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Sample records for breast cancer compared

  1. In vitro comparative models for canine and human breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Visan, Simona; Balacescu, Ovidiu; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Catoi, Cornel

    2016-01-01

    During the past four decades, an increased number of similarities between canine mammary tumors and human breast cancer have been reported: molecular, histological, morphological, clinical and epidemiological, which lead to comparative oncological studies. One of the most important goals in human and veterinary oncology is to discover potential molecular biomarkers that could detect breast cancer in an early stage and to develop new effective therapies. Recently, cancer cell lines have successfully been used as an in vitro model to study the biology of cancer, to investigate molecular pathways and to test the efficiency of anticancer drugs. Moreover, establishment of an experimental animal model for the study of human breast cancer will improve testing potential anti-cancer therapies and the discovery of effective therapeutic schemes suitable for human clinical trials. In this review, we collected data from previous studies that strengthen the value of canine mammary cancer cell lines as an in vitro model for the study of human breast cancer. PMID:27004024

  2. In vitro comparative models for canine and human breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    VISAN, SIMONA; BALACESCU, OVIDIU; BERINDAN-NEAGOE, IOANA; CATOI, CORNEL

    2016-01-01

    During the past four decades, an increased number of similarities between canine mammary tumors and human breast cancer have been reported: molecular, histological, morphological, clinical and epidemiological, which lead to comparative oncological studies. One of the most important goals in human and veterinary oncology is to discover potential molecular biomarkers that could detect breast cancer in an early stage and to develop new effective therapies. Recently, cancer cell lines have successfully been used as an in vitro model to study the biology of cancer, to investigate molecular pathways and to test the efficiency of anticancer drugs. Moreover, establishment of an experimental animal model for the study of human breast cancer will improve testing potential anti-cancer therapies and the discovery of effective therapeutic schemes suitable for human clinical trials. In this review, we collected data from previous studies that strengthen the value of canine mammary cancer cell lines as an in vitro model for the study of human breast cancer. PMID:27004024

  3. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Breast Cancer What is Breast Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... tumors form in the breast tissue. Who Gets Breast Cancer? Breast cancer is one of the most common ...

  4. What Is Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...

  5. Comparative genomic analysis reveals bilateral breast cancers are genetically independent.

    PubMed

    Song, Fangfang; Li, Xiangchun; Song, Fengju; Zhao, Yanrui; Li, Haixin; Zheng, Hong; Gao, Zhibo; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Kexin

    2015-10-13

    Bilateral breast cancer (BBC) poses a major challenge for oncologists because of the cryptic relationship between the two lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine the origin of the contralateral breast cancer (either dependent or independent of the index tumor). Here, we used ultra-deep whole-exome sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to study four paired samples of BBCs with different tumor subtypes and time intervals between the developments of each tumor. We used two paired primary breast tumors and corresponding metastatic liver lesions as the control. We tested the origin independent nature of BBC in three ways: mutational concordance, mutational signature clustering, and clonality analysis using copy number profiles. We found that the paired BBC samples had near-zero concordant mutation rates, which were much lower than those of the paired primary/metastasis samples. The results of a mutational signature analysis also suggested that BBCs are independent of one another. A clonality analysis using aCGH data further revealed that paired BBC samples was clonally independent, in contrast to clonal related origin found for paired primary/metastasis samples. Our preliminary findings show that BBCs in Han Chinese women are origin independent and thus should be treated separately. PMID:26378809

  6. Comparing Relaxation Programs for Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy

    Cancer.gov

    In this study, women with breast cancer who have had surgery and are scheduled to undergo radiation therapy will be randomly assigned to one of two different stretching and relaxation programs or to a control group that will receive usual care.

  7. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  8. Breast Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  9. The Distinct Role of Comparative Risk Perceptions in a Breast Cancer Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Amanda J.; Ubel, Peter A.; Smith, Dylan M.; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.; Nair, Vijay; Derry, Holly A.; Zhang, Aijun; Pitsch, Rosemarie K.; Alford, Sharon Hensley; McClure, Jennifer B.; Fagerlin, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparative risk perceptions may rival other types of information in terms of effects on health behavior decisions. Purpose We examined associations between comparative risk perceptions, affect, and behavior while controlling for absolute risk perceptions and actual risk. Methods Women at an increased risk of breast cancer participated in a program to learn about tamoxifen which can reduce the risk of breast cancer. Women reported comparative risk perceptions of breast cancer and completed measures of anxiety, knowledge, and tamoxifen-related behavior intentions. Three months later, women reported their behavior. Results Comparative risk perceptions were positively correlated with anxiety, knowledge, intentions, and behavior three months later. After controlling for participants’ actual risk of breast cancer and absolute risk perceptions, comparative risk perceptions predicted anxiety and knowledge, but not intentions or behavior. Conclusions Comparative risk perceptions can affect patient outcomes like anxiety and knowledge independently of absolute risk perceptions and actual risk information. PMID:21698518

  10. Breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink per day (women at high risk for breast cancer should not drink alcohol at all) ... Services Task Force. Risk assessment, genetic counseling, and ... cancer treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Date ...

  11. Types of Breast Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the key statistics about breast cancer? Types of breast cancers Breast cancer can be separated into different types ... than invasive ductal carcinoma. Less common types of breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer This uncommon type of invasive ...

  12. Expression of microRNA-370 in human breast cancer compare with normal samples

    PubMed Central

    Mollainezhad, Halimeh; Eskandari, Nahid; Pourazar, Abbasali; Salehi, Mansoor; Andalib, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the second leading cause of deaths from cancer in the woman. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous noncoding RNAs that are known critical player in carcinogenesis. The role of miR-370 in malignancies remains controversial because of its levels varying in different cancers according to its targets while the role of miR-370 in breast cancer has not been addressed so far. The aim of this study was to identify the expression pattern of miR-370 in human breast cancer tissue compared to adjacent healthy tissue. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two fresh frozen tissues (normal and malignant) from patients with breast cancer were examined for miR-370 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method at 2013. Results: We observed up-regulation (six-fold higher) of miR-370 in breast cancer tissue compared with normal adjacent tissue. Tumor samples in stage III, invasive ductal type, larger tumor size, human epidermal growth-factor receptor 2+, estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor−, P53 − status showed significantly increased expression in miR-370. Conclusion: Together, miR-370 may acts as an onco-miRNA, and it may have a novel role in breast cancer. Detection of miR-370 and its targets could be helpful as a diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target. PMID:27563639

  13. Evaluate Risk/Benefit of Nab Paclitaxel in Combination With Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Compared to Gemcitabine and Carboplatin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer (or Metastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-25

    Breast Tumor; Breast Cancer; Cancer of the Breast; Estrogen Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; HER2- Negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor- Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  14. Characterization of Genomic Alterations in Radiation-Associated Breast Cancer among Childhood Cancer Survivors, Using Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaohong R.; Killian, J. Keith; Hammond, Sue; Burke, Laura S.; Bennett, Hunter; Wang, Yonghong; Davis, Sean R.; Strong, Louise C.; Neglia, Joseph; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita E.; Robison, Leslie L.; Bhatia, Smita; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Inskip, Peter D.; Meltzer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed cohorts have been primarily descriptive; molecular events responsible for the development of radiation-associated breast cancer have not been elucidated. In this study, we used array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) to characterize genome-wide copy number changes in breast tumors collected in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Array-CGH data were obtained from 32 cases who developed a second primary breast cancer following chest irradiation at early ages for the treatment of their first cancers, mostly Hodgkin lymphoma. The majority of these cases developed breast cancer before age 45 (91%, n = 29), had invasive ductal tumors (81%, n = 26), estrogen receptor (ER)-positive staining (68%, n = 19 out of 28), and high proliferation as indicated by high Ki-67 staining (77%, n = 17 out of 22). Genomic regions with low-copy number gains and losses and high-level amplifications were similar to what has been reported in sporadic breast tumors, however, the frequency of amplifications of the 17q12 region containing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was much higher among CCSS cases (38%, n = 12). Our findings suggest that second primary breast cancers in CCSS were enriched for an “amplifier” genomic subgroup with highly proliferative breast tumors. Future investigation in a larger irradiated cohort will be needed to confirm our findings. PMID:25764003

  15. Characterization of genomic alterations in radiation-associated breast cancer among childhood cancer survivors, using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) arrays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohong R; Killian, J Keith; Hammond, Sue; Burke, Laura S; Bennett, Hunter; Wang, Yonghong; Davis, Sean R; Strong, Louise C; Neglia, Joseph; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita E; Robison, Leslie L; Bhatia, Smita; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Inskip, Peter D; Meltzer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed cohorts have been primarily descriptive; molecular events responsible for the development of radiation-associated breast cancer have not been elucidated. In this study, we used array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) to characterize genome-wide copy number changes in breast tumors collected in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Array-CGH data were obtained from 32 cases who developed a second primary breast cancer following chest irradiation at early ages for the treatment of their first cancers, mostly Hodgkin lymphoma. The majority of these cases developed breast cancer before age 45 (91%, n = 29), had invasive ductal tumors (81%, n = 26), estrogen receptor (ER)-positive staining (68%, n = 19 out of 28), and high proliferation as indicated by high Ki-67 staining (77%, n = 17 out of 22). Genomic regions with low-copy number gains and losses and high-level amplifications were similar to what has been reported in sporadic breast tumors, however, the frequency of amplifications of the 17q12 region containing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) was much higher among CCSS cases (38%, n = 12). Our findings suggest that second primary breast cancers in CCSS were enriched for an "amplifier" genomic subgroup with highly proliferative breast tumors. Future investigation in a larger irradiated cohort will be needed to confirm our findings. PMID:25764003

  16. Endoscopic Breast Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-05

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  17. Breast Cancer Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer - Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  18. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) Surgery for breast cancer Most women with breast cancer have some type ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  19. Learning about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  1. A comparative study of four serological tumor markers for the detection of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Clinton, Shawn R; Beason, Kevin L; Bryant, Sabrina; Johnson, James T; Jackson, Margaret; Wilson, Cynthia; Holifield, Kay; Vincent, Charlton; Hall, Margot

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is currently the third most common cause of cancer in the world. Circulating tumor antigens are often used as a minimally invasive tool for noting breast cancer progression. The objective of this study was to compare four tumor antigens (CA 15-3, CA 27.29, alpha-fetoprotein [AFP], and carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA]) for their diagnostic efficacy in breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that CA 15-3 would proved to be superior to CA 27.29, CEA, and AFP in assay performance. Tumor marker assays were performed according to the manufacturers' directions. Assays used in this study were CA 15-3 and CA 27.29 (Fujirebio Diagnostics/Centocor Inc.), AFP (Abbott Inc.), and CEA (Hybritech Inc.). A total of 554 patient samples were obtained from an area hospital, plus 200 healthy adult samples which were used for the determination of normal reference intervals. The patients included patients with no disease (184), with non-malignant disease (11), with breast cancer (87), and with other types of cancer (272). Diagnostic percent sensitivities for each marker were: CA 15-3 (63%), CA 27.29 (39%), CEA (22%), and AFP (22%). Diagnostic specificities for each marker were comparable, ranging from 80-88%. Analytical parameters were evaluated for the assays and compared favorably. We concluded that CA 15-3 was the best tumor antigen for use as a diagnostic aid and monitoring agent.

  2. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma.

    PubMed

    Panis, C; Victorino, V J; Herrera, A C S A; Cecchini, A L; Simão, A N C; Tomita, L Y; Cecchini, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide. PMID:26697139

  3. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma.

    PubMed

    Panis, C; Victorino, V J; Herrera, A C S A; Cecchini, A L; Simão, A N C; Tomita, L Y; Cecchini, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide.

  4. Suppression of Ovarian Function With Either Tamoxifen or Exemestane Compared With Tamoxifen Alone in Treating Premenopausal Women With Hormone-Responsive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-29

    Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  5. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  6. A comparative analysis of monthly out-of-pocket costs for patients with breast cancer as compared with other common cancers in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Longo, C.J.; Bereza, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Monthly out-of-pocket costs (oopc) for Ontario patients with cancer have previously been reported, but little detail has been provided on differences based on tumour type. Methods A questionnaire administered in cancer clinics in the province of Ontario, with a mix of urban and rural patients, was analyzed using descriptive statistics and a regression analysis of cross-sectional data. The dependent variable was oopc (Canadian dollars), analyzed separately for total oopc (excluding imputed travel costs), and for each of the individual cost categories. Results Compared with colorectal, lung, and prostate cancer patients combined, breast cancer patients had statistically significantly higher total oopc ($393 vs. $149, p = 0.02), device costs ($142 vs. $12, p = 0.018), and family care costs ($38 vs. $3, p = 0.01). By contrast, they trended toward lower costs for travel ($225 vs. $426, p = 0.055) and had lower costs for parking ($32 vs. $53, p = 0.0198). Compared with non-breast cancer patients, patients with breast cancer reported a greater perceived financial burden (31% vs. 17% p = 0.0133). Interpretation These findings highlight that financial burden for cancer patients can vary by tumour type, and that patients with breast cancer may require a different mix of supportive services than do patients with other common tumour types. Supportive care programs related to financial burden should consider the likelihood and nature of financial burden when counselling breast cancer patients. PMID:21331267

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Genetic and Epigenetic Events of Breast and Ovarian Cancer Related to Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Longacre, Mckenna; Snyder, Nicole A.; Housman, Genevieve; Leary, Meghan; Lapinska, Karolina; Heerboth, Sarah; Willbanks, Amber; Sarkar, Sibaji

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer persists as the most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Ovarian cancer is also a significant source of morbidity and mortality, as the fifth leading cause of cancer death among women. This reflects the continued need for further understanding and innovation in cancer treatment. Though breast and ovarian cancer usually present as distinct clinical entities, the recent explosion of large-scale -omics research has uncovered many overlaps, particularly with respect to genetic and epigenetic alterations. We compared genetic, microenvironmental, stromal, and epigenetic changes common between breast and ovarian cancer cells, as well as the clinical relevance of these changes. Some of the most striking commonalities include genetic alterations of BRCA1 and 2, TP53, RB1, NF1, FAT3, MYC, PTEN, and PIK3CA; down regulation of miRNAs 9, 100, 125a, 125b, and 214; and epigenetic alterations such as H3K27me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H4K20me3, and H3K4me. These parallels suggest shared features of pathogenesis. Furthermore, preliminary evidence suggests a shared epigenetic mechanism of oncogenesis. These similarities, warrant further investigation in order to ultimately inform development of more effective chemotherapeutics, as well as strategies to circumvent drug resistance. PMID:27213343

  8. Breast cancer--a comparative study between Malaysian and Singaporean women.

    PubMed

    Yip, C H; Ng, E H

    1996-06-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Malaysian and Singaporean women. A study done to compare the epidemiology of the disease, as well as to compare the rate of conservative surgery between Malaysian and Singaporean women was carried out. The results show that the median age at presentation was the same in both countries, and the incidence was lower among the Malays. However, there was a significant difference in the stage at presentation and the tumour size; Singaporean women presented at earlier stages and with smaller tumours compared to Malaysian women. This led to a lower rate of conservation surgery in Malaysian women.

  9. Breast Cancer -- Male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  10. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Breast Cancer KidsHealth > For Kids > Breast Cancer Print A A ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  11. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  12. Comparative effectiveness of breast MRI and mammography in screening young women with elevated risk of developing breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Anand K; Visvanathan, Kala; Harvey, Susan C

    2016-08-01

    Screening guidelines recommend that women with 20 % or greater lifetime risk of breast cancer undergo annual breast MRI screening to supplement mammography, irrespective of age. In patients less than 40 years, mammography is often avoided due to concerns about radiation and decreased performance. However, prior studies have been limited by large percentages of women above 40 with decreased breast density. Our purpose was to test whether adding mammography to breast MRI screening compared to breast MRI screening alone in women below 40 increases cancer detection rates. After obtaining IRB approval, chart review identified patients aged 25-40 years undergoing breast MR screening (2005-2014). Demographics, risk factors, BI-RADS assessments, background parenchymal enhancement, and mammographic breast tissue density were recorded. Cancer detection rates, short-term follow-up (BIRADS 3), image-guided biopsy (BIRADS 4,5), and PPV1-3 were calculated. 342 breast MRI exams were identified (average age was 33, 37 % were nulliparous, and 64 % had prior benign biopsy), 226 (66 %) of which underwent concurrent mammography. Risk factors included 64 % with breast cancer in first-degree relative(s), 90 % had heterogeneous or extremely dense breast tissue on mammography, and 16 % were BRCA carriers. Four invasive cancers were detected by MRI (11.7 cancers/1000 examinations, 95 % CI 8.3, 15.1). None of these was detected by mammography, and no cancers were independently identified by mammography. Breast MRI screening in high-risk women under 40 yielded elevated cancer detection rates (11.7/1000). The cancer detection rate for mammography was 0 %, suggesting that MRI alone may be useful in screening high-risk women under 40. PMID:27444927

  13. A prospective, randomized study on hepatotoxicity of anastrozole compared with tamoxifen in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying; Liu, Jianlun; Zhang, Xiaohua; Li, Li; Hu, Rui; Liu, Jian; Deng, Yongchuan; Chen, Dedian; Zhao, Yangbing; Sun, Shengrong; Ma, Rong; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Jinping; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xijing; Li, Yafen; He, Pingqing; Li, Enxiao; Xu, Zheli; Wu, Yaqun; Tong, Zhongsheng; Wang, Xiaojia; Huang, Tao; Liang, Zhongxiao; Wang, Shui; Su, Fengxi; Lu, Yunfei; Zhang, Helong; Feng, Guosheng; Wang, Shenming

    2014-09-01

    Tamoxifen and anastrozole are widely used as adjuvant treatment for early stage breast cancer, but their hepatotoxicity is not fully defined. We aimed to compare hepatotoxicity of anastrozole with tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. Three hundred and fifty-three Chinese postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer were randomized to anastrozole or tamoxifen after optimal primary therapy. The primary end-point was fatty liver disease, defined as a liver-spleen ratio <0.9 as determined using a computed tomography scan. The secondary end-points included abnormal liver function and treatment failure during the 3-year follow up. The cumulative incidence of fatty liver disease after 3 years was lower in the anastrozole arm than that of tamoxifen (14.6% vs 41.1%, P < 0.0001; relative risk, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.21-0.45). However, there was no difference in the cumulative incidence of abnormal liver function (24.6% vs 24.7%, P = 0.61). Interestingly, a higher treatment failure rate was observed in the tamoxifen arm compared with anastrozole and median times to treatment failure were 15.1 months and 37.1 months, respectively (P < 0.0001; HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.20-0.37). The most commonly reported adverse events were 'reproductive system disorders' in the tamoxifen group (17.1%), and 'musculoskeletal disorders' in the anastrozole group (14.6%). Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer receiving adjuvant anastrozole displayed less fatty liver disease, suggesting that this drug had a more favorable hepatic safety profile than tamoxifen and may be preferred for patients with potential hepatic dysfunction.

  14. A comparative review of thermography as a breast cancer screening technique.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Deborah A; Lee, Tanya; Seely, Dugald

    2009-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer of women in North America. Despite advances in treatment that have reduced mortality, breast cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer induced death. Several well established tools are used to screen for breast cancer including clinical breast exams, mammograms, and ultrasound. Thermography was first introduced as a screening tool in 1956 and was initially well accepted. However, after a 1977 study found thermography to lag behind other screening tools, the medical community lost interest in this diagnostic approach. This review discusses each screening tool with a focus brought to thermography. No single tool provides excellent predictability; however, a combination that incorporates thermography may boost both sensitivity and specificity. In light of technological advances and maturation of the thermographic industry, additional research is required to confirm the potential of this technology to provide an effective non-invasive, low risk adjunctive tool for the early detection of breast cancer.

  15. General Information about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  16. Comparative genomic analysis of primary tumors and metastases in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bertucci, François; Carbuccia, Nadine; Monneur, Audrey; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Goncalves, Anthony; Viens, Patrice; Birnbaum, Daniel; Chaffanet, Max

    2016-01-01

    Personalized medicine uses genomic information for selecting therapy in patients with metastatic cancer. An issue is the optimal tissue source (primary tumor or metastasis) for testing. We compared the DNA copy number and mutational profiles of primary breast cancers and paired metastases from 23 patients using whole-genome array-comparative genomic hybridization and next-generation sequencing of 365 “cancer-associated” genes. Primary tumors and metastases harbored copy number alterations (CNAs) and mutations common in breast cancer and showed concordant profiles. The global concordance regarding CNAs was shown by clustering and correlation matrix, which showed that each metastasis correlated more strongly with its paired tumor than with other samples. Genes with recurrent amplifications in breast cancer showed 100% (ERBB2, FGFR1), 96% (CCND1), and 88% (MYC) concordance for the amplified/non-amplified status. Among all samples, 499 mutations were identified, including 39 recurrent (AKT1, ERBB2, PIK3CA, TP53) and 460 non-recurrent variants. The tumors/metastases concordance of variants was 75%, higher for recurrent (92%) than for non-recurrent (73%) variants. Further mutational discordance came from very different variant allele frequencies for some variants. We showed that the chosen targeted therapy in two clinical trials of personalized medicine would be concordant in all but one patient (96%) when based on the molecular profiling of tumor and paired metastasis. Our results suggest that the genotyping of primary tumor may be acceptable to guide systemic treatment if the metastatic sample is not obtainable. However, given the rare but potentially relevant divergences for some actionable driver genes, the profiling of metastatic sample is recommended. PMID:27028851

  17. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Print to PDF Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  18. Biological subtyping of early breast cancer: a study comparing RT-qPCR with immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Ralph M; Sihto, Harri; Isola, Jorma; Heikkilä, Päivi; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Auvinen, Päivi; Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, Taina; Jyrkkiö, Sirkku; Lakis, Sotiris; Schlombs, Kornelia; Laible, Mark; Weber, Stefan; Eidt, Sebastian; Sahin, Ugur; Joensuu, Heikki

    2016-06-01

    The biological subtype of breast cancer influences the selection of systemic therapy. Distinction between luminal A and B cancers depends on consistent assessment of Ki-67, but substantial intra-observer and inter-observer variability exists when immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used. We compared RT-qPCR with IHC in the assessment of Ki-67 and other standard factors used in breast cancer subtyping. RNA was extracted from archival breast tumour tissue of 769 women randomly assigned to the FinHer trial. Cancer ESR1, PGR, ERBB2 and MKI67 mRNA content was quantitated with an RT-qPCR assay. Local pathologists assessed ER, PgR and Ki-67 expression using IHC. HER2 amplification was identified with chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) centrally. The results were correlated with distant disease-free survival (DDFS) and overall survival (OS). qPCR-based and IHC-based assessments of ER and PgR showed good concordance. Both low tumour MKI67 mRNA (RT-qPCR) and Ki-67 protein (IHC) levels were prognostic for favourable DDFS [hazard ratio (HR) 0.42, 95 % CI 0.25-0.71, P = 0.001; and HR 0.56, 0.37-0.84, P = 0.005, respectively] and OS. In multivariable analyses, cancer MKI67 mRNA content had independent influence on DDFS (adjusted HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.29-0.89, P = 0.019) while Ki-67 protein expression had not any influence (P = 0.266) whereas both assessments influenced independently OS. Luminal B patients treated with docetaxel-FEC had more favourable DDFS and OS than those treated with vinorelbine-FEC when the subtype was defined by RT-qPCR (for DDFS, HR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.29-0.94, P = 0.031), but not when defined using IHC. Breast cancer subtypes approximated with RT-qPCR and IHC show good concordance, but cancer MKI67 mRNA content correlated slightly better with DDFS than Ki-67 expression. The findings based on MKI67 mRNA content suggest that patients with luminal B cancer benefit more from docetaxel-FEC than from vinorelbine-FEC. PMID:27220750

  19. Breast Cancer Disparities

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  20. Breast cancer in men

    MedlinePlus

    ... in situ-male; Intraductal carcinoma-male; Inflammatory breast cancer-male; Paget disease of the nipple-male; Breast cancer-male ... The cause of breast cancer is not clear. But there are risk ... breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to radiation Higher ...

  1. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Instagram YouTube 2,600 men are diagnosed with breast cancer each year. Learn about risk factors, treatment options ... help hundreds of thousands of people affected by breast cancer. Donate Today Breast Cancer inFocus: Breast Cancer During ...

  2. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer On This Page What are hormones? How do ... sensitive breast cancer: Adjuvant therapy for early-stage breast cancer : Research has shown that women treated for early- ...

  3. Breast cancer in Latinas: gene expression, differential response to treatments, and differential toxicities in Latinas compared with other population groups.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tejal A; Colon-Otero, Gerardo; Bueno Hume, Celyne; Copland, John A; Perez, Edith A

    2010-01-01

    Disparities in clinical outcomes of breast cancer have been described among different racial and ethnic groups in the U.S. Convincing data exist showing that Latina women have a lower incidence of breast cancer but a higher breast cancer-related mortality rate compared with white women. Noticeable differences in breast cancer incidence are present even within different Latina subsets with a higher incidence in second- and third-generation women compared with foreign born. An increasing amount of data exists pointing to significant differences in the genetics and biology of breast cancer in Latinas as a significant contributor to the higher mortality, including a higher incidence of triple-negative breast cancers (which do not overexpress HER-2 protein and are negative for estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors). Other social and environmental factors are likely to play a significant role as well, including a lower rate of screening mammography, variable access to medical care, among others. Recent data are inconclusive regarding differences among racial/ethnic groups in the response to chemotherapy. Data on racial/ethnic variations in the pharmacogenomics of chemotherapy, endocrine treatments, and toxicity are more limited, with some data suggesting differences in frequencies of polymorphisms of genes involved in the metabolism of some of these agents. Further studies are needed on this subject.

  4. [Male breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mattson, Johanna; Vehmanen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is rare in men. Diagnosis of the illness may be delayed due to the fact that the doctor and the patient fail to suspect it. Male breast cancer is treated mainly on the same principles as female breast cancer. A man affected with breast cancer should always be directed to genetic testing, as inherited mutations increasing the risk of developing cancer are more common than in female breast cancer. Most breast cancers in men are hormone receptor positive. Among hormone treatments, the antiestrogen tamoxifen exhibits the best efficacy both in early-state and advanced cases. PMID:27188086

  5. Comparative analysis of nuclear estrogen receptor alpha and beta interactomes in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nassa, Giovanni; Tarallo, Roberta; Guzzi, Pietro H; Ferraro, Lorenzo; Cirillo, Francesca; Ravo, Maria; Nola, Ernesto; Baumann, Marc; Nyman, Tuula A; Cannataro, Mario; Ambrosino, Concetta; Weisz, Alessandro

    2011-03-01

    Estrogen Receptor alpha and beta (ER-α and -β) are members of the nuclear receptor family of transcriptional regulators with distinct roles in mediating estrogen dependent breast cancer cell growth and differentiation. Following activation by the hormone, these proteins undergo conformation changes and accumulate in the nucleus, where they bind to chromatin at regulatory sites as homo- and/or heterodimers and assemble in large multiprotein complexes. Although the two ERs share a conserved structure, they exert specific and distinct functional roles in normal and transformed mammary epithelial cells and other cell types. To investigate the molecular bases of such differences, we performed a comparative computational analysis of the nuclear interactomes of the two ER subtypes, exploiting two datasets of receptor interacting proteins identified in breast cancer cell nuclei by Tandem Affinity Purification for their ability to associate in vivo with ligand-activated ER-α and/or ER-β. These datasets comprise 498 proteins, of which only 70 are common to both ERs, suggesting that differences in the nature of the two ER interactomes are likely to sustain the distinct roles of the two receptor subtypes. Functional characterization of the two interactomes and their topological analysis, considering node degree and closeness of the networks, confirmed this possibility. Indeed, clustering and network dissection highlighted the presence of distinct and ER subtype-specific subnetworks endowed with defined functions. Altogether, these data provide new insights on the protein-protein interaction networks controlled by ER-α and -β that mediate their ability to transduce estrogen signaling in breast cancer cells. PMID:21173974

  6. Breast Cancer in Latinas: Gene Expression, Differential Response to Treatments, and Differential Toxicities in Latinas Compared with Other Population Groups

    PubMed Central

    Colon-Otero, Gerardo; Bueno Hume, Celyne; Copland, John A.; Perez, Edith A.

    2010-01-01

    Disparities in clinical outcomes of breast cancer have been described among different racial and ethnic groups in the U.S. Convincing data exist showing that Latina women have a lower incidence of breast cancer but a higher breast cancer–related mortality rate compared with white women. Noticeable differences in breast cancer incidence are present even within different Latina subsets with a higher incidence in second- and third-generation women compared with foreign born. An increasing amount of data exists pointing to significant differences in the genetics and biology of breast cancer in Latinas as a significant contributor to the higher mortality, including a higher incidence of triple-negative breast cancers (which do not overexpress HER-2 protein and are negative for estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors). Other social and environmental factors are likely to play a significant role as well, including a lower rate of screening mammography, variable access to medical care, among others. Recent data are inconclusive regarding differences among racial/ethnic groups in the response to chemotherapy. Data on racial/ethnic variations in the pharmacogenomics of chemotherapy, endocrine treatments, and toxicity are more limited, with some data suggesting differences in frequencies of polymorphisms of genes involved in the metabolism of some of these agents. Further studies are needed on this subject. PMID:20427382

  7. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  8. A Phase III Trial Comparing Two Dose-dense, Dose-intensified Approaches (ETC and PM(Cb)) for Neoadjuvant Treatment of Patients With High-risk Early Breast Cancer (GeparOcto)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-14

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; HER2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  9. Breast Cancer Detection with Short-Interval Follow-up Compared with Return to Annual Screening in Patients with Benign Stereotactic or US-guided Breast Biopsy Results

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alisa K.; O’Meara, Ellen S.; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Geller, Berta M.; Hotaling, Elise N.; Herschorn, Sally D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the cancer detection rate and stage after benign stereotactic or ultrasonography (US)–guided core breast biopsy between patients with short-interval follow-up (SIFU) and those who return to annual screening. Materials and Methods The Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) registry and the BCSC Statistical Coordinating Center received institutional review board approval for active and passive consent processes and a waiver of consent. All procedures were HIPAA compliant. BCSC data for 1994–2010 were used to compare ipsilateral breast cancer detection rates and tumor characteristics for diagnoses within 3 months after SIFU (3–8 months) versus return to annual screening (RTAS) mammography (9–18 months) after receiving a benign pathology result from image-guided breast biopsy. Results In total, 17 631 biopsies with benign findings were identified with SIFU or RTAS imaging. In the SIFU group, 27 ipsilateral breast cancers were diagnosed in 10 715 mammographic examinations (2.5 cancers per 1000 examinations) compared with 16 cancers in 6916 mammographic examinations in the RTAS group (2.3 cancers per 1000 examinations) (P = .88). Sixteen cancers after SIFU (59%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 39%, 78%) were invasive versus 12 after RTAS (75%; 95% CI: 48%, 93%). The invasive cancer rate was 1.5 per 1000 examinations after SIFU (95% CI: 0.9, 2.4) and 1.7 per 1000 examinations (95% CI: 0.9, 3.0) after RTAS (P = .70). Among invasive cancers, 25% were late stage (stage 2B, 3, or 4) in the SIFU group (95% CI: 7%, 52%) versus 27% in the RTAS group (95% CI: 6%, 61%). Positive lymph nodes were found in seven (44%; 95% CI: 20%, 70%) invasive cancers after SIFU and in three (25%; 95% CI: 5%, 57%) invasive cancers after RTAS. Conclusion Similar rates of cancer detection were found between SIFU and RTAS after benign breast biopsy with no significant differences in stage, tumor size, or nodal status, although the present study was limited by sample size

  10. Stages of Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...

  11. Breast Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...

  12. Breast cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    Doctors use 7 main stages to describe breast cancer. Stage 0, also called carcinoma in situ. This is cancer that is confined to the lobules or ducts in the breast. It has not spread to surrounding tissue. ...

  13. Postoperative radiotherapy following mastectomy for patients with left-sided breast cancer: A comparative dosimetric study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jiahao; Li, Xiadong; Deng, Qinghua; Xia, Bing; Wu, Shixiu; Liu, Jian; Ma, Shenglin

    2015-10-01

    The purposes of this article were to compare the biophysical dosimetry for postmastectomy left-sided breast cancer using 4 different radiotherapy (RT) techniques. In total, 30 patients with left-sided breast cancer were randomly selected for this treatment planning study. They were planned using 4 RT techniques, including the following: (1) 3-dimensional conventional tangential fields (TFs), (2) tangential intensity-modulated therapy (T-IMRT), (3) 4 fields IMRT (4F-IMRT), and (4) single arc volumetric-modulated arc therapy (S-VMAT). The planning target volume (PTV) dose was prescribed 50 Gy, the comparison of target dose distribution, conformity index, homogeneity index, dose to organs at risk (OARs), tumor control probability (TCP), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), and number of monitor units (MUs) between 4 plans were investigated for their biophysical dosimetric difference. The target conformity and homogeneity of S-VMAT were better than the other 3 kinds of plans, but increased the volume of OARs receiving low dose (V{sub 5}). TCP of PTV and NTCP of the left lung showed no statistically significant difference in 4 plans. 4F-IMRT plan was superior in terms of target coverage and protection of OARs and demonstrated significant advantages in decreasing the NTCP of heart by 0.07, 0.03, and 0.05 compared with TFs, T-IMRT, and S-VMAT plan. Compared with other 3 plans, TFs reduced the average number of MUs. Of the 4 techniques studied, this analysis supports 4F-IMRT as the most appropriate balance of target coverage and normal tissue sparing.

  14. Survivorship care in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sally L.; Murchison, Sonja; Singh-Carlson, Savitri; Alexander, Cheryl; Wai, Elaine S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare the perceptions of breast cancer survivors and primary care physicians (PCPs) about PCPs’ ability to deliver survivorship care in breast cancer. Design Mailed survey. Setting British Columbia. Participants A total of 1065 breast cancer survivors who had completed treatment of nonmetastatic breast cancer within the previous year, and 587 PCPs who had patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer discharged to their care within the preceding 18 months. Main outcome measures Breast cancer survivors’ and PCPs’ confidence ratings of PCPs’ ability to deliver the following aspects of care: screening for recurrence; managing osteoporosis, lymphedema, endocrine therapy, menopausal symptoms, and anxiety about or fear of recurrence; and providing nutrition and exercise counseling, sex and body image counseling, and family counseling. Response options for each question included low, adequate, or good. Responses were summarized as frequencies and compared using χ2 tests. Results Response rates for breast cancer survivors and PCPs were 47% and 59%, respectively. Responses were statistically different in all categories (P < .05). Both groups were most confident in the ability of PCPs to screen for recurrence, but breast cancer survivors were 10 times as likely to indicate low confidence (10% of breast cancer survivors vs 1% of PCPs) in this aspect of care. More breast cancer survivors (23%) expressed low confidence in PCPs’ ability to provide counseling about fear of recurrence compared with PCPs (3%). Aspects of care in which both breast cancer survivors and PCPs were most likely to express low confidence included sex and body image counseling (35% of breast cancer survivors vs 26% of PCPs) and family counseling (33% of breast cancer survivors vs 24% of PCPs). Primary care physicians (24%) described low confidence in their ability to manage lymphedema. Conclusion Breast cancer survivors and PCPs are reasonably confident in a PCP-based model

  15. Breast cancer and pregnancy: a comparative analysis of a Chilean cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, César; Acevedo, Francisco; Medina, Lidia; Ibáñez, Carolina; Razmilic, Dravna; Elena Navarro, M.; Camus, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Recent reports show that pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) survival is similar to that of non-pregnant young patients. We evaluate the characteristics and prognosis of PABC patients treated in our cancer centre. Patients and methods We identified patients with invasive PABC who were treated between 1999 and May 2013 and compared their characteristics with a no PABC cohort of similar age. Results The prevalence of PABC was 1% (n = 17). The median age was 35 years (range: 29– 42 years). The initial tumour was suspected clinically in 93% of the cases. Total mastectomy rates were higher in women with PABC (78.6% versus 40.5%, p = 0.02), and more tumours in the PABC group were triple negative, epidermal growth factor type 2 (HER2)–positive, and at advanced stages; however, these differences were not statistically significant. While estimated overall survival at ten years was higher in the non-PABC group (75.5% versus 80.5%, p = 0.043), disease-specific survival (DSS) rate at ten years was not statistically different between groups (83.9% for PABC and 75.5% for unrelated pregnancy BC, p = 0.37). Conclusions PABC is a rare event. In our cohort, it tended to be more aggressive. Compared with a similar age cohort, the DSS was not worse. PMID:24944576

  16. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  17. Comparing Relaxation Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy for Women with Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Miri; Fried, Georgeta

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior (CB) group intervention versus relaxation and guided imagery (RGI) group training. Method: A total of 114 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to CB, RGI, or control groups, and instruments were completed at pre- and postintervention and 4 months later. Results:…

  18. Digital dermatoglyphics and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, M H; Plato, C C; Engler, P E; Fletcher, H S

    1982-01-01

    Fingerprints of one hundred nineteen Caucasian females were obtained. Of these females, thirty-four had histologically proven breast cancer, fifty-three were at high risk for development of breast cancer, and thirty-two comprised a control group. The digital pattern frequencies and the pattern intensity index were significantly different between the three groups. The presence of six or more whorls appears significant as noted by 32.4% of breast cancer patients possessing this number of whorls as compared to 3.1% controls. Also of note is that 95% of subjects with six or more whorls either had cancer or were at high risk.

  19. Natural Products for Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eun-Yi; Moon, Aree

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is the primary cause of cancer death in women. Although current therapies have shown some promise against breast cancer, there is still no effective cure for the majority of patients in the advanced stages of breast cancer. Development of effective agents to slow, reduce, or reverse the incidence of breast cancer in high-risk women is necessary. Chemoprevention of breast cancer by natural products is advantageous, as these compounds have few side effects and low toxicity compared to synthetic compounds. In the present review, we summarize natural products which exert chemopreventive activities against breast cancer, such as curcumin, sauchinone, lycopene, denbinobin, genipin, capsaicin, and ursolic acid. This review examines the current knowledge about natural compounds and their mechanisms that underlie breast cancer chemopreventive activity both in vitro and in vivo. The present review may provide information on the use of these compounds for the prevention of breast cancer. PMID:26734584

  20. Natural Products for Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun-Yi; Moon, Aree

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the primary cause of cancer death in women. Although current therapies have shown some promise against breast cancer, there is still no effective cure for the majority of patients in the advanced stages of breast cancer. Development of effective agents to slow, reduce, or reverse the incidence of breast cancer in high-risk women is necessary. Chemoprevention of breast cancer by natural products is advantageous, as these compounds have few side effects and low toxicity compared to synthetic compounds. In the present review, we summarize natural products which exert chemopreventive activities against breast cancer, such as curcumin, sauchinone, lycopene, denbinobin, genipin, capsaicin, and ursolic acid. This review examines the current knowledge about natural compounds and their mechanisms that underlie breast cancer chemopreventive activity both in vitro and in vivo. The present review may provide information on the use of these compounds for the prevention of breast cancer. PMID:26734584

  1. Impact of gene patents and licensing practices on access to genetic testing for inherited susceptibility to cancer: comparing breast and ovarian cancers with colon cancers.

    PubMed

    Cook-Deegan, Robert; DeRienzo, Christopher; Carbone, Julia; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Heaney, Christopher; Conover, Christopher

    2010-04-01

    Genetic testing for inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer can be compared with similar testing for colorectal cancer as a "natural experiment." Inherited susceptibility accounts for a similar fraction of both cancers and genetic testing results guide decisions about options for prophylactic surgery in both sets of conditions. One major difference is that in the United States, Myriad Genetics is the sole provider of genetic testing, because it has sole control of relevant patents for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, whereas genetic testing for familial colorectal cancer is available from multiple laboratories. Colorectal cancer-associated genes are also patented, but they have been nonexclusively licensed. Prices for BRCA1 and 2 testing do not reflect an obvious price premium attributable to exclusive patent rights compared with colorectal cancer testing, and indeed, Myriad's per unit costs are somewhat lower for BRCA1/2 testing than testing for colorectal cancer susceptibility. Myriad has not enforced patents against basic research and negotiated a Memorandum of Understanding with the National Cancer Institute in 1999 for institutional BRCA testing in clinical research. The main impact of patenting and licensing in BRCA compared with colorectal cancer is the business model of genetic testing, with a sole provider for BRCA and multiple laboratories for colorectal cancer genetic testing. Myriad's sole-provider model has not worked in jurisdictions outside the United States, largely because of differences in breadth of patent protection, responses of government health services, and difficulty in patent enforcement.

  2. Living as a Breast Cancer Survivor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emotional aspects of breast cancer Living as a breast cancer survivor For many women with breast cancer, treatment ... making some new choices. Follow-up care after breast cancer treatment Even after you have completed breast cancer ...

  3. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions breast cancer breast cancer Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  5. A Comparative Study of Daily 3-Gy Hypofractionated and 1.8-Gy Conventional Breast Irradiation in Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sea-Won; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Kyubo; Chie, Eui Kyu; Han, Wonshik; Im, Seock-Ah; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Keun Seok; Lee, Eun Sook

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We retrospectively compared accelerated hypofractionation (AHF) with conventional fractionation (CF) in the radiation therapy (RT) for early-stage breast cancer patients. Three hundred seventy-nine early-stage (pT1–2 and pN0–1a) breast cancer patients who received RT with AHF after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were included. These patients were matched with 379 corresponding patients who received BCS and RT with CF at a different center with respect to the year BCS was performed, patient age (±3 years), and cancer stage. The AHF regimen consisted of 39 Gy in 13 fractions to the whole breast and a consecutive boost of 9 to 12 Gy in 3 to 4 fractions to the tumor bed. CF comprised whole-breast irradiation up to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions and a boost of 9 to 14 Gy in 5 to 7 fractions to the tumor bed. The median follow-up period was 75 months (range, 3.8–110.8 months). There was no statistically significant difference between the AHF and CF groups in terms of age distribution, T and N stage, resection margin, and histologic grade. There were 5 ipsilateral breast tumor relapse (IBTR) cases in the AHF group compared with 7 cases in the CF group. Seven and eight locoregional relapse (LRR) cases were observed in the AHF and CF groups, respectively. The 7-year rates of IBTR-free survival, LRR-free survival, and disease-free survival were 98.9%, 98.4%, and 97.1% in the AHF group and 98.1%, 97.9%, and 96.0% in the CF group, respectively (P > 0.05). The incident rates of grade 3 edema, hyperpigmentation, or wet desquamation at the end of RT were higher in the CF group than in the AHF group (16.4% vs 0.2%, respectively; P < 0.01). AHF RT of 39 Gy to the whole breast plus a 9-Gy boost in 16 fractions showed excellent tumor control and tolerable skin toxicity, a finding that is comparable to CF RT in patients with early-stage breast cancer. PMID:27175630

  6. Chemoprevention of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Files, Julia A; Stan, Daniela L; Allen, Summer V; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2012-11-01

    The development of pharmacologic agents for the prevention of breast cancer is a significant milestone in medical and laboratory research. Despite these advances, the endorsement of preventive options has become challenging and complex, as physicians are expected to counsel and tailor their recommendations using a personalized approach taking into account medical comorbidities, degree of risk and patient preferences. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the major breast cancer prevention trials, review of the pharmacologic options available for breast cancer prevention, and strategies for integrating chemoprevention of breast cancer in high-risk women into clinical practice.

  7. Male Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Comparison With Female Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, William F.; Jatoi, Ismail; Tse, Julia; Rosenberg, Philip S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Because of its rarity, male breast cancer is often compared with female breast cancer. Patients and Methods To compare and contrast male and female breast cancers, we obtained case and population data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program for breast cancers diagnosed from 1973 through 2005. Standard descriptive epidemiology was supplemented with age-period-cohort models and breast cancer survival analyses. Results Of all breast cancers, men with breast cancer make up less than 1%. Male compared with female breast cancers occurred later in life with higher stage, lower grade, and more estrogen receptor–positive tumors. Recent breast cancer incidence and mortality rates declined over time for men and women, but these trends were greater for women than for men. Comparing patients diagnosed from 1996 through 2005 versus 1976 through 1985, and adjusting for age, stage, and grade, cause-specific hazard rates for breast cancer death declined by 28% among men (P = .03) and by 42% among women (P ≈ 0). Conclusion There were three intriguing results. Age-specific incidence patterns showed that the biology of male breast cancer resembled that of late-onset female breast cancer. Similar breast cancer incidence trends among men and women suggested that there are common breast cancer risk factors that affect both sexes, especially estrogen receptor–positive breast cancer. Finally, breast cancer mortality and survival rates have improved significantly over time for both male and female breast cancer, but progress for men has lagged behind that for women. PMID:19996029

  8. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N.; Frazier, A. Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Data on international variation in breast cancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breast cancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia’s breast cancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Methods Age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Results Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57%, respectively). The increase in breast cancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Conclusions Mongolia’s low breast cancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breast cancer rate differences. PMID:22543542

  9. Carboplatin and Eribulin Mesylate in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  10. Comparative analysis of innate immune system function in metastatic breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer patients with circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mark F; Mannam, Venkat K R; Craft, Barbara S; Puneky, Louis V; Sheehan, Natale T; Lewis, Robert E; Cruse, Julius M

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in metastatic cancer patients have been found to be a promising biomarker to predict overall survival and tumor progression in these patients. A relatively high number of CTCs has been correlated with disease progression and poorer prognosis. This study was designed to assess innate immune system function, known to be responsible for the immune defense against developing neoplasms, in metastatic cancer patients with CTCs. Our aim is to provide a link between indication of poorer prognosis, represented by the number of CTCs to the cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells, an important component of the innate immune system, and to represent a promising expanded approach to management of metastatic cancer patients with CTCs. Seventy-four patients, with metastatic breast, colorectal, or prostate cancer, were recruited for this study. Using a flow cytometric assay, we measured natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity against K562 target cells; and CTCs were enumerated using the CellSearch System. Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 expression was also determined by flow cytometry. We found that within each of our three metastatic cancer patient groups, NK cell cytotoxic activity was decreased in patients with a relatively high number of CTCs in peripheral blood compared to patients with a relatively low number of CTCs. In the breast and prostate cancer group, patients with CTCs greater than 5 had decreased NK cell cytotoxicity when compared to patients with less than 5 CTCs. In the colorectal cancer group, we found that 3 or more CTCs in the blood was the level at which NK cell cytotoxicity is diminished. Additionally, we found that the toll-like receptors 2 and 4 expression was decreased in intensity in all the metastatic cancer patients when compared to the healthy controls. Furthermore, within each cancer group, the expression of both toll-like receptors was decreased in the patients with relatively high number of CTCs, i

  11. BREAST CANCER AND EXERCISE

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2008-03-19

    Prevent Osteoporosis and Osteoporotic Fractures; Improve Quality of Life; Improve Weight Control, and Muscular and Cardiovascular Fitness; Help the Patients to Return to Working Life; Reduce the Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence; Prevent Other Diseases and Reduce All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer.

  12. Impact of Gene Patents and Licensing Practices on Access to Genetic Testing for Inherited Susceptibility to Cancer: Comparing Breast and Ovarian Cancers to Colon Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Cook-Deegan, Robert; DeRienzo, Christopher; Carbone, Julia; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Heaney, Christopher; Conover, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Genetic testing for inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer can be compared to similar testing for colorectal cancer as a “natural experiment.” Inherited susceptibility accounts for a similar fraction of both cancers and genetic testing results guide decisions about options for prophylactic surgery in both sets of conditions. One major difference is that in the United States, Myriad Genetics is the sole provider of genetic testing, because it has sole control of relevant patents for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes whereas genetic testing for familial colorectal cancer is available from multiple laboratories. Colorectal cancer-associated genes are also patented, but they have been nonexclusively licensed. Prices for BRCA1 and 2 testing do not reflect an obvious price premium attributable to exclusive patent rights compared to colorectal cancer testing, and indeed Myriad’s per unit costs are somewhat lower for BRCA1/2 testing than testing for colorectal cancer susceptibility. Myriad has not enforced patents against basic research, and negotiated a Memorandum of Understanding with the National Cancer Institute in 1999 for institutional BRCA testing in clinical research. The main impact of patenting and licensing in BRCA compared to colorectal cancer is the business model of genetic testing, with a sole provider for BRCA and multiple laboratories for colorectal cancer genetic testing. Myriad’s sole provider model has not worked in jurisdictions outside the United States, largely because of differences in breadth of patent protection, responses of government health services, and difficulty in patent enforcement. PMID:20393305

  13. Comparing paraffined and deparaffinized breast cancer tissue samples and an analysis of Raman spectroscopy and infrared methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depciuch, J.; Kaznowska, E.; Szmuc, K.; Zawlik, I.; Cholewa, M.; Heraud, P.; Cebulski, J.

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer makes up a quarter of all cancer in women, which is why research into new diagnostic methods and sample preparations need to be developed at an accelerated pace. Researchers are looking for diagnostic tools to detect when an individual has cancer cells and use that information to see what measurements and approaches can be used to take further diagnostic steps. The most common method of sample preparation is the imbibing of tumor tissue in paraffin, which can produce a background for spectroscopic measurements in the range of 500-3500 cm-1. In this study we demonstrated that proper preparation of paraffin-embedded specimens and the measurement methodology can eliminate paraffin vibration, as was done in the work Depciuch et al. 2015. Thanks to this spectroscopic technique there may become a reliable and accurate method of diagnosing breast cancer based on the evidence found from the prepared samples. The study compared the results obtained through Raman spectroscopy and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) measurements of healthy and cancerous breast tissues that were either embedded in paraffin or deparaffinized. The resulting spectrum and accurate analysis led to the conclusion that the appropriate measurement of the background and the elimination of peaks from the paraffin had the greatest impact on the reliability of results. Furthermore, after the accurate, detailed studies FTIR and Raman spectroscopy on samples of breast tissue that were deparaffinized or embedded in paraffin, including a complete analysis of the peak after transformation Kramers-Kröning (KK), it was found that sample preparation did not affect the result obtained by measuring the reflectance in the mid-infrared range, and that this only had a minimal effect relating to the intensity obtained by the measurement of the Raman peak. Only in special cases, when Raman spectroscopic methods are used for research to find the peculiarities of the spectra, are deparaffinization recommended

  14. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    PubMed Central

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer. PMID:24319497

  15. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis of Harmonic technology compared with conventional techniques in mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery with lymphadenectomy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hang; Clymer, Jeffrey W; Ferko, Nicole C; Patel, Leena; Soleas, Ireena M; Cameron, Chris G; Hinoul, Piet

    2016-01-01

    Background Mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery (BCS) are important treatment options for breast cancer patients. A previous meta-analysis demonstrated that the risk of certain complications can be reduced with the Harmonic technology compared with conventional methods in mastectomy. However, the meta-analysis did not include studies of BCS patients and focused on a subset of surgical complications. The objective of this study was to compare Harmonic technology and conventional techniques for a range of clinical outcomes and complications in both mastectomy and BCS patients, including axillary lymph node dissection. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed for randomized controlled trials comparing Harmonic technology and conventional methods in breast cancer surgery. Outcome measures included blood loss, drainage volume, total complications, seroma, necrosis, wound infections, ecchymosis, hematoma, hospital length of stay, and operating time. Risk of bias was analyzed for all studies. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effects models for mean differences of continuous variables and a fixed-effects model for risk ratios of dichotomous variables. Results Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. Across surgery types, compared to conventional techniques, Harmonic technology reduced total complications by 52% (P=0.002), seroma by 46% (P<0.0001), necrosis by 49% (P=0.04), postoperative chest wall drainage by 46% (P=0.0005), blood loss by 38% (P=0.0005), and length of stay by 22% (P=0.007). Although benefits generally appeared greatest in mastectomy patients with lymph node dissection, Harmonic technology showed significant reductions in complications in the BCS study subgroup. Conclusion In this meta-analysis of both mastectomy and BCS procedures, the use of Harmonic technology reduced the risk of most complications by about half across breast cancer surgery patients. These benefits may be due to superior hemostatic capabilities of Harmonic

  17. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  18. Color model comparative analysis for breast cancer diagnosis using H and E stained images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingyu; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.

    2015-03-01

    Digital cancer diagnosis is a research realm where signal processing techniques are used to analyze and to classify color histopathology images. Different from grayscale image analysis of magnetic resonance imaging or X-ray, colors in histopathology images convey large amount of histological information and thus play significant role in cancer diagnosis. Though color information is widely used in histopathology works, as today, there is few study on color model selections for feature extraction in cancer diagnosis schemes. This paper addresses the problem of color space selection for digital cancer classification using H and E stained images, and investigates the effectiveness of various color models (RGB, HSV, CIE L*a*b*, and stain-dependent H and E decomposition model) in breast cancer diagnosis. Particularly, we build a diagnosis framework as a comparison benchmark and take specific concerns of medical decision systems into account in evaluation. The evaluation methodologies include feature discriminate power evaluation and final diagnosis performance comparison. Experimentation on a publicly accessible histopathology image set suggests that the H and E decomposition model outperforms other assessed color spaces. For reasons behind various performance of color spaces, our analysis via mutual information estimation demonstrates that color components in the H and E model are less dependent, and thus most feature discriminate power is collected in one channel instead of spreading out among channels in other color spaces.

  19. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone levels normally change throughout ... the development of breast cancer. Important Information about Breast Cancer Risk Factors At present, the factors known to ...

  20. A dose-comparative endocrine-clinical study of leuprorelin in premenopausal breast cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Dowsett, M.; Mehta, A.; Mansi, J.; Smith, I. E.

    1990-01-01

    Twelve premenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer were randomised to receive 3.75 or 7.5 mg of a slow release formulation of the luteinising hormone releasing hormone agonist leuprorelin once every 4 weeks. All patients were oestrogen receptor positive or unknown. Serum levels of gonadotrophins and oestrogens were suppressed markedly by both doses. All oestrogen values during treatment were within the postmenopausal range except for a single oestradiol level (274 pmol l-1) in one patient on the lower dose. There was no other indication that this lower dose was less effective as an oestrogen suppressant. There were two objective responders to the 3.75 mg dose and three to the 7.5 mg dose. Toxicity was confined almost entirely to hot flushes which occurred in 11/12 patients. We conclude that the slow release formulation of leuprorelin is effective in breast cancer treatment and that there is no major detriment to the use of the 3.75 rather than 7.5 mg dose. PMID:2123115

  1. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Finding Breast Cancer Early Can Save Lives Disabilities & Breast Cancer Screening ...

  2. Diet and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, George L; Copeland, Trisha; Khaodhiar, Lalita; Buckley, Rita B

    2003-03-01

    Obesity, overweight, and a sedentary lifestyle-all common conditions in breast cancer patients-are likely to be associated with poor survival and poor quality of life in women with breast cancer. Diet-related factors are thought to account for about 30% of cancers in developed countries. Most studies of diet and healthcare have focused on the role of single nutrients, foods, or food groups in disease prevention or promotion. Recent cancer guidelines on nutrition and physical activity emphasize diets that promote maintenance of a healthy body weight and a prudent dietary pattern that is low in red and processed meats and high in a variety of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. Except for dietary fat, few nutritional factors in adult life have been associated with breast cancer. Extensive data from animal model research, international correlations linking fat intake and breast cancer rates, and case-control studies support the hypothesis that a high-fat diet is conducive to the development of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Conflicting findings from cohort studies, however, have created uncertainty over the role of dietary fat in breast cancer growth and recurrence. Results from large-scale nutritional intervention trials are expected to resolve such issues. As new and improved data on dietary factors and patterns accumulate, dietary guidelines for cancer risk reduction will become more focused.

  3. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN), which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of breast cancer by using microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Methods Tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of invasive ductal cancers from 15 survivors who were exposed at 1.5 km or less from the hypocenter and 13 calendar year-matched non-exposed patients followed by aCGH analysis using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The total length of copy number aberrations (CNA) was used as an indicator of GIN, and correlation with clinicopathological factors were statistically tested. Results The mean of the derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread), which estimates the noise by calculating the spread of log ratio differences between consecutive probes for all chromosomes, was 0.54 (range, 0.26 to 1.05). The concordance of results between aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 gene amplification was 88%. The incidence of HER2 amplification and histological grade was significantly higher in the A-bomb survivors than control group (P = 0.04, respectively). The total length of CNA tended to be larger in the A-bomb survivors (P = 0.15). Correlation analysis of CNA and clinicopathological factors revealed that DLRSpread was negatively correlated with that significantly (P = 0.034, r = -0.40). Multivariate analysis with covariance revealed that the exposure to A-bomb was a significant (P = 0.005) independent factor which was associated with larger total length of CNA of breast cancers. Conclusions Thus, archival FFPE tissues from A-bomb survivors are useful for genome-wide a

  4. Outcome of Breast Cancer in Moroccan Young Women Correlated to Clinic-Pathological Features, Risk Factors and Treatment: A Comparative Study of 716 Cases in a Single Institution

    PubMed Central

    Mouh, Fatima Zahra; Ghanname, Imane; Razine, Rachid; El Mzibri, Mohammed; Amrani, Mariam

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer in young women is quite uncommon and shows more aggressive characteristics with major disparities between worldwide populations. Prognosis and outcome of breast cancer in young patients are widely studied, but still no consensus is available. Methods We retrospectively included 716 cases of breast cancer women diagnosed in 2009 at the National Institute of Oncology of Rabat. Patients were divided into two groups according to their age: women aged ≤40 years (Group 1) and women aged >40 years (Group 2). Data were recorded from patients’ medical files and analyzed using SPSS 13.0 software (IBM). Results Young patients represent 24.9% of all patients with breast cancer. The comparison between the two groups displayed significant differences regarding nulliparity (p = 0.001) and progesterone receptor negativity (p = 0.01). Moreover, more progression (Metastases/Relapse) was registered in young women as compared to older women with breast cancer (p = 0.03). The estimated median follow-up period was 31 months. The 5-years Event-Free Survival (EFS) of patients with local disease was 64.6% in young women and 71.5% in older women with breast cancer (p = 0.04). Multivariate analysis in young women showed that nulliparity (HR: 7.2; 95%CI: 1.16–44.54; p = 0.03), T3 tumors (HR: 17.39; 95%CI: 1.74–173.34; p = 0.01) and negative PgR status (HR: 19.85; 95%CI: 1.07–366.54; p = 0.04) can be considered as risk factors for poorer event free survival while hormone therapy was associated with better EFS (HR: 0.11; 95%CI: 0.00–0.75; p = 0.03). In Group 2, multivariate analysis showed that patients with inflammatory breast cancer, N+ status, absence of radiotherapy, absence of chemotherapy, and absence of hormone therapy are at increased risk of recurrence. Conclusions In Morocco, breast cancer is more frequent in young women as compared to western countries. Breast cancer in young women is more aggressive and is diagnosed late, leading to an intensive

  5. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Mu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various metastatic traits that contribute to the metastasis cascade of breast cancer, which may provide novel avenues for therapeutic targeting. PMID:26380552

  6. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Keoxifene (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Nolvadex (Tamoxifen ...

  7. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Campaign Initiatives Participation in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed Breast Cancer in Young Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Syndicate this page Marleah's family history of breast cancer was her motivation for pursuing a career where ...

  8. Comparative study of two kinds of repeated photodynamic therapy strategies in breast cancer by using a sensitizer, sinoporphyrin sodium.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wenli; Wang, Xiaobing; Hu, Jianmin; Liu, Yichen; Liu, Quanhong; Wang, Pan

    2016-07-01

    Sinoporphyrin sodium (DVDMS) is a newly identified photosensitizer that was isolated from Photofrin. Experimental and clinical results have demonstrated that repeated application of PDT greatly improved the therapeutic efficacy. Here, we comparatively studied two kinds of photodynamic therapy (PDT) strategies by using DVDMS (2mg/kg) in murine breast cancer 4T1 xenograft model to provide evidence which strategy exerts a better antitumor effect. Regimen (1): DVDMS was injected one time into tumor-bearing mice, which were then repeatedly exposed to 50J/cm(2) light 24h, 30h and 36h later. Regimen (2): DVDMS was injected 3 times and mice exposed to 50J/cm(2) light 24h after each injection, with 5days intervals between each DVDMS injection. On day 21 after the tumor cell injection, in regimen (1) the tumor volume inhibition ratio was reached to 85.75±7.60%. While at the same day the inhibition ratio was 65.74±8.64% of regimen (2). Additionally, regimen (1) appeared to more effectively initiate tumor tissue destruction and cancer cell apoptosis, inhibit lung metastasis, suppress cancer cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Moreover, no obvious effect on body weight and other side effects were observed in the treated mice. These results suggest that regimen (1) might be a potentially efficient strategy against breast cancer. PMID:27162175

  9. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-20

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  10. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-16

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  11. [Epidemiology of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Cuevas, Sergio A; Capurso García, Marino

    2006-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor worldwide. In recent years there has been observed an increase in its frequency, especially in developing countries, as Mexico, where mortality is arriving to the first cause of death in females. This is, in part, due to a delayed diagnosis, most frequently done in locally advances stages with a low cure rate. This is a review of all risk factors: age, sex, personal and familial history, genetic syndromes, associated breast disease, geographic distribution, body structure and environmental, hormonal, reproductive and dietary factors. It is concluded that breast cancer is a public health problem in developed and developing countries, and the best methods to drop mortality for breast cancer is the wide use of screening mammography in women at risk, in order to find cancers at initial stages and offer the adequate treatment.

  12. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  13. What Is Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... statistics about breast cancer in men? What is breast cancer in men? A breast cancer is a malignant ... women but are very rare in men. General breast cancer terms Here are some of the key words ...

  14. General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment and Pregnancy (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Breast Cancer and Pregnancy Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  15. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  17. Cutaneous manifestations of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Antoinette R

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer may present with cutaneous symptoms. The skin manifestations of breast cancer are varied. Some of the more common clinical presentations of metastatic cutaneous lesions from breast cancer will be described. Paraneoplastic cutaneous dermatoses have been reported as markers of breast malignancy and include erythema gyratum repens, acquired ichthyosis, dermatomyositis, multicentric reticulohistiocytosis, and hypertrichosis lanuginosa acquisita. Mammary Paget's disease, often associated with an underlying breast cancer, and Cowden syndrome, which has an increased risk of breast malignancy, each have specific dermatologic findings. Recognition of these distinct cutaneous signs is important in the investigation of either newly diagnosed or recurrent breast cancer. PMID:27178684

  18. Women and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lippman, M E

    1987-01-01

    One in every 12 women will develop breast cancer; the incidence increases with age, dietary fat intake, caloric intake, height, and weight. The 10-year survival rate of breast cancer patients who refuse therapy is virtually zero. Segmental mastectomy plus radiation and lumpectomy, combined with systemic (adjuvant)chemotherapy, are alternatives under investigation at the National Institutes of Health that may increase the survival rate by decreasing metastatic complications.

  19. Prevalence of Papillomaviruses, Polyomaviruses, and Herpesviruses in Triple-Negative and Inflammatory Breast Tumors from Algeria Compared with Other Types of Breast Cancer Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Corbex, Marilys; Bouzbid, Sabiha; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Aouras, Hayette; McKay-Chopin, Sandrine; Carreira, Christine; Lankar, Abdelaziz; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik

    2014-01-01

    Background The possible role of viruses in breast cancer etiology remains an unresolved question. We hypothesized that if some viruses are involved, it may be in a subgroup of breast cancers only. Epidemiological arguments drove our interest in breast cancer subgroups that are more frequent in Africa, namely inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and triple-negative breast cancer. We tested whether viral prevalence was significantly higher in these subgroups. Materials and Methods One hundred fifty-five paraffin-embedded malignant breast tumors were randomly selected at the pathology laboratory of the University Hospital of Annaba (Algeria) to include one third of IBC and two thirds of non-IBC. They were tested for the presence of DNA from 61 viral agents (46 human papillomaviruses, 10 polyomaviruses, and 5 herpesviruses) using type-specific multiplex genotyping assays, which combine multiplex PCR and bead-based Luminex technology. Results Viral DNA was found in 22 (17.9%) of 123 tumors. The most prevalent viruses were EBV1 and HPV16. IBC tumors carried significantly more viruses (any type) than non-IBC tumors (30% vs. 13%, p<0.04). Similarly, triple-negative tumors displayed higher virus-positivity than non-triple-negative tumors (44% vs. 14%, p<0.009). Conclusions Our results suggest an association between the presence of viral DNA and aggressive breast cancer phenotypes (IBC, triple-negative). While preliminary, they underline the importance of focusing on subgroups when studying viral etiology in breast cancer. Further studies on viruses in breast cancer should be conducted in much larger samples to confirm these initial findings. PMID:25478862

  20. Comparative evaluation of novel biodegradable nanoparticles for the drug targeting to breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mattu, C; Pabari, R M; Boffito, M; Sartori, S; Ciardelli, G; Ramtoola, Z

    2013-11-01

    Nanomedicine formulations such as biodegradable nanoparticles (nps) and liposomes offer several advantages over traditional routes of administration: due to their small size, nanocarriers are able to selectively accumulate inside tumours or inflammatory tissues, resulting in improved drug efficacy and reduced side effects. To further augment targeting ability of nanoparticles towards tumour cells, specific ligands or antibodies that selectively recognise biomarkers over-expressed on cancer cells, can be attached to the surface either by chemical bond or by hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions. In the present work, Herceptin (HER), a monoclonal antibody (mAb) able to selectively recognise HER-2 over-expressing tumour cells (such as breast and ovarian cancer cells), was absorbed on the surface of nanoparticles through hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions. Nps were prepared by a modified single emulsion solvent evaporation method with five different polymers: three commercial polyesters (poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly (D,L-lactide) (PLA) and poly (D,L-lactide-co-.glycolide) (PLGA)) and two novel biodegradable polyesterurethanes (PURs) based on Poly(ε-caprolactone) blocks, synthesised with different chain extenders (1,4-cyclohexane dimethanol (CDM) and N-Boc-serinol). Polyurethanes were introduced as matrix-forming materials for nanoparticles due to their high chemical versatility, which allows tailoring of the materials final properties by properly selecting the reagents. All nps exhibited a small size and negative surface charge, suitable for surface functionalisation with mAb through hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions. The extent of cellular internalisation was tested on two different cell lines: MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells showing a normal and a high expression of the HER-2 receptor, respectively. Paclitaxel, a model anti-neoplastic drug, was encapsulated inside all nps, and release profiles and cytotoxicity on SK-BR-3 cells were also assessed

  1. Trends and variations in breast and colorectal cancer incidence from 1995 to 2011: A comparative study between Texas Cancer Registry and National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data

    PubMed Central

    LIU, ZHEYU; ZHANG, YEFEI; FRANZIN, LUISA; CORMIER, JANICE N.; CHAN, WENYAW; XU, HUA; DU, XIANGLIN L.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the cancer incidence trends in the state of Texas, and no study has ever been conducted to compare the temporal trends of breast and colorectal cancer incidence in Texas with those of the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) in the United States. This study aimed to conduct a parallel comparison between the Texas Cancer Registry and the National Cancer Institute’s SEER on cancer incidence from 1995 to 2011. A total of 951,899 breast and colorectal cancer patients were included. Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence was 134.74 per 100,000 in Texas and 131.78 per 100,000 in SEER in 1995–2011, whereas age-adjusted colorectal cancer incidence was 50.52 per 100,000 in Texas and 49.44 per 100,000 in SEER. Breast cancer incidence increased from 1995 to 2001, decreased from 2002 to 2006, and then remained relatively stable from 2007 to 2011. For colorectal cancer, the incidence increased in 1995–1997, and then decreased continuously from 1998 to 2011 in Texas and SEER areas. Incidence rates and relative risks by age, gender and ethnicity were identical between Texas and SEER. PMID:25672365

  2. Trends and variations in breast and colorectal cancer incidence from 1995 to 2011: a comparative study between Texas Cancer Registry and National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheyu; Zhang, Yefei; Franzin, Luisa; Cormier, Janice N; Chan, Wenyaw; Xu, Hua; Du, Xianglin L

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have examined the cancer incidence trends in the state of Texas, and no study has ever been conducted to compare the temporal trends of breast and colorectal cancer incidence in Texas with those of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) in the United States. This study aimed to conduct a parallel comparison between the Texas Cancer Registry and the National Cancer Institute's SEER on cancer incidence from 1995 to 2011. A total of 951,899 breast and colorectal cancer patients were included. Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence was 134.74 per 100,000 in Texas and 131.78 per 100,000 in SEER in 1995-2011, whereas age-adjusted colorectal cancer incidence was 50.52 per 100,000 in Texas and 49.44 per 100,000 in SEER. Breast cancer incidence increased from 1995 to 2001, decreased from 2002 to 2006, and then remained relatively stable from 2007 to 2011. For colorectal cancer, the incidence increased in 1995-1997, and then decreased continuously from 1998 to 2011 in Texas and SEER areas. Incidence rates and relative risks by age, gender and ethnicity were identical between Texas and SEER.

  3. Differences in pathological and clinical features of breast cancer in Arab as compared to Jewish women in Northern Israel.

    PubMed

    Zidan, Jamal; Sikorsky, Natalya; Basher, Walid; Sharabi, Adi; Friedman, Eitan; Steiner, Mariana

    2012-08-15

    Breast cancer (BC) does not affect ethnic groups equally. BC mortality is higher in Israeli Palestinian Arab women than among Israeli Jewish women. This study aims to compare clinical, biological and pathological characteristics of breast cancer in the two populations. Records of 1,140 women with BC treated at Northern Israel between 2002 and 2007 were reviewed: 872 Jews and 268 Arabs. Age at diagnosis, tumor stage, pathological differentiation, estrogen receptor (ER) and HER-2 expression were evaluated. The main age at diagnosis was 49.9 years for Arabs and 59.4 years for Jews (p < 0.0001). Mean tumor size was < 2 cm in 25% of Arabs and 53% of Jews (p < 0.0001). Lymph node metastases presented in 64.6% of Arabs and 37.2% of Jews (p < 0.0001). Stage I disease was 19% in Arab and 49.2% in Jewish women while Stages III and IV disease was 42% and 11.3% respectively (p < 0.001). ER was positive in 69% of Arabs and in 78.5% of Jews (p < 0.001). Poorly differentiated tumors were found in 28.8% of Arabs vs. 12.8% in Jews (p < 0.0001). Overexpression of HER-2 was present in 35.4% of Arab and 22% of Jewish women (p < 0.001). We found that race is an important predictive factor for breast cancer. Arab women are diagnosed at younger age, with more advanced stage and biologically more aggressive disease than in Jewish women. Socioeconomic factors alone are not sufficient to explain significant effects of race on tumor characteristics. Findings suggest a different genetic susceptibility in the two populations which needs further research.

  4. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  5. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high rate of breast cancer (142.7 per 100,000 in Suffolk County) and in a representative sample of US women (NHANES 1999-2008, 92 with breast cancer and 2,884 without). In a multivariable logistic model, both samples showed a significant trend for increased odds of breast cancer across increasing UCd quartiles (NHANES, p=0.039 and LI, p=0.023). Compared to those in the lowest quartile, LI women in the highest quartile had increased risk for breast cancer (OR=2.69; 95% CI=1.07, 6.78) and US women in the two highest quartiles had increased risk (OR=2.50; 95% CI=1.11, 5.63 and OR=2.22; 95% CI=.89, 5.52, respectively). Further research is warranted on the impact of environmental cadmium on breast cancer risk in specific populations and on identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:21071816

  6. Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The BioScan System was developed by OmniCorder Technologies, Inc. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The system is able to locate cancerous lesions by detecting the cancer's ability to recruit a new blood supply. A digital sensor detects infrared energy emitted from the body and identifies the minute differences accompanying the blood flow changes associated with cancerous cells. It also has potential use as a monitoring device during cancer treatment. This technology will reduce the time taken to detect cancerous cells and allow for earlier intervention, therefore increasing the overall survival rates of breast cancer patients.

  7. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-27

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  8. A population-based study comparing HRQoL among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors to propensity score matched controls, by cancer type, and gender

    PubMed Central

    LeMasters, Traci; Madhavan, Suresh; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Kurian, Sobha

    2016-01-01

    Background Objectives were to compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between breast cancer survivors, prostate cancer survivors (PCS), and colorectal cancer survivors (CCS) to matched controls, stratified by short and long-term survivors, by cancer type, and gender. Methods By using the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, propensity scores matched three controls to adult survivors >1 year past diagnosis (N = 11,964) on age, gender, race/ethnicity, income, insurance status, and region of the USA Chi-square tests and logistic regression models compared HRQoL outcomes (life satisfaction, activity limitations, sleep quality, emotional support, general, physical, and mental health). Results Although all cancer survivors reported worse general health (p < 0.000) and more activity limitations (p < 0.004) than controls, these disparities decreased among long-term survivors. Short-term PCS and male CCS were more likely to report worse outcomes across additional domains of HRQoL than controls, but PCS were 0.61, 0.63, and 0.70 times less likely to report activity limitations, fair/poor general health, and 1–15 bad physical health days in the past month than male CCS. Breast cancer survivors and female CCS were 2.12 and 3.17, 1.58 and 1.86, and 1.49 and 153, respectively, times more likely to report rarely/never receiving needed emotional support, 1–15 bad mental health days in the past month, and not receiving enough sleep 1–15 days in the past month than PCS and male CCS. Conclusions Cancer survivors experience worse HRQoL than similar individuals without a history of cancer and the severity of affected HRQoL domains differ by time since diagnosis, cancer type, and gender. PMID:23606210

  9. Bisphosphonates in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Aju; Brufsky, Adam

    2015-08-15

    Bisphosphonates are osteoclast inhibitors, currently being used in oncology to prevent or delay bone morbidity in cancer. Oral and intravenous formulations of bisphosphonates have been found to be efficacious in preventing skeletal-related events such as bone pain, pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression and hypercalcemia of malignancy, in patients with bone metastatic breast cancer. Bisphosphonates are also used to prevent bone loss associated with anti-estrogen therapy using aromatase inhibitors. In addition to its role in preventing bone resorption, several pre-clinical studies have noted an anti-tumor role as well. Recent research effort has particularly focused on investigating an adjuvant role for bisphosphonates in early breast cancer. Recently, few randomized trials have found a beneficial effect for adjuvant use of the aminobisphosphonate, zoledronate, in older patients who are post-menopausal. This review article will summarize the various clinical studies investigating the role of bisphosphonates in breast cancer.

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat breast cancer. Internal radiation therapy with strontium-89 (a radionuclide ) is used to relieve bone pain ... breast cancer that has spread to the bones. Strontium-89 is injected into a vein and travels to ...

  11. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  12. Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... SIR login) Interventional Radiology Minimally Invasive Treatments for Breast Cancer Interventional Radiology Treatments Offer New Options and Hope ... have in the fight against breast cancer. About Breast Cancer When breast tissue divides and grows at an ...

  13. Informing hot flash treatment decisions for breast cancer survivors: a systematic review of randomized trials comparing active interventions.

    PubMed

    Johns, Claire; Seav, Susan M; Dominick, Sally A; Gorman, Jessica R; Li, Hongying; Natarajan, Loki; Mao, Jun James; Su, H Irene

    2016-04-01

    Patient-centered decision making about hot flash treatments often incorporates a balance of efficacy and side effects in addition to patient preference. This systematic review examines randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing at least two non-hormonal hot flash treatments in breast cancer survivors. In July 2015, PubMed, SCOPUS, CINAHL, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases were searched for RCTs comparing active, non-hormonal hot flash treatments in female breast cancer survivors. Thirteen trials were included after identifying 906 potential studies. Four trials were dose comparison studies of pharmacologic treatments citalopram, venlafaxine, gabapentin, and paroxetine. Hot flash reduction did not differ by tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor use. Citalopram 10, 20, and 30 mg daily had comparable outcomes. Venlafaxine 75 mg daily improved hot flashes without additional side effects from higher dosing. Gabapentin 900 mg daily improved hot flashes more than 300 mg. Paroxetine 10 mg daily had fewer side effects than 20 mg. Among four trials comparing different pharmacologic treatments, venlafaxine alleviated hot flash symptoms faster than clonidine; participants preferred venlafaxine over gabapentin. Five trials compared pharmacologic to non-pharmacologic treatments. Acupuncture had similar efficacy to venlafaxine and gabapentin but may have longer durability after completing treatment and fewer side effects. We could not perform a pooled meta-analysis because outcomes were not reported in comparable formats. Clinical trial data on non-hormonal hot flash treatments provide comparisons of hot flash efficacy and other patient important outcomes to guide clinical management. Clinicians can use the information to help patients select hot flash interventions.

  14. Informing hot flash treatment decisions for breast cancer survivors: a systematic review of randomized trials comparing active interventions.

    PubMed

    Johns, Claire; Seav, Susan M; Dominick, Sally A; Gorman, Jessica R; Li, Hongying; Natarajan, Loki; Mao, Jun James; Su, H Irene

    2016-04-01

    Patient-centered decision making about hot flash treatments often incorporates a balance of efficacy and side effects in addition to patient preference. This systematic review examines randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing at least two non-hormonal hot flash treatments in breast cancer survivors. In July 2015, PubMed, SCOPUS, CINAHL, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases were searched for RCTs comparing active, non-hormonal hot flash treatments in female breast cancer survivors. Thirteen trials were included after identifying 906 potential studies. Four trials were dose comparison studies of pharmacologic treatments citalopram, venlafaxine, gabapentin, and paroxetine. Hot flash reduction did not differ by tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor use. Citalopram 10, 20, and 30 mg daily had comparable outcomes. Venlafaxine 75 mg daily improved hot flashes without additional side effects from higher dosing. Gabapentin 900 mg daily improved hot flashes more than 300 mg. Paroxetine 10 mg daily had fewer side effects than 20 mg. Among four trials comparing different pharmacologic treatments, venlafaxine alleviated hot flash symptoms faster than clonidine; participants preferred venlafaxine over gabapentin. Five trials compared pharmacologic to non-pharmacologic treatments. Acupuncture had similar efficacy to venlafaxine and gabapentin but may have longer durability after completing treatment and fewer side effects. We could not perform a pooled meta-analysis because outcomes were not reported in comparable formats. Clinical trial data on non-hormonal hot flash treatments provide comparisons of hot flash efficacy and other patient important outcomes to guide clinical management. Clinicians can use the information to help patients select hot flash interventions. PMID:27015968

  15. Survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer: analysis of randomized studies comparing oral aromatase inhibitors versus megestrol.

    PubMed

    Messori, A; Cattel, F; Trippoli, S; Vaiani, M

    2000-10-01

    In patients with metastatic breast cancer, second-line therapy with aromatase inhibitors can improve survival in comparison with megestrol. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of aromatase inhibitors versus megestrol. After a Medline search, three trials (evaluating letrozole, anastrozole or exemestane versus megestrol) were included in the survival meta-analysis. Our methodology retrieved patient-level information on survival. In comparison with megestrol, aromatase inhibitors prolonged survival at levels of statistical significance (relative death risk for oral aromatase inhibitors=0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.69-0.91; p=0.0011). A lifetime analysis of the pooled survival curves of aromatase inhibitors versus megestrol found a mean survival gain of 4.1 months per patient. Aromatase inhibitors confer a significant survival benefit to patients with metastatic breast cancer as compared with megestrol. A preliminary calculation of the cost per life year gained shows that the pharmacoeconomic profile of these drugs is favorable. PMID:11129731

  16. Computerized Cognitive Retraining in Improving Cognitive Function in Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-26

    Cancer Survivor; Stage 0 Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  17. Breast cancer screening controversies: who, when, why, and how?

    PubMed

    Chetlen, Alison; Mack, Julie; Chan, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic screening is effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The issue is not whether mammography is effective, but whether the false positive rate and false negative rates can be reduced. This review will discuss controversies including the reduction in breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, the ideal screening candidate, and the optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. The article will compare and contrast screening mammography, tomosynthesis, whole-breast screening ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular breast imaging. Though supplemental imaging modalities are being utilized to improve breast cancer diagnosis, mammography still remains the gold standard for breast cancer screening.

  18. Affluence and Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2016-09-01

    High income, high socioeconomic status, and affluence increase breast cancer incidence. Socioeconomic status in USA breast cancer studies has been assessed by block-group socioeconomic measures. A block group is a portion of a census tract with boundaries that segregate, as far as possible, socioeconomic groups. In this study, we used US Census income data instead of block groups to gauge socioeconomic status of breast cancer patients in relationship with incidence, prognostic markers, and survival. US state breast cancer incidence and mortality data are from the U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, United States Cancer Statistics: 1999-2011. Three-Year-Average Median Household Income by State, 2010 to 2012, is from the U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, 2011 to 2013 Annual Social and Economic Supplements. County incomes are from the 2005-2009 American Community Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau. The American Community Survey is an ongoing statistical survey that samples a small percentage of the population yearly. Its purpose is to provide communities the information they need to plan investments and services. Breast cancer county incidence and survival data are from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data base. We analyzed SEER data from 198 counties in California, Connecticut, Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington. SEER uses the Collaborative Stage (CS) Data Collection System. We have retained the SEER CS variables. There was a significant relationship of income with breast cancer incidence in 50 USA states and the District of Columbia in White women (r = 0.623, p < 0.001). There was a significant relationship between node involvement and income in Whites in 198 USA counties. Income was significantly correlated with 5-year relative survival in Whites with localized breast cancer. Income was not correlated with 5-year survival of Black race (p = 0.364) or other races (p = 0

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  20. Cryosurgery of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Liang; Xu, Kecheng

    2012-01-01

    With recent improvements in breast imaging, the ability to identify small breast tumors is markedly improved, prompting significant interest in the use of cryoablation without surgical excision to treat early-stage breast cancer. The cryoablation is often performed using ultrasound-guided tabletop argon-gas-based cryoablation system with a double freeze/thaw cycle. Recent studies have demonstrated that, as a primary therapy for small breast cancer, cryoablation is safe and effective with durable results, and can successfully destroy all cancers <1.0 cm and tumors between 1.0 and 1.5 cm without a significant ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS) component. Presence of noncalcified DCIS is the cause of most cryoablation failures. At this time, cryoablation should be limited to patients with invasive ductal carcinoma <1.5 cm and with <25% DCIS in the core biopsy. For unresectable advanced breast cancer, cryoablation is a palliation modality and may be used as complementary for subsequent resection or other therapies. PMID:25083433

  1. Protocol and Recruitment Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Group Phone-Based versus Newsletter Interventions for Weight Loss Maintenance among Rural Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Befort, Christie A.; Klemp, Jennifer R.; Fabian, Carol; Perri, Michael G.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Diaz, Francisco J.; Shireman, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and death. Women who reside in rural areas have higher obesity prevalence and suffer from breast cancer treatment-related disparities compared to urban women. The objective of this 5-year randomized controlled trial is to compare methods for delivering extended care for weight loss maintenance among rural breast cancer survivors. Group phone-based counseling via conference calls addresses access barriers, is more cost-effective than individual phone counseling, and provides group support which may be ideal for rural breast cancer survivors who are more likely to have unmet support needs. Women (n = 210) diagnosed with Stage 0 to III breast cancer in the past 10 years who are ≥ 3 months out from initial cancer treatments, have a BMI 27–45 kg/m2, and have physician clearance were enrolled from multiple cancer centers. During Phase I (months 0 to 6), all women receive a behavioral weight loss intervention delivered through group phone sessions. Women who successfully lose 5% of weight enter Phase II (months 6 to 18) and are randomized to one of two extended care arms: continued group phone-based treatment or a mail-based newsletter. During Phase III, no contact is made (months 18 to 24). The primary outcome is weight loss maintenance from 6 to 18 months. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, serum biomarkers, and cost-effectiveness. This study will provide essential information in how to reach rural survivors in future efforts to establish weight loss support for breast cancer survivors as a standard of care. PMID:24486636

  2. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of progressive resistance training compared to progressive muscle relaxation in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy: the BEST study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment. During and after radiotherapy breast cancer patients often suffer from CRF which frequently impairs quality of life (QoL). Despite the high prevalence of CRF in breast cancer patients and the severe impact on the physical and emotional well-being, effective treatment methods are scarce. Physical activity for breast cancer patients has been reported to decrease fatigue, to improve emotional well-being and to increase physical strength. The pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms of CRF and the molecular-biologic changes induced by exercise, however, are poorly understood. In the BEST trial we aim to assess the effects of resistance training on fatigue, QoL and physical fitness as well as on molecular, immunological and inflammatory changes in breast cancer patients during adjuvant radiotherapy. Methods/design The BEST study is a prospective randomized, controlled intervention trial investigating the effects of a 12-week supervised progressive resistance training compared to a 12-week supervised muscle relaxation training in 160 patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. To determine the effect of exercise itself beyond potential psychosocial group effects, patients in the control group perform a group-based progressive muscle relaxation training. Main inclusion criterion is histologically confirmed breast cancer stage I-III after lumpectomy or mastectomy with indication for adjuvant radiotherapy. Main exclusion criteria are acute infectious diseases, severe neurological, musculosceletal or cardiorespiratory disorders. The primary endpoint is cancer-related fatigue; secondary endpoints include immunological and inflammatory parameters analyzed in peripheral blood, saliva and urine. In addition, QoL, depression, physical performance and cognitive capacity will be assessed. Discussion The BEST study is the first randomized

  3. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its role in calcium homeostasis and bone health, vitamin D has also been reported to have anticancer activities against many cancer types, including breast cancer. The discovery that breast epithelial cells possess the same enzymatic system as the kidney, allowing local manufacture of active vitamin D from circulating precursors, makes the effect of vitamin D in breast cancer biologically plausible. Preclinical and ecologic studies have suggested a role for vitamin D in breast cancer prevention. Inverse associations have also been shown between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (25(OH)D) and breast cancer development, risk for breast cancer recurrence, and mortality in women with early-stage breast cancer. Clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation, however, have yielded inconsistent results. Regardless of whether or not vitamin D helps prevent breast cancer or its recurrence, vitamin D deficiency in the U.S. population is very common, and the adverse impact on bone health, a particular concern for breast cancer survivors, makes it important to understand vitamin D physiology and to recognize and treat vitamin D deficiency. In this review, we discuss vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action. We summarize the current evidence of the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, highlight ongoing research in this area, and discuss optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention. PMID:22234628

  4. Virtual Weight Loss Program in Maintaining Weight in African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-01

    Cancer Survivor; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. Depression in older breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among U.S. women .The 5-year survival rate for this tumour is nowadays 85%, and the 61% of these women are still alive at 15 years. When depression symptoms are present as a consequence of breast cancer treatments, they may interfere negatively with patients’ quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of breast cancer treatment on the quality of life and the impact of depression on the health-related life. Methods We enrolled 173 women aged 65-75 years with early stage breast cancer diagnosed over the last 10 years, initially recruited to participate in a study examining heath-related quality of life in the first 5 years after breast cancer diagnosis. Participants were divided into four groups: 1) 46 breast cancer survivors (aged 65-70); 2) 62 women diagnosed with breast cancer (aged 65-69); 3) 32 women with recurrent breast cancer after 10 years (aged 66-75); 4) 30 women in good health status (aged 60-70). The Geriatric Depression Scale was used as a routine part of a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Collection of data for the application of instruments, such as sociodemographic variables (age, educational level, social state) and clinical date (stage and time of the disease and treatment), was carried out by trained researcher assistants. Results Our results demonstrated the correlation between depression and previous cancer experiences. In fact, in patients with cancer experience, the grade of depression was significantly higher compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the patients with recurrent breast cancer were severely depressed compared to other groups. Conclusions A high percentage of participants were identified as having emotional and/or well being problems. Further investigations on the cause of depression problems cancer-related are needed. PMID:23173836

  6. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  7. Epigenetic suppression of neprilysin regulates breast cancer invasion

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, H M; Khoury, R J; Majmudar, P R; Blaylock, T; Hawkins, K; Salama, M S; Scott, M D; Cosminsky, B; Utreja, N K; Britt, J; Conway, R E

    2016-01-01

    In women, invasive breast cancer is the second most common cancer and the second cause of cancer-related death. Therefore, identifying novel regulators of breast cancer invasion could lead to additional biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Neprilysin, a cell-surface enzyme that cleaves and inactivates a number of substrates including endothelin-1 (ET1), has been implicated in breast cancer, but whether neprilysin promotes or inhibits breast cancer cell progression and metastasis is unclear. Here, we asked whether neprilysin expression predicts and functionally regulates breast cancer cell invasion. RT–PCR and flow cytometry analysis of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines revealed decreased neprilysin expression compared with normal epithelial cells. Expression was also suppressed in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) compared with normal tissue. In addition, in vtro invasion assays demonstrated that neprilysin overexpression decreased breast cancer cell invasion, whereas neprilysin suppression augmented invasion. Furthermore, inhibiting neprilysin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells increased ET1 levels significantly, whereas overexpressing neprilysin decreased extracellular-signal related kinase (ERK) activation, indicating that neprilysin negatively regulates ET1-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. To determine whether neprilysin was epigenetically suppressed in breast cancer, we performed bisulfite conversion analysis of breast cancer cells and clinical tumor samples. We found that the neprilysin promoter was hypermethylated in breast cancer; chemical reversal of methylation in MDA-MB-231 cells reactivated neprilysin expression and inhibited cancer cell invasion. Analysis of cancer databases revealed that neprilysin methylation significantly associates with survival in stage I IDC and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer subtypes. These results demonstrate that neprilysin negatively regulates the ET axis in breast cancer

  8. Prostate cancer is not breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Venniyoor, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach. PMID:27051149

  9. The Changing World of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Christiane K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Compared with other fields of medicine, there is hardly an area that has seen such fast development as the world of breast cancer. Indeed, the way we treat breast cancer has changed fundamentally over the past decades. Breast imaging has always been an integral part of this change, and it undergoes constant adjustment to new ways of thinking. This relates not only to the technical tools we use for diagnosing breast cancer but also to the way diagnostic information is used to guide treatment. There is a constant change of concepts for and attitudes toward breast cancer, and a constant flux of new ideas, new treatment approaches, and new insights into the molecular and biological behavior of this disease. Clinical breast radiologists and even more so, clinician scientists, interested in breast imaging need to keep abreast with this rapidly changing world. Diagnostic or treatment approaches that are considered useful today may be abandoned tomorrow. Approaches that seem irrelevant or far too extravagant today may prove clinically useful and adequate next year. Radiologists must constantly question what they do, and align their clinical aims and research objectives with the changing needs of contemporary breast oncology. Moreover, knowledge about the past helps better understand present debates and controversies. Accordingly, in this article, we provide an overview on the evolution of breast imaging and breast cancer treatment, describe current areas of research, and offer an outlook regarding the years to come. PMID:26083829

  10. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Harry Mahtani analyzes the gas content of nutrient media from Bioreactor used in research on human breast cancer. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  11. Worse quality of life in young and recently diagnosed breast cancer survivors compared with female survivors of other cancers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Eriksson, Mikael; Dar, Huma; Brandberg, Yvonne; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila

    2016-12-01

    Literature focusing on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) by cancer site among women only is scarce. This study examines HRQoL of breast cancer (BC) survivors compared with female survivors of other cancers, and to understand which subgroups of BC survivors were particularly at risk of reduced HRQoL. We placed emphasis on young (<50 years) and recently diagnosed (≤5 years) survivors, where the deficits in HRQoL were most pronounced. The cross-sectional study consisted of 2,224 BC survivors, 8,504 non-cancer controls and 2,205 other cancer survivors in the Karma study. We examined HRQoL differences using linear regression analyses in the whole cohort and in a subset of young and recently diagnosed BC survivors (n = 242) and female survivors of other cancers (n = 140) with comparable ages at diagnosis (43.6 vs 43.6, p = 0.917) and time since diagnosis (2.3 vs 2.8 years, p < 0.001). HRQoL was assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. While only cognitive functioning was significantly compromised in BC survivors compared with survivors of other cancers when women of all ages were included, young BC survivors reported significantly lower HRQoL on multiple functional scales (global quality of life, emotional, role, social and cognitive functioning) and experienced more fatigue and insomnia. BC survivors with any prior medical history of mental disorders reported poorer HRQoL than those without such a history. We also observed a close-knit relationship between tumor and treatment characteristics. BC survivors perform poorly in HRQoL in comparison with female survivors of other cancers. Our results emphasize the importance of age- and gender-appropriate comparison groups. PMID:27486698

  12. Pertuzumab, Trastuzumab, and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With HER2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-23

    HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma

  13. Expression of HIF-1α and Markers of Angiogenesis Are Not Significantly Different in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Compared to Other Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes: Implications for Future Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yehia, Lamis; Boulos, Fouad; Jabbour, Mark; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Fakhruddin, Najla; El-Sabban, Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Triple negative breast cancer lacks estrogen, progesterone and epidermal growth factor receptors rendering it refractory to available targetedtherapies. TNBC is associated with central fibrosis and necrosis, both indicators of tumor hypoxia. Hypoxia inducible factor 1α is up-regulated under hypoxia and its expression is associated with induction of angiogenesis resulting in proliferation, aggressive tumor phenotype and metastasis. In this study we evaluate the potential use of HIF-1α as aTNBC-specific marker. Methods 62 TNBC, 64 HER2+, and 64 hormone-receptors positive breast cancer cases were evaluated for central fibrosis and necrosis, HIF-1α, HIF-1β, VEGFR3, CD31 expression and microvessel density. RNA extraction from paraffin-embedded samples, followed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) evaluation of HIF-1α and VEGF transcripts was performed on 54 cases (18 from each subtype). Results HIF-1α protein was expressed in 35.5% TNBC, 45.3% HER2+and 25.0% ER+/PR+ (p = 0.055; χ2 test). PCRanalysis of subgroup of breast cancers, 84.2% expressed HIF-1α protein and its transcripts, while only 66.7% expressed VEGF transcripts simultaneously with the HIF-1α protein and its transcripts. Central fibrosis and necrosis was highest in TNBC (p = 0.015; χ2 test), while MVD was comparable among all groups (p = 0.928; χ2 test). VEGFR3 was highest in TNBC expressing HIF-1α. HIF-1β protein was expressed in 32.0% of HIF-1α(+), and in (44.3%) of HIF-1α(-) breast cancer cases (p = 0.033; χ2 test). Moreover, HIF-1α expression in cases with central fibrosis and necrosis was highest in the HER2+ followed by the TNBC (p = 0.156; χ2 test). Conclusions A proportion of TNBC express HIF-1α but not in a significantly different manner from other breast cancer subtypes. The potential of anti-HIF-1α targeted therapy is therefore not a candidate for exclusive use in TNBC, but should be considered in all breast cancers, especially in the

  14. Heritable breast cancer in twins

    PubMed Central

    Mack, T M; Hamilton, A S; Press, M F; Diep, A; Rappaport, E B

    2002-01-01

    Known major mutations such as BRCA1/2 and TP53 only cause a small proportion of heritable breast cancers. Co-dominant genes of lower penetrance that regulate hormones have been thought responsible for most others. Incident breast cancer cases in the identical (monozygotic) twins of representative cases reflect the entire range of pertinent alleles, whether acting singly or in combination. Having reported the rate in twins and other relatives of cases to be high and nearly constant over age, we now examine the descriptive and histological characteristics of the concordant and discordant breast cancers occurring in 2310 affected pairs of monozygotic and fraternal (dizygotic) twins in relation to conventional expectations and hypotheses. Like other first-degree relatives, dizygotic co-twins of breast cancer cases are at higher than usual risk (standardised incidence ratio (SIR)=1.7, CI=1.1–2.6), but the additional cases among monozygotic co-twins of cases are much more numerous, both before and after menopause (SIR=4.4, CI=3.6–5.6), than the 100% genetic identity would predict. Monozygotic co-twin diagnoses following early proband cancers also occur more rapidly than expected (within 5 years, SIR=20.0, CI=7.5–53.3). Cases in concordant pairs represent heritable disease and are significantly more likely to be oestrogen receptor-positive than those of comparable age from discordant pairs. The increase in risk to the monozygotic co-twins of cases cannot be attributed to the common environment, to factors that cumulate with age, or to any aggregate of single autosomal dominant mutations. The genotype more plausibly consists of multiple co-existing susceptibility alleles acting through heightened susceptibility to hormones and/or defective tumour suppression. The resultant class of disease accounts for a larger proportion of all breast cancers than previously thought, with a rather high overall penetrance. Some of the biological characteristics differ from those of

  15. Aetio-pathogenesis of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abdulkareem, Imran Haruna

    2013-01-01

    This is a literature review on the aetiology and pathogenesis of breast cancer, which is the most common cancer worldwide, and the second leading cause of cancer death, especially in Western countries. Several aetiological factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis, and include age, genetics, family history, diet, alcohol, obesity, lifestyle, physical inactivity, as well as endocrine factors. These factors act separately or together in the causation of breast cancer. More recently, triple negative breast cancer has been described in certain categories of patients and is associated with poorer prognosis and earlier recurrence compared with the conventional breast cancer. Therefore, adequate knowledge of these factors is important in identifying high risk groups and individuals, which will help in screening, early detection and follow-up. This will help to decrease the morbidity and mortality from this life-threatening disease. PMID:24665149

  16. Azacitidine in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Stage I-IV Invasive Breast Cancer That Can Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-05

    Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  17. ALND for Women with Breast Cancer Micrometastases

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a randomized clinical trial that compared axillary lymph node dissection versus no axillary lymph node dissection in women with breast cancer and only micrometastases in their sentinel lymph nodes.

  18. Pharmacokinetically Guided Everolimus in Patients With Breast Cancer, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors, or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Insulinoma; Mucositis; Oral Complications; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Somatostatinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  19. What's New in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... References: Breast cancer detailed guide What`s new in breast cancer research and treatment? Researchers around the world are ... for breast cancer Breast cancer treatment Causes of breast cancer Studies continue to uncover lifestyle factors and habits, ...

  20. You, Your Teenage Daughter and Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brateman, Libby

    1991-01-01

    Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)

  1. Surgery for Breast Cancer in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy for breast cancer in men Surgery for breast cancer in men The thought of surgery can be ... 2 to 3 hours. What to expect after breast cancer surgery: After your surgery, you will be taken ...

  2. Metabolic profiling of breast cancer: Differences in central metabolism between subtypes of breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Willmann, Lucas; Schlimpert, Manuel; Halbach, Sebastian; Erbes, Thalia; Stickeler, Elmar; Kammerer, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Although the concept of aerobic glycolysis in cancer was already reported in the 1930s by Otto Warburg, the understanding of metabolic pathways remains challenging especially due to the heterogeneity of cancer. In consideration of four different time points (1, 2, 4, and 7 days of incubation), GC-MS profiling of metabolites was performed on cell extracts and supernatants of breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, -453, BT-474) with different sub classification and the breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A. To the exclusion of trypsinization, direct methanolic extraction, cell scraping and cell disruption was executed to obtain central metabolites. Major differences in biochemical pathways have been observed in the breast cancer cell lines compared to the breast epithelial cell line, as well as between the breast cancer cell lines themselves. Characteristics of breast cancer subtypes could be correlated to their individual metabolic profiles. PLS-DA revealed the discrimination of breast cancer cell lines from MCF-10A based on elevated amino acid levels. The observed metabolic signatures have great potential as biomarker for breast cancer as well as an improved understanding of subtype specific phenomenons of breast cancer. PMID:26218769

  3. Chemoprevention for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bozovic-Spasojevic, I; Azambuja, E; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Dinh, P; Cardoso, F

    2012-08-01

    Despite the progress that has been made in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, this disease is still a major health problem, being the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the first leading cause of cancer death among women both in developed and economically developing countries. In some developed countries incidence rate start to decrease from the end of last millennium and this can be explained, at least in part, by the decrease in hormone replacement therapy use by post-menopausal women. Chemoprevention has the potential to be an approach of utmost importance to reduce cancer burden at least among high-risk populations. Tamoxifen and raloxifene are both indicated for the prevention of breast cancer in women at high risk for the development of the disease, although raloxifene may have a more favorable adverse-effect profile, causing fewer uterine cancers and thromboembolic events. Aromatase inhibitors will most probably become an additional prevention treatment option in the near future, in view of the promising results observed in adjuvant trials and the interesting results of the very recently published first chemoprevention trial using an aromatase inhibitor.(2) Despite impressive results in most clinical trials performed to date, chemoprevention is still not widely used. Urgently needed are better molecular risk models to accurately identify high-risk subjects, new agents with a better risk/benefit ratio and validated biomarkers. PMID:21856081

  4. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  5. Progress in breast cancer: overview.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-12-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer. These topics represent areas of breast cancer research where significant progress has occurred but also where very important challenges remain. The papers in this CCR Focus section are contributed by experts in the respective areas of investigation. Herein, key aspects of these contributions and the research directions they propose are reviewed.

  6. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Robert Richmond extracts breast cell tissue from one of two liquid nitrogen dewars. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  7. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Breast tissue specimens in traditional sample dishes. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  8. Radioimmunotherapy of breast cancer metastases with alpha-particle emitter 225Ac: comparing efficacy with 213Bi and 90Y.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong; Hobbs, Robert F; Vajravelu, Ravy; Huso, David L; Esaias, Caroline; Apostolidis, Christos; Morgenstern, Alfred; Sgouros, George

    2009-12-01

    alpha-Particles are suitable to treat cancer micrometastases because of their short range and very high linear energy transfer. alpha-Particle emitter (213)Bi-based radioimmunotherapy has shown efficacy in a variety of metastatic animal cancer models, such as breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers. Its clinical implementation, however, is challenging due to the limited supply of (225)Ac, high technical requirement to prepare radioimmunoconjugate with very short half-life (T(1/2) = 45.6 min) on site, and prohibitive cost. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of the alpha-particle emitter (225)Ac, parent of (213)Bi, in a mouse model of breast cancer metastases. A single administration of (225)Ac (400 nCi)-labeled anti-rat HER-2/neu monoclonal antibody (7.16.4) completely eradicated breast cancer lung micrometastases in approximately 67% of HER-2/neu transgenic mice and led to long-term survival of these mice for up to 1 year. Treatment with (225)Ac-7.16.4 is significantly more effective than (213)Bi-7.16.4 (120 microCi; median survival, 61 days; P = 0.001) and (90)Y-7.16.4 (120 microCi; median survival, 50 days; P < 0.001) as well as untreated control (median survival, 41 days; P < 0.0001). Dosimetric analysis showed that (225)Ac-treated metastases received a total dose of 9.6 Gy, significantly higher than 2.0 Gy from (213)Bi and 2.4 Gy from (90)Y. Biodistribution studies revealed that (225)Ac daughters, (221)Fr and (213)Bi, accumulated in kidneys and probably contributed to the long-term renal toxicity observed in surviving mice. These data suggest (225)Ac-labeled anti-HER-2/neu monoclonal antibody could significantly prolong survival in HER-2/neu-positive metastatic breast cancer patients.

  9. Radioimmunotherapy of breast cancer metastases with alpha-particle emitter 225Ac: comparing efficacy with 213Bi and 90Y.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong; Hobbs, Robert F; Vajravelu, Ravy; Huso, David L; Esaias, Caroline; Apostolidis, Christos; Morgenstern, Alfred; Sgouros, George

    2009-12-01

    alpha-Particles are suitable to treat cancer micrometastases because of their short range and very high linear energy transfer. alpha-Particle emitter (213)Bi-based radioimmunotherapy has shown efficacy in a variety of metastatic animal cancer models, such as breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers. Its clinical implementation, however, is challenging due to the limited supply of (225)Ac, high technical requirement to prepare radioimmunoconjugate with very short half-life (T(1/2) = 45.6 min) on site, and prohibitive cost. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of the alpha-particle emitter (225)Ac, parent of (213)Bi, in a mouse model of breast cancer metastases. A single administration of (225)Ac (400 nCi)-labeled anti-rat HER-2/neu monoclonal antibody (7.16.4) completely eradicated breast cancer lung micrometastases in approximately 67% of HER-2/neu transgenic mice and led to long-term survival of these mice for up to 1 year. Treatment with (225)Ac-7.16.4 is significantly more effective than (213)Bi-7.16.4 (120 microCi; median survival, 61 days; P = 0.001) and (90)Y-7.16.4 (120 microCi; median survival, 50 days; P < 0.001) as well as untreated control (median survival, 41 days; P < 0.0001). Dosimetric analysis showed that (225)Ac-treated metastases received a total dose of 9.6 Gy, significantly higher than 2.0 Gy from (213)Bi and 2.4 Gy from (90)Y. Biodistribution studies revealed that (225)Ac daughters, (221)Fr and (213)Bi, accumulated in kidneys and probably contributed to the long-term renal toxicity observed in surviving mice. These data suggest (225)Ac-labeled anti-HER-2/neu monoclonal antibody could significantly prolong survival in HER-2/neu-positive metastatic breast cancer patients. PMID:19920193

  10. [Echographic semiotics of cancer of the breast].

    PubMed

    Vesnin, A G; Tereshchenko, A O

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of ultrasonic tomograms of 228 cases of breast cancer identified three ultrasonographic patterns of tumor which included seven basic variants. Ultrasonographic features of tumor were compared to their histology. Methods of ultrasonic examination of the breast and processing data are described.

  11. Breast cancer susceptibility genes.

    PubMed

    Lubinski, Jan; Korzen, Marcin; Gorski, Bohdan; Cybulski, Cezary; Debniak, Tadeusz; Jakubowska, Anna; Medrek, Krzysztof; Matyjasik, Joanna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Masojc, Bartlomiej; Lener, Marcin; Szymanska, Anna; Szymanska-Pasternak, Jolanta; Fernandez, Pablo Serrano; Wokolorczyk, Dominika; Piegat, Andrzej; Ucinski, Michal; Domagala, Pawel; Kladny, Jozef; Gorecka, Barbara; Scott, Rodney; Narod, Steven

    2007-09-01

    In 1999 it has been recognized that 3 BRCA1 abnormalities - 5382insC, C61G and 4153delA - constitute almost 90% of all germline mutations of this gene in Poland. Due to the above findings we started performing the cheap and quick large scale testing for BRCA1 mutations and, these days, we have almost 4,000 carriers diagnosed and under direct or indirect supervision what is probably the largest number in the world. Additionally, the above results pushed us to hypothesize that genetic homogeneity will be seen in Poland in studies of other genes. Actually, the next studies allowed us to identify genes / changes associated with moderate / low breast cancer risk and showed, similarly to BRCA1, high level of genetic homogeneity. This series included BRCA2, C5972T, CHEK2 del5395; 1100delC, I157T or IVS2 + 1G > A, CDKN2A (p16) A148T, XPD Asp312Asn and Lys751Gln, CYP1B1 R48G, A119S and L43V. The results of the above studies led us in 2004 already to hypothesize that >90% of all cancers have genetic (constitutional) background. Two years later we were able to show a panel of markers covering 92% of consecutive breast cancers in Poland, and we formulated the hypothesis that all cancers have a genetic background. These days we are demonstrating for the first time that genetic components to malignancy play a role in all cancers. We are presenting it on examples of late-onset breast cancers from Poland, but it seems to be justified to expect that similar results can be achieved from other malignancies. PMID:17935274

  12. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification view of human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. The arrow points to bead surface indicating breast cancer cells (as noted by the staining of tumor cell intermediate filaments). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  13. Is clinical breast examination important for breast cancer detection?

    PubMed Central

    Provencher, L.; Hogue, J.C.; Desbiens, C.; Poirier, B.; Poirier, E.; Boudreau, D.; Joyal, M.; Diorio, C.; Duchesne, N.; Chiquette, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening clinical breast examination (cbe) is controversial; the use of cbe is declining not only as a screening tool, but also as a diagnostic tool. In the present study, we aimed to assess the value of cbe in breast cancer detection in a tertiary care centre for breast diseases. Methods This retrospective study of all breast cancers diagnosed between July 1999 and December 2010 at our centre categorized cases according to the mean of detection (cbe, mammography, or both). A cbe was considered “abnormal” in the presence of a mass, nipple discharge, skin or nipple retraction, edema, erythema, peau d’orange, or ulcers. Results During the study period, a complete dataset was available for 6333 treated primary breast cancers. Cancer types were ductal carcinoma in situ (15.3%), invasive ductal carcinoma (75.7%), invasive lobular carcinoma (9.0%), or others (2.2%). Of the 6333 cancers, 36.5% (n = 2312) were detected by mammography alone, 54.8% (n = 3470) by mammography and cbe, and 8.7% (n = 551) by physician-performed cbe alone (or 5.3% if considering ultrasonography). Invasive tumours diagnosed by cbe alone were more often triple-negative, her2-positive, node-positive, and larger than those diagnosed by mammography alone (p < 0.05). Conclusions A significant number of cancers would have been missed if cbe had not been performed. Compared with cancers detected by mammography alone, those detected by cbe had more aggressive features. Clinical breast examination is a very low-cost test that could improve the detection of breast cancer and could prompt breast ultrasonography in the case of a negative mammogram. PMID:27536182

  14. Breast cancer screening using tomosynthesis in combination with digital mammography compared to digital mammography alone: a cohort study within the PROSPR consortium.

    PubMed

    Conant, Emily F; Beaber, Elisabeth F; Sprague, Brian L; Herschorn, Sally D; Weaver, Donald L; Onega, Tracy; Tosteson, Anna N A; McCarthy, Anne Marie; Poplack, Steven P; Haas, Jennifer S; Armstrong, Katrina; Schnall, Mitchell D; Barlow, William E

    2016-02-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is emerging as the new standard of care for breast cancer screening based on improved cancer detection coupled with reductions in recall compared to screening with digital mammography (DM) alone. However, many prior studies lack follow-up data to assess false negatives examinations. The purpose of this study is to assess if DBT is associated with improved screening outcomes based on follow-up data from tumor registries or pathology. Retrospective analysis of prospective cohort data from three research centers performing DBT screening in the PROSPR consortium from 2011 to 2014 was performed. Recall and biopsy rates were assessed from 198,881 women age 40-74 years undergoing screening (142,883 DM and 55,998 DBT examinations). Cancer, cancer detection, and false negative rates and positive predictive values were assessed on examinations with one year of follow-up. Logistic regression was used to compare DBT to DM adjusting for research center, age, prior breast imaging, and breast density. There was a reduction in recall with DBT compared to DM (8.7 vs. 10.4 %, p < 0.0001), with adjusted OR = 0.68 (95 % CI = 0.65-0.71). DBT demonstrated a statistically significant increase in cancer detection over DM (5.9 vs. 4.4/1000 screened, adjusted OR = 1.45, 95 % CI = 1.12-1.88), an improvement in PPV1 (6.4 % for DBT vs. 4.1 % for DM, adjusted OR = 2.02, 95 % CI = 1.54-2.65), and no significant difference in false negative rates for DBT compared to DM (0.46 vs. 0.60/1000 screened, p = 0.347). Our data support implementation of DBT screening based on increased cancer detection, reduced recall, and no difference in false negative screening examinations. PMID:26931450

  15. [Neoadjuvant therapy in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Ena, G

    2011-09-01

    Neoadjuvant treatment is the standard therapy for inflammatory and locally advanced breast cancer but is also applied in patients with primary operable breast cancer to facilitate breast-conserving surgery. Disease-free survival and overall survival are equivalent between patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy and patient receiving the same regimen postoperatively. Nevertheless, pathologic complete response can be a predictive indicator of long-term outcomes. Initially encompassing chemotherapy, it is actually extended to hormonotherapy for hormonoresponsive tumor and to targeted therapy such as trastuzumab for the HER2 positive tumor. The neoadjuvant approach of breast cancer will provide better understanding of breast cancer biology and promote translational research. In this paper, a review of the role of preoperative treatment in the management of breast cancer disease is discussed.

  16. Reproductive factors and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, J L; Gammon, M D; John, E M

    1993-01-01

    Early age at menarche, late age at menopause, and late age at first full-term pregnancy are linked to a modest increase in the risk of developing breast cancer. Some evidence suggests that the earlier the full-term pregnancy, the earlier the period of decreased susceptibility of breast tissue changes begins. Nulliparity is related to an increased risk for breast cancer diagnosed after 40 years old. Multiple full-term pregnancies decrease the risk of breast cancers diagnosed after 40 years regardless of the age at first birth. On the other hand, they may increase the risk for breast cancers diagnosed before 40 years old. Surgical removal of the ovaries protects against breast cancer. Breast feeding apparently protects against breast cancer in China, but a protective effect has not been established in the US. Other than shorter intervals between menstrual periods, which tend to increase the risk, research has not yet made clear the etiologic roles of menstrual cycle characteristics. Other unclear etiologic roles include increased intervals between births, spontaneous and induced abortion, infertility, multiple births at last pregnancy, and hypertension during pregnancy. Researchers tend to accept a mechanism to explain the epidemiologic characteristics of menstrual activity and the increased risk of breast cancer, but no mechanisms have emerged for the other likely risk factors. Greater exposure to estrogen and progesterone simultaneously are linked to early age at menarche, late age at menopause, and shorter menstrual cycle length. So far, data show that long-term combined estrogen/progestin hormone replacement therapy and long-term use of oral contraceptives increase the risk of breast cancer. Moderately increased risks linked to longterm estrogen replacement therapy and obesity in postmenopausal women indicate that estrogen alone influences breast cancer risk. Since much of the research on breast cancer risk factors are inconclusive, more research is needed

  17. Effects of irradiation for cervical cancer on subsequent breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Harlan, L.C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Previous research suggests that cervical cancer patients have a lower risk of breast cancer than women in the general population. Possible explanations include opposing risk factors for cervical cancer and breast cancer, the effect of irradiation used to treat cervical cancer, or both. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between irradiation for cervical cancer and the subsequent development of breast cancer. There was no statistically significant relationship between radiation to the ovarian area and the risk of breast cancer in this study. However, the results were consistent with a 19% reduction in risk for women irradiated for cervical cancer when compared to nonirradiated women. In a dose-response analysis, there was a nonsignificant trend of decreased risk of breast cancer with increased radiation up to 1800 rad. There was no consistent pattern for higher doses. The trend, although nonsignificant, differed by age. Women <60 years of age at irradiation were generally at a lower risk of breast cancer than nonirradiated women. Women over 59 years were at an increased risk. There are some potentially important findings from this study which might influence medical care. These should be examined in the larger International Radiation Study.

  18. A comparative analysis of 3D conformal deep inspiratory–breath hold and free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, Kelli A.; Read, Paul W.; Morris, Monica M.; Reardon, Michael A.; Geesey, Constance; Wijesooriya, Krishni

    2013-07-01

    Patients undergoing radiation for left-sided breast cancer have increased rates of coronary artery disease. Free-breathing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (FB-IMRT) and 3-dimensional conformal deep inspiratory–breath hold (3D-DIBH) reduce cardiac irradiation. The purpose of this study is to compare the dose to organs at risk in FB-IMRT vs 3D-DIBH for patients with left-sided breast cancer. Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer had 2 computed tomography scans: free breathing and voluntary DIBH. Optimization of the IMRT plan was performed on the free-breathing scan using 6 noncoplanar tangential beams. The 3D-DIBH plan was optimized on the DIBH scan and used standard tangents. Mean volumes of the heart, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), the total lung, and the right breast receiving 5% to 95% (5% increments) of the prescription dose were calculated. Mean volumes of the heart and the LAD were lower (p<0.05) in 3D-DIBH for volumes receiving 5% to 80% of the prescription dose for the heart and 5% for the LAD. Mean dose to the LAD and heart were lower in 3D-DIBH (p≤0.01). Mean volumes of the total lung were lower in FB-IMRT for dose levels 20% to 75% (p<0.05), but mean dose was not different. Mean volumes of the right breast were not different for any dose; however, mean dose was lower for 3D-DIBH (p = 0.04). 3D-DIBH is an alternative approach to FB-IMRT that provides a clinically equivalent treatment for patients with left-sided breast cancer while sparing organs at risk with increased ease of implementation.

  19. Phase III Study Comparing Exemestane With Tamoxifen As First-Line Hormonal Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    PubMed Central

    Paridaens, Robert J.; Dirix, Luc Y.; Beex, Louk V.; Nooij, Marianne; Cameron, David A.; Cufer, Tanja; Piccart, Martine J.; Bogaerts, Jan; Therasse, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This phase III randomized open-label clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the steroidal aromatase inactivator exemestane versus the antiestrogen tamoxifen as first-line treatment for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in postmenopausal women. Patients and Methods The study was conducted at 81 centers and enrolled postmenopausal patients with measurable hormone-sensitive metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer. Prior adjuvant chemotherapy and/or tamoxifen were allowed. One previous chemotherapy regimen and no prior hormone therapy for advanced disease were permitted. Patients were randomly assigned to receive exemestane 25 mg or tamoxifen 20 mg orally once daily until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurred. Results A total of 371 patients enrolled at 79 sites (182 exemestane, 189 tamoxifen) were included in the analysis. Both treatments were generally well tolerated without major toxicity. Overall response rate was greater for exemestane than for tamoxifen treatment (46% v 31%; odds ratio = 1.85; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.82; P = .005). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was longer with exemestane (9.9 months; 95% CI, 8.7 to 11.8 months) than with tamoxifen (5.8 months; 95% CI, 5.3 to 8.1 months). However, these early differences (Wilcoxon P = .028) did not translate to a longer-term benefit in PFS, the primary study end point (log-rank P = .121). There was also no difference in survival between both study arms. Conclusion Exemestane is an effective and well-tolerated first-line hormonal treatment for postmenopausal women with MBC and offers significant early improvement in time to tumor progression when compared with tamoxifen. PMID:18794551

  20. Breast cancer statistics and markers.

    PubMed

    Donepudi, Mallika Siva; Kondapalli, Kasturi; Amos, Seelam Jeevan; Venkanteshan, Pavithra

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the familiar diseases in women. Incidence and mortality due to cancer, particularly breast cancer has been increasing for last 50 years, even though there is a lacuna in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages. According to World Health Organization (WHO) 2012 reports, breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, accounting 23% of all cancer deaths. In Asia, one in every three women faces the risk of breast cancer in their lifetime as per reports of WHO 2012. Here, the review is been focused on different breast cancer markers, that is, tissue markers (hormone receptors, human epidermal growth factor-2, urokinase plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, p53 and cathepsin D), genetic markers (BRAC1 and 2 and gene expression microarray technique, etc.), and serum markers (CA 15.3, BR 27.29, MCA, CA 549, carcinoembryonic antigen, oncoproteins, and cytokeratins) used in present diagnosis, but none of the mentioned markers can diagnose breast cancer at an early stage. There is a disquieting need for the identification of best diagnosing marker, which can be able to diagnose even in early stage of breast carcinogenesis.

  1. Diet and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Adlercreutz, H; Mousavi, Y; Höckerstedt, K

    1992-01-01

    It is a general opinion that the Western diet plays a significant role in increasing the risk of breast cancer in the Western World. Recently some likely mechanisms involved in increasing the risk have been disclosed. It has been found that a Western-type diet elevates plasma levels of sex hormones and decreases the sex hormone binding globulin concentration, increasing the availability of these steroids for peripheral tissues. The same diet results in low formation by intestinal bacteria of mammalian lignans and isoflavonoid phyotestrogens from plant precursors. These diphenolic compounds seem to affect hormone metabolism and production and cancer cell growth by many different mechanisms making them strong candidates for a role as cancer protective substances. The sex hormone pattern found in connection with a Western-type diet combined with low lignan and isoflavonoid excretion was found particularly in postmenopausal breast cancer patients and omnivores living in high-risk areas, and to a lesser degree in areas with less risk. However, the pattern observed was not entirely due to diet.

  2. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  3. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Pelttari, Liisa M; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko; Kiiski, Johanna I; Vilske, Sara; Nevanlinna, Viivi; Ranta, Salla; Schleutker, Johanna; Winqvist, Robert; Kallioniemi, Anne; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Figueroa, Jonine; Pharoah, Paul D P; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Dunning, Alison M; García-Closas, Montserrat; Bolla, Manjeet K; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Rosenberg, Efraim H; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Peto, Julian; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Surowy, Harald; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Neuhausen, Susan L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Van Dyck, Laurien; Janssen, Hilde; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Hallberg, Emily; Olson, Janet E; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hooning, Maartje J; Collée, Margriet; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert N; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Couch, Fergus J; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F; Mattson, Johanna; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259) and population controls (n = 3586) from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.19, P = 8.88 x 10-16) and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16-1.32, P = 6.19 x 10-11), compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk. PMID:27149063

  4. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pelttari, Liisa M.; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Vilske, Sara; Nevanlinna, Viivi; Ranta, Salla; Schleutker, Johanna; Winqvist, Robert; Kallioniemi, Anne; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Figueroa, Jonine; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Dunning, Alison M.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Rosenberg, Efraim H.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Surowy, Harald; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Van Dyck, Laurien; Janssen, Hilde; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Hallberg, Emily; Olson, Janet E.; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hooning, Maartje J.; Collée, Margriet; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert N.; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Couch, Fergus J.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Mattson, Johanna; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259) and population controls (n = 3586) from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.19, P = 8.88 x 10−16) and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16–1.32, P = 6.19 x 10−11), compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk. PMID:27149063

  5. Long-term results of International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial VIII: adjuvant chemotherapy plus goserelin compared with either therapy alone for premenopausal patients with node-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, P.; Sun, Z.; Braun, D.; Price, K. N.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Rabaglio, M.; Gelber, R. D.; Crivellari, D.; Collins, J.; Murray, E.; Zaman, K.; Colleoni, M.; Gusterson, B. A.; Viale, G.; Regan, M. M.; Coates, A. S.; Goldhirsch, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial VIII compared long-term efficacy of endocrine therapy (goserelin), chemotherapy [cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF)], and chemoendocrine therapy (CMF followed by goserelin) for pre/perimenopausal women with lymph-node-negative breast cancer. Patients and methods: From 1990 to 1999, 1063 patients were randomized to receive (i) goserelin for 24 months (n = 346), (ii) six courses of ‘classical’ CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil) chemotherapy (n = 360), or (iii) six courses of CMF plus 18 months goserelin (CMF→ goserelin; n = 357). Tumors were classified as estrogen receptor (ER) negative (19%), ER positive (80%), or ER unknown (1%); 19% of patients were younger than 40. Median follow-up was 12.1 years. Results: For the ER-positive cohort, sequential therapy provided a statistically significant benefit in disease-free survival (DFS) (12-year DFS = 77%) compared with CMF alone (69%) and goserelin alone (68%) (P = 0.04 for each comparison), due largely to the effect in younger patients. Patients with ER-negative tumors whose treatment included CMF had similar DFS (12-year DFS CMF = 67%; 12-year DFS CMF→ goserelin = 69%) compared with goserelin alone (12-year DFS = 61%, P= NS). Conclusions: For pre/perimenopausal women with lymph-node-negative ER-positive breast cancer, CMF followed by goserelin improved DFS in comparison with either modality alone. The improvement was the most pronounced in those aged below 40, suggesting an endocrine effect of prolonged CMF-induced amenorrhea. PMID:21325445

  6. Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Velázquez, Marco A.; Homsi, Nora; De La Fuente, Marisol; Pestell, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) constitute a subpopulation of tumor cells that express stem cell-associated markers and have a high capacity for tumor generation in vivo. Identification of BCSCs from tumor samples or breast cancer cell lines has been based mainly on CD44+/CD24−/low or ALDH+ phenotypes. BCSCs isolation has allowed the analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in their origin, self-renewal, differentiation into tumor cells, resistance to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, and invasiveness and metastatic ability. Molecular genetic analysis using knockout animals and inducible transgenics have identified NF-κB, c-Jun, p21CIP1, and Forkhead-like-protein Dach1 in BCSC expansion and fate. Clinical analyses of BCSCs in breast tumors have found a correlation between the proportion of BCSCs and poor prognosis. Therefore, new therapies that specifically target BCSCs are an urgent need. We summarize recent evidence that partially explain the biological characteristics of BCSCs. PMID:22249027

  7. Circadian clocks and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Victoria; Williams, Jack L; Meng, Qing-Jun; Streuli, Charles H

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks respond to environmental time cues to coordinate 24-hour oscillations in almost every tissue of the body. In the breast, circadian clocks regulate the rhythmic expression of numerous genes. Disrupted expression of circadian genes can alter breast biology and may promote cancer. Here we overview circadian mechanisms, and the connection between the molecular clock and breast biology. We describe how disruption of circadian genes contributes to cancer via multiple mechanisms, and link this to increased tumour risk in women who work irregular shift patterns. Understanding the influence of circadian rhythms on breast cancer could lead to more efficacious therapies, reformed public health policy and improved patient outcome. PMID:27590298

  8. Vascular and Cognitive Assessments in Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy After Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-27

    Cognitive/Functional Effects; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  9. Human Papilloma Viruses and Breast Cancer – Assessment of Causality

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, James Sutherland; Glenn, Wendy K.; Whitaker, Noel James

    2016-01-01

    High risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) may have a causal role in some breast cancers. Case–control studies, conducted in many different countries, consistently indicate that HPVs are more frequently present in breast cancers as compared to benign breast and normal breast controls (odds ratio 4.02). The assessment of causality of HPVs in breast cancer is difficult because (i) the HPV viral load is extremely low, (ii) HPV infections are common but HPV associated breast cancers are uncommon, and (iii) HPV infections may precede the development of breast and other cancers by years or even decades. Further, HPV oncogenesis can be indirect. Despite these difficulties, the emergence of new evidence has made the assessment of HPV causality, in breast cancer, a practical proposition. With one exception, the evidence meets all the conventional criteria for a causal role of HPVs in breast cancer. The exception is “specificity.” HPVs are ubiquitous, which is the exact opposite of specificity. An additional reservation is that the prevalence of breast cancer is not increased in immunocompromised patients as is the case with respect to HPV-associated cervical cancer. This indicates that HPVs may have an indirect causal influence in breast cancer. Based on the overall evidence, high-risk HPVs may have a causal role in some breast cancers. PMID:27747193

  10. Automated diagnosis of mammogram images of breast cancer using discrete wavelet transform and spherical wavelet transform features: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Karthikeyan; Acharya, U Rajendra; Chua, Chua Kuang; Min, Lim Choo; Abraham, Thomas K

    2014-12-01

    Mammograms are one of the most widely used techniques for preliminary screening of breast cancers. There is great demand for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer using mammograms. Texture based feature extraction techniques are widely used for mammographic image analysis. In specific, wavelets are a popular choice for texture analysis of these images. Though discrete wavelets have been used extensively for this purpose, spherical wavelets have rarely been used for Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) of breast cancer using mammograms. In this work, a comparison of the performance between the features of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Spherical Wavelet Transform (SWT) based on the classification results of normal, benign and malignant stage was studied. Classification was performed using Linear Discriminant Classifier (LDC), Quadratic Discriminant Classifier (QDC), Nearest Mean Classifier (NMC), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Parzen Classifier (ParzenC). We have obtained a maximum classification accuracy of 81.73% for DWT and 88.80% for SWT features using SVM classifier. PMID:24000991

  11. Attitudes and Stereotypes in Lung Cancer versus Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sriram, N; Mills, Jennifer; Lang, Edward; Dickson, Holli K; Hamann, Heidi A; Nosek, Brian A; Schiller, Joan H

    2015-01-01

    Societal perceptions may factor into the high rates of nontreatment in patients with lung cancer. To determine whether bias exists toward lung cancer, a study using the Implicit Association Test method of inferring subconscious attitudes and stereotypes from participant reaction times to visual cues was initiated. Participants were primarily recruited from an online survey panel based on US census data. Explicit attitudes regarding lung and breast cancer were derived from participants' ratings (n = 1778) regarding what they thought patients experienced in terms of guilt, shame, and hope (descriptive statements) and from participants' opinions regarding whether patients ought to experience such feelings (normative statements). Participants' responses to descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer were compared with responses to statements about breast cancer. Analyses of responses revealed that the participants were more likely to agree with negative descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer than breast cancer (P<0.001). Furthermore, participants had significantly stronger implicit negative associations with lung cancer compared with breast cancer; mean response times in the lung cancer/negative conditions were significantly shorter than in the lung cancer/positive conditions (P<0.001). Patients, caregivers, healthcare providers, and members of the general public had comparable levels of negative implicit attitudes toward lung cancer. These results show that lung cancer was stigmatized by patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Further research is needed to investigate whether implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes affect patient care. PMID:26698307

  12. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy shows similar response in patients with inflammatory or locally advanced breast cancer when compared with operable breast cancer: a secondary analysis of the GeparTrio trial data.

    PubMed

    Costa, Serban Dan; Loibl, Sibylle; Kaufmann, Manfred; Zahm, Dirk-Michael; Hilfrich, Jörn; Huober, Jens; Eidtmann, Holger; du Bois, Andreas; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Ataseven, Beyhan; Weiss, Erich; Tesch, Hans; Gerber, Bernd; Baumann, Klaus H; Thomssen, Christoph; Breitbach, Georg Peter; Ibishi, Shaip; Jackisch, Christian; Mehta, Keyur; von Minckwitz, Gunter

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by mastectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) or locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), but it is considered less effective in these diseases than in operable breast cancer (OBC). We report a prospective comparison of the GeparTrio trial of patients with IBC (cT4 days) or LABC (cT4a-c or cN3; stage IIIB or IIIC) and patients with OBC (cT2-3). PATIENTS AND METHODS Participants were stratified by stage and were randomly assigned to six or eight cycles of docetaxel/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (TAC) or to two cycles of TAC followed by four cycles of vinorelbine/capecitabine. We present results of a secondary aim of the study, which was to compare pathologic complete response (pCR; ie, no remaining invasive/noninvasive tumor in breast and lymph nodes) in different stage groups. Results A total of 287 patients with IBC (n = 93) or LABC (n = 194) and 1,777 patients with OBC were entered onto the trial. At baseline, parameters were as follows for the three types of cancer, respectively: median tumor sizes: 8.0 cm, 7.0 cm, and 4.0 cm (P < .001); multiple lesions: 31.2%, 27.3%, and 19.6% (P < .001); nodal involvement: 86.6%, 71.2%, and 51.6% (P < .001); grade 3: 44.4%, 30.4%, and 39.9% (P = .178); lobular-invasive type: 7.5%, 17.5%, and 13.3% (P = .673); negative hormone receptor status: 38.0%, 20.0%, and 36.4% (P = .008); and positive human growth factor receptor 2 status: 45.1%, 38.9%, and 35.7% (P = .158). Response rates for IBC, LABC, and OBC, respectively, were 8.6%, 11.3%, and 17.7% for pCR (P = .002); 71.0%, 69.6%, and 83.4% for overall response by physical or sonographic examination (P < .001); and 12.9%, 33.0%, and 69.9% for breast conservation (P < .001). All P values were for IBC and LABC versus OBC. However, tumor stage itself was not an independent predictor for pCR in multivariable analysis (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.88 to 2.59; P = .13). CONCLUSION No evidence of a

  13. Intraoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Norman R.; Pigott, Katharine H.; Brew-Graves, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT) as a treatment for breast cancer is a relatively new technique that is designed to be a replacement for whole breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in selected women suitable for breast-conserving therapy. This article reviews twelve reasons for the use of the technique, with a particular emphasis on targeted intra-operative radiotherapy (TARGIT) which uses X-rays generated from a portable device within the operating theatre immediately after the breast tumour (and surrounding margin of healthy tissue) has been removed. The delivery of a single fraction of radiotherapy directly to the tumour bed at the time of surgery, with the capability of adding EBRT at a later date if required (risk-adaptive technique) is discussed in light of recent results from a large multinational randomised controlled trial comparing TARGIT with EBRT. The technique avoids irradiation of normal tissues such as skin, heart, lungs, ribs and spine, and has been shown to improve cosmetic outcome when compared with EBRT. Beneficial aspects to both institutional and societal economics are discussed, together with evidence demonstrating excellent patient satisfaction and quality of life. There is a discussion of the published evidence regarding the use of IORT twice in the same breast (for new primary cancers) and in patients who would never be considered for EBRT because of their special circumstances (such as the frail, the elderly, or those with collagen vascular disease). Finally, there is a discussion of the role of the TARGIT Academy in developing and sustaining high standards in the use of the technique. PMID:25083504

  14. Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.

  15. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-14

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  16. Do fatty breasts increase or decrease breast cancer risk?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the association of non-dense area or fatty breasts in conjunction with breast density and breast cancer risk. Two articles in a recent issue of Breast Cancer Research investigate the role of absolute non-dense breast area measured on mammograms and find conflicting results: one article finds that non-dense breast area has a modest positive association with breast cancer risk, whereas the other finds that non-dense breast area has a strong protective effect to reduce breast cancer risk. Understanding the interplay of body mass index, menopause status, and measurement of non-dense breast area would help to clarify the contribution of non-dense breast area to breast cancer risk. PMID:22277587

  17. Multivitamin and mineral use and breast cancer mortality in older women with invasive breast cancer in the women's health initiative

    PubMed Central

    McGinn, A. P.; Budrys, N.; Chlebowski, R.; Ho, G. Y.; Johnson, K. C.; Lane, D. S.; Li, W.; Neuhouser, M. L.; Saquib, J.; Shikany, J. M.; Song, Y.; Thomson, C.

    2014-01-01

    Multivitamin use is common in the United States. It is not known whether multivitamins with minerals supplements (MVM) used by women already diagnosed with invasive breast cancer would affect their breast cancer mortality risk. To determine prospectively the effects of MVM use on breast cancer mortality in postmenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, a prospective cohort study was conducted of 7,728 women aged 50–79 at enrollment in the women's health initiative (WHI) in 40 clinical sites across the United States diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer during WHI and followed for a mean of 7.1 years after breast cancer diagnosis. Use of MVM supplements was assessed at WHI baseline visit and at visit closest to breast cancer diagnosis, obtained from vitamin pill bottles brought to clinic visit. Outcome was breast cancer mortality. Hazard ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer mortality comparing MVM users to non-users were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Analyses using propensity to take MVM were done to adjust for potential differences in characteristics of MVM users versus non-users. At baseline, 37.8 % of women reported MVM use. After mean post-diagnosis follow-up of 7.1 ± 4.1 (SD) years, there were 518 (6.7 %) deaths from breast cancer. In adjusted analyses, breast cancer mortality was 30 % lower in MVM users as compared to non-users (HR = 0.70; 95 % CI 0.55, 0.91). This association was highly robust and persisted after multiple adjustments for potential confounding variables and in propensity score matched analysis (HR = 0.76; 95 % CI 0.60–0.96). Postmenopausal women with invasive breast cancer using MVM had lower breast cancer mortality than non-users. The results suggest a possible role for daily MVM use in attenuating breast cancer mortality in women with invasive breast cancer but the findings require confirmation. PMID:24104882

  18. Breast cancer: the role of hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Creasman, William T

    2005-05-01

    The possible association of estrogen (E) with or without progestin (P) and breast cancer has been addressed in many studies for several decades. The recent reported prospective double-blind Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study suggests that E + P increases the risk of breast cancer if a woman is an average of 63 years old when she begins replacement therapy. One third of the patients in this study were 70 to 79 years of age when E + P was begun--obviously several decades past menopausal. Retrospective and observational studies suggest protection or no increased risk. The WHI-E only study actually notes a 23% reduction in breast cancer compared with the placebo. It would appear from a review of the literature that if there is an increased risk for breast cancer with E or E + P, it is minimal.

  19. DNA methylation profile of triple negative breast cancer-specific genes comparing lymph node positive patients to lymph node negative patients

    PubMed Central

    Mathe, Andrea; Wong-Brown, Michelle; Locke, Warwick J.; Stirzaker, Clare; Braye, Stephen G.; Forbes, John F.; Clark, Susan J.; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A.; Scott, Rodney J.

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype with no targeted treatment available. Our previous study identified 38 TNBC-specific genes with altered expression comparing tumour to normal samples. This study aimed to establish whether DNA methylation contributed to these expression changes in the same cohort as well as disease progression from primary breast tumour to lymph node metastasis associated with changes in the epigenome. We obtained DNA from 23 primary TNBC samples, 12 matched lymph node metastases, and 11 matched normal adjacent tissues and assayed for differential methylation profiles using Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. The results were validated in an independent cohort of 70 primary TNBC samples. The expression of 16/38 TNBC-specific genes was associated with alteration in DNA methylation. Novel methylation changes between primary tumours and lymph node metastases, as well as those associated with survival were identified. Altered methylation of 18 genes associated with lymph node metastasis were identified and validated. This study reveals the important role DNA methylation plays in altered gene expression of TNBC-specific genes and lymph node metastases. The novel insights into progression of TNBC to secondary disease may provide potential prognostic indicators for this hard-to-treat breast cancer subtype. PMID:27671774

  20. Comparative regulation of gene expression by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in cells derived from normal mammary tissue and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Beaudin, Sarah G; Robilotto, Samantha; Welsh, JoEllen

    2016-01-01

    Previous genomic profiling of immortalized, non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cells identified a set of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) regulated genes with potential relevance to breast cancer prevention. In this report, we characterized the effect of 1,25D on a subset of these genes in six cell lines derived from mammary tissue and breast cancers. Non-tumorigenic cell lines included hTERT-HME1, HME and MCF10A cells which are often used to model normal breast epithelial cells. Breast cancer cell lines included MCF7 cells (a model of early stage, estrogen-dependent disease), DCIS.com cells (a derivative of MCF10A cells that models in situ breast cancer) and Hs578T cells (a model of metastatic disease). All of these cell lines express the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and exhibit anti-cancer responses to 1,25D such as changes in proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism, or invasion. Our comparative data demonstrate highly variable responses to 1,25D (100nM, 24h) between the cell lines. In both hTERT-HME1 and HME cell lines, CYP24A1, SLC1A1 and ITGB3 were up-regulated whereas KDR, GLUL and BIRC3 were down-regulated in response to 1,25D. In contrast, no changes in SLC1A1, ITGB3 or GLUL expression were detected in 1,25D treated MCF10A cells although KDR and BIRC3 were down-regulated by 1,25D. The effects of 1,25D on these genes in the breast cancer cell lines were blunted, with the DCIS.com cells exhibiting the most similar responses to the immortalized hTERT-HME1 and HME cells. The differences in cellular responses were not due to general impairment in VDR function as robust CYP24A1 induction was observed in all cell lines. Thus, our data indicate that the genomic changes induced by 1,25D are highly cell-type specific even in model cell lines derived from the same tissue. The implication of these findings is that genomic responses to changes in vitamin D status in vivo are likely to be distinct from individual to individual, particularly in neoplastic tissue. PMID

  1. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-15

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  2. Exogenous progestins and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Stanford, J L; Thomas, D B

    1993-01-01

    More research on the effect of exogenous progestins on breast cancer risk is clearly needed. Biologic evidence that progestins may act synergistically with estrogen to enhance proliferation of breast epithelial cells emphasizes the importance of further exploration of this issue, particularly given the increasing prevalence of exposure to contraceptive and noncontraceptive progestins. No specific type or dose of progestin in monophasic combination oral contraceptives has been linked to breast cancer. Based on the few epidemiologic studies of progestin-only oral contraceptives, there also is no evidence that they increase risk of breast cancer. Two studies found that longer-term use of progestin-only pills was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. However, given the low prevalence of use of minipills, it is unlikely that this exposure substantially affects the incidence of breast cancer in the population as a whole. Use of the injectable contraceptive DMPA has been positively associated with risk of breast cancer in some subgroups of women, although no significant overall adverse effect has been observed in the two largest studies conducted to date. There is suggestive evidence that use at an early age or prior to a first term birth and recent use may increase risk of breast cancer. It remains unclear, however, whether or not surveillance bias may explain the positive association observed in recent users. Additional research on DMPA and breast cancer incidence is needed, since studies published to date have lacked sufficient power to evaluate risk in relation to long-term use. Future studies of breast cancer in relation to use of other long-acting progestational agents such as Norplant will also be important. There is concern about the relation between breast cancer incidence and use of combined estrogen-progestin replacement therapy, especially extended periods of use. At the present time, only one study (45) has estimated risk according to duration of

  3. Mammographic breast density and breast cancer risk: interactions of percent density, absolute dense, and non-dense areas with breast cancer risk factors.

    PubMed

    Yaghjyan, Lusine; Colditz, Graham A; Rosner, Bernard; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-02-01

    We investigated if associations of breast density and breast cancer differ according to the level of other known breast cancer risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), age at menarche, parity, age at first child's birth, age at menopause, alcohol consumption, a family history of breast cancer, a history of benign breast disease, and physical activity. This study included 1,044 postmenopausal incident breast cancer cases diagnosed within the Nurses' Health Study cohort and 1,794 matched controls. Percent breast density, absolute dense, and non-dense areas were measured from digitized film images with computerized techniques. Information on breast cancer risk factors was obtained prospectively from biennial questionnaires. Percent breast density was more strongly associated with breast cancer risk in current postmenopausal hormone users (≥50 vs. 10 %: OR 5.34, 95 % CI 3.36-8.49) as compared to women with past (OR 2.69, 95 % CI 1.32-5.49) or no hormone history (OR 2.57, 95 % CI 1.18-5.60, p-interaction = 0.03). Non-dense area was inversely associated with breast cancer risk in parous women, but not in women without children (p-interaction = 0.03). Associations of density with breast cancer risk did not differ by the levels of BMI, age at menarche, parity, age at first child's birth, age at menopause, alcohol consumption, a family history of breast cancer, a history of benign breast disease, and physical activity. Women with dense breasts, who currently use menopausal hormone therapy are at a particularly high risk of breast cancer. Most breast cancer risk factors do not modify the association between mammographic breast density and breast cancer risk.

  4. Adherence to cancer prevention guidelines and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Catsburg, Chelsea; Miller, Anthony B; Rohan, Thomas E

    2014-11-15

    Healthy eating patterns and keeping physically active are potentially more important for chronic disease prevention than intake or exclusion of specific food items or nutrients. To this end, many health organizations routinely publish dietary and lifestyle recommendations aimed at preventing chronic disease. Using data from the Canadian National Breast Screening Study, we investigated the association between breast cancer risk and adherence to two sets of guidelines specific for cancer prevention, namely the American Cancer Society (ACS) Guidelines and the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) Recommendations. At baseline, 49,613 women completed dietary and lifestyle questionnaires and height and weight measurements were taken. During a mean follow-up of 16.6 years, 2,503 incident cases of breast cancer were ascertained. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of meeting each guideline, and number of guidelines met, with breast cancer risk. The two sets of guidelines yielded similar results. Specifically, adherence to all six ACS guidelines was associated with a 31% reduction in breast cancer risk when compared to subjects adhering to at most one guideline (HR=0.69; 95% CI=0.49-0.97); similarly, adherence to six or seven of the WCRF/AICR guidelines was also associated with a 31% reduction in breast cancer risk (HR=0.69; 95% CI=0.47-1.00). Under either classification, meeting each additional guideline was associated with a 4-6% reduction in breast cancer risk. These results suggest that adherence to cancer prevention guidelines is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer.

  5. Curing Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sledge, George W

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer is generally considered incurable, and this colors doctor-patient interactions for patients with metastatic disease. Although true for most patients, there appear to be important exceptions, instances where long-term disease-free survival occurs. Although these instances are few in number, they suggest the possibility of cure. How will we move toward cure for a much larger population of patients with metastatic disease? This article outlines a potential research agenda that might move us toward that distant goal. PMID:26759458

  6. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    PubMed

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way.

  7. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    PubMed

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way. PMID:26283037

  8. A comparative analysis of inhibitors of the glycolysis pathway in breast and ovarian cancer cell line models.

    PubMed

    Xintaropoulou, Chrysi; Ward, Carol; Wise, Alan; Marston, Hugh; Turnbull, Arran; Langdon, Simon P

    2015-09-22

    Many cancer cells rely on aerobic glycolysis for energy production and targeting of this pathway is a potential strategy to inhibit cancer cell growth. In this study, inhibition of five glycolysis pathway molecules (GLUT1, HKII, PFKFB3, PDHK1 and LDH) using 9 inhibitors (Phloretin, Quercetin, STF31, WZB117, 3PO, 3-bromopyruvate, Dichloroacetate, Oxamic acid, NHI-1) was investigated in panels of breast and ovarian cancer cell line models. All compounds tested blocked glycolysis as indicated by increased extracellular glucose and decreased lactate production and also increased apoptosis. Sensitivity to several inhibitors correlated with the proliferation rate of the cell lines. Seven compounds had IC50 values that were associated with each other consistent with a shared mechanism of action. A synergistic interaction was revealed between STF31 and Oxamic acid when combined with the antidiabetic drug metformin. Sensitivity to glycolysis inhibition was also examined under a range of O2 levels (21% O2, 7% O2, 2% O2 and 0.5% O2) and greater resistance to the inhibitors was found at low oxygen conditions (7% O2, 2% O2 and 0.5% O2) relative to 21% O2 conditions. These results indicate growth of breast and ovarian cancer cell lines is dependent on all the targets examined in the glycolytic pathway with increased sensitivity to the inhibitors under normoxic conditions. PMID:26259240

  9. A comparative analysis of inhibitors of the glycolysis pathway in breast and ovarian cancer cell line models.

    PubMed

    Xintaropoulou, Chrysi; Ward, Carol; Wise, Alan; Marston, Hugh; Turnbull, Arran; Langdon, Simon P

    2015-09-22

    Many cancer cells rely on aerobic glycolysis for energy production and targeting of this pathway is a potential strategy to inhibit cancer cell growth. In this study, inhibition of five glycolysis pathway molecules (GLUT1, HKII, PFKFB3, PDHK1 and LDH) using 9 inhibitors (Phloretin, Quercetin, STF31, WZB117, 3PO, 3-bromopyruvate, Dichloroacetate, Oxamic acid, NHI-1) was investigated in panels of breast and ovarian cancer cell line models. All compounds tested blocked glycolysis as indicated by increased extracellular glucose and decreased lactate production and also increased apoptosis. Sensitivity to several inhibitors correlated with the proliferation rate of the cell lines. Seven compounds had IC50 values that were associated with each other consistent with a shared mechanism of action. A synergistic interaction was revealed between STF31 and Oxamic acid when combined with the antidiabetic drug metformin. Sensitivity to glycolysis inhibition was also examined under a range of O2 levels (21% O2, 7% O2, 2% O2 and 0.5% O2) and greater resistance to the inhibitors was found at low oxygen conditions (7% O2, 2% O2 and 0.5% O2) relative to 21% O2 conditions. These results indicate growth of breast and ovarian cancer cell lines is dependent on all the targets examined in the glycolytic pathway with increased sensitivity to the inhibitors under normoxic conditions.

  10. African American women's breast memories, cancer beliefs, and screening behaviors.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Eileen C

    2004-01-01

    African American women experience higher breast cancer mortality and lower survival rates compared with white women of comparable age and cancer stage. The literature is lacking in studies that address the influence of past events on current health behaviors among women of diverse cultural groups. This qualitative exploratory study used participant narratives to examine associations between women's memories and feelings concerning their breasts and current breast cancer screening behaviors. Twelve professional African American women, aged 42 to 64 years, shared stories about memories and feelings regarding their breasts. Codes grouped together with related patterns and recurrences revealed categories that encompassed the language and culture of the participants. The categories identified were Seasons of Breast Awareness, Womanhood, Self-Portraits, Breast Cancer and Cancer Beliefs, Breast Cancer Screening Experiences, and Participants' Advice for Change. These categories provide direction for further exploration of barriers to health promotion practices among African American women and women in general.

  11. A Randomized Trial Comparing Live and Telemedicine Delivery of an Imagery-based Behavioral Intervention for Breast Cancer Survivors: Reducing Symptoms and Barriers to Care

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Lyn W.; White, Rebecca; Ratcliff, Chelsea G.; Sutton, Sue; Stewart, Mary; Palmer, J. Lynn; Link, Judith; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Objective This multi-site randomized trial evaluates the quality of life (QOL) benefits of an imagery-based group intervention titled “Envision the Rhythms of Life” (ERL). Methods Breast cancer survivors >6 weeks post-treatment were randomized to attend five weekly 4-hour group sessions at a community center with therapist present (live-delivery; LD, n=48); therapist streamed via telemedicine (telemedicine-delivery; TD, n=23); or to a waitlist control group (WL, n=47). Weekly individual phone calls to encourage at-home practice began at session one and continued until the 3-month follow-up. Seven self-report measures of QOL were examined at baseline, 1 and 3 months post-treatment including health-related and breast cancer-specific QOL, fatigue, cognitive function, spirituality, distress, and sleep. Results The Bonferroni method was used to correct for multiple comparisons, and alpha was adjusted to 0.01. LMM analyses revealed less fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, and sleep disturbance for LD and TD compared to WL across the follow-up (p’s <0.01). Changes in fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleep disturbance, and health-related and breast cancer-related QOL were clinically significant. There were no differences between LD and TD. Conclusions Both the live and telemedicine delivered ERL intervention resulted in improvements in multiple QOL domains for breast cancer survivors compared to a waitlist control. Further, there were no significant differences between live- and telemedicine-delivery, suggesting telemedicine delivered ERL intervention may represent an effective and viable option for cancer survivors in remote areas. PMID:25146413

  12. Breast Cancer Screening at the Breast Examination Center of Harlem

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Aidan T.; Eaton, Anne; Azu, Michelle; Sampson, Michelle; Patil, Sujata; Godfrey, Diana; Beesen, Ayshe A.; Liberman, Laura; Gemignani, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Here we describe patient, disease, and treatment characteristics of women diagnosed with breast cancer at the Breast Examination Center of Harlem to determine if these characteristics have changed in comparison to an earlier study period. The BECH continues to serve a population of ethnic minorities. The majority of breast cancer cases diagnosed in this population are now of early stage with good prognosis; however, compliance with follow-up and patient outcomes remain poor. Background To describe patient, disease, and treatment characteristics of women diagnosed with breast cancer at the Breast Examination Center of Harlem (BECH), and determine if these characteristics have changed over time. Methods Retrospective chart review of women diagnosed with breast cancer at BECH from 2000-2008 was performed. Comparisons were made to data from an earlier study period (1995-2000). Results From 2000-2008, 339 women were diagnosed with breast cancer following attendance at BECH—55% were Black, 39% Hispanic, 5% of other race/ethnicity. 52% had no health insurance. Hispanic patients were significantly more likely to have no health insurance compared with Black patients (p=.0091). 29% of patients had pre-invasive disease; 36.5% had stage I disease. Almost 40% of the entire group was followed for <1 year. 5-year overall survival for the entire group was 83% (95% CI, 75-89%) and 79% for 188 Black women (95% CI, 68-87%). Compared to the earlier study period (1995-2000), fewer patients presented with palpable masses (45.4% versus 67%) and more had either stage 0 or stage I disease (65.6% versus 46%). Conclusions Women diagnosed with breast cancer at BECH are predominantly Black and Hispanic, and most of these patients do not have health insurance. An increasing proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer are presenting with non-palpable, early-stage disease. Despite improved access to breast cancer screening, early stage at diagnosis, and access to appropriate

  13. Breast Cancer: Epidemiology and Etiology.

    PubMed

    Tao, ZiQi; Shi, Aimin; Lu, Cuntao; Song, Tao; Zhang, Zhengguo; Zhao, Jing

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer, the most frequently occurring cancer in women, is a major public health problem, with 1,384,155 estimated new cases worldwide with nearly 459,000 related deaths. Breast cancer is highly heterogeneous in its pathological characteristics, some cases showing slow growth with excellent prognosis, while others being aggressive tumors. Current predictions and statistics suggest that both worldwide incidence of breast cancer and related mortality are on the rise. According to 2012 GLOBOCAN statistics, nearly 1.7 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer with 522,000 related deaths-an increase in breast cancer incidence and related mortality by nearly 18 % from 2008. According to American Cancer Society, one in eight women in the United States will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. It has been predicted that the worldwide incidence of female breast cancer will reach approximately 3.2 million new cases per year by 2050. These numbers reflect the magnitude of breast cancer incidence, its effect on society worldwide and the need for urgency for preventive and treatment measures. While technological advances in medical sciences and health care have made it possible to detect the disease early and to start the treatment early on to prevent the progress of the disease into a metastatic state, there are several unanswered questions with regard to the molecular mechanisms that underlie the aggressiveness of certain forms of this disease. Epidemiological studies suggest that addressing socio economical issues is utmost important, so that all women have equal access to medical care from screening to advanced treatment, and only such decisive action can help reduce the worldwide burden of breast cancer.

  14. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer. PMID:16045991

  15. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer.

  16. Evaluation of Curcumin Capped Copper Nanoparticles as Possible Inhibitors of Human Breast Cancer Cells and Angiogenesis: a Comparative Study with Native Curcumin.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Sonali; Utage, Bhimashankar; Mogle, Pratima; Kamble, Rahul; Hese, Shrikant; Dawane, Bhaskar; Gacche, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    Synthesis of metal nanoparticles for improving therapeutic index and drug delivery is coming up as an attractive strategy in the mainstream of cancer therapeutic research. In the present study, curcumin-capped copper nanoparticles (CU-NPs) were evaluated as possible inhibitors of in vivo angiogenesis, pro-angiogenic cytokines involved in promoting tumor angiogenesis along with inhibition of cell proliferation and migration of breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The antiangiogenic potential was assessed using in vivo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)-based cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the effect of CU-NPs against proliferation of breast cancer cell line. The wound healing migration assay was used to evaluate the effects of CU-NPs on the migration ability of breast cancer cell line. Native curcumin (CU) was used as a reference compound for comparison purpose. The result of the present investigation indicates that CU-NPs could not demonstrate impressive antiangiogenic or anticancer activities significantly as compared to native CU. The possible mechanisms of experimental outcomes are discussed in the light of the methods of nanoparticle synthesis in concert with the current state of the art literature. PMID:26729534

  17. Evaluation of Curcumin Capped Copper Nanoparticles as Possible Inhibitors of Human Breast Cancer Cells and Angiogenesis: a Comparative Study with Native Curcumin.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Sonali; Utage, Bhimashankar; Mogle, Pratima; Kamble, Rahul; Hese, Shrikant; Dawane, Bhaskar; Gacche, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    Synthesis of metal nanoparticles for improving therapeutic index and drug delivery is coming up as an attractive strategy in the mainstream of cancer therapeutic research. In the present study, curcumin-capped copper nanoparticles (CU-NPs) were evaluated as possible inhibitors of in vivo angiogenesis, pro-angiogenic cytokines involved in promoting tumor angiogenesis along with inhibition of cell proliferation and migration of breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The antiangiogenic potential was assessed using in vivo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)-based cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the effect of CU-NPs against proliferation of breast cancer cell line. The wound healing migration assay was used to evaluate the effects of CU-NPs on the migration ability of breast cancer cell line. Native curcumin (CU) was used as a reference compound for comparison purpose. The result of the present investigation indicates that CU-NPs could not demonstrate impressive antiangiogenic or anticancer activities significantly as compared to native CU. The possible mechanisms of experimental outcomes are discussed in the light of the methods of nanoparticle synthesis in concert with the current state of the art literature.

  18. Ovarian stimulation in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Elkin; González, Naira; Muñoz, Luis; Aguilar, Jesús; Velasco, Juan A García

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among women under 50. Improvements in diagnosis and treatment have yielded an important decrease in mortality in the last 20 years. In many cases, chemotherapy and radiotherapy develop side effects on the reproductive function. Therefore, before the anti-cancer treatment impairs fertility, clinicians should offer some techniques for fertility preservation for women planning motherhood in the future. In order to obtain more available oocytes for IVF, the ovary must be stimulated. New protocols which prevent exposure to increased estrogen during gonadotropin stimulation, measurements to avoid the delay in starting anti-cancer treatment or the outcome of ovarian stimulation have been addressed in this review. There is no evidence of association between ovarian stimulation and breast cancer. It seems that there are more relevant other confluent factors than ovarian stimulation. Factors that can modify the risk of breast cancer include: parity, age at full-term birth, age of menarche, and family history. There is an association between breast cancer and exogenous estrogen. Therefore, specific protocols to stimulate patients with breast cancer include anti-estrogen agents such as letrozole. By using letrozole plus recombinant follicular stimulating hormone, patients develop a multifollicular growth with only a mild increase in estradiol serum levels. Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) takes around 10 days, and we discuss new strategies to start COS as soon as possible. Protocols starting during the luteal phase or after inducing the menses currently prevent a delay in starting ovarian stimulation. Patients with breast cancer have a poorer response to COS compared with patients without cancer who are stimulated with conventional protocols of gonadotropins. Although many centres offer fertility preservation and many patients undergo ovarian stimulation, there are not enough studies to evaluate the recurrence, breast cancer

  19. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Time-lapse exposure depicts Bioreactor rotation. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  20. Carboplatin and Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Veliparib in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IIIC Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-12

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  1. Addition of Carboplatin to Neoadjuvant Therapy for Triple-negative and HER2-positive Early Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-12

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  2. [Radiotherapy of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Hennequin, C; Barillot, I; Azria, D; Belkacémi, Y; Bollet, M; Chauvet, B; Cowen, D; Cutuli, B; Fourquet, A; Hannoun-Lévi, J M; Leblanc, M; Mahé, M A

    2016-09-01

    In breast cancer, radiotherapy is an essential component of the treatment. After conservative surgery for an infiltrating carcinoma, radiotherapy must be systematically performed, regardless of the characteristics of the disease, because it decreases the rate of local recurrence and by this way, specific mortality. Partial breast irradiation could not be proposed routinely but only in very selected and informed patients. For ductal carcinoma in situ, adjuvant radiotherapy must be also systematically performed after lumpectomy. After mastectomy, chest wall irradiation is required for pT3-T4 tumours and if there is an axillary nodal involvement, whatever the number of involved lymph nodes. After neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy, in case of pN0 disease, chest wall irradiation is recommended if there is a clinically or radiologically T3-T4 or node positive disease before chemotherapy. Axillary irradiation is recommended only if there is no axillary surgical dissection and a positive sentinel lymph node. Supra and infra-clavicular irradiation is advised in case of positive axillary nodes. Internal mammary irradiation must be discussed case by case, according to the benefit/risk ratio (cardiac toxicity). Dose to the chest wall or the breast must be between 45-50Gy with a conventional fractionation. A boost dose over the tumour bed is required if the patient is younger than 60 years old. Hypofractionation (42.5 Gy in 16 fractions, or 41.6 Gy en 13 or 40 Gy en 15) is possible after tumorectomy and if a nodal irradiation is not mandatory. Delineation of the breast, the chest wall and the nodal areas are based on clinical and radiological evaluations. 3D-conformal irradiation is the recommended technique, intensity-modulated radiotherapy must be proposed only in case of specific clinical situations. Respiratory gating could be useful to decrease the cardiac dose. Concomitant administration of chemotherapy in unadvised, but hormonal treatment could be start with

  3. Epigenetics and Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Vo, An T.; Millis, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Several of the active compounds in foods, poisons, drugs, and industrial chemicals may, by epigenetic mechanisms, increase or decrease the risk of breast cancers. Enzymes that are involved in DNA methylation and histone modifications have been shown to be altered in several types of breast and other cancers resulting in abnormal patterns of methylation and/or acetylation. Hypermethylation at the CpG islands found in estrogen response element (ERE) promoters occurs in conjunction with ligand-bonded alpha subunit estrogen receptor (Erα) dimers wherein the ligand ERα dimer complex acts as a transcription factor and binds to the ERE promoter. Ligands could be 17-β-estradiol (E2), phytoestrogens, heterocyclic amines, and many other identified food additives and heavy metals. The dimer recruits DNA methyltransferases which catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to 5′-cytosine on CpG islands. Other enzymes are recruited to the region by ligand-ERα dimers which activate DNA demethylases to act simultaneously to increase gene expression of protooncogenes and growth-promoting genes. Ligand-ERα dimers also recruit histone acetyltransferase to the ERE promoter region. Histone demethylases such as JMJD2B and histone methyltransferases are enzymes which demethylate lysine residues on histones H3 and/or H4. This makes the chromatin accessible for transcription factors and enzymes. PMID:22567014

  4. Neo-adjuvant Therapy With Anastrozole Plus Pazopanib in Stage II and III ER+ Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-24

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer

  5. Biomarkers in Tissue Samples From Patients With Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Treated With Zoledronic Acid

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-12

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  6. Radiation therapy for breast cancer: Literature review.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Karunakaran; Subramanian, Balaji; Yadav, Poonam; Anu Radha, Chandrasekaran; Ramasubramanian, Velayudham

    2016-01-01

    Concave shape with variable size target volume makes treatment planning for the breast/chest wall a challenge. Conventional techniques used for the breast/chest wall cancer treatment provided better sparing of organs at risk (OARs), with poor conformity and uniformity to the target volume. Advanced technologies such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) improve the target coverage at the cost of higher low dose volumes to OARs. Novel hybrid techniques present promising results in breast/chest wall irradiation in terms of target coverage as well as OARs sparing. Several published data compared these technologies for the benefit of the breast/chest wall with or without nodal volumes. The aim of this article is to review relevant data and identify the scope for further research in developing optimal treatment plan for breast/chest wall cancer treatment. PMID:27545009

  7. Radiation therapy for breast cancer: Literature review.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Karunakaran; Subramanian, Balaji; Yadav, Poonam; Anu Radha, Chandrasekaran; Ramasubramanian, Velayudham

    2016-01-01

    Concave shape with variable size target volume makes treatment planning for the breast/chest wall a challenge. Conventional techniques used for the breast/chest wall cancer treatment provided better sparing of organs at risk (OARs), with poor conformity and uniformity to the target volume. Advanced technologies such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) improve the target coverage at the cost of higher low dose volumes to OARs. Novel hybrid techniques present promising results in breast/chest wall irradiation in terms of target coverage as well as OARs sparing. Several published data compared these technologies for the benefit of the breast/chest wall with or without nodal volumes. The aim of this article is to review relevant data and identify the scope for further research in developing optimal treatment plan for breast/chest wall cancer treatment.

  8. Intrinsic breast tumor subtypes, race, and long-term survival in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Katie M.; Cole, Stephen R.; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Perou, Charles M.; Carey, Lisa A.; Foulkes, William D.; Dressler, Lynn G.; Geradts, Joseph; Millikan, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Previous research identified differences in breast cancer-specific mortality across four "intrinsic" tumor subtypes: luminal A, luminal B, basal-like, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive/estrogen receptor negative (HER2+/ER−). Experimental Design We used immunohistochemical markers to subtype 1149 invasive breast cancer patients (518 African American, 631 white) in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based study of women diagnosed with breast cancer. Vital status was determined through 2006 using the National Death Index, with median follow-up of 9 years. Results Cancer subtypes luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and HER2+/ER- were distributed as 64%, 11%, 11% and 5% for whites, and 48%, 8%, 22% and 7% for African Americans, respectively. Breast cancer mortality was higher for patients with HER2+/ER- and basal-like breast cancer compared to luminal A and B. African Americans had higher breast-cancer specific mortality than whites, but the effect of race was statistically significant only among women with luminal A breast cancer. However, when compared to the luminal A subtype within racial categories, mortality for patients with basal-like breast cancer was higher among whites (HR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.4) than African Americans (HR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.4), with the strongest effect seen in postmenopausal white women (HR=3.9, 95% CI: 1.5, 10.0). Conclusions Our results confirm the association of basal-like breast cancer with poor prognosis, and suggest that basal-like breast cancer is not an inherently more aggressive disease in African American women compared to whites. Additional analyses are needed in populations with known treatment profiles to understand the role of tumor subtypes and race in breast cancer mortality, and in particular our finding that among women with luminal A breast cancer, African Americans have higher mortality than whites. PMID:21169259

  9. Signal enhancement ratio (SER) quantified from breast DCE-MRI and breast cancer risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shandong; Kurland, Brenda F.; Berg, Wendie A.; Zuley, Margarita L.; Jankowitz, Rachel C.; Sumkin, Jules; Gur, David

    2015-03-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended as an adjunct to mammography for women who are considered at elevated risk of developing breast cancer. As a key component of breast MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) uses a contrast agent to provide high intensity contrast between breast tissues, making it sensitive to tissue composition and vascularity. Breast DCE-MRI characterizes certain physiologic properties of breast tissue that are potentially related to breast cancer risk. Studies have shown that increased background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), which is the contrast enhancement occurring in normal cancer-unaffected breast tissues in post-contrast sequences, predicts increased breast cancer risk. Signal enhancement ratio (SER) computed from pre-contrast and post-contrast sequences in DCE-MRI measures change in signal intensity due to contrast uptake over time and is a measure of contrast enhancement kinetics. SER quantified in breast tumor has been shown potential as a biomarker for characterizing tumor response to treatments. In this work we investigated the relationship between quantitative measures of SER and breast cancer risk. A pilot retrospective case-control study was performed using a cohort of 102 women, consisting of 51 women who had diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer and 51 matched controls (by age and MRI date) with a unilateral biopsy-proven benign lesion. SER was quantified using fully-automated computerized algorithms and three SER-derived quantitative volume measures were compared between the cancer cases and controls using logistic regression analysis. Our preliminary results showed that SER is associated with breast cancer risk, after adjustment for the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS)-based mammographic breast density measures. This pilot study indicated that SER has potential for use as a risk factor for breast cancer risk assessment in women at elevated risk of developing breast cancer.

  10. Value of epidermal growth factor receptor status compared with growth fraction and other factors for prognosis in early breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, G.; Bevilacqua, P.; Pozza, F.; Meli, S.; Boracchi, P.; Marubini, E.; Sainsbury, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane glycoprotein whose expression is important in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth. The relationship between EGFR status (determined by an immunocytochemical assay) and various prognostic factors was investigated in 164 primary breast cancers. Overall 56% of tumours were EGFR-positive and the expression of EGFR was unrelated to axillary node status, tumour size and histological grade; and it was poorly associated with the tumour proliferative activity measured by Ki-67 immuno-cytochemistry. The relapse-free survival (RFS) probability at 3-years was significantly worse for patients with EGFR positive tumours (P = 0.003) and for those whose Ki-67 score was > 7.5% (P = 0.0027), as well as in patients with axillary node involvement (P = 0.01) and with poorly differentiated tumours (P = 0.04). Immunocytochemical determination of EGFR and cell kinetics gave superimposable prognostic information for predicting RFS with odds ratios of 3.51, when evaluated singly. In our series of patients EGFR, Ki-67 and node status retain their prognostic value concerning RFS in multivariate analysis. The 3-year probability of overall survival (OS) was significantly better in node-negative patients (P = 0.04) and was similar in EGFR-positive and negative patients. In conclusion, EGFR status appears to be a significant and independent indicator of recurrence in human breast cancer and the concomitant measurement of the tumour proliferative activity seems to improve the selection of patients with different risks of recurrence. PMID:1419645

  11. [High dose medroxyprogesterone acetate in metastatic breast cancer. Comparative clinical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data of different forms of administration].

    PubMed

    Blossey, H C; Wander, H E; Nagel, G A; Köbberling, J; Kleeberg, U

    1982-08-01

    In the therapy of metastatic breast cancer MAP was used with different dosages and different forms of administration. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were investigated. MAP plasma concentrations are dose dependent with great interindividual variation. The cortisol suppressive effect is dependent on plasma concentrations with only narrow interindividual variability. The oral administration of the crystal suspension is equivalent to the administration of tablets concerning plasma levels und endocrine effects. The therapy schedule for i.m. application used here leads to lower MAP plasma concentrations and correspondingly to a minor endocrine effect than in oral therapy. Tumor effective and cortisol suppressive plasma concentrations seem to have the same level.

  12. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. A cross-section of a construct, grown from surgical specimens of brease cancer, stained for microscopic examination, reveals areas of tumor cells dispersed throughout the non-epithelial cell background. The arrow denotes the foci of breast cancer cells. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  13. Understanding Lymphedema (For Cancers Other Than Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... My ACS » Understanding Lymphedema: For Cancers Other Than Breast Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Lymphedema can be caused ... News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & Mastectomy Products Hope Lodge® ...

  14. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification of view of tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads, illustrting breast cells with intercellular boundaires on bead surface and aggregates of cells achieving 3-deminstional growth outward from bead after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida.

  15. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 49 days of growth in a NASA Bioreactor. Tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads (indicated by arrow). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  16. Nonpalpable invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, M C; Edge, S B; Cole, D D; deParedes, E; Frierson, H F

    1991-01-01

    The use of mammography has resulted in 1464 breast biopsies for nonpalpable abnormalities at the University of Virginia in the 10 years 1980 to 1989. Two hundred sixty-four cancerous lesions (18%) were found. One hundred seventy-eight of these (67%) were in situ lesions. Invasive cancer (86 of 264 lesions or 33%) forms the basis for this report. Mammographic findings leading to biopsy were a mass in 61 of 86 cases (71%), microcalcifications in 23 of 86 (27%), or both in 2 of 86 cases. Histologic subtypes were infiltrating ductal (63 of 86), infiltrating lobular (14 of 86), and other infiltrating (9 of 86). Mastectomy was performed in 71 of 86 lesions (82%), lumpectomy/radiation in 14 of 86 (16%), and lumpectomy alone in 1 of 86 lesions. Division of the tumors into size with nodal status revealed 19 of 86 lesions (22%) less than 0.5 cm with 0 of 14 positive nodes. Thirty-nine of eighty-six lesions (46%) measured 0.6 to 1.0 cm with 10 (26%) positive nodes. Twenty-eight of eighty-six lesions (32%) measured more than 1.0 cm with 8 of 28 (28%) positive nodes. Nodal status is unknown for eight patients. Overall 18 of 78 lesions (23%) had positive nodes. Median follow-up is 44 months. Disease-free survival rate is 92% (79 of 86 patients) and overall survival rate is 94% (81 of 86 patients). Six of seven recurrences occurred in node-positive patients. For those with negative or unknown nodes, the disease-free survival rate is 98% (67 of 68 patients). These findings emphasize the benefit of early detection of breast cancer through the use of mammography. PMID:2039291

  17. Breast Cancer In Women Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  18. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , ... Disclosures Footnotes Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Introduction Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. ...

  19. Posttraumatic Stress in Women with Breast Cancer and Their Daughters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Bret A.; Bubel, Denise; Jacobs, Sheri R.; Knolls, Michelle L.; Harwell, Valerie D.; Goscicka, Magdalena; Keegan, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-one percent of the surveyed women (N=133) with cancer and 13% of their daughters (N=64) reported symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Prevalence of PTSD symptoms in daughters appears comparable to women with breast cancer. Discusses intergenerational patterns in reaction to breast cancer. (JDM)

  20. White matter changes in breast cancer brain metastases patients who undergo radiosurgery alone compared to whole brain radiation therapy plus radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Timothy B; Niranjan, Ajay; Kano, Hideyuki; Choi, Phillip A; Kondziolka, Douglas; Dade Lunsford, L; Monaco, Edward A

    2015-02-01

    Delayed toxicity after whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is of increasing concern in patients who survive more than one year with brain metastases from breast cancer. Radiation-related white matter toxicity is detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and has been correlated with neurocognitive dysfunction. This study assessed the risk of developing white matter changes (WMC) in breast cancer patients who underwent either WBRT plus stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or SRS alone. We retrospectively compared 35 patients with breast cancer brain metastases who received WBRT and SRS to 30 patients who only received SRS. All patients had evaluable imaging at a median of one year after their initial management. The development of white matter T2 prolongation as detected by T2 or FLAIR imaging was graded: grade 1 = little or no white matter T2 hyperintensity; grade 2 = limited periventricular hyperintensity; and grade 3 = diffuse white matter hyperintensity. After WBRT plus SRS, patients demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of WMC (p < 0.0001). After one year, 71.5 % of patients whose treatment included WBRT demonstrated WMC (42.9 % grade 2; 28.6 % grade 3). Only one patient receiving only SRS developed WMC. In long-term survivors of breast cancer, the risk of WMC was significantly reduced when SRS alone was used for management. Further prospective studies are necessary to determine how these findings correlate with neurocognitive toxicity. WBRT usage as initial management of limited brain disease should be replaced by SRS alone to reduce the risk of delayed white matter toxicity.

  1. Triiodothyronine and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    De Sibio, Maria Teresa; de Oliveira, Miriane; Moretto, Fernanda Cristina Fontes; Olimpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Conde, Sandro José; Luvizon, Aline Carbonera; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid hormones (THs), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), are essential for survival; they are involved in the processes of development, growth, and metabolism. In addition to hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, THs are involved in other diseases. The role of THs in the development and differentiation of mammary epithelium is well established; however, their specific role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer (BC) is controversial. Steroid hormones affect many human cancers and the abnormal responsiveness of the mammary epithelial cells to estradiol (E2) in particular is known to be an important cause for the development and progression of BC. The proliferative effect of T3 has been demonstrated in various types of cancer. In BC cell lines, T3 may foster the conditions for tumor proliferation and increase the effect of cell proliferation by E2; thus, T3 may play a role in the development and progression of BC. Studies show that T3 has effects similar to E2 in BC cell lines. Despite controversy regarding the relationship between thyroid disturbances and the incidence of BC, studies show that thyroid status may influence the development of tumor, proliferation and metastasis. PMID:25114863

  2. Metals and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Celia; Divekar, Shailaja D.; Storchan, Geoffrey B.; Parodi, Daniela A.; Martin, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Metalloestrogens are metals that activate the estrogen receptor in the absence of estradiol. The metalloestrogens fall into two subclasses: metal/metalloid anions and bivalent cationic metals. The metal/metalloid anions include compounds such as arsenite, nitrite, selenite, and vanadate while the bivalent cations include metals such as cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, nickel, chromium, lead, mercury, and tin. The best studied metalloestrogen is cadmium. It is a heavy metal and a prevalent environmental contaminant with no known physiological function. This review addresses our current understanding of the mechanism by which cadmium and the bivalent cationic metals activate estrogen receptor-α. The review also summarizes the in vitro and in vivo evidence that cadmium functions as an estrogen and the potential role of cadmium in breast cancer. PMID:23338949

  3. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  4. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... proven. Studies look at things like smoking, diet, chemicals, and types of birth control pills. Talk to your provider if you are interested in joining a clinical trial for breast cancer prevention.

  5. Feature Extraction and Analysis of Breast Cancer Specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Tai-Hoon; Bandyopadhyay, Samir Kumar

    In this paper, we propose a method to identify abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test, if necessary. We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps. Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal / lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper. In fact, features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue. We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some greater extent.

  6. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Filgrastim Followed By Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-07

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  7. Soy Isoflavones Supplementation in Treating Women at High Risk For or With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-06

    BRCA1 Mutation Carrier; BRCA2 Mutation Carrier; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer

  8. Targeting autophagy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maycotte, Paola; Thorburn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Macroautophagy (referred to as autophagy here) is an intracellular degradation pathway enhanced in response to a variety of stresses and in response to nutrient deprivation. This process provides the cell with nutrients and energy by degrading aggregated and damaged proteins as well as compromised organelles. Since autophagy has been linked to diverse diseases including cancer, it has recently become a very interesting target in breast cancer treatment. Indeed, current clinical trials are trying to use chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, alone or in combination with other drugs to inhibit autophagy during breast cancer therapy since chemotherapy and radiation, regimens that are used to treat breast cancer, are known to induce autophagy in cancer cells. Importantly, in breast cancer, autophagy has been involved in the development of resistance to chemotherapy and to anti-estrogens. Moreover, a close relationship has recently been described between autophagy and the HER2 receptor. Here, we discuss some of the recent findings relating autophagy and cancer with a particular focus on breast cancer therapy. PMID:25114840

  9. Breast Cancer Survivorship Care: Targeting a Colorectal Cancer Education Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Homan, Sherri G.; Yun, Shumei; Stewart, Bob R.; Armer, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading second primary cancers, and it is often preventable. We developed a multi-component educational tool to inform and encourage women breast cancer survivors to engage in CRC screening. To assess the strengths and weakness of the tool and to improve the relevancy to the target audience, we convened four focus groups of women breast cancer survivors in Missouri. We also assessed the potential impact of the tool on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding CRC and collected information on the barriers to CRC screening through pre- and post-focus groups’ questionnaires. A total of 43 women breast cancer survivors participated and provided very valuable suggestions on design and content to update the tool. Through the process and comparing pre- and post-focus group assessments, a significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors strongly agreed or agreed that CRC is preventable (78.6% vs. 96.9%, p = 0.02) and became aware that they were at a slightly increased risk for CRC (18.6% vs. 51.7%, p = 0.003). The most cited barrier was the complexity of preparation for colonoscopy. PMID:26258794

  10. Iodide transport and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer.

  11. Survivorship Care Plan in Promoting Physical Activity in Breast or Colorectal Cancer Survivors in Wisconsin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-19

    Cancer Survivor; Healthy Subject; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer

  12. Impact of preventive therapy on the risk of breast cancer among women with benign breast disease.

    PubMed

    Cuzick, Jack; Sestak, Ivana; Thorat, Mangesh A

    2015-11-01

    There are three main ways in which women can be identified as being at high risk of breast cancer i) family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, which includes genetic factors ii) mammographically identified high breast density, and iii) certain types of benign breast disease. The last category is the least common, but in some ways the easiest one for which treatment can be offered, because these women have already entered into the treatment system. The highest risk is seen in women with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), but this is very rare. More common is atypical hyperplasia (AH), which carries a 4-5-fold risk of breast cancer as compared to general population. Even more common is hyperplasia of the usual type and carries a roughly two-fold increased risk. Women with aspirated cysts are also at increased risk of subsequent breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been shown to be particularly effective in preventing subsequent breast cancer in women with AH, with a more than 70% reduction in the P1 trial and a 60% reduction in IBIS-I. The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) also are highly effective for AH and LCIS. There are no published data on the effectiveness of tamoxifen or the AIs for breast cancer prevention in women with hyperplasia of the usual type, or for women with aspirated cysts. Improving diagnostic consistency, breast cancer risk prediction and education of physicians and patients regarding therapeutic prevention in women with benign breast disease may strengthen breast cancer prevention efforts.

  13. Genomic profiling of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anjita; Singh, Alok Kumar; Maurya, Sanjeev Kumar; Rai, Rajani; Tewari, Mallika; Kumar, Mohan; Shukla, Hari S

    2009-05-01

    Genome study provides significant changes in the advancement of molecular diagnosis and treatment in Breast cancer. Several recent critical advances and high-throughput techniques identified the genomic trouble and dramatically accelerated the pace of research in preventing and curing this malignancy. Tumor-suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes, DNA-repair genes, carcinogen-metabolism genes are critically involved in progression of breast cancer. We reviewed imperative finding in breast genetics, ongoing work to segregate further susceptible genes, and preliminary studies on molecular profiling. PMID:19235775

  14. Genomic profiling of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anjita; Singh, Alok Kumar; Maurya, Sanjeev Kumar; Rai, Rajani; Tewari, Mallika; Kumar, Mohan; Shukla, Hari S

    2009-05-01

    Genome study provides significant changes in the advancement of molecular diagnosis and treatment in Breast cancer. Several recent critical advances and high-throughput techniques identified the genomic trouble and dramatically accelerated the pace of research in preventing and curing this malignancy. Tumor-suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes, DNA-repair genes, carcinogen-metabolism genes are critically involved in progression of breast cancer. We reviewed imperative finding in breast genetics, ongoing work to segregate further susceptible genes, and preliminary studies on molecular profiling.

  15. Molecular breast imaging: an emerging modality for breast cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Screening mammography is recognized as an imperfect imaging tool that performs poorly in women with dense breast tissue – a limitation which has driven demand for supplemental screening techniques. One potential supplemental technique is molecular breast imaging (MBI). Significant improvements in gamma camera technology allow MBI to be performed at low radiation doses, comparable with those of tomosynthesis and mammography. A recent screening trial in women with dense breast tissue yielded a cancer detection rate of 3.2 per 1000 for mammography alone and 12.0 per 1000 for the combination of mammography and MBI. MBI also demonstrated a lower recall rate than that of mammography. MBI is a promising supplemental screening technique in women with dense breast tissue. PMID:25621015

  16. Comparing patients' and clinicians' assessment of outcomes in a randomised trial of sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer (the RACS SNAC trial).

    PubMed

    Smith, Michaella J; Gill, P Grantley; Wetzig, Neil; Sourjina, Tatiana; Gebski, Val; Ung, Owen; Campbell, Ian; Kollias, James; Coskinas, Xanthi; Macphee, Avis; Young, Leonie; Simes, R John; Stockler, Martin R

    2009-09-01

    The RACS sentinel node biopsy versus axillary clearance (SNAC) trial compared sentinel-node-based management (SNBM) and axillary lymph-node dissection (ALND) for breast cancer. In this sub study, we sought to determine whether patient ratings of arm swelling, symptoms, function and disability or clinicians' measurements were most efficient at detecting differences between randomized groups, and therefore, which of these outcome measures would minimise the required sample sizes in future clinical trials. 324 women randomised to SNBM and 319 randomised to ALND were included. The primary endpoint of the trial was percentage increase in arm volume calculated from clinicians' measurements of arm circumference at 10 cm intervals. Secondary endpoints included reductions in range of motion and sensation (both measured by clinicians); and, patients' ratings of arm swelling, symptoms and quality of life, using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Breast Cancer Module (EORTC QLM-BR23), the body image after breast cancer questionnaire (BIBC) and the SNAC study specific scales (SSSS). The relative efficiency (RE, the squared ratio of the test statistics, with 95% confidence intervals calculated by bootstrapping) was used to compare these measures in detecting differences between the treatment groups. Patients' self-ratings of arm swelling were generally more efficient than clinicians' measurements of arm volume in detecting differences between treatment groups. The SSSS arm symptoms scale was the most efficient (RE = 7.1) The entire SSSS was slightly less so (RE = 4.6). Patients' ratings on single items were 3-5 times more efficient than clinicians' measurements. Primary endpoints based on patient-rated outcome measures could reduce the required sample size in future surgical trials.

  17. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  18. Secondary prevention: screening for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, J

    1985-01-01

    Screening healthy women in order to detect the earliest signs of breast cancer may offer a possibility of curing many breast cancer patients who would be incurable if left until they developed symptoms. However, the natural history of breast cancer is very variable, probably indicating a wide spectrum of different growth rates of the tumour. Therefore it cannot necessarily be assumed that cancers detected by screening at an apparently early stage will behave in the same way as symptomatic cancers at that stage. To prove that screening enables cancer to be cured one needs to compare the number of deaths in a group of women who have been offered screening with those in a comparable group who have not. Unlike the situation in clinical trials of different treatments, comparison of the survival of screen-detected cancers with symptom-detected cancers is inadequate proof, because of selection bias, lead-time bias and length-bias. One randomized controlled trial of screening for breast cancer has so far been published and this shows that women in the group who were offered screening suffered one third fewer deaths from breast cancer than women in the control group, the difference persisting for up to 14 years from the first screening invitation. Further trials are now under way in Canada and various European countries, hoping to confirm this finding and to explore various other issues. Of the screening test methods currently available mammography seems the most sensitive and specific and its radiation hazard is now of almost negligible proportions provided that regular careful monitoring of the equipment is carried out. However it may have the disadvantage of overdiagnosing cases of borderline non-invasive neoplasia which might not progress to invasive cancer within the woman's lifetime. Clinical examination of the breasts is a less satisfactory test in older women but it may be useful in premenopausal women in whom mammography is less sensitive. The validity of self

  19. Environmental pollutants and breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among women 35-54 years of age. Rising incidence, increased risk among migrants to higher risk regions, and poor prediction of individual risk have prompted a search for additional modifiable factors. Risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive characteristics associated with estrogen and other hormones, pharmaceutical hormones, and activities such as alcohol use and lack of exercise that affect hormone levels. As a result, investigation of hormonally active compounds in commercial products and pollution is a priority. Compounds that cause mammary tumors in animals are additional priorities. Animal models provide insight into possible mechanisms for effects of environmental pollutants on breast cancer and identify chemical exposures to target in epidemiologic studies. Although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted for chemical exposures, occupational studies show associations between breast cancer and exposure to certain organic solvents and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Population-based studies have been limited to a few organochlorine compounds and PAHs and have been mostly negative. A variety of challenges in studies of breast cancer and the environment may have contributed to negative findings. Lack of exposure assessment tools and few hypothesis-generating toxicologic studies limit the scope of epidemiologic studies. Issues of timing with respect to latency and periods of breast vulnerability, and individual differences in susceptibility pose other challenges. Substantial work is needed in exposure assessment, toxicology, and susceptibility before we can expect a pay-off from large epidemiologic studies of breast cancer and environment. PMID:12826474

  20. Preoperative Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Contralateral Breast Cancer Occurrence Among Older Women With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jessica B.; Killelea, Brigid K.; Evans, Suzanne B.; Roberts, Kenneth B.; Silber, Andrea; Gross, Cary P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detects occult contralateral breast cancers (CBCs) in women with breast cancer, but the impact of detection on long-term CBC events is unclear. We examined whether MRI use decreases the occurrence of CBCs and the detection of stages II to IV disease among women who develop a CBC. Patients and Methods Analyzing the SEER-Medicare database, we assessed overall, synchronous (< 6 months after primary cancer diagnosis), and subsequent (ie, metachronous) stage-specific CBC occurrences in women who were diagnosed with stages I and II breast cancer during 2004-2009 and who were observed through 2011. Results Among 38,971 women with breast cancer, 6,377 (16.4%) received preoperative MRI. After propensity score matching, and compared with women who did not undergo MRI, preoperative MRI use was significantly associated with a higher synchronous CBC detection rate (126.4 v 42.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively; hazard ratio, 2.85; P < .001) but a lower subsequent CBC detection rate (3.3 v 4.5 per 1,000 person-years, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.68; P = .002). However, the 5-year cumulative incidence of CBC remained significantly higher among women undergoing MRI compared with those not undergoing MRI (7.2% v 4.0%, respectively; P < .001). The analyses of projected CBC events for 10,000 patients who receive MRI indicated that, after a 5-year follow-up, MRI use would detect an additional 192 in situ CBCs (95% CI, 125 to 279) and 120 stage I CBCs (95% CI, 62 to 193) but would not have a significant impact on stages II to IV CBC occurrences (∼ 6; 95% CI, −21 to 47). Conclusion An increased synchronous CBC detection rate, attributable to MRI, was not offset by a decrease of subsequent CBC occurrence among older women with early-stage breast cancer, suggesting that preoperative MRI in women with breast cancer may lead to overdiagnosis. PMID:26628465

  1. Breast cancer axillary lymph node metastasis detection by a high-resolution dedicated breast camera: a comparative study with SPECT and pinhole SPECT.

    PubMed

    Spanu, Angela; Chessa, Francesca; Sanna, Daniela; Cottu, Pierina; Manca, Alessandra; Nuvoli, Susanna; Madeddu, Giuseppe

    2007-12-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin planar scintigraphy acquired with a high-resolution (HR) dedicated breast camera in comparison with conventional single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and pinhole-SPECT (P-SPECT) in breast cancer (BC) axillary lymph node metastasis detection in a consecutive series of 76 BC patients, 28 of whom had axillary lymph node metastases, including 9 positive at clinical examination. HR planar scintigraphy was true positive in only 7 patients with >3 palpable metastases (sensitivity: 25%), while SPECT was true positive in 23 of 28 cases (sensitivity: 82.1%) and P-SPECT in 25 of 28 (sensitivity: 89.3%). SPECT was false negative in 5 patients with nonpalpable 3 metastatic nodes. SPECT should be preferred, significantly improving the sensitivity of planar scintigraphy, especially when using a pinhole collimator.

  2. Psychosocial distress affecting patients with ductal carcinoma in situ compared to patients with early invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Judith Brown; Loftin, Adam; Seda, Julia S; Ehlenbeck, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Psychological distress in patients with a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or early invasive breast cancer (EIBC) can emanate from perceived risk of recurrence and is accompanied by perceived risk of death from the diseases. These factors can impart a lower quality of life that can result in poorer health outcomes. In addition, inaccurate risk perceptions can have an effect on decision making, psychosocial outcomes, and subsequent health behaviors. The purpose of this study is to assess patients with DCIS and EIBC and their perceived risk of recurrence and perceived risk of dying, and evaluate their outlook for the future, the degree of social support from spouses and significant others of patients who have been diagnosed with DCIS and EIBC, and the relationship to the patient's perceived risk perception of recurrence and dying from the diseases.

  3. Mammography and breast cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Bassett, L W; Manjikian, V; Gold, R H

    1990-08-01

    Breast radiography should be performed only with film-screen mammography or xeromammography. At least two views of each breast should be obtained, and for film-screen mammography, at least one of these should be the oblique view. Quality assurance is becoming a significant concern in breast cancer screening. The ACR Mammography Accreditation Program takes into account the qualifications of the personnel, the performance of the x-ray equipment, and a peer review of the final product: the diagnostic image. The mammographic signs of malignancy can be divided into primary, secondary, and indirect. The accuracy of mammography depends on several factors, but the greatest limitation is the density of the breast tissue. Very dense tissue makes detection of breast cancer difficult, and a negative mammogram should never deter one from a biopsy of a clinically suspect mass. New consensus guidelines for breast cancer screening were developed to bring uniformity to the recommendations of the American Cancer Society, the National Cancer Institute, and various professional medical societies. These new guidelines reflect the encouraging results from recent clinical trials, as well as some discouraging reports on breast self-examination and the baseline mammogram. The underutilization of screening mammography is a problem of significant concern to both private and public health agencies. Barriers to mammographic screening include lack of awareness of the benefits of screening, physicians' misconceptions about patient compliance, concerns about radiation risk and overdiagnosis, fear of mastectomy, a perception that a mammogram involves great discomfort, and relatively high cost. Nationwide educational programs are under way to counter misconceptions about mammography, and various strategies are evolving to overcome the other barriers. Sonography is a useful adjunct to mammography for cyst-solid differentiation, but mammography is the only imaging modality effective for the early

  4. Breast Cancer by Age at Diagnosis in the Gharbiah, Egypt, Population-Based Registry Compared to the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 2004–2008

    PubMed Central

    Schlichting, Jennifer A.; Soliman, Amr S.; Schairer, Catherine; Harford, Joe B.; Hablas, Ahmed; Ramadan, Mohamed; Seifeldin, Ibrahim; Merajver, Sofia D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Although breast cancers (BCs) in young women often display more aggressive features, younger women are generally not screened for early detection. It is important to understand the characteristics of young onset breast cancer to increase awareness in this population. This analysis includes all ages, with emphasis placed on younger onset BC in Egypt as compared to the United States. Methods. BC cases in the Gharbiah cancer registry (GCR), Egypt, were compared to those in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. This analysis included 3,819 cases from the GCR and 273,019 from SEER diagnosed 2004–2008. Results. GCR cases were diagnosed at later stages, with <5% diagnosed at Stage I and 12% diagnosed at Stage IV. 48% of all SEER cases were diagnosed at Stage I, dropping to 30% among those ≤40. Significant differences in age, tumor grade, hormone receptor status, histology, and stage exist between GCR and SEER BCs. After adjustment, GCR cases were nearly 45 times more likely to be diagnosed at stage III and 16 times more likely to be diagnosed at stage IV than SEER cases. Conclusions. Future research should examine ways to increase literacy about early detection and prompt therapy in young cases. PMID:26495294

  5. Portraying breast cancers with long noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Van Grembergen, Olivier; Bizet, Martin; de Bony, Eric J.; Calonne, Emilie; Putmans, Pascale; Brohée, Sylvain; Olsen, Catharina; Guo, Mingzhou; Bontempi, Gianluca; Sotiriou, Christos; Defrance, Matthieu; Fuks, François

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) may play a role in cancer development, but this role is not yet clear. We performed a genome-wide transcriptional survey to explore the lncRNA landscape across 995 breast tissue samples. We identified 215 lncRNAs whose genes are aberrantly expressed in breast tumors, as compared to normal samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of breast tumors on the basis of their lncRNAs revealed four breast cancer subgroups that correlate tightly with PAM50-defined mRNA-based subtypes. Using multivariate analysis, we identified no less than 210 lncRNAs prognostic of clinical outcome. By analyzing the coexpression of lncRNA genes and protein-coding genes, we inferred potential functions of the 215 dysregulated lncRNAs. We then associated subtype-specific lncRNAs with key molecular processes involved in cancer. A correlation was observed, on the one hand, between luminal A–specific lncRNAs and the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor–β pathways and, on the other hand, between basal-like–specific lncRNAs and the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–dependent pathways and of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Finally, we showed that a specific lncRNA, which we called CYTOR, plays a role in breast cancer. We confirmed its predicted functions, showing that it regulates genes involved in the EGFR/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and is required for cell proliferation, cell migration, and cytoskeleton organization. Overall, our work provides the most comprehensive analyses for lncRNA in breast cancers. Our findings suggest a wide range of biological functions associated with lncRNAs in breast cancer and provide a foundation for functional investigations that could lead to new therapeutic approaches.

  6. Portraying breast cancers with long noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Van Grembergen, Olivier; Bizet, Martin; de Bony, Eric J; Calonne, Emilie; Putmans, Pascale; Brohée, Sylvain; Olsen, Catharina; Guo, Mingzhou; Bontempi, Gianluca; Sotiriou, Christos; Defrance, Matthieu; Fuks, François

    2016-09-01

    Evidence is emerging that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) may play a role in cancer development, but this role is not yet clear. We performed a genome-wide transcriptional survey to explore the lncRNA landscape across 995 breast tissue samples. We identified 215 lncRNAs whose genes are aberrantly expressed in breast tumors, as compared to normal samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of breast tumors on the basis of their lncRNAs revealed four breast cancer subgroups that correlate tightly with PAM50-defined mRNA-based subtypes. Using multivariate analysis, we identified no less than 210 lncRNAs prognostic of clinical outcome. By analyzing the coexpression of lncRNA genes and protein-coding genes, we inferred potential functions of the 215 dysregulated lncRNAs. We then associated subtype-specific lncRNAs with key molecular processes involved in cancer. A correlation was observed, on the one hand, between luminal A-specific lncRNAs and the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor-β pathways and, on the other hand, between basal-like-specific lncRNAs and the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-dependent pathways and of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Finally, we showed that a specific lncRNA, which we called CYTOR, plays a role in breast cancer. We confirmed its predicted functions, showing that it regulates genes involved in the EGFR/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and is required for cell proliferation, cell migration, and cytoskeleton organization. Overall, our work provides the most comprehensive analyses for lncRNA in breast cancers. Our findings suggest a wide range of biological functions associated with lncRNAs in breast cancer and provide a foundation for functional investigations that could lead to new therapeutic approaches. PMID:27617288

  7. Portraying breast cancers with long noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Van Grembergen, Olivier; Bizet, Martin; de Bony, Eric J.; Calonne, Emilie; Putmans, Pascale; Brohée, Sylvain; Olsen, Catharina; Guo, Mingzhou; Bontempi, Gianluca; Sotiriou, Christos; Defrance, Matthieu; Fuks, François

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) may play a role in cancer development, but this role is not yet clear. We performed a genome-wide transcriptional survey to explore the lncRNA landscape across 995 breast tissue samples. We identified 215 lncRNAs whose genes are aberrantly expressed in breast tumors, as compared to normal samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of breast tumors on the basis of their lncRNAs revealed four breast cancer subgroups that correlate tightly with PAM50-defined mRNA-based subtypes. Using multivariate analysis, we identified no less than 210 lncRNAs prognostic of clinical outcome. By analyzing the coexpression of lncRNA genes and protein-coding genes, we inferred potential functions of the 215 dysregulated lncRNAs. We then associated subtype-specific lncRNAs with key molecular processes involved in cancer. A correlation was observed, on the one hand, between luminal A–specific lncRNAs and the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor–β pathways and, on the other hand, between basal-like–specific lncRNAs and the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–dependent pathways and of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Finally, we showed that a specific lncRNA, which we called CYTOR, plays a role in breast cancer. We confirmed its predicted functions, showing that it regulates genes involved in the EGFR/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and is required for cell proliferation, cell migration, and cytoskeleton organization. Overall, our work provides the most comprehensive analyses for lncRNA in breast cancers. Our findings suggest a wide range of biological functions associated with lncRNAs in breast cancer and provide a foundation for functional investigations that could lead to new therapeutic approaches. PMID:27617288

  8. [Immunotherapy opportunities in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Pusztai, Lajos; Ladányi, Andrea; Székely, Borbála; Dank, Magdolna

    2016-03-01

    The prognostic value of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer has long been recognized by histopathologists. These observations were reaffirmed by recent immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling studies that also revealed an association between greater chemotherapy sensitivity and extensive lymphocytic infiltration in early stage breast cancers treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. These results suggest that local anti-tumor immune response can at least partially control cancer growth and may mediate the antitumor effects of chemotherapy. However, until recently, there was no direct clinical evidence to demonstrate that enhancing anti-tumor immune response could lead to clinical benefit in breast cancer patients. The recent development of clinically effective immune checkpoint inhibitors made it possible to test the therapeutic impact of augmenting the local anti-tumor immune response. Two Phase I clinical trials using single agent anti-PD-1 (MK-3475, pembrolizumab) and anti-PD-L1 (MPDL3280A, atezolizumab) antibodies demonstrated close to 20% tumor response rates in heavily pretreated, metastatic, triple negative breast cancers. The most remarkable feature of the responses was their long duration. Several patients had disease control close to a year, or longer, which has not previously been seen with chemotherapy regimens in this patient population. A large number of clinical trials are currently underway with these and similar drugs in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant and metastatic settings to define the role of this new treatment modality in breast cancer. PMID:26934349

  9. Genomic profiling of breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe recent advances in the application of advanced genomic technologies towards the identification of biomarkers of prognosis and treatment response in breast cancer. Recent findings Advances in high-throughput genomic profiling such as massively parallel sequencing have enabled researchers to catalogue the spectrum of somatic alterations in breast cancers. These tools also hold promise for precision medicine through accurate patient prognostication, stratification, and the dynamic monitoring of treatment response. For example, recent efforts have defined robust molecular subgroups of breast cancer and novel subtype-specific oncogenes. In addition, previously unappreciated activating mutations in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 have been reported, suggesting new therapeutic opportunities. Genomic profiling of cell-free tumor DNA and circulating tumor cells has been used to monitor disease burden and the emergence of resistance, and such ‘liquid biopsy’ approaches may facilitate the early, noninvasive detection of aggressive disease. Finally, single-cell genomics is coming of age and will contribute to an understanding of breast cancer evolutionary dynamics. Summary Here, we highlight recent studies that employ high-throughput genomic technologies in an effort to elucidate breast cancer biology, discover new therapeutic targets, improve prognostication and stratification, and discuss the implications for precision cancer medicine. PMID:25502431

  10. Women's interest in genetic testing for breast cancer risk: the influence of sociodemographics and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Ratner, Pamela A; Balneaves, Lynda G; Richardson, Chris G; McCullum, Mary; Hack, Tom; Chalmers, Karen; Buxton, Jane

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess women's interest in genetic testing for breast cancer risk. Randomly selected samples of 761 women without breast cancer from the general population of British Columbia, Canada, and 260 women with breast cancer from the provincial cancer registry participated in a telephone survey that assessed interest in genetic testing for breast cancer risk, knowledge of hereditary breast cancer and genetic testing, and sociodemographics. Women with breast cancer did not possess superior knowledge of breast cancer genetics compared with women from the general population. Of the women with breast cancer, 30.8% reported interest in testing or had been tested, compared with 28.5% of women without breast cancer. Controlling for differences in age, education, personal history of breast cancer, and knowledge of genetics, women with at least one relative with breast cancer were 2.3 times more likely to express interest in genetic testing for breast cancer risk than those with no family history. There were significant interactions between breast cancer status and education and between age and knowledge of breast cancer genetics. Women without breast cancer and with a positive family history, who were between 20 and 40 years of age, were most likely to be interested in testing. The women with breast cancer who were interested in testing tended to be approximately 50 years of age, had a positive family history, and had more years of education. Women with a family history of breast cancer, well-educated women with breast cancer, and younger women, particularly those with knowledge of genetic testing, are important target audiences for community-based education on genetic testing for breast cancer risk.

  11. Breast cancer and fertility preservation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. Samuel; Klemp, Jennifer; Fabian, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the benefits of adjuvant systemic therapy given to women with breast cancer of reproductive age, its effects on fertility, and options for fertility preservation. Design Publications relevant to fertility preservation and breast cancer were identified through a PubMed database search. Conclusion(s) Most women who develop invasive breast cancer under age 40 will be advised to undergo adjuvant chemotherapy with or without extended antihormonal therapy to reduce the risk of recurrence and death from breast cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy particularly with alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide is gonadotoxic and markedly accelerates the rate of age-related ovarian follicle loss. Although loss of fertility is an important issue for young cancer survivors, there is often little discussion about fertility preservation before initiation of adjuvant therapy. Greater familiarity with prognosis and effects of different types of adjuvant therapy on the part of infertility specialists and fertility preservation options such cryopreservation of embryos, oocytes, and ovarian tissue on the part of oncologists would facilitate these discussions. Establishment of rapid fertility consultation links within cancer survivorship programs can help ensure that every young woman who is likely to undergo gonadotoxic cancer treatment is counseled about the effects of therapy and options available to her to increase the likelihood of childbearing after cancer treatment. PMID:21272867

  12. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  13. Comparative Cost-Effectiveness of Drugs in Early versus Late Stages of Cancer; Review of the Literature and a Case Study in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dvortsin, Evgeni; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many oncological drugs that are being used in the adjuvant setting were first submitted for reimbursement in the metastatic stage, with differences in incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in both settings having potential implications for reimbursement and pricing. The aim of this study is to identify a possible trend in the cost-effectiveness for the early/adjuvant and late/metastatic stages of oncological drugs through review and case study. Methods We reviewed pairs of cost-effectiveness analyses of the same oncological drug in different stages for Scotland and the Netherlands. The case study in this report was directed at trastuzumab in the Dutch situation. Using a simplified Markov model, the cost-effectiveness in early and late stage of breast cancer was calculated and compared to the findings from the review. Results Comparable studies were found for cetuximab, bortezomib and bosutinib. Treatments in the late stage were found to be more expensive per QALY by a factor ranging from 1.5 to 12. The case study provided a similar result; late stage treatment was more expensive by a factor 10. Using, for example, a threshold of €80,000/QALY, the early stage of cetuximab, bosutinib and trastuzumab are deemed cost-effective, while their compared late stage is lifted over the threshold and potentially considered not cost-effective. Conclusion ICERs of oncological drugs used in different stages are more unfavourable in the late stage than in the early stage. Applying a reasonable threshold may result in early stage treatment being deemed cost-effective while late stage potentially not. Authorities should be aware of this when assessing oncological drugs and interpreting the corresponding ICERs, in the situation where oncological drugs are generally most submitted for reimbursement in the late stage initially. PMID:26800029

  14. Lung cancer after treatment for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lorigan, Paul; Califano, Raffaele; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Howell, Anthony; Thatcher, Nick

    2010-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Improvements in the outcome of breast cancer mean that more patients are living longer and are, therefore, at risk of developing a second malignancy. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of the risk of lung cancer arising in patients previously treated for early stage breast cancer. We review data on the effect of treatment factors (ie, surgery type, radiotherapy technique, and adjuvant chemotherapy) and patient factors (ie, age and smoking) on the risk of developing a subsequent lung cancer. The evidence suggests that older radiotherapy techniques were associated with a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer in the ipsilateral lung, but there is no clear evidence of an increased risk with modern techniques. Smoking is an important risk factor, and increases the risk of lung cancer in those receiving radiotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not significantly associated with an increased risk. The risk of developing lung cancer increases with time elapsed since treatment, but any effect of age at treatment is unclear.

  15. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Isolate of long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and early in culture in a dish. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  16. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Same long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), but after 3 weeks in concinuous culture. Note attempts to reform duct elements, but this time in two dimensions in a dish rather that in three demensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  17. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneously die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  18. Down-regulation of CEACAM1 in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changcheng; He, Pingqing; Liu, Yiwen; He, Yiqing; Yang, Cuixia; Du, Yan; Zhou, Muqing; Wang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Guoliang; Wu, Man; Gao, Feng

    2015-10-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen-related adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the CEA family, which has been found to exist as either soluble forms in body fluids or membrane-bound forms on the cell surface. Aberrant CEACAM1 expression is associated with tumor progression and has been found in a variety of human malignancies. Increasing interest has been devoted to the expression of CEACAM1 in breast cancer, but most of these findings are contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate CEACAM1 expression in breast cancer in greater detail. Using immunohistochemical staining, we found that CEACAM1 expression was reduced or lost in breast cancer tissues compared with noncancerous breast tissues. In addition, soluble CEACAM1 levels in the culture medium of breast cancer cell lines were significantly lower than those in a nontumorigenic breast epithelial cell line. Immunofluorescence analysis consistently showed that breast cancer cell lines have relatively low expression of membrane-bound CEACAM1. Furthermore, CEACAM1 mRNA and protein expression levels were down-regulated in breast cancer cell lines as measured using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. Taken together, our results demonstrate a systematic down-regulation of CEACAM1 in breast cancer and suggest that a strategy to restore CEACAM1 expression may be helpful for the treatment of breast cancer.

  19. Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  20. Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview–for health professionals Research Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Breast Cancer On This Page Can antiperspirants or deodorants cause breast cancer? What do scientists know about the ingredients in ...

  1. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview–for health professionals Research Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk On This Page Is there a relationship between pregnancy and breast cancer risk? Are any pregnancy-related factors associated with ...

  2. Innovative Trials Produce Promising Breast Cancer Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159762.html Innovative Trials Produce Promising Breast Cancer Drugs Adaptive study design allows researchers to match ... provide a fighting chance for women with advanced breast cancer. The drugs, neratinib and veliparib, both appear effective ...

  3. Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Distinguished Medical Service Award for their pioneering breast cancer research. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson, NIH In this ...

  4. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  5. A randomized, double-blind, crossover trial comparing a silicone- versus water-based lubricant for sexual discomfort after breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Martha; Marino, Jennifer L; Braat, Sabine; Wong, Swee

    2016-07-01

    Discomfort during sexual activity is common after breast cancer. Vaginal estrogens are effective but commonly avoided due to systemic absorption. Despite the large commercial market for vaginal lubricants, no randomized studies have compared products. We aimed to compare efficacy and acceptability of two major types of lubricant for discomfort during sexual activity in postmenopausal breast cancer patients. In a single-center, randomized, double-blind, AB/BA crossover design, sexually active postmenopausal breast cancer patients used each lubricant for 4 weeks. The primary patient-reported efficacy outcome was total discomfort related to sexual activity (Fallowfield Sexual Activity Questionnaire Discomfort subscale SAQ-D). Acceptability was measured by patient preference and reported intention to continue using the products. Of 38 women analyzed, over 90 % experienced clinically significant sexually related distress at baseline. Water- and silicone-based lubricants did not differ statistically in efficacy based on total sexual discomfort (difference 0.7, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0-1.4, p = 0.06). In a post hoc analysis, pain/discomfort during penetration improved more during silicone-based lubricant use than during water-based lubricant use (odds ratio 5.4, 95 % CI 1.3-22.1, p = 0.02). All aspects of sexual discomfort measured with diaries were reported more commonly with water- than silicone-based lubricant. Almost twice as many women preferred silicone-based to water-based lubricant than the converse (n = 20, 65 %, vs. n = 11, 35 %). 88 % continued to experience clinically significant sexually related distress despite use of either lubricant. Total sexual discomfort was lower after use of silicone-based lubricant than water-based, but many women continue to experience sexually related distress. PMID:27306420

  6. Comparative study of joint analysis of microarray gene expression data in survival prediction and risk assessment of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Yasrebi, Haleh

    2016-09-01

    Microarray gene expression data sets are jointly analyzed to increase statistical power. They could either be merged together or analyzed by meta-analysis. For a given ensemble of data sets, it cannot be foreseen which of these paradigms, merging or meta-analysis, works better. In this article, three joint analysis methods, Z-score normalization, ComBat and the inverse normal method (meta-analysis) were selected for survival prognosis and risk assessment of breast cancer patients. The methods were applied to eight microarray gene expression data sets, totaling 1324 patients with two clinical endpoints, overall survival and relapse-free survival. The performance derived from the joint analysis methods was evaluated using Cox regression for survival analysis and independent validation used as bias estimation. Overall, Z-score normalization had a better performance than ComBat and meta-analysis. Higher Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve and hazard ratio were also obtained when independent validation was used as bias estimation. With a lower time and memory complexity, Z-score normalization is a simple method for joint analysis of microarray gene expression data sets. The derived findings suggest further assessment of this method in future survival prediction and cancer classification applications.

  7. The Role of Lipolysis Stimulated Lipoprotein Receptor in Breast Cancer and Directing Breast Cancer Cell Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Reaves, Denise K.; Fagan-Solis, Katerina D.; Dunphy, Karen; Oliver, Shannon D.; Scott, David W.; Fleming, Jodie M.

    2014-01-01

    The claudin-low molecular subtype of breast cancer is of particular interest for clinically the majority of these tumors are poor prognosis, triple negative, invasive ductal carcinomas. Claudin-low tumors are characterized by cancer stem cell-like features and low expression of cell junction and adhesion proteins. Herein, we sought to define the role of lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) in breast cancer and cancer cell behavior as LSR was recently correlated with tumor-initiating features. We show that LSR was expressed in epithelium, endothelium, and stromal cells within the healthy breast tissue, as well as in tumor epithelium. In primary breast tumor bioposies, LSR expression was significantly correlated with invasive ductal carcinomas compared to invasive lobular carcinomas, as well as ERα positive tumors and breast cancer cell lines. LSR levels were significantly reduced in claudin-low breast cancer cell lines and functional studies illustrated that re-introduction of LSR into a claudin-low cell line suppressed the EMT phenotype and reduced individual cell migration. However, our data suggest that LSR may promote collective cell migration. Re-introduction of LSR in claudin-low breast cancer cell lines reestablished tight junction protein expression and correlated with transepithelial electrical resistance, thereby reverting claudin-low lines to other intrinsic molecular subtypes. Moreover, overexpression of LSR altered gene expression of pathways involved in transformation and tumorigenesis as well as enhanced proliferation and survival in anchorage independent conditions, highlighting that reestablishment of LSR signaling promotes aggressive/tumor initiating cell behaviors. Collectively, these data highlight a direct role for LSR in driving aggressive breast cancer behavior. PMID:24637461

  8. [Breast cancer. Individualized therapy concepts].

    PubMed

    Harbeck, N; Wuerstlein, R

    2013-02-01

    Personalized medicine in the sense of individualized therapy concepts plays an important role in breast cancer. In early breast cancer the molecular subtypes luminal A and B and basal-like are important for planning adjuvant systemic therapy. Prognostic and predictive markers, such as hormone receptor status, HER2, Ki-67, uPA/PAI-1 or multiple gene tests, such as Oncotype DX® currently allow avoidance of an over therapy or under therapy. In early and also advanced breast cancer there are an increasing number of new targeted therapies which represent an augmentation of standard endocrine and chemotherapy and in the future could at least partially replace them. As a whole the therapy regimens for breast cancer have become more complex due to the inclusion of molecular information, new therapies and the withdrawal of conventional treatment concepts. Decisive for the future will be the confirmation of this development by modern study concepts contemporarily with adequate evidence. It could then be expected that a personalized therapy for early breast cancer and in particular adjuvant chemotherapy would only be used for those patients for whom it is really necessary. In advanced stage disease there is justified hope that the survival time in the sense of a chronic disease can be improved by the use of targeted therapy.

  9. Veliparib, Cisplatin, and Vinorelbine Ditartrate in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-01

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer - BRCA1; Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer - BRCA2; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  10. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-07

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  11. Fulvestrant and Palbociclib in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Breast Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-21

    Estrogen Receptor and/or Progesterone Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  12. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-01

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  13. Knowledge and preference for breast conservation therapy among women without breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lazovich, D; Raab, K K; Gurney, J G; Chen, H

    2000-01-01

    We interviewed 419 adult women in Minnesota, who were selected at random and without a history of breast cancer, to ascertain what percentage could correctly report that cure was the same for breast conservation therapy and mastectomy, what percentage would state a preference for breast conservation therapy rather than mastectomy, and characteristics associated with these outcomes. Nearly all women (n = 360; 86%) had heard of both mastectomy and breast conservation therapy; among these women, 37% correctly reported that the two treatments were equally efficacious. Given a scenario where they were diagnosed with breast cancer amenable to either treatment, 58% of participants stated a preference for breast conservation therapy. Older women were less likely than younger women to know that cure was the same for breast conservation therapy and mastectomy (adjusted OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.2, 1.0), and women residing in urban areas were more likely to prefer breast conservation therapy over mastectomy compared to rural residents (adjusted OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1. 3, 3.8). Comparing these findings to women diagnosed with breast cancer in Minnesota, breast conservation therapy was found to be performed less frequently than preference for such therapy among women in our study would suggest. Educating women prior to diagnosis about breast cancer treatment options, and exploring reasons for the gap between actual utilization of breast conservation therapy and prediagnosis preference, may be indicated.

  14. Breast Cancer, Version 3.2013

    PubMed Central

    Theriault, Richard L.; Carlson, Robert W.; Allred, Craig; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Burstein, Harold J.; Edge, Stephen B.; Farrar, William B.; Forero, Andres; Giordano, Sharon Hermes; Goldstein, Lori J.; Gradishar, William J.; Hayes, Daniel F.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Isakoff, Steven J.; Ljung, Britt-Marie E.; Mankoff, David A.; Marcom, P. Kelly; Mayer, Ingrid A.; McCormick, Beryl; Pierce, Lori J.; Reed, Elizabeth C.; Schwartzberg, Lee S.; Smith, Mary Lou; Soliman, Hatem; Somlo, George; Ward, John H.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Zellars, Richard; Shead, Dorothy A.; Kumar, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates specific to the management of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer in the 2013 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Breast Cancer. These include new first-line and subsequent therapy options for patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. PMID:23847214

  15. Do underarm cosmetics cause breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Gikas, Panagiotis D; Mansfield, Lucy; Mokbel, Kefah

    2004-01-01

    Although animal and laboratory studies suggest a possible link between certain chemicals used in underarm cosmetics and breast cancer development, there is no reliable evidence that underarm cosmetics use increases breast cancer risk in humans. This article reviews the evidence for and against the possible link between breast cancer and underarm cosmetics and highlights the need for further research to clarify this issue.

  16. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  17. Can We Prevent Breast Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Sabiha

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the most common cancer in females accounting to 23% of all cases. Between January 1998 and December 2004–2004, 6,882 cases were reported from all GCC states accounting to 11.8% from all cancers and 22.7% from cancers in females. An ASR/100,000 woman was 46.4 from Bahrain, 44.3 from Kuwait, 35.5 from Qatar, 19.2 from UAE, 14.2 from Oman and 12.9 from KSA. Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in Arab women constituting 14–42% of all women cancers. Breast cancer in Arab countries presents almost 10 yrs younger than in USA and Europe. Median age at presentation is 48–52 and 50% of all cases are below the age of 50 where as only 25% of cases in industrialized nations are below the age of 50 yrs. What we need to fight this deadly disease is opening of screening centers with trained physicians equipped with ultrasound, x-ray unit, a pathology lab and most of all a system where a patient is seen urgently on referral to a secondary level care. Health education campaigns should be organized, female medical students should be encouraged to be general surgeons in a community where social customs still have value. PMID:21475500

  18. Strong adverse effect of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression on prognosis of patients with invasive lobular breast cancer: a comparative study with invasive ductal breast cancer in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong; Ma, Yuanyuan; Wang, Liang; Liu, Hong; Chen, Meixuan; Niu, Ruifang

    2015-08-01

    The data on the outcome of breast invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) are conflicting. In addition, the prognostic effect of molecular subtypes on ILC remains unclear. In this study, the clinicopathological and prognostic data between 269 ILC and 816 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cases in a Chinese population were extensively compared, with a median follow-up time of 7.8 years. Compared with the IDC group, ILC tumors had more lymph node invasion, hormonal receptor positivity, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negativity. ILC patients showed overall survival (OS) and recurrence/metastasis-free survival (RFS) rates similar to those of IDC patients but exhibited worse disease-free survival (DFS) rate because of the higher rate of contralateral breast cancer (BC). Further analysis showed that OS, RFS, and DFS were similar between ILC and IDC patients in the subgroups of luminal A and triple-negative BC with HER2 negativity but were worse in ILC patients than those in IDC patients in the subgroups of luminal B and HER2 overexpression with positive HER2 expression. Multivariate analysis indicated HER2 positivity as an independent risk factor for OS, RFS, and DFS of ILC patients, which increased the risk in the ILC group than that in IDC group. The interaction of HER2 and ILC was also defined as an independent risk factor for OS, RFS, and DFS of the entire population. In conclusion, overexpression of HER2 exhibited stronger negative effect on the prognosis of ILC patients than that in IDC patients, suggesting that treatment targeting HER2 is crucial for this BC subgroup. PMID:25804795

  19. Secretory breast cancer. Case report

    PubMed Central

    LOMBARDI, A.; MAGGI, S.; BERSIGOTTI, L.; LAZZARIN, G.; NUCCETELLI, E.; AMANTI, C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Secretory carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor initially described in children but occurring equally in adult population. This unusual breast cancer subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases. However, surgery is still considered the most appropriate treatment for this pathology. We describe the case of a 50 – year-old woman who has undergone a breast conservative surgery for a little tumor, preoperatively diagnosticated by a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) as a well differentiated infiltrating carcinoma. PMID:23660165

  20. Secretory breast cancer. Case report.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, A; Maggi, S; Bersigotti, L; Lazzarin, G; Nuccetelli, E; Amanti, C

    2013-04-01

    Secretory carcinoma of the breast is a rare tumor initially described in children but occurring equally in adult population. This unusual breast cancer subtype has a generally favorable prognosis, although several cases have been described in adults with increased aggressiveness and a risk of metastases. However, surgery is still considered the most appropriate treatment for this pathology. We describe the case of a 50 -year-old woman who has undergone a breast conservative surgery for a little tumor, preoperatively diagnosticated by a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) as a well differentiated infiltrating carcinoma.

  1. Medical hypothesis: xenoestrogens as preventable causes of breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, D L; Bradlow, H L; Wolff, M; Woodruff, T; Hoel, D G; Anton-Culver, H

    1993-01-01

    Changes in documented risk factors for breast cancer and rates of screening cannot completely explain recent increases in incidence or mortality. Established risk factors for breast cancer, including genetics, account for at best 30% of cases. Most of these risk factors can be linked to total lifetime exposure to bioavailable estrogens. Experimental evidence reveals that compounds such as some chlorinated organics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), triazine herbicides, and pharmaceuticals affect estrogen production and metabolism and thus function as xenoestrogens. Many of these xenoestrogenic compounds also experimentally induce mammary carcinogenesis. Recent epidemiologic studies have found that breast fat and serum lipids of women with breast cancer contain significantly elevated levels of some chlorinated organics compared with noncancer controls. As the proportion of inherited breast cancer in the population is small, most breast cancers are due to acquired mutations. Thus, the induction of breast cancer in the majority of cases stems from interactions between host factors, including genetics and environmental carcinogens. We hypothesize that substances such as xenoestrogens increase the risk of breast cancer by mechanisms which include interaction with breast-cancer susceptibility genes. A series of major epidemiologic studies need to be developed to evaluate this hypothesis, including studies of estrogen metabolism, the role of specific xenoestrogenic substances in breast cancer, and relevant genetic-environmental interactions. In addition, experimental studies are needed to evaluate biologic markers of suspect xenoestrogens and biologic markers of host susceptibility and identify pathways of estrogenicity that affect the development of breast cancer. If xenoestrogens do play a role in breast cancer, reductions in exposure will provide an opportunity for primary prevention of this growing disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images p372-a Figure

  2. The impact of oophorectomy on survival after breast cancer in BRCA1-positive breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Huzarski, T; Byrski, T; Gronwald, J; Cybulski, C; Oszurek, O; Szwiec, M; Gugała, K; Stawicka, M; Morawiec, Z; Mierzwa, T; Falco, M; Janiszewska, H; Kilar, E; Marczyk, E; Kozak-Klonowska, B; Siołek, M; Surdyka, D; Wiśniowski, R; Posmyk, M; Domagała, P; Sun, P; Lubiński, J; Narod, S A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study is to identify treatments which predict survival for women with a BRCA1 mutation, including oophorectomy and chemotherapy. 476 women with stage I to stage III breast cancer who carried a BRCA1 mutation were followed from diagnosis until April 2015. Information on treatment was obtained from chart review and patient questionnaires. Dates of death were obtained from the Poland vital statistics registry. Survival curves were compared for different subgroups according to treatment received. Predictors of overall survival were determined using the Cox proportional hazards model. The ten-year overall survival was 78.3 % (95 % CI 74.2-82.6 %) and the ten-year breast cancer-specific survival was 84.2 % (95 % CI 80.5-88.0 %). Sixty-two patients died of breast cancer, 14 patients died of ovarian cancer, and 2 patients died of peritoneal cancer. Oophorectomy was associated with a significant reduction in all-cause mortality in the entire cohort (adjusted HR = 0.41; 95 % CI 0.24-0.69; p = 0.0008) and in breast cancer-specific mortality among ER-negative breast cancer patients (HR = 0.44; 95 % CI 0.22-0.89; p = 0.02). Among women with breast cancer and a BRCA1 mutation, survival is greatly improved by oophorectomy due to the prevention of deaths from both breast and ovarian cancer. PMID:26983446

  3. Tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, V.C.

    1995-02-01

    The case for tamoxifen to be tested as a preventive for breast cancer has merit. Animal studies demonstrate that tamoxifen prevents mammary carcinogenesis and clinical studies now confirm that adjuvant tamoxifen therapy is the only systemic treatment that will prevent contralateral breast cancer. Developing clinical studies confirm the laboratory data that tamoxifen will maintain post-menopausal bone density in the lumbar spine and the neck of the femur; two important skeletal sites for the ultimate prevention of osteoporosis. However, a most important target site-specific effect of tamoxifen is the decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women. This positive property of tamoxifen may be responsible for the recorded decreases in hospital visits for the treatment of cardiac conditions and the significant decrease in fatal myocardial infarction for women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen. These data provide the scientific basis to undertake randomized, placebocontrolled clinical trials to test the worth of tamoxifen to prevent breast cancer.

  4. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues. Here, two High-Aspect Ratio Vessels turn at about 12 rmp to keep breast tissue constructs suspended inside the culture media. Syringes allow scientists to pull for analysis during growth sequences. The tube in the center is a water bubbler that dehumidifies the air to prevent evaporation of the media and thus the appearance of destructive bubbles in the bioreactor.

  5. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    van Uden, D J P; van Laarhoven, H W M; Westenberg, A H; de Wilt, J H W; Blanken-Peeters, C F J M

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This multimodal therapeutic approach has significantly improved patient survival. However, the median overall survival among women with IBC is still poor. By elucidating the biologic characteristics of IBC, new treatment options may become available. We performed a comprehensive review of the English-language literature on IBC through computerized literature searches. The objective of the current review is to present an overview of the literature related to the biology, imaging and multidisciplinary treatment of inflammatory breast cancer.

  6. X chromosome gain in male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Di Oto, Enrico; Monti, Valentina; Cucchi, Maria C; Masetti, Riccardo; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Foschini, Maria P

    2015-12-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon disease whose molecular profile is not well known. X chromosome gain has been described as a marker of aggressive behavior in female breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the X chromosome in male breast cancer. Twenty cases of male breast invasive ductal carcinoma were retrieved and compared with 10 cases of gynecomastia. Cases were tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization to assess a cytogenetic profile for the X chromosome. The X chromosome status was compared with histopathologic features and stage at presentation. All MBC cases harbored an X chromosome gain (100%) in a variable percentage of neoplastic cells, ranging from 31% to 85% (mean, 59%). On the contrary, all cases of gynecomastia showed wild X chromosome asset. The patients' age at surgery and tumor grading showed a statistically significant correlation (P = .0188-.04), with the percentages of neoplastic cells showing an X chromosome gain. These data suggest that this X chromosome gain plays a role in the neoplastic transformation of male breast epithelial cells.

  7. Childbearing Recency and Modifiers of Premenopausal Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Neeraja B.; Huang, Yifan; Newcomb, Polly A.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Anic, Gabriella; Egan, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the risk of premenopausal breast cancer for women in relation to childbearing recency, and whether this association differs by breastfeeding history and/or the amount of weight gained during pregnancy. This analysis was based on data from a population-based case-control study comprised of 1,706 incident cases of invasive breast cancer and 1,756 population controls from Wisconsin, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. In a telephone interview conducted from 1996 to 2001, information was gathered on established breast cancer risk factors, as well as reproductive history, including amount of weight gained during the last full-term pregnancy, and whether or not the child was breast-fed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and Wald 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of breast cancer. When compared to nulliparous women, women that had given birth within the past 5 years prior to breast cancer diagnosis in the cases or a comparable period in controls had a non-significant 35% increased risk of invasive breast cancer (OR=1.35; 95% CI: 0.90–2.04) adjusting for age and known breast cancer risk factors (p trend = 0.14). We did not find a significant interaction with breast-feeding (p for interaction = 0.30) or pregnancy weight gain (p for interaction = 0.09). PMID:18990773

  8. Interpreting breast international group (BIG) 1-98: a randomized, double-blind, phase III trial comparing letrozole and tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 study is a four-arm trial comparing 5 years of monotherapy with tamoxifen or with letrozole or with sequences of 2 years of one followed by 3 years of the other for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early invasive breast cancer. From 1998 to 2003, BIG -98 enrolled 8,010 women. The enhanced design f the trial enabled two complementary analyses of efficacy and safety. Collection of tumor specimens further enabled treatment comparisons based on tumor biology. Reports of BIG 1-98 should be interpreted in relation to each individual patient as she weighs the costs and benefits of available treatments. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT00004205. PMID:21635709

  9. Therapeutic antibodies in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Garcia, José; Muñoz-Couselo, Eva; Cortés, Javier; Scaltriti, Maurizio

    2014-10-01

    The discovery of HER2 and development of trastuzumab pioneered the field of targeted therapy in breast cancer. Hoping to emulate the same clinical success, pharmaceutical companies have developed several antibodies against newly identified membrane-bound targets. Unfortunately, none of these agents has yet matched the thousands of lives saved by trastuzumab. In this article we review the most advanced therapeutic antibodies in breast cancer. While acknowledging their unquestionable benefit, we emphasize the need to better understand their biology and mechanisms of action in order to optimize their use in defined patient populations.

  10. Intensity Modulated Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Before Surgery in Treating Older Patients With Hormone Responsive Stage 0-I Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  11. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer. PMID:26998264

  12. Increased Risk of Locoregional Recurrence for Women With T1-2N0 Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Treated With Modified Radical Mastectomy Without Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Compared With Breast-Conserving Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abdulkarim, Bassam S.; Cuartero, Julie; Hanson, John; Deschênes, Jean; Lesniak, David; Sabri, Siham

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR) associated with locoregional treatment of women with primary breast cancer tumors negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (triple-negative breast cancer [TNBC]). Patients and Methods Patients diagnosed with TNBC were identified from a cancer registry in a single institution (n=768). LRR-free survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to determine risk of LRR on the basis of locoregional management: breast-conserving therapy (BCT; ie, lumpectomy and adjuvant radiation therapy [RT]) and modified radical mastectomy (MRM) in the TNBC population and T1-2N0 subgroup. Results At a median follow-up of 7.2 years, 77 patients (10%) with TNBC developed LRR. Five-year LRR-free survival was 94%, 85%, and 87% in the BCT, MRM, and MRM + RT groups, respectively (P < .001). In multivariate analysis, MRM (compared with BCT), lymphovascular invasion and lymph node positivity were associated with increased LRR. Conversely, adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with decreased risk of LRR. For patients with T1-2N0 tumors, 5-year LRR-free survival was 96% and 90% in the BCT and MRM groups, respectively (P =.027), and MRM was the only independent prognostic factor associated with increased LRR compared with BCT (hazard ratio, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.12 to 5.75; P= .0264). Conclusion Women with T1-2N0 TNBC treated with MRM without RT have a significant increased risk of LRR compared with those treated with BCT. Prospective studies are warranted to investigate the benefit of adjuvant RT after MRM in TNBC. PMID:21670451

  13. The influence of culture on couples coping with breast cancer: a comparative analysis of couples from China, India, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Karen; Cheung, Peter K H; Rao, Nalini; Chan, Yuen Chun L; Chan, Yu; Lo, Phyllis H Y

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the process of dyadic coping among couples who are managing stress related to a partner's breast cancer diagnosis and identifies cultural factors that affect how couples cope together. Utilizing a qualitative method based on relational psychologies, the "Listening Guide," the authors analyzed the narratives of 28 couples who where coping with early-stage breast cancer and lived in Hong Kong-China, India, and the United States. Analysis revealed four cultural factors influencing the process of coping with breast cancer. These factors included (1) family boundaries, (2) gender roles, (3) personal control, and (4) interdependence. Some couples were able to transcend prevailing cultural norms to re-establish balance in their lives and adapt to the cancer. Implications for using couple-based interventions with cancer patients in differing cultural contexts are discussed. PMID:24611914

  14. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Broeders, M J; Verbeek, A L

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in our summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point in time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women. PMID:9274126

  15. Real-Time Moment-to-Moment Emotional Responses to Narrative and Informational Breast Cancer Videos in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollinger, Sarah; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    In a randomized experiment using moment-to-moment audience analysis methods, we compared women's emotional responses with a narrative versus informational breast cancer video. Both videos communicated three key messages about breast cancer: (i) understand your breast cancer risk, (ii) talk openly about breast cancer and (iii) get regular…

  16. Alcohol and risk of breast cancer in Mexican women

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Jeannette M.; Coronado, Gloria D.; Livaudais, Jennifer; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Ortega-Olvera, Carolina; Romieu, Isabelle; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the relationship between alcohol intake and breast cancer risk among Mexican women. This association may be modified by folate and Vitamin B12. METHODS A population-based case control study conducted in Mexico recruited 1000 incident breast cancer cases aged 35–69 and 1074 controls matched on age, region, and health care system. In-person interviews were conducted to assess breast cancer risk factors and recent diet using a food frequency questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression models estimated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS Over one-half (57%) of cases and less than one-half of controls (45%) reported any lifetime alcohol consumption. Compared with never drinkers, women reporting ever drinking (Adjusted OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.99–1.58) had a greater odds of breast cancer. There was evidence for interaction in the association between ever consuming any alcohol and breast cancer by folate (p for interaction=0.04) suggesting women with lower folate intake had a higher odds of breast cancer (Adjusted OR=1.99, 95% CI= 1.26–3.16) compared to women with higher folate intake (OR=1.12, 95% CI = 0.69–1.83). CONCLUSIONS Our findings support emerging evidence that any alcohol intake increases risk of breast cancer. Insufficient intake of folate may further elevate risk for developing breast cancer among women who consume alcohol. PMID:20155314

  17. What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... browser. Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know About Osteoporosis Publication available ... Print-Friendly Page April 2016 The Impact of Breast Cancer Other than skin cancer, breast cancer is the ...

  18. Late effects of cancer treatment in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sushma

    2014-04-01

    Postoperative radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy,both reduces the risk of local recurrence and extends overall survival in patients with breast cancer (BC). Concerns have, however, been raised about the risk of acute and chronic side effects in breast cancer survivors as the number of treated individuals is large and their expected survival is long compared to most patients with other malignant diseases. Cardiac toxicity, reproductive dysfunction, pneumonitis (RP),arm lymph edema, neuropathy, skin changes are examples of the wide range of complications that has been associated with adjuvant treatment.

  19. Breast cancer screenings

    MedlinePlus

    ... there is no cancer. This is called a false-positive result. For women who have had cancer in ... easier to treat. Risks of screenings can include: False-positive results . This occurs when a test shows cancer ...

  20. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HP | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  1. Combination Chemotherapy and Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant Followed By Aldesleukin and Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Inflammatory Stage IIIB or Metastatic Stage IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-07-08

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  2. Nanoparticle-based Paclitaxel vs Solvent-based Paclitaxel as Part of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Breast Cancer (GeparSepto)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-11

    Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II; Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II; Breast Cancer Female NOS; Invasive Ductal Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III; HER-2 Positive Breast Cancer; Inflammatory Breast Cancer Stage IV; Inflammatory Breast Cancer

  3. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-03

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  4. Nanotechnology for breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takemi; Decuzzi, Paolo; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Sakamoto, Jason H; Tasciotti, Ennio; Robertson, Fredika M; Ferrari, Mauro

    2009-02-01

    Breast cancer is the field of medicine with the greatest presence of nanotechnological therapeutic agents in the clinic. A pegylated form of liposomally encapsulated doxorubicin is routinely used for treatment against metastatic cancer, and albumin nanoparticulate chaperones of paclitaxel were approved for locally recurrent and metastatic disease in 2005. These drugs have yielded substantial clinical benefit, and are steadily gathering greater beneficial impact. Clinical trials currently employing these drugs in combination with chemo and biological therapeutics exceed 150 worldwide. Despite these advancements, breast cancer morbidity and mortality is unacceptably high. Nanotechnology offers potential solutions to the historical challenge that has rendered breast cancer so difficult to contain and eradicate: the extreme biological diversity of the disease presentation in the patient population and in the evolutionary changes of any individual disease, the multiple pathways that drive disease progression, the onset of 'resistance' to established therapeutic cocktails, and the gravity of the side effects to treatment, which result from generally very poor distribution of the injected therapeutic agents in the body. A fundamental requirement for success in the development of new therapeutic strategies is that breast cancer specialists-in the clinic, the pharmaceutical and the basic biological laboratory-and nanotechnologists-engineers, physicists, chemists and mathematicians-optimize their ability to work in close collaboration. This further requires a mutual openness across cultural and language barriers, academic reward systems, and many other 'environmental' divides. This paper is respectfully submitted to the community to help foster the mutual interactions of the breast cancer world with micro- and nano-technology, and in particular to encourage the latter community to direct ever increasing attention to breast cancer, where an extraordinary beneficial impact may

  5. Sexuality After Breast Cancer: Need for Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri, Sh; Lotfi Kashani, F

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical experiences have revealed that patients with breast cancer experience various sexual problems following their treatment. Breast cancer negatively impacts the sexual life of the afflicted couples, and as a traumatic event can influence women’s psychosexual functioning and intimate relationship. This review focuses on sexuality after breast cancer and on a growing need for bio-psycho-social guidelines for breast cancer treatment. Methods This study aims to review the literature on management, psychological outcomes and sexual dysfunction in patients with breast cancer. Results Although the benefits of the current treatment strategies are well established, many cancer survivors are at risk for developing psycho physiological symptoms including sexual dysfunction. Cancer and treatment-related factors can influence sexual functioning. We review current treatment-related side effects on sexual functioning such as desire, arousal and orgasm in breast cancer patients. Despite the impact of medical treatment on survival of patients with breast cancer, no satisfactory steps have been taken towards improving sexual functioning of these patients. Conclusion Breast cancer affects many aspects of sexuality, including changes in physical functioning and in the perception of feminity. Sexual dysfunction following breast cancer should be diagnosed and managed as a systematic approach with multidisciplinary inputs. Healthcare professionals should assess the effects of medical and surgical treatment on the sexuality of breast cancer survivors. PMID:25780533

  6. Tryptophan degradation in women with breast cancer: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Altered tryptophan metabolism and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity are linked to cancer development and progression. In addition, these biological factors have been associated with the development and severity of neuropsychiatric syndromes, including major depressive disorder. However, this biological mechanism associated with both poor disease outcomes and adverse neuropsychiatric symptoms has received little attention in women with breast cancer. Therefore, a pilot study was undertaken to compare levels of tryptophan and other proteins involved in tryptophan degradation in women with breast cancer to women without cancer, and secondarily, to examine levels in women with breast caner over the course of chemotherapy. Findings Blood samples were collected from women with a recent diagnosis of breast cancer (n = 33) before their first cycle of chemotherapy and after their last cycle of chemotherapy. The comparison group (n = 24) provided a blood sample prior to breast biopsy. Plasma concentrations of tryptophan, kynurenine, and tyrosine were determined. The kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (KYN/TRP) was used to estimate indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. On average, the women with breast cancer had lower levels of tryptophan, elevated levels of kynurenine and tyrosine and an increased KYN/TRP ratio compared to women without breast cancer. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the KYN/TRP ratio (p = 0.036), which remained elevated in women with breast cancer throughout the treatment trajectory. Conclusions The findings of this pilot study suggest that increased tryptophan degradation may occur in women with early-stage breast cancer. Given the multifactorial consequences of increased tryptophan degradation in cancer outcomes and neuropsychiatric symptom manifestation, this biological mechanism deserves broader attention in women with breast cancer. PMID:21615916

  7. [DNA aptamers selection for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Zamay, G S; Belayanina, I V; Zamay, A S; Komarova, M A; Krat, A V; Eremina, E N; Zukov, R A; Sokolov, A E; Zamay, T N

    2016-05-01

    A method of selection of DNA aptamers to breast tumor tissue based on the use of postoperative material has been developed. Breast cancer tissues were used as the positive target; the negative targets included benign tumor tissue, adjacent healthy tissues, breast tissues from mastopathy patients, and also tissues of other types of malignant tumors. During selection a pool of DNA aptamers demonstrating selective binding to breast cancer cells and tissues and insignificant binding to breast benign tissues has been obtained. These DNA aptamers can be used for identification of protein markers, breast cancer diagnostics, and targeted delivery of anticancer drugs.

  8. [Molecular classification of bladder cancer. Possible similarities to breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Wirtz, R M; Fritz, V; Stöhr, R; Hartmann, A

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic decisions for breast cancer are increasingly becoming based on subtype-specific gene expression tests. For bladder cancer very similar subtypes have been identified by genome-wide mRNA analysis, which as for breast cancer differ with respect to the prognosis and response to therapy on the basis of their hormone dependency. At the DNA level, however, the type of mutations and their frequencies within the subtypes are strikingly different between bladder and breast cancers. It will be interesting to see whether possible driver mutations can serve as therapeutic targets in both indications. In contrast, the apparent hormone dependency of a substantial number of bladder carcinomas suggests that hormonal and anti-hormonal treatment can be valid therapy options similar to breast cancer. Moreover, gender-specific differences with respect to the incidence and aggressiveness of male compared to female bladder cancers can be explained by hormonal effects. Together with forthcoming immunomodulatory therapies these multiple therapy options raise and give new hope to efficiently combat this aggressive disease. PMID:26780243

  9. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue; A: Duct element recovered from breast tissue digest. B: Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneousely die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. C: Isolate of long-term frowth HMEC from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and in early full-cell contact growth in culture in a dish. D: same long-term growth HMEC, but after 3 weeks in late full-cell contact growth in a continuous culture in a dish. Note attempts to reform duct elements but this in two demensions in a dish rather than in three dimensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  10. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Cancer.gov

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  11. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-19

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  12. Comparative cytotoxic response of nickel ferrite nanoparticles in human liver HepG2 and breast MFC-7 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Khan, M A Majeed; Alrokayan, Salman A

    2015-09-01

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) have received much attention for their potential applications in biomedical fields such as magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery and cancer hyperthermia. However, little is known about the toxicity of nickel ferrite NPs at the cellular and molecular levels. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic responses of nickel ferrite NPs in two different types of human cells (i.e., liver HepG2 and breast MCF-7). Nickel ferrite NPs induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in both types of cells, which was demonstrated by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Nickel ferrite NPs were also found to induce oxidative stress, which was evident by the depletion of glutathione and the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. The mitochondrial membrane potential due to nickel ferrite NP exposure was also observed. The mRNA levels for the tumor suppressor gene p53 and the apoptotic genes bax, CASP3 and CASP9 were up-regulated, while the anti-apoptotic gene bcl-2 was down-regulated following nickel ferrite NP exposure. Furthermore, the activities of apoptotic enzymes (caspase-3 and caspase-9) were also higher in both types of cells treated with nickel ferrite NPs. Cytotoxicity induced by nickel ferrite was efficiently prevented by N-acetyl cysteine (ROS scavenger) treatment, which suggested that oxidative stress might be one of the possible mechanisms of nickel ferrite NP toxicity. We also observed that MCF-7 cells were slightly more susceptible to nickel ferrite NP exposure than HepG2 cells. This study warrants further investigation to explore the potential mechanisms of different cytotoxic responses of nickel ferrite NPs in different cell lines.

  13. The costs of breast cancer prior to and following diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Broekx, Steven; Den Hond, Elly; Torfs, Rudi; Remacle, Anne; Mertens, Raf; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Neven, Patrick; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Simoens, Steven

    2011-08-01

    This retrospective incidence-based cost-of-illness analysis aims to quantify the costs associated with female breast cancer in Flanders for the year prior to diagnosis and for each of the 5 years following diagnosis. A bottom-up analysis from the societal perspective included direct health care costs and indirect costs of productivity loss due to morbidity and premature mortality. A case-control study design compared total costs of breast cancer patients with costs of an equivalent standardised population with a view to calculating the additional costs that can be attributed to breast cancer. Total average costs of breast cancer amounted to 107,456 per patient over 6 years. Total costs consisted of productivity loss costs (89% of costs) and health care costs (11% of costs). Health care costs did not vary with age at diagnosis. Health care costs of breast cancer patients converged with those of the general population at 5 years following diagnosis. Patients with advanced breast cancer stadia had higher health care costs. Cost estimates provided by this analysis can be used to determine priorities for, and inform, future research on breast cancer. In particular, attention needs to be focussed on decreasing productivity loss from breast cancer.

  14. Aromatase and cyclooxygenases: enzymes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Brueggemeier, Robert W; Richards, Jeanette A; Petrel, Trevor A

    2003-09-01

    Aromatase (estrogen synthase) is the cytochrome P450 enzyme complex that converts C19 androgens to C18 estrogens. Aromatase activity has been demonstrated in breast tissue in vitro, and expression of aromatase is highest in or near breast tumor sites. Thus, local regulation of aromatase by both endogenous factors as well as exogenous medicinal agents will influence the levels of estrogen available for breast cancer growth. The prostaglandin PGE2 increases intracellular cAMP levels and stimulates estrogen biosynthesis, and previous studies in our laboratories have shown a strong linear association between aromatase (CYP19) expression and expression of the cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) in breast cancer specimens. To further investigate the pathways regulating COX and CYP19 gene expression, studies were performed in normal breast stromal cells, in breast cancer cells from patients, and in breast cancer cell lines using selective pharmacological agents. Enhanced COX enzyme levels results in increased production of prostaglandins, such as PGE2. This prostaglandin increased aromatase activity in breast stromal cells, and studies with selective agonists and antagonists showed that this regulation of signaling pathways occurs through the EP1 and EP2 receptor subtypes. COX-2 gene expression was enhanced in breast cancer cell lines by ligands for the various peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), and differential regulation was observed between hormone-dependent and -independent breast cancer cells. Thus, the regulation of both enzymes in breast cancer involves complex paracrine interactions, resulting in significant consequences on the pathogenesis of breast cancer. PMID:14623550

  15. Mouse Models of Breast Cancer: Platforms for Discovering Precision Imaging Diagnostics and Future Cancer Medicine.

    PubMed

    Manning, H Charles; Buck, Jason R; Cook, Rebecca S

    2016-02-01

    Representing an enormous health care and socioeconomic challenge, breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Although many of the challenges associated with preventing, treating, and ultimately curing breast cancer are addressable in the laboratory, successful translation of groundbreaking research to clinical populations remains an important barrier. Particularly when compared with research on other types of solid tumors, breast cancer research is hampered by a lack of tractable in vivo model systems that accurately recapitulate the relevant clinical features of the disease. A primary objective of this article was to provide a generalizable overview of the types of in vivo model systems, with an emphasis primarily on murine models, that are widely deployed in preclinical breast cancer research. Major opportunities to advance precision cancer medicine facilitated by molecular imaging of preclinical breast cancer models are discussed. PMID:26834104

  16. Mouse Models of Breast Cancer: Platforms for Discovering Precision Imaging Diagnostics and Future Cancer Medicine.

    PubMed

    Manning, H Charles; Buck, Jason R; Cook, Rebecca S

    2016-02-01

    Representing an enormous health care and socioeconomic challenge, breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Although many of the challenges associated with preventing, treating, and ultimately curing breast cancer are addressable in the laboratory, successful translation of groundbreaking research to clinical populations remains an important barrier. Particularly when compared with research on other types of solid tumors, breast cancer research is hampered by a lack of tractable in vivo model systems that accurately recapitulate the relevant clinical features of the disease. A primary objective of this article was to provide a generalizable overview of the types of in vivo model systems, with an emphasis primarily on murine models, that are widely deployed in preclinical breast cancer research. Major opportunities to advance precision cancer medicine facilitated by molecular imaging of preclinical breast cancer models are discussed.

  17. What You Need to Know about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Breast Cancer This booklet is about breast cancer. Learning about your cancer can help you take ... This booklet covers: Basics about breast anatomy and breast cancer Treatments for breast cancer, including taking part in ...

  18. Zinc isotopic compositions of breast cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Larner, Fiona; Woodley, Laura N; Shousha, Sami; Moyes, Ashley; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Halliday, Alex N; Rehkämper, Mark; Coombes, R Charles

    2015-01-01

    An early diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer is essential to improve outcome. High precision isotopic analysis, originating in Earth sciences, can detect very small shifts in metal pathways. For the first time, the natural intrinsic Zn isotopic compositions of various tissues in breast cancer patients and controls were determined. Breast cancer tumours were found to have a significantly lighter Zn isotopic composition than the blood, serum and healthy breast tissue in both groups. The Zn isotopic lightness in tumours suggests that sulphur rich metallothionein dominates the isotopic selectivity of a breast tissue cell, rather than Zn-specific proteins. This reveals a possible mechanism of Zn delivery to Zn-sequestering vesicles by metallothionein, and is supported by a similar signature observed in the copper isotopic compositions of one breast cancer patient. This change in intrinsic isotopic compositions due to cancer has the potential to provide a novel early biomarker for breast cancer.

  19. The Changing World of Breast Cancer: A Radiologist's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Christiane K

    2015-09-01

    Compared with other fields of medicine, there is hardly an area that has seen such fast development as the world of breast cancer. Indeed, the way we treat breast cancer has changed fundamentally over the past decades. Breast imaging has always been an integral part of this change, and it undergoes constant adjustment to new ways of thinking. This relates not only to the technical tools we use for diagnosing breast cancer but also to the way diagnostic information is used to guide treatment. There is a constant change of concepts for and attitudes toward breast cancer, and a constant flux of new ideas, new treatment approaches, and new insights into the molecular and biological behavior of this disease. Clinical breast radiologists and even more so, clinician scientists, interested in breast imaging need to keep abreast with this rapidly changing world. Diagnostic or treatment approaches that are considered useful today may be abandoned tomorrow. Approaches that seem irrelevant or far too extravagant today may prove clinically useful and adequate next year. Radiologists must constantly question what they do, and align their clinical aims and research objectives with the changing needs of contemporary breast oncology. Moreover, knowledge about the past helps better understand present debates and controversies. Accordingly, in this article, we provide an overview on the evolution of breast imaging and breast cancer treatment, describe current areas of research, and offer an outlook regarding the years to come.

  20. The Changing World of Breast Cancer: A Radiologist's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Christiane K

    2016-01-01

    Compared with other fields of medicine, there is hardly an area that has seen such fast development as the world of breast cancer. Indeed, the way we treat breast cancer has changed fundamentally over the past decades. Breast imaging has always been an integral part of this change, and it undergoes constant adjustment to new ways of thinking. This relates not only to the technical tools we use for diagnosing breast cancer but also to the way diagnostic information is used to guide treatment. There is a constant change of concepts for and attitudes toward breast cancer, and a constant flux of new ideas, new treatment approaches, and new insights into the molecular and biological behavior of this disease. Clinical breast radiologists and even more so, clinician scientists, interested in breast imaging need to keep abreast with this rapidly changing world. Diagnostic or treatment approaches that are considered useful today may be abandoned tomorrow. Approaches that seem irrelevant or far too extravagant today may prove clinically useful and adequate next year. Radiologists must constantly question what they do, and align their clinical aims and research objectives with the changing needs of contemporary breast oncology. Moreover, knowledge about the past helps better understand present debates and controversies. Accordingly, in this article, we provide an overview on the evolution of breast imaging and breast cancer treatment, describe current areas of research, and offer an outlook regarding the years to come.

  1. The Changing World of Breast Cancer: A Radiologist's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Christiane K

    2016-01-01

    Compared with other fields of medicine, there is hardly an area that has seen such fast development as the world of breast cancer. Indeed, the way we treat breast cancer has changed fundamentally over the past decades. Breast imaging has always been an integral part of this change, and it undergoes constant adjustment to new ways of thinking. This relates not only to the technical tools we use for diagnosing breast cancer but also to the way diagnostic information is used to guide treatment. There is a constant change of concepts for and attitudes toward breast cancer, and a constant flux of new ideas, new treatment approaches, and new insights into the molecular and biological behavior of this disease. Clinical breast radiologists and even more so, clinician scientists, interested in breast imaging need to keep abreast with this rapidly changing world. Diagnostic or treatment approaches that are considered useful today may be abandoned tomorrow. Approaches that seem irrelevant or far too extravagant today may prove clinically useful and adequate next year. Radiologists must constantly question what they do, and align their clinical aims and research objectives with the changing needs of contemporary breast oncology. Moreover, knowledge about the past helps better understand present debates and controversies. Accordingly, in this article, we provide an overview on the evolution of breast imaging and breast cancer treatment, describe current areas of research, and offer an outlook regarding the years to come. PMID:26933985

  2. The Changing World of Breast Cancer: A Radiologist's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Christiane K

    2015-09-01

    Compared with other fields of medicine, there is hardly an area that has seen such fast development as the world of breast cancer. Indeed, the way we treat breast cancer has changed fundamentally over the past decades. Breast imaging has always been an integral part of this change, and it undergoes constant adjustment to new ways of thinking. This relates not only to the technical tools we use for diagnosing breast cancer but also to the way diagnostic information is used to guide treatment. There is a constant change of concepts for and attitudes toward breast cancer, and a constant flux of new ideas, new treatment approaches, and new insights into the molecular and biological behavior of this disease. Clinical breast radiologists and even more so, clinician scientists, interested in breast imaging need to keep abreast with this rapidly changing world. Diagnostic or treatment approaches that are considered useful today may be abandoned tomorrow. Approaches that seem irrelevant or far too extravagant today may prove clinically useful and adequate next year. Radiologists must constantly question what they do, and align their clinical aims and research objectives with the changing needs of contemporary breast oncology. Moreover, knowledge about the past helps better understand present debates and controversies. Accordingly, in this article, we provide an overview on the evolution of breast imaging and breast cancer treatment, describe current areas of research, and offer an outlook regarding the years to come. PMID:26083829

  3. High Bak Expression Is Associated with a Favorable Prognosis in Breast Cancer and Sensitizes Breast Cancer Cells to Paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yanwei; Wang, Xinye; Wang, Heran; Xu, Yang; Wen, Qiuyuan; Fan, Songqing; Zhao, Ran; Jiang, Shihe; Yang, Jing; Liu, Yukun; Li, Xiayu; Xiong, Wei; Ma, Jian; Peng, Shuping; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Li, Xiaoling; Phillips, Joshua B; Li, Guiyuan; Tan, Ming; Zhou, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer has become the leading cause of cancer-related death among women. A large number of patients become resistant to drug chemotherapy. Paclitaxel (Taxol) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent used to treat cancer patients. Taxol has been widely used in human malignancies including breast cancer because it can stabilize microtubules resulting in cell death by causing an arrest during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 antagonist killer 1 (Bak) plays an important role in Taxol-induced apoptosis in breast cancer. In our present study, we investigated the expression of the Bak protein and clinicopathological correlations in a large sample of breast cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry. We found that the percentage of high scores of Bak expression in breast cancer was significantly lower than that of the non-cancerous breast control tissue. In addition, lower Bak expression was positively associated with the clinical TNM stage of breast cancer with a significant decrease in overall survival compared with those with higher Bak expression especially in the Luminal and HER2 subtypes. Importantly, higher Bak expression predicted a favorable clinical outcome in the cases treated with Taxol indicated by a higher overall survival than that of patients with lower Bak expression especially in Luminal and HER2 subtypes. Furthermore, these results were confirmed in vitro since overexpression of Bak sensitized breast cancer cells to Taxol by inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis; in contrast, downregulation of Bak through siRNA transfection inhibited Taxol induced-apoptosis. Therefore, our results demonstrate that Bak acts as a sensitive biomarker and favorable prognostic factor for Taxol treatment in breast cancer. The restoration of Bak expression would be therapeutically beneficial for Taxol resistant breast cancer patients.

  4. HSP90 Inhibitor AT13387 and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Advanced Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-13

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  5. Platinum resistance in breast and ovarian cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Breast and ovarian cancers are among the 10 leading cancer types in females with mortalities of 15% and 6%, respectively. Despite tremendous efforts to conquer malignant diseases, the war on cancer declared by Richard Nixon four decades ago seems to be lost. Approximately 21,800 women in the US will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer in 2011. Therefore, its incidence is relatively low compared to breast cancer with 207.090 prognosed cases in 2011. However, overall survival unmasks ovarian cancer as the most deadly gynecological neoplasia. Platinum-based chemotherapy is emerging as an upcoming treatment modality especially in triple negative breast cancer. However, in ovarian cancer Platinum-complexes for a long time are established as first line treatment. Emergence of a resistant phenotype is a major hurdle in curative cancer therapy approaches and many scientists around the world are focussing on this issue. This review covers new findings in this field during the past decade. PMID:21967738

  6. Cytotoxic effect of the red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extract compared to doxorubicin (Adriamycin) in the human prostate (PC-3) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Govind J; Azuine, Magnus A; Rao, G Subba; Arai, Takanari; Iida, Akira; Tokuda, Harukuni

    2011-03-01

    Previous cancer chemoprevention studies from our laboratories and by other investigators have demonstrated that the extract of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.), the FDA approved red food color E162, can be effective in suppressing the development of multi-organ tumors in experimental animals. To further explore this finding, we have compared the cytotoxic effect of the red beetroot extract with anticancer drug, doxorubicin (adriamycin) in the androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) and in the well-established estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). This red colored anticancer antibiotic was selected for comparative cytotoxic study because its chemical structure with a planar configuration of an aromatic chromophore attached to a sugar molecule is remarkably similar to that of betanin, the beetroot extract constituent primarily responsible for its red color. Both doxorubicin and the beetroot extract exhibited a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect in the two cancer cell lines tested. Although the cytotoxicity of the beetroot extract was significantly lower when compared to doxorubicin, it continued to decrease the growth rate of the PC-3 cells (3.7% in 3 days vs. 12.5% in 7 days) when tested at the concentration of 29 µg/ml. In contrast, doxorubicin, at the same concentration level, completely inhibited the growth of the PC-3 cells in three days. Similarly, comparative studies in the normal human skin FC and liver HC cell lines showed that the beetroot extract had significantly lower cytotoxic effect than doxorubicin (8.6% vs. 100%, respectively, at 29 µg/ml concentration of each, three-day test period). The results suggest that betanin, the major betacyanin constituent, may play an important role in the cytotoxicity exhibited by the red beetroot extract. Further studies are needed to evaluate the chemopreventive potentials of the beetroot extract when used alone or in combination with doxorubicin to mitigate the toxic side

  7. Cytotoxic effect of the red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extract compared to doxorubicin (Adriamycin) in the human prostate (PC-3) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Govind J; Azuine, Magnus A; Rao, G Subba; Arai, Takanari; Iida, Akira; Tokuda, Harukuni

    2011-03-01

    Previous cancer chemoprevention studies from our laboratories and by other investigators have demonstrated that the extract of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.), the FDA approved red food color E162, can be effective in suppressing the development of multi-organ tumors in experimental animals. To further explore this finding, we have compared the cytotoxic effect of the red beetroot extract with anticancer drug, doxorubicin (adriamycin) in the androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) and in the well-established estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). This red colored anticancer antibiotic was selected for comparative cytotoxic study because its chemical structure with a planar configuration of an aromatic chromophore attached to a sugar molecule is remarkably similar to that of betanin, the beetroot extract constituent primarily responsible for its red color. Both doxorubicin and the beetroot extract exhibited a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect in the two cancer cell lines tested. Although the cytotoxicity of the beetroot extract was significantly lower when compared to doxorubicin, it continued to decrease the growth rate of the PC-3 cells (3.7% in 3 days vs. 12.5% in 7 days) when tested at the concentration of 29 µg/ml. In contrast, doxorubicin, at the same concentration level, completely inhibited the growth of the PC-3 cells in three days. Similarly, comparative studies in the normal human skin FC and liver HC cell lines showed that the beetroot extract had significantly lower cytotoxic effect than doxorubicin (8.6% vs. 100%, respectively, at 29 µg/ml concentration of each, three-day test period). The results suggest that betanin, the major betacyanin constituent, may play an important role in the cytotoxicity exhibited by the red beetroot extract. Further studies are needed to evaluate the chemopreventive potentials of the beetroot extract when used alone or in combination with doxorubicin to mitigate the toxic side

  8. Do We Know What Causes Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells become cancerous because of changes (mutations) in DNA. Some DNA mutations are inherited. This means the mutations are ... cancers that run in some families. But most DNA changes related to breast cancer are acquired in ...

  9. Breast metastasis from vaginal cancer.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Neeraja; Scharifker, Daniel; Varsegi, George; Almeida, Zoyla

    2016-07-21

    Vaginal cancer is a rare malignancy accounting for 1-2% of all pelvic neoplasms. Dissemination usually occurs through local invasion and rarely metastasises to distal locations. Metastasis of vaginal cancer to the breast is extremely infrequent and unique. A 66-year-old Asian woman presented with vaginal bleeding and was found to have a vaginal mass and a left breast mass. Pathological assessment of the biopsies revealed identical squamous cell characteristics of both masses. We describe a very rare and novel case of a distally located vaginal carcinoma with metastasis to the breast Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IV (FIGO IVB). Robot-assisted extrafascial total hysterectomy with local vaginal mass excision and partial mastectomy of the left breast were performed. After surgery, the patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy followed by breast and pelvic radiotherapy, with maintained complete remission after 3 years of follow-up. This combination of findings and treatment is very distinct with a unique and favourable response.

  10. Breast metastasis from vaginal cancer.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Neeraja; Scharifker, Daniel; Varsegi, George; Almeida, Zoyla

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal cancer is a rare malignancy accounting for 1-2% of all pelvic neoplasms. Dissemination usually occurs through local invasion and rarely metastasises to distal locations. Metastasis of vaginal cancer to the breast is extremely infrequent and unique. A 66-year-old Asian woman presented with vaginal bleeding and was found to have a vaginal mass and a left breast mass. Pathological assessment of the biopsies revealed identical squamous cell characteristics of both masses. We describe a very rare and novel case of a distally located vaginal carcinoma with metastasis to the breast Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IV (FIGO IVB). Robot-assisted extrafascial total hysterectomy with local vaginal mass excision and partial mastectomy of the left breast were performed. After surgery, the patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy followed by breast and pelvic radiotherapy, with maintained complete remission after 3 years of follow-up. This combination of findings and treatment is very distinct with a unique and favourable response. PMID:27444140

  11. Correlates of existential well-being and their association with health-related quality of life in breast cancer survivors compared with the general population.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hae Won; Noh, Dong Young; Lee, Eun Sook; Nam, Seok Jin; Park, Byeong Woo; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Yun, Young Ho

    2009-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the correlates of existential well-being (EWB) and investigate the relationship between EWB and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) according to the McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire (MQOL) in breast cancer survivors (BCS) and in the general population. BCS (N = 1,933) recruited from five large hospitals completed a mailed survey, which included the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (QLQ-C30), Quality of Life Questionnaire Breast Cancer Module (QLQ-BR23) and the MQOL. Reference data were derived from a representative sample of the Korean adult population composed of 500 women selected by a nationwide random route technique. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that members of the general population with a lower educational status were more likely to report poor EWB. However, among BCS, correlates that were associated with poor EWB included lower monthly income, lower educational status, unemployment and comorbidities. Almost all factors listed on the HRQOL questionnaire were correlated with EWB in BCS as well as in the general population (P < 0.001). Factors listed on the QLQ-C30 that were correlated to a clinically meaningful extent with EWB in the general population included physical functioning, nausea and vomiting, and appetite loss, whereas among BCS, insomnia and distress over hair loss were meaningfully correlated with EWB. Compared with general population, BCS showed different EWB correlates and distinct associations with HRQOL findings. Our data suggest that socio-economic status and comorbidities influence on their EWB.

  12. Field-in-field plan does not improve the dosimetric outcome compared with the wedged beams plan for breast cancer radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Li-Min; Meng, Fan-Yun; Yang, Tsung-Han; Tsao, Min-Jen

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate and compare the dosimetry of field-in-field (FIF) and wedged beams (WB) techniques for patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after conservative surgery. A total of 89 patients with breast cancer participated in this study. Each patient received a computed tomography–based treatment plan with opposed tangential fields. Two planning techniques (FIF and WB) were generated for each patient by using the Pinnacle treatment-planning system. Three indices, the homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), and uniformity index (UI), as well as maximum dose (D{sub max}), median dose (D{sub 50}), number of portals, monitor unit (MU), and lung volume at 20 Gy (lung{sub 20}) were used for comparison. The mean values tested using a t-test indicated that the WB technique had a significantly lower HI (p < 0.0001), a significantly higher CI (p < 0.0001), and a significantly higher D{sub 50} (p = 0.0002) than did the FIF technique. The FIF technique had a significantly higher D{sub max} compared with the WB technique, but lung{sub 20} did not exhibit a significant difference. By contrast, the FIF technique had a significantly higher UI and a significantly lower MU compared with the WB technique, but a significantly higher number of portals were found in the FIF technique. The FIF technique did not demonstrate superior dosimetric results. The WB technique had a significantly lower HI, higher CI, lower D{sub max}, and lower number of portals; but the FIF technique had a significantly higher UI and lower MU.

  13. Rural Primary Care Providers' Perceptions of Their Role in the Breast Cancer Care Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayman, Kathleen M.; Edwards, Joellen

    2010-01-01

    Context: Rural women in the United States experience disparity in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment when compared to their urban counterparts. Given the 11% chance of lifetime occurrence of breast cancer for women overall, the continuum of breast cancer screening, diagnosis, treatment, and recovery are of legitimate concern to rural women and…

  14. Beliefs and Behaviors about Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk Reduction among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ansa, Benjamin; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary; Coughlin, Steven; Smith, Selina

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that breast cancer recurrence risk is linked to lifestyle behaviors. This study examined correlations between breast cancer recurrence, risk reduction beliefs, and related behaviors among African American breast cancer survivors (AA BCSs). Study participants included 191 AA BCSs, mean age = 56.3 years, who completed a lifestyle assessment tool. Most respondents believed that being overweight (52.7%), lack of physical activity (48.7%), and a high fat diet (63.2%) are associated with breast cancer recurrence. Over 65% considered themselves overweight; one third (33.5%) agreed that losing weight could prevent recurrence, 33.0% disagreed, while the remaining 33.5% did not know; and nearly half (47.9%) believed that recurrence could be prevented by increasing physical activity. Almost 90% survivors with BMI < 25 Kg/M2 reported no recurrence compared to 75.7% with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/M2 (p = 0.06); nearly all of the women (99.2%) answered “yes” to seeking professional help to lose weight, 79.7% of which were recurrence-free (p = 0.05). These results provide information about AA BCSs’ beliefs and behaviors protective against breast cancer recurrence. Additional research is warranted to determine the effectiveness of educational interventions for AA BCSs that promote consumption of a healthy diet and engaging in regular physical activity. PMID:26703650

  15. Beliefs and Behaviors about Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk Reduction among African American Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Ansa, Benjamin; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary; Coughlin, Steven; Smith, Selina

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that breast cancer recurrence risk is linked to lifestyle behaviors. This study examined correlations between breast cancer recurrence, risk reduction beliefs, and related behaviors among African American breast cancer survivors (AA BCSs). Study participants included 191 AA BCSs, mean age = 56.3 years, who completed a lifestyle assessment tool. Most respondents believed that being overweight (52.7%), lack of physical activity (48.7%), and a high fat diet (63.2%) are associated with breast cancer recurrence. Over 65% considered themselves overweight; one third (33.5%) agreed that losing weight could prevent recurrence, 33.0% disagreed, while the remaining 33.5% did not know; and nearly half (47.9%) believed that recurrence could be prevented by increasing physical activity. Almost 90% survivors with BMI < 25 Kg/M² reported no recurrence compared to 75.7% with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/M² (p = 0.06); nearly all of the women (99.2%) answered "yes" to seeking professional help to lose weight, 79.7% of which were recurrence-free (p = 0.05). These results provide information about AA BCSs' beliefs and behaviors protective against breast cancer recurrence. Additional research is warranted to determine the effectiveness of educational interventions for AA BCSs that promote consumption of a healthy diet and engaging in regular physical activity. PMID:26703650

  16. Paclitaxel and Cyclophosphamide With or Without Trastuzumab Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-12-12

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  17. Tendency to breast reconstruction after breast mastectomy among Iranian women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Homaei Shandiz, Fatemeh; Najaf Najafi, Mona; Abbasi Shaye, Zahra; Salehi, Mahta; Salehi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women with the medical history of breast cancer constitute the biggest group of patients who survived cancer. Despite the high rate of mastectomy after breast cancer in Iran; only limited patients elect reconstruction surgery. The aim of our study was to evaluate the rate of tendency to breast reconstruction (BR) surgery among women with breast cancer who had mastectomy but not undergone reconstruction. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Mashhad, north east of Iran during 2013. A total of 108 patients with mastectomy due to breast cancer were selected through convenience sampling and completed the questionnaire. Demographic data collected and 21 items of questionnaire were compared between patients with and without tendency to BR. Data were analyzed using Chi square, t tests and logistic regression. Results: In this study 62 (57.4%) patients had a tendency to BR and 46 (42.6%) had not. The mean (±SD) age of patients in first group was 43.3±8.03 and 49.6±9.9 in the second group (p<0.001). Frequency of agreement about impact of BR on appearance and beauty, mood, family living conditions and their opinion (p<0.001), lack of sufficient information (p=0.01), physician's opinion (p<0.001) and priority of cancer breast treatment (p=0.02) were significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: More than half of the patients had a tendency to BR although they did not go under the surgery yet. Identification of factors that can increase the tendency and factors that help to change the intention to action are important and should be investigate in future research. PMID:26478882

  18. Diet and breast cancer in Shanghai and Tianjin, China.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, J. M.; Wang, Q. S.; Ross, R. K.; Henderson, B. E.; Yu, M. C.

    1995-01-01

    cancer and energy intake, Shanghai women in the lowest tertile of crude fibre intake and highest tertile of fat intake had a 2.9-fold increased risk for breast cancer relative to those in the highest tertile of crude fibre intake and lowest tertile of fat intake. The comparable relative risk in Tianjin women was 2.4. Our data indicate a strong protective effect against breast cancer development with intake of foods rich in fibre, vitamin C and carotene. Our results are also compatible with dietary fat having a modest, positive effect on breast cancer risk within the range of exposure experienced by women in China.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7779738

  19. FLT PET in Measuring Treatment Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Estrogen Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-02

    Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Male Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  20. Comparative study between the photodynamic ability of gold and silver nanoparticles in mediating cell death in breast and lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    El-Hussein, Ahmed; Mfouo-Tynga, Ivan; Abdel-Harith, Mohamed; Abrahamse, Heidi

    2015-12-01

    Cancer is one of the dreadest diseases once diagnosed and has severe impacts on health, social and economic global aspects. Nanomedicine is considered an emerging approach for early cancer diagnosis and treatment. The multifunctional effects of silver and gold nanoparticles (Ag and Au NPs) have rendered them to be potent candidates for biomedical applications. The current work presents a comparative study between Au NPs and Ag NPs as possible potent photosensitizers (PS) in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to identify and characterize the shape, size, and cellular localization of Au NPs; the absorption properties of Au NPs were determined using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and zeta potential was used to identify surface charge. Inverted light microscopy (LM), Trypan blue exclusion assay, adenosine triphosphate luminescence (ATP), and lactate dehydrogenase membrane integrity assays (LDH) were used for investigating the photodynamic ability of these nanostructures on breast (MCF-7) and lung (A549) cancer cell lines. Flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) dyes was used to determine the cell death pathway induced. The average size of the synthesized Au NPs was 50 nm, having an absorption peak at 540 nm with -7.85 mV surface net charge. MCF-7 and A549 cells were able to absorb the Au NPs. The latter, when irradiated with laser light in the phototherapeutic window, promoted cytotoxicity and a significant reduction in cell viability and proliferation were observed. The photodynamic activity that was observed in both cancer cell lines was found to be less eminent than that observed in case of the Ag NPs when compared to Au NPs. The present study is the first that compares the photodynamic ability of two different nanoparticles, silver and gold, as photosensitizers without any further functionalization. This study extends the possibilities of using such nanostructures in PDT within the therapeutic

  1. Comparative study between the photodynamic ability of gold and silver nanoparticles in mediating cell death in breast and lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    El-Hussein, Ahmed; Mfouo-Tynga, Ivan; Abdel-Harith, Mohamed; Abrahamse, Heidi

    2015-12-01

    Cancer is one of the dreadest diseases once diagnosed and has severe impacts on health, social and economic global aspects. Nanomedicine is considered an emerging approach for early cancer diagnosis and treatment. The multifunctional effects of silver and gold nanoparticles (Ag and Au NPs) have rendered them to be potent candidates for biomedical applications. The current work presents a comparative study between Au NPs and Ag NPs as possible potent photosensitizers (PS) in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to identify and characterize the shape, size, and cellular localization of Au NPs; the absorption properties of Au NPs were determined using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and zeta potential was used to identify surface charge. Inverted light microscopy (LM), Trypan blue exclusion assay, adenosine triphosphate luminescence (ATP), and lactate dehydrogenase membrane integrity assays (LDH) were used for investigating the photodynamic ability of these nanostructures on breast (MCF-7) and lung (A549) cancer cell lines. Flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) dyes was used to determine the cell death pathway induced. The average size of the synthesized Au NPs was 50 nm, having an absorption peak at 540 nm with -7.85 mV surface net charge. MCF-7 and A549 cells were able to absorb the Au NPs. The latter, when irradiated with laser light in the phototherapeutic window, promoted cytotoxicity and a significant reduction in cell viability and proliferation were observed. The photodynamic activity that was observed in both cancer cell lines was found to be less eminent than that observed in case of the Ag NPs when compared to Au NPs. The present study is the first that compares the photodynamic ability of two different nanoparticles, silver and gold, as photosensitizers without any further functionalization. This study extends the possibilities of using such nanostructures in PDT within the therapeutic

  2. The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC): Prognostic factors associated with racial/ethnic differences in breast cancer survival

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H.; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Vigen, Cheryl; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Lu, Yani; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Monroe, Kristine R.; Kurian, Allison W.; Cheng, Iona; Caan, Bette J.; Lee, Valerie S.; Roh, Janise M.; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Henderson, Brian E.; Bernstein, Leslie; John, Esther M.; Sposto, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in mortality among US breast cancer patients are well-documented. Our knowledge of the contribution of lifestyle factors to disease prognosis is based primarily on non-Latina Whites and is limited for Latina, African American and Asian American women. To address this knowledge gap, the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC) harmonized and pooled interview information (e.g., demographics, family history of breast cancer, parity, smoking, alcohol consumption) from six California-based breast cancer studies and assembled corresponding cancer registry data (clinical characteristics, mortality), resulting in 12,210 patients (6,501 non-Latina Whites, 2,060 African Americans, 2,032 Latinas, 1,505 Asian Americans, 112 other race/ethnicity) diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer between 1993 and 2007. In total, 3,047 deaths (1,570 breast cancer-specific) were observed with a mean (SD) follow-up of 8.3 (3.5) years. Cox-proportional hazards regression models were fit to data to estimate hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall and breast cancer-specific mortality. Compared with non-Latina Whites, the HR of breast cancer-specific mortality was 1.13 (95% CI, 0.97-1.33) for African Americans, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.70-1.00) for Latinas, and 0.60 (95% CI, 0.37-0.97) for Asian Americans after adjustment for age, tumor characteristics, and select lifestyle factors. The CBCSC represents a large and racially/ethnically diverse cohort of breast cancer patients from California. This cohort will enable analyses to jointly consider a variety of clinical, lifestyle, and contextual factors in attempting to explain the long-standing disparities in breast cancer outcomes. PMID:23864487

  3. DNA Methylation Heterogeneity Patterns in Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Tian, Sunny; Bertelsmann, Karina; Yu, Linda; Sun, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous DNA methylation patterns are linked to tumor growth. In order to study DNA methylation heterogeneity patterns for breast cancer cell lines, we comparatively study four metrics: variance, I (2) statistic, entropy, and methylation state. Using the categorical metric methylation state, we select the two most heterogeneous states to identify genes that directly affect tumor suppressor genes and high- or moderate-risk breast cancer genes. Utilizing the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis software and the ConsensusPath Database visualization tool, we generate integrated gene networks to study biological relations of heterogeneous genes. This analysis has allowed us to contribute 19 potential breast cancer biomarker genes to cancer databases by locating "hub genes" - heterogeneous genes of significant biological interactions, selected from numerous cancer modules. We have discovered a considerable relationship between these hub genes and heterogeneously methylated oncogenes. Our results have many implications for further heterogeneity analyses of methylation patterns and early detection of breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:27688708

  4. DNA Methylation Heterogeneity Patterns in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Sunny; Bertelsmann, Karina; Yu, Linda; Sun, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous DNA methylation patterns are linked to tumor growth. In order to study DNA methylation heterogeneity patterns for breast cancer cell lines, we comparatively study four metrics: variance, I2 statistic, entropy, and methylation state. Using the categorical metric methylation state, we select the two most heterogeneous states to identify genes that directly affect tumor suppressor genes and high- or moderate-risk breast cancer genes. Utilizing the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis software and the ConsensusPath Database visualization tool, we generate integrated gene networks to study biological relations of heterogeneous genes. This analysis has allowed us to contribute 19 potential breast cancer biomarker genes to cancer databases by locating “hub genes” – heterogeneous genes of significant biological interactions, selected from numerous cancer modules. We have discovered a considerable relationship between these hub genes and heterogeneously methylated oncogenes. Our results have many implications for further heterogeneity analyses of methylation patterns and early detection of breast cancer susceptibility.

  5. Breast cancer incidence rates among Orthodox Jewish women

    PubMed Central

    Tkatch, Rifky; Schwartz, Kendra; Shore, Ronald D.; Penner, Louis A.; Simon, Michael S.; Albrecht, Terrance L.

    2013-01-01

    BRCA 1/BRCA2 founder mutations have been documented among Ashkenazi Jews. Little is known about cancer rates and cancer-related health behaviors among an insular subset of this population, Orthodox Jews. The goal of this study was estimate the risk of breast and ovarian among the Orthodox Jewish population. We used geo-coding with SEER data to identify this subgroup and estimate breast and ovarian cancer rates. Relative to neighborhoods with lower estimated Jewish populations, higher breast cancer rates were found in neighborhoods with higher estimated Orthodox Jewish population, there were no comparable differences in ovarian cancer rates. Implications include more research on health behaviors that may contribute to breast cancer in this insular community. PMID:23584710

  6. DNA Methylation Heterogeneity Patterns in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Sunny; Bertelsmann, Karina; Yu, Linda; Sun, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous DNA methylation patterns are linked to tumor growth. In order to study DNA methylation heterogeneity patterns for breast cancer cell lines, we comparatively study four metrics: variance, I2 statistic, entropy, and methylation state. Using the categorical metric methylation state, we select the two most heterogeneous states to identify genes that directly affect tumor suppressor genes and high- or moderate-risk breast cancer genes. Utilizing the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis software and the ConsensusPath Database visualization tool, we generate integrated gene networks to study biological relations of heterogeneous genes. This analysis has allowed us to contribute 19 potential breast cancer biomarker genes to cancer databases by locating “hub genes” – heterogeneous genes of significant biological interactions, selected from numerous cancer modules. We have discovered a considerable relationship between these hub genes and heterogeneously methylated oncogenes. Our results have many implications for further heterogeneity analyses of methylation patterns and early detection of breast cancer susceptibility. PMID:27688708

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical staining

    PubMed Central

    XUAN, JIAJIA; ZHANG, YUNFENG; ZHANG, XIUJUN; HU, FEN

    2015-01-01

    Although matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been considered a factor of crucial importance for breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis, the expression of MMP-1 in different breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues have not been fully examined. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the MMP-1 expression in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue, lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and normal lymph node tissue. The results showed that MMP-1 expression is different in the above tissues. MMP-1 had a positive expression in normal lymph node tissue and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma. The MMP-1 negative expression rate was only 6.1% in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 2.9% in cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue respectively. MMP-1 expression is higher in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma compared to cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue and normal lymph node tissue. In conclusion, higher expression of MMP-1 in breast cancer may play a crucial role in promoting breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26137243

  8. Evolution of Imaging in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Evelyn M; Crowley, James; Hagan, Catherine; Atkinson, Lisa L

    2016-06-01

    The following topics are discussed in this article. A historical review of the evolution of breast cancer imaging from thermography through digital breast tomosynthesis, molecular breast imaging, and advanced breast magnetic resonance imaging. Discussion of multiple clinical trials, their strengths, and weaknesses. Historical perspective on the Mammography Quality Standards Act and its relationship with development and implementation of the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). PMID:27029017

  9. Triciribine Phosphate, Paclitaxel, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-13

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  10. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride and Cyclophosphamide Followed by Paclitaxel With or Without Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-04

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  11. Breast cancer and autism.

    PubMed

    Radcliff, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Case Study Amy is a 44-year-old woman with severe autism. She lives with her sister Susan, who is her caregiver and guardian. Amy is ambulatory and able to dress and feed herself. She is a healthy individual with no other significant comorbidities. She walks daily and enjoys her sister's company. Amy's life expectancy is greater than 10 years. However, she is difficult to care for medically, as she will not allow a physical examination and strikes out when strangers try to touch her. She is nonverbal and unable to participate in decision-making. INITIAL DIAGNOSIS Amy has a history of breast cancer diagnosed 2 years ago, originally presenting as a stage I lesion (T2N0) that was palpated by her caregiver while bathing. She underwent right simple mastectomy with sentinel lymph node resection. Susan recalls that the mastectomy was a very challenging ordeal, as Amy kept pulling out IV lines, drains, and dressings. Susan felt that Amy withdrew from her after the procedure as she most likely associated Susan with the cause of the pain, making her role as caregiver more difficult. Pathology confirmed an invasive ductal carcinoma, moderately differentiated, 2.4 cm, estrogen/progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu negative, with negative surgical margins. Two right axillary sentinel lymph nodes were negative for disease. The standard of care for a patient with these tumor features is surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN], 2012). According to the Adjuvant Online! database (2012), Amy's risk for relapse was approximately 40% without adjuvant treatment; her risk for mortality was approximately 29%. After meeting with a medical oncologist, Amy did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. According to Susan, she was not offered the choice, and the decision was not explained to them. She was simply told that it was not necessary. Aside from pathology, previous records were unavailable for review. Medical assessment of Amy's level of autism

  12. Noncoding RNAs in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lo, Pang-Kuo; Wolfson, Benjamin; Zhou, Xipeng; Duru, Nadire; Gernapudi, Ramkishore; Zhou, Qun

    2016-05-01

    The mammalian transcriptome has recently been revealed to encompass a large number of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that play a variety of important regulatory roles in gene expression and other biological processes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), the best studied of the short noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs), have been extensively characterized with regard to their biogenesis, function and importance in tumorigenesis. Another class of sncRNAs called piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) has also gained attention recently in cancer research owing to their critical role in stem cell regulation. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) of >200 nucleotides in length have recently emerged as key regulators of developmental processes, including mammary gland development. lncRNA dysregulation has also been implicated in the development of various cancers, including breast cancer. In this review, we describe and discuss the roles of sncRNAs (including miRNAs and piRNAs) and lncRNAs in the initiation and progression of breast tumorigenesis, with a focus on outlining the molecular mechanisms of oncogenic and tumor-suppressor ncRNAs. Moreover, the current and potential future applications of ncRNAs to clinical breast cancer research are also discussed, with an emphasis on ncRNA-based diagnosis, prognosis and future therapeutics.

  13. Southeastern Cancer Study Group: breast cancer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, R.V.; Bartolucci, A.A.; Moore, M.

    1983-12-01

    During the past 10 years, the Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) has been engaged in one major adjuvant study and three major advanced disease studies for patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The adjuvant study is demonstrating that six months of adjuvant CMF is the therapeutic equivalent of 12 months and that post-operative irradiation is of no added therapeutic benefit. In patients with advanced disease, a low dose 5 drug combination of CMFVP induces more objective responses than single agent 5FU, but improves survival only for those patients with liver metastases when compared to the sequential use of the same 5 single agents. The three drug combination, CAF, utilizing doxorubicin, induces more objective responses than low dose CMFVP, but it does not improve overall survival. The addition of a phase active combination, CAMELEON, (i.e., sequentially alternating therapy) of CAF has not improved the duration of disease control and survival for patients with liver metastases, lymphangitic and nodular lung metastases compared to CAF. Aggressive combination chemotherapeutic approaches to patients with advanced disease provide better and longer disease and tumor control but only marginal improvements in overall survival. Adding additional agents to a maximally tolerable regimen has not improved the therapeutic outcome.

  14. MicroRNA expression profiling of male breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fassan, Matteo; Baffa, Raffaele; Palazzo, Juan P; Lloyd, Joshua; Crosariol, Marco; Liu, Chang-Gong; Volinia, Stefano; Alder, Hannes; Rugge, Massimo; Croce, Carlo M; Rosenberg, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Introduction MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that control gene expression by targeting mRNAs and triggering either translation repression or RNA degradation. Their aberrant expression may be involved in human diseases, including cancer. To test the hypothesis that there is a specific miRNA expression signature which characterizes male breast cancers, we performed miRNA microarray analysis in a series of male breast cancers and compared them with cases of male gynecomastia and female breast cancers. Methods Paraffin blocks were obtained at the Department of Pathology of Thomas Jefferson University from 28 male patients including 23 breast cancers and five cases of male gynecomastia, and from 10 female ductal breast carcinomas. The RNA harvested was hybridized to miRNA microarrays (~1,100 miRNA probes, including 326 human and 249 mouse miRNA genes, spotted in duplicate). To further support the microarray data, an immunohistochemical analysis for two specific miRNA gene targets (HOXD10 and VEGF) was performed in a small series of male breast carcinoma and gynecomastia samples. Results We identified a male breast cancer miRNA signature composed of a large portion of underexpressed miRNAs. In particular, 17 miRNAs with increased expression and 26 miRNAs with decreased expression were identified in male breast cancer compared with gynecomastia. Among these miRNAs, some had well-characterized cancer development association and some showed a deregulation in cancer specimens similar to the one previously observed in the published signatures of female breast cancer. Comparing male with female breast cancer miRNA expression signatures, 17 significantly deregulated miRNAs were observed (four overexpressed and 13 underexpressed in male breast cancers). The HOXD10 and VEGF gene immunohistochemical expression significantly follows the corresponding miRNA deregulation. Conclusions Our results suggest that specific miRNAs may be directly involved in male

  15. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in men? What are the risk factors for breast cancer in men? A risk factor is anything that ... old when they are diagnosed. Family history of breast cancer Breast cancer risk is increased if other members ...

  16. Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treatment Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast cancer treatment fact sheet ePublications Early-stage breast cancer treatment fact sheet Print this fact sheet Early-stage breast cancer treatment fact sheet (PDF, 943 KB) Related information ...

  17. Can Breast Cancer in Men Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and symptoms of breast cancer in men Can breast cancer in men be found early? Early detection improves ... be treated successfully. Differences affecting early detection of breast cancers in men and women There are many similarities ...

  18. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Screening Research Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival For some women with breast ... took it for 5 years. (See the table.) Breast Cancer Recurrence and Death 5 to 14 Years after ...

  19. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  20. Calcium-Sensing Receptor in Breast Physiology and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wonnam; Wysolmerski, John J.

    2016-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in normal breast epithelial cells and in breast cancer cells. During lactation, activation of the CaSR in mammary epithelial cells increases calcium transport into milk and inhibits parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) secretion into milk and into the circulation. The ability to sense changes in extracellular calcium allows the lactating breast to actively participate in the regulation of systemic calcium and bone metabolism, and to coordinate calcium usage with calcium availability during milk production. Interestingly, as compared to normal breast cells, in breast cancer cells, the regulation of PTHrP secretion by the CaSR becomes rewired due to a switch in its G-protein usage such that activation of the CaSR increases instead of decreases PTHrP production. In normal cells the CaSR couples to Gαi to inhibit cAMP and PTHrP production, whereas in breast cancer cells, it couples to Gαs to stimulate cAMP and PTHrP production. Activation of the CaSR on breast cancer cells regulates breast cancer cell proliferation, death and migration, in part, by stimulating PTHrP production. In this article, we discuss the biology of the CaSR in the normal breast and in breast cancer, and review recent findings suggesting that the CaSR activates a nuclear pathway of PTHrP action that stimulates cellular proliferation and inhibits cell death, helping cancer cells adapt to elevated extracellular calcium levels. Understanding the diverse actions mediated by the CaSR may help us better understand lactation physiology, breast cancer progression and osteolytic bone metastases. PMID:27746743

  1. Electric power, melatonin, and breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    In this paper, the epidemiology of breast cancer will be discussed, followed by a brief description of the effect of electric fields on melatonin and the relation of melatonin to mammary cancer in rats. Finally, there will be a consideration of factors such as alcohol that affect melatonin and their relation to breast cancer risk. 55 refs.

  2. Breast self-examination practices and attitudes of women with and without a history of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Strauss, L M; Solomon, L J; Costanza, M C; Worden, J K; Foster, R S

    1987-08-01

    Breast self-examination (BSE) practices and attitudes of three groups of women were compared using a mailed survey. Subjects were 59 women with previous breast cancer, 33 women with previously treated benign breast lump(s), and 80 general-population women with no history of breast disease. Groups were compared on frequency, proficiency, and knowledge of BSE. Determinants of practice were examined using attitudinal variables from the Health Belief Model. Results indicated that the breast cancer group had significantly higher rates of BSE frequency, proficiency, and knowledge than did the general-population group. The breast cancer group perceived cancer to be significantly less threatening than did the other two groups, although the general-population group reported significantly less susceptibility to breast cancer. Within-group analyses revealed that barriers to BSE practice accounted for the greatest amount of variance in BSE frequency in all three groups. These results are discussed. PMID:3669069

  3. Diet and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diet may play a role in both promoting and inhibiting human breast cancer development. In this review, nutritional risk factors such as consumption of dietary fat, meat, fiber, and alcohol, and intake of phytoestrogen, vitamin D, iron, and folate associated with breast cancer are reviewed. These nutritional factors have a variety of associations with breast cancer risk. Type of fat consumed has different effects on risk of breast cancer: consumption of meat is associated with heterocyclic amine (HCA) exposure; different types of plant fiber have various effects on breast cancer risk; alcohol consumption may increase the risk of breast cancer by producing acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS); intake of phytoestrogen may reduce risk of breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic action; vitamin D can reduce the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting the process of cancer invasion and metastasis; intake of dietary iron may lead to oxidative stress, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation; and lower intake of folate may be linked to a higher risk of breast cancer. PMID:27095934

  4. Diet and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kotepui, Manas

    2016-01-01

    Diet may play a role in both promoting and inhibiting human breast cancer development. In this review, nutritional risk factors such as consumption of dietary fat, meat, fiber, and alcohol, and intake of phytoestrogen, vitamin D, iron, and folate associated with breast cancer are reviewed. These nutritional factors have a variety of associations with breast cancer risk. Type of fat consumed has different effects on risk of breast cancer: consumption of meat is associated with heterocyclic amine (HCA) exposure; different types of plant fiber have various effects on breast cancer risk; alcohol consumption may increase the risk of breast cancer by producing acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS); intake of phytoestrogen may reduce risk of breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic action; vitamin D can reduce the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting the process of cancer invasion and metastasis; intake of dietary iron may lead to oxidative stress, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation; and lower intake of folate may be linked to a higher risk of breast cancer. PMID:27095934

  5. Oncotype Dx Results in Multiple Primary Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Toole, Michael J.; Kidwell, Kelley M.; Van Poznak, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine whether multiple primary breast cancers have similar genetic profiles, specifically Oncotype Dx Recurrence Scores, and whether obtaining Oncotype Dx on each primary breast cancer affects chemotherapy recommendations. METHODS A database of patients with hormone receptor-positive, lymph node-negative, breast cancer was created for those tumors that were sent for Oncotype Dx testing from the University of Michigan Health System from 1/24/2005 to 2/25/2013. Retrospective chart review abstracted details of tumor location, histopathology, distance between tumors, Oncotype Dx results, and chemotherapy recommendations. RESULTS Six hundred and sixty-six patients for whom Oncotype Dx testing was sent were identified, with 22 patients having multiple breast tumor specimens sent. Of the 22 patients who had multiple samples sent for analysis, chemotherapy recommendations were changed in 6 of 22 patients (27%) based on significant differences in Oncotype Dx Recurrence Scores. Qualitatively, there seems to be a greater difference in genetic profile in tumors appearing simultaneously on different breasts when compared to multiple tumors on the same breast. There was no association between distance between tumors and difference in Oncotype Dx scores for tumors on the same breast. CONCLUSIONS Oncotype Dx testing on multiple primary breast cancers altered management in regards to chemotherapy recommendations and should be considered for multiple primary breast cancers. PMID:24453493

  6. Male breast cancer - a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Bystricky, Branislav; Kohutek, Filip; Rosik, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Due to its rarity, male breast cancer remains a poorly characterized disease. The present study obtained retrospective clinicopathological data, treatment patterns and outcomes for all male patients diagnosed with breast cancer in the Oncology Department, Faculty Hospital Trenčín (Trenčín, Slovakia) over the last 20 years from January 1995 to December 2015. A total of 21 patients with male breast cancer were analyzed, with a median patient age of 65.6 years. Two patients were diagnosed with lobular invasive cancer; all others were diagnosed with cancer of a ductal origin. One patient presented with metastatic disease in the pleural cavity. The primary tumors in 8 patients were staged as pT1, whilst 6 patients were staged as pT2 and 7 as pT4. Axillary lymph node involvement was present in 11 patients (52%) and 15 patients were hormone receptor-positive (83%). All but 1 patient underwent mastectomy and surgical staging of the axilla. Adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone treatment was administered in the same manner as breast cancer treatment in female patients. The median follow-up time was 4.5 years. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 87 and 74%, respectively, and the estimated median disease-free survival for the same population was 9.5 years (95% confidence interval, 6.2–14.6). The survival rates reported in the present retrospective study are comparable with previously published studies. In addition, the current study reported predominant hormone-positive characteristics and rare expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. However, further multi-institutional trials are required to allow for informed treatment decisions in this uncommon disease. PMID:27446481

  7. 78 FR 61805 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-04

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9028 of September 30, 2013 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By... solidarity with those battling breast cancer and those at risk for breast cancer. This disease touches every... with breast cancer, and tens of thousands will die from it. As we observe National Breast...

  8. Do underarm cosmetics cause breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Gikas, Panagiotis D; Mansfield, Lucy; Mokbel, Kefah

    2004-01-01

    Although animal and laboratory studies suggest a possible link between certain chemicals used in underarm cosmetics and breast cancer development, there is no reliable evidence that underarm cosmetics use increases breast cancer risk in humans. This article reviews the evidence for and against the possible link between breast cancer and underarm cosmetics and highlights the need for further research to clarify this issue. PMID:15633477

  9. Mathematical models of breast and ovarian cancers.

    PubMed

    Botesteanu, Dana-Adriana; Lipkowitz, Stanley; Lee, Jung-Min; Levy, Doron

    2016-07-01

    Women constitute the majority of the aging United States (US) population, and this has substantial implications on cancer population patterns and management practices. Breast cancer is the most common women's malignancy, while ovarian cancer is the most fatal gynecological malignancy in the US. In this review, we focus on these subsets of women's cancers, seen more commonly in postmenopausal and elderly women. In order to systematically investigate the complexity of cancer progression and response to treatment in breast and ovarian malignancies, we assert that integrated mathematical modeling frameworks viewed from a systems biology perspective are needed. Such integrated frameworks could offer innovative contributions to the clinical women's cancers community, as answers to clinical questions cannot always be reached with contemporary clinical and experimental tools. Here, we recapitulate clinically known data regarding the progression and treatment of the breast and ovarian cancers. We compare and contrast the two malignancies whenever possible in order to emphasize areas where substantial contributions could be made by clinically inspired and validated mathematical modeling. We show how current paradigms in the mathematical oncology community focusing on the two malignancies do not make comprehensive use of, nor substantially reflect existing clinical data, and we highlight the modeling areas in most critical need of clinical data integration. We emphasize that the primary goal of any mathematical study of women's cancers should be to address clinically relevant questions. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:337-362. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1343 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27259061

  10. Cellular uptake mechanism and comparative evaluation of antineoplastic effects of paclitaxel-cholesterol lipid emulsion on triple-negative and non-triple-negative breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jun; Xia, Xuejun; Dong, Wujun; Hao, Huazhen; Meng, Luhua; Yang, Yanfang; Wang, Renyun; Lyu, Yuanfeng; Liu, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    There is no effective clinical therapy for triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), which have high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) requirements and express relatively high levels of LDL receptors (LDLRs) on their membranes. In our previous study, a novel lipid emulsion based on a paclitaxel-cholesterol complex (PTX-CH Emul) was developed, which exhibited improved safety and efficacy for the treatment of TNBC. To date, however, the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular trafficking of PTX-CH Emul have not been investigated. In order to offer powerful proof for the therapeutic effects of PTX-CH Emul, we systematically studied the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular trafficking of PTX-CH Emul and made a comparative evaluation of antineoplastic effects on TNBC (MDA-MB-231) and non-TNBC (MCF7) cell lines through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The in vitro antineoplastic effects and in vivo tumor-targeting efficiency of PTX-CH Emul were significantly more enhanced in MDA-MB-231-based models than those in MCF7-based models, which was associated with the more abundant expression profile of LDLR in MDA-MB-231 cells. The results of the cellular uptake mechanism indicated that PTX-CH Emul was internalized into breast cancer cells through the LDLR-mediated internalization pathway via clathrin-coated pits, localized in lysosomes, and then released into the cytoplasm, which was consistent with the internalization pathway and intracellular trafficking of native LDL. The findings of this paper further confirm the therapeutic potential of PTX-CH Emul in clinical applications involving TNBC therapy. PMID:27601899

  11. Cellular uptake mechanism and comparative evaluation of antineoplastic effects of paclitaxel–cholesterol lipid emulsion on triple-negative and non-triple-negative breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jun; Xia, Xuejun; Dong, Wujun; Hao, Huazhen; Meng, Luhua; Yang, Yanfang; Wang, Renyun; Lyu, Yuanfeng; Liu, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    There is no effective clinical therapy for triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), which have high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) requirements and express relatively high levels of LDL receptors (LDLRs) on their membranes. In our previous study, a novel lipid emulsion based on a paclitaxel–cholesterol complex (PTX-CH Emul) was developed, which exhibited improved safety and efficacy for the treatment of TNBC. To date, however, the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular trafficking of PTX-CH Emul have not been investigated. In order to offer powerful proof for the therapeutic effects of PTX-CH Emul, we systematically studied the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular trafficking of PTX-CH Emul and made a comparative evaluation of antineoplastic effects on TNBC (MDA-MB-231) and non-TNBC (MCF7) cell lines through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The in vitro antineoplastic effects and in vivo tumor-targeting efficiency of PTX-CH Emul were significantly more enhanced in MDA-MB-231-based models than those in MCF7-based models, which was associated with the more abundant expression profile of LDLR in MDA-MB-231 cells. The results of the cellular uptake mechanism indicated that PTX-CH Emul was internalized into breast cancer cells through the LDLR-mediated internalization pathway via clathrin-coated pits, localized in lysosomes, and then released into the cytoplasm, which was consistent with the internalization pathway and intracellular trafficking of native LDL. The findings of this paper further confirm the therapeutic potential of PTX-CH Emul in clinical applications involving TNBC therapy. PMID:27601899

  12. Cellular uptake mechanism and comparative evaluation of antineoplastic effects of paclitaxel–cholesterol lipid emulsion on triple-negative and non-triple-negative breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jun; Xia, Xuejun; Dong, Wujun; Hao, Huazhen; Meng, Luhua; Yang, Yanfang; Wang, Renyun; Lyu, Yuanfeng; Liu, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    There is no effective clinical therapy for triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), which have high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) requirements and express relatively high levels of LDL receptors (LDLRs) on their membranes. In our previous study, a novel lipid emulsion based on a paclitaxel–cholesterol complex (PTX-CH Emul) was developed, which exhibited improved safety and efficacy for the treatment of TNBC. To date, however, the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular trafficking of PTX-CH Emul have not been investigated. In order to offer powerful proof for the therapeutic effects of PTX-CH Emul, we systematically studied the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular trafficking of PTX-CH Emul and made a comparative evaluation of antineoplastic effects on TNBC (MDA-MB-231) and non-TNBC (MCF7) cell lines through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The in vitro antineoplastic effects and in vivo tumor-targeting efficiency of PTX-CH Emul were significantly more enhanced in MDA-MB-231-based models than those in MCF7-based models, which was associated with the more abundant expression profile of LDLR in MDA-MB-231 cells. The results of the cellular uptake mechanism indicated that PTX-CH Emul was internalized into breast cancer cells through the LDLR-mediated internalization pathway via clathrin-coated pits, localized in lysosomes, and then released into the cytoplasm, which was consistent with the internalization pathway and intracellular trafficking of native LDL. The findings of this paper further confirm the therapeutic potential of PTX-CH Emul in clinical applications involving TNBC therapy.

  13. [Survived breast cancer, but unemployed].

    PubMed

    Bruinvels, David J

    2014-01-01

    A recent Danish retrospective cohort study of 14,750 women concluded that the duration of the period of unemployment before breast cancer may be the most important determinant of unemployment following breast cancer treatment. This finding allows for the identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation. The generalizability of the findings of the Danish study is discussed in this article. Can these findings be applied to Dutch daily practice too? Further research is required to answer this question because of differences between the Danish and Dutch systems of social insurance. A similar Dutch retrospective cohort study is under way, and preliminary results are expected to be published in 2014. Findings from both studies may be used to develop rehabilitation and vocational therapy interventions aiming to prevent unemployment and to increase work participation. PMID:25004788

  14. Endocrine therapy of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalli, F.

    1986-01-01

    This book results from a meeting of the ESO (European School of Oncology) Task Force on endocrine aspects of breast cancer. The contributions stem from some of the most outstanding researchers in Europe and highlight mainly methodological issues and new avenues for future research. The chapters on basic research deal primarily with experimental strategies for studying the relationship between steroid hormones, growth factors, and oncongenes. The clinically oriented chapters treat the methodology of clinical trials. Provocative questions are raised, such as: What are the pitfalls in endocrine trials. What does statistical proof mean. How can we consider a quality of life endpoint in the adjuvant setting. Two special reports deal with the controversial issues of chemoprevention in high-risk normal women and the optimization of the hormonal contribution to the adjuvant therapy of breast cancer. Topics considered included oncogenic transformations, radiotherapy, steroid hormones, cell proliferation, tamoxifen, and preventive medicine.

  15. The relationship between local recurrence and death in early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sopik, Victoria; Nofech-Mozes, Sharon; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationship between local recurrence and breast cancer mortality in women with early-stage breast cancer. We studied 1675 women with stage 0 (DCIS), stage I or stage II breast cancer who were treated with breast-conserving surgery at Women's College Hospital between 1987 and 2009. For each patient, we obtained information on age at diagnosis, tumour size, lymph node status, tumour grade, lymphovascular invasion, oestrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, HER2 status and treatments received (radiotherapy, chemotherapy and tamoxifen). Patients were followed from the date of diagnosis until local recurrence, death from breast cancer or the date of last follow-up. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate 15-year local recurrence-free and breast cancer-specific survival rates for each stage at diagnosis. For each stage, the two rates were compared. After a mean follow-up of 13.1 years, 243 women (14.5 %) experienced a local recurrence and 281 women (16.8 %) died of breast cancer. The 15-year actuarial rate of local recurrence was 16 % for women with DCIS, 15 % for women with stage I cancer and 16 % for women with stage II cancer. The 15-year breast cancer-specific mortality rate was 3 % for women with DCIS, 10 % for women with stage I breast cancer and 30 % for women with stage II breast cancer. After experiencing a local recurrence, the 15-year breast cancer mortality rate was 16 % for women with DCIS, 32 % for women with stage I breast cancer and 59 % for women with stage II breast cancer. Across the spectrum of the early stages of breast cancer, the risk of local recurrence does not correlate with the risk of death from breast cancer. After local recurrence, the risk of death from breast cancer depends on the initial stage at diagnosis.

  16. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  17. Genistein: does it prevent or promote breast cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Bouker, K B; Hilakivi-Clarke, L

    2000-01-01

    Diet is estimated to contribute to approximately 50% of all newly diagnosed breast cancers. As such, a search for dietary factors differentially consumed among populations with increased breast cancer risk (e.g., Caucasians) compared to those with low risk (e.g., Asians) has become a priority. One such dietary component, which is typical to the Asian but not the Caucasian diet, is soy. We review data relevant to attempts to determine whether soy, and more specifically genistein, is a dietary component that may help to explain the dramatic disparity in breast cancer risk among these populations. Images Figure 1 PMID:10964789

  18. [Treatment of disseminated breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mattson, Johanna; Huovinen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Although several effective drugs have in recent years been introduced for the treatment of disseminated breast cancer, it is still an incurable illness. Many patients live a fairly normal life with their illness for a long time, and some of them are able to continue working in spite of the therapies. Factors considered in tailoring the treatment include tumor subtype, extent of the disease, symptoms, previous treatments and the achieved treatment outcome, and adverse effects of the treatments. PMID:26245064

  19. Breast cancer detection by holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woisetschlaeger, Jakob; Sheffer, Daniel B.; Mikati, H.; Somasundaram, Kavitha; Loughry, C. William; Chawla, Surendra K.; Wesolowski, Piotr J.

    1993-02-01

    The overall breast cancer mortality rate has remained unchanged the last 50 years. The most significant factor in the treatment is its early detection which will alter the mortality rate. In this investigation, the feasibility of holographic interferometry for the purpose of detecting breast cancer was examined. Optical setups were developed to enable the collection of holographic interferograms in vivo of asymptomatic breasts and those containing cancerous lesions. Different stressing concepts of holographic nondestructive testing and their applicability for the detection of breast cancer were tested.

  20. [Systemic therapy of breast cancer: practice guideline].

    PubMed

    Horváth, Zsolt; Boér, Katalin; Dank, Magdolna; Kahán, Zsuzsanna; Kocsis, Judit; Kövér, Erika; Pajkos, Gábor; Pikó, Béla; Rubovszky, Gábor; Eckhardt, Sándor

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the practice guideline of systemic treatment of breast cancer and recommendations of the 3rd Hungarian Breast Cancer Consensus Conference. It reflects the recent international guidelines (ESMO, NCCN, ABC2, St Gallen's) irrespectively of the current financial opportunities. Here we follow the early - locally advanced - locally relapsed - metastatic breast cancer line for didactic considerations and we discuss the different subgroups of breast cancer based on hormone receptor and HER2 receptor status. Diagnosis and treatment options of rare clinical entities are summarised at the end of the paper. PMID:27579723

  1. Using hair to screen for breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Veronica; Kearsley, John; Irving, Tom; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Cookson, David

    1999-03-01

    We have studied hair using fibre X-ray diffraction studies with synchrotron radiation and find that hair from breast-cancer patients has a different intermolecular structure to hair from healthy subjects. These changes are seen in all samples of scalp and pubic hair taken from women diagnosed with breast cancer. All the hair samples from women who tested positive for a mutation of the BRCA1 gene, which is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, also show these changes. Because our results are so consistent, we propose that such hair analyses may be used as a simple, non-invasive screening method for breast cancer.

  2. Obesity and Mortality After Breast Cancer by Race/Ethnicity: The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Marilyn L.; John, Esther M.; Caan, Bette J.; Lee, Valerie S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Cheng, Iona; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Henderson, Brian E.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Kurian, Allison W.; Lu, Yani; Monroe, Kristine R.; Roh, Janise M.; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Sposto, Richard; Vigen, Cheryl; Wu, Anna H.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated body size and survival by race/ethnicity in 11,351 breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1993 to 2007 with follow-up through 2009 by using data from questionnaires and the California Cancer Registry. We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariable Cox proportional hazard model–estimated associations of body size (body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)2) and waist-hip ratio (WHR)) with breast cancer–specific and all-cause mortality. Among 2,744 ascertained deaths, 1,445 were related to breast cancer. Being underweight (BMI <18.5) was associated with increased risk of breast cancer mortality compared with being normal weight in non-Latina whites (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 3.20), whereas morbid obesity (BMI ≥40) was suggestive of increased risk (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.84, 2.43). In Latinas, only the morbidly obese were at high risk of death (HR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.15). No BMI–mortality associations were apparent in African Americans and Asian Americans. High WHR (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) was associated with breast cancer mortality in Asian Americans (HR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.21, 4.03; P for trend = 0.01), whereas no associations were found in African Americans, Latinas, or non-Latina whites. For all-cause mortality, even stronger BMI and WHR associations were observed. The impact of obesity and body fat distribution on breast cancer patients' risk of death may vary across racial/ethnic groups. PMID:24107615

  3. Carboplatin, Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, and Mifepristone in Treating Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer or Recurrent or Persistent Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-28

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  4. Breast Cancer 2012 - New Aspects.

    PubMed

    Kolberg, H-C; Lüftner, D; Lux, M P; Maass, N; Schütz, F; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Janni, W; Kümmel, S

    2012-07-01

    Treatment options as well as the characteristics for therapeutic decisions in patients with primary and advanced breast cancer are increasing in number and variety. New targeted therapies in combination with established chemotherapy schemes are broadening the spectrum, however potentially promising combinations do not always achieve a better result. New data from the field of pharmacogenomics point to prognostic and predictive factors that take not only the properties of the tumour but also inherited genetic properties of the patient into consideration. Current therapeutic decision-making is thus based on a combination of classical clinical and modern molecular biomarkers. Also health-economic aspects are more frequently being taken into consideration so that health-economic considerations may also play a part. This review is based on information from the recent annual congresses. The latest of these are the 34th San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium 2011 and the ASCO Annual Meeting 2012. Among their highlights are the clinically significant results from the CLEOPATRA, BOLERO-2, EMILIA and SWOG S0226 trials on the therapy for metastatic breast cancer as well as further state-of-the-art data on the adjuvant use of bisphosphonates within the framework of the ABCSG-12, ZO-FAST, NSABP-B34 and GAIN trials.

  5. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial and fibroblast cell coculture: Long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) admixed in coculture with fibroblast from the same initial breast tissue grown as 3-dimenstional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical constrct about 2.0 mm in diameter without beads on the surface. The center of these constrcts is hollow, and beads are organized about the irner surface. Although the coculture provides smaller constructs than the monoculture, the metabolic of the organized cells is about the same. B, C, D: Closer views of cells showing that the shape of cells and cell-to-cell interactions apprear different in the coculture than in the monoculture constructs. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  6. Typhoid Vaccine in Testing Response to Immune Stress in Patients With Stage I-IIIA Breast Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-15

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Depression; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  7. Associations between vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; He, Qi; Shao, Yu-Guo; Ji, Min; Bao, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have investigated the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk, but the results were inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of 31 studies on VDR polymorphisms, including FokI, BsmI, TaqI, and ApaI, and breast cancer risk published before May 2013. For FokI, the allele of f was found to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer compared with F (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03-1.36). Patients with ff genotype were at significantly higher risk of breast cancer compared with those with FF genotype (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.66-2.29). In subgroup analysis by race, Fok1 polymorphism was significantly associated with breast cancer risk for Caucasian population (f vs. F: OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.14-1.59; ff vs. FF: OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.86-2.54; ff vs. FF + Ff: OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30). For ApaI, aa genotype was associated with increased breast cancer risk in Asian population based on four studies (aa vs. Aa + AA, OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.12-1.98). No significant association was found between breast cancer risk and ApaI and TaqI polymorphism in different models and populations. Our updated meta-analysis showed that Fok1 polymorphism is associated with breast cancer risk both in general population and in Caucasian population. ApaI polymorphism might be associated with breast cancer risk in Asian population. Large well-designed epidemiological studies are necessary to clarify the risk identified in the current meta-analysis. PMID:23900677

  8. Vaccine Therapy in Preventing Cancer Recurrence in Patients With Non-Metastatic, Node Positive, HER2 Negative Breast Cancer That is in Remission

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-28

    HER2/Neu Negative; No Evidence of Disease; One or More Positive Axillary Nodes; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  9. Choices in Surgery for Older Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Vikram; Spiliopoulos, Markos K.; Audisio, Riccardo A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Breast cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide. As the population ages and life expectancy increases, the burden of cancer on health services will increase. Older patients with breast cancer are becoming more suitable for surgery; tailored surgical techniques and increasing healthy life expectancy alongside improved assessment of patients are aiding this trend. Surgery is also becoming a favoured treatment of personal choice for older patient with breast cancer. Evidence shows that surgery is almost always feasible for the older patient with outcomes (survival, progression, and recurrence rates) comparable to younger groups and superior to non-surgical treatments. We aim to describe the current status of surgery for the older patient with breast cancer, showing it is an option that should not be denied. Surgery should always be considered regardless of age, after evaluation of co-morbidities. PMID:24715825

  10. Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159652.html Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too Women with BRCA1 may want to ... increased risk for a deadly form of uterine cancer, a new study finds. The BRCA1 gene mutation ...

  11. Biomarkers of residual disease after neoadjuvant therapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Radosevic-Robin, Nina

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the decision of which adjuvant treatment should be given to patients with residual breast cancer after neoadjuvant therapy is based on the initial, pretreatment breast cancer molecular subtype and on the estimated residual tumour burden after neoadjuvant therapy. Substantial biological differences exist, however, between treatment-naive breast cancer and the residual tissue that remains after neoadjuvant therapy. In addition, the evaluation of relapse risk in patients is subject to a lack of uniformity in pathological qualification and quantification of remnant breast cancer following neoadjuvant treatment. In this Review, we present the recent recommendations for standardized evaluation of response to neoadjuvant therapy in patients with breast cancer, followed by a comprehensive overview of the pathobiological features of the residual disease after neoadjuvant therapy, which could serve as prognostic biomarkers or guide the choice of targeted adjuvant approaches. These biomarker candidates are at different stages of development, but some already have demonstrated superior prognostic value compared with biomarkers derived from pretreatment breast-cancer characteristics. The evidence presented herein indicates that further research on the biology of breast cancer that persists after neoadjuvant therapy is necessary to improve the management of this disease.

  12. Psychosocial adjustment in children of mothers with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoke, L A

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-five children of 28 mothers diagnosed with breast cancer during the previous year were compared to 34 children of 24 mothers with recent benign breast biopsies. Mothers and children, ages 8-16, completed questionnaires about mood, behavior problems and social functioning to assess whether children of mothers with breast cancer were at increased risk for adjustment problems. Significant differences were not found between children in the breast cancer group and the comparison group on any of the measures, even though mothers with breast cancer reported more psychological distress than mothers with benign biopsies. In addition, children in both groups were functioning better than normative samples on some adjustment measures. Variables measuring the mother's illness and treatment were not significantly related to children's adjustment in the breast cancer group. Findings suggested that some adolescents whose mothers had breast cancer did better in social and academic activities when their mothers were more distressed, while adolescents whose mothers had benign biopsies did less well when their mothers were distressed. The study's small sample size limits conclusions that can be drawn; however, clinical and research implications are discussed, given other reports that some children of parents with cancer may experience adjustment problems.

  13. Depot medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera) and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, C.; Skegg, D. C.; Spears, G. F.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether use of the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera) affects the risk of breast cancer in women. DESIGN--A population based case-control study. SETTING--Nationwide community study. SUBJECTS--891 Women aged 25-54 with newly diagnosed breast cancer were compared with 1864 women selected at random from the electoral rolls. INTERVENTION--Women were interviewed by telephone about past use of contraceptives and about possible risk factors for breast cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Relative risk of breast cancer in women who had used medroxyprogesterone. RESULTS--Medroxyprogesterone had been used by 110 patients and 252 controls. Overall, the relative risk of breast cancer associated with any duration of use was 1.0 (95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.3). In women aged 25-34 the relative risk was 2.0 (1.0 to 3.8). The relative risk was highest in women aged 25-34 who had used the drug for six years or longer, although there were few women in this category. Women who had used it for two years or longer before age 25 had an increased risk of breast cancer (relative risk 4.6; 1.4 to 15.1). CONCLUSION--Despite the lack of an overall association these findings suggest that medroxyprogesterone may increase the risk of breast cancer in young women. PMID:2529939

  14. HER-2/neu diagnostics in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Walter P; Leitzel, Kim; Ali, Suhail; Neumann, Rainer; Lipton, Allan

    2007-01-01

    HER-2/neu status of the primary breast cancer (PBC) is determined by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Because of a variety of technical factors, however, the PBC may not accurately reflect the metastatic tumor in terms of HER-2/neu status. Recently published guidelines recommend that tumors be defined as HER-2/neu positive if 30% or more of the cells are 3+. Circulating levels of the HER-2 extracellular domain can be measured in serum using a test cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration, and increased serum HER-2/neu levels to above 15 ng/ml can reflect tumor progression. Studies comparing tissue HER-2/neu status of the PBC and HER-2/neu levels above 15 ng/ml in metastatic breast cancer patients are also reviewed. PMID:17561991

  15. Melatonin, environmental light, and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, V; Spence, D W; Pandi-Perumal, S R; Trakht, I; Esquifino, A I; Cardinali, D P; Maestroni, G J

    2008-04-01

    Although many factors have been suggested as causes for breast cancer, the increased incidence of the disease seen in women working in night shifts led to the hypothesis that the suppression of melatonin by light or melatonin deficiency plays a major role in cancer development. Studies on the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea experimental models of human breast cancer indicate that melatonin is effective in reducing cancer development. In vitro studies in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line have shown that melatonin exerts its anticarcinogenic actions through a variety of mechanisms, and that it is most effective in estrogen receptor (ER) alpha-positive breast cancer cells. Melatonin suppresses ER gene, modulates several estrogen dependent regulatory proteins and pro-oncogenes, inhibits cell proliferation, and impairs the metastatic capacity of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The anticarcinogenic action on MCF-7 cells has been demonstrated at the physiological concentrations of melatonin attained at night, suggesting thereby that melatonin acts like an endogenous antiestrogen. Melatonin also decreases the formation of estrogens from androgens via aromatase inhibition. Circulating melatonin levels are abnormally low in ER-positive breast cancer patients thereby supporting the melatonin hypothesis for breast cancer in shift working women. It has been postulated that enhanced endogenous melatonin secretion is responsible for the beneficial effects of meditation as a form of psychosocial intervention that helps breast cancer patients.

  16. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-02

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  17. Breast cancer-specific mortality in small-sized tumor with node-positive breast cancer: a nation-wide study in Korean breast cancer society.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jai Min; Lee, Hyouk Jin; Yoon, Tae In; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Soo Jung; Jung, Jin Hyang; Chae, Byung Joo; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Lee, Se Kyung; Bae, Soo Youn; Yu, Jonghan; Kim, Seok Won

    2016-10-01

    Tumor size and number of lymph node (LN) metastases are well known as the most important prognostic factors of breast cancer. We hypothesized that very small breast cancers with LN metastasis represent a progressive biologic behavior and evaluated tumor size stratified by LN metastasis. Data between 1990 and 2010 were obtained retrospectively from the Korean Breast Cancer Society Registry with inclusion criteria of female, non-metastatic, unilateral, and T1/2 breast cancer. We collected the following variables: age at surgery, tumor size, number of LN metastases, nuclear grade (NG), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, and epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status. Patient characteristics were compared by means of independent t-tests for continuous variables and the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Kaplan-Meier curves, with corresponding results of log-rank tests, were constructed for breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). Five- and eight-year breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) was obtained in groups of 300 patients, followed by smoothing according to the confidence interval using the lowess method. We identified 39,826 breast cancer patients who met the inclusion criteria. Among them, 1433 (3.6 %) patients died due to breast cancer. The median follow-up duration was 63.4 (3-255) months. In the multivariate analysis, age at surgery, NG, LVI, subtype, and tumor size-nodal interactions were independently associated with BCSM. The N1 group had lower BCSS for T1a than T1b. The N2+ group also had lower BCSS for T1b than T1c or T2. In the N1 group of tumors smaller than 10 mm, 5- and 8-year BCSM decreased with larger tumor size. Patients with very small tumors with LN metastasis have decreased BCSM according to increase tumor size. Small tumors with LN metastasis could have aggressive biological behavior. PMID:27590199

  18. Recent advances in breast cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Newman, J

    1999-01-01

    Mammography is the best technique currently available for early detection of breast cancer, but it has limitations. Several new techniques are under investigation that may provide valuable complementary images. This article discusses some of the most promising adjuncts to film-screen mammography, including digital mammography, ultrasound of the breast, breast MR, scintimammography and sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy.

  19. Breast Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Biopsy (Arabic) العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Breast Cancer (Arabic) سرطان الثدي - العربية Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Breast Biopsy 乳房活检 - 简体中文 (Chinese - ...

  20. Paclitaxel injection concentrate for nanodispersion versus nab-paclitaxel in women with metastatic breast cancer: a multicenter, randomized, comparative phase II/III study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Minish M; Gupte, Smita U; Patil, Shekhar G; Pathak, Anand B; Deshmukh, Chetan D; Bhatt, Niraj; Haritha, Chiramana; Govind Babu, K; Bondarde, Shailesh A; Digumarti, Raghunadharao; Bajpai, Jyoti; Kumar, Ravi; Bakshi, Ashish V; Bhattacharya, Gouri Sankar; Patil, Poonam; Subramanian, Sundaram; Vaid, Ashok K; Desai, Chirag J; Khopade, Ajay; Chimote, Geetanjali; Bapsy, Poonamalle P; Bhowmik, Shravanti

    2016-02-01

    Paclitaxel is widely used in the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Formulations of paclitaxel contain surfactants and solvents or albumin derived from human blood. The use of co-solvents such as polyoxyethylated castor oil is thought to contribute to toxicity profile and hypersensitivity reactions as well as leaching of plasticizers from polyvinyl chloride bags and infusion sets. Currently, nab-paclitaxel, an albumin-bound paclitaxel in nanometer range continues to be the preferred taxane formulation used in clinic. This study (CTRI/2010/091/001116) investigated the efficacy and tolerability of a polyoxyethylated castor oil- and albumin-free formulation of paclitaxel [paclitaxel injection concentrate for nanodispersion (PICN)] compared with nab-paclitaxel in women with refractory MBC. The current study was a multicenter, open-label, parallel-group, randomized, comparative phase II/III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of PICN (260 mg/m(2) [n = 64] and 295 mg/m(2) [n = 58] every 3 weeks) compared with nab-paclitaxel (260 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks [n = 58]) in women 18 and 70 years old with confirmed MBC. Overall response rate (ORR) was assessed with imaging every 2 cycles. An independent analysis of radiologic data was performed for evaluable patients. Progression-free survival (PFS) was a secondary efficacy measure. Independent radiologist-assessed ORRs in the evaluable population of women aged ≥70 years were 35, 49, and 43 % in the PICN 260 mg/m(2), PICN 295 mg/m(2), and nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m(2) arms, respectively. Median PFS in the evaluable population was 23, 35, and 34 weeks in the PICN 260 mg/m(2), PICN 295 mg/m(2), and nab-paclitaxel 260 mg/m(2) arms, respectively. Adverse events occurred in similar proportions of patients across treatment arms. Hypersensitivity reactions were not frequently observed with the clinical use of PICN across the treatment cohorts. In women with metastatic breast cancer, PICN at 260 and 295 mg/m(2

  1. Interactions between breast cancer susceptibility loci and menopausal hormone therapy in relationship to breast cancer in the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Mia M; Barrdahl, Myrto; Lindström, Sara; Travis, Ruth C; Auer, Paul L; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Eliassen, A Heather; Gapstur, Susan M; Giles, Graham G; Gunter, Marc; Haiman, Christopher; Hunter, David J; Joshi, Amit D; Kaaks, Rudolf; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lee, I-Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L; Peeters, Petra H M; Sund, Malin; Tamimi, Rulla; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Yang, Xiaohong R; Prentice, Ross L; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Canzian, Federico; Kraft, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Current use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) has important implications for postmenopausal breast cancer risk, and observed associations might be modified by known breast cancer susceptibility loci. To provide the most comprehensive assessment of interactions of prospectively collected data on MHT and 17 confirmed susceptibility loci with invasive breast cancer risk, a nested case-control design among eight cohorts within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium was used. Based on data from 13,304 cases and 15,622 controls, multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Effect modification of current and past use was evaluated on the multiplicative scale. P values <1.5 × 10(-3) were considered statistically significant. The strongest evidence of effect modification was observed for current MHT by 9q31-rs865686. Compared to never users of MHT with the rs865686 GG genotype, the association between current MHT use and breast cancer risk for the TT genotype (OR 1.79, 95 % CI 1.43-2.24; P interaction = 1.2 × 10(-4)) was less than expected on the multiplicative scale. There are no biological implications of the sub-multiplicative interaction between MHT and rs865686. Menopausal hormone therapy is unlikely to have a strong interaction with the common genetic variants associated with invasive breast cancer. PMID:26802016

  2. Lifetime grain consumption and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Eliassen, A Heather; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated individual grain-containing foods and whole and refined grain intake during adolescence, early adulthood, and premenopausal years in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Grain-containing food intakes were reported on a baseline dietary questionnaire (1991) and every 4 years thereafter. Among 90,516 premenopausal women aged 27-44 years, we prospectively identified 3235 invasive breast cancer cases during follow-up to 2013. 44,263 women reported their diet during high school, and from 1998 to 2013, 1347 breast cancer cases were identified among these women. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) of breast cancer for individual, whole and refined grain foods. After adjusting for known breast cancer risk factors, adult intake of whole grain foods was associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.70-0.97; P trend = 0.03), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. This association was no longer significant after further adjustment for fiber intake. The average of adolescent and early adulthood whole grain food intake was suggestively associated with lower premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintile: RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.56-0.99; P trend = 0.09). Total refined grain food intake was not associated with risk of breast cancer. Most individual grain-containing foods were not associated with breast cancer risk. The exceptions were adult brown rice which was associated with lower risk of overall and premenopausal breast cancer (for each 2 servings/week: RR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.89-0.99 and RR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.85-0.99, respectively) and adult white bread intake which was associated with increased overall breast cancer risk (for each 2 servings/week: RR 1.02; 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), as well as breast cancer before and after menopause. Further, pasta intake was inversely associated with

  3. Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has come up with a technique to decrease exposure to harmful x-rays in mammographies or breast radiography. Usually, physicians make more than one exposure to arrive at an x-ray film of acceptable density. Now the same solar cells used to convert sunlight into electricity on space satellites can make a single exposure sufficient. When solar cell sensor is positioned directly beneath x-ray film, it can determine exactly when film has received sufficient radiation and has been exposed to optimum density. At that point associated electronic equipment sends signal to cut off x-ray source. Reduction of mammography to single exposures not only reduced x-ray hazard significantly, but doubled the number of patient examinations handled by one machine. The NASA laboratory used this control system at the Huntington Memorial Hospital with overwhelming success.

  4. Loss of primary cilia occurs early in breast cancer development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles that protrude from the cell surface. Primary cilia play a critical role in development and disease through regulation of signaling pathways including the Hedgehog pathway. Recent mouse models have also linked ciliary dysfunction to cancer. However, little is known about the role of primary cilia in breast cancer development. Primary cilia expression was characterized in cancer cells as well as their surrounding stromal cells from 86 breast cancer patients by counting cilia and measuring cilia length. In addition, we examined cilia expression in normal epithelial and stromal cells from reduction mammoplasties as well as histologically normal adjacent tissue for comparison. Results We observed a statistically significant decrease in the percentage of ciliated cells on both premalignant lesions as well as in invasive cancers. This loss of cilia does not correlate with increased proliferative index (Ki67-positive cells). However, we did detect rare ciliated cancer cells present in patients with invasive breast cancer and found that these express a marker of basaloid cancers that is associated with poor prognosis (Cytokeratin 5). Interestingly, the percentage of ciliated stromal cells associated with both premalignant and invasive cancers decreased when compared to stromal cells associated with normal tissue. To understand how cilia may be lost during cancer development we analyzed the expression of genes required for ciliogenesis and/or ciliary function and compared their expression in normal versus breast cancer samples. We found that expression of ciliary genes were frequently downregulated in human breast cancers. Conclusions These data suggest that primary cilia are lost early in breast cancer development on both the cancer cells and their surrounding stromal cells. PMID:24987519

  5. Interleukin-8 in breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Todorović-Raković, Nataša; Milovanović, Jelena

    2013-10-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a chemokine that has an autocrine and/or paracrine tumor-promoting role and significant potential as a prognostic and/or predictive cancer biomarker. In breast cancer, which is mostly determined by expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), IL-8 could play a specific role. IL-8 is highly expressed in ER- breast cancers, but it increases invasiveness and metastatic potential of both ER- and ER+ breast cancer cells. It is also highly expressed in HER2+ breast cancers. Because of the complex crosstalk between these receptors and IL-8, its role is mainly determined by delicate balance in their signaling pathways. Therefore, the main point of this review was to analyze the possible influence of IL-8 in breast cancer progression related to its interaction with ER and HER2 and the consequent therapeutic implications of these relations.

  6. Expression of the breast cancer resistance protein and 5-fluorouracil resistance in clinical breast cancer tissue specimens

    PubMed Central

    WANG, MIN; WANG, XIANMING; YUAN, JIANHUI; GUO, LIANGFENG

    2013-01-01

    The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is a recently characterized xenobiotic half-transporter protein that acts as an energy-dependent efflux pump and may be associated with the multidrug-resistant phenotype. The aim of this study was to determine the association between BCRP expression and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistance in clinical breast cancer tissue specimens. The BCRP expression was investigated using quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by use of the Master SYBR-Green I reagent and immunohistochemistry (IHC) by use of the BXP-21 anti-BCRP monoclonal antibody in clinical breast cancer tissue specimens. Chemosensitivity to 5-FU for BCRP-positive clinical breast cancer tissue specimens was colorimetrically assessed with the cytotoxicity assay through methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) reduction. A total of 37 BCRP-positive clinical breast cancer tissue specimens were identified with quantitative RT-PCR and IHC. There was a significant correlation in BCRP expression between the results of quantitative RT-PCR and IHC in the specimens. The fold resistance to 5-FU was 7–12 compared to sensitivity to paclitaxel as determined by the colorimetric assay through MTT reduction in the 37 specimens. Our study results indicated that 5-FU resistance may be mediated by BCRP expression in clinical breast cancer tissue specimens, which may help optimize the design of breast cancer clinical chemotherapy schemes in BCRP-positive specimens. PMID:24649260

  7. Gene panel testing for hereditary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Winship, Ingrid; Southey, Melissa C

    2016-03-21

    Inherited predisposition to breast cancer is explained only in part by mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Most families with an apparent familial clustering of breast cancer who are investigated through Australia's network of genetic services and familial cancer centres do not have mutations in either of these genes. More recently, additional breast cancer predisposition genes, such as PALB2, have been identified. New genetic technology allows a panel of multiple genes to be tested for mutations in a single test. This enables more women and their families to have risk assessment and risk management, in a preventive approach to predictable breast cancer. Predictive testing for a known family-specific mutation in a breast cancer predisposition gene provides personalised risk assessment and evidence-based risk management. Breast cancer predisposition gene panel tests have a greater diagnostic yield than conventional testing of only the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The clinical validity and utility of some of the putative breast cancer predisposition genes is not yet clear. Ethical issues warrant consideration, as multiple gene panel testing has the potential to identify secondary findings not originally sought by the test requested. Multiple gene panel tests may provide an affordable and effective way to investigate the heritability of breast cancer.

  8. Gene panel testing for hereditary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Winship, Ingrid; Southey, Melissa C

    2016-03-21

    Inherited predisposition to breast cancer is explained only in part by mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Most families with an apparent familial clustering of breast cancer who are investigated through Australia's network of genetic services and familial cancer centres do not have mutations in either of these genes. More recently, additional breast cancer predisposition genes, such as PALB2, have been identified. New genetic technology allows a panel of multiple genes to be tested for mutations in a single test. This enables more women and their families to have risk assessment and risk management, in a preventive approach to predictable breast cancer. Predictive testing for a known family-specific mutation in a breast cancer predisposition gene provides personalised risk assessment and evidence-based risk management. Breast cancer predisposition gene panel tests have a greater diagnostic yield than conventional testing of only the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The clinical validity and utility of some of the putative breast cancer predisposition genes is not yet clear. Ethical issues warrant consideration, as multiple gene panel testing has the potential to identify secondary findings not originally sought by the test requested. Multiple gene panel tests may provide an affordable and effective way to investigate the heritability of breast cancer. PMID:26985847

  9. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.C.; Lippman, M.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  10. Breast Cancers Between Mammograms Have Aggressive Features

    Cancer.gov

    Breast cancers that are discovered in the period between regular screening mammograms—known as interval cancers—are more likely to have features associated with aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis than cancers found via screening mammograms.

  11. Breast cancer amongst Filipino migrants: a review of the literature and ten-year institutional analysis.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Jory S; Briggs, Kaleigh; George, Ralph

    2015-06-01

    As one migrates from an area of low to high incidence of breast cancer their personal risk of developing breast cancer increases. This is however not equally distributed across all races and ethnicities. This paper specifically examines Filipino migrants. A literature review was conducted to summarize breast cancer incidence, screening practices and trends in treatment amongst Filipino migrants. In addition, a retrospective cohort study was conducted specifically examining the age in which Filipino women were diagnosed with breast cancer compared to Asian and Caucasian counterparts. Filipino women are diagnosed with breast cancer at a statistically significant younger age (53.2) compared to their Asian (55.1) and Caucasian (58.4) counterparts. In addition, they are at an increased risk of developing more aggressive breast cancer with noteworthy disparities in the care they are receiving. The evidence suggest this group is worthy of special focus when diagnosing and treating breast cancer.

  12. Lipoplatin Treatment in Lung and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fantini, Manuela; Gianni, Lorenzo; Santelmo, Carlotta; Drudi, Fabrizio; Castellani, Cinzia; Affatato, Alessandra; Nicolini, Mario; Ravaioli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of cisplatin in cancer treatment represents an important achievement in the oncologic field. Many types of cancers are now treated with this drug, and in testicular cancer patients major results are reached. Since 1965, other compounds were disovered and among them carboplatin and oxaliplatin are the main Cisplatin analogues showing similar clinical efficacy with a safer toxicity profile. Lipoplatin is a new liposomal cisplatin formulation which seems to have these characteristics. Lipoplatin was shown to be effective in NSCLC both in phase 2 and phase 3 trials, with the same response rate of Cisplatin, a comparable overall survival but less toxicity. A new protocol aiming to elucidate the double capacity of Lipoplatin to act as a chemotherapeutic and angiogenetic agent in triple-negative breast cancer patients is upcoming. PMID:22295201

  13. [Breast tomosynthesis: a new tool for diagnosing breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Martínez Miravete, P; Etxano, J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to be the most common malignant tumor in women in occidental countries. Mammography is currently the technique of choice for screening programs; however, although it has been widely validated, mammography has its limitations, especially in dense breasts. Breast tomosynthesis is a revolutionary advance in the diagnosis of breast cancer. It makes it possible to define lesions that are occult in the glandular tissue and therefore to detect breast tumors that are impossible to see on conventional mammograms. In considering the combined use of mammography and tomosynthesis, many factors must be taken into account apart from cancer detection; these include additional radiation, the recall rate, and the time necessary to carry out and interpret the two tests. In this article, we review the technical principles of tomosynthesis, it main uses, and the future perspective for this imaging technique.

  14. Male breast cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Fentiman, IS

    2009-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is rare, with the peak age of onset at 71 years. BRCA2 mutations are more frequent than BRCA1 with 20% of cases giving a family history. Risk factors for MBC are poorly understood and include working in high-ambient temperatures and exhaust fume exposure. MBC is associated with hyperoestrogenic states found in liver disease, Klinefelter’s syndrome, gonadal dysfunction or obesity. Most information on treatment of MBC is derived from large randomized trials carried out in female patients. The small numbers of MBC seen in any unit annually has precluded significant trials being carried out. Diagnosis and treatment of MBC is similar to that of female patients, but men tend to be treated with mastectomy rather than breast-conserving surgery. The mainstay of adjuvant therapy or palliative treatment for advanced disease is endocrine, mostly tamoxifen. Prognosis of male patients is equal to that of stage-matched women, but men tend to fare worse because of delay in presentation, leading to a large proportion of patients presenting with stage III or IV disease. Increased input is needed for psychological support for male breast cancer patients. Specific therapeutic questions about MBC need international trials to obtain meaningful answers. PMID:22276005

  15. Deregulation of splicing factors and breast cancer development.

    PubMed

    Silipo, Marco; Gautrey, Hannah; Tyson-Capper, Alison

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that many genes implicated in the development and progression of breast cancer undergo aberrant alternative splicing events to produce proteins with pro-cancer properties. These changes in alternative splicing can arise from mutations or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the DNA sequences of cancer-related genes, which can strongly affect the activity of splicing factors and influence the splice site choice. However, it is important to note that absence of mutations is not sufficient to prevent misleading choices in splice site selection. There is now increasing evidence to demonstrate that the expression profile of ten splicing factors (including SRs and hnRNPs) and eight RNA-binding proteins changes in breast cancer cells compared with normal cells. These modifications strongly influence the alternative splicing pattern of many cancer-related genes despite the absence of any detrimental mutations within their DNA sequences. Thus, a comprehensive assessment of the splicing factor status in breast cancer is important to provide insights into the mechanisms that lead to breast cancer development and metastasis. Whilst most studies focus on mutations that affect alternative splicing in cancer-related genes, this review focuses on splicing factors and RNA-binding proteins that are themselves deregulated in breast cancer and implicated in cancer-related alternative splicing events.

  16. Breast cancer stem cells and radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Tiffany Marie

    2007-12-01

    The present studies explore the response of breast cancer stem cells (BCSC's) to radiation and the implications for clinical cancer treatment. Current cancer therapy eliminates bulky tumor mass but may fail to eradicate a critical tumor initiating cell population termed "cancer stem cells". These cells are potentially responsible for tumor formation, metastasis, and recurrence. Recently cancer stem cells have been prospectively identified in various malignancies, including breast cancer. The breast cancer stem cell has been identified by the surface markers CD44+/CD24 -(low). In vitro mammosphere cultures allow for the enrichment of the cancer stem cell population and were utilized in order to study differential characteristics of BCSC's. Initial studies found that BCSC's display increased radiation resistance as compared to other non-stem tumor cells. This resistance was accompanied by decreased H2AX phosphorylation, decreased reactive oxygen species formation, and increased phosphorylation of the checkpoint protein Chk1. These studies suggest differential DNA damage and repair within the BCSC population. Studies then examined the consequences of fractionated radiation on the BCSC population and found a two-fold increase in BCSC's following 5 x 3Gy. This observation begins to tie cancer stem cell self-renewal to the clinical stem cell phenomenon of accelerated repopulation. Accelerated repopulation is observed when treatment gaps increase between sequential fractions of radiotherapy and may be due to cancer stem cell symmetric self-renewal. The balance between asymmetric and symmetric stem cell division is vital for proper maintenance; deregulation is likely linked to cancer initiation and progression. The developmental Notch-1 pathway was found to regulate BCSC division. Over-expressing the constitutively active Notch-1-ICD in MCF7 cells produced an increase in the BCSC population. Additionally, radiation was observed to increase the expression of the Notch-1

  17. Iyengar-Yoga Compared to Exercise as a Therapeutic Intervention during (Neo)adjuvant Therapy in Women with Stage I–III Breast Cancer: Health-Related Quality of Life, Mindfulness, Spirituality, Life Satisfaction, and Cancer-Related Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Lötzke, Désirée; Wiedemann, Florian; Rodrigues Recchia, Daniela; Ostermann, Thomas; Sattler, Daniel; Ettl, Johannes; Kiechle, Marion; Büssing, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to test the effects of yoga on health-related quality of life, life satisfaction, cancer-related fatigue, mindfulness, and spirituality compared to conventional therapeutic exercises during (neo)adjuvant cytotoxic and endocrine therapy in women with breast cancer. In a randomized controlled trial 92 women with breast cancer undergoing oncological treatment were randomly enrolled for a yoga intervention (YI) (n = 45) or for a physical exercise intervention (PEI) (n = 47). Measurements were obtained before (t0) and after the intervention (t1) as well as 3 months after finishing intervention (t2) using standardized questionnaires. Life satisfaction and fatigue improved under PEI (p < 0.05) but not under YI (t0 to t2). Regarding quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30) a direct effect (t0 to t1; p < 0.001) of YI was found on role and emotional functioning, while under PEI only emotional functioning improved. Significant improvements (p < 0.001) were observed at both t1 and t2 also for symptom scales in both groups: dyspnea, appetite loss, constipation, and diarrhea. There was no significant difference between therapies for none of the analyzed variables neither for t1 nor for t2. During chemotherapy, yoga was not seen as more helpful than conventional therapeutic exercises. This does not argue against its use in the recovery phase. PMID:27019663

  18. One vs. Two Breast Density Measures to Predict 5- and 10- Year Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kerlikowske, Karla; Gard, Charlotte C.; Sprague, Brian L.; Tice, Jeffrey A.; Miglioretti, Diana L.

    2015-01-01

    Background One measure of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast density improves 5-year breast cancer risk prediction, but the value of sequential measures is unknown. We determined if two BI-RADS density measures improves the predictive accuracy of the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium 5-year risk model compared to one measure. Methods We included 722,654 women aged 35–74 years with two mammograms with BI-RADS density measures on average 1.8 years apart; 13,715 developed invasive breast cancer. We used Cox regression to estimate the relative hazards of breast cancer for age, race/ethnicity, family history of breast cancer, history of breast biopsy, and one or two density measures. We developed a risk prediction model by combining these estimates with 2000–2010 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results incidence and 2010 vital statistics for competing risk of death. Results The two-measure density model had marginally greater discriminatory accuracy than the one-measure model (AUC=0.640 vs. 0.635). Of 18.6% of women (134,404/722,654) who decreased density categories, 15.4% (20,741/134,404) of women whose density decreased from heterogeneously or extremely dense to a lower density category with one other risk factor had a clinically meaningful increase in 5-year risk from <1.67% with the one-density model to ≥1.67% with the two-density model. Conclusion The two-density model has similar overall discrimination to the one-density model for predicting 5-year breast cancer risk and improves risk classification for women with risk factors and a decrease in density. Impact A two-density model should be considered for women whose density decreases when calculating breast cancer risk. PMID:25824444

  19. 0927GCC: Entinostat and Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Women With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-01

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  20. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Inflammatory Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-14

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative

  1. Unique features of breast cancer in Asian women--breast cancer in Taiwan as an example.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Hung; Lu, Yen-Shen; Shen, Chen-Yang

    2010-02-28

    Breast carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in women and is known to arise from a multifactorial process, the effect of reproductive risk factors strongly supporting a hormonal role in its etiology. Breast cancer in Asia is characterized by a lower incidence than in Western populations, but is still the leading type of cancer in Asian women, and a significant increasing tread indicates that it is an issue of particular public health importance. Asian breast cancer is characterized by early tumor onset, showing a relatively younger median age at diagnosis. Recently, scientists began to explore the tumorigenic mechanisms underlying breast cancer formation at the molecular level. Both a candidate-gene approach and genome-wide association studies have yielded crucial insights into breast cancer susceptibility genes initiating breast tumorigenesis. As expected, ethnic/racial variation in the genotypic frequency of these genes results in differences in breast cancer incidence in different populations. Furthermore, the question of how important these genes are in Asian breast cancer remains to be explored. It has been demonstrated that gene expression profiles and gene sets are prognostic and predictive for patients with breast cancer. Originally, due to its early onset, it was speculated that Asian breast cancer would have a higher frequency of the basal-like subtype of breast cancer, a molecular subtype characterized by poor differentiation, resulting in a relatively poor progression; however, recent findings do not support this speculation. The frequency of the luminal-A subtype of breast cancer, characterized by estrogen receptor expression, is similar to that in breast cancer in Caucasian, supporting the usefulness of hormone-based therapy in Asian breast cancer.

  2. Breast Cancer in the Bahamas in 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Mungrue, K.; Chase, H.; Gordon, J.; Knowles, D.; Lockhart, K.; Miller, N.; Morley, T.; Sealey, L.; Turner, B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer affecting women in the Bahamas, which consists of many islands. This is the first attempt to identify which island has the highest occurrence of breast cancer. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to describe the sociodemographical and spatial features of breast cancer in the Bahamas in 2009–2011. METHODS A review of the medical records of all women with a confirmed diagnosis of breast cancer during the period January 1, 2009–December 31, 2011, was undertaken. Data were first obtained from the National Oncology Board of the Bahamas and validated by a review of the medical records. The patient address was geocoded and mapped using ArcGIS 10.0 Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) to satellite images obtained from The Nature Conservancy in the Bahamas. RESULTS We recruited 270 patients who satisfied the entry criteria. The cumulative incidences of breast cancer for the years 2009–2011 were 51.4, 45.4, and 51.4, respectively. Breast cancer occurred most often in women of African origin with a mean age at diagnosis of 56.6 ± 13.8 years. Ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type observed with most cancers occurring in Grade II or higher and presenting as late stage (≥ Stage II). Surgery was the preferred method of treatment with modified radical mastectomy being the procedure of choice. Spatial distribution of cases across the Bahamas revealed one cluster, which is present on the island of New Providence. Further analysis of New Providence showed a consistently skewed kernel density in the central and eastern regions, compared with a scattered distribution in the southern and western regions. CONCLUSION The island of New Providence had the highest occurrence of breast cancer among all the islands of the Bahamas. The increasing incidence of breast cancer in young women is likely to impose a significant burden on the future of Bahamian health care. PMID:27127408

  3. Palbociclib in Combination With Tamoxifen as First Line Therapy for Metastatic Hormone Receptor Positive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-04

    Hormone Receptor Positive Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor Positive Tumor; Metastatic Breast Cancer

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
    Suzanne. E. Fenton
    US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  5. The Third International Inflammatory Breast Cancer Conference

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive and deadly form of breast cancer. Disease-specific research and conferences have been organized since 2008 with the intent to bring together experts in various disciplines. This report focus on the Third International IBC Conference held in Philadelphia on December 2012. PMID:24188125

  6. Breast, Cervical Cancer More Deadly in Developing Nations: Report

    MedlinePlus

    ... More Health News on: Breast Cancer Cervical Cancer Health Disparities Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Breast Cancer Cervical Cancer Health Disparities About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  7. Nutrient pathways and breast cancer risk: the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Patrick T; Khankari, Nikhil K; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Xu, Xinran; Fink, Brian N; Steck, Susan E; Gaudet, Mia M; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Wolff, Mary S; Neugut, Alfred I; Chen, Jia; Gammon, Marilie D

    2013-01-01

    The relative importance of biochemical pathways has not been previously examined when considering the influence of diet on breast cancer risk. To address this issue, we used interview data from a population-based sample of 1463 breast cancer cases and 1500 controls. Dietary intake was assessed shortly after diagnosis using a 101-item food frequency questionnaire. Age- and energy-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for individual micro- and macronutrients were estimated with logistic regression. Hierarchical modeling was used to account for biologically plausible nutrient pathways (1-carbon metabolism, oxidative stress, glycemic control, and phytoestrogens). Effect estimates from hierarchical modeling were more precise and plausible compared to those from multivariable models. The strongest relationship observed was for the glycemic control pathway, but confidence intervals (CI) were wide [OR (95% CI): 0.86 (0.62, 1.21)]. Little or no effect was observed for the 1-carbon metabolism, oxidative stress, and phytoestrogen pathways. Associations were similar when stratified by supplement use. Our approach that emphasizes biochemical pathways, rather than individual nutrients, revealed that breast cancer risk may be more strongly associated with glycemic control factors than those from other pathways considered. Our study emphasizes the importance of accounting for multiple nutrient pathways when examining associations between dietary intake and breast cancer. PMID:23530633

  8. Active cigarette smoking and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Catsburg, Chelsea; Miller, Anthony B; Rohan, Thomas E

    2015-05-01

    Although epidemiological evidence on the role of active cigarette smoking in breast cancer risk has been inconsistent, recent literature supports a modest association between smoking and breast cancer. This association is particularly observed in women who smoke for a long duration, or who smoke for a long time prior to their first pregnancy. Here, we provide updated results on cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study (NBSS). The NBSS is a large cohort of 89,835 women, aged 40-59, who were followed for a mean of 22.1 years, resulting in the ascertainment of 6,549 incident cases of breast cancer. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of cigarette smoking variables with breast cancer risk. We found breast cancer to be associated with duration (40 years vs. 0: HR = 1.57; 95%CI = 1.29-1.92), intensity (40 cigarettes per day vs. 0: HR = 1.21; 95%CI = 1.04-1.40), cumulative exposure (40 pack-years vs. 0: HR = 1.19; 95%CI = 1.06-1.13) and latency (40 years since initiation vs. 0: HR = 1.19; 95%CI = 1.10-1.53) of cigarette smoking. Number of years smoked prior to first full-term pregnancy was associated with higher risk of breast cancer than comparative years smoked post-pregnancy (among parous women, 5 years pre pregnancy vs. 0: HR = 1.18; 95%CI = 1.10-1.26). These results strongly support a role for cigarette smoking in breast cancer etiology and emphasize the importance of timing of this exposure.

  9. Metastatic Male Ductal Breast Cancer Mimicking Obstructing Primary Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koleilat, Issam; Syal, Anil; Hena, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Male breast cancer comprises only about 1% of all breast cancers. Commonly, sites of metastases include the central nervous system, lungs, bones, and even liver. In females, extrahepatic gastrointestinal metastases are unusual but have been reported with various clinical presentations. We are reporting the first case of a male patient with a history of ductal breast carcinoma that developed colonic metastasis and presented with mechanical large bowel obstruction masquerading as primary colon cancer. PMID:23675178

  10. Does obesity compromise survival in women with breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Carmichael, A R; Bendall, S; Lockerbie, L; Prescott, R J; Bates, T

    2004-04-01

    Obesity, measured by high body mass index (BMI >30 kg/m2) is associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer but the effect of obesity on prognosis is not clear. A prospectively accrued and regularly validated database of 1579 patients with breast cancer treated in a district general hospital between 1963 and 1999 was analysed for clinical and pathological tumour characteristics including the family history, grade, tumour type, treatment and outcome. The risk factors and outcome of obese and non-obese patients were compared. Breast cancer in obese women was associated with significantly larger tumour size and worse Nottingham prognostic index. There was no statistically significant difference in overall and disease-free survival between obese and non-obese group. Hazard ratios (95% Cl) were 0.81 (0.62-1.06) and 0.80 (0.63-1.01), respectively. In the present study, obesity is not an indicator of worst prognosis of breast cancer.

  11. Genome-Based Risk Prediction for Early Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Adaniel, Christina; Jhaveri, Komal; Heguy, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Tests to better characterize tumor genomic architecture are quickly becoming a standard of care in oncology. For breast cancer, the use of gene expression assays for early stage disease is already common practice. These tests have found a place in risk stratifying the heterogeneous group of stage I–II breast cancers for recurrence, for predicting chemotherapy response, and for predicting breast cancer-related mortality. In the last 5 years, more assays have become available to the practicing oncologist. Given the rapidity with which this field has evolved, it is prudent to review the tests, their indications, and the studies from which they have been validated. We present a comprehensive review of the available gene expression assays for early stage breast cancer. We review data for several individual tests and comparative studies looking at risk prediction and cost-effectiveness. PMID:25187476

  12. Preventive treatments for breast cancer: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Alés-Martínez, J E; Ruiz, A; Chacón, J I; Lluch Hernández, A; Ramos, M; Córdoba, O; Aguirre, E; Barnadas, A; Jara, C; González, S; Plazaola, A; Florián, J; Andrés, R; Sánchez Rovira, P; Frau, A

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer is a burden for western societies, and an increasing one in emerging economies, because of its high incidence and enormous psychological, social, sanitary and economic costs. However, breast cancer is a preventable disease in a significant proportion. Recent developments in the armamentarium of effective drugs for breast cancer prevention (namely exemestane and anastrozole), the new recommendation from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence to use preventative drugs in women at high risk as well as updated Guidelines from the US Preventive Services Task Force and the American Society of Clinical Oncology should give renewed momentum to the pharmacological prevention of breast cancer. In this article we review recent major developments in the field and examine their ongoing repercussion for breast cancer prevention. As a practical example, the potential impact of preventive measures in Spain is evaluated and a course of practical actions is delineated.

  13. Depression in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cvetković, Jovana; Nenadović, Milutin

    2016-06-30

    Breast cancer is the third most common illness in the world and the most frequent malignant disease with women. Cytotoxic therapy is connected to significant psychiatric adverse effects, and the appearance of depressive symptoms is the most common. The main goal is determining the degree of depression with breast cancer patients in the oncology ward of the University Clinical Hospital in Niš and its connection to their marital status, age, level of education, economic status and the number of therapy cycles. This research is a prospective study. The statistical data analysis included measures of descriptive and analytical statistics. The presence of depressive symptoms of different intensity was showed in 76.00% of the interviewees in group I, and the second included 77.4%. The frequency distributions show that 27.084% interviewees from the first group showed signs of depressive symptoms, while the second included 25%. The intensity of these symptoms categorizes them into the group of moderate to significantly expressed depressive states, so they require therapeutic treatment. Depression is significantly more often recorded with cancer patients receiving cytotoxic therapy; mild depression is the most common, followed by moderate and severe depression. PMID:27138829

  14. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial cell monoculture: Long-term growth of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) grown in monoculture as 3-dimensional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical construct about 3.5 mm (less than 1/8th inch) in diameter with slightly dehydrted, crinkled beads contained on the surface as well as within the 3-dimensional structure. B: The center of these constructs is hollow. Crinkling of the beads causes a few to fall out, leaving crater-like impressiions in the construct. The central impression shows a small hole that accesses the hollow center of the construct. C: A closeup view of the cells and the hole the central impression. D: Closer views of cells in the construct showing sell-to-cell interactions. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  15. Breast cancer in pregnancy: an institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Blanquisett, Abraham Hernández; Vicent, Carmen Herrero; Gregori, Joaquín Gavilá; Zotano, Ángel Guerrero; Porta, Vicente Guillem; Simón, Amparo Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or within 12 months of delivery. Nowadays PABC can be safely diagnosed, staged, and treated during pregnancy with good outcomes for both the mother and the fetus. Recent studies suggest that prognosis of women diagnosed during postpartum seems to be worse. In order to gain a better understanding of the PABC, we reviewed our centre’s experience. Patients and methods We assessed the clinicopathological parameters, evolution, and outcome of patients treated in the Fundación Instituto Valenciano de Oncología of Valencia, Spain, from October 1990 to October 2013, and compared the results of patients diagnosed during pregnancy (group ‘A’) and patients diagnosed within one year of delivery (group ‘B’). Of 12,000 cases of breast cancer registered in our database, 35 cases of PABC were identified. We included 11 patients in group ‘A’ and 24 in group ‘B’. Results In our group the median age was 35 years (range 29–42), of which ten (28%) patients had family history (first grade) of breast cancer, four patients were BRCA 1 mutation carriers. Axillary node compromise was found in 19 patients (53.5%), 24 patients were stage II or III at diagnosis (68.5%), 22 (62.8%) were ER positive, and nine (25.7%) were HER-2 positive. In group A (n = 11), five patients diagnosed before 18th week decided that a therapeutic abortion be performed before treatment, two patients were treated during pregnancy, one with chemotherapy without treatment associated complications during delivery. Four women diagnosed after 28th week decided to delay the treatment until delivery. After a follow up of 172 months, the relapse free survival (RFS) was 69% at five years and 45% at ten years. Overall survival (OS) at five years was 90.8% and 74.2% at ten years for all patients. For group ‘A’ OS was higher

  16. KeraStat Skin Therapy in Treating Radiation Dermatitis in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage 0-IIIA Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-28

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Skin Reactions Secondary to Radiation Therapy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer

  17. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-04

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  18. GDC-0941 and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Androgen Receptor-Negative Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-17

    Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  19. Partial Breast Irradiation Versus Whole Breast Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, David J.; Wittenberg, Eve; Taghian, Alphonse G.; Bellon, Jennifer R.; Punglia, Rinaa S.

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To compare the quality-adjusted life expectancy between women treated with partial breast irradiation (PBI) vs. whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT) for estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We developed a Markov model to describe health states in the 15 years after radiotherapy for estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer. Breast cancer recurrences were separated into local recurrences and elsewhere failures. Ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) risk was extracted from the Oxford overview, and rates and utilities were adapted from the literature. We studied two cohorts of women (aged 40 and 55 years), both of whom received adjuvant tamoxifen. Results: Assuming a no evidence of disease (NED)-PBI utility of 0.93, quality-adusted life expectancy after PBI (and WBRT) was 12.61 (12.57) and 12.10 (12.06) years for 40-year-old and 55-year-old women, respectively. The NED-PBI utility thresholds for preferring PBI over WBRT were 0.923 and 0.921 for 40-year-old and 55-year-old women, respectively, both slightly greater than the NED-WBRT utility. Outcomes were sensitive to the utility of NED-PBI, the PBI hazard ratio for local recurrence, the baseline IBTR risk, and the percentage of IBTRs that were local. Overall the degree of superiority of PBI over WBRT was greater for 55-year-old women than for 40-year-old women. Conclusions: For most utility values of the NED-PBI health state, PBI was the preferred treatment modality. This result was highly sensitive to patient preferences and was also dependent on patient age, PBI efficacy, IBTR risk, and the fraction of IBTRs that were local.

  20. Sexuality and body image in younger women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Schover, L R

    1994-01-01

    Breast cancer has the potential to be most devastating to the sexual function and self-esteem of premenopausal women. Nevertheless, not one study has systematically compared the impact of breast cancer treatment on sexual issues across age groups. Research shows that younger women with breast cancer have more severe emotional distress than older cohorts. In a group of patients seeking sexual rehabilitation in a cancer center, younger couples were more distressed, but also had the best prognosis with treatment. In theory, loss of a breast or poor breast appearance would be more distressing to women whose youth gives them high expectations for physical beauty. Seeking new dating relationships after breast cancer treatment is a special stressor for single women. Potential infertility also may impact on a woman's self-concept as a sexual person. Systemic treatment disrupts sexual function by causing premature menopause, with estrogen loss leading to vaginal atrophy and androgen loss perhaps decreasing sexual desire and arousability. Research on mastectomy versus breast conservation across all ages of women has demonstrated that general psychological distress, marital satisfaction, and overall sexual frequency and function do not differ between the two treatment groups. Women with breast conservation do rate their body image more highly and are more comfortable with nudity and breast caressing. There is some evidence that breast conservation offers more psychological "protection" for younger women. Research on the impact of breast reconstruction is sparse, but reveals similar patterns. Future studies should use rigorous methodology and focus on the impact of premature menopause and the effectiveness of sexual rehabilitation for younger women. PMID:7999462

  1. Drinking green tea modestly reduces breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Shrubsole, Martha J; Lu, Wei; Chen, Zhi; Shu, Xiao Ou; Zheng, Ying; Dai, Qi; Cai, Qiuyin; Gu, Kai; Ruan, Zhi Xian; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2009-02-01

    Green tea is a commonly consumed beverage in China. Epidemiological and animal data suggest tea and tea polyphenols may be preventive against various cancers, including breast cancer. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes catechol estrogens and tea polyphenols. The COMT rs4680 AA genotype leads to lower COMT activity, which may affect the relationship between green tea consumption and breast cancer risk. We evaluated whether regular green tea consumption was associated with breast cancer risk among 3454 incident cases and 3474 controls aged 20-74 y in a population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai, China during 1996-2005. All participants were interviewed in person about green tea consumption habits, including age of initiation, duration of use, brew strength, and quantity of tea. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI were calculated for green tea consumption measures and adjusted for age and other confounding factors. Compared with nondrinkers, regular drinking of green tea was associated with a slightly decreased risk for breast cancer (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.79-0.98). Among premenopausal women, reduced risk was observed for years of green tea drinking (P-trend = 0.02) and a dose-response relationship with the amount of tea consumed per month was also observed (P-trend = 0.046). COMT rs4680 genotypes did not have a modifying effect on the association of green tea intake with breast cancer risk. Drinking green tea may be weakly associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer.

  2. New therapeutic possibilities in primary invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cady, B; Stone, M D; Wayne, J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Current therapy for small invasive breast cancer, particularly when discovered mammographically, was re-examined. Axillary dissection may be avoided when lymph node metastases incidence is low (< 10%) or when primary cancer features determine adjuvant therapy. Radiation therapy may be avoided when risk of recurrence is very low. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Recent studies by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (SEER) have shown increases in small invasive breast cancers (< 1 cm) attributable to mammographic screening. The incidence of axillary metastases in mammographically discovered small cancers (< 1 cm) may be less than 10%. Follow-up data from the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP) indicate a disease-free survival rate exceeding 95% at 8 years if the cancer was discovered mammographically. METHODS: Maximum diameter and lymph node metastases of invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 1969 and 1988 were analyzed and compared to cases diagnosed between 1929 and 1968. One hundred thirty patients have been treated without either axillary dissection or radiation therapy since 1980. RESULTS: The mean and median diameters of invasive breast cancers decreased to 2.31 and 2.0 cm, respectively, between 1984 and 1988; 13% were less than 1 cm in diameter. Only 13% of patients had axillary metastases if the primary cancer was 1 cm or less in diameter in the last 10 years; 71% had only 1 or 2 nodes involved. Isolated local recurrence, total local recurrence, and distant metastases were unchanged when radiated and nonirradiated patients were compared. Axillary nodal recurrence was decreased in irradiated patients because the lower half of the axilla was treated. CONCLUSION: In selected patients with very small invasive breast cancers detected by mammography, breast conservation without axillary dissection or radiation therapy may be used. Entirely outpatient treatment markedly reduces morbidity and cost, and furthers the gains

  3. An international randomised controlled trial to compare TARGeted Intraoperative radioTherapy (TARGIT) with conventional postoperative radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for women with early-stage breast cancer (the TARGIT-A trial).

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Jayant S; Wenz, Frederik; Bulsara, Max; Tobias, Jeffrey S; Joseph, David J; Saunders, Christobel; Brew-Graves, Chris; Potyka, Ingrid; Morris, Stephen; Vaidya, Hrisheekesh J; Williams, Norman R; Baum, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Based on our laboratory work and clinical trials we hypothesised that radiotherapy after lumpectomy for breast cancer could be restricted to the tumour bed. In collaboration with the industry we developed a new radiotherapy device and a new surgical operation for delivering single-dose radiation to the tumour bed - the tissues at highest risk of local recurrence. We named it TARGeted Intraoperative radioTherapy (TARGIT). From 1998 we confirmed its feasibility and safety in pilot studies. OBJECTIVE To compare TARGIT within a risk-adapted approach with whole-breast external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) over several weeks. DESIGN The TARGeted Intraoperative radioTherapy Alone (TARGIT-A) trial was a pragmatic, prospective, international, multicentre, non-inferiority, non-blinded, randomised (1 : 1 ratio) clinical trial. Originally, randomisation occurred before initial lumpectomy (prepathology) and, if allocated TARGIT, the patient received it during the lumpectomy. Subsequently, the postpathology stratum was added in which randomisation occurred after initial lumpectomy, allowing potentially easier logistics and a more stringent case selection, but which needed a reoperation to reopen the wound to give TARGIT as a delayed procedure. The risk-adapted approach meant that, in the experimental arm, if pre-specified unsuspected adverse factors were found postoperatively after receiving TARGIT, EBRT was recommended. Pragmatically, this reflected how TARGIT would be practised in the real world. SETTING Thirty-three centres in 11 countries. PARTICIPANTS Women who were aged ≥ 45 years with unifocal invasive ductal carcinoma preferably ≤ 3.5 cm in size. INTERVENTIONS TARGIT within a risk-adapted approach and whole-breast EBRT. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome measure was absolute difference in local recurrence, with a non-inferiority margin of 2.5%. Secondary outcome measures included toxicity and breast cancer-specific and non-breast-cancer

  4. Primary care physician use across the breast cancer care continuum

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li; Lofters, Aisha; Moineddin, Rahim; Decker, Kathleen; Groome, Patti; Kendell, Cynthia; Krzyzanowska, Monika; Li, Dongdong; McBride, Mary L.; Mittmann, Nicole; Porter, Geoff; Turner, Donna; Urquhart, Robin; Winget, Marcy; Zhang, Yang; Grunfeld, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe primary care physician (PCP) use and continuity of PCP care across the breast cancer care continuum. Design Population-based, retrospective cohort study using provincial cancer registries linked to health administrative databases. Setting British Columbia, Manitoba, and Ontario. Participants All women with incident invasive breast cancer from 2007 to 2012 in Manitoba and Ontario and from 2007 to 2011 in British Columbia. Main outcome measures The number and proportions of visits to PCPs were determined. Continuity of care was measured using the Usual Provider of Care index calculated as the proportion of visits to the most-often-visited PCP in the 6 to 30 months before a breast cancer diagnosis (baseline) and from 1 to 3 years following a breast cancer diagnosis (survivorship). Results More than three-quarters of patients visited their PCPs 2 or more times during the breast cancer diagnostic period, and more than 80% of patients had at least 1 PCP visit during breast cancer adjuvant treatment. Contact with the PCP decreased over time during breast cancer survivorship. Of the 3 phases, women appeared to be most likely to not have PCP contact during adjuvant treatment, with 10.7% (Ontario) to 18.7% (British Columbia) of women having no PCP visits during this phase. However, a sizable minority of women had at least monthly visits during the treatment phase, particularly in Manitoba and Ontario, where approximately a quarter of women saw a PCP at least monthly. We observed higher continuity of care with PCPs in survivorship (compared with baseline) in all provinces. Conclusion Primary care physicians were generally involved throughout the breast cancer care continuum, but the level of involvement varied across care phases and by province. Future interventions will aim to further integrate primary and oncology care. PMID:27737994

  5. Breast density and mode of detection in relation to breast cancer specific survival: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine breast density in relation to breast cancer specific survival and to assess if this potential association was modified by mode of detection. An additional aim was to study whether the established association between mode of detection and survival is modified by breast density. Methods The study included 619 cases from a prospective cohort, The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Breast density estimated qualitatively, was analyzed in relation to breast cancer death, in non-symptomatic and symptomatic women, using Cox regression calculating hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals. Adjustments were made in several steps for; diagnostic age, tumour size, axillary lymph node involvement, grade, hormone receptor status, body mass index (baseline), diagnostic period, use of hormone replacement therapy at diagnosis and mode of detection. Detection mode in relation to survival was analyzed stratified for breast density. Differences in HR following different adjustments were analyzed by Freedmans%. Results After adjustment for age and other prognostic factors, women with dense, as compared to fatty breasts, had an increased risk of breast cancer death, HR 2.56:1.07-6.11, with a statistically significant trend over density categories, p = 0.04. In the stratified analysis, the effect was less pronounced in non-symptomatic women, HR 2.04:0.49-8.49 as compared to symptomatic, HR 3.40:1.06-10.90. In the unadjusted model, symptomatic women had a higher risk of breast cancer death, regardless of breast density. Analyzed by Freedmans%, age, tumour size, lymph nodes, grade, diagnostic period, ER and PgR explained 55.5% of the observed differences in mortality between non-symptomatic and symptomatic cases. Additional adjustment for breast density caused only a minor change. Conclusions High breast density at diagnosis may be associated with decreased breast cancer survival. This association appears to be stronger in women with

  6. Genomic similarities between breast and ovarian cancers

    Cancer.gov

    One subtype of breast cancer shares many genetic features with high-grade serous ovarian cancer, a cancer that is very difficult to treat, according to researchers supported by the National Institutes of Health. The findings suggest that the two cancers a

  7. Design, conduct, and analyses of Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98: A randomized, double-blind, phase-III study comparing letrozole and tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with receptor-positive, early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Price, Karen N; Gelber, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    Background Aromatase inhibitors provide superior disease control when compared with tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer. Purpose To present the design, history, and analytic challenges of the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial: an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase-III study comparing the aromatase inhibitor letrozole with tamoxifen in this clinical setting. Methods From 1998–2003, BIG 1-98 enrolled 8028 women to receive monotherapy with either tamoxifen or letrozole for 5 years, or sequential therapy of 2 years of one agent followed by 3 years of the other. Randomization to one of four treatment groups permitted two complementary analyses to be conducted several years apart. The first, reported in 2005, provided a head-to-head comparison of letrozole versus tamoxifen. Statistical power was increased by an enriched design, which included patients who were assigned sequential treatments until the time of the treatment switch. The second, reported in late 2008, used a conditional landmark approach to test the hypothesis that switching endocrine agents at approximately 2 years from randomization for patients who are disease-free is superior to continuing with the original agent. Results The 2005 analysis showed the superiority of letrozole compared with tamoxifen. The patients who were assigned tamoxifen alone were unblinded and offered the opportunity to switch to letrozole. Results from other trials increased the clinical relevance about whether or not to start treatment with letrozole or tamoxifen, and analysis plans were expanded to evaluate sequential versus single-agent strategies from randomization. Limitations Due to the unblinding of patients assigned tamoxifen alone, analysis of updated data will require ascertainment of the influence of selective crossover from tamoxifen to letrozole. Conclusions BIG 1-98 is an example of an enriched design, involving

  8. Questionnaires in Identifying Upper Extremity Function and Quality of Life After Treatment in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-24

    Musculoskeletal Complication; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-Related Toxicity

  9. No evidence for TSLP pathway activity in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ghirelli, Cristina; Sadacca, Benjamin; Reyal, Fabien; Zollinger, Raphaël; Michea, Paula; Sirven, Philémon; Pattarini, Lucia; Martínez-Cingolani, Carolina; Guillot-Delost, Maude; Nicolas, André; Scholer-Dahirel, Alix; Soumelis, Vassili

    2016-08-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an epithelial cell-derived cytokine that primes dendritic cells for Th2 induction. It has been implicated in different types of allergic diseases. Recent work suggested that TSLP could play an important role in the tumor microenvironment and influence tumor progression, in particular in breast cancer. In this study we systematically assessed the production of TSLP at the mRNA and protein levels in several human breast cancer cell lines, large-scale public transcriptomics data sets, and primary human breast tumors. We found that TSLP production was marginal, and concerned less than 10% of the tumors, with very low mRNA and protein levels. In most cases TSLP was undetectable and found to be expressed at lower levels in breast cancer as compared to normal breast tissue. Last, we could not detect any functional TSLP receptor (TSLPR) expression neither on hematopoietic cells nor on stromal cells within the primary tumor microenvironment. We conclude that TSLP-TSLPR pathway activity is not significantly detected within human breast cancer. Taken together, these observations do not support TSLP targeting in breast cancer. PMID:27622057

  10. Apoptotic effect of noscapine in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Quisbert-Valenzuela, Edwin O; Calaf, Gloria M

    2016-06-01

    Cancer is a public health problem in the world and breast cancer is the most frequently cancer in women. Approximately 15% of the breast cancers are triple-negative. Apoptosis regulates normal growth, homeostasis, development, embryogenesis and appropriate strategy to treat cancer. Bax is a protein pro-apoptotic enhancer of apoptosis in contrast to Bcl-2 with antiapoptotic properties. Initiator caspase-9 and caspase-8 are features of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathway, respectively. NF-κB is a transcription factor known to be involved in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. Noscapine, an alkaloid derived from opium is used as antitussive and showed antitumor properties that induced apoptosis in cancer cell lines. The aim of the present study was to determine the apoptotic effect of noscapine in breast cancer cell lines compared to breast normal cell line. Three cell lines were used: i) a control breast cell line MCF-10F; ii) a luminal-like adenocarcinoma triple-positive breast cell line MCF-7; iii) breast cancer triple-negative cell line MDA-MB-231. Our results showed that noscapine had lower toxicity in normal cells and was an effective anticancer agent that induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells because it increases Bax gene and protein expression in three cell lines, while decreases Bcl-xL gene expression, and Bcl-2 protein expression decreased in breast cancer cell lines. Therefore, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased in the three cell lines. This drug increased caspase-9 gene expression in breast cancer cell lines and caspase-8 gene expression increased in MCF-10F and MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, it increased cleavage of caspase-8, suggesting that noscapine-induced apoptosis is probably due to the involvement of extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways. Antiapoptotic gene and protein expression diminished and proapoptotic gene and protein expression increased noscapine-induced expression, probably due to decrease in NF-κB gene and protein expression

  11. Lactation and the risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Purwanto, H; Sadjimin, T; Dwiprahasto, I

    2000-05-01

    Some factors are suggested to have an association with an increased risk of breast cancer, which are called risk factors. Lactation is one of the risk factors that still needs to be studied because of conflicting findings in epidemiological studies and also uncertainty regarding biologic plausibility. Our objective was to study the relationship between lactation and the risk of breast cancer. A pair of unmatched case control studies was held among parous women at Dr. Soetomo Hospital (general hospital) and some private hospitals in the Surabaya municipality. There are 219 (51.9%) cases and 203 (48.1%) controls analyzed in this study. Age, age at menarche, regular menstruation and number of parity between both groups are not statistical different. When we divided the age at menarche (below 13), it was statistically different. The cases consisted of more women with menarche below 13 (p = 0.00038). Other factors showing statistical differences in the risk of breast cancer between case and control are age at first delivery, family history of breast cancer and age at menopause. Women who have lactated (more than 4-month duration of breast feeding) show a "protective effect" against breast cancer, OR 0.57 (95% CI 0.33-0.99). However, there was no clear duration of lactation and the risk of breast cancer. Logistic regression analysis showed that lactation was not any independent factor. Lactation exerts a "protective effect" against breast cancer. However, the duration of lactation did not show an influence in reducing the risk of breast cancer, and logistic regression analysis did not show that lactation was an independent factor in the risk of breast cancer.

  12. Disparities in breast cancer and african ancestry: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Recognition of breast cancer disparities between African-American and White American women has generated exciting research opportunities investigating the biologic and hereditary factors that contribute to the observed outcome differences, leading to international studies of breast cancer in Africa. The study of breast cancer in women with African ancestry has opened the door to unique investigations regarding breast cancer subtypes and the genetics of this disease. International research efforts can advance our understanding of race/ethnicity-associated breast cancer disparities within the USA; the pathogenesis of triple negative breast cancer; and hereditary susceptibility for breast cancer.

  13. Breast Feeding, Parity and Breast Cancer Subtypes in a Spanish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ponte, Sara Miranda; Castelo, Manuel Enguix; Jiang, Xuejuan; García, Ana Alonso; Fernández, Maite Peña; Tomé, María Ausencia; Fraga, Máximo; Gude, Francisco; Martínez, María Elena; Garzón, Víctor Muñoz; Carracedo, Ángel; Castelao, J. Esteban

    2012-01-01

    Background Differences in the incidence and outcome of breast cancer among Hispanic women compared with white women are well documented and are likely explained by ethnic differences in genetic composition, lifestyle, or environmental exposures. Methodolgy/Principal Findings A population-based study was conducted in Galicia, Spain. A total of 510 women diagnosed with operable invasive breast cancer between 1997 and 2010 participated in the study. Data on demographics, breast cancer risk factors, and clinico-pathological characteristics were collected. The different breast cancer tumor subtypes were compared on their clinico-pathological characteristics and risk factor profiles, particularly reproductive variables and breastfeeding. Among the 501 breast cancer patients (with known ER and PR receptors), 85% were ER+/PR+ and 15% were ER-&PR-. Among the 405 breast cancer with known ER, PR and HER2 status, 71% were ER+/PR+/HER2- (luminal A), 14% were ER+/PR+/HER2+ (luminal B), 10% were ER−/PR−/HER2- (triple negative breast cancer, TNBC), and 5% were ER−/PR−/HER2+ (non-luminal). A lifetime breastfeeding period equal to or longer than 7 months was less frequent in case patients with TNBC (OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.08–0.68) compared to luminal A breast cancers. Both a low (2 or fewer pregnancies) and a high (3–4 pregnancies) number of pregnancies combined with a long breastfeeding period were associated with reduced odds of TNBC compared with luminal A breast cancer, although the association seemed to be slightly more pronounced among women with a low number of pregnancies (OR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.005–0.54). Conclusions/Significance In case-case analyses with the luminal A cases as the reference group, we observed a lower proportion of TNBC among women who breastfed 7 or more months. The combination of longer breastfeeding duration and lower parity seemed to further reduce the odds of having a TNBC compared to a luminal A breast cancer. PMID

  14. Breast Cancer Survivorship: Where Are We Today?

    PubMed

    Ganz, Patricia A; Goodwin, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and survivors with this diagnosis account for almost one fourth of the over 14 million cancer survivors in the US. After several decades of basic and clinical trials research, we have learned much about the heterogeneity of breast cancer and have evolved a complex and multidisciplinary treatment approach to the disease. Increasingly, we are paying attention to the long term and late effects of breast cancer treatment, and this is largely the subject of this volume. In this chapter, the authors introduce the topic of breast cancer survivorship and highlight the organization and content of this volume, briefly describing the contents of the subsequent chapters. PMID:26059925

  15. From Bombs to Breast Cancer Imaging: Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Martineau, Rebecca M

    2012-07-26

    . Currently, there is fierce debate surrounding the age at which breast cancer screening should begin, and once begun, how often it should occur. The American Cancer Society recommends yearly mammograms starting at age 40. On the other hand, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine so early. Rather, the Task Force recommends biennial mammography screening for women aged 50 to 74 years. The ten-year discrepancy in the onset of screening results from recent data suggesting that the frequent use of X-ray radiation during screenings could potentially increase the likelihood of developing cancer. This danger is increased by the low sensitivity and accuracy of mammograms, which sometimes require multiple screenings to yield results. Furthermore, mammograms are often not only inaccurate, but average appalling misdiagnoses rates: about 80% false positives and 15% false negatives. These misdiagnoses lead to unwarranted biopsies at an estimated health care cost of $2 billion per year, while at the same time, resulting in excessive cases of undetected cancer. As such, the National Cancer Institute recommends more studies on the advantages of types and frequency of screenings, as well as alternative screening options. The UST technology developed at LANL could be an alternative option to greatly improve the specificity and sensitivity of breast cancer screening without using ionizing radiation. LANL is developing high-resolution ultrasound tomography algorithms and a clinical ultrasound tomography scanner to conduct patient studies at the UNM Hospital. During UST scanning, the patient lies face-down while her breast, immersed in a tank of warm water, is scanned by phased-transducer arrays. UST uses recorded ultrasound signals to reconstruct a high-resolution three-dimensional image of the breast, showing the spatial distribution of mechanical properties within the breast. Breast cancers are detected by higher values of mechanical properties compared to

  16. Pattern of Breast Cancer Distribution in Ghana: A Survey to Enhance Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Naku Ghartey Jnr, Frank; Anyanful, Akwasi; Eliason, Sebastian; Mohammed Adamu, Saanid; Debrah, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. Nearly 70% of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Ghana are in advanced stages of the disease due especially to low awareness, resulting in limited treatment success and high death rate. With limited epidemiological studies on breast cancer in Ghana, the aim of this study is to assess and understand the pattern of breast cancer distribution for enhancing early detection and treatment. Methods. We randomly selected and screened 3000 women for clinical palpable breast lumps and used univariate and bivariate analysis for description and exploration of variables, respectively, in relation to incidence of breast cancer. Results. We diagnosed 23 (0.76%) breast cancer cases out of 194 (6.46%) participants with clinically palpable breast lumps. Seventeen out of these 23 (0.56%) were premenopausal (<46.6 years) with 7 (0.23%) being below 35 years. With an overall breast cancer incidence of 0.76% in this study, our observation that about 30% of these cancer cases were below 35 years may indicate a relative possible shift of cancer burden to women in their early thirties in Ghana, compared to Western countries. Conclusion. These results suggest an age adjustment for breast cancer screening to early twenties for Ghanaian women and the need for a nationwide breast cancer screening to understand completely the pattern of breast cancer distribution in Ghana. PMID:27635263

  17. Pattern of Breast Cancer Distribution in Ghana: A Survey to Enhance Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Debrah, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. Nearly 70% of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Ghana are in advanced stages of the disease due especially to low awareness, resulting in limited treatment success and high death rate. With limited epidemiological studies on breast cancer in Ghana, the aim of this study is to assess and understand the pattern of breast cancer distribution for enhancing early detection and treatment. Methods. We randomly selected and screened 3000 women for clinical palpable breast lumps and used univariate and bivariate analysis for description and exploration of variables, respectively, in relation to incidence of breast cancer. Results. We diagnosed 23 (0.76%) breast cancer cases out of 194 (6.46%) participants with clinically palpable breast lumps. Seventeen out of these 23 (0.56%) were premenopausal (<46.6 years) with 7 (0.23%) being below 35 years. With an overall breast cancer incidence of 0.76% in this study, our observation that about 30% of these cancer cases were below 35 years may indicate a relative possible shift of cancer burden to women in their early thirties in Ghana, compared to Western countries. Conclusion. These results suggest an age adjustment for breast cancer screening to early twenties for Ghanaian women and the need for a nationwide breast cancer screening to understand completely the pattern of breast cancer distribution in Ghana. PMID:27635263

  18. Pattern of Breast Cancer Distribution in Ghana: A Survey to Enhance Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Debrah, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. Nearly 70% of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Ghana are in advanced stages of the disease due especially to low awareness, resulting in limited treatment success and high death rate. With limited epidemiological studies on breast cancer in Ghana, the aim of this study is to assess and understand the pattern of breast cancer distribution for enhancing early detection and treatment. Methods. We randomly selected and screened 3000 women for clinical palpable breast lumps and used univariate and bivariate analysis for description and exploration of variables, respectively, in relation to incidence of breast cancer. Results. We diagnosed 23 (0.76%) breast cancer cases out of 194 (6.46%) participants with clinically palpable breast lumps. Seventeen out of these 23 (0.56%) were premenopausal (<46.6 years) with 7 (0.23%) being below 35 years. With an overall breast cancer incidence of 0.76% in this study, our observation that about 30% of these cancer cases were below 35 years may indicate a relative possible shift of cancer burden to women in their early thirties in Ghana, compared to Western countries. Conclusion. These results suggest an age adjustment for breast cancer screening to early twenties for Ghanaian women and the need for a nationwide breast cancer screening to understand completely the pattern of breast cancer distribution in Ghana.

  19. Breast cancer detection: radiologists’ performance using mammography with and without automated whole-breast ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Judy; Lee, Sung-Jae; Comulada, W. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Objective Radiologist reader performance for breast cancer detection using mammography plus automated whole-breast ultrasound (AWBU) was compared with mammography alone. Methods Screenings for non-palpable breast malignancies in women with radiographically dense breasts with contemporaneous mammograms and AWBU were reviewed by 12 radiologists blinded to the diagnoses; half the studies were abnormal. Readers first reviewed the 102 mammograms. The American College of Radiology (ACR) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) and Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) likelihood ratings were recorded with location information for identified abnormalities. Readers then reviewed the mammograms and AWBU with knowledge of previous mammogram-only evaluation. We compared reader performance across screening techniques using absolute callback, areas under the curve (AUC), and figure of merit (FOM). Results True positivity of cancer detection increased 63%, with only a 4% decrease in true negativity. Reader-averaged AUC was higher for mammography plus AWBU compared with mammography alone by BIRADS (0.808 versus 0.701) and likelihood scores (0.810 versus 0.703). Similarly, FOM was higher for mammography plus AWBU compared with mammography alone by BIRADS (0.786 versus 0.613) and likelihood scores (0.791 versus 0.614). Conclusion Adding AWBU to mammography improved callback rates, accuracy of breast cancer detection, and confidence in callbacks for dense-breasted women. PMID:20632009

  20. Main controversies in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zervoudis, Stephane; Iatrakis, George; Tomara, Eirini; Bothou, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, George; Tsakiris, George

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we have reviewed available evidence for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up in female breast cancer (BC). Into daily clinical practice some controversies are occurred. Especially, in the diagnosis field, despite the fact that the optimal age in which screening mammography should start is a subject of intense controversy, there is a shift toward the beginning at the age of 40 although it is suggested that the net benefit is small for women aged 40 to 49 years. In addition, a promising tool in BC screening seems to be breast tomosynthesis. Other tools such as 3D ultrasound and shear wave elastography (SWE) are full of optimism in BC screening although ultrasonography is not yet a first-line screening method and there is insufficient evidence to recommend the systemic use of the SWE for BC screening. As for breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), even if it is useful in BC detection in women who have a strong family history of BC, it is not generally recommended as a screening tool. Moreover, based on the lack of randomized clinical trials showing a benefit of presurgical breast MRI in overall survival, it’s integration into breast surgical operations remains debatable. Interestingly, in contrast to fine needle aspiration, core biopsy has gained popularity in presurgical diagnosis. Furthermore, after conservative surgery in patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes, the recent tendency is the shift from axillary dissection to axillary conserving strategies. While the accuracy of sentinel lymph node after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and second BC surgery remains controversial, more time is needed for evaluation and for determining the optimal interval between the two surgeries. Additionally, in the decision between immediate or delayed breast reconstruction, there is a tendency in the immediate use. In the prevention of BC, the controversial issue between tamoxifen and raloxifene becomes clear with raloxifene be more profitable through the toxicities

  1. Molecular basis of invasion in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McSherry, E A; Donatello, S; Hopkins, A M; McDonnell, S

    2007-12-01

    Cancer cell invasion involves the breaching of tissue barriers by cancer cells, and the subsequent infiltration of these cells throughout the surrounding tissue. In breast cancer, invasion at the molecular level requires the coordinated efforts of numerous processes within the cancer cell and its surroundings. Accumulation of genetic changes which impair the regulation of cell growth and death is generally accepted to initiate cancer. Loss of cell-adhesion molecules, resulting in a loss in tissue architecture, in parallel with matrix remodelling may also confer a motile or migratory advantage to breast cancer cells. The tumour microenvironment may further influence the behaviour of these cancer cells through expression of cytokines, growth factors, and proteases promoting chemotaxis and invasion. This review will attempt to summarise recent work on these fundamental processes influencing or facilitating breast cancer cell invasion. (Part of a Multi-author Review). PMID:17957337

  2. Molecular basis of invasion in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McSherry, E A; Donatello, S; Hopkins, A M; McDonnell, S

    2007-12-01

    Cancer cell invasion involves the breaching of tissue barriers by cancer cells, and the subsequent infiltration of these cells throughout the surrounding tissue. In breast cancer, invasion at the molecular level requires the coordinated efforts of numerous processes within the cancer cell and its surroundings. Accumulation of genetic changes which impair the regulation of cell growth and death is generally accepted to initiate cancer. Loss of cell-adhesion molecules, resulting in a loss in tissue architecture, in parallel with matrix remodelling may also confer a motile or migratory advantage to breast cancer cells. The tumour microenvironment may further influence the behaviour of these cancer cells through expression of cytokines, growth factors, and proteases promoting chemotaxis and invasion. This review will attempt to summarise recent work on these fundamental processes influencing or facilitating breast cancer cell invasion. (Part of a Multi-author Review).

  3. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges. PMID:26821054

  4. Prognostic and Predictive Value of Centrally Reviewed Ki-67 Labeling Index in Postmenopausal Women With Endocrine-Responsive Breast Cancer: Results From Breast International Group Trial 1-98 Comparing Adjuvant Tamoxifen With Letrozole

    PubMed Central

    Viale, Giuseppe; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Regan, Meredith M.; Coates, Alan S.; Mastropasqua, Mauro G.; Dell'Orto, Patrizia; Maiorano, Eugenio; MacGrogan, Gaëtan; Braye, Stephen G.; Öhlschlegel, Christian; Neven, Patrick; Orosz, Zsolt; Olszewski, Wojciech P.; Knox, Fiona; Thürlimann, Beat; Price, Karen N.; Castiglione-Gertsch, Monica; Gelber, Richard D.; Gusterson, Barry A.; Goldhirsch, Aron

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of Ki-67 labeling index (LI) in a trial comparing letrozole (Let) with tamoxifen (Tam) as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. Patients and Methods Breast International Group (BIG) trial 1-98 randomly assigned 8,010 patients to four treatment arms comparing Let and Tam with sequences of each agent. Of 4,922 patients randomly assigned to receive 5 years of monotherapy with either agent, 2,685 had primary tumor material available for central pathology assessment of Ki-67 LI by immunohistochemistry and had tumors confirmed to express estrogen receptors after central review. The prognostic and predictive value of centrally measured Ki-67 LI on disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed among these patients using proportional hazards modeling, with Ki-67 LI values dichotomized at the median value of 11%. Results Higher values of Ki-67 LI were associated with adverse prognostic factors and with worse DFS (hazard ratio [HR; high:low] = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.3). The magnitude of the treatment benefit for Let versus Tam was greater among patients with high tumor Ki-67 LI (HR [Let:Tam] = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.72) than among patients with low tumor Ki-67 LI (HR [Let:Tam] = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.15; interaction P = .09). Conclusion Ki-67 LI is confirmed as a prognostic factor in this study. High Ki-67 LI levels may identify a patient group that particularly benefits from initial Let adjuvant therapy. PMID:18981464

  5. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cassano, E; Rizzo, S; Bozzini, A; Menna, S; Bellomi, M

    2006-01-01

    The importance of ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of breast cancer has been widely demonstrated. During the last few years, the introduction of ultrasound contrast media has been considered a promising tool for studying the vascular pattern of focal lesions within the breast. Our purpose was to assess whether contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound examination, performed using specific contrast imaging modes, can be helpful for detection and characterization of breast lesions, and for prediction of the response of breast cancer to therapy. PMID:16478698

  6. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cassano, E; Rizzo, S; Bozzini, A; Menna, S; Bellomi, M

    2006-01-01

    The importance of ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of breast cancer has been widely demonstrated. During the last few years, the introduction of ultrasound contrast media has been considered a promising tool for studying the vascular pattern of focal lesions within the breast. Our purpose was to assess whether contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound examination, performed using specific contrast imaging modes, can be helpful for detection and characterization of breast lesions, and for prediction of the response of breast cancer to therapy. PMID:16478698

  7. Breast cancer risk in metabolically healthy but overweight postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Marc J; Xie, Xianhong; Xue, Xiaonan; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Rohan, Thomas E; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Ho, Gloria Y F; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Greco, Theresa; Yu, Herbert; Beasley, Jeannette; Strickler, Howard D

    2015-01-15

    Adiposity is an established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. Recent data suggest that high insulin levels in overweight women may play a major role in this relationship, due to insulin's mitogenic/antiapoptotic activity. However, whether overweight women who are metabolically healthy (i.e., normal insulin sensitivity) have elevated risk of breast cancer is unknown. We investigated whether overweight women with normal insulin sensitivity [i.e., homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, or fasting insulin level, within the lowest quartile (q1)] have increased breast cancer risk. Subjects were incident breast cancer cases (N = 497) and a subcohort (N = 2,830) of Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants with available fasting insulin and glucose levels. In multivariate Cox models, metabolically healthy overweight women, defined using HOMA-IR, were not at elevated risk of breast cancer compared with metabolically healthy normal weight women [HRHOMA-IR, 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-1.42]. In contrast, the risk among women with high (q3-4) HOMA-IRs was elevated whether they were overweight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.19-2.60) or normal weight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.80; 95% CI, 0.88-3.70). Similarly, using fasting insulin to define metabolic health, metabolically unhealthy women (insulin q3-4) were at higher risk of breast cancer regardless of whether they were normal weight (HRinsulin, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.01-4.22) or overweight (HRinsulin, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.35-2.99), whereas metabolically healthy overweight women did not have significantly increased risk of breast cancer (HRinsulin, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.64-1.42) relative to metabolically healthy normal weight women. Metabolic health (e.g., HOMA-IR or fasting insulin) may be more biologically relevant and more useful for breast cancer risk stratification than adiposity per se. PMID:25593034

  8. Breast cancer risk in metabolically healthy but overweight postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Marc J; Xie, Xianhong; Xue, Xiaonan; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Rohan, Thomas E; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Ho, Gloria Y F; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Greco, Theresa; Yu, Herbert; Beasley, Jeannette; Strickler, Howard D

    2015-01-15

    Adiposity is an established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. Recent data suggest that high insulin levels in overweight women may play a major role in this relationship, due to insulin's mitogenic/antiapoptotic activity. However, whether overweight women who are metabolically healthy (i.e., normal insulin sensitivity) have elevated risk of breast cancer is unknown. We investigated whether overweight women with normal insulin sensitivity [i.e., homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, or fasting insulin level, within the lowest quartile (q1)] have increased breast cancer risk. Subjects were incident breast cancer cases (N = 497) and a subcohort (N = 2,830) of Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants with available fasting insulin and glucose levels. In multivariate Cox models, metabolically healthy overweight women, defined using HOMA-IR, were not at elevated risk of breast cancer compared with metabolically healthy normal weight women [HRHOMA-IR, 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-1.42]. In contrast, the risk among women with high (q3-4) HOMA-IRs was elevated whether they were overweight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.19-2.60) or normal weight (HRHOMA-IR, 1.80; 95% CI, 0.88-3.70). Similarly, using fasting insulin to define metabolic health, metabolically unhealthy women (insulin q3-4) were at higher risk of breast cancer regardless of whether they were normal weight (HRinsulin, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.01-4.22) or overweight (HRinsulin, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.35-2.99), whereas metabolically healthy overweight women did not have significantly increased risk of breast cancer (HRinsulin, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.64-1.42) relative to metabolically healthy normal weight women. Metabolic health (e.g., HOMA-IR or fasting insulin) may be more biologically relevant and more useful for breast cancer risk stratification than adiposity per se.

  9. Psychooncologic Aspects of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Neises, Mechthild

    2008-01-01

    Summary Around one third of all patients reveal signs of stress disorder and adaptation difficulties following breast cancer or during the course of the illness, often manifested clinically as fear and depression. Supportive treatment should be made available to all patients in the form of psycho-educative group sessions introducing information and assistance to help overcome the illness. The indication for extensive treatment, e.g. psychotherapy, can be deduced from the somatopsychic disorders presented. Individual or group therapy will be offered to the patient corresponding to her diagnostics and motivation. The aim of therapy should be discussed openly with the patient, that is, an improvement in the quality of life and the possibility to overcome the situation. In general, the various intervention programmes have proved to be beneficial for patients with cancer. These include relaxation therapy and stress management as well as behavioural therapy and supportive psychotherapy. Patients have high expectations of the therapy offered and this should be taken into careful consideration by all physicians, psychologists and others responsible for administering treatment. The aim of this work is mainly to present the clinical experience gained in a breast centre. PMID:20824031

  10. Breast cancer risk after diagnosis by screening mammography of nonproliferative or proliferative benign breast disease: a study from a population-based screening program.

    PubMed

    Castells, Xavier; Domingo, Laia; Corominas, Josep María; Torá-Rocamora, Isabel; Quintana, María Jesús; Baré, Marisa; Vidal, Carmen; Natal, Carmen; Sánchez, Mar; Saladié, Francina; Ferrer, Joana; Vernet, Mar; Servitja, Sonia; Rodríguez-Arana, Ana; Roman, Marta; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Sala, María

    2015-01-01

    Benign breast disease increases the risk of breast cancer. This association has scarcely been evaluated in the context of breast cancer screening programs although it is a prevalent finding in mammography screening. We assessed the association of distinct categories of benign breast disease and subsequent risk of breast cancer, as well as the influence of a family history of breast cancer. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 545,171 women aged 50-69 years biennially screened for breast cancer in Spain. The median of follow-up was 6.1 years. The age-adjusted rate ratio (RR) of breast cancer for women with benign breast disease, histologically classified into nonproliferative and proliferative disease with and without atypia, compared with women without benign breast disease was estimated by Poisson regression analysis. A stratified analysis by family history of breast cancer was performed in a subsample. All tests were two-sided. The age-adjusted RR of breast cancer after diagnosis of benign breast disease was 2.51 (95 % CI: 2.14-2.93) compared with women without benign breast disease. The risk was higher in women with proliferative disease with atypia (RR = 4.56, 95 % CI: 2.06-10.07) followed by those with proliferative disease without atypia (RR = 3.58; 95 % CI = 2.61-4.91). Women with nonproliferative disease and without a family history of breast cancer remained also at increased risk of cancer (OR = 2.23, 95 % CI: 1.86-2.68). An increased risk of breast cancer was observed among screening participants with proliferative or nonproliferative benign breast disease, regardless of a family history of breast cancer. This information may be useful to explore risk-based screening strategies.

  11. Copper and zinc concentrations in Nigerian women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, G O

    2011-01-01

    Trace elements are accepted to be involved directly or indirectly in the process of cancer formation. In this study, serum selenium, copper and zinc were measured in three groups of patients using atomic absorption spectrometer. A total of 29 Nigerian women were included: group I consisted of nine age-matched healthy controls without breast problems; group 2 included nine women with benign breast disease; and group 3 was comprised of women with breast cancer. The serum concentration of copper (Cu) was significantly higher in patients with cancer when compared to the control group (1.43 +/- 0.31 microg/ml vs 0.91 +/- 0.18 microg/ul/0.94 +/- 0.10 microg/ml). The zinc (Zn) concentration was significantly lower in the breast cancer group than in the other two groups (0.74 +/- 0.21 microg/ml vs 1.14 +/- 0.31 ug/ml/1.11 +/- 0.29 microg/ml; p < 0.05). The study shows alteration in the concentration of copper and zinc in serum of patients with breast cancer, which may indicate abnormal copper and zinc metabolism in Nigerian females with breast cancer.

  12. Study of breast cancer incidence in patients of lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Olivier; Román, Antonio; Johnson, Simon R; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Hirose, Masaki; Casanova, Álvaro; de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Herranz, Carmen; Bueno-Moreno, Gema; Boni, Jacopo; Mateo, Francesca; Petit, Anna; Climent, Fina; Soler, Teresa; Vidal, August; Sánchez-Mut, José Vicente; Esteller, Manel; López, José Ignacio; García, Nadia; Gumà, Anna; Ortega, Raúl; Plà, María Jesús; Campos, Miriam; Ansótegui, Emilio; Molina-Molina, María; Valenzuela, Claudia; Ussetti, Piedad; Laporta, Rosalía; Ancochea, Julio; Xaubet, Antoni; Pollán, Marina; Pujana, Miguel Angel

    2016-02-01

    Molecular evidence has linked the pathophysiology of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) to that of metastatic breast cancer. Following on this observation, we assessed the association between LAM and subsequent breast cancer. An epidemiological study was carried out using three LAM country cohorts, from Japan, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The number of incident breast cancer cases observed in these cohorts was compared with the number expected on the basis of the country-specific incidence rates for the period 2000-2014. Immunohistochemical studies and exome sequence analysis were performed in two and one tumors, respectively. All cohorts revealed breast cancer standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) ≥ 2.25. The combined analysis of all cases or restricted to pre-menopausal age groups revealed significantly higher incidence of breast cancer: SIR = 2.81, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.32-5.57, P = 0.009; and SIR = 4.88, 95 % CI = 2.29-9.99, P = 0.0007, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses showed positivity for known markers of lung metastatic potential. This study suggests the existence of increased breast cancer risk among LAM patients. Prospective studies may be warranted to corroborate this result, which may be particularly relevant for pre-menopausal women with LAM. PMID:26951504

  13. Sequence analysis of mutations and translocations across breast cancer subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Banerji, Shantanu; Cibulskis, Kristian; Rangel-Escareno, Claudia; Brown, Kristin K.; Carter, Scott L.; Frederick, Abbie M.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Sivachenko, Andrey Y.; Sougnez, Carrie; Zou, Lihua; Cortes, Maria L.; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan C.; Peng, Shouyong; Ardlie, Kristin G.; Auclair, Daniel; Bautista-Piña, Veronica; Duke, Fujiko; Francis, Joshua; Jung, Joonil; Maffuz-Aziz, Antonio; Onofrio, Robert C.; Parkin, Melissa; Pho, Nam H.; Quintanar-Jurado, Valeria; Ramos, Alex H.; Rebollar-Vega, Rosa; Rodriguez-Cuevas, Sergio; Romero-Cordoba, Sandra L.; Schumacher, Steven E.; Stransky, Nicolas; Thompson, Kristin M.; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Baselga, Jose; Beroukhim, Rameen; Polyak, Kornelia; Sgroi, Dennis C.; Richardson, Andrea L.; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Lander, Eric S.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Garraway, Levi A.; Golub, Todd R.; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Toker, Alex; Getz, Gad; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Meyerson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Breast carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide with an estimated 1.38 million new cases and 458,000 deaths in 2008 alone1. This malignancy represents a heterogeneous group of tumours with characteristic molecular features, prognosis, and responses to available therapy2–4. Recurrent somatic alterations in breast cancer have been described including mutations and copy number alterations, notably ERBB2 amplifications, the first successful therapy target defined by a genomic aberration5. Prior DNA sequencing studies of breast cancer genomes have revealed additional candidate mutations and gene rearrangements 6–10. Here we report the whole-exome sequences of DNA from 103 human breast cancers of diverse subtypes from patients in Mexico and Vietnam compared to matched-normal DNA, together with whole-genome sequences of 22 breast cancer/normal pairs. Beyond confirming recurrent somatic mutations in PIK3CA11, TP536, AKT112, GATA313, and MAP3K110, we discovered recurrent mutations in the CBFB transcription factor gene and deletions of its partner RUNX1. Furthermore, we have identified a recurrent MAGI3-AKT3 fusion enriched in triple-negative breast cancer lacking estrogen and progesterone receptors and ERBB2 expression. The Magi3-Akt3 fusion leads to constitutive activation of Akt kinase, which is abolished by treatment with an ATP-competitive Akt small-molecule inhibitor. PMID:22722202

  14. Acetylation Enhances the Promoting Role of AIB1 in Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    You, Dingyun; Zhao, Hongbo; Wang, Yan; Jiao, Yang; Lu, Minnan; Yan, Shan

    2016-01-01

    The oncogene nuclear receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) is a transcriptional coactivator, which is overexpressed in various types of human cancers, including breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating AIB1 function remain largely unknown. In this study, we present evidence demonstrating that AIB1 is acetylated by MOF in human breast cancer cells. Moreover, we also found that the acetylation of AIB1 enhances its function in promoting breast cancer cell proliferation. We further showed that the acetylation of AIB1 is required for its recruitment to E2F1 target genes by E2F1. More importantly, we found that the acetylation levels of AIB1 are greatly elevated in human breast cancer cells compared with that in non-cancerous cells. Collectively, our results shed light on the molecular mechanisms that regulate AIB1 function in breast cancer. PMID:27665502

  15. Adjuvant therapy in breast cancer and venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Mandalà, Mario; Tondini, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    Breast cancer patients are considered to be at relatively low risk of developing a TEE. The highest incidence of VTE events occurs in metastatic breast cancer patients likely due to extension of disease, immobility for pathologic bone fractures, cancer cachexia and venous compression by the tumour mass. Although thrombosis is less common in patients with early stage cancer compared to those with more advanced disease, it does occur and is clinically challenging. The adjuvant setting is of particular interest in order to assess the specific thrombogenic potential of systemic chemotherapy, because of the low tumor burden with only microscopic tumor foci at the time of treatment administration. This review summarizes risk factors, incidence and strategies to avoid VTE in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant therapy.

  16. Can we improve breast cancer mortality in Okinawa? Consensus of the 7th Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Kentaro; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Kamada, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Kano; Zaha, Hisamitsu; Onomura, Mai; Ueda, Makoto; Kurashita, Kaname; Miyazato, Keiko; Higa, Junko; Miyara, Kyuichiro; Shiraishi, Makiko; Murayama, Shigemi; Ishida, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    The rate of breast cancer mortality in Okinawa has gradually been increasing up to 2010. Now Okinawa has the second worst mortality rate in Japan, in part due to the enormous dietary changes resulting from the post-World War II US military occupation, high incidence of obesity, high non-optimal treatment rate, and low breast-cancer screening rate. To reduce breast cancer mortality in Okinawa, we established the Okinawa Breast Oncology Meeting (OBOM) in 2012. At the 7th OBOM held on January 10th, 2014, we discussed the breast cancer mortality in Okinawa focusing on lifestyle, breast cancer screening and optimal treatments. The Okinawan women who were overweight and/or obese during premenopausal and postmenopausal ages had a statistically significant higher risk of breast cancer development compared to those with non-overweight and/or obese women. The traditional diet of Okinawa consists of foods low in calories but rich in nutritional value. Therefore, we recommend Okinawan people not to forget the Okinawan traditional lifestyle, and to reduce their bodyweight to prevent breast cancer. One of the main goals of the OBOM is to raise breast cancer screening attendance rates to 50% (29.2% in 2010). We should standardize the quality control for breast cancer screening in Okinawa. It is important to continue enlightening the Okinawan population to receive optimal treatment. In addition, we are striving to establish systematic medical cooperation between the hospitals specializing in breast cancer treatment with rural hospitals. The OBOM group endeavors to contribute to the improvement of breast cancer mortality in Okinawa.

  17. Five-year results of a randomized clinical trial comparing total mastectomy and segmental mastectomy with or without radiation in the treatment of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, B.; Bauer, M.; Margolese, R.; Poisson, R.; Pilch, Y.; Redmond, C.; Fisher, E.; Wolmark, N.; Deutsch, M.; Montague, E.

    1985-03-14

    In 1976 the authors began a randomized trial to evaluate breast conservation by a segmental mastectomy in the treatment of State I and II breast tumors less than or equal to 4 cm in size. The operation removes only sufficient tissue to ensure that margins of resected specimens are free of tumor. Women were randomly assigned to total mastectomy, segmental mastectomy alone, or segmental mastectomy followed by breast irradiation. All patients had auxillary dissections, and patients with positive nodes received chemotherapy. Life-tables estimates based on data from 1843 women indicated that treatment by segmental mastectomy, with or without breast irradiation, resulted in disease-free, distant-disease-free, and overall survival at five years that was no worse than that after total breast removal. In fact, disease-free survival after segmental mastectomy plus radiation was better than disease-free survival after total mastectomy, and overall survival after segmental mastectomy, with or without radiation, was better than overall survival after total mastectomy. A total of 92.3% of women treated with radiation remained free of breast tumor at five years, as compared with 72.1% of those receiving no radiation. Among patients with positive nodes 97.9% of women treated with radiation and 63.8% of those receiving no radiation remained tumor-free, although both groups received chemotherapy. They conclude that segmental mastectomy, followed by breast irradiation in all patients and adjuvant chemotherapy in women with positive nodes, is appropriate therapy for Stage I and II breast tumors less than or equal to 4 cm, provided that margins of resected specimens are free of tumor. 23 references, 4 figures, 6 tables.

  18. Multimodal optical imaging for detecting breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Rakesh; Khan, Ashraf; Wirth, Dennis; Kamionek, Michal; Kandil, Dina; Quinlan, Robert; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2012-06-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate wide-field and high-resolution multimodal optical imaging, including polarization, reflectance, and fluorescence for the intraoperative detection of breast cancer. Lumpectomy specimens were stained with 0.05 mg/ml aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB) and imaged. Wide-field reflectance images were acquired between 390 and 750 nm. Wide-field fluorescence images were excited at 640 nm and registered between 660 and 750 nm. High resolution confocal reflectance and fluorescence images were excited at 642 nm. Confocal fluorescence images were acquired between 670 nm and 710 nm. After imaging, the specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology. Histological slides were compared with wide-field and high-resolution optical images to evaluate correlation of tumor boundaries and cellular morphology, respectively. Fluorescence polarization imaging identified the location, size, and shape of the tumor in all the cases investigated. Averaged fluorescence polarization values of tumor were higher as compared to normal tissue. Statistical analysis confirmed the significance of these differences. Fluorescence confocal imaging enabled cellular-level resolution. Evaluation and statistical analysis of MB fluorescence polarization values registered from single tumor and normal cells demonstrated higher fluorescence polarization from cancer. Wide-field high-resolution fluorescence and fluorescence polarization imaging shows promise for intraoperative delineation of breast cancers.

  19. Brain metastases free survival differs between breast cancer subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Berghoff, A; Bago-Horvath, Z; De Vries, C; Dubsky, P; Pluschnig, U; Rudas, M; Rottenfusser, A; Knauer, M; Eiter, H; Fitzal, F; Dieckmann, K; Mader, R M; Gnant, M; Zielinski, C C; Steger, G G; Preusser, M; Bartsch, R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Brain metastases (BM) are frequently diagnosed in patients with HER-2-positive metastatic breast cancer; in addition, an increasing incidence was reported for triple-negative tumours. We aimed to compare brain metastases free survival (BMFS) of breast cancer subtypes in patients treated between 1996 until 2010. Methods: Brain metastases free survival was measured as the interval from diagnosis of extracranial breast cancer metastases until diagnosis of BM. HER-2 status was analysed by immunohistochemistry and reanalysed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation if a score of 2+ was gained. Oestrogen-receptor (ER) and progesterone-receptor (PgR) status was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Brain metastases free survival curves were estimated with the Kaplan–Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Results: Data of 213 patients (46 luminal/124 HER-2/43 triple-negative subtype) with BM from breast cancer were available for the analysis. Brain metastases free survival differed significantly between breast cancer subtypes. Median BMFS in triple-negative tumours was 14 months (95% CI: 11.34–16.66) compared with 18 months (95% CI: 14.46–21.54) in HER-2-positive tumours (P=0.001) and 34 months (95% CI: 23.71–44.29) in luminal tumours (P=0.001), respectively. In HER-2-positive patients, co-positivity for ER and HER-2 prolonged BMFS (26 vs 15 m; P=0.033); in luminal tumours, co-expression of ER and PgR was not significantly associated with BMFS. Brain metastases free survival in patients with lung metastases was significantly shorter (17 vs 21 months; P=0.014). Conclusion: Brain metastases free survival in triple-negative breast cancer, as well as in HER-2-positive/ER-negative, is significantly shorter compared with HER-2/ER co-positive or luminal tumours, mirroring the aggressiveness of these breast cancer subtypes. PMID:22233926

  20. Chemotherapy With or Without Trastuzumab After Surgery in Treating Women With Invasive Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-04

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Positive; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  1. 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase associates with poor prognosis in breast cancer, induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and promotes cell migration in cultured breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, Laura; Vainio, Paula; Wikman, Harriet; Reemts, Johannes; Hilvo, Mika; Issa, Rana; Pollari, Sirkku; Brandt, Burkhard; Oresic, Matej; Pantel, Klaus; Kallioniemi, Olli; Iljin, Kristiina

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. The prognosis of breast cancer is tightly correlated with the degree of spread beyond the primary tumour. Arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) are known to regulate tumour metastasis enabling epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the detailed role of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD), the key enzyme degrading prostaglandin E(2) , remains unclear in breast cancer. Here, we show that HPGD mRNA is overexpressed in a subset of clinical breast cancers compared to normal breast tissue samples and that high HPGD mRNA expression associates with poor prognosis. Immunohistochemical staining of primary breast cancer and lymph node metastasis tissue samples confirmed high HPGD protein expression in 20% of the samples, as well as associated HPGD expression with aggressive characteristics, such as increased risk of disease relapse and shorter disease-free survival. Results from cultured cells indicated abundant HPGD expression in highly metastatic breast cancer cells, and impairment of HPGD expression using RNA interference led to a significant decrease in transforming growth factor-β signalling, in cellular arachidonic acid levels as well as in cell migration. Furthermore, gene expression microarray analysis followed by quantitative RT-PCR validation showed that HPGD silencing decreased aryl hydrocarbon receptor signalling and induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition. In conclusion, our results indicate that HPGD is highly expressed in metastatic and aggressive breast cancer and promotes EMT and migration in breast cancer cells. PMID:22072156

  2. Effectiveness of an Ongoing, Community-Based Breast Cancer Prevention Program for Korean American Women.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun; Choi, Ga-Young; Cho, Ji Young

    2016-02-01

    The study evaluates the effectiveness of an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program offered by a local social services agency in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Korean American women who participated in this breast cancer prevention program were compared with those who did not participate in their knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors. The study found that the intervention group was more knowledgeable on breast cancer and related services and reported more positive attitudes toward breast cancer screening services than the comparison group. The participants in the intervention group were also more likely to plan to receive a mammogram than those in the comparison group. However, significant differences were not observed in the two groups in their intention to receive a clinical breast examination. The study findings suggest that an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program can be an effective method of addressing breast cancer prevention disparities observed among Korean American women. PMID:26946886

  3. Affinity of estrogens for human progesterone receptor A and B monomers and risk of breast cancer: a comparative molecular modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Tarique N; B, Leena Grace; Masoodi, Tariq A; Shafi, Gowhar; Alshatwi, Ali A.; Sivashanmugham, P

    2011-01-01

    Background The human progesterone receptor (hPR) belongs to the steroid receptor family. It may be found as monomers (A and B) and or as a dimer (AB). hPR is regarded as the prognostic biomarker for breast cancer. In a cellular dimer system, AB is the dominant species in most cases. However, when a cell coexpresses all three isoforms of hPR, the complexity of the action of this receptor increases. For example, hPR A suppresses the activity of hPR B, and the ratio of hPR A to hPR B may determine the physiology of a breast tumor. Also, persistent exposure of hPRs to nonendogenous ligands is a common risk factor for breast cancer. Hence we aimed to study progesterone and some nonendogenous ligand interactions with hPRs and their molecular docking. Methods and results A pool of steroid derivatives, namely, progesterone, cholesterol, testosterone, testolectone, estradiol, estrone, norethindrone, exemestane, and norgestrel, was used for this in silico study. Dockings were performed on AutoDock 4.2. We found that estrogens, including estradiol and estrone, had a higher affinity for hPR A and B monomers in comparison with the dimer, hPR AB, and that of the endogenous progesterone ligand. hPR A had a higher affinity to all the docked ligands than hPR B. Conclusion This study suggests that the exposure of estrogens to hPR A as well as hPR B, and more particularly to hPR A alone, is a risk factor for breast cancer. PMID:21918635

  4. Nuclear HIF1A expression is strongly prognostic in sporadic but not familial male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Deb, Siddhartha; Johansson, Ida; Byrne, David; Nilsson, Cecilia; Investigators, kConFab; Constable, Leonie; Fjällskog, Marie-Louise; Dobrovic, Alexander; Hedenfalk, Ingrid; Fox, Stephen B

    2014-09-01

    Male breast cancer is poorly understood with a large proportion arising in the familial context particularly with the BRCA2 germline mutation. As phenotypic and genotypic differences between sporadic and familial male breast cancers have been noted, we investigated the importance of a hypoxic drive in these cancers as this pathway has been shown to be of importance in familial female breast cancer. Expression of two major hypoxia-induced proteins, the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1A) and the carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), examined within a large cohort including 61 familial (3 BRCA1, 28 BRCA2, 30 BRCAX) and 225 sporadic male breast cancers showed that 31% of all male breast cancers expressed either HIF1A (25%) and/or CA9 (8%) in the combined cohort. Expression of HIF1A correlated with an increased incidence of a second-major malignancy (P=0.04), histological tumor type (P=0.005) and basal phenotype (P=0.02). Expression of CA9 correlated with age (P=0.004) in sporadic cases and an increased tumor size (P=0.003). Expression of HIF1A was prognostic for disease-specific survival in sporadic male breast cancers (HR: 3.8, 95% CI: 1.5-9.8, P=0.006) but not within familial male breast cancer, whereas CA9 was only prognostic in familial male breast cancers (HR: 358.0, 95% CI: 9.3-13781.7, P=0.002) and not in sporadic male breast cancer. This study found that hypoxic drive is less prevalent in male breast cancer compared with female breast cancer, possibly due to a different breast microenvironment. The prognostic impact of HIF1A is greatest in sporadic male breast cancers with an alternate dominant mechanism for the oncogenic drivers suggested in high risk familial male breast cancers.

  5. Evolution of breast cancer therapeutics: Breast tumour kinase's role in breast cancer and hope for breast tumour kinase targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Haroon A; Harvey, Amanda J

    2014-08-10

    There have been significant improvements in the detection and treatment of breast cancer in recent decades. However, there is still a need to develop more effective therapeutic techniques that are patient specific with reduced toxicity leading to further increases in patients' overall survival; the ongoing progress in understanding recurrence, resistant and spread also needs to be maintained. Better understanding of breast cancer pathology, molecular biology and progression as well as identification of some of the underlying factors involved in breast cancer tumourgenesis and metastasis has led to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Over a number of years interest has risen in breast tumour kinase (Brk) also known as protein tyrosine kinase 6; the research field has grown and Brk has been described as a desirable therapeutic target in relation to tyrosine kinase inhibition as well as disruption of its kinase independent activity. This review will outline the current "state of play" with respect to targeted therapy for breast cancer, as well as discussing Brk's role in the processes underlying tumour development and metastasis and its potential as a therapeutic target in breast cancer.

  6. Vehicular Traffic–Related Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Breast Cancer Incidence: The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP)

    PubMed Central

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Beyea, Jan; Herring, Amy H.; Hatch, Maureen; Stellman, Steven D.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Richardson, David B.; Millikan, Robert C.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Steck, Susan E.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Rossner, Pavel; Santella, Regina M.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants, known human lung carcinogens, and potent mammary carcinogens in laboratory animals. However, the association between PAHs and breast cancer in women is unclear. Vehicular traffic is a major ambient source of PAH exposure. Objectives Our study aim was to evaluate the association between residential exposure to vehicular traffic and breast cancer incidence. Methods Residential histories of 1,508 participants with breast cancer (case participants) and 1,556 particpants with no breast cancer (control participants) were assessed in a population-based investigation conducted in 1996–1997. Traffic exposure estimates of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), as a proxy for traffic-related PAHs, for the years 1960–1995 were reconstructed using a model previously shown to generate estimates consistent with measured soil PAHs, PAH–DNA adducts, and CO readings. Associations between vehicular traffic exposure estimates and breast cancer incidence were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression. Results The odds ratio (95% CI) was modestly elevated by 1.44 (0.78, 2.68) for the association between breast cancer and long-term 1960–1990 vehicular traffic estimates in the top 5%, compared with below the median. The association with recent 1995 traffic exposure was elevated by 1.14 (0.80, 1.64) for the top 5%, compared with below the median, which was stronger among women with low fruit/vegetable intake [1.46 (0.89, 2.40)], but not among those with high fruit/vegetable intake [0.92 (0.53, 1.60)]. Among the subset of women with information regarding traffic exposure and tumor hormone receptor subtype, the traffic–breast cancer association was higher for those with estrogen/progesterone-negative tumors [1.67 (0.91, 3.05) relative to control participants], but lower among all other tumor subtypes [0.80 (0.50, 1.27) compared with control participants]. Conclusions In our population-based study

  7. Comparative cytotoxicity of artemisinin and cisplatin and their interactions with chlorogenic acids in MCF7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Suberu, John O; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Sullivan, Neil; Lapkin, Alexei A; Barker, Guy C

    2014-12-01

    In parts of Africa and Asia, self-medication with a hot water infusion of Artemisia annua (Artemisia tea) is a common practice for a number of ailments including malaria and cancer. In our earlier work, such an extract showed better potency than artemisinin alone against both chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant parasites. In this study, in vitro tests of the infusion in MCF7 cells showed high IC50 values (>200 μM). The combination of artemisinin and 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3CA), two major components in the extract, was strongly antagonistic and gave a near total loss of cytotoxicity for artemisinin. We observed that the interaction of 3CAs with another cytotoxic compound, cisplatin, showed potentiation of activity by 2.5-fold. The chelation of cellular iron by 3CA is hypothesized as a possible explanation for the loss of artemisinin activity.

  8. Comparative Cytotoxicity of Artemisinin and Cisplatin and Their Interactions with Chlorogenic Acids in MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Suberu, John O; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Sullivan, Neil; Lapkin, Alexei A; Barker, Guy C

    2014-01-01

    In parts of Africa and Asia, self-medication with a hot water infusion of Artemisia annua (Artemisia tea) is a common practice for a number of ailments including malaria and cancer. In our earlier work, such an extract showed better potency than artemisinin alone against both chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant parasites. In this study, in vitro tests of the infusion in MCF7 cells showed high IC50 values (>200 μm). The combination of artemisinin and 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3CA), two major components in the extract, was strongly antagonistic and gave a near total loss of cytotoxicity for artemisinin. We observed that the interaction of 3CAs with another cytotoxic compound, cisplatin, showed potentiation of activity by 2.5-fold. The chelation of cellular iron by 3CA is hypothesized as a possible explanation for the loss of artemisinin activity. PMID:25209896

  9. Comparative cytotoxicity of artemisinin and cisplatin and their interactions with chlorogenic acids in MCF7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Suberu, John O; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Sullivan, Neil; Lapkin, Alexei A; Barker, Guy C

    2014-12-01

    In parts of Africa and Asia, self-medication with a hot water infusion of Artemisia annua (Artemisia tea) is a common practice for a number of ailments including malaria and cancer. In our earlier work, such an extract showed better potency than artemisinin alone against both chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant parasites. In this study, in vitro tests of the infusion in MCF7 cells showed high IC50 values (>200 μM). The combination of artemisinin and 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3CA), two major components in the extract, was strongly antagonistic and gave a near total loss of cytotoxicity for artemisinin. We observed that the interaction of 3CAs with another cytotoxic compound, cisplatin, showed potentiation of activity by 2.5-fold. The chelation of cellular iron by 3CA is hypothesized as a possible explanation for the loss of artemisinin activity. PMID:25209896

  10. β-Blockers Reduce Breast Cancer Recurrence and Breast Cancer Death: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Childers, W Kurtis; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Cheriyath, Pramil

    2015-12-01

    The normal physiologic stress mechanism, mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, causes a release of the neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine. Preclinical data have demonstrated an effect on tumor progression and metastasis via the sympathetic nervous system mediated primarily through the β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) pathway. In vitro data have shown an increase in tumor growth, migration, tumor angiogenesis, and metastatic spread in breast cancer through activation of the β-AR. Retrospective cohort studies on the clinical outcomes of β-blockers in breast cancer outcomes showed no clear consensus. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of β-blockers on breast cancer outcomes. A systematic review was performed using the Cochrane library and PubMed. Publications between the dates of January 2010 and December 2013 were identified. Available hazard ratios (HRs) were extracted for breast cancer recurrence, breast cancer death, and all-cause mortality and pooled using a random effects meta-analysis. A total of 7 studies contained results for at least 1 of the outcomes of breast cancer recurrence, breast cancer death, or all-cause mortality in breast cancer patients receiving β-blockers. In the 5 studies that contained results for breast cancer recurrence, there was no statistically significant risk reduction (HR, 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-1.13). Breast cancer death results were contained in 4 studies, which also suggested a significant reduction in risk (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32-0.80). Among the 4 studies that reported all-cause mortality, there was no significant effect of β-blockers on risk (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.75-1.37). Results of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that the use of β-blockers significantly reduced risk of breast cancer death among women with breast cancer. PMID:26516037

  11. [Adjuvant drug therapies for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Huovinen, Riikka; Auvinen, Päivi; Mattson, Johanna; Joensuu, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Most breast cancers are hormone receptor positive and exhibit a slow growth pattern. Based on biological properties, breast cancers are divided into four different biological subtypes. Furthermore, these subtypes are indicative of the risk of recurrence, which is also influenced by the size of the tumor and extension to lymph nodes. Postoperative adjuvant drug therapy is chosen on the basis of the biological type. Chemotherapy can be used in all subtypes. Hormonal therapies are used exclusively for the treatment of hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Trastuzumab antibody belongs to the treatment of the HER2 positive subtype. PMID:26245052

  12. Breast cancer: agenda setting through activism.

    PubMed

    Brendtro, M J

    1998-01-01

    Breast cancer has long been one of the leading causes of death among women in the United States. The disease did not gain serious attention in the public policy arena, however, until the 1990s. Using Kingdon's agenda-setting model as a framework, this article describes how breast cancer moved to a place of prominence on the national health care agenda. The role of breast cancer activists in this effort is examined. Suggestions are then made concerning why and how advanced practice nurses might effectively influence the health policy agenda through political activism. PMID:9874938

  13. [Screening for cervical and breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Wilm, J; Schüler-Toprak, S; Ortmann, O

    2016-09-01

    Screening programs for cervical cancer and breast cancer lead to a clear reduction of mortality. Starting in 2018 screening for cervical cancer will be structured as an organized program as already exists for breast cancer. In future screening for cervical cancer will be primarily performed by human papillomavirus (HPV) testing at intervals of 5 years while cytological examination (Pap smear) will also be available as an additional or alternative procedure. For breast cancer screening in Germany an annual clinical examination with palpation and mammography screening at 2‑year intervals is provided for women aged between 50 and 69 years. In Germany only approximately 50 % of invited women have used the opportunity to participate in screening in recent years. Weighing the benefits against the harms of cancer screening programs is always important in the process of evaluation of different strategies. PMID:27577734

  14. Comparing Effects in Regular Practice of E-Communication and Web-Based Self-Management Support Among Breast Cancer Patients: Preliminary Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Børøsund, Elin; Cvancarova, Milada; Moore, Shirley M; Ekstedt, Mirjam

    2014-01-01

    Background While Web-based interventions have been shown to assist a wide range of patients successfully in managing their illness, few studies have examined the relative contribution of different Web-based components to improve outcomes. Further efficacy trials are needed to test the effects of Web support when offered as a part of routine care. Objective Our aim was to compare in regular care the effects of (1) an Internet-based patient provider communication service (IPPC), (2) WebChoice, a Web-based illness management system for breast cancer patients (IPPC included), and (3) usual care on symptom distress, anxiety, depression, (primary outcomes), and self-efficacy (secondary outcome). This study reports preliminary findings from 6 months’ follow-up data in a 12-month trial. Methods We recruited 167 patients recently diagnosed with breast cancer and undergoing treatment from three Norwegian hospitals. The nurse-administered IPPC allowed patients to send secure e-messages to and receive e-messages from health care personnel at the hospital where they were treated. In addition to the IPPC, WebChoice contains components for symptom monitoring, tailored information and self-management support, a diary, and communication with other patients. A total of 20 care providers (11 nurses, 6 physicians, and 3 social workers) were trained to answer questions from patients. Outcomes were measured with questionnaires at study entry and at study months 2, 4, and 6. Linear mixed models for repeated measures were fitted to compare effects on outcomes over time. Results Patients were randomly assigned to the WebChoice group (n=64), the IPPC group (n=45), or the usual care group (n=58). Response rates to questionnaires were 73.7% (123/167) at 2 months, 65.9 (110/167) at 4 months, and 62.3% (104/167) at 6 months. Attrition was similar in all study groups. Among those with access to WebChoice, 64% (41/64) logged on more than once and 39% (25/64) sent e-messages to care providers

  15. History of Recreational Physical Activity and Survival After Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yani; John, Esther M.; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Vigen, Cheryl; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Caan, Bette J.; Lee, Valerie S.; Roh, Janise M.; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Kurian, Allison W.; Monroe, Kristine R.; Cheng, Iona; Sposto, Richard; Wu, Anna H.; Bernstein, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that prediagnosis physical activity is associated with survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer. However, few data exist for racial/ethnic groups other than non-Latina whites. To examine the association between prediagnosis recreational physical activity and mortality by race/ethnicity, we pooled data from the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium for 3 population-based case-control studies of breast cancer patients (n = 4,608) diagnosed from 1994 to 2002 and followed up through 2010. Cox proportional hazards models provided estimates of the relative hazard ratio for mortality from all causes, breast cancer, and causes other than breast cancer associated with recent recreational physical activity (i.e., in the 10 years before diagnosis). Among 1,347 ascertained deaths, 826 (61%) were from breast cancer. Compared with women with the lowest level of recent recreational physical activity, those with the highest level had a marginally decreased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.76, 1.01) and a statistically significant decreased risk of mortality from causes other than breast cancer (hazard ratio = 0.63, 95% confidence interval: 0.49, 0.80), and particularly from cardiovascular disease. No association was observed for breast cancer–specific mortality. These risk patterns did not differ by race/ethnicity (non-Latina white, African American, Latina, and Asian American). Our findings suggest that physical activity is beneficial for overall survival regardless of race/ethnicity. PMID:25925388

  16. More Evidence Tamoxifen, Other Meds Help Limit Breast Cancer's Spread

    MedlinePlus

    ... html More Evidence Tamoxifen, Other Meds Help Limit Breast Cancer's Spread 6-year study finds follow-up therapy ... class of drugs called aromatase inhibitors does cut breast cancer patients' risk of developing cancer in their other ...

  17. 3 Lifestyle Changes to Help Prevent Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 161308.html 3 Lifestyle Changes To Help Prevent Breast Cancer Healthy weight, regular exercise and less alcohol could ... 2016 TUESDAY, Oct. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Although breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer ...

  18. More Breast Cancer Patients Should Consider Radiation, New Guidelines Say

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161083.html More Breast Cancer Patients Should Consider Radiation, New Guidelines Say Mastectomy ... by three leading cancer organizations suggest that more breast cancer patients should consider radiation therapy after a mastectomy. ...

  19. Bone Drugs Linked to Fewer Cases of Breast Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    A new analysis from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) study has found that the use of drugs called bisphosphonates, which are taken to improve bone health, was associated with a nearly 33 percent reduction in the incidence of invasive breast cancer compared with women who did not take the drugs. Although preliminary, the findings raise the possibility that this commonly used class of drugs may have a role in preventing breast cancer, researchers said at the 2009 CTRC-AACR San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. |

  20. Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-06-01

    Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p<0.001 for all variables except for PT; p=0.08). Elderly age (>50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.