested that brain DA and signalling activity regulate the frequencies of trophallaxis from reproductives and presoldier differentiation. Because trophallaxis is a social behaviour frequently observed in natural conditions, the role of DA should be investigated in other social insects with frequent trophallactic and allogrooming behaviour. PMID:26998327

  15. Soldier detection using unattended acoustic and seismic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, P.; Hengy, S.; Hamery, P.

    2012-06-01

    During recent military conflicts, as well as for security interventions, the urban zone has taken a preponderant place. Studies have been initiated in national and in international programs to stimulate the technical innovations for these specific scenarios. For example joint field experiments have been organized by the NATO group SET-142 to evaluate the capability for the detection and localization of snipers, mortars or artillery guns using acoustic devices. Another important operational need corresponds to the protection of military sites or buildings. In this context, unattended acoustic and seismic sensors are envisaged to contribute to the survey of specific points by the detection of approaching enemy soldiers. This paper describes some measurements done in an anechoic chamber and in free field to characterize typical sounds generated by the soldier activities (walking, crawling, weapon handling, radio communication, clothing noises...). Footstep, speech and some specific impulsive sounds are detectable at various distances from the source. Such detection algorithms may be easily merged with the existing weapon firing detection algorithms to provide a more generic "battlefield acoustic" early warning system. Results obtained in various conditions (grassy terrain, gravel path, road, forest) will be presented. A method to extrapolate the distances of detection has been developed, based on an acoustic propagation model and applied to the laboratory measurements.

  16. The Impact of Unit Membership on Smoking Among Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Toblin, Robin L; Anderson, James A; Riviere, Lyndon A; McGurk, Dennis; Sipos, Maurice L

    2016-01-01

    Cultural, organizational, and dyadic influences have been found to be associated with smoking in the military while group-level influences have been identified in the general population. However, there are few studies examining group-level influences in the military and none using group-level analyses. Such studies are essential for understanding how to optimally forestall or cease smoking. This study, using mixed effects modelling, examined whether unit membership influenced smoking behavior in soldiers from brigade combat teams. Unit membership was assessed in 2008 to 2009 at the company level (n = 2204) and in 2012 at the platoon level (n = 452). Smoking was assessed by the number of daily cigarettes smoked (range: 0-99) with smoking status (nonsmoker vs. smoker) and smoking level (none, smoker, and heavy [20 + cigarettes/day]) as the outcomes. For both samples, unit membership was not significantly associated with a soldier's propensity to smoke when comparing either all smokers to nonsmokers or heavy smokers to smokers. These results suggest typical military unit-level training programs are unlikely to be the most effective mode of intervention for smoking prevention or cessation. Smoking rates in the military may be influenced instead by small group or individual relationships or by overall military culture.

  17. Using black soldier fly larvae for processing organic leachates.

    PubMed

    Popa, Radu; Green, Terrence R

    2012-04-01

    A large number of biodegradable byproducts including alcohols, soluble saccharides, volatile organic acids, and amines accumulate in the liquid fraction (leachate) produced as vegetal and food scrap waste decomposes. Untreated leachate, because it is rich in nutrients and organic byproducts, has a high chemical oxygen demand and is normally cleared of soluble organic byproducts by mineralization before its discharge into waterways. Mineralizing leachates using chemical and microbial biotechnologies is, however, a lengthy and costly process. We report here that the larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), an insect rich in protein and lipids, and having significant commercial value, while feeding and growing off of compost leachate, lowers its chemical oxygen demand relative to that of leachate unexposed to larvae, neutralizes its acidity, and clears it of volatile organic acids, amines, and alcohols. These observations demonstrate that black soldier fly larvae could be used to help offset the cost and clean up of organic solutes in leachate waste streams while recycling carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate into usable and commercially valuable biomass.

  18. Brazilian Space Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilha, Antonio; Takahashi, Hisao; de Paula, Eurico; Sawant, Hanumant; de Campos Velho, Haroldo; Vitorello, Icaro; Costa, Joaquim; Souza, Jonas; Cecatto, José; Mendes, Odim; Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter Demétrio

    A space weather program is being initiated at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) to study events from their initiation on the sun to their impacts on the earth, including their effects on space-based and ground-based technological systems. The program is built on existing capabilities at INPE, which include scientists with a long tradition and excellence in the observation, analysis and modeling of solar and solar-terrestrial phenomena and an array of geophysical instruments that spans all over the Brazilian territory from the north to south of the magnetic dip equator. Available sensors include solar radio frequency receivers and telescopes, optical instruments and solar imagers, GNSS receivers, ionosondes, radars, allsky imagers, magnetometers and cosmic ray detectors. In the equatorial region, ionosphere and thermosphere constitute a coupled system with electrodynamical and plasma physical processes being responsible for a variety of peculiar phenomena. The most important of them are the equatorial electrojet current system and its instabilities, the equatorial ionization anomaly, and the plasma instabilities/irregularities of the night-time ionosphere (associated with the plasma bubble events). In addition, space weather events modify the equatorial ionosphere in a complex and up to now unpredictable manner. Consequently, a main focus of the program will be on monitoring the low, middle and upper atmosphere phenomena and developing a predictive model of the equatorial ionosphere through data assimilation, that could help to mitigate against the deleterious effects on radio communications and navigation systems. The technological, economic and social importance of such activities was recognized by the Brazilian government and a proposal for funding was approved for the period 2008-2011. New ground instruments will be installed during this period allowing us to extend our current capability to provide space weather observations, accurate

  19. A Look at Returning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeAngelis, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that one-quarter to one-third of teachers who leave the profession return, the majority after only a short absence. Though returning teachers can constitute a substantial share of newly hired teachers in schools each year, little is known about them, the factors associated with their decisions to return, or the schools to which…

  20. Returns to Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asadullah, Mohammad Niaz

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports labour market returns to education in Bangladesh using data from recent nationwide household survey. Returns are estimated separately for rural and urban samples, males, females and private-sector employees. Substantial heterogeneity in returns is observed; for example, estimates are higher for urban (than rural sample) and…

  1. Energy Vs. Productivity: Diminishing Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Energy invested in corn production is compared with food energy returned in calculations by David Pimentel at Cornell University. The rate of return is falling off sharply in this already energy-intensive agriculture. Increased energy input, in the form of fertilizer, would yield far greater returns where agriculture is less sophisticated.…

  2. Energy Vs. Productivity: Diminishing Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Energy invested in corn production is compared with food energy returned in calculations by David Pimentel at Cornell University. The rate of return is falling off sharply in this already energy-intensive agriculture. Increased energy input, in the form of fertilizer, would yield far greater returns where agriculture is less sophisticated.…

  3. Are injuries from terror and war similar? A comparison study of civilians and soldiers.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Kobi; Jaffe, Dena H

    2010-08-01

    To compare injuries and hospital utilization and outcomes from terror and war for civilians and soldiers. Injuries from terror and war are not necessarily comparable, especially among civilians and soldiers. For example, civilians have less direct exposure to conflict and are unprepared for injury, whereas soldiers are psychologically and physically prepared for combat on battlefields that are often far from trauma centers. Evidence-based studies distinguishing and characterizing differences in injuries according to conflict type and population group are lacking. A retrospective study was performed using hospitalization data from the Israel National Trauma Registry (10/2000-12/2006). Terror and war accounted for trauma hospitalizations among 1784 civilians and 802 soldiers. Most civilians (93%) were injured in terror and transferred to trauma centers by land, whereas soldiers were transferred by land and air. Critical injuries and injuries to multiple body regions were more likely in terror than war. Soldiers tended to present with less severe injuries from war than from terror. Rates of first admission to orthopedic surgery were greater for all casualties with the exception of civilians injured in terror who were equally likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit. In-hospital mortality was higher among terror (7%) than war (2%) casualties, and particularly among civilians. This study provides evidence that substantial differences exist in injury characteristics and hospital resources required to treat civilians and soldiers injured in terror and war. Hospital preparedness and management should focus on treating combat injuries that result from specific causes-terror or war.

  4. Emotional ambivalence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in soldiers during military operations.

    PubMed

    Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Walter, Steffen; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Traue, Harald C

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study examined the extent to which a specific mechanism of emotion regulation - namely, ambivalence concerning the expressiveness of German soldiers' emotions - affects the severity of PTSD symptoms after a military operation. A survey was conducted at three points in time among 66 soldiers deployed on military crisis operations. The Harvard Trauma Questionaire (HTQ), the Ambivalence over Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire (AEQ-G18), and a questionnaire on the particular stress of German soldiers during military operations were used. The study showed a significant correlation between emotional ambivalence and traumatization. Furthermore, it was shown that the subjective stress of soldiers leading up to deployment is more pronounced when emotional ambivalence is stronger in the context of military operations. This particular stress is greater before and during the military operation than after. Compared to a male control sample, the average AEQ-G18 scores of the soldier sample examined here are considerably lower. This pilot study clearly indicates that the AEQ-G18 could be a suitable predictor of the psychological burden on soldiers. The correlations between emotional ambivalence on the one hand and the particular and post-traumatic stressors on the other hand are not only statistically significant in the present pilot study, but may also be relevant as risk factors. It is, therefore, necessary to conduct more extensive studies on soldiers participating in military operations to verify the results of this pilot study.

  5. Sample Return Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williford, K. H.; Allwood, A.; Beegle, L. W.; Bhartia, R.; Flannery, D.; Hoffmann, A.; Mora, M. F.; Orbay, J.; Petrizzo, D. A.; Tuite, M. L., Jr.; Willis, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The first clear identification of an ancient habitable environment on Mars by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission relied on a synthetic analytical approach combining orbital and surface imagery and spectroscopy with sophisticated sample acquisition and handling technology including a rotary percussive drill that provided powdered rock for bulk geochemical analysis [1]. The recent announcement of the instrument package for the proposed NASA Mars2020 rover mission, including micro x-ray fluorescence (PIXL) for elemental mapping as well as scanning ultraviolet laser fluorescence and Raman (SHERLOC) suggests a shift in emphasis of Mars surface science towards spatially resolved geochemical analysis that will support the selection and acquisition of samples for coring, caching, and possible return to Earth for further analysis. During a recent field expedition to investigate Archean and Proterozoic biosignatures in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, we deployed a dry, rotary percussive coring drill with a bit assembly analogous to that being considered for Mars2020. Six targets of varying age and lithology were sampled with the coring drill, and surrounding and adjacent rock samples were collected simultaneously. These samples were subsequently prepared and subsampled for bulk and in situ, spatially resolved analysis using conventional laboratory methods as well as the existing PIXL and SHERLOC platforms currently in development. Here we present new approaches and data from this integrated and ongoing program of "sample return science" designed to simulate, and eventually reduce risk associated with a long-term effort towards Mars sample return. [1] Grotzinger, J.P. et al. 2014. Science 343 DOI: 10.1126/science.1242777.

  6. Comparison of HIV-related vulnerabilities between former child soldiers and children never abducted by the LRA in northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Thousands of former child soldiers who were abducted during the prolonged conflict in northern Uganda have returned to their home communities. Programmes that facilitate their successful reintegration continue to face a number of challenges. Although there is increasing knowledge of the dynamics of HIV infection during conflict, far less is known about its prevalence and implications for population health in the post-conflict period. This study investigated the effects of abduction on the prevalence of HIV and HIV-risk behaviours among young people in Gulu District, northern Uganda. An understanding of abduction experiences and HIV-risk behaviours is vital to both the development of effective reintegration programming for former child soldiers and the design of appropriate HIV prevention interventions for all young people. Methods In 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 2 sub-counties in Gulu District. A demographic and behavioural survey was interview-administered to a purposively selected sample of 384 transit camp residents aged 15–29. Biological specimens were collected for HIV rapid testing in the field and confirmatory laboratory testing. Descriptive statistics were used to describe characteristics of abduction. Additionally, a gender-stratified bivariate analysis compared abductees’ and non-abductees’ HIV risk profiles. Results Of the 384 participants, 107 (28%) were former child soldiers (61% were young men and 39% were young women). The median age of participants was 20 and median age at abduction was 13. HIV prevalence was similar among former abductees and non-abductees (12% vs. 13%; p = 0.824), with no differences observed by gender. With respect to differences in HIV vulnerability, our bivariate analysis identified greater risky sexual behaviours in the past year for former abductees than non-abductees, but there were no differences between the two groups’ survival/livelihood activities and food insufficiency experiences

  7. Stardust Capsule Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Stardust Capsule Return as seen from NASA's DC-8 Airborne Laboratory with a mission to explore the conditions during reentry from the light emitted by the fireball caused when the capsule streaked through the sky. The aircraft was located near the end of the trajectory, just outside of UTTR. The participating researchers are from NASA Ames, the SETI Institute, the University of Alaska, Utah State University, Lockheed Martin, U.S. Air Force Academy, the University of Kobe (Japan), and Stuttgart University (Germany).

  8. Titan Science Return Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, Charles R.; Lincoln, William

    2014-01-01

    Each proposal for a NASA mission concept includes a Science Traceability Matrix (STM), intended to show that what is being proposed would contribute to satisfying one or more of the agency's top-level science goals. But the information traditionally provided cannot be used directly to quantitatively compare anticipated science return. We added numerical elements to NASA's STM and developed a software tool to process the data. We then applied this methodology to evaluate a group of competing concepts for a proposed mission to Saturn's moon, Titan.

  9. Titan Science Return Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, Charles R.; Lincoln, William

    2014-01-01

    Each proposal for a NASA mission concept includes a Science Traceability Matrix (STM), intended to show that what is being proposed would contribute to satisfying one or more of the agency's top-level science goals. But the information traditionally provided cannot be used directly to quantitatively compare anticipated science return. We added numerical elements to NASA's STM and developed a software tool to process the data. We then applied this methodology to evaluate a group of competing concepts for a proposed mission to Saturn's moon, Titan.

  10. The Brazilian mineral resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beurlen, Hartmut; Cassedanne, Jacques Pierre

    1981-04-01

    The activity of the first generation of Brazilian geologists began in the early sixties. Systematic exploration work since then has evidenced some important new mineral reserves in Brazil. The most important examples are the 18 × 10 9 tons of high-grade iron ore (Carajás District), formed by supergene enrichment on iron formations older than 1800 m.y., the 2.5 × 10 9 tons of bauxite and similar reserves of kaolinite as residual enrichment in Cenozoic sediments in the Amazonas Basin (Oriximina, Capim); the potash and magnesium-rich evaporites near Aracajú(Sergipe); the large residual concentrations of phosphate, anatase, pyrochlore and rare earths related to Cretaceous alkaline complexes with carbonatites; and some garnierite and asbestos deposits related to ultramafic rocks in the states of Goiás and Piauí.

  11. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  12. Interpersonal-Psychological Theory, Alexithymia, and Personality Predict Suicide Ideation among Maladjusted Soldiers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kai-Cheng; Tzeng, Dong-Sheng; Lin, Chi-Hung; Chung, Wei-Ching

    2016-11-24

    This case-control study enrolled 226 maladjusted soldiers and 229 controls to investigate the impact of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide, alexithymia, personality, and childhood trauma on suicide risk among Taiwanese soldiers. Assessments included the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Eysenck Personality Inventory, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Brief Symptom Rating Scale. In addition to thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, other risks included less extraversion with higher neuroticism, higher alexithymia, poor academic performance, domestic violence, and life-threatening events. Our study demonstrates the interaction of the interpersonal-psychological theory and other suicide risk factors in Taiwanese soldiers.

  13. Do Atomic Veterans have excess cancer? New results correcting for the healthy soldier bias.

    PubMed

    Bross, I D; Bross, N S

    1987-12-01

    Reanalysis of the National Research Council report on Mortality of Nuclear Weapons Test Participants, released June 4, 1985, shows 62% excess cancer among soldiers involved in nuclear weapons testing in 1957 codenamed PLUMBBOB, who had exposures to fallout of 300 mrem or more. Although the "healthy soldier bias" was discussed in the original report and a method of correcting for it was described, false negative results were reported because no correction was actually made. Correcting for the healthy soldier bias reveals excess digestive, respiratory, leukemia, and other cancers in PLUMBBOB participants whose reported doses were over 300 mrem.

  14. Development of a complicated pain syndrome following cyanide poisoning in a U.S. soldier.

    PubMed

    Lenart, Mark; Buckenmaier, Chester C; Kim, Moon J; Plunkett, Anthony R

    2010-04-01

    A majority of modern war wounds are caused by blasts and high-energy ballistics. Extremity injuries predominate since modern body armor does not protect these areas due to mobility limitations. A less known and more insidious mechanism of enemy attack among our soldiers involves treachery by the local populace posing as noncombatants. One such recent event involved the contamination of tobacco with cyanide (CN). We describe a case of a soldier with CN intoxication due to ingestion of tobacco purchased from a local merchant. The soldier developed a complex neuropathic pain syndrome and was successfully treated with an inpatient high-dose intravenous ketamine infusion in combination with continuous peripheral nerve blockade.

  15. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia.

  16. Does political ideology moderate stress: the special case of soldiers conducting forced evacuation.

    PubMed

    Shechner, Tomer; Slone, Michelle; Bialik, Gadi

    2007-04-01

    This study examined the moderating role of political ideology on psychological outcomes for Israeli soldiers participating in the forced evacuation of Jewish settlements from Gaza. Change in psychopathology and well-being was assessed for 3 concurrent mission groups differing in their political ideological contentiousness--forced evacuation, Gaza security, and Northern border security. After soldiers in each mission group were classified on the basis of relatively left- or right-wing political ideological tendencies, the authors examined differential impact of each mission on soldiers of differing political ideology. Results confirmed strong moderation effects of political ideology on psychological outcomes in these extreme contexts. Implications for research, prevention, and treatment are discussed.

  17. Enemy deterrence in the recruitment strategy of a termite: Soldier-organized foraging in Nasutitermes costalis.

    PubMed

    Traniello, J F

    1981-03-01

    The nasute soldiers of the neotropical termite Nasutitermes costalis function as scouts by exploring new terrain for food in advance of the worker caste and regulate foraging activity by laying trails composed of sternal gland pheromone. Additional soldiers are at first recruited in large numbers, and subsequently workers appear as the pheromone concentration increases. The role of the nasutes in the organization of foraging is extremely unusual for the soldier caste in social insects and appears to be a component of a foraging/defense system that controls the recruitment of foragers and effectively deters attacks by ants, the most fierce and important predators of termites.

  18. Enemy deterrence in the recruitment strategy of a termite: Soldier-organized foraging in Nasutitermes costalis

    PubMed Central

    Traniello, James F. A.

    1981-01-01

    The nasute soldiers of the neotropical termite Nasutitermes costalis function as scouts by exploring new terrain for food in advance of the worker caste and regulate foraging activity by laying trails composed of sternal gland pheromone. Additional soldiers are at first recruited in large numbers, and subsequently workers appear as the pheromone concentration increases. The role of the nasutes in the organization of foraging is extremely unusual for the soldier caste in social insects and appears to be a component of a foraging/defense system that controls the recruitment of foragers and effectively deters attacks by ants, the most fierce and important predators of termites. PMID:16592995

  19. The first Civil War photographs of soldiers with facial wounds.

    PubMed

    Rogers, B O; Rhode, M G

    1995-01-01

    During the Civil War, for the first time in medical history, a large number of excellent photographs were taken of many wounded Union and (to a lesser degree) Confederate soldiers by photographers assigned by their doctors or surgeons, or by photographers employed by the Army Medical Museum. The majority of these photographs demonstrating facial, head, and neck wounds have not been published since the Civil War, except for a few minor exceptions [3, 9]. The actual art of printing photographs in medical journals, daily newspapers, and magazines did not even begin until the early 1880s--almost two decades after the Civil War [24]. Any photographs that could be found in certain rare medical and surgical books during and immediately after the War were actually pasted into those books by their printers.

  20. For soldier and state: dual loyalty and World War One.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, Leo

    2012-01-01

    Military medicine has always been characterized by some form of dual loyalty: physicians have to consider the interests of the individual soldier--patient as well as the interests of the state and the military in general. The way in which each individual doctor responds to this dual loyalty has mostly been viewed as a product of war circumstances on the one hand, and the personal character and/or religious and ideological beliefs of the physician on the other. Taking World War One as an example, this article argues that the nature of the illness or wound also had a part to play in this. The article shows that the disfigured were looked upon mainly in relation to the patient's own interests; the invalided-out through a combination of the patient's as well as the state's interests; and the neurotic mainly out of concern for the interests of the state.

  1. Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Benny; Huebner, Larry; Kuhns, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Soldier-Warfighter Operationally Responsive Deployer for Space (SWORDS) project was a joint project between the U.S. Army Space & Missile Defense Command (SMDC) and NASA. The effort, lead by SMDC, was intended to develop a three-stage liquid bipropellant (liquid oxygen/liquid methane), pressure-fed launch vehicle capable of inserting a payload of at least 25 kg to a 750-km circular orbit. The vehicle design was driven by low cost instead of high performance. SWORDS leveraged commercial industry standards to utilize standard hardware and technologies over customized unique aerospace designs. SWORDS identified broadly based global industries that have achieved adequate levels of quality control and reliability in their products and then designed around their expertise and business motivations.

  2. Robots Save Soldiers' Lives Overseas (MarcBot)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center mobile communications platform designs for future lunar missions led to improvements to fleets of tactical robots now being deployed by U.S. Army. The Multi-function Agile Remote Control Robot (MARCbot) helps soldiers search out and identify improvised explosive devices. NASA used the MARCbots to test its mobile communications platform, and in working with it, made the robot faster while adding capabilities -- upgrading to a digital camera, encrypting the controllers and video transmission, as well as increasing the range and adding communications abilities. They also simplified the design, providing more plug-and-play sensors and replacing some of the complex electronics with more trouble-free, low-cost components. Applied Geo Technology, a tribally-owned corporation in Choctaw, Mississippi, was given the task of manufacturing the modified robots. The company is now producing 40 units per month, 300 of which have already been deployed overseas.

  3. Ideological commitment and posttraumatic stress in former Tamil child soldiers.

    PubMed

    Kanagaratnam, Pushpa; Raundalen, Magne; Asbjørnsen, Arve E

    2005-12-01

    This study focuses on the impact of present ideological commitment on posttraumatic stress symptoms in former child soldiers living in exile. Eighteen men and two women (aged 25-37), who had joined different Tamil armed groups in Sri Lanka between the ages of 13 and 17 years, participated. The Impact of Event Scale was used to measure posttraumatic symptoms. Qualitative methods were used to investigate the participants' ideological commitment. Participants reported being exposed to many potentially traumatizing events, and had high scores on the Impact of Event Scale. Twenty-five percent of the sample showed strong ideological commitment to the "cause". Ideological commitment at the present seemed to predict better mental health when exposure was less intense and overwhelming. Time had a negative impact on ideological commitment.

  4. Pretraumatic Stress Reactions in Soldiers Deployed to Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is a diagnosis related to the past. Pre-traumatic stress reactions, as measured by intrusive involuntary images of possible future stressful events and their associated avoidance and increased arousal, have been overlooked in the PTSD literature. Here we introduce a scale that measures pre-traumatic stress reactions providing a clear future-oriented parallel to the posttraumatic stress reactions described in the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. We apply this pre-traumatic stress reactions checklist (PreCL) to Danish soldiers before, during, and after deployment to Afghanistan. The PreCL has good internal consistency and is highly correlated with a standard measure of PTSD symptoms. The PreCL as answered before the soldiers’ deployment significantly predicted level of PTSD symptoms during and after their deployment, while controlling for baseline PTSD symptoms and combat exposure measured during and after deployment. The findings have implications for the conceptualization of PTSD, screening, and treatment. PMID:26366328

  5. Returning Samples from Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, P.; Kanik, I.; Brownlee, D.; McKay, C.; Anbar, A.; Glavin, D.; Yano, H.

    2012-12-01

    From the first half century of space exploration, we have obtained samples only from the Moon, comet Wild 2, the Solar Wind and the asteroid Itokawa. The in-depth analyses of these samples in terrestrial laboratories have yielded profound knowledge that could not have been obtained without the returned samples. While obtaining samples from Solar System bodies is crucial science, it is rarely done due to cost and complexity. Cassini's discovery of geysers on Enceladus and organic materials, indicate that there is an exceptional opportunity and science rational to do a low-cost flyby sample return mission, similar to what was done by the Stardust. The earliest low cost possible flight opportunity is the next Discovery Mission [Tsou et al 2012]. Enceladus Plume Discovery - While Voyager provided evidence for young surfaces on Enceladus, the existence of Enceladus plumes was discovered by Cassini. Enceladus and comets are the only known solar system bodies that have jets enabling sample collection without landing or surface contact. Cassini in situ Findings -Cassini's made many discoveries at Saturn, including the break up of large organics in the plumes of Enceladus. Four prime criteria for habitability are liquid water, a heat source, organics and nitrogen [McKay et al. 2008, Waite et al. 2009, Postberg et al. 2011]. Out of all the NASA designated habitability targets, Enceladus is the single body that presents evidence for all four criteria. Significant advancement in the exploration of the biological potential of Enceladus can be made on returned samples in terrestrial laboratories where the full power of state-of-the-art laboratory instrumentation and procedures can be used. Without serious limits on power, mass or even cost, terrestrial laboratories provide the ultimate in analytical capability, adaptability, reproducibility and reliability. What Questions can Samples Address? - Samples collected from the Enceladus plume will enable a thorough and replicated

  6. Return to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This video documents the preparations for Shuttle Flight STS-26 with Shuttle Discovery, NASA's return to manned space flight after the Challenger disaster. Footage and descriptions document such changes to the new Shuttle as new joints, improved insulation, and added O-rings to the solid rocket boosters; new safety hardware and procedures such as parachute and sidewire evacuations during liftoff, and new pressure suits; modified landing gear, brakes, and nose wheel steering, as well as a modified landing runway. Also profiled are the 5 member crew of all veteran Shuttle astronauts, the TDRS 3 Satellite to be released from the cargo bay in orbit, and 11 commercial and student experiments to be performed during the mission.

  7. Dealing with returned manuscripts.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2009-11-01

    It is useful for authors to learn to deal with returned manuscripts with a rejection decision or a request for revision. Common reasons for rejection include contents outside the scope of the journal or inappropriate for the journal, incomplete submission, poor methodology, faulty experimental design, major flaws in the interpretation of results, extremely poor writing, and duplicated or plagiarised work. Authors should use the editor's and reviewers' comments to improve their manuscripts and resubmit elsewhere. Common reasons for revision requests include minor faults in the methodology, minor inaccuracies in data, inconsistencies among different sections of the manuscript, faulty deductions, data that do not support the conclusions, excessive data or text, poor or excessive illustrations, and poor but salvageable writing. A request for revision should be viewed positively, as it means that there is a possibility that the manuscript may still be potentially publishable, provided that all the editor's and reviewers' comments are addressed.

  8. Awaiting Halley's Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyn, Herman M.

    2004-01-01

    When Comet Halley perihelioned in early 1986, there were people still around who had witnessed its previous, 1910 apparition. )Then there is Mark Twain, who was born under the comet in 1835, wished for his demise upon its return, and died one day after it perihelioned in 1910!( I so enjoyed my 1986 view of Halley, that I decided I would like to be among those who see it again when it perihelions in 2061. The big problem with this ambition is that I would need to live to a Guinness Book of World's Records age of 131 years. Now, thanks to Randy Showstack's In Brief news note, ``Farthest, faintest detection of a comet'' (Eos, 16 September 2003), I have been handed a fallback position which, literally, I may be able to live with: a telescopic photo of Halley at aphelion.

  9. Expedition 8 Returns Home

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-30

    JSC2004-E-21252 (30 April 2004) --- Astronaut C. Michael Foale, Expedition 8 commander and NASA ISS science officer, is carried in a chair from the Soyuz landing site to an inflatable medical tent after he and his crewmates, cosmonaut Alexander Y. Kaleri (out of frame), Soyuz flight engineer representing Russia’s Federal Space Agency, and European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Andre Kuipers (out of frame) of the Netherlands, successfully landed in north central Kazakhstan on April 30, 2004, in their Soyuz TMA-3 capsule. Foale and Kaleri completed 195 days in space aboard the International Space Station (ISS), while Kuipers returned after an 11-day research mission as part of a commercial agreement between ESA and Russia’s Federal Space Agency. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  10. Returning to freud.

    PubMed

    Chessick, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    In this article I attempt to renew interest in the importance of Freud's work for both the practice of psychoanalysis and in the training of psychoanalysts. I hope to stimulate readers to return to Freud's writings in detail, which seem to be increasingly neglected these days both in training and in the many conflicting contemporary models of psychoanalysis. I propose that the identity of psychoanalysis can still be based on Freud's work, and his approach can form a fundamental center from which there are various channels of divergence that may be useful when the patient seems to need them. But the centerpiece of our training and our orientation, I suggest, should be the basic principles spelled out in Freud's numerous volumes, in spite of the many changes and contradictions and even outright mistakes and cultural blindness he displays in some instances. I proceed to review some of these basic principles in the hope of persuading the reader to return to Freud again. I present these with some commentary from my own 50 years of clinical experience. I briefly review the clinical cornerstones of Freud's approach as developed in his early books, his controversial papers on technique, and his later emendations, which constitute the actual reality of Freud at work in psychoanalysis (that sometimes--and sometimes wisely--violates his papers on technique), and I discuss his notion of curative factors in psychoanalysis. All of this is to revive an interest in Freud's thought and to emphasize the lasting value of his work, both in its contemporary clinical relevance and as the proposed foundation stone of our identity as psychoanalysts.

  11. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air "burn pits" lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe-positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health.

  12. Evaluation of the Performance of Females as Light Infantry Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Finestone, Aharon S.; Milgrom, Charles; Yanovich, Ran; Evans, Rachel; Constantini, Naama; Moran, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    A few countries permit women to serve in combat roles, but their long term performance in these positions has not been reported. The incidences of overuse injuries and attrition of 85 male and 235 female recruits in a light infantry brigade was followed in a three-year prospective study. Females were shorter (162 cm, CI 161–163 cm) than males (174 cm, CI 173–176), had more body fat (18.9 kg, CI 18.2–19.6 kg) than males (12.6 kg, 11.3–13.8 kg), had lower V˙O2max (36.8 mL·min−1 ·kg−1, CI 35.8–37.78 mL·min−1 ·kg−1) than males (50.48 mL·min−1 ·kg−1, CI 48.4 to 52.48 mL·min−1 ·kg−1), had more stress fractures (21.0%, 95% CI 16.2–26.5%) than males (2.3%, CI 0.3–8.2%), and had more anterior knee pain (41.2%, CI 34.9–47.7%) than males (24.7%, CI 16.0–35.2%). Three-year attrition was 28% CI 22–34% for females and 37% CI 26–48% for males. The females in this study successfully served as light infantry soldiers. Their lower fitness and high incidence of overuse injuries might impede service as regular infantry soldiers. PMID:25215282

  13. Occupational Lung Diseases among Soldiers Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Szema, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, from 2004 to the present, has served in a setting of unique environmental conditions. Among these are exposures to burning trash in open air “burn pits” lit on fire with jet fuel JP-8. Depending on trash burned--water bottles, styrofoam trays, medical waste, unexploded munitions, and computers--toxins may be released such as dioxins and n-hexane and benzene. Particulate matter air pollution culminates from these fires and fumes. Additional environmental exposures entail sandstorms (Haboob, Shamal, and Sharqi) which differ in direction and relationship to rain. These wars saw the first use of improvised explosive devices (roadside phosphate bombs),as well as vehicle improvised explosive devices (car bombs), which not only potentially aerosolize metals, but also create shock waves to induce lung injury via blast overpressure. Conventional mortar rounds are also used by Al Qaeda in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Outdoor aeroallergens from date palm trees are prevalent in southern Iraq by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, while indoor aeroallergen aspergillus predominates during the rainy season. High altitude lung disease may also compound the problem, particularly in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Clinically, soldiers may present with new-onset asthma or fixed airway obstruction. Some have constrictive bronchiolitis and vascular remodeling on open lung biopsy - despite having normal spirometry and chest xrays and CT scans of the chest. Others have been found to have titanium and other metals in the lung (rare in nature). Still others have fulminant biopsy-proven sarcoidiosis. We found DNA probe–positive Mycobacterium Avium Complex in lung from a soldier who had pneumonia, while serving near stagnant water and camels and goats outside Abu Gharib. This review highlights potential exposures, clinical syndromes, and the Denver Working Group recommendations on post-deployment health. PMID:24443711

  14. Mars Rover Sample Return mission delivery and return challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Aaron

    1988-01-01

    The Mars Rover Sample Return mission is a robotic exploration mission culminating in the return of atmospheric and surface samples from Mars to Earth. To accomplish this complex mission requires sophisticated autonomous systems for many time-critical operations associated with the delivery and return phases, since the round trip light times preclude Earth-based control of these operations. In addition, there are significant engineering and technology challenges to be addressed to meet the mission science and exploration objectives.

  15. Improving Soldier Health and Performance by Moving Army Medicine Toward a System for Health.

    PubMed

    Caravalho, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    With growing limitations on military resources, including a reduction in the overall size of our military force, the Army must make the most of every soldier in its ranks. The only way to achieve the necessary improvements in human performance with upcoming constraints will be through exploring innovative ways of thinking while implementing the best policies and doctrine that will maintain each soldier's resilience throughout their military career. Moving the Army from a traditional health care system to a system for health is expected to substantially improve and maintain soldier health and performance by focusing on 3 key areas: the Performance Triad (sleep health, physical activity, and nutrition behaviors), Delivery of Health, and Healthy Environments. The implementation of this system for health will not only improve individual soldier's resiliency/capability both throughout and beyond their military careers and benefit Army Medicine as a whole, but could also serve as a successful model for the nation if changes are adopted.

  16. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments.

  17. Reproductive division of labour coevolves with gall size in Australian thrips with soldiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, T. E.; Chapman, T. W.; Kranz, B. D.; Schwarz, M. P.

    2001-12-01

    An analysis of multiple species of Australian gall-inducing thrips with soldiers reveals a significant negative correlation between the size of gall produced and the reproductive division of labour. This correlation suggests that the evolution of smaller galls limited the available space and feeding sites for the offspring of female soldiers, and was a major factor that led to the evolution of an altruistic caste in the gall-inducers. We argue that high levels of inbreeding by singly mated foundresses and incestuous mating by her soldier offspring are key to this evolutionary relationship because they make the relatedness of a female soldier to her daughters and sisters approximately equal. Evidence that relatedness plays an important role is strengthened by the observation of outbred multiply mated foundresses and unbiased sex ratio of dispersers in Oncothrips waterhousei, and the inference that both gall volume and skew decreased along this lineage.

  18. Use of body armor protection with fighting load impacts soldier performance and kinematics.

    PubMed

    Loverro, Kari L; Brown, Tyler N; Coyne, Megan E; Schiffman, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to examine how increasing body armor protection with and without a fighting load impacted soldiers' performance and mobility. Thirteen male soldiers performed one performance (repeated 30-m rushing) and three mobility tasks (walk, walk over and walk under) with three different body armor configurations and an anterior fighting load. Increasing body armor protection, decreased soldier performance, as individual and total 30-m rush times were significantly longer with greater protection. While increasing body armor protection had no impact on mobility, i.e. significant effect on trunk and lower limb biomechanics, during the walk and walk over tasks, greater protection did significantly decrease maximum trunk flexion during the walk under task. Adding fighting load may negatively impact soldier mobility, as greater maximum trunk extension was evident during the walk and walk over tasks, and decreased maximum trunk flexion exhibited during the walk under task with the fighting load.

  19. A Cup of Salt for an O. D.: "Dog Soldiers" as Anti-Apocalypse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Stephen H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Robert Stone's "Dog Soldiers," a novel written out of the author's experiences in Vietnam in 1973, and its refusal to present an ultimate apocalyptic vision of history. Contrasts it with other modern works pervaded by apocalyptic anxiety. (DMM)

  20. Indero: intergenerational trauma and resilience between Burundian former child soldiers and their children.

    PubMed

    Song, Suzan Joon; Tol, Wietse; de Jong, Joop

    2014-06-01

    Since many former child soldiers are aging and having children of their own, this study aimed to understand how the effects of trauma are passed to the next generation. In this qualitative study, semistructured interviews, focus groups, and observations were conducted with 25 former child soldiers and 15 matched civilian parents. Analysis used a grounded-theory approach. Trauma may be transmitted from former child soldiers to their offspring via (a) the effect on indero (how to raise a child); (b) severe parental emotional distress; and (c) community effects. Incorporating themes of indero values on how to raise children, the effects of parental posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms on offspring, and the stigma associated with the families of former child soldiers may provide key areas of intervention in mental healing. © 2014 FPI, Inc.

  1. Use of Body Surface Heat Patterns for Predicting and Evaluating Acute Lower Extremity Pain among Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-31

    reducing the incidence of injury and pain in these areas among fully trained soldiers treated at Army Podiatry clinics in Germany and FAMC. Method: We are...innersoles: A prospective study. American Journal of Sports Medicine, In Press, 1991. (c) Frederick EC: Impact testing of insoles. Exeter Research...the type proposed to soldiers seen in the Podiatry Clinic at FAMC who are experiencing several types of lower limb pain (caused by such problems as

  2. Soldier Quality of Life (Operational) and Readiness at Contingency Base Camps: Insights From Qualitative Interviews

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-13

    Caelli Craig 5d. PROJECT NUMBER VT5 5e. TASK NUMBER RK09 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING...During the interviews, Soldiers first provided detailed descriptions of the camp capabilities and conditions they experienced while deployed. They...were then asked to identify instances in which camp conditions led to impacts on their CPSE readiness domains. Soldiers rated each impact as mild

  3. Embedded Journalists Are Uniquely Qualified to Convey the Experience of a Combat Soldier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    their late teens or early twenties. Youth plays a factor in the ability to understand the complex emotions that these soldiers encounter in combat...their proximity to combat. Furthermore, embedded journalists are trained to translate experiences into the written word, so are better equipped to...American combat soldier and give the American public a better understanding of the costs of war. Statement of Purpose This paper addresses the similar

  4. Facing the Long War: Factors that Lead Soldiers to Stay in the Army during Persistent Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    beyond the living conditions approach, which tends to focus on the material resources available to individuals” Quality of Life studies became popular...in the 1970s. See Jens Alber, et al., “The Quality of Life in Europe,” European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions ...Health problems also decrease soldier resiliency, as sick or injured soldiers are less capable of adapting to harsh conditions .29 Due to an increase

  5. Buffalo Soldiers: the Formation of the Ninth Cavalry Regiment: July 1866-March 1867

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-07

    supervise or train the enlisted soldiers properly. Literacy was not the unit’s biggest problem. Despite the lack of officers, the Ninth Cavalry Regiment was...concludes there were not enough officers available to supervise or train the enlisted soldiers properly. Literacy was not the unit’s biggest problem... Bernard C. Nalty’s Strength for the Fight. The Post-Civil War Army Books written about life in the Post-civil War Army also contributed information on

  6. Sustaining Soldier Health and Performance During Operation Support Hope: Guidance for Small Unit Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    adequately cooked and served steaming hot. Soldiers eating only standard military rations (MREs or tray packs) are at low risk of diarrheal disease. f...c. The headache of AMS often can be helped by taking medications like ibuprofen (Advil@ or Motrinr) or indomethacin (Indocin@). Aspirin and...of multinational forces will also serve to introduce soldiers to each other and prevent friction. g. Deliver mail. Ensure that the unit’s system for

  7. Human Factors Assessment of Prototype Lightweight Thermal Undergarment Systems for the Clothe-the-Soldier Programme

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    PROTOTYPE LIGHTWEIGHT THERMAL UNDERGARMENT SYSTEMS FOR THE CLOTHE-THE-SOLDIER PROGRAMME System Number: Patron Number: Requester: Notes: DSIS Use... Lightweight Thermal Undergarment Systems for the Clothe-the-Soldier Programme 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Toronto, Ontario, M2H 2Z3 Phone: 416-494-2816 Fax: 416-494-0303 Email: wayne@ica.net Human Factors Assessment of Prototype Lightweight Thermal

  8. Expanded Enlistment Eligibility Metrics (EEEM): Recommendations on a Non-Cognitive Screen for New Soldier Selection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    estimates approached or exceeded .70. The substantive scales with fairly low internal consistency reliability estimates were Narcissism (.55) and Gratitude...they favored the majority group (e.g., Black Soldiers had higher Narcissism scores than White Soldiers, d = .46). Among all the experimental predictor...68 .66 Narcissism 6 3.60 .57 .55 Gratitude 3 3.98 .71 .42 Response Distortion Scale 7 0.09 .14 .52 Pure Fitness Motivation a 5 3.41 .73 .71 B

  9. Sierra Leone's child soldiers: war exposures and mental health problems by gender.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Borisova, Ivelina I; de la Soudière, Marie; Williamson, John

    2011-07-01

    To examine associations between war experiences, mental health, and gender in a sample of male and female Sierra Leonean former child soldiers. A total of 273 former child soldiers (29% females) were assessed for depression and anxiety by using the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist, and for hostility, confidence, and prosocial attitudes by using an instrument developed for use with Sierra Leonean child soldiers. The former child soldiers had witnessed and perpetrated violence at largely comparable rates, although females experienced higher rates of rape (p < .0001). More females scored within clinical ranges for depression (p = .008) and anxiety (p < .0001). In multiple regression analyses, female gender was a significant predictor of lower levels of confidence but not of mental health problems. Children who perpetrated injury or killing reported greater levels of depression (p < .0001), anxiety (p < .0001), and hostility (p < .0001). Surviving rape was associated with increased anxiety (p < .05) and hostility (p < .05), in males. Surviving rape was also related to higher confidence levels (p < .05) and prosocial attitudes (p < .05). Male former child soldiers who lost caregivers were also more vulnerable to depression (p < .05) and anxiety (p < .05), strong and significant effects noted among male child soldiers. In our sample, female and male child soldiers experienced comparable levels of most war exposures. Female soldiers reported higher rates of rape and lower levels of adaptive outcomes. Toxic forms of violence (killing or injuring; rape) were associated with particularly poor outcomes. Although all boys and girls who experience rape and loss of caregivers are generally at risk for mental health problems, boys in our sample demonstrated increased vulnerability; these findings indicate a need for more inclusive mental health services. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Suicide and war: the mediating effects of negative mood, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and social support among army National Guard soldiers.

    PubMed

    Griffith, James

    2012-08-01

    The mediating effects of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, negative mood, and social support on the relationship of war experiences to suicidality were examined. The research literature suggested a sequence among study scales representing these constructs, which was then tested on survey data obtained from a sample of National Guard soldiers (N=4,546). Results from structural equation modeling suggested that war experiences may precipitate a sequence of psychological consequences leading to suicidality. However, suicidality may be an enduring behavioral health condition. War experiences showed no direct effects on postdeployment suicidality, rather its effect was indirect through PTSD symptoms and negative mood. War experiences were, however, predictive of PTSD symptoms, as would be expected. PSTD symptoms showed no direct effect on postdeployment suicidality, but showed indirect effects through negative mood. Results also suggested that suicidality is relatively persistent, at least during deployment and postdeployment. The percentage of those at risk for suicide was low both during and after deployment, with little association between suicidality and time since returning from deployment. Additionally, few soldiers were initially nonsuicidal and then reported such symptoms at postdeployment. Implications of relationships of both negative mood and combat trauma to suicidality are discussed, as well as possible mediating effects of both personal dispositions and social support on relationships of war experiences to PTSD, negative mood, and suicidality.

  11. Emotional ambivalence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in soldiers during military operations

    PubMed Central

    Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Walter, Steffen; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Traue, Harald C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the extent to which a specific mechanism of emotion regulation – namely, ambivalence concerning the expressiveness of German soldiers’ emotions – affects the severity of PTSD symptoms after a military operation. Methodology: A survey was conducted at three points in time among 66 soldiers deployed on military crisis operations. The Harvard Trauma Questionaire (HTQ), the Ambivalence over Emotional Expressiveness Questionnaire (AEQ-G18), and a questionnaire on the particular stress of German soldiers during military operations were used. Results: The study showed a significant correlation between emotional ambivalence and traumatization. Furthermore, it was shown that the subjective stress of soldiers leading up to deployment is more pronounced when emotional ambivalence is stronger in the context of military operations. This particular stress is greater before and during the military operation than after. Compared to a male control sample, the average AEQ-G18 scores of the soldier sample examined here are considerably lower. Conclusion: This pilot study clearly indicates that the AEQ-G18 could be a suitable predictor of the psychological burden on soldiers. The correlations between emotional ambivalence on the one hand and the particular and post-traumatic stressors on the other hand are not only statistically significant in the present pilot study, but may also be relevant as risk factors. It is, therefore, necessary to conduct more extensive studies on soldiers participating in military operations to verify the results of this pilot study. PMID:23798980

  12. Exploring discourse surrounding therapeutic enhancement of veterans and soldiers with injuries.

    PubMed

    Wolbring, Gregor; Martin, Angelica; Tynedal, Jeremy; Ball, Natalie; Yumakulov, Sophya

    2015-01-01

    Human enhancement (the enhancement of the abilities of a normative person beyond the norm) of soldiers has been debated for some time. However, therapeutic enhancement of soldiers and veterans with injuries (the enhancement of the abilities of a sub-normative labeled person beyond the norm) is much less discussed. This article discusses 1) historical examples of policies and views linked to soldiers and veterans that have been injured in the Americas, and perception of injured veterans and soldiers; 2) the science and technology of the therapeutic enhancement landscape and 3) views of veterans on therapeutic enhancements. Three methods were used: a) historical search of policy documents; b) content analysis of the New York Times and c) online delivered exploratory non-probability survey using the Survey Monkey platform. Researchers found that veterans played a special role in policy developments in the United States, such as disability pension plans, and that veterans who were injured were portrayed more positively than other people with disabilities in the NYT from 1851-2010. However, within the current public discourse around the use of enhancement enabling therapeutic assistive devices, the voices of injured soldiers and veterans are not visible. Therapeutic enhancements, especially of injured soldiers and veterans, are an under researched area with various open ethical questions in need of more coverage.

  13. Development and evaluation of portable and wearable fuel cells for soldier use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thampan, T.; Shah, D.; Cook, C.; Novoa, J.; Shah, S.

    2014-08-01

    A number of fuel cell systems have been recently developed to meet the U.S. Army's soldier power requirements. The operation and performance of these systems are discussed based on laboratory results and limited soldier evaluation. The systems reviewed are primarily intended for soldier use in an austere environment with minimum access to resupply and vehicular transportation. These applications require high power and energy density sources that are portable (300 W) and wearable (20 W) to minimize the soldier's load burden. Based on soldier field evaluations of portable fuel cell systems, improvements in power density and compatibility with logistical fuels are required to be successfully deployed. For soldier worn applications, a novel chemical hydride system has shown significant advances in power and energy density while maintaining a small form factor. The use of a high energy dense fuel cartridge (800 Wh kg-1) based on AlH3 (Alane) thermolysis, allows a power density of (28 W kg-1) which offers promising weight savings compared to the standard military batteries.

  14. Trends in Mental Health Services Utilization and Stigma in US Soldiers From 2002 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, Joshua E.; Thomas, Jeffrey L.; Bray, Robert M.; Rae Olmsted, Kristine L.; Brown, Janice M.; Williams, Jason; Kim, Paul Y.; Clarke-Walper, Kristina; Hoge, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We characterized trends in mental health services utilization and stigma over the course of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars among active-component US soldiers. Methods. We evaluated trends in mental health services utilization and stigma using US Army data from the Health-Related Behavior (HRB) surveys from 2002, 2005, and 2008 (n = 12 835) and the Land Combat Study (LCS) surveys administered to soldiers annually from 2003 to 2009 and again in 2011 (n = 22 627). Results. HRB and LCS data suggested increased mental health services utilization and decreased stigma in US soldiers between 2002 and 2011. These trends were evident in soldiers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), or PTSD and MDD. Despite the improving trends, more than half of soldiers with mental health problems did not report seeking care. Conclusions. Mental health services utilization increased and stigma decreased over the course of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although promising, these findings indicate that a significant proportion of US soldiers meeting criteria for PTSD or MDD do not utilize mental health services, and stigma remains a pervasive problem requiring further attention. PMID:25033143

  15. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae reduce Escherichia coli in dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaolin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Brady, Jeff A; Sanford, Michelle R; Yu, Ziniu

    2008-12-01

    Escherichia coli labeled with a green fluorescent protein was inoculated into sterile dairy manure at 7.0 log cfu/g. Approximately 125 black soldier fly larvae were placed in manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli. Manure inoculated with E. coli but without black soldier fly larvae served as the control. For the first experiment, larvae were introduced into 50, 75, 100, or 125 g sterilized dairy manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli and stored 72 h at 27 degrees C. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in all treatments. However, varying the amount of manure provided the black soldier fly larvae significantly affected their weight gain and their ability to reduce E. coli populations present. For the second experiment, larvae were introduced into 50 g manure inoculated with E. coli and stored for 72 h at 23, 27, 31, or 35 degrees C. Minimal bacterial growth was recorded in the control held at 35 degrees C and was excluded from the analysis. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in manure held at remaining temperatures. Accordingly, temperature significantly influenced the ability of black soldier fly larvae to develop and reduce E. coli counts with greatest suppression occurring at 27 degrees C.

  16. Soldier caste-specific gene expression in the mandibular glands of Hodotermopsis japonica (Isoptera: Termopsidae)

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Toru; Kamikouchi, Azusa; Sawata, Miyuki; Takeuchi, Hideaki; Natori, Syunji; Kubo, Takeo; Matsumoto, Tadao

    1999-01-01

    Although “polymorphic castes” in social insects are well known as one of the most important phenomena of polyphenism, few studies of caste-specific gene expressions have been performed in social insects. To identify genes specifically expressed in the soldier caste of the Japanese damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis japonica, we employed the differential-display method using oligo(dT) and arbitrary primers, compared mRNA from the heads of mature soldiers and pseudergates (worker caste), and identified a clone (PCR product) 329 bp in length termed SOL1. Northern blot analysis showed that the SOL1 mRNA is about 1.0 kb in length and is expressed specifically in mature soldiers, but not in pseudergates, even in the presoldier induction by juvenile hormone analogue, suggesting that the product is specific for terminally differentiated soldiers. By using the method of 5′- and 3′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we isolated the full length of SOL1 cDNA, which contained an ORF with a putative signal peptide at the N terminus. The sequence showed no significant homology with any other known protein sequences. In situ hybridization analysis showed that SOL1 is expressed specifically in the mandibular glands. These results strongly suggest that the SOL1 gene encodes a secretory protein specifically synthesized in the mandibular glands of the soldiers. Histological observations revealed that the gland actually develops during the differentiation into the soldier caste. PMID:10570166

  17. A scalable soldier-machine interface for human-robotic interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samples, Brian A.

    2007-04-01

    As part of the Crew-Automated and integration Testbed (CAT) Advanced Technology Objective (ATO), the US Army Tank-automotive and Armaments Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) developed crew stations that provided soldiers the ability to control both manned and unmanned vehicles. The crew stations were designed to optimize soldier workload and provide the ability to conduct mission planning, route planning, reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA), and fire control capabilities. The crew station software is fully configurable, portable (between crew stations), and interoperable with one another. However, the software architecture was optimized for the specific computing platform utilized by each crew station and user interfaces were hard coded. Current CAT crew station capabilities are required to execute on other crew station configurations as well as handheld devices to meet the needs of expanded soldier roles, including dismounted infantry. TARDEC is currently exploring ways to develop a scalable software architecture that is able to adapt to the physical characteristics of differing computing platforms and devices. In addition, based upon a soldier's role, the software must be able to adapt and optimize the displays based upon individual soldier needs. And finally, the software must be capable of applying a unique style to the presentation of information to the soldier. Future programs require more robust software architectures that take these requirements into account. This paper will describe how scalable software architectures can be designed to address each of these unique requirements.

  18. Development of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae fed dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Myers, Heidi M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Lambert, Barry D; Kattes, David

    2008-02-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens L., are a common colonizer of animal wastes. However, all published development data for this species are from studies using artificial diets. This study represents the first examining black soldier fly development on animal wastes. Additionally, this study examined the ability of black soldier fly larvae to reduce dry matter and associated nutrients in manure. Black soldier fly larvae were fed four rates of dairy manure to determine their effects on larval and adult life history traits. Feed rate affected larval and adult development. Those fed less ration daily weighed less than those fed a greater ration. Additionally, larvae provided the least amount of dairy manure took longer to develop to the prepupal stage; however, they needed less time to reach the adult stage. Adults resulting from larvae provided 27 g dairy manure/d lived 3-4 d less than those fed 70 g dairy manure. Percentage survivorship to the prepupal or adult stages did not differ across treatments. Larvae fed 27 g dairy manure daily reduced manure dry matter mass by 58%, whereas those fed 70 g daily reduced dry matter 33%. Black soldier fly larvae were able to reduce available P by 61-70% and N by 30-50% across treatments. Based on results from this study, the black soldier fly could be used to reduce wastes and associated nutrients in confined bovine facilities.

  19. Age of first reported sexual experience among U.S. soldiers.

    PubMed

    Berry-Cabán, Cristóbal S; Jenkins, Jamie N; Goorley, Elizabeth; Gray, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Studies show that the age of first sexual intercourse is directly correlated with risky sexual behavior among civilian populations. However, few studies have looked at the age of first intercourse and its consequence among soldiers. A study was conducted to examine the age of first sexual experience and sexual practices among soldiers surveyed at a large military post. The survey consisted of 31 fixed-choice items that focused on the soldiers' sexual knowledge, beliefs and behaviors. A total of 450 soldiers were included in the sample. Respondents were divided into three main categories by age groupings of first sexual experience as follows: under 14 years of age, between the ages of 14 to 17 years, and over 18 years. All values were analyzed using frequency distributions with calculations of means, standard deviations, and range. Results showed that soldiers who had their first sexual experience under the age of 14 were more likely to participate in risky sexual behaviors than those whose first sexual experience occurred when soldiers were over the age of 18.

  20. Ability of Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae to Recycle Food Waste.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2015-04-01

    Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in waste management. In addition, the prepupae stage of this insect can be harvested and used as a valuable nutritious feed for animal livestock. Five waste types with a wide range of organic source matter were specifically chosen to evaluate the consumption and reduction ability of black soldier fly larvae. H. illucens was able to reduce all waste types examined: 1) control poultry feed, 2) pig liver, 3) pig manure, 4) kitchen waste, 5) fruits and vegetables, and 6) rendered fish. Kitchen waste had the greatest mean rate of reduction (consumption by black soldier fly) per day and produced the longest and heaviest black soldier flies. Larvae reared on liver, manure, fruits and vegetables, and fish were approximately the same length and weight as larvae fed the control feed, although some diets produced larvae with a higher nutritional content. The black soldier fly has the ability to consume and reduce organic waste and be utilized as valuable animal feed. Exploration of the potential use of black soldier flies as an agent for waste management on a large-scale system should continue.

  1. Sexual complementarity between host humoral toxicity and soldier caste in a polyembryonic wasp.

    PubMed

    Uka, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Takuma; Yoshimura, Jin; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2016-07-07

    Defense against enemies is a type of natural selection considered fundamentally equivalent between the sexes. In reality, however, whether males and females differ in defense strategy is unknown. Multiparasitism necessarily leads to the problem of defense for a parasite (parasitoid). The polyembryonic parasitic wasp Copidosoma floridanum is famous for its larval soldiers' ability to kill other parasites. This wasp also exhibits sexual differences not only with regard to the competitive ability of the soldier caste but also with regard to host immune enhancement. Female soldiers are more aggressive than male soldiers, and their numbers increase upon invasion of the host by other parasites. In this report, in vivo and in vitro competition assays were used to test whether females have a toxic humoral factor; if so, then its strength was compared with that of males. We found that females have a toxic factor that is much weaker than that of males. Our results imply sexual complementarity between host humoral toxicity and larval soldiers. We discuss how this sexual complementarity guarantees adaptive advantages for both males and females despite the one-sided killing of male reproductives by larval female soldiers in a mixed-sex brood.

  2. Trends in mental health services utilization and stigma in US soldiers from 2002 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Quartana, Phillip J; Wilk, Joshua E; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Bray, Robert M; Rae Olmsted, Kristine L; Brown, Janice M; Williams, Jason; Kim, Paul Y; Clarke-Walper, Kristina; Hoge, Charles W

    2014-09-01

    We characterized trends in mental health services utilization and stigma over the course of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars among active-component US soldiers. We evaluated trends in mental health services utilization and stigma using US Army data from the Health-Related Behavior (HRB) surveys from 2002, 2005, and 2008 (n = 12,835) and the Land Combat Study (LCS) surveys administered to soldiers annually from 2003 to 2009 and again in 2011 (n = 22,627). HRB and LCS data suggested increased mental health services utilization and decreased stigma in US soldiers between 2002 and 2011. These trends were evident in soldiers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), or PTSD and MDD. Despite the improving trends, more than half of soldiers with mental health problems did not report seeking care. Mental health services utilization increased and stigma decreased over the course of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although promising, these findings indicate that a significant proportion of US soldiers meeting criteria for PTSD or MDD do not utilize mental health services, and stigma remains a pervasive problem requiring further attention.

  3. An examination of successful soldier postdeployment transition from combat to garrison life.

    PubMed

    Fink, David S; Gallaway, M Shayne; Millikan, Amy M

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that combat exposures and deployment-related stressors have negative implications on soldiers' postdeployment health and well-being. The current study aimed to examine the individual and combined effects of organizational and social support on the success of soldiers' postdeployment reintegration. In this study, 2,922 U.S. soldiers were surveyed from a brigade combat team at 90-120 days postdeployment, measuring soldiers' perceptions of postdeployment transition home, occupational and social support, stigma and barriers associated with accessing behavioral health care, and previous behavioral health care. Logistic regression analysis indicated that soldiers reporting a positive postdeployment transition home (n = 1,776; 61%) was significantly associated with leadership perceptions, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.02, 1.39], unit cohesion, AOR = 1.29, 95% CI [1.09, 1.53], personal support, AOR = 1.37, 95% CI [1.23, 1.52], perceived levels of stigma, AOR = 0.73, 95% CI [0.65, 0.82] barriers to accessing care, AOR = 0.86, 95% CI [0.76, 0.97], and previously accessing behavioral health care, AOR = 0.34, 95% CI [0.28, 0.43]. These findings suggest redeploying soldiers may benefit from programs aimed at improving self-efficacy and coping through fostering occupational and social support, with special concern taken to reduce stigma and barriers to care across the Army.

  4. Communication training improves patient-centered provider behavior and screening for soldiers' mental health concerns.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Susan R; Vides de Andrade, Ana Regina; Boyd, Stephanie; Leslie, Melanie; Webb, Lynn; Davis, Lauren; Fraine, Melissa; Frazer, Nicole L; Hargraves, Ryan; Bickman, Leonard

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of patient-centered communication training for military providers who conduct post-deployment health screening. The half-day interactive workshop included simulated Soldier patients using video technology. Using a quasi-experimental design, all health care providers at four military treatment facilities were recruited for data collection during a four- to nine-day site visit (23 trained providers, 28 providers in the control group, and one provider declined to participate). All Soldiers were eligible to participate and were blinded to provider training status. Immediately after screening encounters, providers reported on their identification of mental health concerns and Soldiers reported on provider communication behaviors resulting in 1,400 matched pairs. Electronic health records were also available for 26,005 Soldiers. The workshop was found to increase (1) providers' patient-centered communication behaviors as evaluated by Soldiers; (2) provider identification of Soldier mental health concerns; and (3), related health outcomes including provision of education and referral to a confidential counseling resource. Results are promising, but with small effect sizes and study limitations, further research is warranted. A brief intensive workshop on patient-centered communication tailored to the military screening context is feasible and may improve key outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Return to Rhea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-30

    After a couple of years in high-inclination orbits that limited its ability to encounter Saturn's moons, NASA's Cassini spacecraft returned to Saturn's equatorial plane in March 2015. As a prelude to its return to the realm of the icy satellites, the spacecraft had its first relatively close flyby of an icy moon (apart from Titan) in almost two years on Feb. 9. During this encounter Cassini's cameras captured images of the icy moon Rhea, as shown in these in two image mosaics. The views were taken about an hour and a half apart as Cassini drew closer to Rhea. Images taken using clear, green, infrared and ultraviolet spectral filters were combined to create these enhanced color views, which offer an expanded range of the colors visible to human eyes in order to highlight subtle color differences across Rhea's surface. The moon's surface is fairly uniform in natural color. The image at right represents one of the highest resolution color views of Rhea released to date. A larger, monochrome mosaic is available in PIA07763. Both views are orthographic projections facing toward terrain on the trailing hemisphere of Rhea. An orthographic view is most like the view seen by a distant observer looking through a telescope. The views have been rotated so that north on Rhea is up. The smaller view at left is centered at 21 degrees north latitude, 229 degrees west longitude. Resolution in this mosaic is 450 meters (1,476 feet) per pixel. The images were acquired at a distance that ranged from about 51,200 to 46,600 miles (82,100 to 74,600 kilometers) from Rhea. The larger view at right is centered at 9 degrees north latitude, 254 degrees west longitude. Resolution in this mosaic is 300 meters (984 feet) per pixel. The images were acquired at a distance that ranged from about 36,000 to 32,100 miles (57,900 to 51,700 kilometers) from Rhea. The mosaics each consist of multiple narrow-angle camera (NAC) images with data from the wide-angle camera used to fill in areas where NAC

  6. 11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS WERE NUCLEAR WEAPONS SHIPPED TO THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM THE NUCLEAR WEAPON STOCKPILE FOR RETIREMENT, TESTING, OR UPGRADING. FISSILE MATERIALS (PLUTONIUM, URANIUM, ETC.) AND RARE MATERIALS (BERYLLIUM) WERE RECOVERED FOR REUSE, AND THE REMAINDER WAS DISPOSED. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  8. Postdeployment suicidal ideations and trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder in Danish soldiers: a 3-year follow-up of the USPER study.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Trine; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Bertelsen, Mette; Andersen, Søren Bo

    2014-09-01

    Suicidal ideation in veterans is of great concern. The objective of this study is to examine how heterogeneous posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) trajectories are associated with postdeployment suicidal ideation in veterans 2.5 years postdeployment to a combat zone in Afghanistan. If PTSD trajectories are associated with postdeployment suicidal ideations, then the accumulative knowledge on what characterizes veterans falling into different PTSD trajectories may provide better opportunities for early identification of suicidal high-risk veterans. In this prospective study of 743 Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan from February to August in 2009, we collected data at 6 time points from 6 weeks before deployment to 2.5 years after homecoming (total for this study: 456). At all assessments, the soldiers responded to a comprehensive questionnaire including measures of PTSD (measured by the PTSD Checklist, Civilian Version) and other mental and physical health variables, demographics, and social and combat-related factors. Suicidal ideation was measured by an item from the European Parasuicide Study Interview Schedule II. In a previous study based on soldiers from this cohort, we identified 6 PTSD trajectories using latent growth mixture modeling, which we have extracted and applied as independent variables in this study. Adjusted multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to examine whether deployed soldiers with certain PTSD symptom trajectories were more likely to report suicidal ideation 2.5 years after homecoming. Two PTSD trajectories with high PTSD symptom level 2.5 years after return were significantly associated with suicidal ideation 2.5 years after homecoming. Thus, a relieved-worsening class, described by initial decreasing PTSD symptom levels followed by a steep increase in symptoms had higher risk of suicidal ideation (OR = 7.84; 95% CI, 1.68-36.6), which was also the case for a late-onset class (OR 5.2; 95% CI, 2.21-12.24) when compared

  9. A Randomized Clinical Trial of the Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality vs. Enhanced Care as Usual for Sucidal Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    data quality in this study, a review of the military electronic health record for the relevant time period was conducted prior to each assessment and...unique qualities of suicidal drivers. 78 2016 Military Health Systems Research Symposium (Orlando, FL) Presentation title: Operation Worth...Active-Duty Soldiers who presented to a military outpatient behavioral health clinic. There were 73 Soldiers received CAMS; 75 Soldiers received E

  10. The Soldier-Cyborg Transformation: A Framework for Analysis of Social and Ethical Issues of Future Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-26

    government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE SOLDIER- CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE...UNCLASSIFIED USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE SOLDIER- CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE...P) Donald A. Gagliano, M.D. TITLE: THE SOLDIER CYBORG TRANSFORMATION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES OF FUTURE WARFARE

  11. Geochemistry of Brazilian oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, C.C.

    1983-02-01

    A general survey of the main brazilian oil shale formations presenting their location, oil reserve, age and stratigraphy introduces this paper. It is followed by a comparative survey of the data on chemical composition (elementary, minerals and organic constituents/biological markers) and of thermal alteration indexes in order to define their maturity. The geochemical phenomena involved with a large diabase intrusion in the Irati formation is particularly stressed. The analytical methods of Solid Phase Extraction and Functional Group Marker developed for the analysis of bitumens and kerogens and the results obtained from the application of these methods to brazilian oil shales are discussed. The paper ends with a brief description of a comprehensive analytical bibliography on brazilian oil shales prepared to serve as a data base for these organites.

  12. The Point of No Return

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    Bartlett (1958) described the point of no return as a point of irrevocable commitment to action, which was preceded by a period of gradually increasing commitment. As such, the point of no return reflects a fundamental limit on the ability to control thought and action. I review the literature on the point of no return, taking three perspectives. First, I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the controlled act, as a locus in the architecture and anatomy of the underlying processes. I review experiments from the stop-signal paradigm that suggest that the point of no return is located late in the response system. Then I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the act of control that tries to change the controlled act before it becomes irrevocable. From this perspective, the point of no return is a point in time that provides enough “lead time” for the act of control to take effect. I review experiments that measure the response time to the stop signal as the lead time required for response inhibition in the stop-signal paradigm. Finally, I consider the point of no return in hierarchically controlled tasks, in which there may be many points of no return at different levels of the hierarchy. I review experiments on skilled typing that suggest different points of no return for the commands that determine what is typed and the countermands that inhibit typing, with increasing commitment to action the lower the level in the hierarchy. I end by considering the point of no return in perception and thought as well as action. PMID:25633089

  13. Examination of the Effectiveness of Predictors for Musculoskeletal Injuries in Female Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Kodesh, Einat; Shargal, Eyal; Kislev-Cohen, Rotem; Funk, Shany; Dorfman, Lev; Samuelly, Gil; Hoffman, Jay R.; Sharvit, Nurit

    2015-01-01

    The amount of training days lost to injury during military training has highlighted the need to identify a screening tool to predict injury. One hundred and fifty-eight female soldiers from the Combat Fitness Instructor Course (CFIC) of the Israel Defense Forces volunteered to participate in this study. All soldiers were free of orthopedic and neurologic conditions for at least one month before the study. All participants performed a battery of measurements during the first week of the course. Measures included anthropometric, functional movement screen (FMS), power performances (counter movement jump [CMJ], drop jump, single leg triple hop jump [SLTH], 10-m sprint) and a 2K run. Injury data was collected throughout the 3 month course. Median tests were used to compare between injured/non-injured soldiers. Chi-square and/or logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between various predictors and injury. Percent body fat [%BF] was higher (p = 0.04), distance for SLTH was less for both left and right legs (p = 0.029, p = 0.047 respectively) and 2K run was slower (p =0.044) in injured compared to non-injured soldiers. No differences between groups were noted in total FMS score, however more zero scores in one or more movement pattern were found in the injured group (51.35 % vs. 30.5% p=0.0293). Only %BF, 2K run and SLTH distance were significant predictors of injury (p = 0.05, p = 0.02, p =0.016 respectively). The results of this study indicated that the FMS total score is not a predictor of injury in female soldiers in a CFIC. We found that %BF, SLTH, 2K run time, 10 meter sprint time and zero scores differentiated between injured and non-injured soldiers. In addition, %BF, 2K run and SLTH were each found to be separate predictors of injury. Further research is needed to determine threshold scores that predict injury. Key points A total of 145 injuries were reported during the three month Combat Fitness Instructor Course in a female soldiers

  14. Relationship Between Job Burnout and Neuroendocrine Indicators in Soldiers in the Xinjiang Arid Desert: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ning; Zhang, Jianjiang; Song, Zhixin; Tang, Jinhua; Liu, Jiwen

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between job burnout and neuroendocrine indicators in soldiers living in a harsh environment. Three hundred soldiers stationed in the arid desert and 600 in an urban area were recruited. They filled in the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaire. One hundred soldiers were randomly selected from each group to measure their levels of noradrenaline, serotonin, heat shock protein (HSP)-70, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and serum cortisol. Job burnout was more common in soldiers from urban areas than those from rural areas. Job burnout was significantly higher among soldiers stationed in the arid desert than those in urban areas. For soldiers in the arid desert, the levels of HSP-70, serum cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone were significantly higher than in soldiers in urban areas. Correlation analyses showed that the degree of job burnout was weakly negatively correlated with the level of HSP-70. Being an only child, HSP-70 levels, cortisol levels, and ACTH levels were independently associated with job burnout in soldiers stationed in the arid desert. A higher level of job burnout in soldiers stationed in arid desert and a corresponding change in neuroendocrine indicators indicated a correlation between occupational stress and neurotransmitters.

  15. Psychological effects of sexual harassment, appraisal of harassment, and organizational climate among U.S. Army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Rosen, L N; Martin, L

    1998-02-01

    This study examines the effects of three types of unwanted sexual experiences in the workplace on the psychological well-being of male and female U.S. Army soldiers, and the mediating or moderating roles of appraisal of sexual harassment, organizational climate, and the sociodemographic profile of victims. A survey was administered to 1,060 male soldiers and 305 female soldiers between May and July, 1995, at three Army posts in the United States. Unwanted sexual experiences were found to be significant predictors of psychological symptoms for male and female soldiers. Certain aspects of organizational climate and appraisal of sexual harassment were also significant predictors of psychological symptoms.

  16. Mars Sample Return Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaty, David

    2001-01-01

    This presentation considers the decisions which go into planning the Mars Sample Return Mission (i.e. spacecraft design) and how these choices affect concerns about the safe handling of any sample returns. Topics covered include: 'being there' trades, 'getting home' trades, quantitative functions and risk assessments.

  17. Capital Structure and Stock Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Ivo

    2004-01-01

    U.S. corporations do not issue and repurchase debt and equity to counteract the mechanistic effects of stock returns on their debt-equity ratios. Thus over one- to five-year horizons, stock returns can explain about 40 percent of debt ratio dynamics. Although corporate net issuing activity is lively and although it can explain 60 percent of debt…

  18. Sample Return Robot Centennial Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-16

    NASA-WPI Sample Return Robot Centennial Challenge teams, NASA management, and challenge organizers pose for a group photograph on Saturday, June 16, 2012 at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) in Worcester, Mass. Teams were challenged to build autonomous robots that can identify, collect and return samples. NASA needs autonomous robotic capability for future planetary exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Sample Return Robot Centennial Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-16

    NASA Chief Technologist Mason Peck talks at the kick off of the NASA-WPI Sample Return Robot Centennial Challenge on Saturday, June 16, 2012 at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) in Worcester, Mass. Teams were challenged to build autonomous robots that can identify, collect and return samples. NASA needs autonomous robotic capability for future planetary exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Sample Return Robot Centennial Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-16

    A judge for the NASA-WPI Sample Return Robot Centennial Challenge follows a robot on the playing field during the challenge on Saturday, June 16, 2012 in Worcester, Mass. Teams were challenged to build autonomous robots that can identify, collect and return samples. NASA needs autonomous robotic capability for future planetary exploration. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)