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Sample records for breast cancer target

  1. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Mu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various metastatic traits that contribute to the metastasis cascade of breast cancer, which may provide novel avenues for therapeutic targeting. PMID:26380552

  2. Targeting Breast Cancer Vasculature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Marra, M.A., Prange, C., Morin, P.J., Polyak , K., et al. (1999). A publicAmer, M.H. (1982). Chemotherapy and pattern of metastases in breast can...8217n8 Ftts tm. 492, 7177 3 Abdel-Ghant M. ?l dl. (1993) Trun@ted dip+lidyi peptidaa lv is a prteni dti-adhesion md anti-mebslasis pcptide for rat hread

  3. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0359 TITLE: Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Sarat Chandarlapaty CONTRACTING...31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0359 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...mutations found in breast cancer using both structural and cell based assays. We have now have evidence for the effects of the most recurrent

  4. Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    den Hollander, Petra; Savage, Michelle I.; Brown, Powel H.

    2013-01-01

    With a better understanding of the etiology of breast cancer, molecularly targeted drugs have been developed and are being testing for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Targeted drugs that inhibit the estrogen receptor (ER) or estrogen-activated pathways include the selective ER modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and lasofoxifene) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane) have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies. Tamoxifen and raloxifene have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer and promising results of AIs in breast cancer trials, suggest that AIs might be even more effective in the prevention of ER-positive breast cancer. However, these agents only prevent ER-positive breast cancer. Therefore, current research is focused on identifying preventive therapies for other forms of breast cancer such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, breast cancer that does express ER, progesterone receptor, or HER2). HER2-positive breast cancers are currently treated with anti-HER2 therapies including trastuzumab and lapatinib, and preclinical and clinical studies are now being conducted to test these drugs for the prevention of HER2-positive breast cancers. Several promising agents currently being tested in cancer prevention trials for the prevention of TNBC include poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, vitamin D, and rexinoids, both of which activate nuclear hormone receptors (the vitamin D and retinoid X receptors). This review discusses currently used breast cancer preventive drugs, and describes the progress of research striving to identify and develop more effective preventive agents for all forms of breast cancer. PMID:24069582

  5. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0359 TITLE: Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Sarat Chandarlapaty CONTRACTING...ORGANIZATION: Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research New York, NY 10065 REPORT DATE: September 2015 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual Technical Report...31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0359 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  6. Cripto: A Target for Breast Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-01-1-0165 TITLE: Cripto: A, Target for Breast Cancer Treatment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Eileen D. Adamson, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...CONTRACT NUMBER Cripto: A Target for Breast Cancer Treatment 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-01-1-0165 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Target for Breast Cancer Treatment " As reported fully in June 2004, the IDEA grant was not successful in the original mission of finding a peptide that

  7. Targeted Gene Therapy for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-01

    AD AWARD NUMBER DAMD17-97-1-7232 TITLE: Targeted Gene Therapy for Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jinha M. Park CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...FUNDING NUMBERS Targeted Gene Therapy for Breast Cancer DAMD17-97-1-7232 6. AUTHOR(S) Jinha M. Park 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8...of surface mAb has been internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis. These mAbs show promise in the specific delivery of gene therapy vectors

  8. Targeting SH2 domains in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Morlacchi, Pietro; Robertson, Fredika M; Klostergaard, Jim; McMurray, John S

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is among the most commonly diagnosed cancer types in women worldwide and is the second leading cause of cancer-related disease in the USA. SH2 domains recruit signaling proteins to phosphotyrosine residues on aberrantly activated growth factor and cytokine receptors and contribute to cancer cell cycling, metastasis, angiogenesis and so on. Herein we review phosphopeptide mimetic and small-molecule approaches targeting the SH2 domains of Grb2, Grb7 and STAT3 that inhibit their targets and reduce proliferation in in vitro breast cancer models. Only STAT3 inhibitors have been evaluated in in vivo models and have led to tumor reduction. Taken together, these studies suggest that targeting SH2 domains is an important approach to the treatment of breast cancer.

  9. Targeting Androgen Receptor in Breast Cancer: Enzalutamide as a Novel Breast Cancer Therapeutic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0091 TITLE: Targeting Androgen Receptor in Breast Cancer : Enzalutamide as a Novel Breast Cancer Therapeutic PRINCIPAL...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Androgen Receptor in Breast Cancer : Enzalutamide as a Novel Breast Cancer Therapeutic 5b...activity in breast cancer as a single agent and in combination with exemestane. Activity is seen in both triple negative AR+ BC and also ER+AR+ BC

  10. Targeting Energy Metabolic Pathways as Therapeutic Intervention for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Intervention for Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yan Cheng, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Pennsylvania State University...Targeting Energy Metabolic Pathways as Therapeutic Intervention for Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0649 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...causes of cancer mortality in women. Current therapies for breast cancer mainly target molecular signaling pathways that promote tumor cell

  11. Chemokines: novel targets for breast cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Simi; Lazennec, Gwendal

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the possible involvement of chemokines and their receptors in breast cancer progression and metastasis. Chemokines and their receptors constitute a superfamily of signalling factors whose prognosis value in breast cancer progression remains unclear. We will examine here the expression pattern of chemokines and their receptors in mammary gland physiology and carcinogenesis. The nature of the cells producing chemokines or harboring chemokine receptors appears to be crucial in certain conditions for example, the infiltration of the primary tumor by leukocytes and angiogenesis. In addition, chemokines, their receptors and the interaction with glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) are key players in the homing of cancer cells to distant metastasis sites. Several lines of evidence, including in vitro and in vivo models, suggest that the mechanism of action of chemokines in cancer development involves the modulation of proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, leukocyte recruitment or angiogenesis. Furthermore, we will discuss the regulation of chemokine network in tumor neovascularity by decoy receptors. The reasons accounting for the deregulation of chemokines and chemokine receptors expression in breast cancer are certainly crucial for the comprehension of chemokine role in breast cancer and are in several cases linked to estrogen receptor status. The targeting of chemokines and chemokine receptors by antibodies, small molecule antagonists, viral chemokine binding proteins and heparins appears as promising tracks to develop therapeutic strategies. Thus there is significant interest in developing strategies to antagonize the chemokine function, and an opportunity to interfere with metastasis, the leading cause of death in most patients. PMID:17717637

  12. Promising molecular targeted therapies in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Munagala, Radha; Aqil, Farrukh; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant improvement in the understanding of molecular events and critical pathways involved in breast cancer. This has led to the identification of novel targets and development of anticancer therapies referred to as targeted therapy. Targeted therapy has high specificity for the molecules involved in key molecular events that are responsible for cancer phenotype such as cell growth, survival, migration, invasion, metastasis, apoptosis, cell-cycle progression, and angiogenesis. Targeted agents that have been approved for breast cancer include trastuzumab and lapatinib, directed against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and bevacizumab, directed against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Several other targeted agents currently under evaluation in preclinical and clinical trials include inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), dual EGFR and HER2 inhibitors, VEGF/VEGFR inhibitors, and agents that interfere with crucial signaling pathways such as PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAS/MEK/ERK; agents against other tyrosine kinases such as Src, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/IGF-receptor (IGFR); agents that promote apoptosis such as Poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors; agents that target invasion and metastasis such as matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors and others. In this review, we highlight the most promising targeted agents and their combination with mainstream chemotherapeutic drugs in clinical trials. PMID:21713084

  13. Promising molecular targeted therapies in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Munagala, Radha; Aqil, Farrukh; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant improvement in the understanding of molecular events and critical pathways involved in breast cancer. This has led to the identification of novel targets and development of anticancer therapies referred to as targeted therapy. Targeted therapy has high specificity for the molecules involved in key molecular events that are responsible for cancer phenotype such as cell growth, survival, migration, invasion, metastasis, apoptosis, cell-cycle progression, and angiogenesis. Targeted agents that have been approved for breast cancer include trastuzumab and lapatinib, directed against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and bevacizumab, directed against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Several other targeted agents currently under evaluation in preclinical and clinical trials include inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), dual EGFR and HER2 inhibitors, VEGF/VEGFR inhibitors, and agents that interfere with crucial signaling pathways such as PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAS/MEK/ERK; agents against other tyrosine kinases such as Src, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/IGF-receptor (IGFR); agents that promote apoptosis such as Poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors; agents that target invasion and metastasis such as matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors and others. In this review, we highlight the most promising targeted agents and their combination with mainstream chemotherapeutic drugs in clinical trials.

  14. Targeting Breast Cancer Stem Cells In Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    breast cancer (TNBC) and drug resistance. We hypothesize that obesity effects on TNBC occur via leptin -signaling stimulation of breast cancer stem...human TNBC cell lines treated with leptin , and novel leptin receptor inhibitor bound to nanoparticles (IONPs-LPrA) alone, and combined with cisplatin...a chemotherapeutic) and Sunitinib (an inhibitor of VEGFR-2 kinase). Our data show that leptin increased cell proliferation and expression of BCSC

  15. New targeted therapies for breast cancer: A focus on tumor microenvironmental signals and chemoresistant breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kamdje, Armel Hervé Nwabo; Etet, Paul Faustin Seke; Vecchio, Lorella; Tagne, Richard Simo; Amvene, Jeremie Mbo; Muller, Jean-Marc; Krampera, Mauro; Lukong, Kiven Erique

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent female malignancy worldwide. Current strategies in breast cancer therapy, including classical chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapies, are usually associated with chemoresistance and serious adverse effects. Advances in our understanding of changes affecting the interactome in advanced and chemoresistant breast tumors have provided novel therapeutic targets, including, cyclin dependent kinases, mammalian target of rapamycin, Notch, Wnt and Shh. Inhibitors of these molecules recently entered clinical trials in mono- and combination therapy in metastatic and chemo-resistant breast cancers. Anticancer epigenetic drugs, mainly histone deacetylase inhibitors and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, also entered clinical trials. Because of the complexity and heterogeneity of breast cancer, the future in therapy lies in the application of individualized tailored regimens. Emerging therapeutic targets and the implications for personalized-based therapy development in breast cancer are herein discussed. PMID:25516852

  16. New targeted therapies for breast cancer: A focus on tumor microenvironmental signals and chemoresistant breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Nwabo Kamdje, Armel Hervé; Seke Etet, Paul Faustin; Vecchio, Lorella; Tagne, Richard Simo; Amvene, Jeremie Mbo; Muller, Jean-Marc; Krampera, Mauro; Lukong, Kiven Erique

    2014-12-16

    Breast cancer is the most frequent female malignancy worldwide. Current strategies in breast cancer therapy, including classical chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapies, are usually associated with chemoresistance and serious adverse effects. Advances in our understanding of changes affecting the interactome in advanced and chemoresistant breast tumors have provided novel therapeutic targets, including, cyclin dependent kinases, mammalian target of rapamycin, Notch, Wnt and Shh. Inhibitors of these molecules recently entered clinical trials in mono- and combination therapy in metastatic and chemo-resistant breast cancers. Anticancer epigenetic drugs, mainly histone deacetylase inhibitors and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, also entered clinical trials. Because of the complexity and heterogeneity of breast cancer, the future in therapy lies in the application of individualized tailored regimens. Emerging therapeutic targets and the implications for personalized-based therapy development in breast cancer are herein discussed.

  17. Targeting the Synthetic Essential Kinases of Breast Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0027 TITLE: Targeting the synthetic essential kinases of breast cancers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jen-Tsan...Targeting the synthetic essential kinases of breast cancers 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0027 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...expected to have significant clinical benefit, research in this area is an urgent and unmet need for the breast cancer . Using functional genomic

  18. Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0237 TITLE: Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yi Huang...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0237 5c...element for HDAC5 transcriptional activity in breast cancer cells. The collaborative studies between initiating and partner PIs have resulted in a

  19. Targeting FASN for Breast Cancer Treatment by Repositioning PPIs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0030 TITLE: Targeting FASN for Breast Cancer Treatment by Repositioning PPIs PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE Targeting FASN for breast cancer treatment by repositioning PP 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER PPIs 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0030 5c. PROGRAM...radiation resistance. It has also been found that breast cancers with high level of FASN are 4 times more likely to recur and metastasize than the ones

  20. Targeting siRNA Missiles to HER2+ Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lali K. Medina-Kauwe, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Cedars-Sinai Medical Center...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting siRNA Missiles to HER2+ Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0549 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...that delivery conjugates can be assembled that can direct siRNA molecules to target cells, including HER2+ human breast cancer cells, in culture in

  1. Breast Cancer Survivorship Care: Targeting a Colorectal Cancer Education Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Homan, Sherri G.; Yun, Shumei; Stewart, Bob R.; Armer, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading second primary cancers, and it is often preventable. We developed a multi-component educational tool to inform and encourage women breast cancer survivors to engage in CRC screening. To assess the strengths and weakness of the tool and to improve the relevancy to the target audience, we convened four focus groups of women breast cancer survivors in Missouri. We also assessed the potential impact of the tool on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding CRC and collected information on the barriers to CRC screening through pre- and post-focus groups’ questionnaires. A total of 43 women breast cancer survivors participated and provided very valuable suggestions on design and content to update the tool. Through the process and comparing pre- and post-focus group assessments, a significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors strongly agreed or agreed that CRC is preventable (78.6% vs. 96.9%, p = 0.02) and became aware that they were at a slightly increased risk for CRC (18.6% vs. 51.7%, p = 0.003). The most cited barrier was the complexity of preparation for colonoscopy. PMID:26258794

  2. Breast Cancer Survivorship Care: Targeting a Colorectal Cancer Education Intervention.

    PubMed

    Homan, Sherri G; Yun, Shumei; Stewart, Bob R; Armer, Jane M

    2015-08-06

    Breast cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading second primary cancers, and it is often preventable. We developed a multi-component educational tool to inform and encourage women breast cancer survivors to engage in CRC screening. To assess the strengths and weakness of the tool and to improve the relevancy to the target audience, we convened four focus groups of women breast cancer survivors in Missouri. We also assessed the potential impact of the tool on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding CRC and collected information on the barriers to CRC screening through pre- and post-focus groups' questionnaires. A total of 43 women breast cancer survivors participated and provided very valuable suggestions on design and content to update the tool. Through the process and comparing pre- and post-focus group assessments, a significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors strongly agreed or agreed that CRC is preventable (78.6% vs. 96.9%, p = 0.02) and became aware that they were at a slightly increased risk for CRC (18.6% vs. 51.7%, p = 0.003). The most cited barrier was the complexity of preparation for colonoscopy.

  3. Targeting Angiogenesis in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sangeetha; Raffin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis has become an important target in the treatment of several solid tumors, including breast cancer. As monotherapy, antiangiogenic agents have demonstrated limited activity in metastatic breast cancer (MBC); therefore, they have generally been developed for use in combination with chemotherapies. Thus far, the experience with antiangiogenic agents for MBC has been mixed. The results from one study assessing addition of the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab to paclitaxel led to approval of bevacizumab for MBC. However, the modest improvement of progression-free survival rates in subsequent MBC studies has led to reappraisal of bevacizumab. Phase III studies have not produced evidence supporting use of the multikinase inhibitor sunitinib alone or in combination with MBC chemotherapy. Experience with sorafenib in a phase IIb program indicates potential when used in select combinations, particularly with capecitabine; however, phase III confirmatory data are needed. Although antiangiogenic therapies combined with chemotherapy have increased progression-free survival rates for patients with MBC, increases in overall survival times have not been observed. Some studies have tried to combine antiangiogenic agents such as bevacizumab and sunitinib or sorafenib, but that approach has been limited because of toxicity concerns. Sequential use of antiangiogenic agents with differing mechanisms of action may be an effective approach. Despite setbacks, angiogenesis will likely remain an important target of treatment for selected patients with MBC. PMID:22843553

  4. Androgen Receptor: A Complex Therapeutic Target for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Dalton, James T

    2016-12-02

    Molecular and histopathological profiling have classified breast cancer into multiple sub-types empowering precision treatment. Although estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) are the mainstay therapeutic targets in breast cancer, the androgen receptor (AR) is evolving as a molecular target for cancers that have developed resistance to conventional treatments. The high expression of AR in breast cancer and recent discovery and development of new nonsteroidal drugs targeting the AR provide a strong rationale for exploring it again as a therapeutic target in this disease. Ironically, both nonsteroidal agonists and antagonists for the AR are undergoing clinical trials, making AR a complicated target to understand in breast cancer. This review provides a detailed account of AR's therapeutic role in breast cancer.

  5. Androgen Receptor: A Complex Therapeutic Target for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Dalton, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular and histopathological profiling have classified breast cancer into multiple sub-types empowering precision treatment. Although estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) are the mainstay therapeutic targets in breast cancer, the androgen receptor (AR) is evolving as a molecular target for cancers that have developed resistance to conventional treatments. The high expression of AR in breast cancer and recent discovery and development of new nonsteroidal drugs targeting the AR provide a strong rationale for exploring it again as a therapeutic target in this disease. Ironically, both nonsteroidal agonists and antagonists for the AR are undergoing clinical trials, making AR a complicated target to understand in breast cancer. This review provides a detailed account of AR’s therapeutic role in breast cancer. PMID:27918430

  6. Targeting metabolism in breast cancer: How far we can go?

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jing-Pei; Li, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvant therapies for breast cancer have achieved great success in recent years and early breast cancer is now a curable or chronic disease. Targeted therapies, including endocrine therapy and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 targeted therapy, marked a new era of breast cancer treatment. However, except for chemotherapy, an efficient drug treatment to improve the overall survival of breast cancer patients is still lacking for triple negative breast cancer. Furthermore, a certain proportion of breast cancer patients present with resistance to drug therapy, making it much more difficult to control the deterioration of the disease. Recently, altered energy metabolism has become one of the hallmarks of cancer, including breast cancer, and it may be linked to drug resistance. Targeting cellular metabolism is becoming a promising strategy to overcome drug resistance in cancer therapy. This review discusses metabolic reprogramming in breast cancer and the possible complex mechanism of modulation. We also summarize the recent advances in metabolic therapy targeted glycolysis, glutaminolysis and fatty acids synthesis in breast cancer. PMID:26862496

  7. The microtubule as a breast cancer target.

    PubMed

    Higa, Gerald M

    2011-04-01

    Manifestations of non-equilibrium polarity, random transgressions, and catastrophes are not conditions usually associated with a sense of normalcy. Yet these disquieting features distinguish a utilitarian behavior known as dynamic instability, the signature characteristic of the microtubule. Long known to be a tumor target, disruption of this fragile attribute is associated with some of the most effective agents used to treat breast cancer today. Although the biology of the microtubule is under intense investigation much still remains unknown. As such, our understanding of regulatory molecules and resistance mechanisms are still rudimentary, further compromising our ability to develop novel therapeutic strategies to improve microtubule inhibitors. This review focuses on several classes of anti-microtubule agents and their effects on the functional dynamics of the targeted polymer. The primary objective is to critically examine the molecular mechanisms that contribute to tumor cell death, tumor-resistance, and incident neurotoxicity.

  8. Targeting Phosphatidylserine for Radioimmunotherapy of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    signal intensity lesions (arrowheads) on four consecutive coronal sections of a representative mouse brain . Only a few of the lesions (arrowheads...To radiolabel the PS-targeting antibody, mch635, with β- emitters and evaluate its biodistribution and pharmacokinetics in breast cancer brain ...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0317 TITLE: Targeting Phosphatidylserine for Radioimmunotherapy of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis PRINCIPAL

  9. Targeting HER2 Positive Breast Cancer with Chemopreventive Agents

    PubMed Central

    Wahler, Joseph; Suh, Nanjoo

    2015-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer is a subtype of breast cancer that is exhibited in approximately 20-30% of breast cancer cases. The overexpression of HER2 is typically associated with a more aggressive disease and poor prognosis. Currently, the therapeutic drugs trastuzumab and lapatinib are the most commonly used to combat HER2+ breast cancer. However, tumors can develop resistance to these drugs. A better understanding of the mechanism of how HER2+ breast cancer works will help aid the development for new therapeutic approaches which more closely target the source of the signaling dysfunction. This review summarizes four major points in the context of HER2 over-expressing breast cancer (i) HER2 as a molecular target in breast cancer therapy, (ii) current treatment options as well as ongoing clinical studies, (iii) animal and cellular models for the study of HER2 over-expressing breast cancer, and (iv) future therapies and chemopreventive agents used to target HER2+ breast cancer. PMID:26442201

  10. Targeting the spindle assembly checkpoint for breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Marques, Sandra; Fonseca, Joana; Silva, Patrícia M A; Bousbaa, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer deaths after lung cancer. As in other malignancies, aneuploidy is a common feature of breast cancer and influences its behavior. Aneuploidy has been linked to inappropriate activity of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), a surveillance mechanism that, in normal cells, prevents anaphase onset until correct alignment of all chromosomes at the metaphase is achieved. Interestingly, the widely used anti-microtubule drugs, vinca alkaloids and taxanes, kill cancer cells through chronic arrest in mitosis as a consequence of chronic SAC activation. Deregulated SAC has been reported in breast cancer in many reports and presents an attractive therapeutic strategy. We present here a review of the current knowledge on the SAC defects and the underlying molecular mechanisms in breast cancer, and discuss the potential of SAC components as targets for breast cancer therapies.

  11. Nanocarrier based approaches for targeting breast cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pindiprolu, Sai Kiran S S; Krishnamurthy, Praveen T; Chintamaneni, Pavan Kumar; Karri, Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy

    2017-08-21

    Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are heterogeneous subpopulation of tumour initiating cells within breast tumours. They are spared even after chemotherapy and responsible for tumour relapse. Targeting BCSCs is, therefore, necessary to achieve radical cure in breast cancer. Despite the availability of agents targeting BCSCs, their clinical application is limited due to their off-target effects and bioavailability issues. Nanotechnology based drug carriers (nanocarriers) offer various advantages to deliver anti-BCSCs agents specifically to their target sites by overcoming their bioavailability issues. In this review, we describe various strategies for targeting BCSCs using nanocarriers.

  12. Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0644 TITLE: Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Chun-Ju...Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0644 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a cell population with acquired perpetuating self-renewal properties

  13. Evolution of breast cancer therapeutics: Breast tumour kinase's role in breast cancer and hope for breast tumour kinase targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Haroon A; Harvey, Amanda J

    2014-08-10

    There have been significant improvements in the detection and treatment of breast cancer in recent decades. However, there is still a need to develop more effective therapeutic techniques that are patient specific with reduced toxicity leading to further increases in patients' overall survival; the ongoing progress in understanding recurrence, resistant and spread also needs to be maintained. Better understanding of breast cancer pathology, molecular biology and progression as well as identification of some of the underlying factors involved in breast cancer tumourgenesis and metastasis has led to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Over a number of years interest has risen in breast tumour kinase (Brk) also known as protein tyrosine kinase 6; the research field has grown and Brk has been described as a desirable therapeutic target in relation to tyrosine kinase inhibition as well as disruption of its kinase independent activity. This review will outline the current "state of play" with respect to targeted therapy for breast cancer, as well as discussing Brk's role in the processes underlying tumour development and metastasis and its potential as a therapeutic target in breast cancer.

  14. Breast Cancer: Current Molecular Therapeutic Targets and New Players.

    PubMed

    Nagini, Siddavaram

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the most frequent cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Breast cancer is a complex, heterogeneous disease classified into hormone-receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 overexpressing (HER2+) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) based on histological features. Endocrine therapy, the mainstay of treatment for hormone-responsive breast cancer involves use of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), selective estrogen receptor downregulators (SERDs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Agents that target estrogen receptor (ER) and HER2 such as tamoxifen and trastuzumab have been the most extensively used therapeutics for breast cancer. Crosstalk between ER and other signalling networks as well as epigenetic mechanisms have been envisaged to contribute to endocrine therapy resistance. TNBC, a complex, heterogeneous, aggressive form of breast cancer in which the cells do not express ER, progesterone receptor or HER2 is refractory to therapy. Several molecular targets are being explored to target TNBC including androgen receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Receptors, protein tyrosine kinases, phosphatases, proteases, PI3K/Akt signalling pathway, microRNAs (miRs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are potential therapeutic targets. miR-based therapeutic approaches include inhibition of oncomiRs by antisense oligonucleotides, restoration of tumour suppressors using miR mimics, and chemical modification of miRs. The lnRNAs HOTAIR, SPRY4-IT1, GAS5, and PANDAR, new players in tumour development and prognosis may have theranostic applications in breast cancer. Several novel classes of mechanism-based drugs have been designed and synthesised for treatment of breast cancer. Integration of nucleic acid sequencing studies with mass spectrometry-based peptide sequencing and posttranslational modifications as

  15. Targeting CD81 to Prevent Metastases in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0398 TITLE: Targeting CD81 to Prevent Metastases in Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Stefanie Jeffrey...Targeting CD81 to Prevent Metastases in Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0398 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Stefanie Jeffrey 5d...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES None 14. ABSTRACT During the research period, we tested a role for CD81 in breast cancer metastases and found that loss of CD81

  16. Targeting the androgen receptor in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gucalp, Ayca; Traina, Tiffany A

    Triple-negative breast cancer represents approximately 15%-20% of all newly diagnosed breast cancers, but it accounts for a disproportionate number of breast cancer-related deaths each year. Owing to the lack of estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression, patients with triple-negative breast cancer do not benefit from generally well-tolerated and effective therapies targeting the estrogen and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 signaling pathways and are faced with an increased risk of disease progression and poorer overall survival. The heterogeneity of triple-negative breast cancer has been increasingly recognized and this may lead to therapeutic opportunities because of newly defined oncogenic drivers and targets. A subset of triple-negative breast tumors expresses the androgen receptor (AR) and this may benefit from treatments that inhibit the AR-signaling pathway. The first proof-of-concept trial established activity of the AR antagonist, bicalutamide, in patients with advanced AR+ triple-negative breast cancer. Since that time, evidence further supports the activity of other next-generation AR-targeted agents such as enzalutamide. Not unlike in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, mechanisms of resistance are being investigated and rationale exists for thoughtful, well-designed combination regimens such as AR antagonism with CDK4/6 pathway inhibitors or PI3K inhibitors. Furthermore, novel agents developed for the treatment of prostate cancer, which reduce androgen production such as abiraterone acetate and seviteronel, are being tested as well. This review summarizes the underlying biology of AR signaling in breast cancer development and the available clinical trial data for the use of anti-androgen therapy in the treatment of AR+ triple-negative breast cancer.

  17. Targeting breast cancer with sugar-coated carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Fahrenholtz, Cale D; Hadimani, Mallinath; King, S Bruce; Torti, Suzy V; Singh, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the use of glucosamine functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (glyco-MWCNTs) for breast cancer targeting. Materials & methods Two types of glucosamine functionalized MWCNTs were developed (covalently linked glucosamine and non-covalently phospholipid-glucosamine coated) and evaluated for their potential to bind and target breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Results & conclusion Binding of glyco-MWCNTs in breast cancer cells is mediated by specific interaction with glucose transporters. Glyco-MWCNTs prepared by non-covalent coating with phospholipid-glucosamine displayed an extended blood circulation time, delayed urinary clearance, low tissue retention and increased breast cancer tumor accumulation in vivo. These studies lay the foundation for development of a cancer diagnostic agent based upon glyco-MWCNTs with the potential for superior accuracy over current radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:26296098

  18. Targeting breast cancer with sugar-coated carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Fahrenholtz, Cale D; Hadimani, Mallinath; King, S Bruce; Torti, Suzy V; Singh, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the use of glucosamine functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (glyco-MWCNTs) for breast cancer targeting. Two types of glucosamine functionalized MWCNTs were developed (covalently linked glucosamine and non-covalently phospholipid-glucosamine coated) and evaluated for their potential to bind and target breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Binding of glyco-MWCNTs in breast cancer cells is mediated by specific interaction with glucose transporters. Glyco-MWCNTs prepared by non-covalent coating with phospholipid-glucosamine displayed an extended blood circulation time, delayed urinary clearance, low tissue retention and increased breast cancer tumor accumulation in vivo. These studies lay the foundation for development of a cancer diagnostic agent based upon glyco-MWCNTs with the potential for superior accuracy over current radiopharmaceuticals.

  19. FGFR-targeted therapeutics for the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Antonella; Frezzetti, Daniela; Gallo, Marianna; Normanno, Nicola

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease and several molecular drivers regulate its progression. Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling is frequently deregulated in many cancers, including breast cancer. Due the involvement of the FGFR/FGF axis in the pathogenesis and progression of tumors, FGFR-targeted agents might represent a potential therapeutic option for breast cancer patients. Areas covered: This review offers an overview of targeted agents against FGFRs and their clinical development in breast cancer. The most relevant literature and the latest studies in the Clinicaltrial.com database have been discussed. Expert opinion: FGFR inhibition has been recently considered as a promising therapeutic option for different tumor types. However, preliminary results of clinical trials of FGFR inhibitors in breast cancer have been quite disappointing. In order to increase the clinical benefit of FGFR therapies in breast cancer, future studies should focus on: understanding the role of the various FGFR aberrations in cancer progression; identifying potential biomarkers to select patients that could benefit of FGFR inhibitors and developing therapeutic strategies that improve the efficacy of these agents and minimize toxicities.

  20. Targeting Phosphatidylserince for Radioimmunotherapy of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Targeting Phosphatidylserine for Radioimmunotherapy of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0316 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Brain metastasis occurs in ~30% of metastatic breast cancer patients. The prognosis is extremely poor, with a...Introduction Brain metastasis is the most common intracranial malignancy in adults. The prognosis is extremely poor, with a median survival of 4-6 months even

  1. BRCA1 as target for breast cancer prevention and therapy.

    PubMed

    Romagnolo, Alberto P G; Romagnolo, Donato F; Selmin, Ornella I

    2015-01-01

    The Breast Cancer 1 protein (BRCA1) is a tumor suppressor involved in basic cellular functions necessary for cell replication and DNA synthesis, but reduced expression of BRCA1, due to mutations or epigenetic inactivation, leads to impaired mammary gland differentiation and increased risk of breast cancer development. Although BRCA1 acts as a tumor suppressor and is present in all cells, where it is essential for the maintenance of the genome integrity, it is still not clear why mutations in the BRCA1 gene predispose to breast and ovarian, but not to other types of cancer. In the first part of this review, we briefly discuss the function and regulation of the BRCA1 protein, including its role associated with familial and sporadic breast cancer. The second part is an overview of the therapeutic compounds used for breast cancer treatment targeting BRCA1, and the natural food components that hold potential preventive effect against those types of breast cancer in which BRCA1 expression is either reduced or lacking. Further studies elucidating the interactions between dietary compounds and cellular pathways, involved in regulation of BRCA1expression, are necessary for the development of strategies that may successfully prevent or treat breast cancer.

  2. Deciphering and Targeting Oncogenic Mutations and Pathways in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bottai, Giulia; Kelly, Catherine M.; Győrffy, Balázs; Székely, Borbala

    2016-01-01

    Advances in DNA and RNA sequencing revealed substantially greater genomic complexity in breast cancer than simple models of a few driver mutations would suggest. Only very few, recurrent mutations or copy-number variations in cancer-causing genes have been identified. The two most common alterations in breast cancer are TP53 (affecting the majority of triple-negative breast cancers) and PIK3CA (affecting almost half of estrogen receptor-positive cancers) mutations, followed by a long tail of individually rare mutations affecting <1%–20% of cases. Each cancer harbors from a few dozen to a few hundred potentially high-functional impact somatic variants, along with a much larger number of potentially high-functional impact germline variants. It is likely that it is the combined effect of all genomic variations that drives the clinical behavior of a given cancer. Furthermore, entirely new classes of oncogenic events are being discovered in the noncoding areas of the genome and in noncoding RNA species driven by errors in RNA editing. In light of this complexity, it is not unexpected that, with the exception of HER2 amplification, no robust molecular predictors of benefit from targeted therapies have been identified. In this review, we summarize the current genomic portrait of breast cancer, focusing on genetic aberrations that are actively being targeted with investigational drugs. Implications for Practice: Next-generation sequencing is now widely available in the clinic, but interpretation of the results is challenging, and its impact on treatment selection is often limited. This work provides an overview of frequently encountered molecular abnormalities in breast cancer and discusses their potential therapeutic implications. This review emphasizes the importance of administering investigational targeted therapies, or off-label use of approved targeted drugs, in the context of a formal clinical trial or registry programs to facilitate learning about the clinical

  3. Epigenetics as a Therapeutic Target in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Roisin

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetics refers to alterations in gene expression due to modifications in histone acetylation and DNA methylation at the promoter regions of genes. Unlike genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations are not due to modifications in the gene primary nucleotide sequence. The importance of epigenetics in the initiation and progression of breast cancer has led many investigators to incorporate this novel and exciting field in breast cancer drug development. Several drugs that target epigenetic alterations, including inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), are currently approved for treatment of hematological malignancies and are available for clinical investigation in solid tumors. In this manuscript, we review the critical role of epigenetics in breast cancer including the potential for epigenetic alterations to serve as biomarkers determining breast cancer prognosis and response to therapy. We highlight initial promising results to date with use of epigenetic modifiers in patients with breast cancer and the ongoing challenges involved in the successful establishment of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:22836913

  4. Nanomedicine-Mediated Therapies to Target Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Lili; Gu, Jian; Lim, Lee Y.; Yuan, Zhi-xiang; Mo, Jingxin

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidences have suggested the existence of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), which possess the potential of both self-renewal and differentiation. The origin of BCSCs might have relationship to the development of normal mammary stem cells. BCSCs are believed to play a key role in the initiation, recurrence and chemo-/radiotherapy resistances of breast cancer. Therefore, elimination of BCSCs is crucial for breast cancer therapy. However, conventional chemo and radiation therapies cannot eradicate BCSCs effectively. Fortunately, nanotechnology holds great potential for specific and efficient anti-BCSCs treatment. “Smart” nanocarriers can distinguish BCSCs from the other breast cancer cells and selectively deliver therapeutic agents to the BCSCs. Emerging findings suggest that BCSCs in breast cancer could be successfully inhibited and even eradicated by functionalized nanomedicines. In this review, we focus on origin of BCSCs, strategies used to target BCSCs, and summarize the nanotechnology-based delivery systems that have been applied for eliminating BCSCs in breast cancer. PMID:27679576

  5. Targeting of CD151 in Breast Cancer and in Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    role in the progression of breast cancer . 15. SUBJECT TERMS CD151 protein, breast cancer progression, ErbB2 amplification, breast carcinoma invasion... malignancy in breast cancer and other types of cancer . Others had found that CD151 knockout mice show normal development, but deficiencies in wound...antagonists can disrupt mammary carcinoma functions. BODY: a. Establishing a mouse model for breast cancer - We attempted to cross our CD151 null

  6. Breast Cancer Microvesicles as a Novel Plasma Biomarker and Therapeutic Target (IDEA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-06 -1- 0420 TITLE: Breast Cancer Microvesicles as a...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Breast Cancer Microvesicles as a Novel Plasma Biomarker and Therapeutic Target (IDEA) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...We propose to study the ability of quantitation of breast cancer tumor microvesicles (MV) to predict clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients. We

  7. Therapeutic targets of triple-negative breast cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jamdade, Vinayak S; Sethi, Nikunj; Mundhe, Nitin A; Kumar, Parveen; Lahkar, Mangala; Sinha, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the second most common cause of cancer deaths. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) does not show immunohistochemical expression of oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptors or HER2. At present, no suitable treatment option is available for patients with TNBC. This dearth of effective conventional therapies for the treatment of advanced stage breast cancer has provoked the development of novel strategies for the management of patients with TNBC. This review presents recent information associated with different therapeutic options for the treatment of TNBC focusing on promising targets such as the Notch signalling, Wnt/β-catenin and Hedgehog pathways, in addition to EGFR, PARP1, mTOR, TGF-β and angiogenesis inhibitors. PMID:26040571

  8. Matrix metalloproteinases as breast cancer drivers and therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Radisky, Evette S.; Radisky, Derek C.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family have been identified as poor prognosis markers for breast cancer patients and as drivers of many facets of the tumor phenotype in experimental models. Early enthusiasm for MMPs as therapeutic targets was tempered following disappointing clinical trials that utilized broad spectrum, small molecule catalytic site inhibitors. However, subsequent research has continued to define key roles for MMPs as breast cancer promoters, to elucidate the complex roles that that these proteins play in breast cancer development and progression, and to identify how these roles are linked to specific and unique biochemical features of individual members of the MMP family. Here, we provide an overview of the structural features of the MMPs, then discuss clinical studies identifying which MMP family members are linked with breast cancer development and new experimental studies that reveal how these specific MMPs may play unique roles in the breast cancer microenvironment. We conclude with a discussion of the most promising avenues for development of therapeutic agents capable of targeting the tumor-promoting properties of MMPs. PMID:25961550

  9. Targeting the subtypes of breast cancer: rethinking investigational drugs.

    PubMed

    Curigliano, Giuseppe; Locatelli, Marzia; Fumagalli, Luca; Brollo, Janaina; Munzone, Elisabetta; Nolé, Franco; Criscitiello, Carmen; Goldhirsch, Aron

    2012-02-01

    The choice of adjuvant treatments for women with breast cancer is based on several features that take into account the heterogeneity of the disease. Questions raised during the decision process include the following: i) What leads to the use of endocrine therapy? ii) What leads to the use of anti-HER2 therapy? iii) What justifies the use of chemotherapy? Choices of adjuvant treatment are based on parameters defined by molecular characterization of breast cancer subtypes or by approximations to this classification using traditional clinical-pathological features. Clinicians should consider cases within the various distinct subpopulation in order to properly select the most 'personalized' adjuvant therapeutic approach. Sensitivity to chemotherapy and/or targeted agents in subtypes of breast cancers are predictable based on gene pathway alterations and associated gene products. This review covers several clinical data on several investigational agents for early-stage breast cancer molecular subtypes. We selected from literature data prospective Phase I, II and III clinical trials of chemotherapy (weekly or daily schedules), including indicators of activity and toxicity and data on survival/mortality. The future of many investigational therapeutics in breast cancer is linked to our ability to identify the most druggable target in each subtype.

  10. Clinical Implementation of Novel Targeted Therapeutics in Advanced Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chamberlin, Mary D; Bernhardt, Erica B; Miller, Todd W

    2016-11-01

    The majority of advanced breast cancers have genetic alterations that are potentially targetable with drugs. Through initiatives such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), data can be mined to provide context for next-generation sequencing (NGS) results in the landscape of advanced breast cancer. Therapies for targets other than estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and HER2, such as cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6, were recently approved based on efficacy in patient subpopulations, but no predictive biomarkers have been found, leaving clinicians to continue a trial-and-error approach with each patient. Next-generation sequencing identifies potentially actionable alterations in genes thought to be drivers in the cancerous process including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), AKT, fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), and mutant HER2. Epigenetically directed and immunologic therapies have also shown promise for the treatment of breast cancer via histone deacetylases (HDAC) 1 and 3, programmed T cell death 1 (PD-1), and programmed T cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Identifying biomarkers to predict primary resistance in breast cancer will ultimately affect clinical decisions regarding adjuvant therapy in the first-line setting. However, the bulk of medical decision-making is currently made in the secondary resistance setting. Herein, we review the clinical potential of PI3K, AKT, FGFRs, mutant HER2, HDAC1/3, PD-1, and PD-L1 as therapeutic targets in breast cancer, focusing on the rationale for therapeutic development and the status of clinical testing. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2454-2463, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Nanoparticles target early-stage breast cancer metastasis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Evgeniya; Zinger, Assaf; da Silva, Dana; Yaari, Zvi; Kajal, Ashima; Vardi-Oknin, Dikla; Goldfeder, Mor; Schroeder, Josh E; Shainsky-Roitman, Janna; Hershkovitz, Dov; Schroeder, Avi

    2017-10-27

    Despite advances in cancer therapy, treating cancer after it has metastasized remains an unmet clinical challenge. In this study we demonstrate that 100 nm liposomes target triple-negative murine breast-cancer metastases post intravenous administration. Metastatic breast cancer was induced in BALB/c mice either experimentally, by a tail vein injection of 4T1 cells, or spontaneously, after implanting a primary tumor xenograft. To track their biodistribution in vivo the liposomes were labeled with multi-modal diagnostic agents, including indocyanine green and rhodamine for whole-animal fluorescent imaging, gadolinium for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and europium for a quantitative biodistribution analysis. The accumulation of liposomes in the metastases peaked at 24 h post the intravenous administration, similar to the time they peaked in the primary tumor. The efficiency of liposomal targeting to the metastatic tissue exceeded that of a non-liposomal agent by 4.5-fold. Liposomes were detected at very early stages in the metastatic progression, including metastatic lesions smaller than 2 mm in diameter. Surprisingly, while nanoparticles target breast cancer metastasis, they may also be found in elevated levels in the pre-metastatic niche, several days before metastases are visualized by MRI or histologically in the tissue. This study highlights the promise of diagnostic and therapeutic nanoparticles for treating metastatic cancer, possibly even for preventing the onset of the metastatic dissemination by targeting the pre-metastatic niche.

  12. Targeted Therapies for Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Venur, Vyshak Alva; Leone, José Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of various driver pathways and targeted small molecule agents/antibodies have revolutionized the management of metastatic breast cancer. Currently, the major targets of clinical utility in breast cancer include the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and the cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK-4/6) pathway. Brain metastasis, however, remains a thorn in the flesh, leading to morbidity, neuro-cognitive decline, and interruptions in the management of systemic disease. Approximately 20%–30% of patients with metastatic breast cancer develop brain metastases. Surgery, whole brain radiation therapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery are the traditional treatment options for patients with brain metastases. The therapeutic paradigm is changing due to better understanding of the blood brain barrier and the advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. Several of these agents are in clinical practice and several others are in early stage clinical trials. In this article, we will review the common targetable pathways in the management of breast cancer patients with brain metastases, and the current state of the clinical development of drugs against these pathways. PMID:27649142

  13. Targeted Therapies for Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Venur, Vyshak Alva; Leone, José Pablo

    2016-09-13

    The discovery of various driver pathways and targeted small molecule agents/antibodies have revolutionized the management of metastatic breast cancer. Currently, the major targets of clinical utility in breast cancer include the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and the cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK-4/6) pathway. Brain metastasis, however, remains a thorn in the flesh, leading to morbidity, neuro-cognitive decline, and interruptions in the management of systemic disease. Approximately 20%-30% of patients with metastatic breast cancer develop brain metastases. Surgery, whole brain radiation therapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery are the traditional treatment options for patients with brain metastases. The therapeutic paradigm is changing due to better understanding of the blood brain barrier and the advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. Several of these agents are in clinical practice and several others are in early stage clinical trials. In this article, we will review the common targetable pathways in the management of breast cancer patients with brain metastases, and the current state of the clinical development of drugs against these pathways.

  14. Resistance to Targeted Therapies in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Braga, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Seventy five percent of all breast cancer (BC) patients express estrogen receptor (ER) but a quarter to half of patients with ER positive BC relapse on ET (endocrine therapy), tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors (AIs), surgical castration, amongst other treatment strategies. ER positive BC at relapse loses ER expression in 20 % of cases and reduces quantitative ER expression most of the time. ER is not the only survival pathway driving ER positive BC and escape pathways intrinsic or acquired are activated during ET. This overview gives an account of ligand-independent ER activation, namely by receptor networks cross talk, and by the various genomic factors and mechanisms leading to ET response failure. Also the mechanisms of Her1 and Her2 inhibition resistance are dealt within this overview, along with the therapeutic indications and limitations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, PARP inhibitors, PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors, RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK/MAPK inhibitors, and antiangiogenic drugs. In spite of the many advances in controlling the division of BC cells and the progression of BC tumors these still remain the main cause of death among women in age range of 20-50 years requiring even more efforts in new therapeutic approaches besides the drugs within the scope of the overview.

  15. Triple-negative breast cancer: new perspectives for targeted therapies

    PubMed Central

    Tomao, Federica; Papa, Anselmo; Zaccarelli, Eleonora; Rossi, Luigi; Caruso, Davide; Minozzi, Marina; Vici, Patrizia; Frati, Luigi; Tomao, Silverio

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, encompassing a large number of entities showing different morphological features and having clinical behaviors. It has became apparent that this diversity may be justified by distinct patterns of genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic aberrations. The identification of gene-expression microarray-based characteristics has led to the identification of at least five breast cancer subgroups: luminal A, luminal B, normal breast-like, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and basal-like. Triple-negative breast cancer is a complex disease diagnosed by immunohistochemistry, and it is characterized by malignant cells not expressing estrogen receptors or progesterone receptors at all, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Along with this knowledge, recent data show that triple-negative breast cancer has specific molecular features that could be possible targets for new biological targeted drugs. The aim of this article is to explore the use of new drugs in this particular setting, which is still associated with poor prognosis and high risk of distant recurrence and death. PMID:25653541

  16. Targeting Phosphatidylserine for Radioimmunotherapy of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0316 TITLE: Targeting Phosphatidylserine for Radioimmunotherapy of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis PRINCIPAL...Cancer Brain Metastasis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0316 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Rolf A. Brekken...DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Brain metastasis occurs in

  17. Targeting the Ron-DEK Signaling Axis in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    The first objective of Task 2 was to test DEK-targeting 1716 Herpes Simplex Viruses (1716HSV) on breast cancer cells. A panel of vectors was...characterized transgenic model wherein wild type Ron is overexpressed selectively in the mammary epithelium by the mouse mammary tumor virus ...degree of knockdown that could be achieved. Three DEK targeting viruses were tested for DEK knockdown in HeLa cells. These included GFP-expressing

  18. Targeting the Ron-DEK Signaling Axis in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    The first objective of Task 2 was to test DEK-targeting 1716 Herpes Simplex Viruses (1716HSV) on breast cancer cells. A panel of vectors was...characterized transgenic model wherein wild type Ron is overexpressed selectively in the mammary epithelium by the mouse mammary tumor virus ...of knockdown that could be achieved. Three DEK targeting viruses were tested for DEK knockdown in HeLa cells. These included GFP-expressing viruses

  19. CXCR4 in breast cancer: oncogenic role and therapeutic targeting.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Haitao; Yao, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines are 8-12 kDa peptides that function as chemoattractant cytokines and are involved in cell activation, differentiation, and trafficking. Chemokines bind to specific G-protein-coupled seven-span transmembrane receptors. Chemokines play a fundamental role in the regulation of a variety of cellular, physiological, and developmental processes. Their aberrant expression can lead to a variety of human diseases including cancer. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), also known as fusin or CD184, is an alpha-chemokine receptor specific for stromal-derived-factor-1 (SDF-1 also called CXCL12). CXCR4 belongs to the superfamily of the seven transmembrane domain heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors and is functionally expressed on the cell surface of various types of cancer cells. CXCR4 also plays a role in the cell proliferation and migration of these cells. Recently, CXCR4 has been reported to play an important role in cell survival, proliferation, migration, as well as metastasis of several cancers including breast cancer. This review is mainly focused on the current knowledge of the oncogenic role and potential drugs that target CXCR4 in breast cancer. Additionally, CXCR4 proangiogenic molecular mechanisms will be reviewed. Strict biunivocal binding affinity and activation of CXCR4/CXCL12 complex make CXCR4 a unique molecular target for prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

  20. CXCR4 in breast cancer: oncogenic role and therapeutic targeting

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chao; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Haitao; Yao, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines are 8–12 kDa peptides that function as chemoattractant cytokines and are involved in cell activation, differentiation, and trafficking. Chemokines bind to specific G-protein-coupled seven-span transmembrane receptors. Chemokines play a fundamental role in the regulation of a variety of cellular, physiological, and developmental processes. Their aberrant expression can lead to a variety of human diseases including cancer. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), also known as fusin or CD184, is an alpha-chemokine receptor specific for stromal-derived-factor-1 (SDF-1 also called CXCL12). CXCR4 belongs to the superfamily of the seven transmembrane domain heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors and is functionally expressed on the cell surface of various types of cancer cells. CXCR4 also plays a role in the cell proliferation and migration of these cells. Recently, CXCR4 has been reported to play an important role in cell survival, proliferation, migration, as well as metastasis of several cancers including breast cancer. This review is mainly focused on the current knowledge of the oncogenic role and potential drugs that target CXCR4 in breast cancer. Additionally, CXCR4 proangiogenic molecular mechanisms will be reviewed. Strict biunivocal binding affinity and activation of CXCR4/CXCL12 complex make CXCR4 a unique molecular target for prevention and treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26356032

  1. Vascular Targeting of a Gold Nanoparticle to Breast Cancer Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Peiris, Pubudu M; Deb, Partha; Doolittle, Elizabeth; Doron, Gilad; Goldberg, Amy; Govender, Priya; Shah, Shruti; Rao, Swetha; Carbone, Sarah; Cotey, Thomas; Sylvestre, Meilyn; Singh, Sohaj; Schiemann, William P; Lee, Zhenghong; Karathanasis, Efstathios

    2015-08-01

    The vast majority of breast cancer deaths are due to metastatic disease. Although deep tissue targeting of nanoparticles is suitable for some primary tumors, vascular targeting may be a more attractive strategy for micrometastasis. This study combined a vascular targeting strategy with the enhanced targeting capabilities of a nanoparticle to evaluate the ability of a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) to specifically target the early spread of metastatic disease. As a ligand for the vascular targeting strategy, we utilized a peptide targeting alpha(v) beta(3) integrin, which is functionally linked to the development of micrometastases at a distal site. By employing a straightforward radiolabeling method to incorporate Technetium-99m into the AuNPs, we used the high sensitivity of radionuclide imaging to monitor the longitudinal accumulation of the nanoparticles in metastatic sites. Animal and histological studies showed that vascular targeting of the nanoparticle facilitated highly accurate targeting of micrometastasis in the 4T1 mouse model of breast cancer metastasis using radionuclide imaging and a low dose of the nanoparticle. Because of the efficient targeting scheme, 14% of the injected AuNP deposited at metastatic sites in the lungs within 60 min after injection, indicating that the vascular bed of metastasis is a viable target site for nanoparticles. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Vascular targeting of a gold nanoparticle to breast cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, Pubudu M.; Deb, Partha; Doolittle, Elizabeth; Doron, Gilad; Goldberg, Amy; Govender, Priya; Shah, Shruti; Rao, Swetha; Carbone, Sarah; Cotey, Thomas; Sylvestre, Meilyn; Singh, Sohaj; Schiemann, William P.; Lee, Zhenghong; Karathanasis, Efstathios

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of breast cancer deaths are due to metastatic disease. While deep tissue targeting of nanoparticles is suitable for some primary tumors, vascular targeting may be a more attractive strategy for micrometastasis. This study combined a vascular targeting strategy with the enhanced targeting capabilities of a nanoparticle to evaluate the ability of a gold nanoparticle to specifically target the early spread of metastatic disease. As a ligand for the vascular targeting strategy, we utilized a peptide targeting alpha(v) beta(3) integrin, which is functionally linked to the development of micrometastases at a distal site. By employing a straightforward radiolabeling method to incorporate Technetium-99m into the gold nanoparticles, we used the high sensitivity of radionuclide imaging to monitor the longitudinal accumulation of the nanoparticles in metastatic sites. Animal and histological studies showed that vascular targeting of the nanoparticle facilitated highly accurate targeting of micrometastasis in the 4T1 mouse model of breast cancer metastasis using radionuclide imaging and a low dose of the nanoparticle. Due to the efficient targeting scheme, 14% of the injected AuNP deposited at metastatic sites in the lungs within 60 min after injection, indicating that the vascular bed of metastasis is a viable target site for nanoparticles. PMID:26036431

  3. Potential therapeutic targets in energy metabolism pathways of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rowshan Ara; Hossain, Sazzad; Chowdhury, Ezharul Hoque

    2017-03-30

    Mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes make cancer cells proliferate indefinitely. As they possess almost all mechanisms for cell proliferation and survival like healthy cells, it is difficult to specifically target cancer cells in the body. Current treatments in most of the cases are harmful to healthy cells as well. Thus, it would be of great prudence to target specific characters of cancer cells. Since cancer cells avidly use glucose and glutamine to survive and proliferate by upregulating the relevant enzymes and their specific isoforms having important regulatory roles, it has been of great interest recently to target the energy-related metabolic pathways as part of the therapeutic interventions. This paper summarizes the roles of energy metabolism and their cross-talks with other important signaling pathways in regulating proliferation, invasion and metastasis in breast cancer. As breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease, a clear understanding of the variations of energy metabolism in different molecular subtypes would help in treating each type with a very customized, safer and efficient treatment regimen, by targeting specific glucose metabolism and related pathways with gene silencing nucleic acid sequences or small molecule drugs, or the combination of both.

  4. Exercise in Targeting Metabolic Dysregulation in Stage I-III Breast or Prostate Cancer Survivors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-12

    Cancer Survivor; No Evidence of Disease; Obesity; Overweight; Prostate Carcinoma; Sedentary Lifestyle; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. Exercise Intervention in Targeting Adiposity and Inflammation With Movement to Improve Prognosis in Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-19

    Cancer Survivor; Central Obesity; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  6. Genomic amplicons target vesicle recycling in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Gordon B.; Jurisica, Igor; Yarden, Yosef; Norman, Jim C.

    2009-01-01

    Aberrant endocytosis, vesicle targeting, and receptor recycling represent emerging hallmarks of cancer. In this issue of the JCI, Zhang and colleagues demonstrate that RAB-coupling protein (RCP; also known as RAB11FIP1) is a “driver” of the 8p11–12 amplicon in human breast cancer and mouse xenograft models of mammary carcinogenesis (see the related article beginning on page 2171). Their finding that RAB GTPase function enables genomic amplification to confer aggressiveness to mammary tumors adds significantly to the body of evidence supporting pivotal roles for receptor trafficking in the proliferation and metastasis of cancer. PMID:19620778

  7. Breast Cancer Microvesicles as a Novel Plasma Biomarker and Therapeutic Target (IDEA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    1 AD_________________ Award Number: W TITLE: Breast Cancer Microvesicles as a Novel...Cancer Microvesicles as a Novel Plasma Biomarker and Therapeutic Target (IDEA) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W91ZSQ-5323-N656 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT We have developed a bead capture assay for quantitation of breast cancer tumor microvesicles (MV) to predict clinical outcomes in breast cancer

  8. The Antihelmintic Drug Pyrvinium Pamoate Targets Aggressive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Lacerda, Lara; Debeb, Bisrat G.; Atkinson, Rachel L.; Solley, Travis N.; Li, Li; Orton, Darren; McMurray, John S.; Hang, Brian I.; Lee, Ethan; Klopp, Ann H.; Ueno, Naoto T.; Reuben, James M.; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Woodward, Wendy A.

    2013-01-01

    WNT signaling plays a key role in the self-renewal of tumor initiation cells (TICs). In this study, we used pyrvinium pamoate (PP), an FDA-approved antihelmintic drug that inhibits WNT signaling, to test whether pharmacologic inhibition of WNT signaling can specifically target TICs of aggressive breast cancer cells. SUM-149, an inflammatory breast cancer cell line, and SUM-159, a metaplastic basal-type breast cancer cell line, were used in these studies. We found that PP inhibited primary and secondary mammosphere formation of cancer cells at nanomolar concentrations, at least 10 times less than the dose needed to have a toxic effect on cancer cells. A comparable mammosphere formation IC50 dose to that observed in cancer cell lines was obtained using malignant pleural effusion samples from patients with IBC. A decrease in activity of the TIC surrogate aldehyde dehydrogenase was observed in PP-treated cells, and inhibition of WNT signaling by PP was associated with down-regulation of a panel of markers associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In vivo, intratumoral injection was associated with tumor necrosis, and intraperitoneal injection into mice with tumor xenografts caused significant tumor growth delay and a trend toward decreased lung metastasis. In in vitro mammosphere-based and monolayer-based clonogenic assays, we found that PP radiosensitized cells in monolayer culture but not mammosphere culture. These findings suggest WNT signaling inhibition may be a feasible strategy for targeting aggressive breast cancer. Investigation and modification of the bioavailability and toxicity profile of systemic PP are warranted. PMID:24013655

  9. Breast cancer stem cells, EMT and therapeutic targets

    SciTech Connect

    Kotiyal, Srishti; Bhattacharya, Susinjan

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Therapeutic targeting or inhibition of the key molecules of signaling pathways can control growth of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). • Development of BCSCs also involves miRNA interactions. • Therapeutic achievement can be done by targeting identified targets in the BCSC pathways. - Abstract: A small heterogeneous population of breast cancer cells acts as seeds to induce new tumor growth. These seeds or breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) exhibit great phenotypical plasticity which allows them to undergo “epithelial to mesenchymal transition” (EMT) at the site of primary tumor and a future reverse transition. Apart from metastasis they are also responsible for maintaining the tumor and conferring it with drug and radiation resistance and a tendency for post-treatment relapse. Many of the signaling pathways involved in induction of EMT are involved in CSC generation and regulation. Here we are briefly reviewing the mechanism of TGF-β, Wnt, Notch, TNF-α, NF-κB, RTK signalling pathways which are involved in EMT as well as BCSCs maintenance. Therapeutic targeting or inhibition of the key/accessory players of these pathways could control growth of BCSCs and hence malignant cancer. Additionally several miRNAs are dysregulated in cancer stem cells indicating their roles as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. This review also lists the miRNA interactions identified in BCSCs and discusses on some newly identified targets in the BCSC regulatory pathways like SHIP2, nicastrin, Pin 1, IGF-1R, pro-inflammatory cytokines and syndecan which can be targeted for therapeutic achievements.

  10. Breast cancer targeting novel microRNA-nanoparticles for imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Arutselvan; Venugopal, Senthil K.; DeNardo, Sally J.; Zern, Mark A.

    2009-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one of the most prevalent small (~22 nucleotide) regulatory RNA classes in animals. These miRNAs constitute nearly one percent of genes in the human genome, making miRNA genes one of the more abundant types of regulatory molecules. MiRNAs have been shown to play important roles in cell development, apoptosis, and other fundamental biological processes. MiRNAs exert their influence through complementary base-pairing with specific target mRNAs, leading to degradation or translational repression of the targeted mRNA. We have identified and tested a novel microRNA (miR-491) and demonstrated increased apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and in human breast cancer cells (HBT3477) in vitro. We prepared a novel cancer targeting assembly of gold nanoparticles (GNP) with Quantum dots, miR-491, and MAb-ChL6 coupled through streptavidin/biotin for effective transfection, and to induce apoptosis in specific cancer cells for imaging and targeted therapy. The targeting and apoptosis inducing ability was tested by confocal and electron microscopy. The MAb-GNP-miR491-Qdot construct effectively transfected into the HBT3477 cells and induced apoptosis the confirmation of these results would suggest a new class of molecules for the imaging and therapy of breast cancer.

  11. Luminal-B breast cancer and novel therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression profiling has led to a new molecular classification of breast cancer characterized by four intrinsic subtypes: basal-like, HER2-positive, luminal A, and luminal B. Despite expressing estrogen receptor, the luminal-B subtype confers increased risk of early relapse with endocrine therapy compared with the luminal-A subtype. Although luminal-B definitions vary, the hallmark appears to be increased expression of proliferation-related genes. Several biological pathways are identified as possible contributors to the poor outcomes, and novel agents targeting these pathways are being developed with aims to improve survival. We review the definition of luminal-B breast cancer, its pathological and clinical features, and potential targets for treatment. PMID:22217398

  12. Targeting the HOX/PBX dimer in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Richard; Boxall, Angie; Harrington, Kevin J; Simpson, Guy R; Gillett, Cheryl; Michael, Agnieszka; Pandha, Hardev S

    2012-11-01

    The HOX genes are a family of closely related transcription factors that help to define the identity of cells and tissues during embryonic development and which are also frequently deregulated in a number of malignancies, including breast cancer. While relatively little is known about the roles that individual HOX genes play in cancer, it is however clear that these roles can be both contradictory, with some members acting as oncogenes and some as tumor suppressors, and also redundant, with several genes essentially having the same function. Here, we have attempted to address this complexity using the HXR9 peptide to target the interaction between HOX proteins and PBX, a second transcription factor that serves as a common co-factor for many HOX proteins. We show that HXR9 causes apoptosis in a number of breast cancer-derived cell lines and that sensitivity to HXR9 is directly related to the averaged expression of HOX genes HOXB1 through to HOXB9, providing a potential biomarker to predict the sensitivity of breast tumors to HXR9 or its derivatives. Measuring the expression of HOX genes HOXB1-HOXB9 in primary tumors revealed that a subset of tumors show highly elevated expression indicating that these might be potentially very sensitive to killing by HXR9. Furthermore, we show that while HXR9 blocks the oncogenic activity of HOX genes, it does not affect the known tumor-suppressor properties of a subset of HOX genes in breast cancer.

  13. Optoacoustic imaging of gold nanoparticles targeted to breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eghtedari, Mohammad; Motamedi, Massoud; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2004-07-01

    Optoacoustic Tomography (OAT) is a rapidly growing technology that enables noninvasive deep imaging of biological tissues based on their light absorption. In OAT, the interaction of a pulsed laser with tissue increases the temperature of the absorbing components in a confined volume of tissue. Rapid perturbation of the temperature (<1°C) deep within tissue produces weak acoustic waves that easily travel to the surface of the tissue with minor attenuation. Abnormal angiogenesis in a malignant tumor, that increases its blood content, makes a native contrast for optoacoustic imaging; however, the application of OAT for early detection of malignant tumors requires the enhancement of optoacoustic signals originated from tumor by using an exogenous contrast agent. Due to their strong absorption, we have used gold nanoparticles (NP) as a contrast agent. 40nm spherical gold nanoparticles were attached to monoclonal antibody to target cell surface of breast cancer cells. The targeted cancer cells were implanted at depth of 5-6cm within a gelatinous object that optically resembles human breast. Experimental sensitivity measurements along with theoretical analysis showed that our optoacoustic imaging system is capable of detecting a phantom breast tumor with the volume of 0.15ml, which is composed of 25 million NP-targeted cancer cells, at a depth of 5 centimeters in vitro.

  14. Targeting cancer stem cells and signaling pathways by phytochemicals: Novel approach for breast cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dandawate, Prasad R.; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Jensen, Roy A.; Anant, Shrikant

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer diagnosed in women worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA. Despite the development of newer diagnostic methods, selective as well as targeted chemotherapies and their combinations, surgery, hormonal therapy, radiotherapy, breast cancer recurrence, metastasis and drug resistance are still the major problems for breast cancer. Emerging evidence suggest the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a population of cells with the capacity to self-renew, differentiate and be capable of initiating and sustaining tumor growth. In addition, CSCs are believed to be responsible for cancer recurrence, anticancer drug resistance, and metastasis. Hence, compounds targeting breast CSCs may be better therapeutic agents for treating breast cancer and control recurrence and metastasis. Naturally occurring compounds, mainly phytochemicals have gained immense attention in recent times because of their wide safety profile, ability to target heterogeneous populations of cancer cells as well as CSCs, and their key signaling pathways. Therefore, in the present review article, we summarize our current understanding of breast CSCs and their signaling pathways, and the phytochemicals that affect these cells including curcumin, resveratrol, tea polyphenols (epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin), sulforaphane, genistein, indole-3-carbinol, 3, 3′-di-indolylmethane, vitamin E, retinoic acid, quercetin, parthenolide, triptolide, 6-shogaol, pterostilbene, isoliquiritigenin, celastrol, and koenimbin. These phytochemicals may serve as novel therapeutic agents for breast cancer treatment and future leads for drug development. PMID:27609747

  15. Therapeutic Implications of Targeting Energy Metabolism in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sakharkar, Meena K.; Shashni, Babita; Sharma, Karun; Dhillon, Sarinder K.; Ranjekar, Prabhakar R.; Sakharkar, Kishore R.

    2013-01-01

    PPARs are ligand activated transcription factors. PPARγ agonists have been reported as a new and potentially efficacious treatment of inflammation, diabetes, obesity, cancer, AD, and schizophrenia. Since cancer cells show dysregulation of glycolysis they are potentially manageable through changes in metabolic environment. Interestingly, several of the genes involved in maintaining the metabolic environment and the central energy generation pathway are regulated or predicted to be regulated by PPARγ. The use of synthetic PPARγ ligands as drugs and their recent withdrawal/restricted usage highlight the lack of understanding of the molecular basis of these drugs, their off-target effects, and their network. These data further underscores the complexity of nuclear receptor signalling mechanisms. This paper will discuss the function and role of PPARγ in energy metabolism and cancer biology in general and its emergence as a promising therapeutic target in breast cancer. PMID:23431283

  16. CXCR4 targeted dendrimer for anti-cancer drug delivery and breast cancer cell migration inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chittasupho, Chuda; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Sarisuta, Narong

    2017-10-01

    CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 play a critical role in the metastasis of various types of cancer including breast cancer. Breast tumors preferentially metastasize to the lung, bones and distant lymph nodes, secreting high levels of CXCL12. We hypothesized that targeted inhibition of CXCR4 in breast cancer cells should suppress CXCR4-positive tumor cells toward secondary metastatic sites. In the present study, the efficacy of CXCR4 targeted dendrimers carrying DOX (LFC131-DOX-D4) on cellular binding, cytotoxicity, and migration of BT-549-Luc and T47D breast cancer cells was investigated. PAMAM dendrimers encapsulating DOX was surface functionalized with LFC131 peptide which recognized CXCR4 expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells. The LFC131-DOX-D4 bound to breast cancer cells resulting in significantly enhanced in vitro cellular toxicity as compared with non-targeted dendrimers. The LFC131-D4 exhibited remarkable reduced migration of BT-549-Luc breast cancer cells toward chemoattractant. This report demonstrated the potential utility of LFC131-dendrimer conjugates for breast cancer therapy and metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Breast Cancer What is Breast Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... tumors form in the breast tissue. Who Gets Breast Cancer? Breast cancer is one of the most common ...

  18. Development Of A Vaccine Targeting Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    phenotype. REFERENCES 1. Salazar LG, Fikes J, Southwood S, et al. Immunization of cancer patients with HER-2/neu-derived peptides demonstrating...Goodell V, Waisman J, Salazar LG, et.al. Level of HER-2/neu protein expression in breast cancer may affect the development of endogenous HER-2/neu...targets for immunotherapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12073-12078. 9 16. Perez SA, von Hofe E, Kallinteris NL, et.al. A new era in anticancer

  19. Targeted Gene Therapy for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    or transduced son, WI). A mouse monoclonal anti-human VEGF with 100 multiplicities of infection (MOI) of rAAV-sFlt-l. receptor-1 (FIt-1 receptor...only partial amounts of the cancer patients correlate with advanced and metastatic deficient protein/enzyme for phenotypic correction of disease and...activity of matrix metalloproteinase. Cancer Res 2000;60: 4- sulfatase to the retinal pigment epithelium of feline mucopolysacchar- 5410-3. idosis VI. J Gene Med 2002;4:613-321.

  20. Targeting the Ron-Dek Signaling Axis in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    tumor development, characterized by decreased cell proliferation, diminished metastasis and fewer cells expressing mammary cancer stem cell markers...cancer stem cell numbers and mammosphere formation ability. • Dek expression is important for breast cancer metastasis in vivo and metastatic phenotypes...Waltz SE. HGFL-Ron signaling enhances the therapeutic resistance of breast cancer stem cells . August 2015, Capstone Summer Research Symposium

  1. Targeting Premalignant Lesions: Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0032 TITLE: Targeting Premalignant Lesions: Implications for Early Breast Cancer Detection and Intervention...ABSTRACT Breast cancer progression constitutes a multistep process through a series of intermediate hyperplastic and neoplastic stages to invasive...Considerable numbers of CAFs are frequently observed within the tumor- associated stroma of various human cancers , including those of the breast

  2. Breast Cancer Microvesicles as a Novel Plasma Biomarker and Therapeutic Target (IDEA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH06-1-0420 TITLE: Breast Cancer Microvesicles as a Novel...2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Breast Cancer Microvesicles as a Novel Plasma Biomarker and Therapeutic Target (IDEA) 5b. GRANT...14. ABSTRACT We have developed a bead capture assay for quantitation of breast cancer tumor microvesicles (MV) to predict clinical outcomes

  3. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    ORGANIZATION: University of Chicago Chicago , IL 60637 REPORT DATE: September 2015 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: ggreene@uchicago.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Chicago ...AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Ben May Department for Cancer Research 929 E. 57th St. GCIS W421C Chicago , IL 60637 9

  4. Engineering Remotely Triggered Liposomes to Target Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sneider, Alexandra; Jadia, Rahul; Piel, Brandon; VanDyke, Derek; Tsiros, Christopher; Rai, Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) continues to present a challenge in the clinic, as there is still no approved targeted therapy. TNBC is the worst sub-type of breast cancer in terms of prognosis and exhibits a deficiency in estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) receptors. One possible option for the treatment of TNBC is chemotherapy. The issue with many chemotherapy drugs is that their effectiveness is diminished due to poor water solubility, and the method of administration directly or with a co-solvent intravenously can lead to an increase in toxicity. The issues of drug solubility can be avoided by using liposomes as a drug delivery carrier. Liposomes are engineered, biological nanoconstructs that possess the ability to encapsulate both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs and have been clinically approved to treat cancer. Specific targeting of cancer cell receptors through the use of ligands conjugated to the surface of drug-loaded liposomes could lessen damage to normal, healthy tissue. This study focuses on polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated, folate conjugated, benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD)-loaded liposomes for treatment via photodynamic therapy (PDT). The folate receptor is over expressed on TNBC cells so these liposomes are targeted for greater uptake into cancer cells. PDT involves remotely irradiating light at 690 nm to trigger BPD, a hydrophobic photosensitive drug, to form reactive oxygen species that cause tumor cell death. BPD also displays a fluorescence signal when excited by light making it possible to image the fluorescence prior to PDT and for theranostics. In this study, free BPD, non-targeted and folate-targeted PEGylated BPD-loaded liposomes were introduced to a metastatic breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) in vitro. The liposomes were reproducibly synthesized and characterized for size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, stability, and BPD release kinetics. Folate competition tests, fluorescence

  5. Targeted Therapies in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marmé, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Summary Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease comprised of several biologically distinct subtypes. However, treatment is currently mainly relying on chemotherapy as there are no targeted therapies specifically approved for TNBC. Despite initial responses to chemotherapy, resistance frequently and rapidly develops and metastatic TNBC has a poor prognosis. New targeted approaches are, therefore, urgently needed. Currently, bevacizumab, a monoclonal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A antibody, is the only targeted agent with an approval for the therapy of metastatic breast cancer, but does not provide a specific benefit in the TNBC subtype. This review discusses the current clinical developments in targeted approaches for TNBC, including anti-angiogenic therapies, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapies, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and platinum salts, as well as novel strategies using immune-checkpoint inhibitors, which have recently demonstrated first promising results. Strategies focusing on specific subtypes of TNBC like anti-androgenic therapies for the luminal androgen receptor subtype (LAR) and others are also discussed. PMID:26557820

  6. Tungsten Targets the Tumor Microenvironment to Enhance Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Bolt, Alicia M.; Sabourin, Valérie; Molina, Manuel Flores; Police, Alice M.; Negro Silva, Luis Fernando; Plourde, Dany; Lemaire, Maryse; Ursini-Siegel, Josie; Mann, Koren K.

    2015-01-01

    The number of individuals exposed to high levels of tungsten is increasing, yet there is limited knowledge of the potential human health risks. Recently, a cohort of breast cancer patients was left with tungsten in their breasts following testing of a tungsten-based shield during intraoperative radiotherapy. While monitoring tungsten levels in the blood and urine of these patients, we utilized the 66Cl4 cell model, in vitro and in mice to study the effects of tungsten exposure on mammary tumor growth and metastasis. We still detect tungsten in the urine of patients’ years after surgery (mean urinary tungsten concentration at least 20 months post-surgery = 1.76 ng/ml), even in those who have opted for mastectomy, indicating that tungsten does not remain in the breast. In addition, standard chelation therapy was ineffective at mobilizing tungsten. In the mouse model, tungsten slightly delayed primary tumor growth, but significantly enhanced lung metastasis. In vitro, tungsten did not enhance 66Cl4 proliferation or invasion, suggesting that tungsten was not directly acting on 66Cl4 primary tumor cells to enhance invasion. In contrast, tungsten changed the tumor microenvironment, enhancing parameters known to be important for cell invasion and metastasis including activated fibroblasts, matrix metalloproteinases, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. We show, for the first time, that tungsten enhances metastasis in an animal model of breast cancer by targeting the microenvironment. Importantly, all these tumor microenvironmental changes are associated with a poor prognosis in humans. PMID:25324207

  7. Tungsten targets the tumor microenvironment to enhance breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Alicia M; Sabourin, Valérie; Molina, Manuel Flores; Police, Alice M; Negro Silva, Luis Fernando; Plourde, Dany; Lemaire, Maryse; Ursini-Siegel, Josie; Mann, Koren K

    2015-01-01

    The number of individuals exposed to high levels of tungsten is increasing, yet there is limited knowledge of the potential human health risks. Recently, a cohort of breast cancer patients was left with tungsten in their breasts following testing of a tungsten-based shield during intraoperative radiotherapy. While monitoring tungsten levels in the blood and urine of these patients, we utilized the 66Cl4 cell model, in vitro and in mice to study the effects of tungsten exposure on mammary tumor growth and metastasis. We still detect tungsten in the urine of patients' years after surgery (mean urinary tungsten concentration at least 20 months post-surgery = 1.76 ng/ml), even in those who have opted for mastectomy, indicating that tungsten does not remain in the breast. In addition, standard chelation therapy was ineffective at mobilizing tungsten. In the mouse model, tungsten slightly delayed primary tumor growth, but significantly enhanced lung metastasis. In vitro, tungsten did not enhance 66Cl4 proliferation or invasion, suggesting that tungsten was not directly acting on 66Cl4 primary tumor cells to enhance invasion. In contrast, tungsten changed the tumor microenvironment, enhancing parameters known to be important for cell invasion and metastasis including activated fibroblasts, matrix metalloproteinases, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. We show, for the first time, that tungsten enhances metastasis in an animal model of breast cancer by targeting the microenvironment. Importantly, all these tumor microenvironmental changes are associated with a poor prognosis in humans.

  8. Targeting of Breast Cancer with Triptolide Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    NGRPA- TPL- lipo ; 4) examined the inhibitory effect of RGD/NGR-PA-TPL- lipo on growth of tumor cells in vivo in CAM model. The effect of RGD/NGR-PA-TPL- lipo ...the outside of the bio-membrane of liposomes ( Lipo ), we will have generated a novel targeting liposome that not only is more selective for leaking out...34-37). Our current four step protocol for preparing RGD/NGR-PA-TPL- Lipo is as following: First, the RGD/NGR fusion peptide was synthesized with a

  9. Targeted multidrug delivery system to overcome chemoresistance in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yuan; Soroush, Fariborz; Tong, Zhaohui; Kiani, Mohammad F; Wang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy has been widely used in breast cancer patients to reduce tumor size. However, most anticancer agents cannot differentiate between cancerous and normal cells, resulting in severe systemic toxicity. In addition, acquired drug resistance during the chemotherapy treatment further decreases treatment efficacy. With the proper treatment strategy, nanodrug carriers, such as liposomes/immunoliposomes, may be able to reduce undesired side effects of chemotherapy, to overcome the acquired multidrug resistance, and to further improve the treatment efficacy. In this study, a novel combinational targeted drug delivery system was developed by encapsulating antiangiogenesis drug bevacizumab into liposomes and encapsulating chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX) into immunoliposomes where the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) antibody was used as a targeting ligand. This novel combinational system was tested in vitro using a HER2 positive and multidrug resistant breast cancer cell line (BT-474/MDR), and in vivo using a xenograft mouse tumor model. In vitro cell culture experiments show that immunoliposome delivery led to a high cell nucleus accumulation of DOX, whereas free DOX was observed mostly near the cell membrane and in cytoplasm due to the action of P-gp. Combining liposomal bevacizumab with immunoliposomal DOX achieved the best tumor growth inhibition and the lowest toxicity. Tumor size decreased steadily within a 60-day observation period indicating a potential synergistic effect between DOX and bevacizumab through the targeted delivery. Our findings clearly indicate that tumor growth was significantly delayed in the combinational liposomal drug delivery group. This novel combinational therapy has great potential for the treatment of patients with HER2/MDR double positive breast cancer. PMID:28176940

  10. New targets for triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Herold, Christina I; Anders, Carey K

    2013-09-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks the three most commonly targeted receptors in human breast cancer--the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/neu--and it is associated with an aggressive natural history. More recently, TNBC has been further dissected into smaller, distinct subsets with unique molecular alterations and response to therapy. Large-scale genomic projects have yielded new knowledge about the molecular characteristics of TNBC, including similarities with high-grade serous ovarian cancers, suggesting a possible coordinated treatment algorithm for these malignancies. Moreover, translation of preclinical findings has led to clinical trials testing a plethora of targets and pathways in TNBC, which will be reviewed here; these include epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), angiogenesis, DNA repair capacity, epigenetic regulation, androgen receptor (AR) and folate receptor (FR) signaling, cell-cycle control, and cell survival. Given the complexity of TNBC biology and the lack of "traditional" therapeutic targets, the advancement of care for women with TNBC will require a true partnership between clinicians, translational investigators, and basic scientists.

  11. Cardiomyopathy Associated With Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sivagnanam, Kamesh; Rahman, Zia U; Paul, Timir

    2016-02-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents directed against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) have significantly improved the prognosis of patients who are positive for this receptor. However, cardiomyopathy remains as a common adverse effect of using these agents. Literature search was conducted via PubMed using the keywords of "Trastuzumab Cardiomyopathy," "Lapatinib Cardiomyopathy" and "Pertuzumab Cardiomyopathy," which provided 104 results. These articles were then screened for relevance to the targeted subject based on their title and abstracts. Case reports and articles that were not discussing any aspect of cardiomyopathy secondary to targeted therapy for breast cancer and articles not in English were eliminated. After elimination, a bibliography search among selected articles was done and a total of 46 articles were identified. The collected articles were then meticulously analyzed and summarized. The use of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) receptor targeted chemotherapy in breast cancer is limited because of a higher incidence (19-22%) of cardiomyopathy. The incidence of cardiomyopathy is not dose dependent and in most cases it is reversible after discontinuation of the drug and treatment with heart failure medications. Severe adverse outcomes including death or permanent disability are rare. HER-2 targeted chemotherapy for breast cancer has a higher incidence of associated reversible cardiomyopathy. Patients should be monitored by serial echocardiography starting at the beginning of the treatment and followed by every 3 months until the completion of chemotherapy. Co-ordination between oncologists and cardiologists is needed to develop evidence-based protocols to prevent, identify, monitor and treat trastuzumab-induced cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Targeting Thyroid Hormone Receptor Beta in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Guowei; Gelsomino, Luca; Covington, Kyle R.; Beyer, Amanda R.; Wang, John; Rechoum, Yassine; Huffman, Kenneth; Carstens, Ryan; Ando, Sebastiano; Fuqua, Suzanne A.W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Discover novel nuclear receptor targets in triple negative breast cancer Methods Expression microarray, western blot, qRT-PCR, MTT growth assay, soft agar anchorage-independent growth assay, TRE reporter transactivation assay, statistical analysis. Results We performed microarray analysis using 227 triple negative breast tumors, and clustered the tumors into five groups according to their nuclear receptor expression. Thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ) was one of the most differentially expressed nuclear receptors in group 5 compared to other groups. TRβ low expressing patients were associated with poor outcome. We evaluated the role of TRβ in triple negative breast cancer cell lines representing group 5 tumors. Knockdown of TRβ increased soft agar colony and reduced sensitivity to docetaxel and doxorubicin treatment. Docetaxel or doxorubicin long-term cultured cell lines also expressed decreased TRβ protein. Microarray analysis revealed cAMP/PKA signaling was the only KEGG pathways upregulated in TRβ knockdown cells. Inhibitors of cAMP or PKA, in combination with doxorubicin further enhanced cell apoptosis and restored sensitivity to chemotherapy. TRβ-specific agonists enhanced TRβ expression, and further sensitized cells to both docetaxel and doxorubicin. Sensitization was mediated by increased apoptosis with elevated cleaved PARP and caspase 3. Conclusions TRβ represents a novel nuclear receptor target in triple negative breast cancer; low TRβ levels were associated with enhanced resistance to both docetaxel and doxorubicin treatment. TRβ-specific agonists enhance chemosensitivity to these two agents. Mechanistically enhanced cAMP/PKA signaling was associated with TRβ’s effects on response to chemotherapy. PMID:25820519

  13. Targeting Prolyl Peptidases in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    cell survival. We identified a protein called PRCP (prolylcarboxypeptidase) that promotes metastasis and survival in breast cancer cells . We found...PRCP/PREP inhibition reduces IRS1 and IRS2 protein levels, blocks proliferation, and induces death in multiple TNBC cell lines of different sub-types...SUBJECT TERMS Triple negative breast cancer, Prolyl peptidases, Breast cancer treatment, Animal model 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  14. Bone marrow endothelium-targeted therapeutics for metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mai, Junhua; Huang, Yi; Mu, Chaofeng; Zhang, Guodong; Xu, Rong; Guo, Xiaojing; Xia, Xiaojun; Volk, David E; Lokesh, Ganesh L; Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa; Gorenstein, David G; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Shen, Haifa

    2014-08-10

    Effective treatment of cancer metastasis to the bone relies on bone marrow drug accumulation. The surface proteins in the bone marrow vascular endothelium provide docking sites for targeted drug delivery. We have developed a thioaptamer that specifically binds to E-selectin that is overexpressed in the vasculature of tumor and inflammatory tissues. In this study, we tested targeted delivery of therapeutic siRNA loaded in the E-selectin thioaptamer-conjugated multistage vector (ESTA-MSV) drug carrier to bone marrow for the treatment of breast cancer bone metastasis. We evaluated tumor type- and tumor growth stage-dependent targeting in mice bearing metastatic breast cancer in the bone, and carried out studies to identify factors that determine targeting efficiency. In a subsequent study, we delivered siRNA to knock down expression of the human STAT3 gene in murine xenograft models of human MDA-MB-231 breast tumor, and assessed therapeutic efficacy. Our studies revealed that the CD31(+)E-selectin(+) population accounted for 20.8%, 26.4% and 29.9% of total endothelial cells respectively inside the femur of mice bearing early, middle and late stage metastatic MDA-MB-231 tumors. In comparison, the double positive cells remained at a basal level in mice with early stage MCF-7 tumors, and jumped to 23.9% and 28.2% when tumor growth progressed to middle and late stages. Accumulation of ESTA-MSV inside the bone marrow correlated with the E-selectin expression pattern. There was up to 5-fold enrichment of the targeted MSV in the bone marrow of mice bearing early or late stage MDA-MB-231 tumors and of mice with late stage, but not early stage, MCF-7 tumors. Targeted delivery of STAT3 siRNA in ESTA-MSV resulted in knockdown of STAT3 expression in 48.7% of cancer cells inside the bone marrow. Weekly systemic administration of ESTA-MSV/STAT3 siRNA significantly extended survival of mice with MDA-MB-231 bone metastasis. In conclusion, targeting the overexpressed E

  15. Let-7a inhibits growth and migration of breast cancer cells by targeting HMGA1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kui; Zhang, Chunfu; Li, Tao; Ding, Yanling; Tu, Tao; Zhou, Fangfang; Qi, Wenkai; Chen, Huabiao; Sun, Xiaochun

    2015-01-01

    Let-7 is one of the earliest discovered microRNAs (miRNAs) and has been reported to regulate self renewal and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells. Let-7a is a member of this family and its function has not been fully characterized in breast cancer. First, total RNAs of breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7), breast cancer tissues and corresponding adjacent normal tissues were extracted and used to detect let-7a expression by qRT-PCR. Secondly, the effects of let-7a on proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells were assessed by in vitro cell culture experiments. Finally, western blotting was performed to demonstrate how let-7a regulated HMGA1 expression. We found that let-7a expression was significantly lower in breast cancer cells and breast cancer tissues compared to corresponding adjacent normal tissues. Cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion were decreased after overexpression of let-7a in breast cancer cells and vice versa. Furthermore, we identified the high mobility group A1 (HMGA1) as a potential target gene of let-7a. Protein expression of the target gene was significantly downregulated in let-7a mimic transfected breast cancer cells and significantly upregulated in let-7a inhibitor transfected breast cancer cells. Our data suggest that let-7a plays an important role as a tumor suppressor gene by targeting HMGA1, which may open novel perspectives for clinical treatments against breast cancer.

  16. Emerging therapeutic targets in metastatic progression: a focus on breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuo; Kang, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the underlying cause of death for the majority of breast cancer patients. Despite significant advances in recent years in basic research and clinical development, therapies that specifically target metastatic breast cancer remain inadequate, and represents the single greatest obstacle to reducing mortality of late-stage breast cancer. Recent efforts have leveraged genomic analysis of breast cancer and molecular dissection of tumor-stromal cross-talk to uncover a number of promising candidates for targeted treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Rational combinations of therapeutic agents targeting tumor-intrinsic properties and microenvironmental components provide a promising strategy to develop precision treatments with higher specificity and less toxicity. In this review, we discuss the emerging therapeutic targets in breast cancer metastasis, from tumor-intrinsic pathways to those that involve the host tissue components, including the immune system. PMID:27000769

  17. B7-H4 as a Target for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0466 TITLE: B7-H4 as a Target for Breast Cancer ...COVERED 1 June 2011 - 31 May 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER B7-H4 as a Target for Breast Cancer Immunotherapy 5b. GRANT NUMBER...immune escape generated in breast cancer . Here we report the generation of 84 mouse monoclonal antibodies for the detection of B7-H4 by ELISA, 25 for

  18. Review: Receptor Targeted Nuclear Imaging of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dalm, Simone U.; Verzijlbergen, John Fred; De Jong, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Receptor targeted nuclear imaging directed against molecular markers overexpressed on breast cancer (BC) cells offers a sensitive and specific method for BC imaging. Currently, a few targets such as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), somatostatin receptor (SSTR), and the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) are being investigated for this purpose. Expression of these targets is BC subtype dependent and information that can be gained from lesion visualization is dependent on the target; ER-targeting radiotracers, e.g., can be used to monitor response to anti-estrogen treatment. Here we give an overview of the studies currently under investigation for receptor targeted nuclear imaging of BC. Main findings of imaging studies are summarized and (potential) purposes of lesion visualization by targeting these molecular markers are discussed. Since BC is a very heterogeneous disease and molecular target expression can vary per subtype, but also during disease progression or under influence of treatment, radiotracers for selected imaging purposes should be chosen carefully. PMID:28134770

  19. Review: Receptor Targeted Nuclear Imaging of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dalm, Simone U; Verzijlbergen, John Fred; De Jong, Marion

    2017-01-26

    Receptor targeted nuclear imaging directed against molecular markers overexpressed on breast cancer (BC) cells offers a sensitive and specific method for BC imaging. Currently, a few targets such as estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), somatostatin receptor (SSTR), and the gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) are being investigated for this purpose. Expression of these targets is BC subtype dependent and information that can be gained from lesion visualization is dependent on the target; ER-targeting radiotracers, e.g., can be used to monitor response to anti-estrogen treatment. Here we give an overview of the studies currently under investigation for receptor targeted nuclear imaging of BC. Main findings of imaging studies are summarized and (potential) purposes of lesion visualization by targeting these molecular markers are discussed. Since BC is a very heterogeneous disease and molecular target expression can vary per subtype, but also during disease progression or under influence of treatment, radiotracers for selected imaging purposes should be chosen carefully.

  20. Ghrelin is a prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Grönberg, Malin; Ahlin, Cecilia; Naeser, Ylva; Janson, Eva Tiensuu; Holmberg, Lars; Fjällskog, Marie-Louise

    2017-01-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are gastrointestinal peptides, encoded by the same preproghrelin gene. Both are expressed in breast cancer tissue and ghrelin has been implicated in breast cancer tumorigenesis. Despite recent advances in breast cancer management the need for new prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets in breast cancer remains high. We studied the prognostic impact of ghrelin and obestatin in women with node negative breast cancer. Within a cohort of women with breast cancer with tumor size ≤ 50 mm, no lymph node metastases and no initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy, 190 women were identified who died from breast cancer and randomly selected 190 women alive at the corresponding time as controls. Tumor tissues were immunostained with antibodies versus the peptides. Ghrelin expression was associated with better breast cancer specific survival in univariate analyses (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36-0.84) and in multivariate models, adjusted for endocrine treatment and age (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.36-0.89). Obestatin expression was non-informative (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.60-2.46). Ghrelin expression is independent prognostic factor for breast cancer death in node negative patients-halving the risk for dying of breast cancer. Our data implies that ghrelin could be a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer treatment.

  1. "Targeting" triple-negative breast cancer: the lessons learned from BRCA1-associated breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Rita

    2011-04-01

    Breast cancer has long been recognized as a heterogeneous entity, with distinct subsets characterized by differences in tumor biology and response to therapy. With the advent of molecular profiling, we have gained a further appreciation of the heterogeneity of this complex disease. While the last decade has seen advances in the treatment of hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/erb-B2 (HER2)-positive breast cancers, outcomes for women with estrogen receptor (ER)-, progesterone receptor (PR)-, and HER2-negative-or "triple-negative"-breast cancer (TNBC) remain poor. A better understanding of the shared biology of BRCA1-associated breast cancer and sporadic TNBC holds much promise for changing the outlook for women with this aggressive disease. This review focuses on our current understanding of the clinicopathological features of TNBC, therapeutic options and ongoing research efforts.

  2. Targeting Androgen Receptor in Breast Cancer: Enzalutamide as a Novel Breast Cancer Therapeutic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Frozen sections were cut and analyzed for tumor by the Univ of CO Pathology Core and sent on dry ice to the laboratory of collaborator Dr. Chip...D’Amato N, Richer JK. Endocrine therapy for triple negative breast cancer. Oral presentation at Pathology Grand Rounds, University of Colorado Anschutz...Whippany, NJ “Landscape of Androgen Receptors in Breast Cancer Subtypes” July 2015 Virginia Commonwealth University Department of Pathology Grand Rounds

  3. Targeting aberrant expression of Notch-1 in ALDH(+) cancer stem cells in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pal, Deeksha; Kolluru, Venkatesh; Chandrasekaran, Balaji; Baby, Becca V; Aman, Masarath; Suman, Suman; Sirimulla, Suman; Sanders, Mary Ann; Alatassi, Houda; Ankem, Murali K; Damodaran, Chendil

    2017-03-01

    We have previously reported that high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzyme activity in breast cancer cells results in breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) properties by upregualting Notch-1 and epithelial mesenchymal markers. This results in chemoresistance in breast cancer. Here, we examined the functional and clinical significance of ALDH expression by measuring the ALDH levels in breast cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry. There was a significantly higher ALDH expression in higher grade breast cancer tumor tissues (Grade- II and III) versus normal breast tissues. Injection of BCSC (ALDH(+) and CD44(+) /CD22(-) ) cells resulted in aggressive tumor growth in athymic mice versus ALDH(-) cells. The ALDH(+) and CD44(+) /CD22(-) tumors grow rapidly and are larger than ALDH(-) tumors which were slow growing and smaller. Molecularly, ALDH(+) tumors expressed higher expression of Notch-1 and EMT markers than ALDH(-) tumors. Oral administration of the naturally occurring Psoralidin (Pso, 25 mg/kg of body weight) significantly inhibited the growth in ALDH(+) and ALDH(-) tumors as well. Psoralidin inhibited Notch-1 mediated EMT activation in ALDH(+) and ALDH(-) tumors-this confirms our in vitro findings. Our results suggest that Notch-1 could be an attractive target and inhibition of Notch-1 by Psoralidin may prevent pathogenesis of breast cancer as well as metastasis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Human Progesterone A-Form as a Target for New Drug Discovery in Human Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    Progesterone A-Form as a Target for New Drug Discovery in Human Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: James Voltz Paloma Giangrande Donald McDonnell, Ph.D...SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Human Progesterone A-Form as a Target for New Drug DAMD17-98-1-8070 Discovery in Human Breast Cancer 6. AUTHOR(S) James

  5. Targeted therapies in breast cancer: are heart and vessels also being targeted?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The concept of 'targeted' therapies implies that such drugs only act on cells that specifically express the particular target, therefore giving rise to a low incidence of side effects. However, targeted therapies currently approved for the treatment of breast cancer have demonstrated a relatively high incidence of cardiovascular events. The anti-HER2 agents trastuzumab and lapatinib may cause left ventricular dysfunction or even congestive heart failure. Bevacizumab, an antiangiogenic drug, has been shown to increase the risk of hypertension, cardiovascular dysfunction and thromboembolic events. In addition, several anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and antiangiogenic agents plus their combinations are currently being developed and evaluated for the treatment of breast cancer. In this review, we aim to assess the incidence of cardiac adverse events associated with targeted therapies designed to block HER2 and angiogenic pathways. PMID:22713170

  6. S14 as a Therapeutic Target in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    Months 9-12 As shown in Fig. 2, two siRNAs caused a substantial knockdown of S14 mRNA and protein in the cells. Importantly, the siRNAs also...inhibited the expression of the FAS gene, and caused apoptotic death of the breast cancer cells. This thus provides validation of S14 as a potential...including FAS, and S14 knockdown causes breast cancer cell apoptosis. The S14 locus at 11q13 is amplified in ~13% of breast cancers, but the

  7. Insights into Orphan Nuclear Receptors as Prognostic Markers and Novel Therapeutic Targets for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aesoy, Reidun; Clyne, Colin D.; Chand, Ashwini L.

    2015-01-01

    There is emerging evidence asserting the importance of orphan nuclear receptors (ONRs) in cancer initiation and progression. In breast cancer, there is a lot unknown about ONRs in terms of their expression profile and their transcriptional targets in the various stages of tumor progression. With the classification of breast tumors into distinct molecular subtypes, we assess ONR expression in the different breast cancer subtypes and with patient outcomes. Complementing this, we review evidence implicating ONR-dependent molecular pathways in breast cancer progression to identify candidate ONRs as potential prognostic markers and/or as therapeutic targets. PMID:26300846

  8. Repositioning of antibiotic levofloxacin as a mitochondrial biogenesis inhibitor to target breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Min; Li, Ruishu; Zhang, Juan

    2016-03-18

    Targeting mitochondrial biogenesis has become a potential therapeutic strategy in cancer due to their unique metabolic dependencies. In this study, we show that levofloxacin, a FDA-approved antibiotic, is an attractive candidate for breast cancer treatment. This is achieved by the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in a panel of breast cancer cell lines while sparing normal breast cells. It also acts synergistically with conventional chemo drug in two independent in vivo breast xenograft mouse models. Importantly, levofloxacin inhibits mitochondrial biogenesis as shown by the decreased level of mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential and ATP. In addition, the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of levofloxacin are reversed by acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR, a mitochondrial fuel), confirming that levofloxacin's action in breast cancer cells is through inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis. A consequence of mitochondrial biogenesis inhibition by levofloxacin in breast cancer cells is the deactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways. We further demonstrate that breast cancer cells have increased mitochondrial biogenesis than normal breast cells, and this explains their different sensitivity to levofloxacin. Our work suggest that levofloxacin is a useful addition to breast cancer treatment. Our work also establish the essential role of mitochondrial biogenesis on the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways in breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • Levofloxacin targets a panel of breast cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. • Levofloxacin acts synergistically with 5-Fluorouracil in breast cancer. • Levofloxacin targets breast cancer cells via inhibiting mitochondrial biogenesis. • Breast cancer cells have increased mitochondrial biogenesis than normal cells. • Mitochondrial biogenesis inhibition lead to deactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

  9. Preferential targeting of vesicular stomatitis virus to breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, Ira . E-mail: ira.bergman@chp.edu; Whitaker-Dowling, Patricia; Gao Yanhua; Griffin, Judith A.

    2004-12-05

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a candidate for development for cancer therapy. We created a recombinant replicating VSV (rrVSV) with an altered surface protein that targeted preferentially to breast cancer cells. The rrVSV genome contained a single glycoprotein (gp) gene derived from Sindbis virus. This gene expressed a chimeric Sindbis E2 binding gp and the native Sindbis E1 fusion gp. The chimeric E2 binding gp, called Sindbis-SCA-erbb2, was modified to reduce its native binding function and to contain a single chain antibody (SCA) with specificity for the human epidermal growth factor receptor Her2/neu protein, erbb2. These viruses selectively infected, replicated in and killed cells expressing erbb2. The titer of rrVSV on SKBR3 cells, a human breast cancer cell line which highly expresses erbb2 was 3.1 x 10{sup 7}/ml compared with a titer of 7.3 x 10{sup 5}/ml on 143 cells, a human osteosarcoma cell line which does not express erbb2. The titer of rrVSV on D2F2/E2 cells, a mouse mammary cancer cell line stably transfected to express human erbb2 was 2.46 x 10{sup 6}/ml compared with a titer of 5 x 10{sup 4}/ml on the parent D2F2 cells which do not express erbb2. When titered on erbb2-negative cells, non-replicating pseudotype VSV coated with Sindbis-SCA-erbb2 had <3% the titer of pseudotype VSV coated with wild type Sindbis gp indicating that the chimeric Sindbis gp had severely impaired binding to the natural receptor. Analysis of the protein composition of the rrVSV found low expression of the modified Sindbis gp on the virus.

  10. Mitochondrial targeted catalase suppresses invasive breast cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Treatment of invasive breast cancer has an alarmingly high rate of failure because effective targets have not been identified. One potential target is mitochondrial generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) because ROS production has been associated with changes in substrate metabolism and lower concentration of anti-oxidant enzymes in tumor and stromal cells and increased metastatic potential. Methods Transgenic mice expressing a human catalase gene (mCAT) were crossed with MMTV-PyMT transgenic mice that develop metastatic breast cancer. All mice (33 mCAT positive and 23 mCAT negative) were terminated at 110 days of age, when tumors were well advanced. Tumors were histologically assessed for invasiveness, proliferation and metastatic foci in the lungs. ROS levels and activation status of p38 MAPK were determined. Results PyMT mice expressing mCAT had a 12.5 per cent incidence of high histological grade primary tumor invasiveness compared to a 62.5 per cent incidence in PyMT mice without mCAT. The histological grade correlated with incidence of metastasis with 56 per cent of PyMT mice positive for mCAT showing evidence of pulmonary metastasis compared to 85.4 per cent of PyMT mice negative for mCAT with pulmonary metastasis (p ≤ 0.05). PyMT tumor cells expressing mCAT had lower ROS levels and were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress than wild type tumor cells, suggesting that mCAT has the potential of quenching intracellular ROS and subsequent invasive behavior. The metastatic tumor burden in PyMT mice expressing mCAT was 0.1 mm2/cm2 of lung tissue compared with 1.3 mm2/cm2 of lung tissue in PyMT mice expressing the wild type allele (p ≤ 0.01), indicating that mCAT could play a role in mitigating metastatic tumor progression at a distant organ site. Expression of mCAT in the lungs increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress that was associated with decreased activation of p38MAPK suggesting ROS signaling

  11. Proteogenomic integration reveals therapeutic targets in breast cancer xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kuan-lin; Li, Shunqiang; Mertins, Philipp; Cao, Song; Gunawardena, Harsha P.; Ruggles, Kelly V.; Mani, D. R.; Clauser, Karl R.; Tanioka, Maki; Usary, Jerry; Kavuri, Shyam M.; Xie, Ling; Yoon, Christopher; Qiao, Jana W; Wrobel, John; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Erdmann-Gilmore, Petra; Snider, Jacqueline E.; Hoog, Jeremy; Singh, Purba; Niu, Beifung; Guo, Zhanfang; Sun, Sam Qiancheng; Sanati, Souzan; Kawaler, Emily; Wang, Xuya; Scott, Adam; Ye, Kai; McLellan, Michael D.; Wendl, Michael C.; Malovannaya, Anna; Held, Jason M.; Gillette, Michael A.; Fenyö, David; Kinsinger, Christopher R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Davies, Sherri R.; Perou, Charles M.; Ma, Cynthia; Reid Townsend, R.; Chen, Xian; Carr, Steven A.; Ellis, Matthew J.; Ding, Li

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have enabled extensive analysis of cancer proteomes. Here, we employed quantitative proteomics to profile protein expression across 24 breast cancer patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. Integrated proteogenomic analysis shows positive correlation between expression measurements from transcriptomic and proteomic analyses; further, gene expression-based intrinsic subtypes are largely re-capitulated using non-stromal protein markers. Proteogenomic analysis also validates a number of predicted genomic targets in multiple receptor tyrosine kinases. However, several protein/phosphoprotein events such as overexpression of AKT proteins and ARAF, BRAF, HSP90AB1 phosphosites are not readily explainable by genomic analysis, suggesting that druggable translational and/or post-translational regulatory events may be uniquely diagnosed by MS. Drug treatment experiments targeting HER2 and components of the PI3K pathway supported proteogenomic response predictions in seven xenograft models. Our study demonstrates that MS-based proteomics can identify therapeutic targets and highlights the potential of PDX drug response evaluation to annotate MS-based pathway activities. PMID:28348404

  12. Targeting the Ron-DEK Signaling Axis in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    supports basal mammary epithelial stem cell proliferation, promotes mammary gland development and branching during pregnancy , and is overexpressed in breast...epithelium. Breast Cancer Res 2013; 15: R36. 58 Robinson GW, Hennighausen L, Johnson PF. Side-branching in the mammary gland: the progesterone –Wnt

  13. Targeted Agents Active Against Breast Cancer: Q&A

    Cancer.gov

    ALTTO was a clinical trial designed to determine whether the combination of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) and the drug lapatinib (Tykerb) was more effective in treating HER2/ErbB2-positive breast cancer when combined with chemotherapy.

  14. Macrophage Polarization: Anti-cancer Strategies to Target Tumor-associated Macrophage in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Muhammad; Zhang, Jieqiong; Liang, Guikai; Ding, Ling; He, Qiaojun; Yang, Bo

    2017-01-20

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the most abundant inflammatory cells and orchestrate different stages of breast cancer development. TAMs participate in the tumor angiogenesis, matrix remodeling, invasion, immunosuppression, metastasis, and chemoresistance in breast cancer. Several clinical studies indicate the association between the high influx of TAMs in tumor with poor prognosis in hepatocellular, ovarian, cervical, and breast cancer. Previously developed hypotheses have proposed that TAMs participate in antitumor responses of the body, while recently many clinical and experimental studies have revealed that TAMs in tumor microenvironment predominantly resemble with M2-like polarized macrophages and produce a high amount of anti-inflammatory factors which are directly responsible for the development of tumor. Various studies have shown that TAMs in tumor either enhance or antagonize the anti-tumor efficacy of cytotoxic agents, antibodies-targeting cancer cells, and therapeutic agents depending on the nature of treatment. Thereby, multiple roles of TAMs suggests that it is very important to develop novel therapeutic strategies to target TAMs in breast tumor. In this review, we have discussed the functional role of TAMs in breast cancer and summarized available recent advances potential therapeutic strategies that effectively target to TAMs cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Targeting the UPR to Circumvent Endocrine Resistance in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    ally and with respect to her career development . Ahreej Eltayeb, an African-American MPH graduate student who also worked on this project, received...synergistically to selectively kill AE resistant breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. KEYWORDS Breast Cancer, Drug Development , Endocrine...and quantitative structure-activity relationship analyses (QSAR) to develop rationally designed NPPTA analogs with increased potency and optimized

  16. A Novel Molecular Target for Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Although anti-estrogen tamoxifen shows activities in preventing development of breast cancer, there are no effective therapies for malignant estrogen...independent breast cancer, which is also often resistant to chemotherapy and g-radiation therapy . Lack of such therapies has contributed to the high...mortality for U.S. women. Novel therapies are therefore urgently needed. Retinoids, natural and synthetic vitamin A derivatives, exert profound effects on

  17. Characterizing and Targeting Replication Stress Response Defects in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    collaboration with our colleague Dr. Chun Li, an outstanding leader in nanotechnology , we aimed to develop nanoparticles that can carry in vivo imaging...Pɘ.001. Task 4b. To develop nanoparticles to kill RSR-defective breast cancer cells through their binding to the RSR-defect-specific membrane...proteins on cancer cells. We have created the nanoparticles that can specifically bind to RSR-defect breast cells. We will continue to optimize

  18. Development of Biodegradable Zinc Oxide Nanowires Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    potential as a new diagnostic and therapeutic strategy to combat the extremely aggressive TNB that is associated with poor prognosis. Figures... rat anti-mouse CD31 antibody and Cy3-labeled donkey anti- rat IgG (red). Immunofluorescence CD105/CD31 staining of various tissues ex vivo revealed...breast cancer. Hum Pathol, 2013. 44(11): p. 2581-9. 6. Imbert, A.M., et al., CD146 expression in human breast cancer cell lines induces phenotypic and

  19. Mechanisms of Resistance to Chemotherapies Targeting BRCA-Mutant Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-2-0006 TITLE: Mechanisms of Resistance to Chemotherapies Targeting BRCA- Mutant Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR... Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-2-0006 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Andre Nussenzweig, Ph.D. 5d...serve as a foundational data set in determining the importance of DNA repair pathways in acquiring resistance to breast and ovarian cancer

  20. Targeting MUC1 mediated tumor stromal metabolic interaction in Triple negative Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0315 TITLE: Targeting MUC1-mediated tumor-stromal metabolic interaction in Triple- negative breast cancer PRINCIPAL...interaction in Triple-negative Breast Cancer 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Pankaj Singh, PhD 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail...overexpressed in TNBC and facilitates growth and metastasis of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. This occurrence can be partially attributed

  1. CD70: A Potential Target in Breast Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Petrau, Camille; Cornic, Marie; Bertrand, Philippe; Maingonnat, Catherine; Marchand, Vinciane; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Jardin, Fabrice; Clatot, Florian

    2014-01-01

    CD70 is a co-stimulatory molecule involved in the immune response and also in cancer development and progression. Recent studies show that high CD70 expression in cancer cells may inhibit the anti-tumor response. Furthermore, CD70 expression has been reported as a predictive marker of resistance to chemotherapy in ovarian cancers. Some in vitro studies have shown that CD70 expression is epigenetically down-regulated through hypermethylation of its promoter during tumoral progression. This study evaluated the level of CD70 expression in surgical samples of breast invasive tumors and determined its correlation with CD70 promoter methylation. Twenty “luminal A” and 20 “basal-like” frozen samples from early breast tumors were retrospectively selected. CD70 expression was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Total DNA was bisulfite-treated, and methylation levels of 5 consecutive CG sites present in the proximal region (-464, -421) of the promoter were assessed by pyrosequencing analysis. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney test. The median relative CD70 expression level was 0.37 and was significantly higher in the basal-like group (0.78 [0.24-31.7]) compared to the luminal A group (0.25 [0.03-1.83], p=0.0001). The median methylation level was 61%, with no significant difference between the basal-like (63%) and luminal A (58%) groups. No correlation was found between CD70 expression and CD70 methylation level. In this study, higher CD70 expression was observed in the basal-like group, but this expression was not related to promoter methylation. The higher expression in the poor-prognosis subgroup of patients makes CD70 a potential target for emerging anti-CD70 therapies. PMID:25368676

  2. Cell-specific biomarkers and targeted biopharmaceuticals for breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Li, Zhiyang; Yang, Jingjing; Jiang, Yanyun; Chen, Zhongsi; Ali, Zeeshan; He, Nongyue; Wang, Zhifei

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women, and its related treatment has been attracting significant attention over the past decades. Among the various treatments, targeted therapy has shown great promise as a precision treatment, by binding to cancer cell-specific biomarkers. So far, great achievements have been made in targeted therapy of breast cancer. In this review, we first discuss cell-specific biomarkers, which are not only useful for classification of breast cancer subtyping but also can be utilized as goals for targeted therapy. Then, the innovative and generic-targeted biopharmaceuticals for breast cancer, including monoclonal antibodies, non-antibody proteins and small molecule drugs, are reviewed. Finally, we provide our outlook on future developments of biopharmaceuticals, and provide solutions to problems in this field.

  3. MiRNA-101 inhibits breast cancer growth and metastasis by targeting CX chemokine receptor 7.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Tang; Jia, Lin-Tao; Liu, Ning-Ning; Zhu, Xiao-Shan; Liu, Qin-Qin; Wang, Xiu-Li; Yu, Feng; Liu, Yan-Li; Yang, An-Gang; Gao, Chun-Fang

    2015-10-13

    Whereas miR-101 is involved in the development and progression of breast cancer, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that miR-101 expression is inversely correlated with the clinical stage, lymph node metastasis and prognosis in breast cancers. Introduction of miR-101 inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and suppressed tumor growth and lung metastasis of in vivo. CX chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7) is a direct target of miR-101, positively correlating with the histological grade and the incidence of lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients. The effects of miR-101 were mimicked and counteracted by CXCR7 depletion and overexpression, respectively. STAT3 signaling downstream of CXCR7 is involved in miR-101 regulation of breast cancer cell behaviors. These findings have implications for the potential application of miR-101 in breast cancer treatment.

  4. Personalizing Aspirin Use for Targeted Breast Cancer Chemoprevention Among Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bardia, Aditya; Keenan, Tanya E.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Lazovich, DeAnn; Wang, Alice H.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine M.; Limburg, Paul J.; Anderson, Kristin E.; Cerhan, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To better understand the potential risk/benefit ratio for targeted chemoprevention, we evaluated the association of aspirin and other NSAIDs with incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer for risk subgroups defined by selected non-modifiable or difficult-to-modify breast cancer risk factors. Patients and Methods Postmenopausal women with no history of cancer on July 1, 1992 (N=26,580) were prospectively followed through December 31, 2005 for breast cancer incidence (N=1581). Risk subgroups were defined on family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, age at menopause, parity/age at first live birth, history of benign breast disease, and body mass index (BMI). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for other breast cancer risk factors were estimated using Cox models. Results Aspirin use was associated with a lower incidence of breast cancer for women with family history of breast cancer (HR=0.62 for 6+ per week vs. never use; 95%CI 0.41-0.93) and personal history of benign breast disease (HR=0.69; 95%CI 0.50-0.95), but not for women in higher risk subgroups for age at menarche, age at menopause, parity/age at first live birth or BMI. In contrast, inverse associations with aspirin use were observed in all lower risk subgroups. NSAID use had no association with breast cancer incidence. Conclusion Based on their increased risk of breast cancer, postmenopausal women with a family history of breast cancer or a history of benign breast disease could potentially be targeted for aspirin chemoprevention studies. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26678006

  5. Biotin-tagged platinum(iv) complexes as targeted cytostatic agents against breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Nafees; Sadia, Nasreen; Zhu, Chengcheng; Luo, Cheng; Guo, Zijian; Wang, Xiaoyong

    2017-09-05

    A biotin-guided platinum(IV) complex is highly cytotoxic against breast cancer cells but hypotoxic against mammary epithelial cells. The mono-biotinylated Pt(IV) complex is superior to the di-biotinylated one and hence a promising drug candidate for the targeted therapy of breast cancer.

  6. Histamine H4 receptor: insights into a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Martinel Lamas, Diego J; Rivera, Elena S; Medina, Vanina A

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide, and the leading cause of cancer death in women. Several studies underlined the critical role of histamine in breast cancer development and progression. This review addresses the latest evidence regarding the involvement of histamine and histamine receptors in breast cancer, focusing particularly in the histamine H4 receptor (H4R). Histamine concentration in breast cancer tissues was found to be higher than that in normal tissues of healthy controls by means of an increase in the activity of histidine decarboxylase (HDC), the enzyme involved in histamine production. The expression of H4R in different experimental models and human biopsies, the associated biological responses, as well as the in vivo treatment of experimental tumors with H4R ligands is reviewed. Evidence demonstrates that the H4R exhibits a key role in histamine-mediated biological processes such as cell proliferation, senescence and apoptosis in breast cancer. The polymorphisms of the H4R and HDC genes and their association with breast cancer risk and malignancy reinforce the critical (patho)physiological role of H4R in breast cancer. In addition, H4R agonists display anti-tumor effects in vivo in a triple negative breast cancer model. The findings support the exploitation of the H4R as a molecular target for breast cancer drug development.

  7. Identification of Small Ligands Targeting Breast Cancer by In Vivo Screening of Peptide Libraries in Breast Cancer Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    DATES COVERED Annual ( 5 Aug 99-4 Aug 00) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Identification of Small Ligands Targeting Breast Cancer by In Vivo Screening of...Peptide Libraries in Breast Cancer Patients 6. AUTHOR(S) David N. Krag, M.D. 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS DAMD17-99-1-9425 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...constructed in a fuse 5 system (Scott and Smith 1990). The original library displays nine amino acid peptides flanked by cysteine residues (CX9C). The

  8. MicroRNA-376b promotes breast cancer metastasis by targeting Hoxd10 directly

    PubMed Central

    An, Ning; Luo, Xinmei; Zhang, Ming; Yu, Ruilian

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease in women, and metastasis formed at distant anatomic sites was the major cause of cancer-related mortality. Thus, a novel therapy target and progression biomarker for breast cancer metastasis was necessary. microRNA (miR)-376b has been demonstrated to regulate angiogenesis; however, its role in cancer metastasis remains elusive. In the present study, the expression of miR-376b in normal breast tissue, JC and 4T1 cells was determined by qPCR. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed to determine the effect of miR-376b on breast cancer metastasis. The direct target of miR-376b was determined by the luciferase assay and western blotting. The results indicated that silencing of miR-376b by the miR-376-mimic significantly inhibited 4T1 cell migration and invasion in vitro. Lung metastasis was also evidently decreased after silencing of miR-376b in 4T1 cells. Moreover, the luciferase assay and western blotting identified that Hoxd10 is the direct target of miR-376b during the regulation of breast cancer metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to demonstrate the promoting breast cancer metastasis role of miR-376b by directly targeting Hoxd10. Therefore, it would be a novel therapy target and prognostic biomarker for breast cancer. PMID:28123472

  9. Breast cancer phenotypes regulated by tissue factor-factor VII pathway: Possible therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Koizume, Shiro; Miyagi, Yohei

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women, worldwide. Fortunately, breast cancer is relatively chemosensitive, with recent advances leading to the development of effective therapeutic strategies, significantly increasing disease cure rate. However, disease recurrence and treatment of cases lacking therapeutic molecular targets, such as epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and hormone receptors, referred to as triple-negative breast cancers, still pose major hurdles in the treatment of breast cancer. Thus, novel therapeutic approaches to treat aggressive breast cancers are essential. Blood coagulation factor VII (fVII) is produced in the liver and secreted into the blood stream. Tissue factor (TF), the cellular receptor for fVII, is an integral membrane protein that plays key roles in the extrinsic coagulation cascade. TF is overexpressed in breast cancer tissues. The TF-fVII complex may be formed in the absence of injury, because fVII potentially exists in the tissue fluid within cancer tissues. The active form of this complex (TF-fVIIa) may stimulate the expression of numerous malignant phenotypes in breast cancer cells. Thus, the TF-fVII pathway is a potentially attractive target for breast cancer treatment. To date, a number of studies investigating the mechanisms by which TF-fVII signaling contributes to breast cancer progression, have been conducted. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms controlling TF and fVII synthesis and regulation in breast cancer cells. Our current understanding of the TF-fVII pathway as a mediator of breast cancer progression will be also described. Finally, we will discuss how this knowledge can be applied to the design of future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25493229

  10. A review on current nanomaterials and their drug conjugate for targeted breast cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joanna Jinling; Saiful Yazan, Latifah; Che Abdullah, Che Azurahanim

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide, especially among women, with substantial after-treatment effects. The survival rates of breast cancer have decreased over the years even with the existence of various therapeutic strategies, specifically, chemotherapy. Clinical drugs administered for breast cancer appear to be non-targeting to specific cancer sites leading to severe side effects and potentially harming healthy cells instead of just killing cancer cells. This leads to the need for designing a targeted drug delivery system. Nanomaterials, both organic and inorganic, are potential drug nanocarriers with the ability of targeting, imaging and tracking. Various types of nanomaterials have been actively researched together with their drug conjugate. In this review, we focus on selected nanomaterials, namely solid-lipid, liposomal, polymeric, magnetic nanoparticles, quantum dots, and carbon nanotubes and their drug conjugates, for breast cancer studies. Their advantages, disadvantages and previously conducted studies were highlighted. PMID:28392694

  11. A review on current nanomaterials and their drug conjugate for targeted breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joanna Jinling; Saiful Yazan, Latifah; Che Abdullah, Che Azurahanim

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy worldwide, especially among women, with substantial after-treatment effects. The survival rates of breast cancer have decreased over the years even with the existence of various therapeutic strategies, specifically, chemotherapy. Clinical drugs administered for breast cancer appear to be non-targeting to specific cancer sites leading to severe side effects and potentially harming healthy cells instead of just killing cancer cells. This leads to the need for designing a targeted drug delivery system. Nanomaterials, both organic and inorganic, are potential drug nanocarriers with the ability of targeting, imaging and tracking. Various types of nanomaterials have been actively researched together with their drug conjugate. In this review, we focus on selected nanomaterials, namely solid-lipid, liposomal, polymeric, magnetic nanoparticles, quantum dots, and carbon nanotubes and their drug conjugates, for breast cancer studies. Their advantages, disadvantages and previously conducted studies were highlighted.

  12. Phospho-TCTP as a therapeutic target of Dihydroartemisinin for aggressive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lucibello, Maria; Adanti, Sara; Antelmi, Ester; Dezi, Dario; Ciafrè, Stefania; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Zonfrillo, Manuela; Nicotera, Giuseppe; Sica, Lorenzo; De Braud, Filippo; Pierimarchi, Pasquale

    2015-03-10

    Upregulation of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein (TCTP) is associated with poorly differentiated aggressive tumors, including breast cancer, but the underlying mechanism(s) are still debated. Here, we show that in breast cancer cell lines TCTP is primarily localized in the nucleus, mostly in the phosphorylated form.The effects of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), an anti-malaria agent that binds TCTP, were tested on breast cancer cells. DHA decreases cell proliferation and induces apoptotic cell death by targeting the phosphorylated form of TCTP. Remarkably, DHA enhances the anti-tumor effects of Doxorubicin in triple negative breast cancer cells resulting in an increased level of apoptosis. DHA also synergizes with Trastuzumab, used to treat HER2/neu positive breast cancers, to induce apoptosis of tumor cells.Finally, we present new clinical data that nuclear phospho-TCTP overexpression in primary breast cancer tissue is associated with high histological grade, increase expression of Ki-67 and with ER-negative breast cancer subtypes. Notably, phospho-TCTP expression levels increase in trastuzumab-resistant breast tumors, suggesting a possible role of phospho-TCTP as a new prognostic marker.In conclusion, the anti-tumor effect of DHA in vitro with conventional chemotherapeutics suggests a novel therapeutic strategy and identifies phospho-TCTP as a new promising target for advanced breast cancer.

  13. Therapeutic targeting of amyloid precursor protein and its processing enzymes for breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Syed Mohd Danish; Hussain, Talib; Subaiea, Gehad M; Shakil, Shazi; Ahmad, Adnan

    2017-08-28

    Breast cancer cases in women are increasing at an alarming rate globally and extensive research is being conducted to identify a breakthrough medicine against this dreadful disease. In fact, researchers are looking for fresh targets to develop novel treatment strategies for cancer of the breasts. In this article, 'amyloid precursor protein' or (APP) and its processing enzymes are deeply studied so as to explore the same as prospective targets for breast cancer treatment. Even though most of the studies on APP and its processing enzymes have been performed on neuronal cells owing to their linkage with Alzheimer's disease, they are omnipresent on various non-neuronal cells also. Interestingly, APP and its processing enzymes have a role in the proliferation of cancer cells as well as in their growth, adherence and movement. Over-synthesis of APP and its processing enzymes are emerging as important hallmark features in breast cancer. It has been found that APP and its processing enzymes, i.e., g-secretase and a-secretase are strongly linked with breast cancer via Akt phosporylation and Notch signaling pathways. Thus, targeting APP or g-secretase or a-secretase could be considered as an effective strategy to treat breast cancer and even metastasis. There are various clinical trials which are in progress to explore the potential of g-secretase inhibitor against breast cancer. Hence, the present review is composed of two sections, one section deals with all the possible linkages of APP and APP processing enzymes (a-secretase, b-secretase and g-secretase) with breast cancer. However, the other section provides recent information on breast cancer treatment strategy using APP and APP processing enzymes as targets. We strongly believe that compilation of these studies would be beneficial to the scientist working in the field of 'breast cancer-treatment'. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Docetaxel combined with targeted therapies in metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Javier; Roché, Henri

    2012-08-01

    The treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is essentially palliative and should be based on hormone therapy or optimized chemotherapy designed to delay disease progression and maximize survival with good quality of life. Novel chemotherapeutic agents introduced in the 1990 s include the taxanes (notably docetaxel), which are among the most potent of current anticancer drugs. Current research is also focusing on molecular targeted agents including those against the HER family of transmembrane receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor. Optimal effects are obtained when these compounds are used in combination with chemotherapy, as shown in preclinical models and more recently in clinical trials. Results of a large randomized trial have demonstrated a significant survival advantage for trastuzumab plus docetaxel compared with docetaxel monotherapy. Docetaxel plus bevacizumab combinations have recently been shown to significantly improve progression-free survival and objective response rate compared with docetaxel monotherapy. Overall, docetaxel in combination with novel targeted agents in MBC appears to be highly active in patients with MBC, and such combinations represent promising treatment regimens for clinical investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Repositioning of antibiotic levofloxacin as a mitochondrial biogenesis inhibitor to target breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Min; Li, Ruishu; Zhang, Juan

    2016-03-18

    Targeting mitochondrial biogenesis has become a potential therapeutic strategy in cancer due to their unique metabolic dependencies. In this study, we show that levofloxacin, a FDA-approved antibiotic, is an attractive candidate for breast cancer treatment. This is achieved by the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in a panel of breast cancer cell lines while sparing normal breast cells. It also acts synergistically with conventional chemo drug in two independent in vivo breast xenograft mouse models. Importantly, levofloxacin inhibits mitochondrial biogenesis as shown by the decreased level of mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential and ATP. In addition, the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of levofloxacin are reversed by acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR, a mitochondrial fuel), confirming that levofloxacin's action in breast cancer cells is through inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis. A consequence of mitochondrial biogenesis inhibition by levofloxacin in breast cancer cells is the deactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways. We further demonstrate that breast cancer cells have increased mitochondrial biogenesis than normal breast cells, and this explains their different sensitivity to levofloxacin. Our work suggest that levofloxacin is a useful addition to breast cancer treatment. Our work also establish the essential role of mitochondrial biogenesis on the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways in breast cancer cells.

  16. Targeting Protein O-GlcNAc Modifications In Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    vivo (months 6-12, PI:Reginato): Preliminary studies indicate elevated O-GlcNAc in ERBB2 transformed cells, and suggest that lowering O-GlcNAc levels...proteins (with OGT RNAi or OGT inhibitor) inhibits oncogenic phenotypes in vivo (months 6-12, PI:Reginato): Preliminary studies indicate elevated O...agar) of ERBB2 expressing MCF-10A cells and breast cancer cell lines (SKBR3 and MDA-MB-453). (months 1-3) Our studies completed Breast cancer cell

  17. Targeted therapies with companion diagnostics in the management of breast cancer: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Myers, Meagan B

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifaceted disease exhibiting both intertumoral and intratumoral heterogeneity as well as variable disease course. Over 2 decades of research has advanced the understanding of the molecular substructure of breast cancer, directing the development of new therapeutic strategies against these actionable targets. In vitro diagnostics, and specifically companion diagnostics, have been integral in the successful development and implementation of these targeted therapies, such as those directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Lately, there has been a surge in the development, commercialization, and marketing of diagnostic assays to assist in breast cancer patient care. More recently, multigene signature assays, such as Oncotype DX, MammaPrint, and Prosigna, have been integrated in the clinical setting in order to tailor decisions on adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy treatment. This review provides an overview of the current state of breast cancer management and the use of companion diagnostics to direct personalized approaches in the treatment of breast cancer.

  18. Proinflammatory cytokines in breast cancer: mechanisms of action and potential targets for therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Jodi E; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L

    2010-09-01

    Inflammation within the tumor microenvironment correlates with increased invasiveness and poor prognosis in many types of cancer, including breast cancer. The cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) are critical mediators of the inflammatory response. Numerous studies have also linked these cytokines to breast cancer progression. As a result, the mechanisms by which these cytokines promote breast cancer have been recently explored using both in vitro and in vivo models. The results from these studies have led to speculation regarding the possible usefulness of targeting these cytokines in breast cancer patients. This review summarizes the most recent studies pertaining to the mechanisms by which proinflammatory cytokines promote breast cancer. Furthermore, the possibilities of targeting these inflammatory mediators in breast cancer patients using inhibitors that are currently being used in the clinic for other inflammatory conditions are discussed. Understanding both the mechanisms by which inflammatory mediators promote breast cancer and the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory drugs in treating breast cancer will lead to novel therapeutic regimens to treat this devastating disease.

  19. What Is Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... spread, see our section on Cancer Basics . Where breast cancer starts Breast cancers can start from different parts ...

  20. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... age 35, and having dense breasts. Symptoms of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a ...

  1. The innate and adaptive infiltrating immune systems as targets for breast cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Law, Andrew M K; Lim, Elgene; Ormandy, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    A cancer cell-centric view has long dominated the field of cancer biology. Research efforts have focussed on aberrant cancer cell signalling pathways and on changes to cancer cell DNA. Mounting evidence demonstrates that many cancer-associated cell types within the tumour stroma co-evolve and support tumour growth and development, greatly modifying cancer cell behaviour, facilitating invasion and metastasis and controlling dormancy and sensitivity to drug therapy. Thus, these stromal cells represent potential targets for cancer therapy. Among these cell types, immune cells have emerged as a promising target for therapy. The adaptive and the innate immune system play an important role in normal mammary development and breast cancer. The number of infiltrating adaptive immune system cells with tumour-rejecting capacity, primarily, T lymphocytes, is lower in breast cancer compared with other cancer types, but infiltration occurs in a large proportion of cases. There is strong evidence demonstrating the importance of the immunosuppressive role of the innate immune system during breast cancer progression. A consideration of components of both the innate and the adaptive immune system is essential for the design and development of immunotherapies in breast cancer. In this review, we focus on the importance of immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) as potential targets for breast cancer therapy. PMID:28193698

  2. The innate and adaptive infiltrating immune systems as targets for breast cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Law, Andrew M K; Lim, Elgene; Ormandy, Christopher J; Gallego-Ortega, David

    2017-04-01

    A cancer cell-centric view has long dominated the field of cancer biology. Research efforts have focussed on aberrant cancer cell signalling pathways and on changes to cancer cell DNA. Mounting evidence demonstrates that many cancer-associated cell types within the tumour stroma co-evolve and support tumour growth and development, greatly modifying cancer cell behaviour, facilitating invasion and metastasis and controlling dormancy and sensitivity to drug therapy. Thus, these stromal cells represent potential targets for cancer therapy. Among these cell types, immune cells have emerged as a promising target for therapy. The adaptive and the innate immune system play an important role in normal mammary development and breast cancer. The number of infiltrating adaptive immune system cells with tumour-rejecting capacity, primarily, T lymphocytes, is lower in breast cancer compared with other cancer types, but infiltration occurs in a large proportion of cases. There is strong evidence demonstrating the importance of the immunosuppressive role of the innate immune system during breast cancer progression. A consideration of components of both the innate and the adaptive immune system is essential for the design and development of immunotherapies in breast cancer. In this review, we focus on the importance of immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) as potential targets for breast cancer therapy.

  3. Bcl-2 family proteins in breast development and cancer: could Mcl-1 targeting overcome therapeutic resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michelle M.; Cook, Rebecca S.

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis, cell death executed by caspases, is essential to normal breast development and homeostasis. Pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic signals are tightly regulated in normal breast epithelial cells. Dysregulation of this balance is required for breast tumorigenesis and increases acquired resistance to treatments, including molecularly targeted therapies, radiation and chemotherapies. The pro-apoptotic or anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members interact with each other to maintain mitochondrial integrity and regulate cellular commitment to apoptosis. Among the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, Mcl-1 is uniquely regulated by numerous oncogenic signaling pathways. This review will focus on the role of Bcl-2 family proteins in normal breast development, breast tumorigenesis and acquired resistance to breast cancer treatment strategies, while highlighting Mcl-1 as a promising target to improve breast cancer tumor cell killing. PMID:25784482

  4. Targeting Epigenetics Therapy for Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    on histone demethylase inhibition. We have made progress on synthesis of selective nonpeptidic LSD1 inhibitors and have initiated studies to...lentavirus-infected MCF7 breast cancer cells that conditionally express iLCC fused to a Gal4 carrier under upon exposure tetracyclines such as...cancer and their characterization • Synthesis of isoform selective LSD1 inhibitors • Successful fragmentation and sequencing of LSD1 by ESI FT-MS

  5. Targeting the Ron-Dek Signaling Axis in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Pathrose P, Kader S, Kuboki S, Collins MH, Waltz SE. The Ron receptor tyrosine kinase regulates acute lung injury and suppresses nuclear factor...ABSTRACT The Ron receptor tyrosine kinase is over-expressed and over-activated in a cohort of human cancers, with the most compelling data yet found in...15. SUBJECT TERMS Ron receptor , Dek, beta-catenin, breast cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES

  6. Plasma Membrane Proteomics of Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines Identifies Potential Targets for Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Yvonne S.; Moresco, James J.; Tu, Patricia G.; Yates, John R.; Nardulli, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of broad spectrum chemotherapeutic agents to treat breast cancer results in substantial and debilitating side effects, necessitating the development of targeted therapies to limit tumor proliferation and prevent metastasis. In recent years, the list of approved targeted therapies has expanded, and it includes both monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors that interfere with key proteins involved in the uncontrolled growth and migration of cancer cells. The targeting of plasma membrane proteins has been most successful to date, and this is reflected in the large representation of these proteins as targets of newer therapies. In view of these facts, experiments were designed to investigate the plasma membrane proteome of a variety of human breast cancer cell lines representing hormone-responsive, ErbB2 over-expressing and triple negative cell types, as well as a benign control. Plasma membranes were isolated by using an aqueous two-phase system, and the resulting proteins were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Overall, each of the cell lines expressed some unique proteins, and a number of proteins were expressed in multiple cell lines, but in patterns that did not always follow traditional clinical definitions of breast cancer type. From our data, it can be deduced that most cancer cells possess multiple strategies to promote uncontrolled growth, reflected in aberrant expression of tyrosine kinases, cellular adhesion molecules, and structural proteins. Our data set provides a very rich and complex picture of plasma membrane proteins present on breast cancer cells, and the sorting and categorizing of this data provides interesting insights into the biology, classification, and potential treatment of this prevalent and debilitating disease. PMID:25029196

  7. The transcriptional modulator BCL6 as a molecular target for breast cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Sarah R.; Liu, Suhu; Xiang, Michael; Nicolais, Maria; Hatzi, Katerina; Giannopoulou, Eugenia; Elemento, Olivier; Cerchietti, Leandro; Melnick, Ari; Frank, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate expression or activation of transcription factors can drive patterns of gene expression leading to the malignant behavior of breast cancer cells. We have found that the transcriptional repressor BCL6 is highly expressed in breast cancer cell lines, and its locus is amplified in about half of primary breast cancers. To understand how BCL6 regulates gene expression in breast cancer cells, we utilized ChIP-seq to identify the BCL6 binding sites on a genomic scale. This revealed that BCL6 regulates a unique cohort of genes in breast cancer cell lines compared to B cell lymphomas. Furthermore, BCL6 expression promotes the survival of breast cancer cells, and targeting BCL6 with a peptidomimetic inhibitor leads to apoptosis of these cells. Finally, combining a BCL6 inhibitor and a STAT3 inhibitor provided enhanced cell killing in triple negative breast cancer cell lines, suggesting that combination therapy may be particularly useful. Thus, targeting BCL6 alone or in conjunction with other signaling pathways may be a useful therapeutic strategy for treating breast cancer. PMID:24662818

  8. Neoisoliquiritigenin inhibits tumor progression by targeting GRP78-β-catenin signaling in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hailin; Peng, Fu; Huang, Xiaojia; Xie, Xinhua; Chen, Bo; Shen, Jiangang; Gao, Fei; You, Jieshu; Xie, Xiaoming; Chen, Jianping

    2017-09-14

    Although breast cancer mortality has been stable or decreasing in the world, its incidence and recurrence rates have sharply risen worldwide in recent years. Identification of novel preventative biomarkers and drugs for breast cancer has become an urgent issue worldwide. Recently, GRP78 demonstrated a critical role in mediating tumorigenesis, metastasis and angiogenesis. However, the impact of GRP78 in breast cancer and clinical characteristics remains unclear. In this study, we found that GRP78 could promote breast cancer initiation and progression, and higher expression of GRP78 indicated poorer state of breast cancer patients, suggesting that GRP78 was a significant oncogene with the potential to be a novel biomarker and target in clinical investigation. Also, according to the analysis of molecular docking, we found a derivative of Isoliquiritigenin, Neoisoliquiritigenin (NISL), showed a vital inhibitory effect on breast cancer through direct binding to GRP78 to regulate β-catenin pathway. Taken together, this study not only highlight the significance of GRP78 in breast cancer development via β-catenin signaling but also suggest NISL as a natural candidate to inhibit breast cancer by targeting GRP78. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Targeting progesterone metabolism in breast cancer with l-proline derived new 14-azasteroids.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jyotsana; Singh, Ritesh; Gupta, Preeti; Rai, Smita; Ganesher, Asha; Badrinarayan, Preethi; Sastry, G Narahari; Konwar, Rituraj; Panda, Gautam

    2017-08-15

    Breast cancer cell proliferation is promoted by a variety of mitogenic signals. Classically estrogen is considered as most predominant mitogenic signal in hormone-dependent breast cancer and progesterone is primarily considered to have protective effect. However, it is suggested that some progesterone metabolite may promote breast cancer and progesterone metabolites like 5α-pregnane and 4-pregnene could serve as regulators of estrogen-responsiveness of breast cancer cells. Here, we estimated the potential of alternate targeting of breast cancer via progesterone signalling. l-Proline derived novel 14-azasteroid compounds were screened against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines using MTT assay. In silico studies, cell cycle, Annexin-V-FITC/PI, JC-1 mitochondrial assay, ROS analysis were performed to analyse the impact of hit compound 3b on breast cancer cells. Further, we analysed the impact of hit 3b on the progesterone, its metabolites and enzymes responsible for the conversion of progesterone and its metabolites using ELISA. Data suggests that compound 3b binds and down regulates of 5α-reductase by specifically inhibiting production of progesterone metabolites that are capable of promoting breast cancer proliferation, epithelial mesenchymal transition and migration. This study establishes the proof of concept and generation of new leads for additional targeting of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Targeting the Ron-DEK Signaling Axis in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    supports basal mammary epithelial stem cell proliferation, promotes mammary gland development and branching during pregnancy , and is overexpressed in...mammary epithelium. Breast Cancer Res 2013; 15: R36. 58 Robinson GW, Hennighausen L, Johnson PF. Side-branching in the mammary gland: the progesterone

  11. Targeting Notch degradation system provides promise for breast cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Shen, Jia-Xin; Wen, Xiao-Fen; Guo, Yu-Xian; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Notch receptor signaling pathways play an important role, not only in normal breast development but also in breast cancer development and progression. As a group of ligand-induced proteins, different subtypes of mammalian Notch (Notch1-4) are sensitive to subtle changes in protein levels. Thus, a clear understanding of mechanisms of Notch protein turnover is essential for understanding normal and pathological mechanisms of Notch functions. It has been suggested that there is a close relationship between the carcinogenesis and the dysregulation of Notch degradation. However, this relationship remains mostly undefined in the context of breast cancer, as protein degradation is mediated by numerous signaling pathways as well as certain molecule modulators (activators/inhibitors). In this review, we summarize the published data regarding the regulation of Notch family member degradation in breast cancer, while emphasizing areas that are likely to provide new therapeutic modalities for mechanism-based anti-cancer drugs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Targeting the APOBEC3B-Induced Mutation Showers in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0082 TITLE: Targeting the APOBEC3B-Induced Mutation Showers in Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lee Zou...Targeting the APOBEC3B-Induced Mutation Showers in Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81WXH-14-1-0082 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Lee Zou Lee...studies have shown that the genomes of breast cancer cells contained particularly high levels of clustered mutations . In addition, overexpression of the

  13. Mechanism-Based Enhanced Delivery of Drug-Loaded Targeted Nanoparticles for Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    Based Enhanced Delivery of Drug-Loaded Targeted Nanoparticles for Breast Cancer Therapy” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0167 5c... Nanotechnologies in Living Systems”, Moscow Region, Russia, September, 2011. 3. “Ionic nanogels for drug delivery in cancer ”. NanoDDS’12; Atlantic City, New...AD Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0167 TITLE: Mechanism-Based Enhanced Delivery of Drug-Loaded Targeted Nanoparticles for Breast

  14. Mechanism-Based Enhanced Delivery of Drug-Loaded Targeted Nanoparticles for Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    Enhanced Delivery of Drug-Loaded Targeted Nanoparticles for Breast Cancer Therapy” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0166 5c... Nanotechnologies in Living Systems”, Moscow Region, Russia, September, 2011. 3. “Ionic nanogels for drug delivery in cancer ”. NanoDDS’12; Atlantic City, New...AD Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0166 TITLE: Mechanism-Based Enhanced Delivery of Drug-Loaded Targeted Nanoparticles for Breast

  15. Inorganic Nanovehicle Targets Tumor in an Orthotopic Breast Cancer Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Goeun; Kwon, Oh-Joon; Oh, Yeonji; Yun, Chae-Ok; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2014-03-01

    The clinical efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic agent, methotrexate (MTX), can be limited by its very short plasma half-life, the drug resistance, and the high dosage required for cancer cell suppression. In this study, a new drug delivery system is proposed to overcome such limitations. To realize such a system, MTX was intercalated into layered double hydroxides (LDHs), inorganic drug delivery vehicle, through a co-precipitation route to produce a MTX-LDH nanohybrid with an average particle size of approximately 130 nm. Biodistribution studies in mice bearing orthotopic human breast tumors revealed that the tumor-to-liver ratio of MTX in the MTX-LDH-treated-group was 6-fold higher than that of MTX-treated-one after drug treatment for 2 hr. Moreover, MTX-LDH exhibited superior targeting effect resulting in high antitumor efficacy inducing a 74.3% reduction in tumor volume compared to MTX alone, and as a consequence, significant survival benefits. Annexin-V and propidium iodine dual staining and TUNEL analysis showed that MTX-LDH induced a greater degree of apoptosis than free MTX. Taken together, our data demonstrate that a new MTX-LDH nanohybrid exhibits a superior efficacy profile and improved distribution compared to MTX alone and has the potential to enhance therapeutic efficacy via inhibition of tumor proliferation and induction of apoptosis.

  16. A Systems Biology Approach to Evaluate Ezrin as a Therapeutic Target in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    cancers. Existing breast cancer therapies target proteins whose effects are limited to certain subsets of breast cancer patients. We hypothesize that...characterization of the major cross-reacting allergens from the pollen of Parthenium hysterophorus". Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India 1989...allergen in Parthenium pollen . J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 98:903-912. Neetu Gupta, P. Sriramarao, R. Kori, and P. V. Subba Rao. 1995. Immunochemical

  17. Targeting Androgen Receptor in Breast Cancer: Enzalutamide as a Novel Breast Cancer Therapeutic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Detroit, MI RESULTS BACKGROUND Androgen Receptor Signaling in ER/PgR+ Breast Cancer  Estrogen receptor (ER)/ progesterone receptor (PgR...phenotypes. – Distinct subtypes are classified by the presence of estrogen (ER), progesterone (PgR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) receptors...Exclusion Criteria Stage 1 • Severe concurrent disease, infection, or comorbidity • Pregnancy or lactation • Known/suspected brain metastases or

  18. Breast Cancer-Targeted Nuclear Drug Delivery Overcoming Drug Resistance for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    finished the task 1 - To synthesize and optimize folic-acid- or LHRHfunctionalized charge reversal nanoparticles . The cationic polymer PEI and its block...proposal is to develop nuclear localizing nanoparticles to delivery DNA-toxins breast cancer cell nuclei to effectively overcoming the drug resistance. We...copolymer. This polymer was used to fabricate the nanoparticles . The ideal nanoparticles with optimal sizes and acid-triggered negative-to-positive

  19. miR-455 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation through targeting CDK14.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Zou, Aimei; Ma, Liqiang; Chen, Xiong; Wang, Lie; Zeng, Ximing; Tan, Ting

    2017-03-11

    Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in women worldwide, microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical role in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. Here, we studied the effect of miR-455 on cell proliferation of breast cancer, and found that miR-455 was downregulated in breast cancer tissues and cells. Its overexpression inhibited cell proliferation, whereas its knockdown promoted cell proliferation of breast cancer. We found a Cdc2-related protein kinase CDK14 was the target of miR-455, when the 3(')UTR of CDK14 was cloned into luciferase reporter vector and transfected into cells, miR-455 mimic could inhibit the luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner, miR-455 inhibitor increased the luciferase activity, but the mutant miR-455 mimic couldn't change the luciferase activity, suggesting miR-455 directly bound to the 3(')UTR of CDK14. Meanwhile, we also found miR-455 inhibited Cyclin D1 expression and promoted p21 expression, confirming miR-455 inhibited cell proliferation. Double knockdown of miR-455 and CDK14 inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cell, confirming miR-455 inhibiting cell proliferation by targeting CDK14. Moreover, miR-455 levels were negatively correlated with CDK14 levels in breast cancer tissues. Our finding revealed miR-455 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation through targeting CDK14, it might be a target for breast cancer therapy.

  20. Targeted chemotherapy for triple-negative breast cancers via LHRH receptor.

    PubMed

    Föst, Crispin; Duwe, Francesca; Hellriegel, Martin; Schweyer, Stefan; Emons, Günter; Gründker, Carsten

    2011-05-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer does not express estrogen and progesterone receptors and there is no overexpression/amplification of the HER2-neu gene. Therefore, this subtype of breast cancer lacks the benefits of specific therapies which target these receptors. About 60% of all human breast cancers express receptors for luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH, GnRH), which might be used as a target. The LHRH receptor can be used for targeted chemotherapy with cytotoxic luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonists such as AEZS-108 (AN-152), in which doxorubicin is linked to [D-Lys6]LHRH. In the present study we have analyzed by in vitro and in vivo experiments whether the cytotoxic LHRH agonist AEZS-108 (AN-152) induces apoptosis in triple-negative human breast cancer cells that express LHRH receptors. LHRH receptor expression in tumor biopsy specimens of triple-negative breast cancers was tested using immunohistochemistry. Cell proliferation was analyzed using alamar blue proliferation assay. Induction of apoptosis was quantified by measurement of loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. In vivo experiments were performed using nude mice bearing xenografted human breast tumors.Thirty-one of 42 triple-negative breast cancers (73.8%) expressed LHRH receptors. We could show that treatment of triple-negative but LHRH-positive MDA-MB-231, HCC1806 and HCC1937 human breast cancer cells with AEZS-108 (AN-152) resulted in apoptotic cell death in vitro via activation of caspase-3. The antitumor effects were confirmed in nude mice. AEZS-108 (AN-152) inhibited the growth of xenotransplants of triple-negative human breast cancers in nude mice completely, without any apparent side effects. The cytotoxic LHRH agonist AEZS-108 (AN-152) seems to be a suitable drug for an efficacious therapy for triple-negative breast cancers with little toxicity.

  1. Targeted Drug Delivery Systems Mediated by a Novel Peptide in Breast Cancer Therapy and Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chien-Yu; Lin, Wei-Chuan; Yan, Shin-Long; Wang, Yi-Ping; Kuo, Yuan-Sung; Yeh, Chen-Yun; Lo, Albert; Wu, Han-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Targeted delivery of drugs to tumors represents a significant advance in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Therefore, development of novel tumor-specific ligands or pharmaceutical nanocarriers is highly desirable. In this study, we utilized phage display to identify a new targeting peptide, SP90, which specifically binds to breast cancer cells, and recognizes tumor tissues from breast cancer patients. We used confocal and electron microscopy to reveal that conjugation of SP90 with liposomes enables efficient delivery of drugs into cancer cells through endocytosis. Furthermore, in vivo fluorescent imaging demonstrated that SP90-conjugated quantum dots possess tumor-targeting properties. In tumor xenograft and orthotopic models, SP90-conjugated liposomal doxorubicin was found to improve the therapeutic index of the chemotherapeutic drug by selectively increasing its accumulation in tumors. We conclude that the targeting peptide SP90 has significant potential in improving the clinical benefits of chemotherapy in the treatment and the diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:23776619

  2. mTOR function and therapeutic targeting in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Stephen H; Harvey, Amanda J

    2017-01-01

    The mTOR pathway was discovered in the late 1970s after the compound and natural inhibitor of mTOR, rapamycin was isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus. mTOR is serine/threonine kinase belonging to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase related kinase (PIKK) family. It forms two distinct complexes; mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1 has a key role in regulating protein synthesis and autophagy whilst mTORC2 is involved in regulating kinases of the AGC family. mTOR signaling is often over active in multiple cancer types including breast cancer. This can involve mutations in mTOR itself but more commonly, in breast cancer, this is related to an increase in activity of ErbB family receptors or alterations and mutations of PI3K signaling. Rapamycin and its analogues (rapalogues) bind to the intercellular receptor FKBP12, and then predominantly inhibit mTORC1 signaling via an allosteric mechanism. Research has shown that inhibition of mTOR is a useful strategy in tackling cancers, with it acting to slow tumor growth and limit the spread of a cancer. Rapalogues have now made their way into the clinic with the rapalogue everolimus (RAD-001/Afinitor) approved for use in conjunction with exemestane, in post-menopausal breast cancer patients with advanced disease who are HER-2 negative (normal expression), hormone receptor positive and whose prior treatment with non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors has failed. Testing across multiple trials has proven that everolimus and other rapalogues are a viable way of treating certain types of cancer. However, rapalogues have shown some drawbacks both in research and clinically, with their use often activating feedback pathways that counter their usefulness. As such, new types of inhibitors are being explored that work via different mechanisms, including inhibitors that are ATP competitive with mTOR and which act to perturb signaling from both mTOR complexes. PMID:28400999

  3. Breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... idea of what to expect in the future. Breast cancer stages range from 0 to IV. The higher the ... is based on many factors, including: Type of breast cancer Stage of the cancer (staging is a tool your ...

  4. SXR, A Novel Target for Breast Cancer Therapeutics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    transient transfection assays (see Additional file 1: supplementary Figure 2A). The phtoestrogen- rutin did not activate SXR in transfection assays so...cells were cultured in the presence of a concentration series (1, 10 and 100 μM) of test compounds or controls (solvent, rutin ). To measure the integrated...proliferation of breast cancer cells in proliferation assay. Rutin , which did not activate SXR in transfection assays, lacked any effect on prolifera- tion

  5. Targeting Energy Metabolic Pathways as Therapeutic Intervention for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    2 kinase; pyruvate kinase M2; energy metabolism; apoptosis ; breast cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF...tumor cells to hypoxia, as indicated by a decrease in cellular viability (Fig. 2C) and an increase in apoptosis (Fig. 2D) in the hypoxic tumor cells...Keener KJ, Zhang L, Kimball SR, Harvey H, Jefferson LS, Yang JM. Integrated Regulation of autophagy and apoptosis by EEF2K controls cellular fate and

  6. Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    Adjunct Professor of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, Maryland 2009-2010 Chief, Division of Hematology /Oncology...Davis JM, Kennedy J, Wiley JM, Wingard J, Yeager AM and Santos GW. Analysis of factors predicting speed of hematologic recovery after transplantation...Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014, pp 1- 943. 48. Jankowitz RC, Davidson NE. Breast Cancer IN: Hematology -Oncology

  7. Targeting Histone Abnormality in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    By using quantitative ChIP analysis, we have demonstrated that shRNA-HDAC5 significantly decreased the occupancy of HDAC5/LSD1 complex and...prevention and therapy of TNBC. 2. KEYWORDS Breast cancer, HDAC5, LSD1, USP28, sulforaphane, combination therapy 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS a. What were the major...role of LSD1 in HDACi therapy and chemoprevention of TNBC in animal models. 3. Evaluate therapeutic effects of combination strategies in patient

  8. Discoidin Domain Receptors: Novel Targets in Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    of invasive BrCa cases with different molecular subtypes, and found a significant inverse association between cytoplasmic DDR1 localization and...further examine the association between DDR expression in primary tumors and development of BrCa bone metastasis. In our experimental studies, we have... associated DDRs on the regulation of pro- and anti-osteolytic genes in vitro. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast cancer, bone metastasis, discoidin domain

  9. Targeting Phosphatidylserine for Radioimmunotherapy of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    membrane in most normal mammalian cells but becomes exposed on the outer surface of apoptotic cells, where it subverts unwanted immune reactions against...human monoclonal antibody to study brain metastases in mouse models of breast cancer. PS is an integral membrane phospholipid that is maintained on the...inner leaflet of the plasma membrane . It becomes externalized under stressful conditions or when cells under programmed cell death. PS exposure is a

  10. Targeting Breast Cancer Micrometastases: To Eliminate the Seeds of Evil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-01

    in-culture array” (BICA) that can mimic bone micrometastases and allow rapid testing of drug efficacies; and 3) to perform drug screening/discoveries...effects on BMM. These models will enable medium-throughput drug discovery/repositioning to expedite the elimination of breast cancer cells in the...and allow expedited testing of their drug responses. Three specific aims will be pursued. 1.To assess the differential responses of BMM to adjuvant

  11. Phytochemicals for breast cancer prevention by targeting aromatase.

    PubMed

    Adams, Lynn S; Chen, Shiuan

    2009-01-01

    Aromatase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP19) and is the rate limiting enzyme in the conversion of androgens to estrogens. Suppression of in situ estrogen production through aromatase inhibition is the current treatment strategy for hormone-responsive breast cancers. Drugs that inhibit aromatase have been developed and are currently utilized as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer in post-menopausal women with hormone dependent breast cancer. Natural compounds have been studied extensively for important biologic effects such as antioxidant, anti-tumor and anti-viral effects. A significant number of studies have also investigated the aromatase inhibitory properties of a variety of plant extracts and phytochemicals. The identification of natural compounds that inhibit aromatase could be useful both from a chemopreventive standpoint and in the development of new aromatase inhibitory drugs. This review will discuss whole food extracts and the common classes of phytochemicals which have been investigated for potential aromatase inhibitory activity. We will review reported aromatase inhibition, kinetic data and possible structural variations that may inhibit or enhance the interaction of phytochemicals with the aromatase enzyme.

  12. Landscape phages and their fusion proteins targeted to breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fagbohun, Olusegun A.; Bedi, Deepa; Grabchenko, Natalia I.; Deinnocentes, Patricia A.; Bird, Richard C.; Petrenko, Valery A.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of death among women in the USA. The efficacy of existing anticancer therapeutics can be improved by targeting them through conjugation with ligands binding to cellular receptors. Recently, we developed a novel drug targeting strategy based on the use of pre-selected cancer-specific ‘fusion pVIII proteins’ (fpVIII), as targeting ligands. To study the efficiency of this approach in animal models, we developed a panel of breast cancer cell-binding phages as a source of targeted fpVIIIs. Two landscape phage peptide libraries (8-mer f8/8 and 9-mer f8/9) were screened to isolate 132 phage variants that recognize breast carcinoma cells MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 and internalize into the cells. When tested for their interaction with the breast cancer cells in comparison with liver cancer cells HepG2, human mammary cells MCF-10A cells and serum, 16 of the phage probes selectively interacted with the breast cancer cells whereas 32 bound both breast and liver cancer cells. The most prominent cancer-specific phage DMPGTVLP, demonstrating sub-nanomolar Kd in interaction with target cells, was used for affinity chromatography of cellular membrane molecules to reveal its potential binding receptor. The isolated protein was identified by direct sequencing as cellular surface nucleolin. This conclusion was confirmed by inhibition of the phage–cell interaction with nucleolin antibodies. Other prominent phage binders VPTDTDYS, VEEGGYIAA, and DWRGDSMDS demonstrate consensus motifs common to previously identified cancer-specific peptides. Isolated phage proteins exhibit inherent binding specificity towards cancer cells, demonstrating the functional activity of the selected fused peptides. The selected phages, their peptide inserts and intact fusion proteins can serve as promising ligands for the development of targeted nanomedicines and their study in model mice with xenograft of human cells MCF-7 and ZR-75-1. PMID:22490956

  13. Landscape phages and their fusion proteins targeted to breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fagbohun, Olusegun A; Bedi, Deepa; Grabchenko, Natalia I; Deinnocentes, Patricia A; Bird, Richard C; Petrenko, Valery A

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of death among women in the USA. The efficacy of existing anticancer therapeutics can be improved by targeting them through conjugation with ligands binding to cellular receptors. Recently, we developed a novel drug targeting strategy based on the use of pre-selected cancer-specific 'fusion pVIII proteins' (fpVIII), as targeting ligands. To study the efficiency of this approach in animal models, we developed a panel of breast cancer cell-binding phages as a source of targeted fpVIIIs. Two landscape phage peptide libraries (8-mer f8/8 and 9-mer f8/9) were screened to isolate 132 phage variants that recognize breast carcinoma cells MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 and internalize into the cells. When tested for their interaction with the breast cancer cells in comparison with liver cancer cells HepG2, human mammary cells MCF-10A cells and serum, 16 of the phage probes selectively interacted with the breast cancer cells whereas 32 bound both breast and liver cancer cells. The most prominent cancer-specific phage DMPGTVLP, demonstrating sub-nanomolar Kd in interaction with target cells, was used for affinity chromatography of cellular membrane molecules to reveal its potential binding receptor. The isolated protein was identified by direct sequencing as cellular surface nucleolin. This conclusion was confirmed by inhibition of the phage-cell interaction with nucleolin antibodies. Other prominent phage binders VPTDTDYS, VEEGGYIAA, and DWRGDSMDS demonstrate consensus motifs common to previously identified cancer-specific peptides. Isolated phage proteins exhibit inherent binding specificity towards cancer cells, demonstrating the functional activity of the selected fused peptides. The selected phages, their peptide inserts and intact fusion proteins can serve as promising ligands for the development of targeted nanomedicines and their study in model mice with xenograft of human cells MCF-7 and ZR-75-1.

  14. Novel cancer stem cell targets during epithelial to mesenchymal transition in PTEN-deficient trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gasparyan, Mari; Xu, Fangying; Jiang, Hui; Lin, Chang-Ching; Myers, Ila; Korkaya, Hasan; Liu, Yajing; Connarn, Jamie; He, Huining; Zhang, Ning; Wicha, Max S.; Sun, Duxin

    2016-01-01

    Continued use of trastuzumab in PTEN-deficient HER2+ breast cancer induces the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), transforms HER2+ to triple negative breast cancer, and expands breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). Using cancer cell lines with two distinct states, epithelial and mesenchymal, we identified novel targets during EMT in PTEN-deficient trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer. Differential gene expression and distinct responses to a small molecule in BT474 (HER2+ trastuzumab-sensitive) and the PTEN-deficient trastuzumab-resistant derivative (BT474-PTEN-LTT) provided the selection tools to identify targets during EMT. siRNA knockdown and small molecule inhibition confirmed MEOX1 as one of the critical molecular targets to regulate both BCSCs and mesenchymal-like cell proliferation. MEOX1 was associated with poor survival, lymph node metastasis, and stage of breast cancer patients. These findings suggest that MEOX1 is a clinically relevant novel target in BCSCs and mesenchymal-like cancer cells in PTEN-deficient trastuzumab resistant breast cancer and may serve as target for future drug development. PMID:27285982

  15. Breast Cancer Detection by B7-H3-Targeted Ultrasound Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bachawal, Sunitha V; Jensen, Kristin C; Wilson, Katheryne E; Tian, Lu; Lutz, Amelie M; Willmann, Jürgen K

    2015-06-15

    Ultrasound complements mammography as an imaging modality for breast cancer detection, especially in patients with dense breast tissue, but its utility is limited by low diagnostic accuracy. One emerging molecular tool to address this limitation involves contrast-enhanced ultrasound using microbubbles targeted to molecular signatures on tumor neovasculature. In this study, we illustrate how tumor vascular expression of B7-H3 (CD276), a member of the B7 family of ligands for T-cell coregulatory receptors, can be incorporated into an ultrasound method that can distinguish normal, benign, precursor, and malignant breast pathologies for diagnostic purposes. Through an IHC analysis of 248 human breast specimens, we found that vascular expression of B7-H3 was selectively and significantly higher in breast cancer tissues. B7-H3 immunostaining on blood vessels distinguished benign/precursors from malignant lesions with high diagnostic accuracy in human specimens. In a transgenic mouse model of cancer, the B7-H3-targeted ultrasound imaging signal was increased significantly in breast cancer tissues and highly correlated with ex vivo expression levels of B7-H3 on quantitative immunofluorescence. Our findings offer a preclinical proof of concept for the use of B7-H3-targeted ultrasound molecular imaging as a tool to improve the diagnostic accuracy of breast cancer detection in patients.

  16. Breast Cancer Detection by B7-H3 Targeted Ultrasound Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Jensen, Kristin C.; Wilson, Katheryne E.; Tian, Lu; Lutz, Amelie M.; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound complements mammography as an imaging modality for breast cancer detection, especially in patients with dense breast tissue, but its utility is limited by low diagnostic accuracy. One emerging molecular tool to address this limitation involves contrast-enhanced ultrasound using microbubbles targeted to molecular signatures on tumor neovasculature. In this study, we illustrate how tumor vascular expression of B7-H3 (CD276), a member of the B7 family of ligands for T cell co-regulatory receptors, can be incorporated into an ultrasound method that can distinguish normal, benign, precursor and malignant breast pathologies for diagnostic purposes. Through an immunohistochemical analysis of 248 human breast specimens, we found that vascular expression of B7-H3 was selectively and significantly higher in breast cancer tissues. B7-H3 immunostaining on blood vessels distinguished benign/precursors from malignant lesions with high diagnostic accuracy in human specimens. In a transgenic mouse model of cancer, the B7-H3-targeted ultrasound imaging signal was increased significantly in breast cancer tissues and highly correlated with ex vivo expression levels of B7-H3 on quantitative immunofluorescence. Our findings offer a preclinical proof of concept for the use of B7-H3-targeted ultrasound molecular imaging as a tool to improve the diagnostic accuracy of breast cancer detection in patients. PMID:25899053

  17. Inhibition of Estrogen-Induced Growth of Breast Cancer by Targeting Mitochondria Oxidants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    breast cancer cells and other cell types. Low levels of ROS have been reported to induce proliferation, growth and metastasis of breast cancer cells...cells and other cell types which at a chronic sublethal levelhave been shown to induce proliferation,growth, and metastasis to cause therapeutic...cooperates with E2F targeted gene expression of human bone osteosarcoma and mammary gland adenocarcinoma to down-regulates proliferation [78;79

  18. Targeting Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Axis in Obesity-Promoted Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    risk is seen mainly in women who have never used menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and for tumors that express both estrogen and progesterone...targeting this axis as a promising strategy for effective treatment of hormonal refractory breast cancer with available anti-estrogens. These treatments...Enhances Hormonal Therapy for Breast Cancer. Oncogenesis, in press, 2015. Oyeniran C1, Sturgill JL, Hait NC, Huang WC, Avni D, Maceyka M1, Newton J

  19. Computational selection of antibody-drug conjugate targets for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fauteux, François; Hill, Jennifer J.; Jaramillo, Maria L.; Pan, Youlian; Phan, Sieu; Famili, Fazel; O'Connor-McCourt, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    The selection of therapeutic targets is a critical aspect of antibody-drug conjugate research and development. In this study, we applied computational methods to select candidate targets overexpressed in three major breast cancer subtypes as compared with a range of vital organs and tissues. Microarray data corresponding to over 8,000 tissue samples were collected from the public domain. Breast cancer samples were classified into molecular subtypes using an iterative ensemble approach combining six classification algorithms and three feature selection techniques, including a novel kernel density-based method. This feature selection method was used in conjunction with differential expression and subcellular localization information to assemble a primary list of targets. A total of 50 cell membrane targets were identified, including one target for which an antibody-drug conjugate is in clinical use, and six targets for which antibody-drug conjugates are in clinical trials for the treatment of breast cancer and other solid tumors. In addition, 50 extracellular proteins were identified as potential targets for non-internalizing strategies and alternative modalities. Candidate targets linked with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition were identified by analyzing differential gene expression in epithelial and mesenchymal tumor-derived cell lines. Overall, these results show that mining human gene expression data has the power to select and prioritize breast cancer antibody-drug conjugate targets, and the potential to lead to new and more effective cancer therapeutics. PMID:26700623

  20. Blockade of extracellular NM23 or its endothelial target slows breast cancer growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Yokdang, Nucharee; Nordmeier, Senny; Speirs, Katie; Burkin, Heather R.; Buxton, Iain L. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase (NDPK), described as NM23 a metastasis suppressor, is found in the culture medium of cancer cells lines suggesting that the kinase may have an extracellular role. We propose that extracellular NM23 released from breast cancers in vivo stimulates tumor cell migration, proliferation and endothelial cell angiogenesis in support of metastasis development. Methods NM23 in the bloodstream of immunocompromised mice carrying human triple-negative breast cancers or in breast cancer patients was measured by ELISA. Primary and metastatic tumor development, the impact of blockade of NM23 and/or its stimulation of nucleotide receptors were measured using in vivo imaging. NM23 expression data in the Curtis breast dataset was examined to test our hypothesis that NM23 may play a mechanistic role in breast cancer development. Results SCID mice carrying metastatic MDA-MB-231Luc+ triple-negative human breast tumor cells elaborate NM23 into the circulation correlated with primary tumor growth. Treatment of mice with the NM23 inhibitor ellagic acid (EA) or the purinergic receptor antagonist MRS2179 slowed primary tumor growth. At 16 weeks following implantation, lung metastases were reduced in mice treated with EA, MRS2179 or the combination. Expression of NM23 in the Curtis breast dataset confirmed a likely role for NM23 in tumor metastasis. Conclusions Extracellular NM23 may constitute both a biomarker and a therapeutic target in the management of breast cancer. PMID:26413311

  1. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Exercise in Breast Cancer Prevention: Identifying Common Targets

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmagid, Salma A.; MacKinnon, Jessica L.; Janssen, Sarah M.; Ma, David W.L.

    2016-01-01

    Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the potential synergistic effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise is yet to be determined. This review explores targets for breast cancer prevention that are common between n-3 PUFA intake and exercise and that may be important study outcomes for future research investigating the combined effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise. These lines of evidence highlight potential new avenues for research and strategies for breast cancer prevention. PMID:27812288

  2. Targeting Breast Cancers Featuring Activating Mutations in PIK3CA by Generating a Lethal Dose of PIP3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-06-1-0341 TITLE: Targeting Breast Cancers Featuring...ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02115 REPORT DATE...2006 – 31 Jan 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Breast Cancers Featuring Activating Mutations in PIK3CA by Generating a

  3. Targeting breast cancer stem cells with HER2-specific antibodies and natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Diessner, Joachim; Bruttel, Valentin; Becker, Kathrin; Pawlik, Miriam; Stein, Roland; Häusler, Sebastian; Dietl, Johannes; Wischhusen, Jörg; Hönig, Arnd

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Every year, nearly 1.4 million new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed, and about 450.000 women die of the disease. Approximately 15-25% of breast cancer cases exhibit increased quantities of the trans-membrane receptor tyrosine kinase human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) on the tumor cell surface. Previous studies showed that blockade of this HER2 proto-oncogene with the antibody trastuzumab substantially improved the overall survival of patients with this aggressive type of breast cancer. Recruitment of natural killer (NK) cells and subsequent induction of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) contributed to this beneficial effect. We hypothesized that antibody binding to HER2-positive breast cancer cells and thus ADCC might be further improved by synergistically applying two different HER2-specific antibodies, trastuzumab and pertuzumab. We found that tumor cell killing via ADCC was increased when the combination of trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and NK cells was applied to HER2-positive breast cancer cells, as compared to the extent of ADCC induced by a single antibody. Furthermore, a subset of CD44(high)CD24(low)HER2(low) cells, which possessed characteristics of cancer stem cells, could be targeted more efficiently by the combination of two HER2-specific antibodies compared to the efficiency of one antibody. These in vitro results demonstrated the immunotherapeutic benefit achieved by the combined application of trastuzumab and pertuzumab. These findings are consistent with the positive results of the clinical studies, CLEOPATRA and NEOSPHERE, conducted with patients that had HER2-positive breast cancer. Compared to a single antibody treatment, the combined application of trastuzumab and pertuzumab showed a stronger ADCC effect and improved the targeting of breast cancer stem cells.

  4. Oncogenic role and therapeutic target of leptin signaling in breast cancer and cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shanchun; Liu, Mingli; Wang, Guangdi; Torroella-Kouri, Marta; Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben R.

    2012-01-01

    Significant correlations between obesity and incidence of various cancers have been reported. Obesity, considered a mild inflammatory process, is characterized by a high level of secretion of several cytokines from adipose tissue. These molecules have disparate effects, which could be relevant to cancer development. Among the inflammatory molecules, leptin, mainly produced by adipose tissue and overexpressed with its receptor (Ob-R) in cancer cells is the most studied adipokine. Mutations of leptin or Ob-R genes associated with obesity or cancer are rarely found. However, leptin is an anti-apoptotic molecule in many cell types, and its central roles in obesity-related cancers are based on its pro-angiogenic, pro-inflammatory and mitogenic actions. Notably, these leptin actions are commonly reinforced through entangled crosstalk with multiple oncogenes, cytokines and growth factors. Leptin-induced signals comprise several pathways commonly triggered by many cytokines (i.e, canonical: JAK2/STAT; MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI-3K/AKT1 and, non-canonical signaling pathways: PKC, JNK and p38 MAP kinase). Each of these leptin-induced signals is essential to its biological effects on food intake, energy balance, adiposity, immune and endocrine systems, as well as oncogenesis. This review is mainly focused on the current knowledge of the oncogenic role of leptin in breast cancer. Additionally, leptin pro-angiogenic molecular mechanisms and its potential role in breast cancer stem cells will be reviewed. Strict biunivocal binding-affinity and activation of leptin/Ob-R complex makes it a unique molecular target for prevention and treatment of breast cancer, particularly in obesity contexts. PMID:22289780

  5. Targeting the NFκB signaling pathways for breast cancer prevention and therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Nag, Subhasree A; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2015-01-01

    The activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB), a proinflammatory transcription factor, is a commonly observed phenomenon in breast cancer. It facilitates the development of a hormone-independent, invasive, high-grade, and late-stage tumor phenotype. Moreover, the commonly used cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy approaches activate NFκB, leading to the development of invasive breast cancers that show resistance to chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and endocrine therapy. Inhibition of NFκB results in an increase in the sensitivity of cancer cells to the apoptotic effects of chemotherapeutic agents and radiation and restoring hormone sensitivity, which is correlated with increased disease-free survival in patients with breast cancer. In this review article, we focus on the role of the NFκB signaling pathways in the development and progression of breast cancer and the validity of NFκB as a potential target for breast cancer prevention and therapy. We also discuss the recent findings that NFκB may have tumor suppressing activity in certain cancer types. Finally, this review also covers the state-of-the-art development of NFκB inhibitors for cancer therapy and prevention, the challenges in targeting validation, and pharmacology and toxicology evaluations of these agents from the bench to the bedside.

  6. Cancer Stem and Progenitor-Like Cells as Pharmacological Targets in Breast Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Valéria B.; Schenka, André A.

    2015-01-01

    The present review is focused on the current role of neoplastic stem and progenitor-like cells as primary targets in the pharmacotherapy of cancer as well as in the development of new anticancer drugs. We begin by summarizing the main characteristics of these tumor-initiating cells and key concepts that support their participation in therapeutic failure. In particular, we discuss the differences between the major carcinogenesis models (ie, clonal evolution vs cancer stem cell (CSC) model) with emphasis on breast cancer (given its importance to the study of CSCs) and their implications for the development of new treatment strategies. In addition, we describe the main ways to target these cells, including the main signaling pathways that are more activated or altered in CSCs. Finally, we provide a comprehensive compilation of the most recently tested drugs. PMID:26609237

  7. Delineation of Supraclavicular Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Lindsay C.; Diehn, Felix E.; Boughey, Judy C.; Childs, Stephanie K.; Park, Sean S.; Yan, Elizabeth S.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Mutter, Robert W.

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: To map the location of gross supraclavicular metastases in patients with breast cancer, in order to determine areas at highest risk of harboring subclinical disease. Methods and Materials: Patients with axial imaging of gross supraclavicular disease were identified from an institutional breast cancer registry. Locations of the metastatic lymph nodes were transferred onto representative axial computed tomography images of the supraclavicular region and compared with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) breast cancer atlas for radiation therapy planning. Results: Sixty-two patients with 161 supraclavicular nodal metastases were eligible for study inclusion. At the time of diagnosis, 117 nodal metastases were present in 44 patients. Forty-four nodal metastases in 18 patients were detected at disease recurrence, 4 of whom had received prior radiation to the supraclavicular fossa. Of the 161 nodal metastases, 95 (59%) were within the RTOG consensus volume, 4 nodal metastases (2%) in 3 patients were marginally within the volume, and 62 nodal metastases (39%) in 30 patients were outside the volume. Supraclavicular disease outside the RTOG consensus volume was located in 3 regions: at the level of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage (superior to the RTOG volume), in the posterolateral supraclavicular fossa (posterolateral to the RTOG volume), and in the lateral low supraclavicular fossa (lateral to the RTOG volume). Only women with multiple supraclavicular metastases had nodal disease that extended superiorly to the level of the thyroid cartilage. Conclusions: For women with risk of harboring subclinical supraclavicular disease warranting the addition of supraclavicular radiation, coverage of the posterior triangle and the lateral low supraclavicular region should be considered. For women with known supraclavicular disease, extension of neck coverage superior to the cricoid cartilage may be warranted.

  8. Delineation of Supraclavicular Target Volumes in Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lindsay C; Diehn, Felix E; Boughey, Judy C; Childs, Stephanie K; Park, Sean S; Yan, Elizabeth S; Petersen, Ivy A; Mutter, Robert W

    2015-07-01

    To map the location of gross supraclavicular metastases in patients with breast cancer, in order to determine areas at highest risk of harboring subclinical disease. Patients with axial imaging of gross supraclavicular disease were identified from an institutional breast cancer registry. Locations of the metastatic lymph nodes were transferred onto representative axial computed tomography images of the supraclavicular region and compared with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) breast cancer atlas for radiation therapy planning. Sixty-two patients with 161 supraclavicular nodal metastases were eligible for study inclusion. At the time of diagnosis, 117 nodal metastases were present in 44 patients. Forty-four nodal metastases in 18 patients were detected at disease recurrence, 4 of whom had received prior radiation to the supraclavicular fossa. Of the 161 nodal metastases, 95 (59%) were within the RTOG consensus volume, 4 nodal metastases (2%) in 3 patients were marginally within the volume, and 62 nodal metastases (39%) in 30 patients were outside the volume. Supraclavicular disease outside the RTOG consensus volume was located in 3 regions: at the level of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage (superior to the RTOG volume), in the posterolateral supraclavicular fossa (posterolateral to the RTOG volume), and in the lateral low supraclavicular fossa (lateral to the RTOG volume). Only women with multiple supraclavicular metastases had nodal disease that extended superiorly to the level of the thyroid cartilage. For women with risk of harboring subclinical supraclavicular disease warranting the addition of supraclavicular radiation, coverage of the posterior triangle and the lateral low supraclavicular region should be considered. For women with known supraclavicular disease, extension of neck coverage superior to the cricoid cartilage may be warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Target for Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    by SXR activators, we treated MCF7 cells with 10 gM RIF, as well as the other SXR activators anadamide (ANA) and clotrimazole (CLO). Once again we...used CAMP as a positive control. As shown in Figure 2, we found that RIF, anandamide and clotrimazole were all able to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells...arrest. It is already known that the SXR activator clotrimazole can cause cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and inhibit proliferation of breast cancer

  10. Targeted Approaches to Overcoming Endocrine Resistance in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    positive tumors (Fig. 4). To assess the prognostic importance of 14-3-3ζ, we stratified primary tumors based on 14-3-3ζ IHC and compared these to...interplay between FOXM1 and the MAPK pathway in hormone-resistant breast cancers. Results from this analysis showed the importance of cooperation...involvement of miRs in the regulation of 14-3-3z. The great importance of miRs is underscored by the fact that they are estimated to have roles in

  11. Brachyury promotes tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer by targeting SIRT1.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaichun; Ying, Mingzhen; Feng, Dan; Du, Jie; Chen, Shiyu; Dan, Bing; Wang, Cuihua; Wang, Yajie

    2016-12-01

    Tamoxifen is effective for treating estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα)-positive breast cancers. However, few molecular mediators of tamoxifen resistance have been elucidated. In the present study, we determine the underlying roles of Brachyury in tamoxifen resistance. Loss- and gain-of-function assay are utilized to confirm the oncogenic roles of Brachyury in breast cancer. Compared with the normal MCF10A cells, Brachyury is commonly overexpressed in breast cancer cell lines. Knockdown of Brachyury inhibits tamoxifen resistance, whereas overexpression of Brachyury enhances tamoxifen resistance as demonstrated increased cell viability and reduced cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, we demonstrate for the first time that Brachyury mediates tamoxifen resistance by regulating Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1). Collectively, our data, as a proof of principle, indicate that Brachyury is a candidate marker for predicting the clinical efficacy of tamoxifen and targeting SIRT1 could overcome resistance to tamoxifen in breast cancer cells.

  12. Viral Etiology Relationship between Human Papillomavirus and Human Breast Cancer and Target of Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chen; Teng, Zhi Ping; Chen, Yun Xin; Shen, Dan Hua; Li, Jin Tao; Zeng, Yi

    2016-05-01

    To explore the viral etiology of human breast cancer to determine whether there are novel molecular targets for gene therapy of breast cancer and provide evidence for the research of gene therapy and vaccine development for breast cancer. PCR was used to screen HPV16 and HPV18 oncogenes E6 and E7 in the SKBR3 cell line and in 76 paraffin embedded breast cancer tissue samples. RNA interference was used to knock down the expression of HPV18 E6 and E7 in SKBR3 cells, then the changes in the expression of cell-cycle related proteins, cell viability, colony formation, metastasis, and cell cycle progression were determined. HPV18 oncogenes E6 and E7 were amplified and sequenced from the SKBR3 cells. Of the patient samples, 6.58% and 23.68% were tested to be positive for HPV18 E6 and HPV18 E7. In the cell culture models, the knockdown of HPV18 E6 and E7 inhibited the proliferation, metastasis, and cell cycle progression of SKBR3 cell. The knockdown also clearly affected the expression levels of cell cycle related proteins. HPV was a contributor to virus caused human breast cancer, suggesting that the oncogenes in HPV were potential targets for gene therapy of breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of adipokines and cytokines in obesity-associated breast cancer: therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sajid; Shukla, Samriddhi; Sinha, Sonam; Meeran, Syed Musthapa

    2013-12-01

    Obesity is the cause of a large proportion of breast cancer incidences and mortality in post-menopausal women. In obese people, elevated levels of various growth factors such as insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are found. Elevated insulin level leads to increased secretion of estrogen by binding to the circulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). The increased estrogen-mediated downstream signaling favors breast carcinogenesis. Obesity leads to altered expression profiles of various adipokines and cytokines including leptin, adiponectin, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β. The increased levels of leptin and decreased adiponectin secretion are directly associated with breast cancer development. Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment promote tumor development. Efficacy of available breast cancer drugs against obesity-associated breast cancer is yet to be confirmed. In this review, we will discuss different adipokine- and cytokine-mediated molecular signaling pathways involved in obesity-associated breast cancer, available therapeutic strategies and potential therapeutic targets for obesity-associated breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Targeting breast cancer through its microenvironment: current status of preclinical and clinical research in finding relevant targets.

    PubMed

    Nienhuis, H H; Gaykema, S B M; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Jalving, M; Brouwers, A H; Lub-de Hooge, M N; van der Vegt, B; Overmoyer, B; de Vries, E G E; Schröder, C P

    2015-03-01

    It is increasingly evident that not only breast cancer cells, but also the tissue embedding these cells: the tumor microenvironment, plays an important role in tumor progression, metastasis formation and treatment sensitivity. This review focuses on the current knowledge of processes by which the microenvironment affects breast cancer, including formation of the metastatic niche, metabolic stimulation, stimulation of tumor cell migration, immune modulation, angiogenesis and matrix remodeling. The number of drugs targeting key factors in these processes is expanding, and the available clinical data is increasing. Therefore current strategies for intervention and prediction of treatment response are outlined. At present, targeting the formation of the metastatic niche and metabolic stimulation by the breast cancer microenvironment, are already showing clinical efficacy. Intervening in the stimulation of tumor cell migration and immune modulation by the microenvironment upcoming fields of great research interest. In contrast, targeting microenvironmental angiogenesis or matrix remodeling appears to be of limited clinical relevance in breast cancer treatment so far. Further research is warranted to optimize intervention strategies and develop predictive tests for the relevance of targeting involved factors within the microenvironment in order to optimally personalize breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of vitamin D3 target genes in human breast cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Lei; Anderson, Paul H; Turner, Andrew G; Pishas, Kathleen I; Dhatrak, Deepak J; Gill, Peter G; Morris, Howard A; Callen, David F

    2016-11-01

    Multiple epidemiological studies have shown that high vitamin D3 status is strongly associated with improved breast cancer survival. To determine the molecular pathways influenced by 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) in breast epithelial cells we isolated RNA from normal human breast and cancer tissues treated with 1,25D in an ex vivo explant system. RNA-Seq revealed 523 genes that were differentially expressed in breast cancer tissues in response to 1,25D treatment, and 127 genes with altered expression in normal breast tissues. GoSeq KEGG pathway analysis revealed 1,25D down-regulated cellular metabolic pathways and enriched pathways involved with intercellular adhesion. The highly 1,25D up-regulated target genes CLMN, SERPINB1, EFTUD1, and KLK6were selected for further analysis and up-regulation by 1,25D was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis in breast cancer cell lines and in a subset of human clinical samples from normal and cancer breast tissues. Ketoconazole potentiated 1,25D-mediated induction of CLMN, SERPINB1, and KLK6 mRNA through inhibition of 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) activity. Elevated expression levels of CLMN, SERPINB1, and KLK6 are associated with prolonged relapse-free survival for breast cancer patients. The major finding of the present study is that exposure of both normal and malignant breast tissue to 1,25D results in changes in cellular adhesion, metabolic pathways and tumor suppressor-like pathways, which support epidemiological data suggesting that adequate vitamin D3 levels may improve breast cancer outcome.

  16. Preclinical validation of a novel compound targeting p70S6 kinase in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Segatto, Ilenia; Massarut, Samuele; Boyle, Robert; Baldassarre, Gustavo; Walker, David; Belletti, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a frequent and treatable disease. However, when recurrent, breast cancer often becomes refractory to therapy and progresses into metastatic forms that are typically incurable. Thus, understanding and targeting the critical pathways underlying breast cancer recurrence is urgently needed to eradicate primary disease and achieve better prognosis. Recently, we have demonstrated that the ribosomal protein p70S6K is activated in residual breast cancer cells as a result of post-surgical inflammation and that interfering with its activity in the peri-operative setting strongly suppresses recurrence in a mouse model. In order to develop clinically-exploitable treatments targeting p70S6K, we have tested a newly generated compound, called FS-115. FS-115 potently inhibited p70S6K1 (IC50 35nM) with high selectivity over other AGC kinases or PI3K pathway kinases. In vitro, treatment with FS-115 efficiently blocked p70S6K activity in breast cancer cell lines and impaired colony formation and anchorage independent growth. Pharmacokinetic profiling showed that FS-115 exhibited high oral bioavailability, optimal plasma distribution and high brain penetrance. In nude mice, FS-115 strongly suppressed tumor take-rate and primary tumor growth. Oral dosing with FS-115 in a peri-operative schedule was effective in decreasing local recurrence of breast cancer and a long-term treatment schedule was well tolerated and efficiently suppressed distant metastasis formation. Altogether, we propose that FS-115 might be a good candidate for the treatment of breast cancer patients at high risk to relapse. Summary Statement Our results confirm that inhibition of p70S6K represents a valuable opportunity for restraining loco-regional relapse and metastasis in breast cancer and identify in FS-115 a promising candidate-inhibitor to move from preclinical to clinical treatments. PMID:27155197

  17. Novel drugs that target the estrogen-related receptor alpha: their therapeutic potential in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    May, Felicity EB

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer continues to rise: 1.7 million women were diagnosed with and 521,000 women died from breast cancer in 2012. This review considers first current treatment options: surgery; radiotherapy; and systemic endocrine, anti-biological, and cytotoxic therapies. Clinical management includes prevention, early detection by screening, treatment with curative intent, management of chronic disease, and palliative control of advanced breast cancer. Next, the potential of novel drugs that target DNA repair, growth factor dependence, intracellular and intercellular signal transduction, and cell cycle are considered. Estrogen-related receptor alpha has attracted attention as a therapeutic target in triple-negative breast cancers with de novo resistance to, and in breast cancers with acquired resistance to, endocrine therapies such as antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors. Estrogen-related receptor alpha is an orphan receptor and transcription factor. Its activity is regulated by coregulator proteins and posttranslational modification. It is an energy sensor that controls adaptation to energy demand and may facilitate glycolytic metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative respiration in breast cancer cells. Estrogen-related receptor alpha increases breast cancer cell migration, proliferation, and tumor development. It is expressed at high levels in estrogen receptor-negative tumors, and is proposed to activate estrogen-responsive genes in endocrine-resistant tumors. The structures and functions of the ligand-binding domains of estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen-related receptor alpha, their ability to bind estrogens, phytoestrogens, and synthetic ligands, and the effects of ligand agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists on biological activity, are evaluated. Synthetic ligands of estrogen-related receptor alpha have activity in preclinical models of metabolic disorders, diabetes, osteoporosis, and oncology. The clinical settings in which these novel

  18. SRC family kinases as novel therapeutic targets to treat breast cancer brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siyuan; Huang, Wen-Chien; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Chenyu; Lowery, Frank J; Ding, Zhaoxi; Guo, Hua; Wang, Hai; Huang, Suyun; Sahin, Aysegul A; Aldape, Kenneth D; Steeg, Patricia S; Yu, Dihua

    2013-09-15

    Despite better control of early-stage disease and improved overall survival of patients with breast cancer, the incidence of life-threatening brain metastases continues to increase in some of these patients. Unfortunately, other than palliative treatments there is no effective therapy for this condition. In this study, we reveal a critical role for Src activation in promoting brain metastasis in a preclinical model of breast cancer and we show how Src-targeting combinatorial regimens can treat HER2(+) brain metastases in this model. We found that Src was hyperactivated in brain-seeking breast cancer cells derived from human cell lines or from patients' brain metastases. Mechanistically, Src activation promoted tumor cell extravasation into the brain parenchyma via permeabilization of the blood-brain barrier. When combined with the EGFR/HER2 dual-targeting drug lapatinib, an Src-targeting combinatorial regimen prevented outgrowth of disseminated breast cancer cells through the induction of cell-cycle arrest. More importantly, this combinatorial regimen inhibited the outgrowth of established experimental brain metastases, prolonging the survival of metastases-bearing mice. Our results provide a rationale for clinical evaluation of Src-targeting regimens to treat patients with breast cancer suffering from brain metastasis. ©2013 AACR.

  19. Targeted anti-HER2 cancer therapy in elderly women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Molina-Garrido, M J; Guillen-Ponce, C; Mora-Rufete, A

    2014-06-01

    Trastuzumab or lapatinib treatment with chemotherapy or hormonotherapy are the gold standard treatments for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer (early breast cancer or metastatic breast cancer). Older patients have been largely underrepresented in clinical trials, and few data on trastuzumab or lapatinib efficacy and toxicity have been reported for this subgroup. This article has reviewed the main articles that have analyzed these items.

  20. Recent development of targeted approaches for the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Maruthanila, V L; Elancheran, R; Kunnumakkara, A B; Kabilan, S; Kotoky, Jibon

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most prominent cause of cancer death in women worldwide. The highlights of this review are to provide an overview of the targeted therapeutic agents, challenges with metastatic breast cancer (MBCa), mechanisms of action through Hedgehog/Gli 1 signaling pathway and future prospective. Over a decade of success, several drugs have been approved and are in the advanced stages of clinical trials that target the receptors such as estrogen receptor, growth factor receptor, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B, etc. Currently, several monoclonal antibodies are also used for the treatment of breast cancer. Advances in understanding tumor biology, particularly signaling pathways such as Notch signaling pathway, Hedgehog/Gli 1 signaling pathway, and inhibitors are considered to be important for bone metastasis. These studies may provide vital information for the design and development of new strategies with respect to efficacy, reduction of the side effects, and treatment strategies.

  1. Targeting the epigenetics of the DNA damage response in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Montenegro, M F; González-Guerrero, R; Sánchez-del-Campo, L; Piñero-Madrona, A; Cabezas-Herrera, J; Rodríguez-López, J N

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is as much an epigenetic disease as it is a genetic disease, and epigenetic alterations in cancer often serve as potent surrogates for genetic mutations. Because the epigenetic factors involved in the DNA damage response are regulated by multiple elements, therapies to target specific components of the epigenetic machinery can be inefficient. In contrast, therapies aimed at inhibiting the methionine cycle can indirectly inhibit both DNA and protein methylation, and the wide variety of genes and pathways that are affected by these methylations make this global strategy very attractive. In the present study, we propose an adjuvant therapy that targets the epigenetics of the DNA damage response in breast cancer cells and that results in efficient apoptosis and a reduction in distant metastases in vivo. We observed that a combined therapy designed to uncouple adenosine metabolism using dipyridamole in the presence of a new synthetic antifolate, 3-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-(−)-catechin, simultaneously and efficiently blocked both the folic cycle and the methionine cycle in breast cancer cells and sensitized these cells to radiotherapy. The treatment impeded the recruitment of 53BP1 and BRCA1 to the chromatin regions flanking DNA double-strand breaks and thereby avoided the DNA damage responses in breast cancer cells that were exposed to ionizing radiation. In addition, this hypomethylating therapy was also efficient in reducing the self-renewal capability of breast cancer-initiating cells and induced reversion of mesenchymal phenotypes in breast cancer cells. PMID:27054335

  2. Bone-induced expression of integrin β3 enables targeted nanotherapy of breast cancer metastases.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael H; Esser, Alison K; Fox, Gregory C; Schmieder, Anne H; Yang, Xiaoxia; Hu, Grace; Pan, Dipanjan; Su, Xinming; Xu, Yalin; Novack, Deborah V; Walsh, Thomas; Colditz, Graham A; Lukaszewicz, Gabriel H; Cordell, Elizabeth; Novack, Joshua S; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Waning, David L; Mohammad, Khalid S; Guise, Theresa A; Lanza, Gregory M; Weilbaecher, Katherine N

    2017-08-30

    Bone metastases occur in ~70% of metastatic breast cancer patients often leading to skeletal injuries. Current treatments are mainly palliative and underscore the unmet clinical need for improved therapies. In this study, we provide preclinical evidence for an antimetastatic therapy based on targeting integrin β3 (β3) which is selectively induced on breast cancer cells in bone by the local bone microenvironment. In a preclinical model of breast cancer, β3 was strongly expressed on bone metastatic cancer cells but not primary mammary tumors or visceral metastases. In tumor tissue from breast cancer patients, β3 was significantly elevated on bone metastases relative to primary tumors from the same patient (n=42). Mechanistic investigations revealed that TGF--β signaling through SMAD2/SMAD3 was necessary for breast cancer induction of β3 within the bone. Using a micelle--based nanoparticle therapy that recognizes integrin αvβ3 (αvβ3--MPs of ~12.5nm), we demonstrated specific localization to breast cancer bone metastases in mice. Using this system for targeted delivery of the chemotherapeutic docetaxel, we showed that bone tumor burden could be reduced significantly with less bone destruction and less hepatotoxicity compared to equimolar doses of free docetaxel. Furthermore, mice treated with αvβ3--MP--docetaxel exhibited a significant decrease in bone-residing tumor cell proliferation compared to free docetaxel. Taken together, our results offer preclinical proof of concept for a method to enhance delivery of chemotherapeutics to breast cancer cells within the bone by exploiting their selective expression of integrin αvβ3 at that metastatic site. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. miR-411-5p inhibits proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cell via targeting GRB2

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yunda; Xu, Guoxing; Liu, Gang; Ye, Yongzhi; Zhang, Chuankai; Fan, Chuannan; Wang, Haibin; Cai, Huali; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Zhengjie; Luo, Qi

    2016-08-05

    miR-411-5p (previously called miR-411) is severely involved in human diseases, however, the relationship between miR-411-5p and breast cancer has not been investigated thoroughly. Here, we found that the expression of miR-411-5p was downregulated in breast cancer tissues compared with their matched adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. In addition, the expression of miR-411-5p was also lower in breast cancer cell lines in contrast with MCF-10A. Moreover, we investigated the target and mechanism of miR-411-5p in breast cancer using mimic and inhibitor, and demonstrated the involvement of GRB2 and Ras activation. Ectopic expression of miR-411-5p suppressed the breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion while low expression of miR-411-5p exhibited the opposite effect. Furthermore, GRB2 was demonstrated to be significantly overexpressed in breast cancer tissues compared with normal tissues, and low expression of GRB2 had a longer overall survival compared with high expression of GRB2 in breast cancer. In general, our study shed light on the miR-411-5p related mechanism in the progression of breast cancer and, miR-411-5p/GRB2/Ras axis is potential to be molecular target for breast cancer therapy. - Highlights: • miR-411-5p is downregulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. • miR-411-5p inhibits breast cancer cells growth, migration and invasion in vitro. • GRB2 is a direct target of miR-411-5p in breast cancer. • GRB2 is overexpressed in breast cancer and associates with disease outcome. • miR-411-5p suppresses breast cancer progression though GRB2-SOS-Ras pathway.

  4. Recent developments and translational aspects in targeted therapy for metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marhold, Maximilian; Bartsch, Rupert; Zielinski, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Biologically distinct subtypes of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) have been defined by multiple efforts in recent years, showing broad heterogeneity at the molecular level of disease. Throughout this endeavour, oncogenic drivers within MBC were identified as potential therapeutic targets. With recent results from clinical trials targeting these well-known cancer-promoting pathways, this review is trying to elucidate as well as summarise current new therapeutic aspects in MBC and shed light on translational aspects within this entity. PMID:27843605

  5. pH-Responsive Wormlike Micelles with Sequential Metastasis Targeting Inhibit Lung Metastasis of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Xinyu; Yu, Haijun; Bao, Xiaoyue; Cao, Haiqiang; Yin, Qi; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Yaping

    2016-02-18

    Cancer metastasis is the main cause for the high mortality in breast cancer patients. Herein, we first report succinobucol-loaded pH-responsive wormlike micelles (PWMs) with sequential targeting capability to inhibit lung metastasis of breast cancer. PWMs can in a first step be delivered specifically to the sites of metastases in the lungs and then enable the intracellular pH-stimulus responsive drug release in cancer cells to improve the anti-metastatic effect. PWMs are identified as nanofibrillar assemblies with a diameter of 19.9 ± 1.9 nm and a length within the 50-200 nm range, and exhibited pH-sensitive drug release behavior in response to acidic intracellular environments. Moreover, PWMs can obviously inhibit the migration and invasion abilities of metastatic 4T1 breast cancer cells, and reduce the expression of the metastasis-associated vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) at 400 ng mL(-1) of succinobucol. In particular, PWMs can induce a higher specific accumulation in lung and be specifically delivered to the sites of metastases in lung, thereby leading to an 86.6% inhibition on lung metastasis of breast cancer. Therefore, the use of sequentially targeting PWMs can become an encouraging strategy for specific targeting and effective treatment of cancer metastasis.

  6. Concepts and targets in triple-negative breast cancer: recent results and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Poornima; Nanda, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease in which tumors are defined by lack of expression of the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR), and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptor. No targeted therapies are available for the treatment of TNBC, and chemotherapy remains the standard of care. Gene expression profiling has identified six distinct molecular subtypes of TNBC. The identification of novel targets, coupled with the development of therapies for different subsets of TNBC, holds great promise for the future treatment of this aggressive form of breast cancer. This review focuses on novel therapies in development for the treatment of TNBC. PMID:27583027

  7. A perspective on anti-EGFR therapies targeting triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, Katsuya; Hung, Mien-Chie; Yamaguchi, Hirohito

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which lacks estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), accounts for about 15-20% of breast cancers and is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype. There are currently no effective therapies against metastatic TNBC. Compared with other breast cancer subtypes, EGFR is frequently overexpressed in TNBC and a potential therapeutic target for this disease. There are two types of EGFR inhibitors, small molecular tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) and monoclonal antibody (mAb), for the treatment of cancers, such as non-small cell lung cancer and colorectal cancer. For breast cancer, however, the clinical trials of EGFR inhibitors have failed due to low response rates. Because a small portion of patients do demonstrate response to EGFR inhibitors, it may be necessary to stratify patients to enhance the efficacy of EGFR inhibitors in TNBC and to develop the effective combination therapy for this patient population. In this review, we describe some of the molecular mechanisms underlying EGFR inhibitor sensitivity and further discuss the possible therapeutic strategies to increase the efficacy of EGFR inhibitors in TNBC. PMID:27648353

  8. Targeting tumour-initiating cells to improve the cure rates for triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Anna L; Reipas, Kristen; Maxwell, Christopher; Dunn, Sandra E

    2010-07-26

    Tumour recurrence is one of the biggest challenges in breast cancer management because it affects 25-30% of women with breast cancer and the tumours are often incurable. Women with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC--lacking expression of the oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and the receptor HER2/ERBB2) have the highest rates of early recurrence relative to other breast cancer subtypes. Early recurrence might be due to tumour-initiating cells (TICs), which are resistant to conventional therapies, can remain dormant and can subsequently give rise to secondary tumours. In breast cancer, TICs are identified by the cell-surface markers CD44+/CD24-/EpCAM+ and/or possess ALDH1 enzyme activity. This subpopulation has the ability to self-renew, grow as mammospheres and initiate tumour formation. Fuelling the problem of relapse is the fact that chemotherapy and radiation can induce or select for TICs; this was reported in preclinical models and more recently in women being treated for breast cancer. Thus, new therapeutic agents for TNBC are presently being sought to overcome this problem. Here we review the roles of receptor tyrosine kinases, signalling intermediates and transcription factors in sustaining the TIC subpopulation. Particular emphasis is placed on targeting these molecules in order to eliminate and/or prevent the induction of TICs and ultimately reduce the frequency of TNBC recurrence.

  9. Targeting apoptosis pathway with natural terpenoids: implications for treatment of breast and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huanjie; Dou, Q Ping

    2010-06-01

    Terpenoids represent a large and diverse class of naturally occurring compounds found in a variety of fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants. Structurally some of the terpenoids are similar to human hormones. A diet rich in terpenoids is inversely related with the risk of chronic diseases including cancers. Breast and prostate cancers are hormone-related diseases and the second leading cause of female and male cancer mortality. Diterpenoid paclitaxel, and its semi-synthetic analogue docetaxel, have entered clinical use against established breast and prostate cancers. Here we reviewed potential molecular targets and biological properties of natural terpenoids, including monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids and tetraterpenoids, and their applications in treatment of human breast and prostate cancers. These terpenoids are able to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce tumor cell death by inhibiting multiple cancer-specific targets including the proteasome, NF-kappaB, and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. The efficacy of these terpenoids against breast or prostate cancer cells, as demonstrated in pre-clinical studies support clinical application of these naturally occurring terpenoids in treatment of hormone-related human cancers.

  10. Synthesis of a novel, sequentially active-targeted drug delivery nanoplatform for breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Satsangi, Arpan; Roy, Sudipa S; Satsangi, Rajiv K; Tolcher, Anthony W; Vadlamudi, Ratna K; Goins, Beth; Ong, Joo L

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Paclitaxel (PTX), an important breast cancer medicine, exhibits reduced bioavailability and therapeutic index due to high hydrophobicity and indiscriminate cytotoxicity. PTX encapsulation in one-level active targeting overcomes such barriers, but enhances toxicity to normal tissues with cancer-similar expression profiles. This research attempted to overcome this challenge by increasing selectivity of cancer cell targeting while maintaining an ability to overcome traditional pharmacological barriers. Thus, a multi-core, multi-targeting construct for tumor specific delivery of PTX was fabricated with (i) an inner-core prodrug targeting the cancer-overexpressed cathepsin B through a cathepsin B-cleavable tetrapeptide that conjugates PTX to a poly(amidoamine) dendrimer, and (ii) the encapsulation of this prodrug (PGD) in an outer core of a RES-evading, folate receptor (FR)-targeting liposome. Compared to traditional FR-targeting PTX liposomes, this sequentially active-targeted dendrosome demonstrated better prodrug retention, an increased cytotoxicity to cancer cells (latter being true when FR and cathepsin B activities were both at moderate-to-high levels) and higher tumor reduction. This research may eventually evolve a product platform with reduced systemic toxicity inherent with traditional chemotherapy and localized toxicity inherent to single-target nanoplatforms, thereby allowing for better tolerance of higher therapeutic load in advanced disease states.

  11. New Advances in Nanotechnology-Based Diagnosis and Therapeutics for Breast Cancer: An Assessment of Active-Targeting Inorganic Nanoplatforms.

    PubMed

    Falagan-Lotsch, Priscila; Grzincic, Elissa M; Murphy, Catherine J

    2017-01-18

    Breast cancer is a major cause of suffering and mortality among women. Limitations in the current diagnostic methods and treatment approaches have led to new strategies to positively impact the survival rates and quality of life of breast cancer patients. Nanotechnology offers a real possibility of mitigating breast cancer mortality by early-stage cancer detection and more precise diagnosis as well as more effective treatments with minimal side effects. The current nanoplatforms approved for breast cancer therapeutics are based on passive tumor targeting using organic nanoparticles and have not provided the expected significant improvements in the clinic. In this review, we present the emerging approaches in breast cancer nanomedicine based on active targeting using versatile inorganic nanoplatforms with biomedical relevance, such as gold, silica, and iron oxide nanoparticles, as well as their efficacy in breast cancer imaging, drug and gene delivery, thermal therapy, combinational therapy, and theranostics in preclinical studies. The main challenges for clinical translation and perspectives are discussed.

  12. Peptide targeting of quantum dots to human breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haglund, Emily M.; Seale-Goldsmith, Mary-Margaret; Dhawan, Deepika; Stewart, Jane; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Cooper, Christy L.; Reece, Lisa M.; Husk, Timothy; Bergstrom, Donald; Knapp, Deborah; Leary, James F.

    2008-02-01

    Nanomedical approaches to diseases such as cancer provide great promise with respect to diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The impact of nanomedicine versus conventional therapies will be realized with regard to their specific cell targeting capabilities. Semiconductor nanoparticles have distinct advantages due to their chemical conjugation and detection characteristics. The attachment of a peptide sequence, LTVSPWY, was completed. These nanoparticles successfully targeted in vitro and in vivo systems. This technology can be utilized as a base mechanism for the construction of a multifunctional nanomedical system. Nanomedicine has great potential for impacting the treatment of specific diseases and healthcare delivery methods.

  13. Targeting Epigenetics Therapy for Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Burg et al. Biopolymers (Peptide Science) therapeutic target.89 Accordingly, KDM1A inhibition in AML models produces morphological features of...chosen for its intrinsic inhibitory activity against fungi, bacteria , and malignant cancer.230–232 One com- pound synthesized in the series (27; Figure 7...proteins made in bacteria , Journal of molecular biology 272, 301-311. 36. Schmidt, D. M., and McCafferty, D. G. (2007) trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine

  14. Evaluation of carbonic anhydrase IX as a therapeutic target for inhibition of breast cancer invasion and metastasis using a series of in vitro breast cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Carol; Meehan, James; Mullen, Peter; Supuran, Claudiu; Dixon, J. Michael; Thomas, Jeremy S.; Winum, Jean-Yves; Lambin, Philippe; Dubois, Ludwig; Pavathaneni, Nanda-Kumar; Jarman, Edward J.; Renshaw, Lorna; Um, InHwa; Kay, Charlene; Harrison, David J.; Kunkler, Ian H.; Langdon, Simon P.

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative, resistant or metastatic disease are major factors in breast cancer mortality, warranting novel approaches. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is implicated in survival, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells and inhibition provides an innovative therapeutic strategy. The efficacy of 5 novel ureido-substituted sulfamate CAIX inhibitors were assessed in increasingly complex breast cancer models, including cell lines in normoxia and hypoxia, 3D spheroids and an ex-vivo explant model utilizing fresh biopsy tissue from different breast cancer subtypes. CAIX expression was evaluated in a tissue microarray (TMA) of 92 paired lymph node and primary breast cancers and 2 inhibitors were appraised in vivo using MDA-MB-231 xenografts. FC11409B, FC9398A, FC9403, FC9396A and S4 decreased cell proliferation and migration and inhibited 3D spheroid invasion. S4, FC9398A and FC9403A inhibited or prevented invasion into collagen. FC9403A significantly reversed established invasion whilst FC9398A and DTP348 reduced xenograft growth. TMA analysis showed increased CAIX expression in triple negative cancers. These data establish CAIX inhibition as a relevant therapeutic goal in breast cancer, targeting the migratory, invasive, and metastatic potential of this disease. The use of biopsy tissue suggests efficacy against breast cancer subtypes, and should provide a useful tool in drug testing against invasive cancers. PMID:26259239

  15. Impact of Bone-Targeted Treatments on Skeletal Morbidity and Survival in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Robert E

    2016-08-01

    Bone health is of increasing clinical importance throughout the clinical course of breast cancer. First, many breast cancer treatments have effects on reproductive hormones that are critical for bone health. This endocrine disturbance results in accelerated bone loss and an increased risk of fractures that can have a significant negative impact on cancer survivors. Second, the bone marrow microenvironment is intimately involved in the metastatic processes required for cancer dissemination, and may be modified by agents that influence bone cell physiology; there is now strong clinical trial evidence that the use of adjuvant bisphosphonates reduces metastasis to bone by one-third and reduces breast cancer mortality by one-sixth in postmenopausal or premenopausal women undergoing ovarian function suppression. Finally, bone metastases are common in advanced breast cancer, and may be associated with serious morbidity, including fractures, pain, nerve compression, and hypercalcemia. Through optimum multidisciplinary management and the use of bone-targeted treatments such as bisphosphonates or denosumab, patients with advanced breast cancer have experienced a major reduction in skeletal complications, less bone pain, and an improved quality of life.

  16. Targeting cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic mechanisms of intravasation in invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Keirsse, Jiri; Laoui, Damya; Van Overmeire, Eva; Van Ginderachter, Jo A

    2014-11-25

    The survival of breast cancer patients with metastatic disease has not markedly improved over recent decades, highlighting the need to better understand this process. In this issue of Science Signaling, Pignatelli et al. used freshly obtained invasive ductal carcinoma cells from patients to demonstrate the need for high abundance of the invasive isoform of the Mena protein (Mena(INV)) in cancer cells and colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1)-mediated paracrine signaling in macrophages for efficient transendothelial migration and metastasis formation in all clinical breast cancer subtypes. Furthermore, the triple negative and HER2(+) subtypes, but not the ERPR(+)/HER2(-) subtype, had high CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) abundance and also partially used autocrine CSF-1/CSF-1R signaling for invasion. These data establish Mena(INV), CSF-1/CSF-1R, and macrophages as potential therapeutic targets for most human breast cancers. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. FOXD1 promotes breast cancer proliferation and chemotherapeutic drug resistance by targeting p27

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yi-Fan; Zhao, Jing-Yu; Yue, Hong; Hu, Ke-Shi; Shen, Hao; Guo, Zheng-Gang; Su, Xiao-Jun

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • FOXD1 is up-regulated in breast cancer tissues. • FOXD1 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and chemoresistance by inducing G1 to S transition. • FOXD1 transcriptionally suppresses p27 expression. - Abstract: Forkhead transcription factors are essential for diverse processes in early embryonic development and organogenesis. As a member of the forkhead family, FOXD1 is required during kidney development and its inactivation results in failure of nephron progenitor cells. However, the role of FOXD1 in carcinogenesis and progression is still limited. Here, we reported that FOXD1 is a potential oncogene in breast cancer. We found that FOXD1 is up-regulated in breast cancer tissues. Depletion of FOXD1 expression decreases the ability of cell proliferation and chemoresistance in MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas overexpression of FOXD1 increases the ability of cell proliferation and chemoresistance in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, we observed that FOXD1 induces G1 to S phase transition by targeting p27 expression. Our results suggest that FOXD1 may be a potential therapy target for patients with breast cancer.

  18. MicroRNA-495 induces breast cancer cell migration by targeting JAM-A.

    PubMed

    Cao, Minghui; Nie, Weiwei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yujing; Yan, Xin; Guan, Xiaoxiang; Chen, Xi; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Jiang, Xiaohong; Hou, Dongxia

    2014-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. The deregulated expression of miRNAs is associated with a variety of diseases, including breast cancer. In the present study, we found that miR-495 was markedly up-regulated in clinical breast cancer samples by quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR). Junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) was predicted to be a potential target of miR-495 by bioinformatics analysis and was subsequently verified by luciferase assay and Western blotting. JAM-A was found to be negatively correlated with the migration of breast cancer cells through loss-of-function and gain-of-function assays, and the inhibition of JAM-A by miR-495 promoted the migration of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of JAM-A could restore miR-495-induced breast cancer cell migration. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-495 could facilitate breast cancer progression through the repression of JAM-A, making this miRNA a potential therapeutic target.

  19. A possible usage of a CDK4 inhibitor for breast cancer stem cell-targeted therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Ga-Young; Chun, Sung Hak; Han, Jeong Yun; Kim, Sung Dae; Lee, Janet; Lee, Chang-Woo; Yang, Kwangmo; Lee, Chang Geun

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► A CDK4 inhibitor may be used for breast cancer stem cell-targeted therapy. ► The CDK4 inhibitor differentiated the cancer stem cell population (CD24{sup −}/CD44{sup +}) of MDA-MB-231. ► The differentiation of the cancer stem cells by the CDK4 inhibitor radiosensitized MDA-MB-231. -- Abstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are one of the main reasons behind cancer recurrence due to their resistance to conventional anti-cancer therapies. Thus, many efforts are being devoted to developing CSC-targeted therapies to overcome the resistance of CSCs to conventional anti-cancer therapies and decrease cancer recurrence. Differentiation therapy is one potential approach to achieve CSC-targeted therapies. This method involves inducing immature cancer cells with stem cell characteristics into more mature or differentiated cancer cells. In this study, we found that a CDK4 inhibitor sensitized MDA-MB-231 cells but not MCF7 cells to irradiation. This difference appeared to be associated with the relative percentage of CSC-population between the two breast cancer cells. The CDK4 inhibitor induced differentiation and reduced the cancer stem cell activity of MDA-MB-231 cells, which are shown by multiple marker or phenotypes of CSCs. Thus, these results suggest that radiosensitization effects may be caused by reducing the CSC-population of MDA-MB-231 through the use of the CDK4 inhibitor. Thus, further investigations into the possible application of the CDK4 inhibitor for CSC-targeted therapy should be performed to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy for breast cancer.

  20. Combination therapy targeting both cancer stem-like cells and bulk tumor cells for improved efficacy of breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Narayanaswamy, Radhika; Ren, Huilan; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2016-06-02

    Many types of tumors are organized in a hierarchy of heterogeneous cell populations. The cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) hypothesis suggests that tumor development and metastasis are driven by a minority population of cells, which are responsible for tumor initiation, growth and recurrences. The inability to efficiently eliminate CSCs during chemotherapy, together with CSCs being highly tumorigenic and invasive, may result in treatment failure due to cancer relapse and metastases. CSCs are emerging as a promising target for the development of translational cancer therapies. Ideal panacea for cancer would kill all malignant cells, including CSCs and bulk tumor cells. Since both chemotherapy and CSCs-specific therapy are insufficient to cure cancer, we propose combination therapy with CSCs-targeted agents and chemotherapeutics for improved breast cancer treatment. We generated in vitro mammosphere of 2 breast cancer cell lines, and demonstrated ability of mammospheres to grow and enrich cancer cells with stem-like properties, including self-renewal, multilineage differentiation and enrichment of cells expressing breast cancer stem-like cell biomarkers CD44(+)/CD24(-/low). The formation of mammospheres was significantly inhibited by salinomycin, validating its pharmacological role against the cancer stem-like cells. In contrast, paclitaxel showed a minimal effect on the proliferation and growth of breast cancer stem-like cells. While combination therapies of salinomycin with conventional chemotherapy (paclitaxel or lipodox) showed a potential to improve tumor cell killing, different subtypes of breast cancer cells showed different patterns in response to the combination therapies. While optimization of combination therapy is warranted, the design of combination therapy should consider phenotypic attributes of breast cancer types.

  1. CDK4 regulates cancer stemness and is a novel therapeutic target for triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Meiou; Zhang, Chenjing; Ali, Ayad; Hong, Xinyuan; Tian, Jun; Lo, Chieh; Fils-Aimé, Nadège; Burgos, Sergio A.; Ali, Suhad; Lebrun, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers exhibit very aggressive features and poor patient outcomes. These tumors are enriched in cancer stem cells and exhibit resistance to most treatments and chemotherapy. In this study, we found the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK4) to act as a cancer stem cell regulator and novel prognostic marker in triple negative breast cancers. We found CDK4 to be highly expressed in these tumors and its expression to correlate with poor overall and relapse free survival outcomes, high tumor grade and poor prognostic features of triple negative breast cancer patients. Moreover, we found that blocking CDK4 expression or kinase activity, using a pharmacological inhibitor prevented breast cancer stem cell self-renewal. Interestingly, suppression of CDK4 expression or kinase activity reversed the basal-B TNBC mesenchymal phenotype to an epithelial- and luminal-like phenotype which correlates with better clinical prognosis. Finally, blocking CDK4 activity efficiently eliminated both normal and chemotherapy-resistant cancer cells in triple negative breast cancers, highlighting CDK4 as a promising novel therapeutic target for these aggressive breast tumors. PMID:27759034

  2. miR-410-3p suppresses breast cancer progression by targeting Snail.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Feng; Yu, Yue; Song, Wang-Zhao; Zhang, Rui-Ming; Jin, Shan; Bai, Jun-Wen; Kang, Hong-Bin; Wang, Xin; Cao, Xu-Chen

    2016-07-01

    miR-410-3p acts as an oncogene or tumor-suppressor gene in various types of cancer. However, its role in breast cancer remains unknown. In the present study, expression of miR-410-3p in 30 breast cancer and paired adjacent normal tissues was detected by RT-qPCR. The expression of miR-410-3p was downregulated in 76.7% of the breast cancer samples. To further validate the expression of miR-410-3p in breast cancer, we analyzed miR-410-3p expression profiling data set from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) including 683 breast cancer and 87 normal breast tissues. We observed that the expression of miR-410-3p was downregulated in breast cancer tissues. Next, we investigated the influence of miR-410-3p on cell proliferation by transiently transfecting the miR-410-3p mimic or inhibitor, as well as their corresponding controls in the MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cell lines. miR-410-3p overexpression reduced cell growth, colony formation and the number of EdU-positive cells in the MDA-MB-231 cells. In contrast, inhibition of miR-410-3p in the MCF7 cells resulted in a higher proliferation rate as assessed by MTT assay, plate colony formation and EdU assays. Furthermore, miR-410-3p inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In addition, Snail was found to be a direct target of miR-410-3p based on a luciferase assay. Overexpression of Snail was able to rescue the effect of miR-410-3p in breast cancer cells. Moreover, miR‑410-3p was inversely expressed with Snail in breast cancer samples. Our data provide new knowledge regarding the role of miR-410-3p in breast cancer progression.

  3. Targeting c-MYC by antagonizing PP2A inhibitors in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Janghorban, Mahnaz; Farrell, Amy S; Allen-Petersen, Brittany L; Pelz, Carl; Daniel, Colin J; Oddo, Jessica; Langer, Ellen M; Christensen, Dale J; Sears, Rosalie C

    2014-06-24

    The transcription factor c-MYC is stabilized and activated by phosphorylation at serine 62 (S62) in breast cancer. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a critical negative regulator of c-MYC through its ability to dephosphorylate S62. By inactivating c-MYC and other key signaling pathways, PP2A plays an important tumor suppressor function. Two endogenous inhibitors of PP2A, I2PP2A, Inhibitor-2 of PP2A (SET oncoprotein) and cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A), inactivate PP2A and are overexpressed in several tumor types. Here we show that SET is overexpressed in about 50-60% and CIP2A in about 90% of breast cancers. Knockdown of SET or CIP2A reduces the tumorigenic potential of breast cancer cell lines both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of breast cancer cells in vitro or in vivo with OP449, a novel SET antagonist, also decreases the tumorigenic potential of breast cancer cells and induces apoptosis. We show that this is, at least in part, due to decreased S62 phosphorylation of c-MYC and reduced c-MYC activity and target gene expression. Because of the ubiquitous expression and tumor suppressor activity of PP2A in cells, as well as the critical role of c-MYC in human cancer, we propose that activation of PP2A (here accomplished through antagonizing endogenous inhibitors) could be a novel antitumor strategy to posttranslationally target c-MYC in breast cancer.

  4. Natural Products as Promising Antitumoral Agents in Breast Cancer: Mechanisms of Action and Molecular Targets.

    PubMed

    Bonofiglio, Daniela; Giordano, Cinzia; De Amicis, Francesca; Lanzino, Marilena; Andò, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research over the past several decades has identified numerous dietary and phytochemical compounds that have chemopreventive potential and could represent an important source of anti-cancer lead molecules. In this scenario several nutritional factors have attracted considerable attention as modifiable risk factor in the prevention of breast cancer, the most frequently diagnosed cancer and a major cause of death among women worldwide. There is an immediate need for more effective and less toxic therapeutic and preventive strategies for breast cancers able also to counteract the recurrent phenomenon of resistance to hormonal and targeted therapy that represent the first-line treatment in the management of breast cancer patients. The present review focuses on chemopreventive and anti-cancer activities of different bioactive compounds obtained from dietary sources such as Omega-3 fatty acids, naturally present in fish, Resveratrol (3,5,40-trihydroxy-transstilbene), a phytoalexin found in grapes and Epigallocatechin Gallate, a polyphenolic compound found in green tea, or purified from medicinal plant (Oldenlandia Diffusa) and fruits (Ziziphus Jujube) highlighting their potential use in breast cancer treatment. Herein, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which the bioactive compounds can inhibit carcinogenesis by regulating antioxidant enzyme activities, and inducing antiproliferative and apoptotic effects in different breast cancer cell lines. Understanding the mechanism of action of dietary compounds or traditionally used herbs having potential preventive and therapeutic effects on cancer may provide a rationale for further translational studies. This review emphasizes the importance, in the next future, of a proper scientific validation of these natural bioactive compounds for clinical use in the therapeutic portfolio for breast cancer.

  5. Breast Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  6. Mevalonate metabolism regulates Basal breast cancer stem cells and is a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Ginestier, Christophe; Monville, Florence; Wicinski, Julien; Cabaud, Olivier; Cervera, Nathalie; Josselin, Emmanuelle; Finetti, Pascal; Guille, Arnaud; Larderet, Gaelle; Viens, Patrice; Sebti, Said; Bertucci, François; Birnbaum, Daniel; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle

    2012-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that breast tumors are organized in a hierarchy, with a subpopulation of tumorigenic cancer cells, the cancer stem cells (CSCs), which sustain tumor growth. The characterization of protein networks that govern CSC behavior is paramount to design new therapeutic strategies targeting this subpopulation of cells. We have sought to identify specific molecular pathways of CSCs isolated from 13 different breast cancer cell lines of luminal or basal/mesenchymal subtypes. We compared the gene expression profiling of cancer cells grown in adherent conditions to those of matched tumorsphere cultures. No specific pathway was identified to be commonly regulated in luminal tumorspheres, resulting from a minor CSC enrichment in tumorsphere passages from luminal cell lines. However, in basal/mesenchymal tumorspheres, the enzymes of the mevalonate metabolic pathway were overexpressed compared to those in cognate adherent cells. Inhibition of this pathway with hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase blockers resulted in a reduction of breast CSC independent of inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis and of protein farnesylation. Further modulation of this metabolic pathway demonstrated that protein geranylgeranylation (GG) is critical to breast CSC maintenance. A small molecule inhibitor of the geranylgeranyl transferase I (GGTI) enzyme reduced the breast CSC subpopulation both in vitro and in primary breast cancer xenografts. We found that the GGTI effect on the CSC subpopulation is mediated by inactivation of Ras homolog family member A (RHOA) and increased accumulation of P27(kip1) in the nucleus. The identification of protein GG as a major contributor to CSC maintenance opens promising perspectives for CSC targeted therapy in basal breast cancer.

  7. MicroRNA-124 inhibits cellular proliferation and invasion by targeting Ets-1 in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Wentao; Zang, Wenqiao; Liu, Pei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Du, Yuwen; Chen, Xiaonan; Deng, Meng; Sun, Wencong; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Guoqiang; Zhai, Baoping

    2014-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that, by targeting certain messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for translational repression or cleavage, can regulate the expression of these genes. In addition, miRNAs may also function as oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes, as the abnormal expression of miRNAs is associated with various human tumors. However, the effects of the expression of miR-124 in breast cancer remain unclear. The present study was conducted to study the expression of miR-124 in breast cancer, paying particular attention to miR-124's relation to the proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis in breast cancer cell MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to identify miR-124 that was down-regulated in breast cancer tissues. We also showed E26 transformation specific-1 (Ets-1) and miR-124 expression levels in breast cancer tissues that were associated with lymph node metastases. With transfected synthetic miR-124 agomir into MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and colony forming potential was observed after treatment with miR-124. Apoptosis and migration rates were found to be significantly higher in two breast-derived cell lines transfected with a miR-124 agomir (P < 0.05). Luciferase reporter assay and Western blot were used to verify Ets-1 as a potential major target gene of miR-124, and the result showed that miR-124 can bind to putative binding sites within the Ets-1 mRNA 3' untranslated region (UTR) to reduce its expression. Based on these findings, we propose that miR-124 and Ets-1 may serve as a therapeutic agent in breast cancer.

  8. Targeting the cancer-associated fibroblasts as a treatment in triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takai, Ken; Le, Annie; Weaver, Valerie M.; Werb, Zena

    2016-01-01

    Increased collagen expression in tumors is associated with increased risk of metastasis, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has the highest propensity to develop distant metastases when there is evidence of central fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) ligands regulated by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promote accumulation of fibrosis and cancer progression. In the present study, we have evaluated TNBC tumors with enhanced collagen to determine whether we can reduce metastasis by targeting the CAFs with Pirfenidone (PFD), an anti-fibrotic agent as well as a TGF-β antagonist. In patient-derived xenograft models, TNBC tumors exhibited accumulated collagen and activated TGF-β signaling, and developed lung metastasis. Next, primary CAFs were established from 4T1 TNBC homograft tumors, TNBC xenograft tumors and tumor specimens of breast cancer patients. CAFs promoted primary tumor growth with more fibrosis and TGF-β activation and lung metastasis in 4T1 mouse model. We then examined the effects of PFD in vitro and in vivo. We found that PFD had inhibitory effects on cell viability and collagen production of CAFs in 2D culture. Furthermore, CAFs enhanced tumor growth and PFD inhibited the tumor growth induced by CAFs by causing apoptosis in the 3D co-culture assay of 4T1 tumor cells and CAFs. In vivo, PFD alone inhibited tumor fibrosis and TGF-β signaling but did not inhibit tumor growth and lung metastasis. However, PFD inhibited tumor growth and lung metastasis synergistically in combination with doxorubicin. Thus, PFD has great potential for a novel clinically applicable TNBC therapy that targets tumor-stromal interaction. PMID:27756881

  9. Cytogenomic profiling of breast cancer brain metastases reveals potential for repurposing targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia; Michelhaugh, Sharon K; Wijesinghe, Priyanga; Dyson, Greg; Kruger, Adele; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Choi, Lydia; Alosh, Baraa; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Mittal, Sandeep

    2015-06-10

    Breast cancer brain metastases remain a significant clinical problem. Chemotherapy is ineffective and a lack of treatment options result in poor patient outcomes. Targeted therapeutics have proven to be highly effective in primary breast cancer, but lack of molecular genomic characterization of metastatic brain tumors is hindering the development of new treatment regimens. Here we contribute to fill this void by reporting on gene copy number variation (CNV) in 10 breast cancer metastatic brain tumors, assayed by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Results were compared to a list of cancer genes verified by others to influence cancer. Cancer gene aberrations were identified in all specimens and pathway-level analysis was applied to aggregate data, which identified stem cell pluripotency pathway enrichment and highlighted recurring, significant amplification of SOX2, PIK3CA, NTRK1, GNAS, CTNNB1, and FGFR1. For a subset of the metastatic brain tumor samples (n = 4) we compared patient-matched primary breast cancer specimens. The results of our CGH analysis and validation by alternative methods indicate that oncogenic signals driving growth of metastatic tumors exist in the original cancer. This report contributes support for more rapid development of new treatments of metastatic brain tumors, the use of genomic-based diagnostic tools and repurposed drug treatments.

  10. Molecular Biomarkers for Prediction of Targeted Therapy Response in Metastatic Breast Cancer: Trick or Treat?

    PubMed

    Toss, Angela; Venturelli, Marta; Peterle, Chiara; Piacentini, Federico; Cascinu, Stefano; Cortesi, Laura

    2017-01-04

    In recent years, the study of genomic alterations and protein expression involved in the pathways of breast cancer carcinogenesis has provided an increasing number of targets for drugs development in the setting of metastatic breast cancer (i.e., trastuzumab, everolimus, palbociclib, etc.) significantly improving the prognosis of this disease. These drugs target specific molecular abnormalities that confer a survival advantage to cancer cells. On these bases, emerging evidence from clinical trials provided increasing proof that the genetic landscape of any tumor may dictate its sensitivity or resistance profile to specific agents and some studies have already showed that tumors treated with therapies matched with their molecular alterations obtain higher objective response rates and longer survival. Predictive molecular biomarkers may optimize the selection of effective therapies, thus reducing treatment costs and side effects. This review offers an overview of the main molecular pathways involved in breast carcinogenesis, the targeted therapies developed to inhibit these pathways, the principal mechanisms of resistance and, finally, the molecular biomarkers that, to date, are demonstrated in clinical trials to predict response/resistance to targeted treatments in metastatic breast cancer.

  11. Reduced Toxicity Breast Cancer Therapy: Changing the Or to And in Dual Targeted Therapeutics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    targeted to a distin ct molecular m arker. The siRNA therapy can only be activa ted in cells expressing both m arkers since onl y one of the needed...improve adjuvant or system ic chemotherapy for superficial breast cancers and dim inish recurrence rates post tum or excision by treating tum or

  12. Trastuzumab-conjugated liposome-coated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles to target breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mijung; Yoon, Young Il; Kwon, Yong Soo; Yoon, Tae-Jong; Lee, Hak Jong; Hwang, Sung Il; Yun, Bo La; Kim, Sun Mi

    2014-01-01

    To synthesize mesoporous silica-core-shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) encapsulated by liposomes (Lipo [MNP@m-SiO2]) in order to enhance their stability, allow them to be used in any buffer solution, and to produce trastuzumab-conjugated (Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2]-Her2Ab) nanoparticles to be utilized in vitro for the targeting of breast cancer. The physiochemical characteristics of Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2] were assessed in terms of size, morphological features, and in vitro safety. The multimodal imaging properties of the organic dye incorporated into Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2] were assessed with both in vitro fluorescence and MR imaging. The specific targeting ability of trastuzumab (Her2/neu antibody, Herceptin®)-conjugated Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2] for Her2/neu-positive breast cancer cells was also evaluated with fluorescence and MR imaging. We obtained uniformly-sized and evenly distributed Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2] that demonstrated biological stability, while not disrupting cell viability. Her2/neu-positive breast cancer cell targeting by trastuzumab-conjugated Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2] was observed by in vitro fluorescence and MR imaging. Trastuzumab-conjugated Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2] is a potential treatment tool for targeted drug delivery in Her2/neu-positive breast cancer.

  13. Antibody-Mediated BRCC36 Silencing: A Novel Approach for Targeted Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    complexes: new targets to overcome breast cancer radiation resistance. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 6(2):187-96. Chen X, Arciero CA, Wang C, Broccoli D...1752s- 1756s. Chen X, Arciero CA, Wang C, Broccoli D, Godwin AK (2006). BRCC36 is essential for ionizing radiation-induced BRCA1 phosphorylation

  14. Molecular Biomarkers for Prediction of Targeted Therapy Response in Metastatic Breast Cancer: Trick or Treat?

    PubMed Central

    Toss, Angela; Venturelli, Marta; Peterle, Chiara; Piacentini, Federico; Cascinu, Stefano; Cortesi, Laura

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the study of genomic alterations and protein expression involved in the pathways of breast cancer carcinogenesis has provided an increasing number of targets for drugs development in the setting of metastatic breast cancer (i.e., trastuzumab, everolimus, palbociclib, etc.) significantly improving the prognosis of this disease. These drugs target specific molecular abnormalities that confer a survival advantage to cancer cells. On these bases, emerging evidence from clinical trials provided increasing proof that the genetic landscape of any tumor may dictate its sensitivity or resistance profile to specific agents and some studies have already showed that tumors treated with therapies matched with their molecular alterations obtain higher objective response rates and longer survival. Predictive molecular biomarkers may optimize the selection of effective therapies, thus reducing treatment costs and side effects. This review offers an overview of the main molecular pathways involved in breast carcinogenesis, the targeted therapies developed to inhibit these pathways, the principal mechanisms of resistance and, finally, the molecular biomarkers that, to date, are demonstrated in clinical trials to predict response/resistance to targeted treatments in metastatic breast cancer. PMID:28054957

  15. Trastuzumab-Conjugated Liposome-Coated Fluorescent Magnetic Nanoparticles to Target Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Mijung; Yoon, Young Il; Kwon, Yong Soo; Yoon, Tae-Jong; Lee, Hak Jong; Hwang, Sung Il; Yun, Bo La

    2014-01-01

    Objective To synthesize mesoporous silica-core-shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) encapsulated by liposomes (Lipo [MNP@m-SiO2]) in order to enhance their stability, allow them to be used in any buffer solution, and to produce trastuzumab-conjugated (Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2]-Her2Ab) nanoparticles to be utilized in vitro for the targeting of breast cancer. Materials and Methods The physiochemical characteristics of Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2] were assessed in terms of size, morphological features, and in vitro safety. The multimodal imaging properties of the organic dye incorporated into Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2] were assessed with both in vitro fluorescence and MR imaging. The specific targeting ability of trastuzumab (Her2/neu antibody, Herceptin®)-conjugated Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2] for Her2/neu-positive breast cancer cells was also evaluated with fluorescence and MR imaging. Results We obtained uniformly-sized and evenly distributed Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2] that demonstrated biological stability, while not disrupting cell viability. Her2/neu-positive breast cancer cell targeting by trastuzumab-conjugated Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2] was observed by in vitro fluorescence and MR imaging. Conclusion Trastuzumab-conjugated Lipo[MNP@m-SiO2] is a potential treatment tool for targeted drug delivery in Her2/neu-positive breast cancer. PMID:25053899

  16. Universal Breast Cancer Antigens as Targets Linking Early Detection and Therapeutic Vaccination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Timeline: 1. Attempt to enroll patients with BIRADS category 4 mammograms on ductal lavage study (0-12 months) limited by poor accrual 2. Establish...Summary 11 Aug 2004 - 100 Aug 2005 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Universal Breast Cancer Antigens as Targets Linking Early Detection and...3 Reportable Outcomes ....................................................................... 4

  17. Breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-08-17

    Essential facts Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK, with around 60,000 new cases diagnosed each year, according to the charity Breast Cancer Care. Over a lifetime, women have a one in eight risk of developing it.

  18. Targeting BCL-2 to enhance vulnerability to therapy in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Merino, D; Lok, S W; Visvader, J E; Lindeman, G J

    2016-04-14

    The last three decades have seen significant progress in our understanding of the role of the pro-survival protein BCL-2 and its family members in apoptosis and cancer. BCL-2 and other pro-survival family members including Mcl-1 and BCL-XL have been shown to have a key role in keeping pro-apoptotic 'effector' proteins BAK and BAX in check. They also neutralize a group of 'sensor' proteins (such as BIM), which are triggered by cytotoxic stimuli such as chemotherapy. BCL-2 proteins therefore have a central role as guardians against apoptosis, helping cancer cells to evade cell death. More recently, an increasing number of BH3 mimetics, which bind and neutralize BCL-2 and/or its pro-survival relatives, have been developed. The utility of targeting BCL-2 in hematological malignancies has become evident in early-phase studies, with remarkable clinical responses seen in heavily pretreated patients. As BCL-2 is overexpressed in ~75% of breast cancer, there has been growing interest in determining whether this new class of drug could show similar promise in breast cancer. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of BCL-2 and its family members in mammary gland development and breast cancer, recent progress in the development of new BH3 mimetics as well as their potential for targeting estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

  19. SF3B1 mutations constitute a novel therapeutic target in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Sarah L; Leonidou, Andri; Wai, Patty; Marchiò, Caterina; Ng, Charlotte Ky; Sapino, Anna; Salomon, Anne-Vincent; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Weigelt, Britta; Natrajan, Rachael C

    2015-03-01

    Mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in RNA splicing have been found to occur at relatively high frequencies in several tumour types including myelodysplastic syndromes, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, uveal melanoma, and pancreatic cancer, and at lower frequencies in breast cancer. To investigate whether dysfunction in RNA splicing is implicated in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, we performed a re-analysis of published exome and whole genome sequencing data. This analysis revealed that mutations in spliceosomal component genes occurred in 5.6% of unselected breast cancers, including hotspot mutations in the SF3B1 gene, which were found in 1.8% of unselected breast cancers. SF3B1 mutations were significantly associated with ER-positive disease, AKT1 mutations, and distinct copy number alterations. Additional profiling of hotspot mutations in a panel of special histological subtypes of breast cancer showed that 16% and 6% of papillary and mucinous carcinomas of the breast harboured the SF3B1 K700E mutation. RNA sequencing identified differentially spliced events expressed in tumours with SF3B1 mutations including the protein coding genes TMEM14C, RPL31, DYNL11, UQCC, and ABCC5, and the long non-coding RNA CRNDE. Moreover, SF3B1 mutant cell lines were found to be sensitive to the SF3b complex inhibitor spliceostatin A and treatment resulted in perturbation of the splicing signature. Albeit rare, SF3B1 mutations result in alternative splicing events, and may constitute drivers and a novel therapeutic target in a subset of breast cancers.

  20. SF3B1 mutations constitute a novel therapeutic target in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Sarah L; Leonidou, Andri; Wai, Patty; Marchiò, Caterina; Ng, Charlotte KY; Sapino, Anna; Salomon, Anne-Vincent; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Weigelt, Britta; Natrajan, Rachael C

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in RNA splicing have been found to occur at relatively high frequencies in several tumour types including myelodysplastic syndromes, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, uveal melanoma, and pancreatic cancer, and at lower frequencies in breast cancer. To investigate whether dysfunction in RNA splicing is implicated in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, we performed a re-analysis of published exome and whole genome sequencing data. This analysis revealed that mutations in spliceosomal component genes occurred in 5.6% of unselected breast cancers, including hotspot mutations in the SF3B1 gene, which were found in 1.8% of unselected breast cancers. SF3B1 mutations were significantly associated with ER-positive disease, AKT1 mutations, and distinct copy number alterations. Additional profiling of hotspot mutations in a panel of special histological subtypes of breast cancer showed that 16% and 6% of papillary and mucinous carcinomas of the breast harboured the SF3B1 K700E mutation. RNA sequencing identified differentially spliced events expressed in tumours with SF3B1 mutations including the protein coding genes TMEM14C, RPL31, DYNL11, UQCC, and ABCC5, and the long non-coding RNA CRNDE. Moreover, SF3B1 mutant cell lines were found to be sensitive to the SF3b complex inhibitor spliceostatin A and treatment resulted in perturbation of the splicing signature. Albeit rare, SF3B1 mutations result in alternative splicing events, and may constitute drivers and a novel therapeutic target in a subset of breast cancers. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:25424858

  1. Fetoprotein Derived Short Peptide Coated Nanostructured Amphiphilic Surfaces for Targeting Mouse Breast Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alexandra M.; Miranda-Alarćon, Yoliem S.; Knoll, Grant A.; Santora, Anthony M.; Banerjee, Ipsita A.

    In this work, self-assembled tumor targeting nanostructured surfaces were developed from a newly designed amphiphile by conjugating boc protected isoleucine with 2,2‧ ethylenedioxy bis ethylamine (IED). To target mouse mammary tumor cells, a short peptide sequence derived from the human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), LSEDKLLACGEG was attached to the self-assembled nanostructures. Tumor targeting and cell proliferation were examined in the presence of nanoscale assemblies. To further obliterate mouse breast tumor cells, the chemotherapeutic drug tamoxifen was then entrapped into the nanoassemblies. Our studies indicated that the targeting systems were able to efficiently encapsulate and release tamoxifen. Cell proliferation studies showed that IED-AFP peptide loaded with tamoxifen decreased the proliferation of breast cancer cells while in the presence of the IED-AFP peptide nanoassemblies alone, the growth was relatively slower. In the presence of human dermal fibroblasts however cell proliferation continued similar to controls. Furthermore, the nanoscale assemblies were found to induce apoptosis in mouse breast cancer cells. To examine live binding interactions, SPR analysis revealed that tamoxifen encapsulated IED-AFP peptide nanoassemblies bound to the breast cancer cells more efficiently compared to unencapsulated assemblies. Thus, we have developed nanoscale assemblies that can specifically bind to and target tumor cells, with increased toxicity in the presence of a chemotherapeutic drug.

  2. MiR-449a promotes breast cancer progression by targeting CRIP2.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Bruce, Jeff; Lee, Matthew; Yue, Shijun; Rowe, Matthew; Pintilie, Melania; Kogo, Ryunosuke; Bissey, Pierre-Antoine; Fyles, Anthony; Yip, Kenneth W; Liu, Fei-Fei

    2016-04-05

    The identification of prognostic biomarkers and their underlying mechanisms of action remain of great interest in breast cancer biology. Using global miRNA profiling of 71 lymph node-negative invasive ductal breast cancers and 5 normal mammary epithelial tissues, we identified miR-449a to be highly overexpressed in the malignant breast tissue. Its expression was significantly associated with increased incidence of patient relapse, decreased overall survival, and decreased disease-free survival. In vitro, miR-449a promoted breast cancer cell proliferation, clonogenic survival, migration, and invasion. By utilizing a tri-modal in silico approach for target identification, Cysteine-Rich Protein 2 (CRIP2; a transcription factor) was identified as a direct target of miR-449a, corroborated using qRT-PCR, Western blot, and luciferase reporter assays. MDA-MB-231 cells stably transfected with CRIP2 demonstrated a significant reduction in cell viability, migration, and invasion, as well as decreased tumor growth and angiogenesis in mouse xenograft models. Our data revealed that overexpression of miR-449a suppresses CRIP2, which then affects the tumor vasculature, likely via NF-κB/p65 complex-mediated transcription of VEGF. These finding define an oncogenic function of miR-449a in human breast cancer, and highlight the importance of this pathway in driving aggressive behaviour.

  3. Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Triple Negative Breast Cancer: The Future of Immune Targeting.

    PubMed

    García-Teijido, Paula; Cabal, María Luque; Fernández, Ignacio Peláez; Pérez, Yolanda Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly heterogeneous tumor. There is increasing evidence of the role of tumor lymphocytic immune infiltrates in this subtype of breast cancer. Robust levels of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been associated with improved disease-free and overall survival rates in TNBC patients with and without any treatment. Recent efforts have been made to develop a standardized methodology for evaluating TILs. The presence of TILs in the breast tumor microenvironment can also predict responses not only to neoadjuvant but also to adjuvant chemotherapy treatments. High numbers of TILs correlate with increased pathological complete responses (pCR) in TNBC. TILs are prognostic and predictive of response to standard therapies; thus, the immune system appears to play an active role in a subgroup of breast cancer. There is an increasing interest in directly targeting the immune system as part of breast cancer therapy, mainly in patients with TNBC. New immune modulatory agents, including immune checkpoints inhibitors, have shown promising activity in a subgroup of metastatic TNBC. Increased programmed cell death protein 1 ligand (PD-L1) expression on the surface of TNBC provides the rationale for implementing therapeutic strategies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis in TNBC. The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor pembrolizumab, and the PD-L1 inhibitor atezolizumab have shown promising results in clinical trials.

  4. Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Triple Negative Breast Cancer: The Future of Immune Targeting

    PubMed Central

    García-Teijido, Paula; Cabal, María Luque; Fernández, Ignacio Peláez; Pérez, Yolanda Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly heterogeneous tumor. There is increasing evidence of the role of tumor lymphocytic immune infiltrates in this subtype of breast cancer. Robust levels of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been associated with improved disease-free and overall survival rates in TNBC patients with and without any treatment. Recent efforts have been made to develop a standardized methodology for evaluating TILs. The presence of TILs in the breast tumor microenvironment can also predict responses not only to neoadjuvant but also to adjuvant chemotherapy treatments. High numbers of TILs correlate with increased pathological complete responses (pCR) in TNBC. TILs are prognostic and predictive of response to standard therapies; thus, the immune system appears to play an active role in a subgroup of breast cancer. There is an increasing interest in directly targeting the immune system as part of breast cancer therapy, mainly in patients with TNBC. New immune modulatory agents, including immune checkpoints inhibitors, have shown promising activity in a subgroup of metastatic TNBC. Increased programmed cell death protein 1 ligand (PD-L1) expression on the surface of TNBC provides the rationale for implementing therapeutic strategies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis in TNBC. The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor pembrolizumab, and the PD-L1 inhibitor atezolizumab have shown promising results in clinical trials. PMID:27081325

  5. Targeting the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway with everolimus: implications for the management of metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ng, Vin Cci; Johnson, Jeremy J; Cuellar, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    The inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) have documented antitumor activity via disruption of various signaling pathways leading to impaired cellular growth, proliferation, and survival. In preclinical studies, mTOR inhibitors use in combination with hormonal therapy has shown promising results in overcoming endocrine resistance in breast cancer cells. The role of everolimus in breast cancer was established in the Breast Cancer Trial of Oral Everolimus-2 (BOLERO-2) trial in combination with exemestane for patients with advanced metastatic hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer, who relapsed after initial hormonal manipulation. The study met its primary endpoint of significant improvement in progression free survival (PFS) with a median time to progression of 6.9 months in the combination group versus 2.8 months in exemestane group. Favorable improvements in PFS were reported across all patient subgroups regardless of age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, number of prior therapies, and presence of visceral metastases. Adverse events were mostly mild to moderate in severity and consistent with the known safety profile of everolimus. Major toxicities reported include stomatitis, non-infectious pneumonitis, and hyperglycemia. The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of everolimus as a valuable component in advanced metastatic breast cancer and delineate current strategies to prevent and manage the most common toxicities associated with this combination regimen.

  6. Mitochondria-targeted vitamin E analogs inhibit breast cancer cell energy metabolism and promote cell death.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gang; Zielonka, Jacek; McAllister, Donna M; Mackinnon, A Craig; Joseph, Joy; Dwinell, Michael B; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2013-06-13

    Recent research has revealed that targeting mitochondrial bioenergetic metabolism is a promising chemotherapeutic strategy. Key to successful implementation of this chemotherapeutic strategy is the use of new and improved mitochondria-targeted cationic agents that selectively inhibit energy metabolism in breast cancer cells, while exerting little or no long-term cytotoxic effect in normal cells. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and alterations in bioenergetic metabolism induced by mitochondria-targeted vitamin E analog (Mito-chromanol, Mito-ChM) and its acetylated ester analog (Mito-ChMAc). Assays of cell death, colony formation, mitochondrial bioenergetic function, intracellular ATP levels, intracellular and tissue concentrations of tested compounds, and in vivo tumor growth were performed. Both Mito-ChM and Mito-ChMAc selectively depleted intracellular ATP and caused prolonged inhibition of ATP-linked oxygen consumption rate in breast cancer cells, but not in non-cancerous cells. These effects were significantly augmented by inhibition of glycolysis. Mito-ChM and Mito-ChMAc exhibited anti-proliferative effects and cytotoxicity in several breast cancer cells with different genetic background. Furthermore, Mito-ChM selectively accumulated in tumor tissue and inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft model of human breast cancer. We conclude that mitochondria-targeted small molecular weight chromanols exhibit selective anti-proliferative effects and cytotoxicity in multiple breast cancer cells, and that esterification of the hydroxyl group in mito-chromanols is not a critical requirement for its anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effect.

  7. Mitochondria-targeted vitamin E analogs inhibit breast cancer cell energy metabolism and promote cell death

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research has revealed that targeting mitochondrial bioenergetic metabolism is a promising chemotherapeutic strategy. Key to successful implementation of this chemotherapeutic strategy is the use of new and improved mitochondria-targeted cationic agents that selectively inhibit energy metabolism in breast cancer cells, while exerting little or no long-term cytotoxic effect in normal cells. Methods In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and alterations in bioenergetic metabolism induced by mitochondria-targeted vitamin E analog (Mito-chromanol, Mito-ChM) and its acetylated ester analog (Mito-ChMAc). Assays of cell death, colony formation, mitochondrial bioenergetic function, intracellular ATP levels, intracellular and tissue concentrations of tested compounds, and in vivo tumor growth were performed. Results Both Mito-ChM and Mito-ChMAc selectively depleted intracellular ATP and caused prolonged inhibition of ATP-linked oxygen consumption rate in breast cancer cells, but not in non-cancerous cells. These effects were significantly augmented by inhibition of glycolysis. Mito-ChM and Mito-ChMAc exhibited anti-proliferative effects and cytotoxicity in several breast cancer cells with different genetic background. Furthermore, Mito-ChM selectively accumulated in tumor tissue and inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft model of human breast cancer. Conclusions We conclude that mitochondria-targeted small molecular weight chromanols exhibit selective anti-proliferative effects and cytotoxicity in multiple breast cancer cells, and that esterification of the hydroxyl group in mito-chromanols is not a critical requirement for its anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effect. PMID:23764021

  8. RAD50 targeting impairs DNA damage response and sensitizes human breast cancer cells to cisplatin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Pérez, Ali; Rafaelli, Lourdes E; Ramírez-Torres, Nayeli; Aréchaga-Ocampo, Elena; Frías, Sara; Sánchez, Silvia; Marchat, Laurence A; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Quintanar-Jurado, Valeria; Rodríguez-Cuevas, Sergio; Bautista-Piña, Verónica; Carlos-Reyes, Ángeles; López-Camarillo, César

    2014-01-01

    In tumor cells the effectiveness of anti-neoplastic agents that cause cell death by induction of DNA damage is influenced by DNA repair activity. RAD50 protein plays key roles in DNA double strand breaks repair (DSBs), which is crucial to safeguard genome integrity and sustain tumor suppression. However, its role as a potential therapeutic target has not been addressed in breast cancer. Our aim in the present study was to analyze the expression of RAD50 protein in breast tumors, and evaluate the effects of RAD50-targeted inhibition on the cytotoxicity exerted by cisplatin and anthracycline and taxane-based therapies in breast cancer cells. Immunohistochemistry assays on tissue microarrays indicate that the strong staining intensity of RAD50 was reduced in 14% of breast carcinomas in comparison with normal tissues. Remarkably, RAD50 silencing by RNA interference significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of cisplatin. Combinations of cisplatin with doxorubicin and paclitaxel drugs induced synergistic effects in early cell death of RAD50-deficient MCF-7, SKBR3, and T47D breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we found an increase in the number of DSBs, and delayed phosphorylation of histone H2AX after cisplatin treatment in RAD50-silenced cells. These cellular events were associated to a dramatical increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and a decrease of cell number in metaphase. In conclusion, our data showed that RAD50 abrogation impairs DNA damage response and sensitizes breast cancer cells to cisplatin-combined therapies. We propose that the development and use of inhibitors to manipulate RAD50 levels might represent a promising strategy to sensitize breast cancer cells to DNA damaging agents. PMID:24642965

  9. Targeting Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Axis in Obesity-Promoted Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0071 TITLE: Targeting Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Axis in Obesity -Promoted Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Target ing Sphi ngosine- 1- Phosphat e Axi s i n Obesity - Promot ed Sb. GRANT NUMBER Br east Cancer W81XWH- 14- 1- 007 1 Sc...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Obesity , which induces l ow- g r ade inflammation , is a known r isk facto r f o r wo r se p r ognosis in many cancer s

  10. IDENTIFYING AND TARGETING TUMOR-INITIATING CELLS IN THE TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Lewis, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women (exclusive of skin cancer), and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Although conventional and targeted therapies have improved survival rates, there are still considerable challenges in treating breast cancer, including treatment resistance, disease recurrence, and metastasis. Treatment resistance can be either de novo - due to traits that tumor cells possess prior to treatment, or acquired, - due to traits that tumor cells gain in response to treatment. A recently proposed mechanism of de novo resistance invokes existence of a specialized subset of cancer cells defined as tumor-initiating cells (TICs), or cancer stem cells (CSC). TICs have the capacity to self-renew and regenerate new tumors that consist of all clonally-derived cell types present in the parental tumor. There are data to suggest that TICs are resistant to many conventional cancer therapies, and survive treatment in spite of dramatic shrinkage of the tumor. Residual TICs can then eventually regrow resulting in disease relapse. It is also hypothesized that TIC may be responsible for metastatic disease. If these hypotheses are correct, targeting TICs may be imperative to achieve cure. In this review, we discuss evidence for breast TICs and their apparent resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, as well as to various targeted therapies. We also address the potential impact of breast TIC plasticity and metastatic potential on therapeutic strategies. Finally, we describe several genes and signaling pathways that appear important for TIC function that may represent promising therapeutic targets. PMID:25876646

  11. Identifying and targeting tumor-initiating cells in the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Lewis, Michael T

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women (excluding skin cancer), and it is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Although conventional and targeted therapies have improved survival rates, there are still considerable challenges in treating breast cancer, including treatment resistance, disease recurrence, and metastasis. Treatment resistance can be either de novo - because of traits that tumor cells possess before treatment - or acquired - because of traits that tumor cells gain in response to treatment. A recently proposed mechanism of de novo resistance invokes the existence of a specialized subset of cancer cells defined as tumor-initiating cells (TICs), or cancer stem cells (CSCs). TICs have the capacity to self-renew and to generate new tumors that consist entirely of clonally derived cell types present in the parental tumor. There are data to suggest that TICs are resistant to many conventional cancer therapies and that they can survive treatment in spite of dramatic shrinkage of the tumor. Residual TICs can then eventually regrow, which results in disease relapse. It has also been hypothesized that TIC may be responsible for metastatic disease. If these hypotheses are correct, targeting TICs may be imperative for achieving a cure. In the present review, we discuss evidence for breast TICs and their apparent resistance to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy as well as to various targeted therapies. We also address the potential impact of breast TIC plasticity and metastatic potential on therapeutic strategies. Finally, we describe several genes and signaling pathways that appear to be important for TIC function and may represent promising therapeutic targets. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  12. A novel mouse monoclonal antibody targeting ErbB2 suppresses breast cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Kawa, Seiji; Matsushita, Hirohisa; Ohbayashi, Hirokazu; Semba, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2009-07-03

    Overexpression of ErbB2 in breast cancer is associated with increased recurrence and worse prognosis. Accumulating evidences suggest that molecular targeted therapy is a promising anticancer strategy. In this study, we produced a novel anti-ErbB2 monoclonal antibody, 6G10, that recognized an epitope distinct from the trastuzumab binding site. 6G10 induced aggregation of BT474 breast cancer cells and inhibited proliferation of various breast cancer cell lines including BT474. A growth inhibition assay showed that 6G10 had EC(50) values comparable to trastuzumab, indicating that the drugs have a similar level of potency. Furthermore, intraperitoneal administration of 6G10 completely inhibited the growth of xenografted tumors derived from BT474 and SK-BR-3 cells. These data suggested that 6G10 has great therapeutic potential and could be administered to patients alternatively, or synergistically, with trastuzumab.

  13. The FGF/FGFR axis as a therapeutic target in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bade, Lindsey K.; Schwertfeger, Kathryn L.

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling is a vital component of both embryonic and postnatal mammary gland development, which has prompted researchers to investigate both its relevance to breast cancer and its potential as a therapeutic target. Deregulated FGFR signaling during breast cancer occurs through various mechanisms, including amplification of the receptor genes, aberrant ligand expression, receptor mutations and translocations. Recent experimental outcomes involving both animal models and human breast cancer cell lines have led to the initiation of multiple early clinical trials investigating the safety and efficacy of small molecule FGFR inhibitors. In this article we review both the most recent discoveries and the need for further investigation of the mechanisms through which FGF/FGFR signaling has emerged as an oncogenic driver. PMID:25400686

  14. Developmental windows of breast cancer risk provide opportunities for targeted chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Holly A.; Lyons, Traci R.; Giles, Erin D.; Borges, Virginia F.; Schedin, Pepper

    2014-01-01

    The magnitude of the breast cancer problem implores researchers to aggressively investigate prevention strategies. However, several barriers currently reduce the feasibility of breast cancer prevention. These barriers include the inability to accurately predict future breast cancer diagnosis at the individual level, the need for improved understanding of when to implement interventions, uncertainty with respect to optimal duration of treatment, and negative side effects associated with currently approved chemoprevention therapies. None-the-less, the unique biology of the mammary gland, with its postnatal development and conditional terminal differentiation, may permit the resolution of many of these barriers. Specifically, lifecycle-specific windows of breast cancer risk have been identified that may be amenable to risk-reducing strategies. Here, we argue for prevention research focused on two of these lifecycle windows of risk: postpartum mammary gland involution and peri-menopause. We provide evidence that these windows are highly amenable to targeted, limited duration treatments. Such approaches could result in the prevention of postpartum and postmenopausal breast cancers, correspondingly. PMID:23664839

  15. Developmental windows of breast cancer risk provide opportunities for targeted chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Holly A; Lyons, Traci R; Giles, Erin D; Borges, Virginia F; Schedin, Pepper

    2013-07-01

    The magnitude of the breast cancer problem implores researchers to aggressively investigate prevention strategies. However, several barriers currently reduce the feasibility of breast cancer prevention. These barriers include the inability to accurately predict future breast cancer diagnosis at the individual level, the need for improved understanding of when to implement interventions, uncertainty with respect to optimal duration of treatment, and negative side effects associated with currently approved chemoprevention therapies. None-the-less, the unique biology of the mammary gland, with its postnatal development and conditional terminal differentiation, may permit the resolution of many of these barriers. Specifically, lifecycle-specific windows of breast cancer risk have been identified that may be amenable to risk-reducing strategies. Here, we argue for prevention research focused on two of these lifecycle windows of risk: postpartum mammary gland involution and peri-menopause. We provide evidence that these windows are highly amenable to targeted, limited duration treatments. Such approaches could result in the prevention of postpartum and postmenopausal breast cancers, correspondingly.

  16. Correlation between molybdenum target mammography signs and pathological prognostic factors of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Ma, A D; Jia, H X

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the correlation between molybdenum target (mo-target) mammography signs and pathological prognostic factors of breast cancer. We selected 320 breast cancer patients who were treated between January 2014 and January 2016; using single-factor and multiple-factor logistic regression method, we made correlation analysis on their clinical features, pathological features and mo-target mammography signs. Among mo-target mammography signs, lumps accompanied with calcification and blurry edge were associated with high histologic grades; lumps accompanied with calcification and clear edge were associated with Ki-67 positive; compared with the patients who had lumps with non-stellate edges, positive rates of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) were significantly higher for the patients who had lumps with stellate edges (p < 0.01), while positive rate of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) and tumor proliferative activity were significantly lower (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). According to the study, we can conclude that mo-target mammography signs mainly include lumps and calcification. Mo-target mammography can improve the accuracy of diagnosis and reduce misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis. Part of mo-target mammography signs are associated with clinical pathology prognostic factors; by grasping the relation, breast cancer patient conditions are expected to be relieved.

  17. A therapeutic target for hormone-independent estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, D. K.; Cruz, A.; Pettit, N.; Mutter, G. L.; Pardee, A. B.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The action of the steroid hormone estradiol (E2) is mediated via interaction with a specific receptor (ER) that initiates a series of events downstream, leading to the modulation of hormone-responsive genes and cell proliferation. Antihormones also bind, but do not confer the active configuration to ER, thereby, blocking the transmission of E2-ER-initiated signals for cell proliferation. Although these compounds qualify for successful therapy of ER-positive [ER (+)] breast cancer patients, only a fraction of patients responds to antihormone treatment. In this study, the functional status of ER is determined to identify alternative targets for therapy of antihormone-resistant ER (+) breast cancers. METHOD: The interaction of ER with a specific DNA sequence, designated as E2 response element (ERE), was targeted to assess the functional state of ER. ER-ERE complex formation was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and by a newly developed technique, based on the preferential binding of DNA-protein complex to a nitrocellulose membrane (NMBA) that measures both total and functional fraction of ER. RESULTS: The NMBA assay identified functional variants of ER among ER (+) breast cancer cell lines and breast tumor biopsy specimens. ER of (21PT) cells did not bind E2 and these cells were tamoxifen (TAM) resistant. However 21PT cells were sensitive to a calmodulin (CaM) antagonist, W7, that blocked ERE-ER complex formation. CONCLUSIONS: ER variants of the 21PT type were detected among breast cancer biopsy specimens, emphasizing the significance of an alternative therapeutic target for TAM-resistant ER (+) human breast cancers with compounds such as W7. PMID:11474128

  18. Current state of mTOR targeting in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wazir, Umar; Wazir, Ali; Khanzada, Zubair S; Jiang, Wen G; Sharma, Anup K; Mokbel, Kefah

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian, or mechanistic, target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been implicated in several models of human oncogenesis. Research in the role of mTOR in human oncogenesis remains a field of intense activity. In this mini-review, we intend to recount our current understanding of the mTOR pathway, its interactions, and its role in human carcinogenesis in general, and breast cancer in particular. We herein outline the discrete components of the two complexes of mTOR, and attempt to define their distinct roles and interactions. Furthermore, we review current developments in the therapeutic targeting of mTOR in human breast cancer. Our understanding of the organisation and interactions of the mTOR pathway continues to evolve. There has been significant incremental, albeit slow, progress in the therapeutic targeting of the mTOR pathway in human breast cancer. Continued progress in the field would require a better understanding of the role of the mTOR pathway in human breast cancer. By summarizing the current literature, this review will provide useful information on the topic. Copyright© 2014, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. Targeting uPAR with antagonistic recombinant human antibodies in aggressive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    LeBeau, Aaron M; Duriseti, Sai; Murphy, Stephanie T; Pepin, Francois; Hann, Byron; Gray, Joe W; VanBrocklin, Henry F; Craik, Charles S

    2013-04-01

    Components of the plasminogen activation system, which are overexpressed in aggressive breast cancer subtypes, offer appealing targets for development of new diagnostics and therapeutics. By comparing gene expression data in patient populations and cultured cell lines, we identified elevated levels of the urokinase plasminogen activation receptor (uPAR, PLAUR) in highly aggressive breast cancer subtypes and cell lines. Recombinant human anti-uPAR antagonistic antibodies exhibited potent binding in vitro to the surface of cancer cells expressing uPAR. In vivo these antibodies detected uPAR expression in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumor xenografts using near infrared imaging and (111)In single-photon emission computed tomography. Antibody-based uPAR imaging probes accurately detected small disseminated lesions in a tumor metastasis model, complementing the current clinical imaging standard (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose at detecting non-glucose-avid metastatic lesions. A monotherapy study using the antagonistic antibodies resulted in a significant decrease in tumor growth in a TNBC xenograft model. In addition, a radioimmunotherapy study, using the anti-uPAR antibodies conjugated to the therapeutic radioisotope (177)Lu, found that they were effective at reducing tumor burden in vivo. Taken together, our results offer a preclinical proof of concept for uPAR targeting as a strategy for breast cancer diagnosis and therapy using this novel human antibody technology.

  20. The Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors in breast cancer: current evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Paola; Vari, Sabrina; Cognetti, Francesco; Fabi, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a crucial mediator of tumor progression and may be a promising target in a significant proportion of patients with breast cancer. More specifically, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mTOR pathway plays a critical role in multiple cellular functions including metabolism, proliferation, growth and survival. This pathway is higly active in many types of cancer and is linked to resistance to many types of therapy. Direct blockade of the mTOR pathway is a new area in breast cancer therapy, with the potential to modulate growth factor- and estrogen-dependent and estrogen-independent pathways, which contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of tumors. Thus, inhibitors of mTOR are of interest as potential therapeutic agents for patients with breast cancer, everolimus and temsirolimus being the main representatives of this category. This review of the literature analyzes the available data emerging from trials and evaluates the efficacy and safety of mTOR inhibitors in all subtypes of breast cancer.

  1. Radiation binary targeted therapy for HER-2 positive breast cancers: assumptions, theoretical assessment and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundy, Daniel W.; Harb, Wael; Jevremovic, Tatjana

    2006-03-01

    A novel radiation targeted therapy is investigated for HER-2 positive breast cancers. The proposed concept combines two known approaches, but never used together for the treatment of advanced, relapsed or metastasized HER-2 positive breast cancers. The proposed radiation binary targeted concept is based on the anti HER-2 monoclonal antibodies (MABs) that would be used as vehicles to transport the nontoxic agent to cancer cells. The anti HER-2 MABs have been successful in targeting HER-2 positive breast cancers with high affinity. The proposed concept would utilize a neutral nontoxic boron-10 predicting that anti HER-2 MABs would assure its selective delivery to cancer cells. MABs against HER-2 have been a widely researched strategy in the clinical setting. The most promising antibody is Trastuzumab (Herceptin®). Targeting HER-2 with the MAB Trastuzumab has been proven to be a successful strategy in inducing tumour regression and improving patient survival. Unfortunately, these tumours become resistant and afflicted women succumb to breast cancer. In the proposed concept, when the tumour region is loaded with boron-10 it is irradiated with neutrons (treatment used for head and neck cancers, melanoma and glioblastoma for over 40 years in Japan and Europe). The irradiation process takes less than an hour producing minimal side effects. This paper summarizes our recent theoretical assessments of radiation binary targeted therapy for HER-2 positive breast cancers on: the effective drug delivery mechanism, the numerical model to evaluate the targeted radiation delivery and the survey study to find the neutron facility in the world that might be capable of producing the radiation effect as needed. A novel method of drug delivery utilizing Trastuzumab is described, followed by the description of a computational Monte Carlo based breast model used to determine radiation dose distributions. The total flux and neutron energy spectra of five currently available neutron

  2. Breast cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  3. miR-625 suppresses cell proliferation and migration by targeting HMGA1 in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Wen-bin; Zhong, Cai-neng; Luo, Xun-peng; Zhang, Ya-yuan; Zhang, Gui-ying; Zhou, Dong-xian; Liu, Li-ping

    2016-02-19

    Dysregulation of microRNA contributes to the high incidence and mortality of breast cancer. Here, we show that miR-625 was frequently down-regulated in breast cancer. Decrease of miR-625 was closely associated with estrogen receptor (P = 0.004), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (P = 0.003) and clinical stage (P = 0.001). Kaplan–Meier and multivariate analyses indicated miR-625 as an independent factor for unfavorable prognosis (hazard ratio = 2.654, 95% confident interval: 1.300–5.382, P = 0.007). Re-expression of miR-625 impeded, whereas knockdown of miR-625 enhanced cell viabilities and migration abilities in breast cancer cells. HMGA1 was confirmed as a direct target of miR-625. The expressions of HMGA1 mRNA and protein were induced by miR-625 mimics, but reduced by miR-625 inhibitor. Re-introduction of HMGA1 in cells expressing miR-625 distinctly abrogated miR-625-mediated inhibition of cell growth. Taken together, our data demonstrate that miR-625 suppresses cell proliferation and migration by targeting HMGA1 and suggest miR-625 as a promising prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer. - Highlights: • miR-625 expression was significantly decreased in breast cancer. • Decrease of miR-625 was associated with poor clinical outcomes and unfavorable overall survival. • miR-625 overexpression inhibits cell proliferation and migration in vitro. • miR-625 directly targets and suppresses the expression of HMGA1.

  4. Serotonin transporter antagonists target tumor-initiating cells in a transgenic mouse model of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, Robin M.; Girgis-Gabardo, Adele; Gwynne, William D.; Giacomelli, Andrew O.; Bisson, Jennifer N.P.; Jensen, Jeremy E.; Dvorkin-Gheva, Anna; Hassell, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating data suggests that the initiation and progression of human breast tumors is fueled by a rare subpopulation of tumor cells, termed breast tumor-initiating cells (BTIC), which resist radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Consequently, therapies that abrogate BTIC activity are needed to achieve durable cures for breast cancer patients. To identify such therapies we used a sensitive assay to complete a high-throughput screen of small molecules, including approved drugs, with BTIC-rich mouse mammary tumor cell populations. We found that inhibitors of the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) and serotonin receptors, which include approved drugs used to treat mood disorders, were potent inhibitors of mouse BTIC activity as determined by functional sphere-forming assays and the initiation of tumor formation by transplant of drug-exposed tumor cells into syngeneic mice. Moreover, sertraline (Zoloft), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), synergized with docetaxel (Taxotere) to shrink mouse breast tumors in vivo. Hence drugs targeting the serotonergic system might be repurposed to treat breast cancer patients to afford more durable breast cancer remissions. PMID:27447971

  5. Amine-modified hyaluronic acid-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles for targeting breast cancer tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Patrick V.; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kaasalainen, Martti; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A.

    2014-08-01

    Active targeting of nanoparticles to receptor-overexpressing cancer cells has great potential for enhancing the cellular uptake of nanoparticles and for reducing fast clearance of the nanoparticles from the body. Herein, we present a preparation method of a porous silicon (PSi)-based nanodelivery system for breast cancer targeting, by covalently conjugating a synthesized amide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA+) derived polymer on the surface of undecylenic acid-modified thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (UnTHCPSi) nanoparticles. The resulting UnTHCPSi-HA+ nanoparticles showed relatively small size, reduced polydispersibility, high biocompatibility, improved colloidal and human plasma stability, as well as enhanced cellular interactions and internalization. Moreover, we demonstrated that the enhanced cellular association of UnTHCPSi-HA+ relies on the capability of the conjugated HA+ to bind and consequently target CD44 receptors expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells, thus making the HA+-functionalized UnTHCPSi nanoparticles a suitable and promising nanoplatform for the targeting of CD44-overexpressing breast tumors and for drug delivery.Active targeting of nanoparticles to receptor-overexpressing cancer cells has great potential for enhancing the cellular uptake of nanoparticles and for reducing fast clearance of the nanoparticles from the body. Herein, we present a preparation method of a porous silicon (PSi)-based nanodelivery system for breast cancer targeting, by covalently conjugating a synthesized amide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA+) derived polymer on the surface of undecylenic acid-modified thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (UnTHCPSi) nanoparticles. The resulting UnTHCPSi-HA+ nanoparticles showed relatively small size, reduced polydispersibility, high biocompatibility, improved colloidal and human plasma stability, as well as enhanced cellular interactions and internalization. Moreover, we demonstrated that the enhanced cellular association of Un

  6. Estrogen Receptor-Targeted Contrast Agents for Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Breast Cancer Hormonal Status

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Adi; Degani, Hadassa

    2016-01-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) α is overexpressed in most breast cancers, and its level serves as a major prognostic factor. It is important to develop quantitative molecular imaging methods that specifically detect ER in vivo and assess its function throughout the entire primary breast cancer and in metastatic breast cancer lesions. This study presents the biochemical and molecular features, as well as the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) effects of two novel ER-targeted contrast agents (CAs), based on pyridine-tetra-acetate-Gd(III) chelate conjugated to 17β-estradiol (EPTA-Gd) or to tamoxifen (TPTA-Gd). The experiments were conducted in solution, in human breast cancer cells, and in severe combined immunodeficient mice implanted with transfected ER-positive and ER-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts. Binding studies with ER in solution and in human breast cancer cells indicated affinities in the micromolar range of both CAs. Biochemical and molecular studies in breast cancer cell cultures showed that both CAs exhibit estrogen-like agonistic activity, enhancing cell proliferation, as well as upregulating cMyc oncogene and downregulating ER expression levels. The MRI longitudinal relaxivity was significantly augmented by EPTA-Gd in ER-positive cells as compared to ER-negative cells. Dynamic contrast-enhanced studies with EPTA-Gd in vivo indicated specific augmentation of the MRI water signal in the ER-positive versus ER-negative xenografts, confirming EPTA-Gd-specific interaction with ER. In contrast, TPTA-Gd did not show increased enhancement in ER-positive tumors and did not appear to interact in vivo with the tumors’ ER. However, TPTA-Gd was found to interact strongly with muscle tissue, enhancing muscle signal intensity in a mechanism independent of the presence of ER. The specificity of EPTA-Gd interaction with ER in vivo was further verified by acute and chronic competition with tamoxifen. The chronic tamoxifen treatment also revealed that this

  7. Targeting CXCR1 on breast cancer stem cells: signaling pathways and clinical application modelling

    PubMed Central

    Fidoamore, Alessia; De Pizzol, Maria; Di Giacomo, Erica; Florio, Tiziana Marilena; Confalone, Giuseppina; Galante, Angelo; Cinque, Benedetta; Benedetti, Elisabetta; Ruffini, Pier Adelchi; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Giordano, Antonio; Alecci, Marcello; Allegretti, Marcello; Cimini, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    In breast cancer it has been proposed that the presence of cancer stem cells may drive tumor initiation, progression and recurrences. IL-8, up-regulated in breast cancer, and associated with poor prognosis, increases CSC self-renewal in cell line models. It signals via two cell surface receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2. Recently, the IL-8/CXCR1 axis was proposed as an attractive pathway for the design of specific therapies against breast cancer stem cells. Reparixin, a powerful CXCR1 inhibitor, was effective in reducing in vivo the tumour-initiating population in several NOD/SCID mice breast cancer models, showing that the selective targeting of CXCR1 and the combination of reparixin and docetaxel resulted in a concomitant reduction of the bulk tumour mass and CSC population. The available data indicate that IL-8, expressed by tumour cells and induced by chemotherapeutic treatment, is a key regulator of the survival and self-renewal of the population of CXCR1-expressing CSC. Consequently, this investigation on the mechanism of action of the reparixin/paclitaxel combination, was based on the observation that reparixin treatment contained the formation of metastases in several experimental models. However, specific data on the formation of breast cancer brain metastases, which carry remarkable morbidity and mortality to a substantial proportion of advanced breast cancer patients, have not been generated. The obtained data indicate a beneficial use of the drug combination reparixin and paclitaxel to counteract brain tumour metastasis due to CSC, probably due to the combined effects of the two drugs, the pro-apoptotic action of paclitaxel and the cytostatic and anti-migratory effects of reparixin. PMID:26517518

  8. Endoscopic Breast Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-05

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  9. Alternative therapies for metastatic breast cancer: multimodal approach targeting tumor cell heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Sambi, Manpreet; Haq, Sabah; Samuel, Vanessa; Qorri, Bessi; Haxho, Fiona; Hill, Kelli; Harless, William; Szewczuk, Myron R

    2017-01-01

    One of the primary challenges in developing effective therapies for malignant tumors is the specific targeting of a heterogeneous cancer cell population within the tumor. The cancerous tumor is made up of a variety of distinct cells with specialized receptors and proteins that could potentially be viable targets for drugs. In addition, the diverse signals from the local microenvironment may also contribute to the induction of tumor growth and metastasis. Collectively, these factors must be strategically studied and targeted in order to develop an effective treatment protocol. Targeted multimodal approaches need to be strategically studied in order to develop a treatment protocol that is successful in controlling tumor growth and preventing metastatic burden. Breast cancer, in particular, presents a unique problem because of the variety of subtypes of cancer that can arise and the multiple drug targets that could be exploited. For example, the tumor stage and subtypes often dictate the appropriate treatment regimen. Alternate multimodal therapies should consider the importance of time-dependent drug administration, as well as targeting the local and systemic tumor environment. Many reviews and papers have briefly touched on the clinical implications of this cellular heterogeneity; however, there has been very little discussion on the development of study models that reflect this diversity and on multimodal therapies that could target these subpopulations. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the origins of intratumoral heterogeneity in breast cancer subtypes, and its implications for tumor progression, metastatic potential, and treatment regimens. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing specific breast cancer models for research, including in vitro monolayer systems and three-dimensional mammospheres, as well as in vivo murine models that may have the capacity to encompass this heterogeneity. Lastly, we summarize some of the current

  10. Alternative therapies for metastatic breast cancer: multimodal approach targeting tumor cell heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Sambi, Manpreet; Haq, Sabah; Samuel, Vanessa; Qorri, Bessi; Haxho, Fiona; Hill, Kelli; Harless, William; Szewczuk, Myron R

    2017-01-01

    One of the primary challenges in developing effective therapies for malignant tumors is the specific targeting of a heterogeneous cancer cell population within the tumor. The cancerous tumor is made up of a variety of distinct cells with specialized receptors and proteins that could potentially be viable targets for drugs. In addition, the diverse signals from the local microenvironment may also contribute to the induction of tumor growth and metastasis. Collectively, these factors must be strategically studied and targeted in order to develop an effective treatment protocol. Targeted multimodal approaches need to be strategically studied in order to develop a treatment protocol that is successful in controlling tumor growth and preventing metastatic burden. Breast cancer, in particular, presents a unique problem because of the variety of subtypes of cancer that can arise and the multiple drug targets that could be exploited. For example, the tumor stage and subtypes often dictate the appropriate treatment regimen. Alternate multimodal therapies should consider the importance of time-dependent drug administration, as well as targeting the local and systemic tumor environment. Many reviews and papers have briefly touched on the clinical implications of this cellular heterogeneity; however, there has been very little discussion on the development of study models that reflect this diversity and on multimodal therapies that could target these subpopulations. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the origins of intratumoral heterogeneity in breast cancer subtypes, and its implications for tumor progression, metastatic potential, and treatment regimens. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing specific breast cancer models for research, including in vitro monolayer systems and three-dimensional mammospheres, as well as in vivo murine models that may have the capacity to encompass this heterogeneity. Lastly, we summarize some of the current

  11. MicroRNA-139 suppresses proliferation in luminal type breast cancer cells by targeting Topoisomerase II alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Hua, Wei; Sa, Ke-Di; Zhang, Xiang; Jia, Lin-Tao; Zhao, Jing; Yang, An-Gang; Zhang, Rui; Fan, Jing; Bian, Ka

    2015-08-07

    The classification of molecular subtypes of breast cancer improves the prognostic accuracy and therapeutic benefits in clinic. However, because of the complexity of breast cancer, more biomarkers and functional molecules need to be explored. Here, analyzing the data in a huge cohort of breast cancer patients, we found that Topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2a), an important target of chemotherapy is a biomarker for prognosis in luminal type breast cancer patients, but not in basal like or HER2 positive breast cancer patients. We identified that miR-139, a previous reported anti-metastatic microRNA targets 3’-untranslated region (3′UTR) of TOP2a mRNA. Further more, we revealed that the forced expression of miR-139 reduces the TOP2a expression at both mRNA and protein levels. And our functional experiments showed that the ectopic expression of miR-139 remarkably inhibits proliferation in luminal type breast cancer cells, while exogenous TOP2a expression could rescue inhibition of cell proliferation mediated by miR-139. Collectively, our present study demonstrates the miR-139-TOP2a regulatory axis is important for proliferation in luminal type breast cancer cells. This functional link may help us to further understand the specificity of subtypes of breast cancer and optimize the strategy of cancer treatment. - Highlights: • High levels of TOP2a expression are closely associated with poor prognosis in luminal type breast cancer patients. • TOP2a is a novel target of miR-139. • Overexpression of miR-139 inhibits proliferation in luminal type breast cancer cells. • TOP2a is essential for miR-139-induced growth arrest in luminal type breast cancer cells.

  12. Targeting ceramide metabolic pathway induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Vethakanraj, Helen Shiphrah; Babu, Thabraz Ahmed; Sudarsanan, Ganesh Babu; Duraisamy, Prabhu Kumar; Ashok Kumar, Sekar

    2015-08-28

    The sphingolipid ceramide is a pro apoptotic molecule of ceramide metabolic pathway and is hydrolyzed to proliferative metabolite, sphingosine 1 phosphate by the action of acid ceramidase. Being upregulated in the tumors of breast, acid ceramidase acts as a potential target for breast cancer therapy. We aimed at targeting this enzyme with a small molecule acid ceramidase inhibitor, Ceranib 2 in human breast cancer cell lines MCF 7 and MDA MB 231. Ceranib 2 effectively inhibited the growth of both the cell lines in dose and time dependant manner. Morphological apoptotic hallmarks such as chromatin condensation, fragmented chromatin were observed in AO/EtBr staining. Moreover, ladder pattern of fragmented DNA observed in DNA gel electrophoresis proved the apoptotic activity of Ceranib 2 in breast cancer cell lines. The apoptotic events were associated with significant increase in the expression of pro-apoptotic genes (Bad, Bax and Bid) and down regulation of anti-apoptotic gene (Bcl 2). Interestingly, increase in sub G1 population of cell cycle phase analysis and elevated Annexin V positive cells after Ceranib 2 treatment substantiated its apoptotic activity in MCF 7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines. Thus, we report Ceranib 2 as a potent therapeutic agent against both ER{sup +} and ER{sup −} breast cancer cell lines. - Highlights: • Acid Ceramidase inhibitor, Ceranib 2 induced apoptosis in Breast cancer cell lines (MCF 7 and MDA MB 231 cell lines). • Apoptosis is mediated by DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest. • Ceranib 2 upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic genes and down regulated anti-apoptotic gene expression. • More potent compared to the standard drug Tamoxifen.

  13. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Factor ERLIN2: Oncogenic Roles and Molecular Targeting of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    phenotype. Oncogenes, such as Her2 , play important roles in uncontrolled proliferation and survival of breast cancer cells. However, cancer cells must...2 Figure 1. shRNA- mediated knockdown of ERLIN2 inhibits growth of breast cancer cells SUM-44 and SUM...1 Introduction Breast cancer cells contain a large number of genetic alterations that act in combination to create the malignant

  14. Comparison of various radiation therapy techniques in breast cancer where target volume includes mammaria interna region.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Mehmet Hakan; Zincircioglu, Seyit Burhanedtin; Zorlu, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    In breast cancer radiotherapy, the internal mammary lymphatic chain is treated in the target volume in a group of patients with high-risk criteria. Because of the variability of the anatomic region and structures in the irradiation field, there are a number of different techniques in breast radiotherapy. While irradiating the target volume, we also consider minimizing the dose to critical structures such as heart, lung, and contralateral breast tissue. In this study, we evaluated the dose distribution of different radiotherapy techniques in patients with left-sided breast cancer who had breast-conserving surgery. A three-dimensional computerized planning system (3DCPS) was used for each patient to compare wide-field, oblique photon-electron, and perpendicular photon-electron techniques in terms of dose homogeneities in the target volume; the doses received by the contralateral breast, heart, and lung; and the coverage of the internal mammary chain. Data from 3DCPS were controlled by the Rando-phantom and thermoluminescence dosimetry. Critical structures were irradiated with acceptable dose percentages in addition to the internal mammary chain with both wide-field and photon-electron techniques. We detected more frequent hot spots in the oblique photon-electron technique than in the other techniques, and this situation necessitated changing the junctions. The wide-field technique was easy to perform and exposed less radiation dose to the heart than photon-electron techniques. In conclusion, we suggest the use of the wide-field technique in breast irradiation when the internal mammary area is in the target volume.

  15. Comparison of Various Radiation Therapy Techniques in Breast Cancer Where Target Volume Includes Mammaria Interna Region

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Mehmet Hakan; Zincircioglu, Seyit Burhanedtin Zorlu, Faruk

    2009-04-01

    In breast cancer radiotherapy, the internal mammary lymphatic chain is treated in the target volume in a group of patients with high-risk criteria. Because of the variability of the anatomic region and structures in the irradiation field, there are a number of different techniques in breast radiotherapy. While irradiating the target volume, we also consider minimizing the dose to critical structures such as heart, lung, and contralateral breast tissue. In this study, we evaluated the dose distribution of different radiotherapy techniques in patients with left-sided breast cancer who had breast-conserving surgery. A three-dimensional computerized planning system (3DCPS) was used for each patient to compare wide-field, oblique photon-electron, and perpendicular photon-electron techniques in terms of dose homogeneities in the target volume; the doses received by the contralateral breast, heart, and lung; and the coverage of the internal mammary chain. Data from 3DCPS were controlled by the Rando-phantom and thermoluminescence dosimetry. Critical structures were irradiated with acceptable dose percentages in addition to the internal mammary chain with both wide-field and photon-electron techniques. We detected more frequent hot spots in the oblique photon-electron technique than in the other techniques, and this situation necessitated changing the junctions. The wide-field technique was easy to perform and exposed less radiation dose to the heart than photon-electron techniques. In conclusion, we suggest the use of the wide-field technique in breast irradiation when the internal mammary area is in the target volume.

  16. Targeting breast cancer stem cells in triple-negative breast cancer using a combination of LBH589 and salinomycin.

    PubMed

    Kai, Masaya; Kanaya, Noriko; Wu, Shang V; Mendez, Carlos; Nguyen, Duc; Luu, Thehang; Chen, Shiuan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of combining a histone deacetylase inhibitor (LBH589) and a breast cancer stem cells (BCSC)-targeting agent (salinomycin) as a novel combination therapy for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We performed in vitro studies using the TNBC cell lines to examine the combined effect. We used the mammosphere and ALDEFLUOR assays to estimate BCSC self-renewal capacity and distribution of BCSCs, respectively. Synergistic analysis was performed using CalcuSyn software. For in vivo studies, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 ALDH1-positive cells were injected into non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency gamma (NSG) mice. After tumor formation, mice were treated with LBH589, salinomycin, or in combination. In a second mouse model, HCC1937 cells were first treated with each treatment and then injected into NSG mice. For mechanistic analysis, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were performed using cell and tumor samples. HCC1937 cells displayed BCSC properties including self-renewal capacity, an ALDH1-positive cell population, and the ability to form tumors. Treatment of HCC1937 cells with LBH589 and salinomycin had a potent synergistic effect inhibiting TNBC cell proliferation, ALDH1-positive cells, and mammosphere growth. In xenograft mouse models treated with LBH589 and salinomycin, the drug combination effectively and synergistically inhibited tumor growth of ALDH1-positive cells. The drug combination exerted its effects by inducing apoptosis, arresting the cell cycle, and regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Combination of LBH589 and salinomycin has a synergistic inhibitory effect on TNBC BCSCs by inducing apoptosis, arresting the cell cycle, and regulating EMT; with no apparent associated severe toxicity. This drug combination could therefore offer a new targeted therapeutic strategy for TNBC and warrants further clinical study in patients with TNBC.

  17. Delivery of siRNA into breast cancer cells via phage fusion protein-targeted liposomes.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Deepa; Musacchio, Tiziana; Fagbohun, Olusegun A; Gillespie, James W; Deinnocentes, Patricia; Bird, R Curtis; Bookbinder, Lonnie; Torchilin, Vladimir P; Petrenko, Valery A

    2011-06-01

    Efficacy of siRNAs as potential anticancer therapeutics can be increased by their targeted delivery into cancer cells via tumor-specific ligands. Phage display offers a unique approach to identify highly specific and selective ligands that can deliver nanocarriers to the site of disease. In this study, we proved a novel approach for intracellular delivery of siRNAs into breast cancer cells through their encapsulation into liposomes targeted to the tumor cells with preselected intact phage proteins. The targeted siRNA liposomes were obtained by a fusion of two parental liposomes containing spontaneously inserted siRNA and fusion phage proteins. The presence of pVIII coat protein fused to a MCF-7 cell-targeting peptide DMPGTVLP in the liposomes was confirmed by Western blotting. The novel phage-targeted siRNA-nanopharmaceuticals demonstrate significant down-regulation of PRDM14 gene expression and PRDM14 protein synthesis in the target MCF-7 cells. This approach offers the potential for development of new anticancer siRNA-based targeted nanomedicines. In this study, the authors report a novel approach for targeted intracellular delivery of siRNAs into breast cancer cells through encapsulation into liposomes targeted to the tumor cells with preselected intact phage proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of breast cancer tumor with HER2-targeted nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ti; Cui, Huizhong; Fang, Chia-Yi; Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Forrest, M. Laird

    2013-09-01

    Radiation-damaged nanodiamonds (NDs) are ideal optical contrast agents for photoacoustic (PA) imaging in biological tissues due to their good biocompatibility and high optical absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR) range. Acid treated NDs are oxidized to form carboxyl groups on the surface, functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) targeting ligand for breast cancer tumor imaging. Because of the specific binding of the ligand conjugated NDs to the HER2-overexpressing murine breast cancer cells (4T1.2 neu), the tumor tissues are significantly delineated from the surrounding normal tissue at wavelength of 820 nm under the PA imaging modality. Moreover, HER2 targeted NDs (HER2-PEG-NDs) result in higher accumulation in HER2 positive breast tumors as compared to non-targeted NDs after intravenous injection (i.v.). Longer retention time of HER-PEG-NDs is observed in HER2 overexpressing tumor model than that in negative tumor model (4T1.2). This demonstrates that targeting moiety conjugated NDs have great potential for the sensitive detection of cancer tumors and provide an attractive delivery strategy for anti-cancer drugs.

  19. Gold Nano Popcorn Attached SWCNT Hybrid Nanomaterial for Targeted Diagnosis and Photothermal Therapy of Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Beqa, Lule; Fan, Zhen; Singh, Anant Kumar; Senapati, Dulal; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer presents greatest challenge in health care in today’s world. The key to ultimately successful treatment of breast cancer disease is an early and accurate diagnosis. Current breast cancer treatments are often associated with severe side effects. Driven by the need, we report the design of novel hybrid nanomaterial using gold nano popcorn-attached single wall carbon nanotube for targeted diagnosis and selective photothermal treatment. Targeted SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cell sensing have been performed in 10 cancer cells/mL level, using surface enhanced Raman scattering of single walls carbon nanotube’s D and G bands. Our data show that S6 aptamer attached hybrid nanomaterial based SERS assay is highly sensitive to targeted human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cell line and it will be able to distinguish it from other non targeted MDA-MB breast cancer cell line and HaCaT normal skin cell line. Our results also show that 10 minutes of photothermal therapy treatment by 1.5 W/cm2 power, 785 nm laser is enough to kill cancer cells very effectively using S6 aptamer attached hybrid nanomaterials. Possible mechanisms for targeted sensing and operating principle for highly efficient photothermal therapy have been discussed. Our experimental results reported here open up a new possibility for using aptamers modified hybrid nanomaterial for reliable diagnosis and targeted therapy of cancer cell lines quickly. PMID:21842867

  20. Gold nano-popcorn attached SWCNT hybrid nanomaterial for targeted diagnosis and photothermal therapy of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Beqa, Lule; Fan, Zhen; Singh, Anant Kumar; Senapati, Dulal; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2011-09-01

    Breast cancer presents greatest challenge in health care in today's world. The key to ultimately successful treatment of breast cancer disease is an early and accurate diagnosis. Current breast cancer treatments are often associated with severe side effects. Driven by the need, we report the design of novel hybrid nanomaterial using gold nano popcorn-attached single wall carbon nanotube for targeted diagnosis and selective photothermal treatment. Targeted SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cell sensing have been performed in 10 cancer cells/mL level, using surface enhanced Raman scattering of single walls carbon nanotube's D and G bands. Our data show that S6 aptamer attached hybrid nanomaterial based SERS assay is highly sensitive to targeted human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cell line and it will be able to distinguish it from other non targeted MDA-MB breast cancer cell line and HaCaT normal skin cell line. Our results also show that 10 min of photothermal therapy treatment by 1.5 W/cm(2) power, 785 nm laser is enough to kill cancer cells very effectively using S6 aptamer attached hybrid nanomaterials. Possible mechanisms for targeted sensing and operating principle for highly efficient photothermal therapy have been discussed. Our experimental results reported here open up a new possibility for using aptamers modified hybrid nanomaterial for reliable diagnosis and targeted therapy of cancer cell lines quickly.

  1. Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) to Characterize MRI-Detected Additional Lesions Unidentified at Targeted Ultrasound in Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Mariscotti, Giovanna; Houssami, Nehmat; Durando, Manuela; Campanino, Pier Paolo; Regini, Elisa; Fornari, Alberto; Bussone, Riccardo; Castellano, Isabella; Sapino, Anna; Fonio, Paolo; Gandini, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Preoperative breast magnetic resonance (MR) often generates additional suspicious findings needing further investigations. Targeted breast ultrasound (US) is the standard tool to characterize MR additional lesions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential role of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) to characterize MR detected additional findings, unidentified at targeted breast US. This prospective study included women who a) had biopsy-proven, newly diagnosed breast cancers detected at conventional 2D mammography and/or US, referred to breast MR for tumour staging; and b) had DBT if additional MR findings were not detected at targeted ('second look') US. In 520 patients, MR identified 164 (in 114 women, 22%) additional enhancing lesions. Targeted US identified 114/164 (69.5%) of these, whereas 50/164 (30.5%) remained unidentified. DBT identified 32/50 of these cases, increasing the overall characterization of MR detected additional findings to 89.0% (146/164). Using DBT the identified lesions were significantly more likely to be malignant than benign MR-detected additional lesions (p = 0.04). DBT improves the characterization of additional MR findings not identified at targeted breast US in preoperative breast cancer staging. • Targeted US identified 114 of 164 (69.5%) additional enhancing lesions at preoperative breast MRI. • DBT identified a further 32 of the 50 lesions unidentified on targeted US. • DBT improved the characterization of additional MR findings for breast cancer staging.

  2. Targeting Common but Complex Proteoglycans on Breast Cancer Cells and Stem Cells Using Evolutionary Refined Malaria Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0140 TITLE: Targeting Common but Complex Proteoglycans on Breast Cancer Cells and Stem Cells Using Evolutionary...DATES COVERED 15 Jul 2015 – 14 Jul 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting Common but Complex Proteoglycans on Breast Cancer Cells and Stem Cells Using...cell growth and metastasis. Our data demonstrate how an evolutionarily refined parasite-derived protein can be exploited to target a common , but

  3. In vivo NCL targeting affects breast cancer aggressiveness through miRNA regulation

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Dario; De Luca, Luciana; Consiglio, Jessica; You, Jia; Rocci, Alberto; Talabere, Tiffany; Piovan, Claudia; Lagana, Alessandro; Cascione, Luciano; Guan, Jingwen; Gasparini, Pierluigi; Balatti, Veronica; Nuovo, Gerard; Coppola, Vincenzo; Hofmeister, Craig C.; Marcucci, Guido; Byrd, John C.; Volinia, Stefano; Shapiro, Charles L.; Freitas, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have described the altered expression and the causal role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in human cancer. However, to date, efforts to modulate miRNA levels for therapeutic purposes have been challenging to implement. Here we find that nucleolin (NCL), a major nucleolar protein, posttranscriptionally regulates the expression of a specific subset of miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-221, miR-222, and miR-103, that are causally involved in breast cancer initiation, progression, and drug resistance. We also show that NCL is commonly overexpressed in human breast tumors and that its expression correlates with that of NCL-dependent miRNAs. Finally, inhibition of NCL using guanosine-rich aptamers reduces the levels of NCL-dependent miRNAs and their target genes, thus reducing breast cancer cell aggressiveness both in vitro and in vivo. These findings illuminate a path to novel therapeutic approaches based on NCL-targeting aptamers for the modulation of miRNA expression in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:23610125

  4. nab-Paclitaxel in combination with biologically targeted agents for early and metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Megerdichian, Christine; Olimpiadi, Yuliya; Hurvitz, Sara A

    2014-06-01

    Taxanes are highly active chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of early-stage and metastatic breast cancer. Novel formulations have been developed to improve efficacy and decrease toxicity associated with these cytotoxic agents. nab-Paclitaxel is a biologically interactive, solvent-free, 130-nm-sized albumin-bound paclitaxel, developed to avoid the Cremophor vehicle used in solvent-based paclitaxel. Based on a pivotal phase 3 study, nab-paclitaxel was shown to be safely infused at a significantly higher dose of paclitaxel than the doses used with standard paclitaxel therapy, and had a shorter infusion time, no premedication, and higher response rates. It is now approved in the United States for treatment of breast cancer after failure of combination chemotherapy for metastatic disease or relapse within 6 months of adjuvant therapy, and has demonstrated promising efficacy and favorable tolerability. Recently, several phase 2 and 3 studies have suggested a role for nab-paclitaxel in combination with biologically targeted agents for the treatment of early- and late-stage breast cancer. This review will discuss the findings of clinical trials evaluating nab-paclitaxel in combination with biologically targeted therapeutic agents for breast cancer in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and metastatic settings. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Id-1 gene and gene products as therapeutic targets for treatment of breast cancer and other types of carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

    2014-08-19

    A method for treatment of breast cancer and other types of cancer. The method comprises targeting and modulating Id-1 gene expression, if any, for the Id-1 gene, or gene products in breast or other epithelial cancers in a patient by delivering products that modulate Id-1 gene expression. When expressed, Id-1 gene is a prognostic indicator that cancer cells are invasive and metastatic.

  6. Identification of KLK10 as a therapeutic target to reverse trastuzumab resistance in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yi; Zhang, Yulong; Li, Jiaqiu; Zhu, Liyuan; Xu, Wenxia; Feng, Lifeng; Jin, Hongchuan; Wang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Trastuzumab, the first antibody widely used in anti-HER2 targeted therapy, dramatically improved the overall outcome of HER2 positive breast cancer patients. However, trastuzumab resistance emerged as a major problem in its clinical application. In order to explore mechanisms underlying trastuzumab resistance, we performed RNA-Seq to analyze the gene expression variation in trastuzumab resistant breast cancer cell line. The sequencing result was then combined with the relevant data in TCGA database to conduct a co-expression analysis. We found a series of differentially expressed genes with potential contributions to trastuzumab resistance. Among them, KLK10 was verified to be a potential therapeutic target for reversing trastuzumab resistance. In summary, this study provides a new clue to screen molecular targets and predictive biomarkers for trastuzumab resistance. PMID:27825132

  7. MicroRNA-34a Suppresses Cell Proliferation by Targeting LMTK3 in Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoqing; Guo, Jun; Li, Dong; Jia, Chengyou; Yin, Wanzhong; Sun, Ran; Lv, Zhongwei

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality in females, and about 70% of the primary breast cancer patients are diagnosed ERα-positive, which is the most common type of breast cancer. MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a) has been shown to be a master regulator of tumor suppression in many types of cancers including breast cancer. However, the role of miR-34a in ERα-positive breast cancer has not been elucidated. Here, we find that in MCF-7, which is an ERα-positive breast cancer cell line, miR-34a is remarkably downregulated after E2 treatment. Overexpression of miR-34a by lentivirus suppresses cell proliferation, S phase ratio, and tumor formation in an E2-dependent manner in vitro. According to the mRNA sequence, lemur tyrosine kinase 3 (LMTK3), which is an important regulator of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), is a predicted target of miR-34a. This is confirmed by dual luciferase reporter assay and the decrease of LMTK3 mRNA and protein levels after overexpression of miR-34a. Moreover, miR-34a overexpression decreases AKT signaling pathway and increases ERα phosphorylation status. Taken together, these results suggest that miR-34a inhibits breast cancer proliferation by targeting LMTK3 and might be used as an anti-ERα agent in breast cancer therapy. PMID:24050776

  8. Somatostatin receptor targeted liposomes with Diacerein inhibit IL-6 for breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Rashmi; Dey, Goutam; Banerjee, Indranil; Dey, Kaushik Kumar; Parida, Sheetal; Kumar, B N Prashanth; Das, Chandan Kanta; Pal, Ipsita; Mukherjee, Manabendra; Misra, Mridula; Pradhan, Anjan K; Emdad, Luni; Das, Swadesh K; Fisher, Paul B; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2017-03-01

    Selective targeting to the tumor niche remains a major challenge in successful cancer therapy. Somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) is overexpressed in breast cancer cells thus making this receptor an attractive target for selective guidance of ligand-conjugated drug liposomes to the tumor site. In this study, a synthetic somatostatin analogue (SST) was used as SSTR2 targeting agent and Diacerein was employed as therapeutic molecule. Diacerein loaded liposomes (DNL) were prepared and they were further decorated with the synthetic and stable analogue of somatostatin (SST-DNL). Fabricated liposomes were nano-size in range and biocompatible. SST-DNL displayed significantly better anti-tumor efficacy as compared to free Diacerein (DN) and DNL in breast cancer models. Enhanced apoptosis in breast cancer cells was detected in SST-DNL treated groups as monitored by cell cycle analysis and changes in expression level of apoptotic/anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bax, cleaved Caspase 3 and PARP. SST-DNL more effectively inhibited the oncogenic IL-6/IL-6R/STAT3/MAPK/Akt signalling pathways as compared to DN or DNL in cancer cells. In addition, SST-DNL effectively suppressed angiogenesis and cancer cell invasion. In vivo tumor growth in a MDA-MB-231 mouse xenograft model was significantly suppressed following SST-DNL treatment. In xenograft model, immunohistochemistry of Ki-67 and CD-31 indicated that SST-DNL improved the anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic impacts of Diacerein. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats showed enhanced circulation time in the DNL or SST-DNL treated groups as compared to free DN. Considering all of these findings, we conclude that SST-DNL provides a novel strategy with better efficacy for breast cancer therapy.

  9. [Preliminary study of breast cancer magnetic resonance targeting diagnosis basing on magnetic nanoparticles in vitro].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xian-fu; Wu, Jing-tao; Qu, Qiu-xia; Hu, Xiao-hua; Chen, Ming-xiang; Chen, Wen-xin; Dong, Ying; Jiang, Lun

    2013-09-17

    To develop a magnetic nanoparticles based magnetic resonance (MR) probe targeting CD40 mutant in the imaging of breast cancer cells in vitro. For preparing an immunologically competent probe, monoclonal antibody was conjugated with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles basing on chemical cross-linking method.Its bioactivity was analyzed with flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and Prussian blue staining. The probe's cell MR imaging in vitro was conducted on breast cancer cells (M231) high expressing CD40 mutant. The signal data from different groups were collected and analyzed with one-way variance and least significant difference-t test. The molecular probe carrying nanoparticles and CD40 mutant antibody was constructed and separated successfully. The probe had similar magnetic property compared with original USPIO particles.It could recognize CD40 mutant on breast cancer cells (M231) with high specificity. MR cell imaging in vitro shows that T2 and T2(*) obviously shortened after probe binding with M231 cells and T2 weighted imaging become darker than control groups, the time of T2 is 5H6-USPIO (51.66 ± 5.31) , 5C11-USPIO (92.89 ± 4.72), USPIO (64.56 ± 3.85) ms. The T2 and T2(*) relaxation time of experiment group was shorter than control groups with statistical significance (P < 0.01) . MR molecular probe targeting CD40 mutant may bind with breast cancer cells (M231) to provide further in vivo animal MR imaging. And CD40 mutant is expected to provide a new target for MR molecular imaging of breast cancer.

  10. Chk1 as a new therapeutic target in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Albiges, Laurence; Goubar, Aïcha; Scott, Véronique; Vicier, Cécile; Lefèbvre, Céline; Alsafadi, Samar; Commo, Frédéric; Saghatchian, Mahasti; Lazar, Vladimir; Dessen, Philippe; Delaloge, Suzette; André, Fabrice; Quidville, Virginie

    2014-06-01

    Bioinformatics analyses of pathways and genes differentially expressed between malignant and benign lesions could allow discovering new therapeutic targets. Here, we identified Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) as a potent therapeutic target in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Differential gene expression between TNBC, other malignant and benign lesions was performed on two breast cancer datasets. Chk1 was targeted using RNA interference or chemical inhibitor in several TNBC cell lines. DNA repair pathway was identified as one mostly deregulated pathway in TNBC as compared to benign lesions. Chk1 was identified as candidate target among the 35 genes included in this pathway. Gene expression analysis revealed that Chk1 gene was significantly overexpressed in TNBC as compared to non-TNBC and benign lesions. Depletion of Chk1 protein expression induced a marked reduction of cell viability and led to mitotic catastrophe in TNBC cells. Chemical Chk1 inhibitor decreased survival in TNBC cells, and transcriptome analyze revealed a modulation of gene expression profile in response to Chk1 treatment. These findings suggest that Chk1 may represent a therapeutic target in TNBC, and provide a rationale to evaluate Chk1 inhibitors in breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. miR-203 facilitates tumor growth and metastasis by targeting fibroblast growth factor 2 in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Shuqian; Zhang, Guihui; Dong, He; Ma, Maoqiang; Sun, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. Molecular therapy is needed to improve the outcome in patients with breast cancer. miR-203 participates in cancer cell proliferation, transformation, and apoptosis. This study showed that miR-203 was upregulated in breast cancer tissues and the MCF-7 cell line. miR-203 knockdown suppressed colony formation and transformation and also limited migration in MCF-7 cells. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) was confirmed as a novel target of miR-203, as miR-203 knockdown induced an enhanced expression of FGF2 in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, FGF2 can reverse transforming growth factor-β signal pathway to suppress breast cancer. These findings provide new insights with potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:27785068

  12. Reprogramming of the ERRα and ERα target gene landscape triggers tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Thewes, Verena; Simon, Ronald; Schroeter, Petra; Schlotter, Magdalena; Anzeneder, Tobias; Büttner, Reinhard; Benes, Vladimir; Sauter, Guido; Burwinkel, Barbara; Nicholson, Robert I; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Deuschle, Ulrich; Zapatka, Marc; Heck, Stefanie; Lichter, Peter

    2015-02-15

    Endocrine treatment regimens for breast cancer that target the estrogen receptor-α (ERα) are effective, but acquired resistance remains a limiting drawback. One mechanism of acquired resistance that has been hypothesized is functional substitution of the orphan receptor estrogen-related receptor-α (ERRα) for ERα. To examine this hypothesis, we analyzed ERRα and ERα in recurrent tamoxifen-resistant breast tumors and conducted a genome-wide target gene profiling analysis of MCF-7 breast cancer cell populations that were sensitive or resistant to tamoxifen treatment. This analysis uncovered a global redirection in the target genes controlled by ERα, ERRα, and their coactivator AIB1, defining a novel set of target genes in tamoxifen-resistant cells. Beyond differences in the ERα and ERRα target gene repertoires, both factors were engaged in similar pathobiologic processes relevant to acquired resistance. Functional analyses confirmed a requirement for ERRα in tamoxifen- and fulvestrant-resistant MCF-7 cells, with pharmacologic inhibition of ERRα sufficient to partly restore sensitivity to antiestrogens. In clinical specimens (n = 1041), increased expression of ERRα was associated with enhanced proliferation and aggressive disease parameters, including increased levels of p53 in ERα-positive cases. In addition, increased ERRα expression was linked to reduced overall survival in independent tamoxifen-treated patient cohorts. Taken together, our results suggest that ERα and ERRα cooperate to promote endocrine resistance, and they provide a rationale for the exploration of ERRα as a candidate drug target to treat endocrine-resistant breast cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Targeting of sonic hedgehog-Gli signaling: A potential therapeutic target for patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lingqin; Wang, Weifeng; Liu, Di; Zhao, Yang; He, Jianjun; Wang, Xijing; Dai, Zhijun; Zhang, Huimin; Li, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer among women. The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway serves a key role in malignant cancer cell growth and migration. However, little is known with regard to the specific function of the Hh signaling pathway in human breast cancer. The current study investigated the specific role of Hh signaling in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Expression of components of Shh-Gli signaling, as well as the Gli-responsive genes B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and cyclin D1, were investigated in MDA-MB-231 cells using western blotting. The effects of Shh-Gli signaling on MDA-MB-231 proliferation were analyzed by MTT assay. The role of E-cadherin in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process was determined by western blot while matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9/MMP-2 secretion was studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results indicated that Shh-Gli signaling was activated in MDA-MB-231 cells, significantly enhancing cell viability. Overexpression of Gli positively regulated the transcription of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1 thereby regulating MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and survival. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with human sonic hedgehog, n-terminus for 72 h significantly reduced E-cadherin protein levels and enhanced secretion of MMP-9 and MMP-2. These findings suggest that Shh-Gli signaling is significantly activated in human breast cancer cells, and is accompanied by enhanced cell viability, proliferation and migration capacities. PMID:27446389

  14. Targeting of sonic hedgehog-Gli signaling: A potential therapeutic target for patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Lingqin; Wang, Weifeng; Liu, Di; Zhao, Yang; He, Jianjun; Wang, Xijing; Dai, Zhijun; Zhang, Huimin; Li, Xiao

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant cancer among women. The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway serves a key role in malignant cancer cell growth and migration. However, little is known with regard to the specific function of the Hh signaling pathway in human breast cancer. The current study investigated the specific role of Hh signaling in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Expression of components of Shh-Gli signaling, as well as the Gli-responsive genes B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and cyclin D1, were investigated in MDA-MB-231 cells using western blotting. The effects of Shh-Gli signaling on MDA-MB-231 proliferation were analyzed by MTT assay. The role of E-cadherin in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process was determined by western blot while matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9/MMP-2 secretion was studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results indicated that Shh-Gli signaling was activated in MDA-MB-231 cells, significantly enhancing cell viability. Overexpression of Gli positively regulated the transcription of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1 thereby regulating MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and survival. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with human sonic hedgehog, n-terminus for 72 h significantly reduced E-cadherin protein levels and enhanced secretion of MMP-9 and MMP-2. These findings suggest that Shh-Gli signaling is significantly activated in human breast cancer cells, and is accompanied by enhanced cell viability, proliferation and migration capacities.

  15. Targeting Breast Cancer Recurrence via Hedgehog-mediated Sensitization of Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    with two distinct features; broad spectrum resistance to therapeutics and tumorigenicity(Hurt and Farrar, 2008; Pardal et al., 2003;  Polyak   and...Morrison, S.J. (2003). Applying the principles of stem-cell biology to cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 3, 895-902. Polyak , K., and Weinberg, R.A. (2009

  16. Suppressive role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the microenvironment of breast cancer and targeted immunotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qiming; Gong, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play a pivotal role in promoting tumor growth and metastasis and can even decrease the efficacy of immunotherapy. In breast cancer, MDSCs are recruited mainly by breast cancer cells to form a tumor-favoring microenvironment to suppress the anti-tumor immune response. In addition, MDSCs can react directly with breast cancer cells. In this paper, we describe several ways to recruit MDSCs in breast cancer, including breast cancer cell-derived cytokines and chemokines. The intracellular pathways in MDSCs during recruitment are classified as the STAT3-NF-κB-IDO pathway, the STAT3/IRF-8 pathway and the PTEN/Akt pathway. MDSCs act on T cells and NK cells to suppress the body's immunity, and via IL-6 trans-signaling, promote breast cancer directly. We further describe MDSC-targeted immune therapies for breast cancer, which are classified as: preventing the formation of MDSCs, eliminating MDSDCs, and reducing the products of MDSCs. Furthermore, MDSC-targeted immunotherapy potentiates the effect of the other immunotherapies. Based on the facts that MSDCs have significant roles in breast cancer malignant behaviors and can be suppressed by various strategies, we do believe MDSC-targeted immunotherapy presents a broad prospect in the future. PMID:27542274

  17. Suppressive role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the microenvironment of breast cancer and targeted immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Shou, Dawei; Wen, Liang; Song, Zhenya; Yin, Jian; Sun, Qiming; Gong, Weihua

    2016-09-27

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play a pivotal role in promoting tumor growth and metastasis and can even decrease the efficacy of immunotherapy. In breast cancer, MDSCs are recruited mainly by breast cancer cells to form a tumor-favoring microenvironment to suppress the anti-tumor immune response. In addition, MDSCs can react directly with breast cancer cells. In this paper, we describe several ways to recruit MDSCs in breast cancer, including breast cancer cell-derived cytokines and chemokines. The intracellular pathways in MDSCs during recruitment are classified as the STAT3-NF-κB-IDO pathway, the STAT3/IRF-8 pathway and the PTEN/Akt pathway. MDSCs act on T cells and NK cells to suppress the body's immunity, and via IL-6 trans-signaling, promote breast cancer directly. We further describe MDSC-targeted immune therapies for breast cancer, which are classified as: preventing the formation of MDSCs, eliminating MDSDCs, and reducing the products of MDSCs. Furthermore, MDSC-targeted immunotherapy potentiates the effect of the other immunotherapies. Based on the facts that MSDCs have significant roles in breast cancer malignant behaviors and can be suppressed by various strategies, we do believe MDSC-targeted immunotherapy presents a broad prospect in the future.

  18. Affibody molecules for molecular imaging and targeted drug delivery in the management of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    De, Anindita; Kuppusamy, Gowthamarajan; Karri, Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy

    2017-09-19

    Breast cancer is one of the leading reasons for the morbidity and mortality of cancer related death globally. The modern therapies are basically the combination of the breast-preserving surgeries or ablation with or without node biopsy or destroying the carcinoma cells adjuvant with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal or biological therapies depending upon the nature of the receptor of the cancerous cells, nature of the lymph node, as well as the tendency of the recurrence. For decade's carcinoma management suffered by the limitation of imagining, targeting and penetrability problem associated with management and cure of this deadly disease leads to unwanted chemo-toxicity and side effects. Alike other antibody mimetics, affibodies are designed with the combinatorial protein engineering approaches which are small and robust protein scaffolds retaining the favorable folding and stability. Affibody is one of the significantly important tools for imaging and diagnosis of the affinity specific over expressed proteins in the breast cancer management. The review summarizes the various affibody strategies uses in the management of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...

  20. Nonlinear Growth Kinetics of Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Implications for Cancer Stem Cell Targeted Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinfeng; Johnson, Sara; Liu, Shou; Kanojia, Deepak; Yue, Wei; Singn, Udai; Wang, Qian; Wang, Qi; Nie, Qing; Chen, Hexin

    2013-08-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in primary breast cancer tissues and cell lines. The CSC population varies widely among cancerous tissues and cell lines, and is often associated with aggressive breast cancers. Despite of intensive research, how the CSC population is regulated within a tumor is still not well understood so far. In this paper, we present a mathematical model to explore the growth kinetics of CSC population both in vitro and in vivo. Our mathematical models and supporting experiments suggest that there exist non-linear growth kinetics of CSCs and negative feedback mechanisms to control the balance between the population of CSCs and that of non-stem cancer cells. The model predictions can help us explain a few long-standing questions in the field of cancer stem cell research, and can be potentially used to predict the efficicacy of anti-cancer therapy.

  1. RANK ligand as a potential target for breast cancer prevention in BRCA1-mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Emma; Vaillant, François; Branstetter, Daniel; Pal, Bhupinder; Giner, Göknur; Whitehead, Lachlan; Lok, Sheau W; Mann, Gregory B; Rohrbach, Kathy; Huang, Li-Ya; Soriano, Rosalia; Smyth, Gordon K; Dougall, William C; Visvader, Jane E; Lindeman, Geoffrey J

    2016-08-01

    Individuals who have mutations in the breast-cancer-susceptibility gene BRCA1 (hereafter referred to as BRCA1-mutation carriers) frequently undergo prophylactic mastectomy to minimize their risk of breast cancer. The identification of an effective prevention therapy therefore remains a 'holy grail' for the field. Precancerous BRCA1(mut/+) tissue harbors an aberrant population of luminal progenitor cells, and deregulated progesterone signaling has been implicated in BRCA1-associated oncogenesis. Coupled with the findings that tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11; also known as RANKL) is a key paracrine effector of progesterone signaling and that RANKL and its receptor TNFRSF11A (also known as RANK) contribute to mammary tumorigenesis, we investigated a role for this pathway in the pre-neoplastic phase of BRCA1-mutation carriers. We identified two subsets of luminal progenitors (RANK(+) and RANK(-)) in histologically normal tissue of BRCA1-mutation carriers and showed that RANK(+) cells are highly proliferative, have grossly aberrant DNA repair and bear a molecular signature similar to that of basal-like breast cancer. These data suggest that RANK(+) and not RANK(-) progenitors are a key target population in these women. Inhibition of RANKL signaling by treatment with denosumab in three-dimensional breast organoids derived from pre-neoplastic BRCA1(mut/+) tissue attenuated progesterone-induced proliferation. Notably, proliferation was markedly reduced in breast biopsies from BRCA1-mutation carriers who were treated with denosumab. Furthermore, inhibition of RANKL in a Brca1-deficient mouse model substantially curtailed mammary tumorigenesis. Taken together, these findings identify a targetable pathway in a putative cell-of-origin population in BRCA1-mutation carriers and implicate RANKL blockade as a promising strategy in the prevention of breast cancer.

  2. PVT1-derived miR-1207-5p promotes breast cancer cell growth by targeting STAT6.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chen; Chen, Yaqing; Kong, Weiwei; Fu, Liya; Liu, Yunde; Yao, Qingjuan; Yuan, Yuhua

    2017-05-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that ectopic expression of non-coding RNAs are responsible for breast cancer progression. Increased non-coding RNA PVT1, the host gene of microRNA-1207-5p (miR-1207-5p), has been associated with breast cancer proliferation. However, how PVT1 functions in breast cancer is still not clear. In this study, we show a PVT1-derived microRNA, miR-1207-5p, that promotes the proliferation of breast cancer cells by directly regulating STAT6. We first confirm the positive correlated expression pattern between PVT1 and miR-1207-5p by observing consistent induced expression by estrogen, and overexpression in breast cancer cell lines and breast cancer patient specimens. Moreover, silence of PVT1 also decreased miR-1207-5p expression. Furthermore, increased miR-1207-5p expression promoted, while decreased miR-1207-5p expression suppressed, cell proliferation, colony formation, and cell cycle progression in breast cancer cell lines. Mechanistically, a novel target of miR-1207-5p, STAT6, was identified by a luciferase reporter assay. Overexpression of miR-1207-5p decreased the levels of STAT6, which activated CDKN1A and CDKN1B to regulate the cell cycle. We also confirmed the reverse correlation of miR-1207-5p and STAT6 expression levels in breast cancer samples. Therefore, our findings reveal that PVT1-derived miR-1207-5p promotes the proliferation of breast cancer cells by targeting STAT6, which in turn controls CDKN1A and CDKN1B expression. These findings suggest miR-1207-5p might be a potential target for breast cancer therapy. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  3. Dual cancer-specific targeting strategy cures primary and distant breast carcinomas in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Devanand; Su, Zao-zhong; Vozhilla, Nicolaq; Park, Eun Sook; Gupta, Pankaj; Fisher, Paul B.

    2005-01-01

    Limitations of current viral-based gene therapies for malignant tumors include lack of cancer-specific targeting and insufficient tumor delivery. To ameliorate these problems and develop a truly effective adenovirus gene-based therapy for cancer, we constructed a conditionally replication competent adenovirus (CRCA) manifesting the unique properties of tumor-specific virus replication in combination with production of a cancer-selective cytotoxic cytokine, melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24), which embodies potent bystander antitumor activity. Cancer cell selective tropism was ensured by engineering the expression of the adenoviral E1A protein, necessary for viral replication, under the control of a minimal promoter region of progression elevated gene-3 (PEG-3), which functions selectively in diverse cancer cells with minimal activity in normal cells. In the E3 region of this CRCA, we introduced the mda-7/IL-24 gene, thereby mediating robust production of this cytokine as a function of adenovirus replication. Infection of this CRCA (designated Ad.PEG-E1A-mda-7) in normal mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells confirmed cancer cell selective adenoviral replication, mda-7/IL-24 expression, growth inhibition, and apoptosis induction. Injecting Ad.PEG-E1A-mda-7 into human breast cancer xenografts in athymic nude mice completely eradicated not only the primary tumor but also distant tumors (established on the opposite flank of the animal) thereby implementing a cure. This dual cancer-specific targeting strategy provides an effective approach for treating breast and other human neoplasms with the potential for eradicating both primary tumors and metastatic disease. Additionally, these studies support the potential use of mda-7/IL-24 in the therapy of malignant cancers. PMID:16172403

  4. Dual cancer-specific targeting strategy cures primary and distant breast carcinomas in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Devanand; Su, Zao-Zhong; Vozhilla, Nicolaq; Park, Eun Sook; Gupta, Pankaj; Fisher, Paul B

    2005-09-27

    Limitations of current viral-based gene therapies for malignant tumors include lack of cancer-specific targeting and insufficient tumor delivery. To ameliorate these problems and develop a truly effective adenovirus gene-based therapy for cancer, we constructed a conditionally replication competent adenovirus (CRCA) manifesting the unique properties of tumor-specific virus replication in combination with production of a cancer-selective cytotoxic cytokine, melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24), which embodies potent bystander antitumor activity. Cancer cell selective tropism was ensured by engineering the expression of the adenoviral E1A protein, necessary for viral replication, under the control of a minimal promoter region of progression elevated gene-3 (PEG-3), which functions selectively in diverse cancer cells with minimal activity in normal cells. In the E3 region of this CRCA, we introduced the mda-7/IL-24 gene, thereby mediating robust production of this cytokine as a function of adenovirus replication. Infection of this CRCA (designated Ad.PEG-E1A-mda-7) in normal mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells confirmed cancer cell selective adenoviral replication, mda-7/IL-24 expression, growth inhibition, and apoptosis induction. Injecting Ad.PEG-E1A-mda-7 into human breast cancer xenografts in athymic nude mice completely eradicated not only the primary tumor but also distant tumors (established on the opposite flank of the animal) thereby implementing a cure. This dual cancer-specific targeting strategy provides an effective approach for treating breast and other human neoplasms with the potential for eradicating both primary tumors and metastatic disease. Additionally, these studies support the potential use of mda-7/IL-24 in the therapy of malignant cancers.

  5. Abrogating endocrine resistance by targeting ERα and PI3K in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Emily M.; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Miller, Todd W.

    2012-01-01

    Antiestrogen therapies targeting estrogen receptor α (ER) signaling are a mainstay for patients with ER+ breast cancer. While many cancers exhibit resistance to antiestrogen therapies, a large body of clinical and experimental evidence indicates that hyperactivation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway promotes antiestrogen resistance. In addition, continued ligand-independent ER signaling in the setting of estrogen deprivation may contribute to resistance to endocrine therapy. PI3K activates several proteins which promote cell cycle progression and survival. In ER+ breast cancer cells, PI3K promotes ligand-dependent and -independent ER transcriptional activity. Models of antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer often remain sensitive to estrogen stimulation and PI3K inhibition, suggesting that clinical trials with combinations of drugs targeting both the PI3K and ER pathways are warranted. Herein, we review recent findings on the roles of PI3K and ER in antiestrogen resistance, and clinical trials testing drug combinations which target both pathways. We also discuss the need for clinical investigation of ER downregulators in combination with PI3K inhibitors. PMID:23087906

  6. Molecular photoacoustic tomography of breast cancer using receptor targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Xi, Lei; Grobmyer, Stephen R; Zhou, Guangyin; Qian, Weiping; Yang, Lily; Jiang, Huabei

    2014-06-01

    In this report, we present a breast imaging technique combining high-resolution near-infrared (NIR) light induced photoacoustic tomography (PAT) with NIR dye-labeled amino-terminal fragments of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NIR830-ATF-IONP) for breast cancer imaging using an orthotopic mouse mammary tumor model. We show that accumulation of the targeted nanoparticles in the tumor led to photoacoustic contrast enhancement due to the high absorption of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP). NIR fluorescence images were used to validate specific delivery of NIR830-ATF-IONP to mouse mammary tumors. We found that systemic delivery of the targeted IONP produced 4- and 10-fold enhancement in photoacoustic signals in the tumor, compared to the tumor of the mice that received non-targeted IONP or control mice. The use of targeted nanoparticles allowed imaging of tumors located as deep as 3.1 cm beneath the normal tissues. Our study indicates the potential of the combination of photoacoustic tomography and receptor-targeted NIR830-ATF-IONP as a clinical tool that can provide improved specificity and sensitivity for breast cancer detection. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. MicroRNA-1258 suppresses breast cancer brain metastasis by targeting heparanase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixin; Sullivan, Peggy S; Goodman, Jerry C; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Marchetti, Dario

    2011-02-01

    Heparanase (HPSE) is a potent protumorigenic, proangiogenic, and prometastatic enzyme that is overexpressed in brain metastatic breast cancer (BMBC). However, little is known about the regulation of this potential therapeutic target in BMBC, which remains very poorly managed in the clinic. We hypothesized that HPSE gene expression might be regulated by micro RNA that might be exploited therapeutically. Using miRanda and RNAhybrid, we identified miR-1258 as a candidate micro RNA that may directly target HPSE and suppress BMBC. In support of our hypothesis, we found that miR-1258 levels inversely correlated with heparanase expression, enzymatic activity, and cancer cell metastatic propensities, being lowest in highly aggressive BMBC cell variants compared with either nontumorigenic or nonmetastatic human mammary epithelial cells. These findings were validated by analyses of miR-1258 and heparanase content in paired clinical specimens of normal mammary gland versus invasive ductal carcinoma, and primary breast cancer versus BMBC. In regulatory experiments, miR-1258 inhibited the expression and activity of heparanase in BMBC cells, whereas modulating heparanase blocked the phenotypic effects of miR-1258. In functional experiments, stable expression of miR-1258 in BMBC cells inhibited heparanase in vitro cell invasion and experimental brain metastasis. Together, our findings illustrate how micro RNA mechanisms are linked to brain metastatic breast cancer through heparanase control, and they offer a strong rationale to develop heparanase-based therapeutics for treatment of cancer patients with brain metastases, BMBC in particular.

  8. Amine-modified hyaluronic acid-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles for targeting breast cancer tumors

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Patrick V.; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kaasalainen, Martti; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A.

    2014-01-01

    Active targeting of nanoparticles to receptor-overexpressing cancer cells has great potential for enhancing the cellular uptake of nanoparticles and for reducing fast clearance of the nanoparticles from the body. Herein, we present a preparation method of a porous silicon (PSi)-based nanodelivery system for breast cancer targeting, by covalently conjugating a synthesized amide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA+) derived polymer on the surface of undecylenic acid-modified thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (UnTHCPSi) nanoparticles. The resulting UnTHCPSi–HA+ nanoparticles showed relatively small size, reduced polydispersibility, high biocompatibility, improved colloidal and human plasma stability, as well as enhanced cellular interactions and internalization. Moreover, we demonstrated that the enhanced cellular association of UnTHCPSi–HA+ relies on the capability of the conjugated HA+ to bind and consequently target CD44 receptors expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells, thus making the HA+-functionalized UnTHCPSi nanoparticles a suitable and promising nanoplatform for the targeting of CD44-overexpressing breast tumors and for drug delivery. PMID:25074521

  9. Enriched transcription factor signatures in triple negative breast cancer indicates possible targeted therapies with existing drugs

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Scooter; De, Pradip; Dey, Nandini; Long, Bradley; Young, Brandon; Sparano, Joseph A.; Wang, Victoria; Davidson, Nancy E.; Leyland-Jones, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Triple negative (TN) breast cancers which lack expression of the estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) receptors convey a poor prognosis due in part to a lack of targeted therapies. Methods To identify viable targets for the treatment of TN disease, we have conducted a gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) on seven different breast cancer whole genome gene expression cohorts comparing TN vs. ER + HER2 − to identify consistently enriched genes that share a common promoter motif. The seven cohorts were profiled on three different genome expression platforms (Affymetrix, Illumina and RNAseq) consisting in total of 2088 samples with IHC metadata. Results GSEA identified enriched gene expression patterns in TN samples that share common promoter motifs associated with SOX9, E2F1, HIF1A, HMGA1, MYC BACH2, CEBPB, and GCNF/NR6A1. Unexpectedly, NR6A1 an orphan nuclear receptor normally expressed in germ cells of gonads is highly expressed in TN and ER + HER2 − samples making it an ideal drug target. Conclusion With the increasing number of large sample size breast cancer cohorts, an exploratory analysis of genes that are consistently enriched in TN sharing common promoter motifs allows for the identification of possible therapeutic targets with extensive validation in patient derived data sets. PMID:26005638

  10. DNA Topoisomerase I-Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    DNA cleavage. Our results indicate that the 10,11- methylenedioxy CPT analog was effective in all three tests. Further, this analog was effective...against MX-1 and MDA-231 human breast xenografts growing in nude mice. The 10, 11- methylenedioxy analog appears to be the best choice among the analogs examined, and we are currently pursuing moving this compound into clinical trials.

  11. Estrogen Receptor β as a Therapeutic Target in Breast Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ran; Karthik, Govindasamy-Muralidharan; Lövrot, John; Haglund, Felix; Rosin, Gustaf; Katchy, Anne; Zhang, Xiaonan; Viberg, Lisa; Frisell, Jan; Williams, Cecilia; Linder, Stig; Fredriksson, Irma; Hartman, Johan

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer cells with tumor-initiating capabilities (BSCs) are considered to maintain tumor growth and govern metastasis. Hence, targeting BSCs will be crucial to achieve successful treatment of breast cancer. We characterized mammospheres derived from more than 40 cancer patients and two breast cancer cell lines for the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) and stem cell markers. Mammosphere formation and proliferation assays were performed on cells from 19 cancer patients and five healthy individuals after incubation with ER-subtype selective ligands. Transcriptional analysis was performed to identify pathways activated in ERβ-stimulated mammospheres and verified using in vitro experiments. Xenograft models (n = 4 or 5 per group) were used to study the role of ERs during tumorigenesis. We identified an absence of ERα but upregulation of ERβ in BSCs associated with phenotypic stem cell markers and responsible for the proliferative role of estrogens. Knockdown of ERβ caused a reduction of mammosphere formation in cell lines and in patient-derived cancer cells (40.7%, 26.8%, and 39.1%, respectively). Gene set enrichment analysis identified glycolysis-related pathways (false discovery rate < 0.001) upregulated in ERβ-activated mammospheres. We observed that tamoxifen or fulvestrant alone was insufficient to block proliferation of patient-derived BSCs while this could be accomplished by a selective inhibitor of ERβ (PHTPP; 53.7% in luminal and 45.5% in triple-negative breast cancers). Furthermore, PHTPP reduced tumor initiation in two patient-derived xenografts (75.9% and 59.1% reduction in tumor volume, respectively) and potentiated tamoxifen-mediated inhibition of tumor growth in MCF7 xenografts. We identify ERβ as a mediator of estrogen action in BSCs and a novel target for endocrine therapy.

  12. RGD-conjugated PLA-PLL nanoparticles targeting to Bacp-37 breast cancer xenografts in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peifeng; Qi, Xuelian; Sun, Ying; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang; Duan, Yourong

    2011-12-01

    Targeted delivery carriers are receiving considerable attention, the development of a more precise targeted delivery carrier is critical for the advancement of cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the effects of RGD-conjugated poly (lactic acid-co-lysine)-(Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic) nanoparticles (PLA-PLL-RGD NPs) on targeted delivery to Bacp-37 breast cancer bearing mice. PLA-PLL-RGD NPs were prepared by using the emulsion-solvent evaporation method. A subsequent MTT assay indicated that the NPs were non-toxic and had good biocompatibility. In vitro, the results of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) and FAC Scan flow cytometry (FACS) indicated that the PLA-PLL-RGD NPs can bind more significantly to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, compared to PLA-PLL NPs. In vivo, the results of target imaging and biodistribution showed that PLA-PLL-RGD can significantly target to tumor of Bacp-37 breast cancer bearing mice. These results demonstrated that PLA-PLL-RGD NPs can effectively enhance targeted efficiency in vivo, and have the potential to be used as targeted delivery carrier.

  13. Novel approaches to target HER2-positive breast cancer: trastuzumab emtansine

    PubMed Central

    Recondo, Gonzalo; de la Vega, Maximo; Galanternik, Fernando; Díaz-Cantón, Enrique; Leone, Bernardo Amadeo; Leone, José Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in 20% of breast carcinomas. Prior to the development of targeted therapies, HER2-positive breast cancer was associated with more aggressive disease and poor prognosis. Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate that results from the combination of trastuzumab and DM1, a derivative of the antimicrotubule agent maytansine. This molecule has the ability to enhance cytotoxic drug delivery to specifically targeted cells that overexpress HER2, therefore, maximizing efficacy while sparing toxicity. In recent years, T-DM1 has shown to improve outcomes in metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer that is resistant to trastuzumab. In addition, T-DM1 is currently being tested in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings to identify patients who may benefit from this therapy. This review focuses on the mechanism of action, early and late-phase clinical trials, and ongoing studies of T-DM1 in HER2-positive breast cancer. PMID:27274311

  14. Neural cell adhesion molecule 2 as a target molecule for prostate and breast cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shu; Kato, Kazunori; Nakamura, Kiminori; Nakano, Rika; Kubota, Kazuishi; Hamada, Hirofumi

    2011-04-01

    In adenovirus-derived gene therapy, one of the problems is the difficulty in specific targeting. We have recently demonstrated that monoclonal antibody (mAb) libraries screened by fiber-modified adenovirus vector (Adv-FZ33), which is capable of binding to immunoglobulin-G (IgG), provide a powerful approach for the identification of suitable target antigens for prostate cancer therapy. Hybridoma libraries from mice immunized with androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line LNCaP were screened and mAb were selected. Through this screening, we obtained one mAb, designated LNI-29, that recognizes a glycoprotein with an apparent molecular mass of 100 kD. It was identified as neural cell adhesion molecule 2 (NCAM2). Some prostate and breast cancer cell lines highly expressed NCAM2 whereas normal prostate cell lines expressed NCAM2 at low levels. In contrast to the low efficiency of gene transduction by Adv-FZ33 with a control antibody, LNI-29-mediated Adv-FZ33 infection induces high rates of gene delivery in NCAM2-positive cancers. NCAM2-mediated therapeutic gene transduction of uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) had a highly effective cytotoxic effect on NCAM2-positive cancer cells, whereas it had less of an effect in cases with a control antibody. In conclusion, NCAM2 should be a novel gene therapy target for the treatment of prostate and breast cancer.

  15. Simultaneous Vascular Targeting and Tumor Targeting of Cerebral Breast Cancer Metastases Using a T-Cell Receptor Mimic Antibody

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    in May 2013, the difference between nude mice (which lack T- cells , but still have a partially functional adaptive and innate immune system) and NSG...Mangada J, Greiner DL, Handgretinger R. Human lymphoid and myeloid cell development in NOD/LtSz-scid IL2R gamma null mice engrafted with mobilized human...Targeting of Cerebral Breast Cancer Metastases Using a T- Cell Receptor Mimic Antibody PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ulrich Bickel

  16. Contextual Refinement of Regulatory Targets Reveals Effects on Breast Cancer Prognosis of the Regulome

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Erik; Wang, Yue; Xia, Tian; Cheng, Wenqing; Cheng, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression regulators, such as transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), have varying regulatory targets based on the tissue and physiological state (context) within which they are expressed. While the emergence of regulator-characterizing experiments has inferred the target genes of many regulators across many contexts, methods for transferring regulator target genes across contexts are lacking. Further, regulator target gene lists frequently are not curated or have permissive inclusion criteria, impairing their use. Here, we present a method called iterative Contextual Transcriptional Activity Inference of Regulators (icTAIR) to resolve these issues. icTAIR takes a regulator’s previously-identified target gene list and combines it with gene expression data from a context, quantifying that regulator’s activity for that context. It then calculates the correlation between each listed target gene’s expression and the quantitative score of regulatory activity, removes the uncorrelated genes from the list, and iterates the process until it derives a stable list of refined target genes. To validate and demonstrate icTAIR’s power, we use it to refine the MSigDB c3 database of TF, miRNA and unclassified motif target gene lists for breast cancer. We then use its output for survival analysis with clinicopathological multivariable adjustment in 7 independent breast cancer datasets covering 3,430 patients. We uncover many novel prognostic regulators that were obscured prior to refinement, in particular NFY, and offer a detailed look at the composition and relationships among the breast cancer prognostic regulome. We anticipate icTAIR will be of general use in contextually refining regulator target genes for discoveries across many contexts. The icTAIR algorithm can be downloaded from https://github.com/icTAIR. PMID:28103241

  17. miR-155 drives telomere fragility in human breast cancer by targeting TRF1.

    PubMed

    Dinami, Roberto; Ercolani, Cristiana; Petti, Eleonora; Piazza, Silvano; Ciani, Yari; Sestito, Rosanna; Sacconi, Andrea; Biagioni, Francesca; le Sage, Carlos; Agami, Reuven; Benetti, Roberta; Mottolese, Marcella; Schneider, Claudio; Blandino, Giovanni; Schoeftner, Stefan

    2014-08-01

    Telomeres consist of DNA tandem repeats that recruit the multiprotein complex shelterin to build a chromatin structure that protects chromosome ends. Although cancer formation is linked to alterations in telomere homeostasis, there is little understanding of how shelterin function is limited in cancer cells. Using a small-scale screening approach, we identified miR-155 as a key regulator in breast cancer cell expression of the shelterin component TERF1 (TRF1). miR-155 targeted a conserved sequence motif in the 3'UTR of TRF1, resulting in its translational repression. miR-155 was upregulated commonly in breast cancer specimens, as associated with reduced TRF1 protein expression, metastasis-free survival, and relapse-free survival in estrogen receptor-positive cases. Modulating miR-155 expression in cells altered TRF1 levels and TRF1 abundance at telomeres. Compromising TRF1 expression by elevating miR-155 increased telomere fragility and altered the structure of metaphase chromosomes. In contrast, reducing miR-155 levels improved telomere function and genomic stability. These results implied that miR-155 upregulation antagonizes telomere integrity in breast cancer cells, increasing genomic instability linked to poor clinical outcome in estrogen receptor-positive disease. Our work argued that miRNA-dependent regulation of shelterin function has a clinically significant impact on telomere function, suggesting the existence of "telo-miRNAs" that have an impact on cancer and aging.

  18. Breast Cancer-Targeted Nuclear Drug Delivery Overcoming Drug Resistance for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    degradable dendrimers and its applications for drug delivery .............................................. 23 3.1 Dendrimer design and synthesis...drug delivery .......................................................... 26 3.3 Dendrimer /lipid nanoassembly as “cluster bomb” for cascade tumor...degradable dendrimers and applied such dendrimers to formulate novel drug delivery systems to improve the limited penetration of anti-cancer drugs within

  19. Identification of upregulated phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ as a target to suppress breast cancer cell migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yan; Abel, Peter W.; Kirui, Joseph K.; Deng, Caishu; Sharma, Poonam; Wolff, Dennis W.; Toews, Myron L.; Tu, Yaping

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis is the major cause of breast cancer mortality. We recently reported that aberrant G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling promotes breast cancer metastasis by enhancing cancer cell migration and invasion. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) is specifically activated by GPCRs. The goal of the present study was to determine the role of PI3Kγ in breast cancer cell migration and invasion. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the expression of PI3Kγ protein was significantly increased in invasive human breast carcinoma when compared to adjacent benign breast tissue or ductal carcinoma in situ. PI3Kγ was also detected in metastatic breast cancer cells, but not in normal breast epithelial cell line or in non-metastatic breast cancer cells. In contrast, PI3K isoforms α, β and δ were ubiquitously expressed in these cell lines. Overexpression of recombinant PI3Kγ enhanced the metastatic ability of non-metastatic breast cancer cells. Conversely, migration and invasion of metastatic breast cancer cells were inhibited by a PI3Kγ inhibitor or by siRNA knockdown of PI3Kγ but not by inhibitors or siRNAs of PI3Kα or PI3Kβ. Lamellipodia formation is a key step in cancer metastasis, and PI3Kγ blockade disrupted lamellipodia formation induced by the activation of GPCRs such as CXC chemokine receptor 4 and protease-activated receptor 1, but not by the epidermal growth factor tyrosine kinase receptor. Taken together, these results indicate that upregulated PI3Kγ conveys the metastatic signal initiated by GPCRs in breast cancer cells, and suggest that PI3Kγ may be a novel therapeutic target for development of chemotherapeutic agents to prevent breast cancer metastasis. PMID:23500535

  20. MicroRNA-421 inhibits breast cancer metastasis by targeting metastasis associated 1.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yongqin; Jiao, Genlong; Wang, Cunchuan; Yang, Jingge; Yang, Wah

    2016-10-01

    Dysregulation of microRNAs is involved in the initiation and progression of several human cancers, including breast cancer, as strong evidence of miRNAs acting as oncogenes or tumour suppressor genes has been found. This study was performed to investigate the biological functions of microRNA-421 (miR-421) in breast cancer and the underlying mechanisms. The expression level of miR-421 was detected in 50 pairs of surgical specimens and human breast cancer cell lines. The results showed that miR-421 is downregulated in breast cancer tissues and metastatic cell lines. In addition, the decrease in miR-421 levels was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, recurrence/metastasis, or pTNM stage. Functions of miR-421 in cell migration and invasion were assessed through its silencing and overexpression. The results showed that miR-421 knockdown promotes invasion and metastasis in MCF-7 cells and its overexpression suppresses invasion and metastasis in MDA-MB-231 cells. The specific target genes of miR-421 were predicted by TargetScan algorithm and determined by dual luciferase reporter assay, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, and western blot analysis. miR-421 could suppress luciferase activity of the reporter containing 3'-untranslated region of metastasis associated 1 (MTA1), a potent oncogene. miR-421 overexpression or knockdown had no effect on the mRNA expression of MTA1, but it could modulate MTA1 protein level. Furthermore, MTA1 knockdown receded the effect of miR-421 inhibitor on invasion and metastasis of MCF-7 cells, and its overexpression receded the effect of miR-421 on invasion and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings clearly demonstrate that miR-421 suppresses breast cancer metastasis by directly inhibiting MTA1 expression. The present study provides a new insight into the tumour suppressor roles of miR-421 and suggests that miR-421/MTA1 pathway is a putative therapeutic target in breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS

  1. Targeting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in triple negative breast cancer: New discoveries and practical insights for drug development.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ricardo; Shah, Ami N; Santa-Maria, Cesar A; Cruz, Marcelo R; Mahalingam, Devalingam; Carneiro, Benedito A; Chae, Young Kwang; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Gradishar, William J; Giles, Francis J

    2017-02-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 10-20% of cases in breast cancer. Despite recent advances in the treatment of hormonal receptor+ and HER2+ breast cancers, there are no targeted therapies available for TNBC. Evidence supports that most patients with TNBC express the transmembrane Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). However, early phase clinical trials failed to demonstrate significant activity of EGFR-targeted monoclonal antibodies and/or tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Here, we review the recent discoveries related to the underlying biology of the EGFR pathway in TNBC, clinical progress to date and suggest rational future approaches for investigational therapies in TNBC.

  2. Targeting Breast Cancer with a Steroid Adapter to Inhibit DNA Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    ligase complex involved in nonhomologous end joining ( NHEJ ) of DNA double-strand breaks. The assay can also detect inhibition of complex formation upon... nonhomologous end joining 11 chu@stanford.edu Page 3 Project title: Targeting breast cancer with a steroid adapter to inhibit DNA repair Table of... nonhomologous end - joining . Cell 124, 301-313. DeFazio, L., Stansel, R., Griffith, J., and Chu, G. (2002). Synapsis of DNA ends by the DNA- dependent

  3. MicroRNA-22 inhibits cell growth and metastasis in breast cancer via targeting of SIRT1.

    PubMed

    Zou, Quanqing; Tang, Qianli; Pan, Yinhua; Wang, Xuedi; Dong, Xiaofeng; Liang, Zhongxiao; Huang, Dong

    2017-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs), which are a class of small non-coding RNAs, are key regulators of gene expression via induction of translational repression or mRNA degradation. However, the molecular mechanism of miR-22 underlying the malignant progression of breast cancer, remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to explore the regulatory mechanism of miR-22 in breast cancer cell growth and metastasis. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction data revealed that miR-22 was significantly downregulated in breast cancer tissues, compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. Furthermore, the miR-22 levels were further decreased in stage III-IV, compared with stage I-II breast cancer. In addition, low miR-22 levels were significantly associated with the poor differentiation, metastasis and advanced clinical stages of breast cancer. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) was demonstrated to act as a direct target gene of miR-22 and its protein expression negatively regulated by miR-22 in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Furthermore, SIRT1 expression levels were significantly upregulated in breast cancer tissues, compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. SIRT1 levels were observed to be increased in stage III-IV when compared with stage I-II breast cancer. miR-22 overexpression decreased the proliferation, migration and invasion of MCF-7 cells, whereas overexpression of SIRT1 eliminated the suppressive effects of the miR-22 overexpression on the malignant phenotype of MCF-7 cells. The results of the present study therefore suggested that miR-22 demonstrated suppressive effects on breast cancer growth and metastasis via targeting SIRT1, and thus the miR-22/SIRT1 axis may be used as a novel and potential therapeutic target for breast cancer in the future.

  4. Chemotherapeutic Targeting of Fibulin-5 to Suppress Breast Cancer Invasion and Metastasis Simulated by Transforming Growth Factor-Beta

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    and progressing breast cancers. We recently discovered that the expression and activity of the TGF-β gene target, Fibulin- 5 (FBLN5), potentiates TGF-β...recently established the essential role of TGF-β in regulating the activities of breast cancer-associated fibroblasts and stromal components [2- 5 ...by 5 TGF-β. Differential expression of 14 individual genes was verified by semi-quantitative real-time PCR. Downregulated FBLN5 gene targets

  5. Targeting Breast Cancer Recurrence via Hedgehog-Mediated Sensitization of Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    epithelium is carried out via symmetric mitosis that is parallel to the outer surface of the sphere. By contrast the elaboration and expansion of...Nature  439,  84  (Jan  5,  2006).   12.   J.  Debnath,  J.  S.  Brugge,  Modelling   glandular  epithelial  cancers  in

  6. CCN1, a candidate target for zoledronic acid treatment in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Ingrid; Liu, Hong; Busby, Robert; Lupu, Ruth

    2011-05-01

    CCN1, also known as CYR61, is a survival and proangiogenic factor overexpressed in about 30% of invasive breast carcinomas, and particularly in triple-negative breast carcinomas (TNBC). CCN1 expression in breast cancer promotes tumorigenicity, metastasis, antihormone, and chemoresistance. TNBCs often develop bone metastasis, thus the vast majority of patients receive bisphosphonate treatment as a companion to chemotherapy. Zoledronic acid (ZOL), a bisphosphonate currently in use, inhibits bone resorption, prevents development of new osteolytic lesions induced by tumor metastasis, and has a direct antitumor activity in breast cancer cells and tumors. We have shown that ZOL inhibits anchorage independent growth as well as branching and morphogenesis in CCN1 overexpressing cells. However, the mechanism is not yet well understood. In this study, we investigate the effect of ZOL in breast cancer cells with high and undetectable CCN1 expression levels. We show that CCN1-expressing cells are more sensitive to ZOL, that ZOL induces downregulation of the CCN1 promoter activity and CCN1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner, and that ZOL is associated with a decrease in phosphorylated Akt and translocation of FOXO3a, a negative regulator of CCN1 expression, to the nucleus. Deletion of the FOXO3a binding site in the CCN1 promoter prevents ZOL inhibition of the CCN1 promoter activity showing that FOXO3a transcriptional activation is necessary for ZOL to induce CCN1 inhibition. This study provides evidence that ZOL targets the proangiogenic factor (CCN1) through FOXO3a and reveals a new mechanism of ZOL action in breast cancer cells.

  7. Therapy targeted to the metastatic niche is effective in a model of stage IV breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byunghee; Kavishwar, Amol; Wang, Ping; Ross, Alana; Pantazopoulos, Pamela; Dudley, Michael; Moore, Anna; Medarova, Zdravka

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of stage IV metastatic breast cancer patients is limited to palliative options and represents an unmet clinical need. Here, we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of miRNA-10b - a master regulator of metastatic cell viability – leads to elimination of distant metastases in a mouse model of metastatic breast cancer. This was achieved using the miRNA-10b inhibitory nanodrug, MN-anti-miR10b, which consists of magnetic nanoparticles, conjugated to LNA-based miR-10b antagomirs. Intravenous injection of MN-anti-miR10b into mice bearing lung, bone, and brain metastases from breast cancer resulted in selective accumulation of the nanodrug in metastatic tumor cells. Weekly treatments of mice with MN-anti-miR-10b and low-dose doxorubicin resulted in complete regression of pre-existing distant metastases in 65% of the animals and a significant reduction in cancer mortality. These observations were supported by dramatic reduction in proliferation and increase in apoptosis in metastatic sites. On a molecular level, we observed a significant increase in the expression of HOXD10, which is a known target of miRNA-10b. These results represent first steps into the uncharted territory of therapy targeted to the metastatic niche. PMID:28322342

  8. Cisplatin Prodrug-Conjugated Gold Nanocluster for Fluorescence Imaging and Targeted Therapy of the Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fangyuan; Feng, Bing; Yu, Haijun; Wang, Dangge; Wang, Tingting; Liu, Jianping; Meng, Qingshuo; Wang, Siling; Zhang, Pengcheng; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Theranostic nanomedicine has emerged as a promising modality for cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we report the fabrication of fluorescence gold nanoclusters (GNC) conjugated with a cisplatin prodrug and folic acid (FA) (FA-GNC-Pt) for fluorescence imaging and targeted chemotherapy of breast cancer. The physio-chemical properties of FA-GNC-Pt nanoparticles are thoroughly characterized by fluorescence/UV-Vis spectroscopic measurement, particle size and zeta-potential examination. We find that FA-modification significantly accelerated the cellular uptake and increased the cytotoxicity of GNC-Pt nanoparticles in murine 4T1 breast cancer cells. Fluorescence imaging in vivo using 4T1 tumor bearing nude mouse model shows that FA-GNC-Pt nanoparticles selectively accumulate in the orthotopic 4T1 tumor and generate strong fluorescence signal due to the tumor targeting effect of FA. Moreover, we demonstrate that FA-GNC-Pt nanoparticles significantly inhibit the growth and lung metastasis of the orthotopically implanted 4T1 breast tumors. All these data imply a good potential of the GNC-based theranostic nanoplatform for fluorescence tumor imaging and cancer therapy. PMID:27022415

  9. Cisplatin Prodrug-Conjugated Gold Nanocluster for Fluorescence Imaging and Targeted Therapy of the Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fangyuan; Feng, Bing; Yu, Haijun; Wang, Dangge; Wang, Tingting; Liu, Jianping; Meng, Qingshuo; Wang, Siling; Zhang, Pengcheng; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Theranostic nanomedicine has emerged as a promising modality for cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we report the fabrication of fluorescence gold nanoclusters (GNC) conjugated with a cisplatin prodrug and folic acid (FA) (FA-GNC-Pt) for fluorescence imaging and targeted chemotherapy of breast cancer. The physio-chemical properties of FA-GNC-Pt nanoparticles are thoroughly characterized by fluorescence/UV-Vis spectroscopic measurement, particle size and zeta-potential examination. We find that FA-modification significantly accelerated the cellular uptake and increased the cytotoxicity of GNC-Pt nanoparticles in murine 4T1 breast cancer cells. Fluorescence imaging in vivo using 4T1 tumor bearing nude mouse model shows that FA-GNC-Pt nanoparticles selectively accumulate in the orthotopic 4T1 tumor and generate strong fluorescence signal due to the tumor targeting effect of FA. Moreover, we demonstrate that FA-GNC-Pt nanoparticles significantly inhibit the growth and lung metastasis of the orthotopically implanted 4T1 breast tumors. All these data imply a good potential of the GNC-based theranostic nanoplatform for fluorescence tumor imaging and cancer therapy.

  10. Targets and mechanisms of berberine, a natural drug with potential to treat cancer with special focus on breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jabbarzadeh Kaboli, Parham; Rahmat, Asmah; Ismail, Patimah; Ling, King-Hwa

    2014-10-05

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide and novel therapeutic agents are needed to treat this disease. The plant-based alkaloid berberine has potential therapeutic applications for breast cancer, although a better understanding of the genes and cellular pathways regulated by this compound is needed to define the mechanism of its action in cancer treatment. In this review, the molecular targets of berberine in various cancers, particularly breast cancer, are discussed. Berberine was shown to be effective in inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis in various cancerous cells. Some signaling pathways affected by berberine, including the MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase and Wnt/β-catenin pathways, are critical for reducing cellular migration and sensitivity to various growth factors. This review will discuss recent studies and consider the application of new prospective approaches based on microRNAs and other crucial regulators for use in future studies to define the action of berberine in cancer. The effects of berberine on cancer cell survival and proliferation are also outlined.

  11. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... how early the cancer was diagnosed. Left untreated, breast cancer can spread to other parts of the body, including internal organs. This could cause serious health problems or be fatal. It is very important to get treatment as soon as possible.Living with cancer during ...

  12. Breast Cancer-Targeted Nuclear Drug Delivery Overcoming Drug Resistance for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    dendrimers and its applications for drug delivery .............................................. 19 2.1 Synthesis of degradable polyester dendrimers for...24 2.3 Dendrimer /lipid nanoassembly as “cluster bomb” for cascade tumor penetration...reversal peptide as nuclear-targeted drug carriers. Moreover, we synthesized a series of degradable dendrimers and applied such dendrimers to

  13. Learning about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  14. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oncology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier; 2014. Last Medical Review: June 1, 2016 Last Revised: August 18, 2016 Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery for Breast Cancer Radiation for Breast Cancer Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer Hormone ...

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  16. Characterization of the Role of Breast Tumor Kinase (BRK) in Breast Cancer Cells Non-responsive to EGFR-targeted Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor tyrosine kinases (erbB family), EGFR (erbB1) and HER2, are highly expressed in breast cancer and are associated...utilizing microRNA ( miRNA ) instead of shRNA approach. Three different miRNA sequences targeting Brk and one scramble miRNA control were generated and...Tumor Kinase (BRK) in Breast Cancer Cells Non-responsive to EGFR-targeted Agents PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Anjaruwee Nimnual, Ph.D

  17. Prostaglandin E2 EP receptors as therapeutic targets in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Reader, Jocelyn; Holt, Dawn; Fulton, Amy

    2011-12-01

    Prostaglandins are lipid compounds that mediate many physiological effects. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) is the most abundant prostanoid in the human body, and synthesis of PGE(2) is driven by cyclooxygenase enzymes including COX-2. Both elevated expression of COX-2 and increased PGE(2) levels have been associated with many cancers including breast cancer. PGE(2) exerts its effect by binding to the E series of prostaglandin receptors (EP) which are G protein-coupled receptors. Four EP receptor subtypes exist, EP1-4, and each is coupled to different intracellular signaling pathways. As downstream effectors of the COX-2 pathway, EP receptors have been shown to play a role in breast and other malignancies and in cancer metastasis. The role of each EP receptor in malignant behavior is complex and involves the interplay of EP receptor signaling on the tumor cell, on stromal cells, and on host immune effector cells. While preclinical and epidemiological data support the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective COX-2 inhibitors (COXibs) for the prevention and treatment of malignancy, toxicities due to COXibs as well as less than promising results from clinical trials have laboratories seeking alternative targets. As knowledge concerning the role of EP receptors in cancer grows, so does the potential for exploiting EP receptors as therapeutic targets for the treatment or prevention of cancer and cancer metastasis.

  18. Prostaglandin E2 EP Receptors as Therapeutic Targets in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reader, Jocelyn; Holt, Dawn; Fulton, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandins are lipid compounds that mediate many physiological effects. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most abundant prostanoid in the human body and synthesis of PGE2 is driven by cyclooxygenase enzymes including COX-2. Both elevated expression of COX-2 and increased PGE2 levels have been associated with many cancers including breast cancer. PGE2 exerts its effect by binding to the E series of prostaglandin receptors (EP) which are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Four EP receptor subtypes exist, EP1–4, and each are coupled to different intracellular signaling pathways. As downstream effectors of the COX-2 pathway, EP receptors have been shown to play a role in breast and other malignancies and in cancer metastasis. The role of each EP receptor in malignant behavior is complex and involves the interplay of EP receptor signaling on the tumor cell, on stromal cells and on host immune effector cells. While preclinical and epidemiological data support the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and selective COX-2 inhibitors (COXibs) for the prevention and treatment of malignancy, toxicities due to COXibs as well as less than promising results from clinical trials have laboratories seeking alternative targets. As knowledge concerning the role of EP receptors in cancer grows, so does the potential for exploiting EP receptors as therapeutic targets for the treatment or prevention of cancer and cancer metastasis. PMID:22002714

  19. miR-145 sensitizes breast cancer to doxorubicin by targeting multidrug resistance-associated protein-1

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Man; Miao, Lingling; Liu, Mingxia; Li, Chenggang; Yu, Cunzhi; Yan, Hong; Yin, Yongxiang; Wang, Yizheng; Qi, Xinming; Ren, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) is an important efflux transporter and overexpression of MRP1 usually leads to chemoresistance in breast cancer. Here, we found MRP1 overexpressed in human breast cancer tissues and breast cancer cell lines (compared with normal breast tissues and cell line, respectively). And MRP1 level increased in doxorubicin resistant MCF-7 cells compared with parental MCF-7 cells. Increasing evidences suggest microRNAs (miRNAs) influence chemotherapy response. We found miR-145 level decreased in human breast cancer tissues, breast cancer cell lines and doxorubicin resistant MCF-7 cells, and inversely correlated with MRP1 expression level. In the process of constructing MCF-7 doxorubicin resistant cell line, escalating doxorubicin markedly decreased miR-145 level, following by increased MRP1 level. Further study showed, miR-145 suppressed MRP1 expression by directly targeting MRP1 3′-untranslated regions. Overexpression of miR-145 sensitized breast cancer cells to doxorubicin in vitro and enhanced to doxorubicin chemotherapy in vivo through inducing intracellular doxorubicin accumulation via inhibiting MRP1. Taken together, our study revealed miR-145 sensitizes breast cancer to doxorubicin by targeting MRP1 and indicated the potential application in developing MRP1 inhibitor. PMID:27487127

  20. Therapeutic Targeting of Alternative Translation Initiation in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    investigation within the next 6 months. Cell type specific cancer cell killing of the prototype oncolytic poliovirus , PVS-RIPO, depends on selective...demanded by FDA. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Translation, eIF4E, eIF4G, IRES, Cancer, Poliovirus 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18...genetically recombinant poliovirus . Moreover, my work has laid the groundwork for correlative testing and efficacy studies of a vast array of protein kinase

  1. DNA methylation data for identification of epigenetic targets of resveratrol in triple negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Medina-Aguilar, Rubiceli; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos; Gariglio, Patricio; Marchat, Laurence A; Flores-Pérez, Ali; López-Camarillo, César; García Mena, Jaime

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies revealed that some bioactive food components have anti-cancer effects. However epigenetic effects of dietary compound resveratrol are largely unknown in breast cancer cells (M.A. Dawson, T. Kouzarides, 2012) [1]. Here we provide novel data and comparisons of DNA methylation status of promoter gene regions in response to resveratrol treatment at 24 h and 48 h versus untreated MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. DNA methylation changes were measured using Array-PRIMES method (aPRIMES) followed by whole-genome hybridization using human DNA methylation promoter microarray NimbleGen HG18 Refseq Promoter 3×720 K array. Our data were associated to corresponding changes in mRNA expression in a set of cancer-related genes. Using gene ontology analysis we also identify cancer-related cellular processes and pathways that can be epigenetically reprogramed by resveratrol. Data in this article are associated to the research articles "Methylation Landscape of Human Breast Cancer Cells in Response to Dietary Compound Resveratrol". Medina Aguilar et al., PLoS ONE 11(6): e0157866. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0157866 2016 (A.R. Medina, P.C. Pérez, L.A. Marchat, P. Gariglio, M.J. García, C.S. Rodríguez, G.E. Ruíz, et al., 2016) [2]; and "Resveratrol inhibits cell cycle progression by targeting Aurora kinase A and Polo-like kinase 1 in breast cancer cells" in Oncology Reports. Medina Aguilar et al., 2016 Jun; 35(6):3696-704. doi: 10.3892/or.2016.4728 (A.R. Medina, P. Gariglio, M.J. García, O.E. Arechaga, S.N. Villegas, C.M. Martínez et al., 2016) [3].

  2. Breast cancer as photodynamic therapy target: Enhanced therapeutic efficiency by overview of tumor complexity.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, María Julia; Vittar, Natalia Belén Rumie; Rivarola, Viviana Alicia

    2014-12-10

    Photodynamic therapy is a minimally invasive and clinically approved procedure for eliminating selected malignant cells with specific light activation of a photosensitizer agent. Whereas interstitial and intra-operative approaches have been investigated for the ablation of a broad range of superficial or bulky solid tumors such as breast cancer, the majority of approved photodynamic therapy protocols are for the treatment of superficial lesions of skin and luminal organs. This review article will discuss recent progress in research focused mainly on assessing the efficacies of various photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy, as well as the combinatory strategies of various therapeutic modalities for improving treatments of parenchymal and/or stromal tissues of breast cancer solid tumors. Cytotoxic agents are used in cancer treatments for their effect on rapidly proliferating cancer cells. However, such therapeutics often lack specificity, which can lead to toxicity and undesirable side effects. Many approaches are designed to target tumors. Selective therapies can be established by focusing on distinctive intracellular (receptors, apoptotic pathways, multidrug resistance system, nitric oxide-mediated stress) and environmental (glucose, pH) differences between tumor and healthy tissue. A rational design of effective combination regimens for breast cancer treatment involves a better understanding of the mechanisms and molecular interactions of cytotoxic agents that underlie drug resistance and sensitivity.

  3. Breast cancer as photodynamic therapy target: Enhanced therapeutic efficiency by overview of tumor complexity

    PubMed Central

    Lamberti, María Julia; Vittar, Natalia Belén Rumie; Rivarola, Viviana Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a minimally invasive and clinically approved procedure for eliminating selected malignant cells with specific light activation of a photosensitizer agent. Whereas interstitial and intra-operative approaches have been investigated for the ablation of a broad range of superficial or bulky solid tumors such as breast cancer, the majority of approved photodynamic therapy protocols are for the treatment of superficial lesions of skin and luminal organs. This review article will discuss recent progress in research focused mainly on assessing the efficacies of various photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy, as well as the combinatory strategies of various therapeutic modalities for improving treatments of parenchymal and/or stromal tissues of breast cancer solid tumors. Cytotoxic agents are used in cancer treatments for their effect on rapidly proliferating cancer cells. However, such therapeutics often lack specificity, which can lead to toxicity and undesirable side effects. Many approaches are designed to target tumors. Selective therapies can be established by focusing on distinctive intracellular (receptors, apoptotic pathways, multidrug resistance system, nitric oxide-mediated stress) and environmental (glucose, pH) differences between tumor and healthy tissue. A rational design of effective combination regimens for breast cancer treatment involves a better understanding of the mechanisms and molecular interactions of cytotoxic agents that underlie drug resistance and sensitivity. PMID:25493228

  4. Downregulated miR-45 Inhibits the G1-S Phase Transition by Targeting Bmi-1 in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Liu, Jun-Ling; Yu, Liang; Liu, Xiang-Xia; Wu, Hong-Mei; Lei, Fang-Yong; Wu, Shu; Wang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bmi-1 (B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1) is upregulated in breast cancer and was involved in many malignant progressions of breast cells, including cell proliferation, stem cell pluripotency, and cancer initiation. However, the epigenetic regulatory mechanism of Bmi-1 in breast cancer remains unclear. After analysis of the ArrayExpress dataset GSE45666, we comparatively detected the expression levels of miR-495 in 9 examined breast cancer cell lines, normal breast epithelial cells and 8 pairs of fresh clinical tumor samples. Furthermore, to evaluate the effect of miR-495 on the progression of breast cancer, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 were transduced to stably overexpress miR-495. The 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay, colony formation assays, 5-Bromo-2-deoxyUridine labeling and immunofluorescence, anchorage-independent growth ability assay, flow cytometry analysis, and luciferase assays were used to test the effect of miR-495 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Xenografted tumor model was also used to evaluate the effect of miR-495 in breast cancer. Herein, we found that miR-495, a predicted regulator of Bmi-1, was frequently downregulated in malignant cells and tissues of breast. Upregulation of miR-495 significantly suppressed breast cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenicity via G1-S arrest. Further analysis revealed that miR-495 targeted Bmi-1 through its 3′ untranslated region. Moreover, Bmi-1 could neutralize the suppressive effect of miR-495 on cell proliferation and tumorigenicity of breast cancer in vivo. These data suggested that miR-495 could inhibit the G1-S phase transition that leads to proliferation and tumorigenicity inhibition by targeting and suppressing Bmi-1 in breast cancer. PMID:26020378

  5. Hormonally up-regulated neu-associated kinase: A novel target for breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Joelle N; Neely, Benjamin A; Yeh, Elizabeth S

    2017-05-01

    Hormonally up-regulated neu-associated Kinase (Hunk) is a protein kinase that was originally identified in the murine mammary gland and has been shown to be highly expressed in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 positive (HER2(+)/ErbB2(+)) breast cancer cell lines as well as MMTV-neu derived mammary tumor cell lines. However, the physiological role of Hunk has been largely elusive since its identification. Though Hunk is predicted to be a Serine/Threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinase with homology to the SNF1/AMPK family of protein kinases, there are no known Hunk substrates that have been identified to date. Recent work demonstrates a role for Hunk in HER2(+)/ErbB2(+) breast cancer progression, including drug resistance to HER2/ErbB2 inhibitors, with Hunk potentially acting downstream of HER2/ErbB2 and the PI3K/Akt pathway. These studies have collectively shown that Hunk plays a vital role in promoting mammary tumorigenesis, as Hunk knockdown via shRNA in xenograft tumor models or crossing MMTV-neu or Pten-deficient genetically engineered mouse models into a Hunk knockout (Hunk-/-) background impairs mammary tumor growth in vivo. Because the majority of HER2(+)/ErbB2(+) breast cancer patients acquire drug resistance to HER2/ErbB2 inhibitors, the characterization of novel drug targets like Hunk that have the potential to simultaneously suppress tumorigenesis and potentially enhance efficacy of current therapeutics is an important facet of drug development. Therefore, work aimed at uncovering specific regulatory functions for Hunk that could contribute to this protein kinase's role in both tumorigenesis and drug resistance will be informative. This review focuses on what is currently known about this under-studied protein kinase, and how targeting Hunk may prove to be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A glucose-targeted mixed micellar formulation outperforms Genexol in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Moretton, Marcela A; Bernabeu, Ezequiel; Grotz, Estefanía; Gonzalez, Lorena; Zubillaga, Marcela; Chiappetta, Diego A

    2017-05-01

    Breast cancer represents the top cancer among women, accounting 521.000 deaths per year. Development of targeted nanomedicines to breast cancer tissues represents a milestone to reduce chemotherapy side effects. Taking advantage of the over-expression of glucose (Glu) membrane transporters in breast cancer cells, we aim to expand the potential of a paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded mixed micellar formulation based on polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinylacetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (Soluplus®) and D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) by its surface decoration with Glu moieties. The glycopolymer (Soluplus(Glu)) was obtained by microwave-assisted ring opening reaction of δ-gluconolactone initiated by Soluplus®. The glycosylation was confirmed by (1)H NMR and by agglutination assays employing Concanavalin A. The hydrodynamic diameter of Soluplus(Glu) micelles was characterized by dynamic light scattering (100.3±3.8nm) as well as the critical micellar concentration value (0.0151% w/v). Then, a mixed micelle formulation employing Soluplus®, Soluplus(Glu) and TPGS (3:1:1wt ratio) loaded with PTX (4mg/mL) was developed as a multifunctional nanocarrier. Its in vitro anticancer performance in MCF-7 (1.6-fold) and MDA-MB-231 (14.1-fold) was significantly enhanced (p<0.05) versus the unique commercially available micellar-based PTX-nanoformulation (Genexol®). Furthermore, the in vitro PTX cellular uptake assays revealed that the drug intracellular/cell content was significantly (p<0.05) higher for the Glu-containing mixed micelles versus Genexol® after 6h of incubation with MCF-7 (30.5-fold) and MDA-MB-231 (5-fold). Overall, results confirmed the potential of our Glu-decorated mixed colloidal formulation as an intelligent nanocarrier for PTX-targeted breast cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Targeting Breast Cancers Featuring Activating Mutations in PIK3CA by Generating a Lethal Dose of PIP3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    2003). Frequent monoallelic deletion of PTEN and its reciprocal associatioin with PIK3CA amplification in gastric carcinoma. Int J Cancer 104, 318-327...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-06-1-0341 TITLE: Targeting Breast Cancers Featuring...ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02115 REPORT DATE: February 2008 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual Summary

  8. Targeting CD81 to Prevent Metastases in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    regulatory and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Cancer Res. 2015 Sep 1. pii: canres.1021.2015. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26329536...cells. Cancer Res. 2015 Sep 1. pii: canres.1021.2015. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26329536. 4. IMPACT: § What was the impact on the...ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26329536. § Books or other non-periodical one-time publications Nothing to report § Other publications, conference

  9. Targeting breast cancer stem cells by dendritic cell vaccination in humanized mice with breast tumor: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Phuc Van; Le, Hanh Thi; Vu, Binh Thanh; Pham, Viet Quoc; Le, Phong Minh; Phan, Nhan Lu-Chinh; Trinh, Ngu Van; Nguyen, Huyen Thi-Lam; Nguyen, Sinh Truong; Nguyen, Toan Linh; Phan, Ngoc Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer (BC) is one of the leading cancers in women. Recent progress has enabled BC to be cured with high efficiency. However, late detection or metastatic disease often renders the disease untreatable. Additionally, relapse is the main cause of death in BC patients. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are considered to cause the development of BC and are thought to be responsible for metastasis and relapse. This study aimed to target BCSCs using dendritic cells (DCs) to treat tumor-bearing humanized mice models. Materials and methods NOD/SCID mice were used to produce the humanized mice by transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells. Human BCSCs were injected into the mammary fat pad to produce BC humanized mice. Both hematopoietic stem cells and DCs were isolated from the human umbilical cord blood, and immature DCs were produced from cultured mononuclear cells. DCs were matured by BCSC-derived antigen incubation for 48 hours. Mature DCs were vaccinated to BC humanized mice with a dose of 106 cells/mice, and the survival percentage was monitored in both treated and untreated groups. Results The results showed that DC vaccination could target BCSCs and reduce the tumor size and prolong survival. Conclusion These results suggested that targeting BCSCs with DCs is a promising therapy for BC. PMID:27499638

  10. Characterizing and Targeting Replication Stress Response Defects in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Ohtani S, Deng WG, Ravoori M, Bankson J, et al. (2006) The 3p21.3 tumor suppressor NPRL2 plays an important role in cisplatin -induced resistance in human...non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to cisplatin treatment by regulating key components in the DNA repair pathway. PLoS One; 5; 8, e11994. 9. Wu

  11. miR-103 regulates triple negative breast cancer cells migration and invasion through targeting olfactomedin 4.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Bin; Lei, Xuefeng; Zhang, Lei; Fu, Jia

    2017-03-18

    Our previous study showed olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) suppressed triple-negative breast cancer cells migration, invasion and metastasis-associated protein MMP 9 expression. OLFM4 was identified as a potential target of miR-103 according to microRNA target databases and published studies. The aim of this study is to validate the relationship between miR-103 and OLFM4, and explore the function and clinical significance of miR-103 in triple-negative breast cancer patients. In our results, miR-103 negatively regulated OLFM4 expression by directly targeting its 3'-UTR. OLFM4 was a functional target of miR-103 to regulate triple-negative breast cancer cells migration, invasion and MMP 9 expression. Moreover, miR-103 overexpression was observed in triple-negative breast cancer tissues and cell lines, and associated with lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and clinical stage. Univariate and multivariate analyses suggested that miR-103 overexpression was a poor independent prognostic factor for triple-negative breast cancer patients. In conclusion, miR-103 acts as an oncogene miRNA to promote triple-negative breast cancer cells migration and invasion through targeting OLFM4.

  12. Systematic Identification and Assessment of Therapeutic Targets for Breast Cancer Based on Genome-Wide RNA Interference Transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Yin, Xiaoyao; Zhong, Jing; Guan, Naiyang; Luo, Zhigang; Min, Lishan; Yao, Xing; Bo, Xiaochen; Dai, Licheng; Bai, Hui

    2017-01-01

    With accumulating public omics data, great efforts have been made to characterize the genetic heterogeneity of breast cancer. However, identifying novel targets and selecting the best from the sizeable lists of candidate targets is still a key challenge for targeted therapy, largely owing to the lack of economical, efficient and systematic discovery and assessment to prioritize potential therapeutic targets. Here, we describe an approach that combines the computational evaluation and objective, multifaceted assessment to systematically identify and prioritize targets for biological validation and therapeutic exploration. We first establish the reference gene expression profiles from breast cancer cell line MCF7 upon genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) of a total of 3689 genes, and the breast cancer query signatures using RNA-seq data generated from tissue samples of clinical breast cancer patients in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Based on gene set enrichment analysis, we identified a set of 510 genes that when knocked down could significantly reverse the transcriptome of breast cancer state. We then perform multifaceted assessment to analyze the gene set to prioritize potential targets for gene therapy. We also propose drug repurposing opportunities and identify potentially druggable proteins that have been poorly explored with regard to the discovery of small-molecule modulators. Finally, we obtained a small list of candidate therapeutic targets for four major breast cancer subtypes, i.e., luminal A, luminal B, HER2+ and triple negative breast cancer. This RNAi transcriptome-based approach can be a helpful paradigm for relevant researches to identify and prioritize candidate targets for experimental validation. PMID:28245581

  13. Systematic Identification and Assessment of Therapeutic Targets for Breast Cancer Based on Genome-Wide RNA Interference Transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Yin, Xiaoyao; Zhong, Jing; Guan, Naiyang; Luo, Zhigang; Min, Lishan; Yao, Xing; Bo, Xiaochen; Dai, Licheng; Bai, Hui

    2017-02-24

    With accumulating public omics data, great efforts have been made to characterize the genetic heterogeneity of breast cancer. However, identifying novel targets and selecting the best from the sizeable lists of candidate targets is still a key challenge for targeted therapy, largely owing to the lack of economical, efficient and systematic discovery and assessment to prioritize potential therapeutic targets. Here, we describe an approach that combines the computational evaluation and objective, multifaceted assessment to systematically identify and prioritize targets for biological validation and therapeutic exploration. We first establish the reference gene expression profiles from breast cancer cell line MCF7 upon genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) of a total of 3689 genes, and the breast cancer query signatures using RNA-seq data generated from tissue samples of clinical breast cancer patients in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Based on gene set enrichment analysis, we identified a set of 510 genes that when knocked down could significantly reverse the transcriptome of breast cancer state. We then perform multifaceted assessment to analyze the gene set to prioritize potential targets for gene therapy. We also propose drug repurposing opportunities and identify potentially druggable proteins that have been poorly explored with regard to the discovery of small-molecule modulators. Finally, we obtained a small list of candidate therapeutic targets for four major breast cancer subtypes, i.e., luminal A, luminal B, HER2+ and triple negative breast cancer. This RNAi transcriptome-based approach can be a helpful paradigm for relevant researches to identify and prioritize candidate targets for experimental validation.

  14. Clinical efficacy of local targeted chemotherapy for triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Jinsong; Wang, Xianming; Guan, Hong; Chen, Weicai; Wang, Ming; Wu, Huisheng; Wang, Zun; Zhou, Ruming; Qiu, Shuibo

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of superselective intra-arterial targeted neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative (triple-negative) breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS.: A total of 47 triple-negative breast cancer patients (29 at stage II, 13 at stage III and 5 at stage IV) were randomly assigned to two groups: targeted chemotherapy group (n=24) and control group (n=23). Patients in the targeted chemotherapy group received preoperative superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy with CEF regimen (C: cyclophosphamide [600 mg/m(2)]; E: epirubicin [90 mg/m(2)]; F: 5-fluorouracil [600 mg/m(2)]), and those in the control group received routine neoadjuvant chemotherapy with CEF. The duration of the treatment, changes in lesions and the prognosis were determined. The average course of the treatment was 15 days in the targeted chemotherapy group which was significantly shorter than that in the control group (31 days) (P<0.01). The remission rate of lesions was 91.6% in the targeted chemotherapy group and 60.9% in the control group, respectively. Among these patients, 9 died within two years, including 2 (both at IV stage) in the targeted chemotherapy group and 7 (2 at stage II, 4 at stage III and 1 at stage IV) in the control group. As an neoadjuvant therapy, the superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy is effective for triple-negative breast cancer, with advantages of the short treatment course and favourable remission rates as well as prognoses.

  15. Effective treatment of HER2-amplified breast cancer by targeting HER3 and β1 integrin

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Marcia R.; Zhang, Hui; Ziaee, Shabnam; Ruiz-Saenz, Ana; Gulizia, Nathaniel; Oeffinger, Julie; Amin, Dhara N.; Ahuja, Deepika; Moasser, Mark M.; Park, Catherine C.

    2016-01-01

    The central role of HER2 as the disease driver and HER3 as its essential partner has made them rational targets for the treatment of HER2-amplifed breast cancers, and there is considerable interest in developing highly effective treatment regimens for this disease that consist of targeted therapies alone. Much of these efforts are focused on dual targeting approaches, particularly dual targeting of the HER2-HER3 tumor driver complex itself, or vertical combinations that target downstream PI3K or Akt in addition to HER2. There is also potential in lateral combinations based on evidence implicating cross-talk with other membrane receptor systems, particularly integrins, and such lateral combinations can potentially involve either HER2 or HER3. We established a preclinical model of targeting HER3 using doxycycline-inducible shRNA and determined the efficacy of a β1 integrin inhibitor in combination with targeting HER3. We report that targeting HER3 and β1 integrin provides a particularly effective combination therapy approach for HER2-amplified cancers, surpassing the combination of HER2 and β1 integrin targeting, and evading some of the safety concerns associated with direct HER2-targeting. This further validates HER3 as a major hub mediating the tumorigenic functions of HER2 and identifies it as a high value target for lateral combination therapy strategies. PMID:26860947

  16. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a breast-cancer targeting ultrasound contrast agent

    PubMed Central

    Milgroom, Andrew; Intrator, Miranda; Madhavan, Krishna; Mazzaro, Luciano; Shandas, Robin; Liu, Bolin; Park, Daewon

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is used widely in the context of breast cancer. While it is advantageous for a number of reasons, it has low specificity and requires the use of a contrast agent. Its use as a standalone diagnostic and real-time imaging modality could be achieved by development of a tumor-targeted ultrasound contrast agent (UCA); functionalizing the UCA with a tumor-targeting agent would also allow the targeted administration of anti-cancer drugs at the tumor site. In this article, clinical US techniques are used to show that mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), functionalized with the monoclonal antibody Herceptin®, can be used as an effective UCA by increasing US image contrast. Furthermore, in vitro assays show the successful localization and binding of the MSN-Herceptin conjugate to HER2+ cancer cells, resulting in tumor-specific cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate the potential of MSNs as a stable, biocompatible, and effective therapeutic and diagnostic (“theranostic”) agent for US-based breast cancer imaging, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24269054

  17. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Factor ERLIN2: Oncogenic Roles and Molecular Targeting of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    phenotype. Oncogenes, such as Her2 , play important roles in uncontrolled proliferation and survival of breast cancer cells. However, cancer cells must...transforming roles of ERLIN2 and molecular mechanisms by which ERLIN2 coordinates ER pathways in breast cancer have not been elucidated. In this... signaling in aggressive forms of human breast cancer . Accordingly, we propose that ERLIN2 represents a novel class of oncogenic factors and that

  18. Breast cancer photothermal therapy based on gold nanorods targeted by covalently-coupled bombesin peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, Zahra; Salouti, Mojtaba; Sariri, Reyhaneh

    2015-05-01

    Photothermal therapy, a minimally invasive treatment method for killing cancers cells, has generated a great deal of interest. In an effort to improve treatment efficacy and reduce side effects, better targeting of photoabsorbers to tumors has become a new concept in the battle against cancer. In this study, a bombesin (BBN) analog that can bind to all gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptor subtypes was bound covalently with gold nanorods (GNRs) using Nanothinks acid as a link. The BBN analog was also coated with poly(ethylene glycol) to increase its stability and biocompatibility. The interactions were confirmed by ultraviolet-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A methylthiazol tetrazolium assay showed no cytotoxicity of the PEGylated GNR-BBN conjugate. The cell binding and internalization studies showed high specificity and uptake of the GNR-BBN-PEG conjugate toward breast cancer cells of the T47D cell line. The in vitro study revealed destruction of the T47D cells exposed to the new photothermal agent combined with continuous-wave near-infrared laser irradiation. The biodistribution study showed significant accumulation of the conjugate in the tumor tissue of mice with breast cancer. The in vivo photothermal therapy showed the complete disappearance of xenographted breast tumors in the mouse model.

  19. Targeting the Psychosexual Challenges Faced by Couples with Breast Cancer: Can Couples Group Psychotherapy Help?

    PubMed Central

    Lagana, Luciana; Fobair, Patricia; Spiegel, David

    2016-01-01

    The need for the psychosexual rehabilitation of breast cancer survivors and their intimate partners is underscored by the high prevalence of multiple psychosexual difficulties encountered by this patient population. Concerns about health, sexuality, and emotional distress are common among women with breast cancer and are often related to the side effects of cancer treatment. Additionally, both intimate relationship problems and partners’ distress are likely to influence patients’ psychosexual health. A clearer understanding of these complex clinical issues is needed in order to implement effective psychosexual rehabilitation interventions. In this article, we extended the use of the manualized and empirically validated Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy (SEGT) model to target the specific psychosexual needs of couples with breast (as well as other types of) cancer. In view of the pertinent literature in this area and based on our clinical experience utilizing this group therapy model with different patient populations, we have discussed how clinicians involved in the psychosexual care of oncology patients could apply such a model within a couples group therapy format. PMID:27239398

  20. Prognostic factors of brain metastases from breast cancer: impact of targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Braccini, Antoine Laurent; Azria, David; Thezenas, Simon; Romieu, Gilles; Ferrero, Jean Marc; Jacot, William

    2013-10-01

    Brain metastases (BM) from breast cancer are associated with poor prognosis. This study was made to determine the prognostic influence of breast cancer biological subtypes, and to define the best therapeutic options in this setting, with a special focus on the HER2-positive population. Breast cancer patients with known hormone receptors (HR) and HER2 status presenting with BM treated between 1995 and 2010 in our two institutions were considered for this retrospective study. 250 patients were included. The study population consisted of 25.6% patients categorized as triple-negative (HR-/HER2-), 30.8% as HR+/HER2- and 43.6% as HER2+ breast cancer. Median overall survival (OS) was 8.9 months (95% CI, 6.9-10.3 months). Cerebral progression remained the most frequent cause of death (57.1%). On multivariate analysis, HER2 positivity and the RPA score were the two most important prognostic factors. Local treatment (surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy) and chemotherapy were significantly associated with an increased survival. On multivariate analysis of the RPA1-2 population, local treatment and chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors in addition to biological subtypes, RPA class, liver metastases and clinical signs of intra-cranial hypertension. Anti-HER2 therapies administered after BM diagnosis significantly and independently increased OS. Median OS in patients receiving both trastuzumab and lapatinib after BM diagnosis was significantly better than that the one of patients receiving only one of the 2 targeted therapies (25.7 vs. 9.6 months, p < 0.001). Biological subtypes are independent prognostic determinants. Chemotherapy and targeted therapies positively affect the prognosis after first BM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MicroRNA-217 overexpression induces drug resistance and invasion of breast cancer cells by targeting PTEN signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Xia; Lu, Feng-Qin; Yang, Ya-Pei; Ren, Xiao-Yan; Li, Zhen-Fang; Zhang, Wei

    2015-06-24

    breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Altered microRNA expression is associated with development and progression of breast cancer. Here we examined the role of miR-217 in chemo-sensitivity, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. And the relative molecular mechanism was described. After transfection with miR-217 mimic, the breast cancer cells were treated with different chemotherapy reagents and the cell growth was assessed by MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) assay. The Caspase-Glo3/7 assay was used to evaluate the effect of miR-217 on chemotherapy-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells. The migration and invasion of breast cancer cells were examined by BD transwell migration and matrigel invasion assays. The apoptotic proteins and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were detected by western blot. The survival rate of MCF7 cells was increased after overexpression of miR-217 when MCF7 cells were treated with tamoxifen and etoposide. The survival rate of SKBR3 cells was significantly increased after overexpression of miR-217 when SKBR3 cells were treated with lapatinib. MiR-217 reduced the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to the effects of chemotherapy reagents by inhibiting the caspase 3/7 activities. Meanwhile, altered miR-217 expression affected migration and invasion of MCF7 cells and SKBR3 cells. In addition, the overexpression of miR-217 inhibited E-cadherin expression and promoted Snail expression. MiR-217 activates AKT by downregulation of PTEN in breast cancer cells. Our results strongly suggest that miR-217 plays vital roles in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in breast cancer. Our results suggest that miR-217 might serve as a potential molecular target for breast cancer treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Targeting Transcription Elongation Machinery for Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    contains mostly fusion partners (e.g. AFF1, AFF4, ELL1, ELL2, ENL and AF9) of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) protein and promotes transcription of...MLL-target genes, leading to some of the most severe forms of leukemia . Our working hypotheses is that P-TEFb activation as a result of shifting its

  3. Targeting Transcription Elongation Machinery for Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    e.g. AFF1, AFF4, ELL1, ELL2, ENL and AF9) of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) protein and promotes transcription of MLL-target genes, leading to some...of the most severe forms of leukemia . Our working hypotheses is that P-TEFb activation as a result of shifting its functional equilibrium to the

  4. Understanding and Targeting Cell Growth Networks in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    recombinase  (Figure  1d...with   adenoviruses   encoding   Cre   recombinase   or   a  β-­‐galactosidase   (LacZ)   control.     Enhanced   levels...target   effect   of   Cre   recombinase   or   adenoviral   infection   protocol   (Fig.   4E).   Additionally,  

  5. Nuclear receptor 4A1 as a drug target for breast cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Erik; Lee, Syng-Ook; Doddapaneni, Ravi; Singh, Mandip; Safe, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) is overexpressed in mammary tumors and breast cancer cell lines. The functional activity of this receptor was investigated by RNA interference with oligonucleotides targeted to NR4A1 (siNR4A1) and by treatment with NR4A1 antagonists. Breast cancer cells were treated with NR4A1 antagonists or transfected with siNR4A. Effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis as well as specific genes associated with these responses were investigated in MCF-7, SKBR3, and MDA-MB-231 cells, and in athymic nude mice bearing MDA-MB-231 cells as xenografts. Transfection of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and SKBR3 breast cancer cells with siNR4A1 decreased cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in these cell lines. Transfection of breast cancer cells with siNR4A1 also decreased expression of Sp-regulated genes including survivin, bcl-2, and epidermal growth factor receptor, inhibited mTOR signaling in MCF-7 cells that express WT p53, and activated oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress through downregulation of thioredoxin domain-containing 5 and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1. 1,1-Bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methanes (C-DIMs) are NR4A1 ligands that act as NR4A1 antagonists. Treatment with selected analogs also inhibited breast cancer cell and tumor growth and induced apoptosis. The effects of C-DIM/NR4A1 antagonists were comparable to those observed after NR4A1 knockdown. Results with siNR4A1 or C-DIMs/NR4A1 antagonists in breast cancer cells and tumors were similar to those previously reported in pancreatic, lung, and colon cancer cells. They demonstrate the potential clinical applications of NR4A1 antagonists in patients with tumors that overexpress this receptor. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. MicroRNA-33b Inhibits Breast Cancer Metastasis by Targeting HMGA2, SALL4 and Twist1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yancheng; Liu, Allan Yi; Fan, Chuannan; Zheng, Hong; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Chuankai; Wu, Shasha; Yu, Donghong; Huang, Zhengjie; Liu, Fan; Luo, Qi; Yang, Chaoyong James; Ouyang, Gaoliang

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally either by inhibiting protein translation or by causing the degradation of target mRNAs. Current evidence indicates that miR-33b is involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism, cholesterol homeostasis, glucose metabolism and several human diseases; however, whether miR-33b contributes to the pathogenesis of human cancers and participates in the regulation of self-renewal of human cancer stem cells remains unknown. Here, we report the identification of miR-33b as a negative regulator of cell stemness and metastasis in breast cancer. Compared with paired normal breast tissues, miR-33b expression is downregulated in breast tumor samples and is inversely correlated with lymph node metastatic status. Ectopic overexpression of miR-33b in highly metastatic breast cancer cells suppresses cell self-renewal, migration and invasion in vitro and inhibits lung metastasis in vivo. Conversely, miR-33b knockdown promotes the self-renewal, migration and invasion capabilities of noncancerous mammary epithelial cells. The mechanism through which miR-33b inhibits the stemness, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells is by targeting HMGA2, SALL4 and Twist1. These data indicate that miR-33b acts as an onco-suppressive microRNA in breast cancer progression by inhibiting the stemness and metastasis of breast cancer cells. PMID:25919570

  7. Cost effectiveness of cytotoxic and targeted therapy for metastatic breast cancer: a critical and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Blank, Patricia R; Dedes, Konstantin J; Szucs, Thomas D

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cancer type diagnosed among women in Western countries. Despite great advances in cancer therapies, many of these patients develop non-curable metastases. The objective of cancer treatment in the metastatic setting is mainly to control symptoms and to prolong survival. The selection of the optimal chemotherapeutic regimen is affected by performance status, tumour biology, site and extent of the disease and the exposure to prior therapies. Recent developments in new kinds of cancer drugs have contributed not only to immense progress in clinical outcomes but also to dramatically increased treatment-related health costs. Cost-effectiveness analysis is a type of economic evaluation that compares costs and health outcomes of alternative intervention strategies in a systematic way. In this review, a systematic literature search was performed and the evidence on the cost effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy and targeted therapy for metastatic breast cancer was explored. Cost-effectiveness/-utility analysis of treatment regimens for metastatic breast cancer were identified using literature and reference searches (MEDLINE). Published reports on conventional and targeted cancer therapies were scrutinized and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were abstracted. Furthermore, the quality of reporting, as well as methodological and modeling issues, were extensively discussed. From full-text article reviews, six cost-effectiveness analyses on conventional therapies and seven studies on targeted therapies were included. Eight analyses were conducted in European countries, three in the US and two in Canada. The economic models were primarily (69%) based on clinical trial data. Results from sensitivity analyses and study perspectives were reported by all studies. Discount rates were mentioned in five articles (39%). The methods of reporting costs and effects varied considerably, as did trial design across conventional chemotherapies

  8. Targeting of RAGE-ligand signaling impairs breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kwak, T; Drews-Elger, K; Ergonul, A; Miller, P C; Braley, A; Hwang, G H; Zhao, D; Besser, A; Yamamoto, Y; Yamamoto, H; El-Ashry, D; Slingerland, J M; Lippman, M E; Hudson, B I

    2017-03-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is highly expressed in various cancers and is correlated with poorer outcome in breast and other cancers. Here we tested the role of targeting RAGE by multiple approaches in the tumor and tumor microenvironment, to inhibit the metastatic process. We first tested how RAGE impacts tumor cell-intrinsic mechanisms using either RAGE overexpression or knockdown with short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). RAGE ectopic overexpression in breast cancer cells increased MEK-EMT (MEK-epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition) signaling, transwell invasion and soft agar colony formation, and in vivo promoted lung metastasis independent of tumor growth. RAGE knockdown with multiple independent shRNAs in breast cancer cells led to decreased transwell invasion and soft agar colony formation, without affecting proliferation. In vivo, targeting RAGE shRNA knockdown in human and mouse breast cancer cells, decreased orthotopic tumor growth, reduced tumor angiogenesis and recruitment of inflammatory cells, and markedly decreased metastasis to the lung and liver in multiple xenograft and syngeneic mouse models. To test the non-tumor cell microenvironment role of RAGE, we performed syngeneic studies with orthotopically injected breast cancer cells in wild-type and RAGE-knockout C57BL6 mice. RAGE-knockout mice displayed striking impairment of tumor cell growth compared with wild-type mice, along with decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, tumor angiogenesis and inflammatory cell recruitment. To test the combined inhibition of RAGE in both tumor cell-intrinsic and non-tumor cells of the microenvironment, we performed in vivo treatment of xenografted tumors with FPS-ZM1 (1 mg/kg, two times per week). Compared with vehicle, FPS-ZM1 inhibited primary tumor growth, inhibited tumor angiogenesis and inflammatory cell recruitment and, most importantly, prevented metastasis to the lung and liver. These data demonstrate that RAGE drives tumor

  9. Critical Roles of EGFR Family Members in Breast Cancer and Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Targets for Therapy.

    PubMed

    Steelman, Linda S; Fitzgerald, Timothy; Lertpiriyapong, Kvin; Cocco, Lucio; Follo, Matilde Y; Martelli, Alberto M; Neri, Luca M; Marmiroli, Sandra; Libra, Massimo; Candido, Saverio; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Scalisi, Aurora; Fenga, Concettina; Drobot, Lyudmyla; Rakus, Dariusz; Gizak, Agnieszka; Laidler, Piotr; Dulinska-Litewka, Joanna; Basecke, Joerg; Mijatovic, Sanja; Maksimovic-Ivanic, Danijela; Montalto, Giuseppe; Cervello, Melchiorre; Milella, Michelle; Tafuri, Agustino; Demidenko, Zoya; Abrams, Stephen L; McCubrey, James A

    2016-01-01

    The roles of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway in various cancers including breast, bladder, brain, colorectal, esophageal, gastric, head and neck, hepatocellular, lung, neuroblastoma, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate, renal and other cancers have been keenly investigated since the 1980's. While the receptors and many downstream signaling molecules have been identified and characterized, there is still much to learn about this pathway and how its deregulation can lead to cancer and how it may be differentially regulated in various cell types. Multiple inhibitors to EGFR family members have been developed and many are in clinical use. Current research often focuses on their roles and other associated pathways in cancer stem cells (CSCs), identifying sites where therapeutic resistance may develop and the mechanisms by which microRNAs (miRs) and other RNAs regulate this pathway. This review will focus on recent advances in these fields with a specific focus on breast cancer and breast CSCs. Relatively novel areas of investigation, such as treatments for other diseases (e.g., diabetes, metabolism, and intestinal parasites), have provided new information about therapeutic resistance and CSCs.

  10. Detecting and Targeting Oncogenic Myc in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Proteomics, Ontario Cancer Institute/Princess Margaret Hospital, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, Canada M5G 2M9. Phone: 416- 946 -2276; Fax: 416- 946 -2840; E...rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2005.08.017 * Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 416 946 2276; fax: +1 416 946 2840. E-mail address: lpenn...etic cells [133], mammary gland [134], liver [135], skin [135,136] and pancreatic islets [137] have demonstrated that induction of oncogenic Myc leads

  11. Detection of breast cancer cells using targeted magnetic nanoparticles and ultra-sensitive magnetic field sensors.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, Helen J; Butler, Kimberly S; Adolphi, Natalie L; Lovato, Debbie M; Belfon, Robert; Fegan, Danielle; Monson, Todd C; Trujillo, Jason E; Tessier, Trace E; Bryant, Howard C; Huber, Dale L; Larson, Richard S; Flynn, Edward R

    2011-11-03

    Breast cancer detection using mammography has improved clinical outcomes for many women, because mammography can detect very small (5 mm) tumors early in the course of the disease. However, mammography fails to detect 10 - 25% of tumors, and the results do not distinguish benign and malignant tumors. Reducing the false positive rate, even by a modest 10%, while improving the sensitivity, will lead to improved screening, and is a desirable and attainable goal. The emerging application of magnetic relaxometry, in particular using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors, is fast and potentially more specific than mammography because it is designed to detect tumor-targeted iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. Furthermore, magnetic relaxometry is theoretically more specific than MRI detection, because only target-bound nanoparticles are detected. Our group is developing antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles targeted to breast cancer cells that can be detected using magnetic relaxometry. To accomplish this, we identified a series of breast cancer cell lines expressing varying levels of the plasma membrane-expressed human epidermal growth factor-like receptor 2 (Her2) by flow cytometry. Anti-Her2 antibody was then conjugated to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using the carbodiimide method. Labeled nanoparticles were incubated with breast cancer cell lines and visualized by confocal microscopy, Prussian blue histochemistry, and magnetic relaxometry. We demonstrated a time- and antigen concentration-dependent increase in the number of antibody-conjugated nanoparticles bound to cells. Next, anti Her2-conjugated nanoparticles injected into highly Her2-expressing tumor xenograft explants yielded a significantly higher SQUID relaxometry signal relative to unconjugated nanoparticles. Finally, labeled cells introduced into breast phantoms were measured by magnetic relaxometry, and as few as 1 million labeled cells were detected at a distance of 4

  12. Detection of breast cancer cells using targeted magnetic nanoparticles and ultra-sensitive magnetic field sensors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer detection using mammography has improved clinical outcomes for many women, because mammography can detect very small (5 mm) tumors early in the course of the disease. However, mammography fails to detect 10 - 25% of tumors, and the results do not distinguish benign and malignant tumors. Reducing the false positive rate, even by a modest 10%, while improving the sensitivity, will lead to improved screening, and is a desirable and attainable goal. The emerging application of magnetic relaxometry, in particular using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) sensors, is fast and potentially more specific than mammography because it is designed to detect tumor-targeted iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles. Furthermore, magnetic relaxometry is theoretically more specific than MRI detection, because only target-bound nanoparticles are detected. Our group is developing antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles targeted to breast cancer cells that can be detected using magnetic relaxometry. Methods To accomplish this, we identified a series of breast cancer cell lines expressing varying levels of the plasma membrane-expressed human epidermal growth factor-like receptor 2 (Her2) by flow cytometry. Anti-Her2 antibody was then conjugated to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using the carbodiimide method. Labeled nanoparticles were incubated with breast cancer cell lines and visualized by confocal microscopy, Prussian blue histochemistry, and magnetic relaxometry. Results We demonstrated a time- and antigen concentration-dependent increase in the number of antibody-conjugated nanoparticles bound to cells. Next, anti Her2-conjugated nanoparticles injected into highly Her2-expressing tumor xenograft explants yielded a significantly higher SQUID relaxometry signal relative to unconjugated nanoparticles. Finally, labeled cells introduced into breast phantoms were measured by magnetic relaxometry, and as few as 1 million labeled cells

  13. A selective mitochondrial-targeted chlorambucil with remarkable cytotoxicity in breast and pancreatic cancers.

    PubMed

    Millard, Melissa; Gallagher, John D; Olenyuk, Bogdan Z; Neamati, Nouri

    2013-11-27

    Nitrogen mustards, widely used as chemotherapeutics, have limited safety and efficacy. Mitochondria lack a functional nucleotide excision repair mechanism to repair DNA adducts and are sensitive to alkylating agents. Importantly, cancer cells have higher intrinsic mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψmt) than normal cells. Therefore, selectively targeting nitrogen mustards to cancer cell mitochondria based on Δψmt could overcome those limitations. Herein, we describe the design, synthesis, and evaluation of Mito-Chlor, a triphenylphosphonium derivative of the nitrogen mustard chlorambucil. We show that Mito-Chlor localizes to cancer cell mitochondria where it acts on mtDNA to arrest cell cycle and induce cell death, resulting in a 80-fold enhancement of cell kill in a panel of breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines that are insensitive to the parent drug. Significantly, Mito-Chlor delayed tumor progression in a mouse xenograft model of human pancreatic cancer. This is a first example of repurposing chlorambucil, a drug not used in breast and pancreatic cancer treatment, as a novel drug candidate for these diseases.

  14. miR-96 promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting PTPN9 in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yeting; Liang, Hongwei; Uzair-ur-Rehman; Wang, Yanbo; Zhang, Weijie; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Song’an; Yu, Mengchao; Cui, Sufang; Liu, Minghui; Wang, Nan; Ye, Chao; Zhao, Chihao; Liu, Yanqing; Fan, Qian; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Sang, Jianfeng; Zen, Ke; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as major regulators of the initiation and progression of human cancers, including breast cancer. The aim of this study is to determine the expression pattern of miR-96 in breast cancer and to investigate its biological role during tumorigenesis. We showed that miR-96 was significantly upregulated in breast cancer. We then investigated its function and found that miR-96 significantly promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and enhanced tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, we explored the molecular mechanisms by which miR-96 contributes to breast cancer progression and identified PTPN9 (protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 9) as a direct target gene of miR-96. Finally, we showed that PTPN9 had opposite effects to those of miR-96 on breast cancer cells, suggesting that miR-96 may promote breast tumorigenesis by silencing PTPN9. Taken together, this study highlights an important role for miR-96 in the regulation of PTPN9 in breast cancer cells and may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis. PMID:27857177

  15. Targeting Phosphatidylserine for Radioimmunotherapy of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    3                          4                  Stack    Autoradiograph a b c I‐ 124 ‐PGN635 PET/CT 231BR normal d d. Detection and...in mice bearing brain metastases. PGN635F(ab’)2 were successfully labeled with I- 124 or I-125 to study its specific targeting of brain metastases...brain metastases in mice. 9 Fig. 4 Autoradiography and PET imaging of I- 124 /125 labeled PGN635 in targeting brain metastases. a

  16. The role of chemokines in breast cancer pathology and its possible use as therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Arreola, M Isabel; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Castro, Julieta I; García-Zepeda, Eduardo; Carrero, Julio C; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines are small proteins that primarily regulate the traffic of leukocytes under homeostatic conditions and during specific immune responses. The chemokine-chemokine receptor system comprises almost 50 chemokines and approximately 20 chemokine receptors; thus, there is no unique ligand for each receptor and the binding of different chemokines to the same receptor might have disparate effects. Complicating the system further, these effects depend on the cellular milieu. In cancer, although chemokines are associated primarily with the generation of a protumoral microenvironment and organ-directed metastasis, they also mediate other phenomena related to disease progression, such as angiogenesis and even chemoresistance. Therefore, the chemokine system is becoming a target in cancer therapeutics. We review the emerging data and correlations between chemokines/chemokine receptors and breast cancer, their implications in cancer progression, and possible therapeutic strategies that exploit the chemokine system.

  17. The Role of Chemokines in Breast Cancer Pathology and Its Possible Use as Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-Arreola, M. Isabel; Nava-Castro, Karen E.; Castro, Julieta I.; García-Zepeda, Eduardo; Carrero, Julio C.; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines are small proteins that primarily regulate the traffic of leukocytes under homeostatic conditions and during specific immune responses. The chemokine-chemokine receptor system comprises almost 50 chemokines and approximately 20 chemokine receptors; thus, there is no unique ligand for each receptor and the binding of different chemokines to the same receptor might have disparate effects. Complicating the system further, these effects depend on the cellular milieu. In cancer, although chemokines are associated primarily with the generation of a protumoral microenvironment and organ-directed metastasis, they also mediate other phenomena related to disease progression, such as angiogenesis and even chemoresistance. Therefore, the chemokine system is becoming a target in cancer therapeutics. We review the emerging data and correlations between chemokines/chemokine receptors and breast cancer, their implications in cancer progression, and possible therapeutic strategies that exploit the chemokine system. PMID:25165728

  18. Death receptor pathways mediate targeted and non-targeted effects of ionizing radiations in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Luce, Audrey; Courtin, Aurélie; Levalois, Céline; Altmeyer-Morel, Sandrine; Romeo, Paul-Henri; Lebeau, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    Delayed cell death by mitotic catastrophe is a frequent mode of solid tumor cell death after γ-irradiation, a widely used treatment of cancer. Whereas the mechanisms that underlie the early γ-irradiation-induced cell death are well documented, those that drive the delayed cell death are largely unknown. Here we show that the Fas, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α death receptor pathways mediate the delayed cell death observed after γ-irradiation of breast cancer cells. Early after irradiation, we observe the increased expression of Fas, TRAIL-R and TNF-R that first sensitizes cells to apoptosis. Later, the increased expression of FasL, TRAIL and TNF-α permit the apoptosis engagement linked to mitotic catastrophe. Treatments with TNF-α, TRAIL or anti-Fas antibody, early after radiation exposure, induce apoptosis, whereas the neutralization of the three death receptors pathways impairs the delayed cell death. We also show for the first time that irradiated breast cancer cells excrete soluble forms of the three ligands that can induce the death of sensitive bystander cells. Overall, these results define the molecular basis of the delayed cell death of irradiated cancer cells and identify the death receptors pathways as crucial actors in apoptosis induced by targeted as well as non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation. PMID:19126655

  19. Mixed Lineage Kinases as Novel Targets for the Treatment of Endocrine-Resistant, ER-Positive Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0018 TITLE: Mixed-Lineage Kinases as Novel Targets for the Treatment of Endocrine-Resistant, ER-Positive Breast Cancer ...Positive Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0018 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Susan E. Conrad 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER...the efficacy of this inhibitor in pre-clinical mouse xenograft models of human ER–positive breast cancer . During the current reporting period, we

  20. Targeting siRNA Missiles to Her2+ Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    testing for targeted toxicity of HerPBK10-siRNA, we assessed cytotoxic potential in vivo after intratumoral (IT) injection of complexes in tumor-bearing...single tail vein injection of Dox alone or the complex (HerDox) (0.02 mg/kg with respect to Dox conc) and were imaged live using a customized macro...mice were injected 0.02 mg/kg (final Dox dose) of HerDox ox via the tail vein and imaged with a om small animal imager. A, Imaging of mice after

  1. Lewis Y Antigen as a Target for Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    like and Ala liphophilic groups are colored orange. Figure 5 . Low energy placment of the APWLY motif within the B3 combining site. The APWLY sequence...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED ISeptember 1997 Annual (I Sep 96 - 31 Aug 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS Lewis Y Antigen as a Target for...2 Expression of scFv fragment of hu-BR55-2 mimic 2 In vitro and in vivo functionality of Le antigen mimicking peptides 3 Table 1 4 Table 2 5 Table 3 5

  2. Understanding and Targeting Cell Growth Networks in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    with 10% fetal bovine serum, 2 mM glutamine, 0.1 mM nones- sential amino acids , 2 g/ml gentamicin. Etoposide (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) and rapamycin (LC...proliferation SN Brady et al 3211 Oncogene40 Alignment of human and mouse NPM amino acid sequences revealed 94% identity and 97% similarity. As shown in...Thr198 NPM (NPM-pT198). Shown is the amino acid alignment for the cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) target region of human (upper sequence) and murine (lower

  3. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  4. Enhanced noscapine delivery using estrogen-receptor-targeted nanoparticles for breast cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Madan, Jitender; Gundala, Sushma R; Kasetti, Yoganjaneyulu; Bharatam, Prasad V; Aneja, Ritu; Katyal, Anju; Jain, Upendra K

    2014-07-01

    Noscapine (Nos), an orally available plant-derived antitussive alkaloid, is in phase II clinical trials for cancer chemotherapy. It has extensively been shown to inhibit tumor growth in nude mice bearing human xenografts of hematopoietic, breast, lung, ovarian, brain, and prostate origin. However, high tumor-suppressive Nos dosages encumber the development of oral controlled-release formulations because of a short biological half-life (<2 h), poor absorption, low aqueous solubility, and extensive first-pass metabolism. Here, we present the design, fabrication, optimization, characterization, and biological evaluation of estrone-conjugated noscapine-loaded gelatin nanoparticles (Nos-ES-GN) for targeting estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Gelatin nanoparticles (GN) were a uniformly compact size, stable at physiological pH, and showed a drug entrapment efficiency of 66.1±5.9 and 65.2±5.6% for Nos-GN and Nos-ES-GN, respectively. The secondary structure of gelatin nanocoacervates was predicted using circular dichroism and in-silico molecular modeling. Our data suggest that ethanol-fabricated GN retained the α-helical content of gelatin, whereas acetone favored the formation of random coils. The conjugation of estrone to Nos-GN did not affect the release rate of the drug, and both formulations followed first-order release kinetics with an initial burst, followed by a slow release. The IC50 value of Nos-ES-GN was 21.2 μmol/l, which was ∼50% lower than the free drug (43.3 μmol/l), suggesting targeted drug delivery. Our cell uptake study carried out in an estrogen-receptor-positive (MCF-7) and negative (MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines showed greater accumulation of Nos-ES-GN in MCF-7 cells instead of MDA-MB-231 cells. Our data indicated that estrone-conjugated nanoparticles may potentially be used for targeting breast cancer cells.

  5. Immunization of stromal cell targeting fibroblast activation protein providing immunotherapy to breast cancer mouse model.

    PubMed

    Meng, Mingyao; Wang, Wenju; Yan, Jun; Tan, Jing; Liao, Liwei; Shi, Jianlin; Wei, Chuanyu; Xie, Yanhua; Jin, Xingfang; Yang, Li; Jin, Qing; Zhu, Huirong; Tan, Weiwei; Yang, Fang; Hou, Zongliu

    2016-08-01

    Unlike heterogeneous tumor cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are genetically more stable which serve as a reliable target for tumor immunotherapy. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) which is restrictively expressed in tumor cells and CAF in vivo and plays a prominent role in tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis can function as a tumor rejection antigen. In the current study, we have constructed artificial FAP(+) stromal cells which mimicked the FAP(+) CAF in vivo. We immunized a breast cancer mouse model with FAP(+) stromal cells to perform immunotherapy against FAP(+) cells in the tumor microenvironment. By forced expression of FAP, we have obtained FAP(+) stromal cells whose phenotype was CD11b(+)/CD34(+)/Sca-1(+)/FSP-1(+)/MHC class I(+). Interestingly, proliferation capacity of the fibroblasts was significantly enhanced by FAP. In the breast cancer-bearing mouse model, vaccination with FAP(+) stromal cells has significantly inhibited the growth of allograft tumor and reduced lung metastasis indeed. Depletion of T cell assays has suggested that both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were involved in the tumor cytotoxic immune response. Furthermore, tumor tissue from FAP-immunized mice revealed that targeting FAP(+) CAF has induced apoptosis and decreased collagen type I and CD31 expression in the tumor microenvironment. These results implicated that immunization with FAP(+) stromal cells led to the disruption of the tumor microenvironment. Our study may provide a novel strategy for immunotherapy of a broad range of cancer.

  6. Targeting of miR9/NOTCH1 interaction reduces metastatic behavior in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi-Yeganeh, Samira; Mansouri, Ardalan; Paryan, Mahdi

    2015-11-01

    Many reports have indicated deregulation of a variety of microRNAs (miRNAs) in human cancers. In this study, we appraised miR-9 correlation with NOTCH1 involved in Notch signaling in metastatic breast cancer. The Notch signaling pathway has been approved to be associated with the development and progression of many human cancers, including breast cancer, but the precise mechanism has remained unknown. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that introduces miR-9 and NOTCH1 correlation as an effective factor in breast cancer. We found that miR-9 expression was decreased in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells compared with MCF-10A normal breast cell line. However, NOTCH1 was upregulated in the metastatic breast cancer cells. Furthermore, luciferase assay revealed a significant inverse correlation between miR-9 and NOTCH1. Overexpression of Notch signaling via Notch1 intracellular domain in MDA-MB-231 cell line was suppressed by lentiviruses expressing miR-9. Taken together, the results obtained by MTT, flow cytometry, migration, and wound healing assays showed that it is possible to inhibit metastasis and induce pro-apoptotic state by induction of miR-9 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells but with no effect on cell proliferation. These results shows that miR-9, by direct targeting of NOTCH1, can reveal a suppressor-like activity in metastatic breast cancer cells.

  7. MiR-153 promotes breast cancer cell apoptosis by targeting HECTD3

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaowei; Li, Lin; Li, Yi; Liu, Zhihua

    2016-01-01

    Homologous to the E6-associated protein carboxyl terminus domain containing 3 (HECTD3) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase which ubiquitinates caspase-8, caspase-9 and promotes cancer cell survival. Aberrant HECTD3 expression is frequently involved in various types of cancer progression. However, to date, the regulation of HECTD3 remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that miR-153 functions as a negative regulator of HECTD3 and sensitizes cisplatin-induced apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and BT-549. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-153 suppresses HECTD3 expression through directly targeting its mRNA within the 3’-Untranslated Region (3’UTR). Additionally, the expression levels of miR-153 and HECTD3 are inversely correlated in breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, ectopic expression of miR-153 promotes apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 cells treated with cisplatin or TNF-α, and miR-153 inhibitor treatment inhibits cisplatin induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 cells. Moreover, stable overexpression of HECTD3 abrogates the sensitization effect of miR-153 to cisplatin treatment in MDA-MB-231 cells, and miR-153 inhibitor protects cells against cisplatin cytotoxicity in control cells, but not in the stable knockdown HECTD3 MDA-MB-231 cells. More importantly, breast cancer patients with higher expression levels of miR-153 had significant higher 5-year survival rate in PROGmiR database (P<0.05). Taken together, our study indicated that miR-153 inhibits TNBC survival by targeting HECTD3 and functions as a potent tumor suppressor. PMID:27508098

  8. "Blind" targeting in action: From phage display to breast cancer cell targeting with peptide-gold nanoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Galbiati, Elisabetta; Gambini, Luca; Civitarese, Viola; Bellini, Michela; Ambrosini, Dario; Allevi, Raffaele; Avvakumova, Svetlana; Romeo, Sergio; Prosperi, Davide

    2016-09-01

    Tumor homing peptides (THPs) specific for a representative breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) were carefully selected basing on a phage-displayed peptide library freely available on the web, namely the "TumorHoPe: A Database of Tumor Homing Peptides". The selected THPs were synthesized and evaluated in terms of their affinity toward MCF-7 cells. Out of 5 tested THPs, 3 best-performing peptide sequences and 1 scrambled sequence were separately conjugated to spherical gold nanoparticles yielding stable nanoconjugates. THP nanoconjugates were examined for their ability to actively target MCF-7 cells in comparison to noncancerous 3T3-L1 fibroblast cells. These THP-gold nanoconjugates exhibited good selectivity and binding affinity by flow cytometry, and low cytotoxicity as assayed by cell death experiments. The uptake of targeted nanoconjugates by the breast cancer cells was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. This work demonstrates that it is possible to exploit the conjugation of short peptides selected from phage-displayed libraries to develop nanomaterials reliably endowed with tumor targeting potential irrespective of a specific knowledge of the target cell biology.

  9. Comprehensive molecular characterization of salivary duct carcinoma reveals actionable targets and similarity to apocrine breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Martin G.; Desrichard, Alexis; Katabi, Nora; Makarov, Vladimir; Walsh, Logan A.; Lee, Ken-Wing; Wang, Qingguo; Armenia, Joshua; West, Lyndsay; Dogan, Snjezana; Wang, Lu; Ramaswami, Deepa; Ho, Alan L.; Ganly, Ian; Solit, David B.; Berger, Michael F.; Schultz, Nikolaus D.; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.; Chan, Timothy A.; Morris, Luc G.T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is an aggressive salivary malignancy which is resistant to chemotherapy and has high mortality rates. We investigated the molecular landscape of SDC, focusing on genetic alterations and gene expression profiles. Experimental Design We performed whole-exome sequencing, RNA sequencing and immunohistochemical analyses in 16 SDC tumors, and examined selected alterations via targeted sequencing of 410 genes in a second cohort of 15 SDCs. Results SDCs harbored a higher mutational burden than many other salivary carcinomas (1.7 mutations/megabase). The most frequent genetic alterations were mutations in TP53 (55%), HRAS (23%), PIK3CA (23%), and amplification of ERBB2 (35%). Most (74%) tumors had alterations in either MAP kinase (BRAF/HRAS/NF1) genes or ERBB2. Potentially targetable alterations based on supportive clinical evidence were present in 61% of tumors. Androgen receptor (AR) was overexpressed in 75%; several potential resistance mechanisms to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were identified, including the AR-V7 splice variant (present in 50%, often at low ratios compared to full length AR) and FOXA1 mutations (10%). Consensus clustering and pathway analyses in transcriptome data revealed striking similarities between SDC and molecular apocrine breast cancer. Conclusions This study illuminates the landscape of genetic alterations and gene expression programs in SDC, identifying numerous molecular targets and potential determinants of response to AR antagonism. This has relevance for emerging clinical studies of ADT and other targeted therapies in SDC. The similarities between SDC and apocrine breast cancer indicate that clinical data in breast cancer may generate useful hypotheses for SDC. PMID:27103403

  10. CD44 targeting reduces tumour growth and prevents post-chemotherapy relapse of human breast cancers xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, E; Lecomte, N; Durand, L; de Pinieux, G; Decaudin, D; Chomienne, C; Smadja-Joffe, F; Poupon, M-F

    2009-01-01

    CD44 is a marker of tumour-initiating cells and is upregulated in invasive breast carcinoma; however, its role in the cancer progression is unknown. Here, we show that antibody-mediated CD44-targeting in human breast cancer xenografts (HBCx) significantly reduces tumour growth and that this effect is associated to induction of growth-inhibiting factors. Moreover, treatment with this antibody prevents tumour relapse after chemotherapy-induced remission in a basal-like HBCx. PMID:19240712

  11. Lyn modulates Claudin-2 expression and is a therapeutic target for breast cancer liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Tabariès, Sébastien; Annis, Matthew G; Hsu, Brian E; Tam, Christine E; Savage, Paul; Park, Morag; Siegel, Peter M

    2015-04-20

    Claudin-2 enhances breast cancer liver metastasis and promotes the development of colorectal cancers. The objective of our current study is to define the regulatory mechanisms controlling Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We evaluated the effect of several Src Family Kinase (SFK) inhibitors or knockdown of individual SFK members on Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We also assessed the potential effects of pan-SFK and SFK-selective inhibitors on the formation of breast cancer liver metastases. This study reveals that pan inhibition of SFK signaling pathways significantly elevated Claudin-2 expression levels in breast cancer cells. In addition, our data demonstrate that pan-SFK inhibitors can enhance breast cancer metastasis to the liver. Knockdown of individual SFK members reveals that loss of Yes or Fyn induces Claudin-2 expression; whereas, diminished Lyn levels impairs Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. The Lyn-selective kinase inhibitor, Bafetinib (INNO-406), acts to reduce Claudin-2 expression and suppress breast cancer liver metastasis. Our findings may have major clinical implications and advise against the treatment of breast cancer patients with broad-acting SFK inhibitors and support the use of Lyn-specific inhibitors.

  12. Lyn modulates Claudin-2 expression and is a therapeutic target for breast cancer liver metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Tabariès, Sébastien; Annis, Matthew G.; Hsu, Brian E.; Tam, Christine E.; Savage, Paul; Park, Morag; Siegel, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Claudin-2 enhances breast cancer liver metastasis and promotes the development of colorectal cancers. The objective of our current study is to define the regulatory mechanisms controlling Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We evaluated the effect of several Src Family Kinase (SFK) inhibitors or knockdown of individual SFK members on Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We also assessed the potential effects of pan-SFK and SFK-selective inhibitors on the formation of breast cancer liver metastases. This study reveals that pan inhibition of SFK signaling pathways significantly elevated Claudin-2 expression levels in breast cancer cells. In addition, our data demonstrate that pan-SFK inhibitors can enhance breast cancer metastasis to the liver. Knockdown of individual SFK members reveals that loss of Yes or Fyn induces Claudin-2 expression; whereas, diminished Lyn levels impairs Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. The Lyn-selective kinase inhibitor, Bafetinib (INNO-406), acts to reduce Claudin-2 expression and suppress breast cancer liver metastasis. Our findings may have major clinical implications and advise against the treatment of breast cancer patients with broad-acting SFK inhibitors and support the use of Lyn-specific inhibitors. PMID:25823815

  13. FOXM1 targets XIAP and Survivin to modulate breast cancer survival and chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Nestal de Moraes, Gabriela; Delbue, Deborah; Silva, Karina L; Robaina, Marcela Cristina; Khongkow, Pasarat; Gomes, Ana R; Zona, Stefania; Crocamo, Susanne; Mencalha, André Luiz; Magalhães, Lídia M; Lam, Eric W-F; Maia, Raquel C

    2015-12-01

    Drug resistance is a major hurdle for successful treatment of breast cancer, the leading cause of deaths in women throughout the world. The FOXM1 transcription factor is a potent oncogene that transcriptionally regulates a wide range of target genes involved in DNA repair, metastasis, cell invasion, and migration. However, little is known about the role of FOXM1 in cell survival and the gene targets involved. Here, we show that FOXM1-overexpressing breast cancer cells display an apoptosis-resistant phenotype, which associates with the upregulation of expression of XIAP and Survivin antiapoptotic genes. Conversely, FOXM1 knockdown results in XIAP and Survivin downregulation as well as decreased binding of FOXM1 to the promoter regions of XIAP and Survivin. Consistently, FOXM1, XIAP, and Survivin expression levels were higher in taxane and anthracycline-resistant cell lines when compared to their sensitive counterparts and could not be downregulated in response to drug treatment. In agreement with our in vitro findings, we found that FOXM1 expression is significantly associated with Survivin and XIAP expression in samples from patients with IIIa stage breast invasive ductal carcinoma. Importantly, patients co-expressing FOXM1, Survivin, and nuclear XIAP had significantly worst overall survival, further confirming the physiological relevance of the regulation of Survivin and XIAP by FOXM1. Together, these findings suggest that the overexpression of FOXM1, XIAP, and Survivin contributes to the development of drug-resistance and is associated with poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. mir-101-3p is a key regulator of tumor metabolism in triple negative breast cancer targeting AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xing; Tang, Hailin; Li, Shuaijie; Huang, Xiaojia; Song, Cailu; Wei, Weidong; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    mir-101-3p has been reported to be a tumor suppressor and a promising therapeutic target in cancer. Recently, AMPK dysfunction has been highlighted in cancers, including breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the biological roles of mir-101-3p and AMPK in breast cancer. Our research demonstrated that AMPK was up-regulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines, especially in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). High-expression of AMPK correlated with poor outcome in both total breast cancer and TNBC patients. Ectopic expression of AMPK improved glucose uptake, glycolysis, proliferation of TNBC cells in vitro and its tumorigenicity in vivo. AMPK was predicted to be a direct target of mir-101-3p. The luciferase reporter assay was performed to certificate this prediction. The expression of AMPK was suppressed by transfection of mir-101-3p in TNBC cells. Over-expression of mir-101-3p or knock-down of AMPK inhibited glucose metabolism and proliferation of TNBC cells in vitro. Our study provides evidence that mir-101-3p- AMPK axis could be a promising therapeutic target in TNBC targeting tumor metabolism. PMID:27145268

  15. Targeting insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuzhe; Yee, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The insulin and insulin like growth factor (IGF) signaling systems are implicated in breast cancer biology. Thus, disrupting IGF/insulin signaling has been shown to have promise in a number of preclinical models. However, human clinical trials have been less promising. Despite evidence of some activity in early phase trials, randomized phase III studies have thus far been unable to show a benefit of blocking IGF signaling in combination with conventional strategies. In breast cancer, combination anti IGF/insulin signaling agents with hormone therapy has not yet proven to have benefit. This inability to translate the preclinical findings into useful clinical strategies calls attention to the need for a deeper understanding of this complex pathway. Development of predictive biomarkers and optimal inhibitory strategies of the IGF/insulin system should yield better clinical strategies. Furthermore, unraveling the interaction between the IGF/insulin pathway and other critical signaling pathways in breast cancer biology, namely estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathways, provides additional new concepts in designing combination therapies. In this review, we will briefly summarize the current strategies targeting the IGF/insulin system, discuss the possible reasons of success or failure of the existing therapies, and provide potential future direction for research and clinical trials. PMID:23054135

  16. Jab1 is a target of EGFR signaling in ERα-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiaxu; Barnes, Rebecca O; West, Nathan R; Olson, Melanie; Chu, Jenny E; Watson, Peter H

    2008-01-01

    Introduction c-Jun activation domain-binding protein-1 (Jab1) is a multifunctional signaling protein that previously has been shown to be a master regulator of a poor prognostic gene signature in invasive breast cancer and to mediate the action of S100A7. Since epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), like S100A7, is often expressed in estrogen receptor-alpha-negative (ERα-) breast cancer, we set out to investigate the role of Jab1 in mediating EGFR signaling, another facet of the ERα- phenotype. Methods MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 ERα-/EGFR+ cell lines were assessed for localization of Jab1 and levels of downstream genes by immunofluorescence and nuclear protein extract assay following treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway inhibitor. A cohort of 424 human breast tumors was also assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results EGF treatment of cell lines resulted in increased Jab1 nuclear expression. This effect was inhibited by the ERK pathway inhibitor, PD98059. EGF treatment was also associated with colocalization of pERK (phosphorylated ERK) and Jab1 as well as regulation of the Jab1 downstream target gene, p27. When Jab1 activity was knocked down, p27 levels were restored to pre-EGF treatment level. Analysis of EGFR and Jab1 expression in a cohort of invasive breast tumors by tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry confirmed a relationship between EGFR and increased nuclear Jab1 within the ERα- subset (n = 154, P = 0.019). The same association was also confirmed for S100A7 and Jab1 (P = 0.036), and high Jab1 nuclear expression was most frequent in tumors that were positive for both EGFR and S100A7 (P = 0.004). Conclusion Jab1 is a target of EGFR signaling in ERα- cell lines and breast tumors and therefore may be a common central factor and potential therapeutic target for important cell signaling pathways in ERα- breast cancer. PMID:18534028

  17. A review of HER2-targeted therapy in breast and ovarian cancer: lessons from antiquity - CLEOPATRA and PENELOPE.

    PubMed

    Hodeib, Melissa; Serna-Gallegos, Tasha; Tewari, Krishnansu S

    2015-01-01

    Although breast and ovarian cancer have notable distinctions, there may exist parallel pathways that can be exploited for therapeutic gain. For example, the therapeutic arena in breast cancer has benefited greatly from available endocrine therapies as well as novel drugs designed to target the HER2 receptor, including trastuzumab, lapatinib, T-DM1 and pertuzumab. CLEOPATRA, a Phase III randomized clinical trial studying pertuzumab in women with HER2-amplified metastatic breast cancer, was practice-changing in 2014. Its counterpart, the Phase III randomized PENELOPE trial, was activated following promising Phase II data and studied pertuzumab in an enriched ovarian cancer patient population with low HER3 mRNA. This review will trace the development of anti-HER2 therapies in breast and ovarian cancer.

  18. Integrative exploration of genomic profiles for triple negative breast cancer identifies potential drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaosheng; Guda, Chittibabu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is high-risk due to its rapid drug resistance and recurrence, metastasis, and lack of targeted therapy. So far, no molecularly targeted therapeutic agents have been clinically approved for TNBC. It is imperative that we discover new targets for TNBC therapy. Objectives: A large volume of cancer genomics data are emerging and advancing breast cancer research. We may integrate different types of TNBC genomic data to discover molecular targets for TNBC therapy. Data sources: We used publicly available TNBC tumor tissue genomic data in the Cancer Genome Atlas database in this study. Methods: We integratively explored genomic profiles (gene expression, copy number, methylation, microRNA [miRNA], and gene mutation) in TNBC and identified hyperactivated genes that have higher expression, more copy numbers, lower methylation level, or are targets of miRNAs with lower expression in TNBC than in normal samples. We ranked the hyperactivated genes into different levels based on all the genomic evidence and performed functional analyses of the sets of genes identified. More importantly, we proposed potential molecular targets for TNBC therapy based on the hyperactivated genes. Results: Some of the genes we identified such as FGFR2, MAPK13, TP53, SRC family, MUC family, and BCL2 family have been suggested to be potential targets for TNBC treatment. Others such as CSF1R, EPHB3, TRIB1, and LAD1 could be promising new targets for TNBC treatment. By utilizing this integrative analysis of genomic profiles for TNBC, we hypothesized that some of the targeted treatment strategies for TNBC currently in development are more likely to be promising, such as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, while the others are more likely to be discouraging, such as angiogenesis inhibitors. Limitations: The findings in this study need to be experimentally validated in the future. Conclusion: This is a systematic study that combined 5

  19. The sigma-2 receptor as a therapeutic target for drug delivery in triple negative breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Makvandi, Mehran; Tilahun, Estifanos D.; Lieberman, Brian P.; Anderson, Redmond-Craig; Zeng, Chenbo; Xu, Kuiying; Hou, Catherine; McDonald, Elizabeth S.; Pryma, Daniel A.; Mach, Robert H.

    2015-11-27

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with high relapse rates and increased mortality when compared with other breast cancer subtypes. In contrast to receptor positive breast cancers, there are no approved targeted therapies for TNBC. Identifying biomarkers for TNBC is of high importance for the advancement of patient care. The sigma-2 receptor has been shown to be overexpressed in triple negative breast cancer in vivo and has been characterized as a marker of proliferation. The aim of the present study was to define the sigma-2 receptor as a target for therapeutic drug delivery and biomarker in TNBC. Methods: Three TNBC cell lines were evaluated: MDA-MB-231, HCC1937 and HCC1806. Sigma-2 compounds were tested for pharmacological properties specific to the sigma-2 receptor through competitive inhibition assays. Sigma-2 receptor expression was measured through radioligand receptor saturation studies. Drug sensitivity for taxol was compared to a sigma-2 targeting compound conjugated to a cytotoxic payload, SW IV-134. Cell viability was assessed after treatments for 2 or 48 h. Sigma-2 blockade was assessed to define sigma-2 mediated cytotoxicity of SW IV-134. Caspase 3/7 activation induced by SW IV-134 was measured at corresponding treatment time points. Results: SW IV-134 was the most potent compound tested in two of the three cell lines and was similarly effective in all three. MDA-MB-231 displayed a statistically significant higher sigma-2 receptor expression and also was the most sensitive cell line evaluated to SW IV-134. Conclusion: Targeting the sigma-2 receptor with a cytotoxic payload was effective in all the three cell lines evaluated and provides the proof of concept for future development of a therapeutic platform for the treatment of TNBC. - Highlights: • TNBC cells are sensitive to sigma-2 receptor targeted drug conjugate SW IV-134. • MDA-MB-231 displayed the highest amount of sigma-2 receptors and corresponded well with

  20. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a breast cancer targeting contrast agent for ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milgroom, Andrew Carson

    Current clinical use of ultrasound for breast cancer diagnostics is strictly limited to a role as a supplementary detection method to other modalities, such as mammography or MRI. A major reason for ultrasound’s role as a secondary method is its inability to discern between cancerous and non-cancerous bodies of similar density, like dense calcifications or benign fibroadenomas. Its detection capabilities are further diminished by the variable density of the surrounding breast tissue with the progression of age. Preliminary studies suggest that mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are a good candidate as an in situ contrast agent for ultrasound. By tagging the silica particle surface with the cancer-targeting antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin), suspect regions of interest can be better identified in real time with standard ultrasound equipment. Once the silica-antibody conjugate is injected into the bloodstream and enters the cancerous growth’s vasculature, the antibody arm will bind to HER2, a cell surface receptor known to be dysfunctional or overexpressed in certain types of breast cancer. As more particles aggregate at the cell surface, backscatter of the ultrasonic waves increases as a result of the higher porous silica concentration. This translates to an increased contrast around the lesion boundary. Tumor detection through ultrasound contrast enhancement provides a tremendous advantage over current cancer diagnostics because is it significantly cheaper and can be monitored in real time. Characterization of MCM-41 type MSNs suggests that these particles have sufficient stability and particle size distribution to penetrate through fenestrated tumor vasculature and accumulate in HER2+ breast cancer cells through the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. A study of acoustic properties showed that particle concentration is linearly correlated to image contrast in clinical frequency-range ultrasound, although less pronounced than typical microbubble

  1. MiR-200c inhibits autophagy and enhances radiosensitivity in breast cancer cells by targeting UBQLN1.

    PubMed

    Sun, Quanquan; Liu, Tongxin; Yuan, Yawei; Guo, Zhenli; Xie, Guozhu; Du, Shasha; Lin, Xiaoshan; Xu, Zhixin; Liu, Minfeng; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Quan; Chen, Longhua

    2015-03-01

    Radioresistance is a major challenge during the treatment of breast cancer. A further understanding of the mechanisms of radioresistance could provide strategies to address this challenge. In our study, we compared the expression of miR-200c in four distinct breast cancer cell lines: two representative basal cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and BT549) vs. two representative luminal cancer cells (MCF-7 and BT474). The results revealed practically lower expression of miR-200c in the two basal cancer cell lines and higher expression of miR-200c in luminal cancer cells compared to the normal breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A. Ectopic expression of miR-200c in MDA-MB-231 cells inhibited irradiation-induced autophagy and sensitized the breast cancer cells to irradiation. We also identified UBQLN1 as a direct functional target of miR-200c involved in irradiation-induced autophagy and radioresistance. In 35 human breast cancer tissue samples, we detected an inverse correlation between the expression of miR-200c vs. UBQLN1 and LC3. These results indicate that the identified miR-200c/UBQLN1-mediated autophagy pathway may help to elucidate radioresistance in human breast cancer and might represent a therapeutic strategy.

  2. [Organs at risk and target volumes: definition for conformal radiation therapy in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Atean, I; Pointreau, Y; Barillot, I; Kirova, Y-M

    2012-09-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy is a standard component of breast cancer treatment. The addition of radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery has been shown to reduce local recurrence rate and improve long-term survival. Accurate delineation of target volumes and organs at risk is crucial to the quality of treatment planning and delivered accomplished with innovate technologies in radiation therapy. This allows the radiation beam to be shaped specifically to each individual patient's anatomy. Target volumes include the mammary gland and surgical bed in case of breast conserving surgery, the chest wall in case of mastectomy, and if indicated, regional lymph nodes (axillary, supra- and infraclavicular and internal mammary). Organs at risk include lungs, thyroid, brachial plexus, heart, spinal cord and oesophagus. The aim of this article is to encourage the use of conformal treatment and delineation of target volumes and organs at risk and to describe specifically the definition of these volumes. Copyright © 2012 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Targeted Therapy of Human Breast Cancer by 2-5A-Antisense Directed Against Telomerase RNA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    results in chromosome instability and cell death . To overcome this problem most cancer cells re-express the telomerase enzyme which prevents telomere...selectively destroy the target RNA. Using this system we have shown that targeting telomerase causes rapid cell death in several different breast cancer...cell lines in vitro. This cell death is not seen when the cells are treated with control oligos carrying mismatches in the target sequence. Cell death is due to apoptosis.

  4. Targeted delivery of siRNA into breast cancer cells via phage fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Deepa; Gillespie, James W; Petrenko, Vasily A; Ebner, Andreas; Leitner, Michael; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Petrenko, Valery A

    2013-02-04

    Nucleic acids, including antisense oligonucleotides, small interfering RNA (siRNA), aptamers, and rybozymes, emerged as versatile therapeutics due to their ability to interfere in a well-planned manner with the flow of genetic information from DNA to protein. However, a systemic use of NAs is hindered by their instability in physiological liquids and inability of intracellular accumulation in the site of action. We first evaluated the potential of cancer specific phage fusion proteins as targeting ligands that provide encapsulation, protection, and navigation of siRNA to the target cell. The tumor-specific proteins were isolated from phages that were affinity selected from a landscape phage library against target breast cancer cells. It was found that fusion phage coat protein fpVIII displaying cancer-targeting peptides can effectively encapsulate siRNAs and deliver them into the cells leading to specific silencing of the model gene GAPDH. Complexes of siRNA and phage protein form nanoparticles (nanophages), which were characterized by atomic force microscopy and ELISA, and their stability was demonstrated by resistance of encapsulated siRNA to degradation by serum nucleases. The phage protein/siRNA complexes can make a new type of highly selective, stable, active, and physiologically acceptable cancer nanomedicine.

  5. Transcription Factor Networks as Targets for Therapeutic Intervention of Cancer: The Breast Cancer Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Karamouzis, Michalis V; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2011-01-01

    It has long been shown that many of the presently used anticancer drugs exert their effects partly through modulating the activity of vital transcription factors. The intricacy of transcriptional regulation still represents the main obstacle for the design of transcription factor–directed agents. Systematic mapping of tumor-specific transcriptional networks and application of new molecular tools have reinforced research interest and efforts in this venue. The case of breast cancer is discussed as a representative example. PMID:21912809

  6. HPMA-Copolymer Nanocarrier Targets Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Primary and Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zimel, Melissa N; Horowitz, Chloe B; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K; Christ, Alexander B; Wei, Xin; Wu, Jianbo; Wojnarowicz, Paulina M; Wang, Dong; Goldring, Steven R; Purdue, P Edward; Healey, John H

    2017-08-22

    Polymeric nanocarriers such as N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers deliver drugs to solid tumors and avoid the systemic toxicity of conventional chemotherapy. Because HPMA copolymers can target sites of inflammation and accumulate within innate immune cells, we hypothesized that HPMA copolymers could target tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in both primary and metastatic tumor microenvironments. We verified this hypothesis, first in preliminary experiments with isolated bone marrow macrophage cultures in vitro, and subsequently in a spontaneously metastatic murine breast cancer model generated from a well-established, cytogenetically characterized 4T1 breast cancer cell line. Using our standardized experimental conditions, we detected primary orthotopic tumor growth at 7 days and metastatic tumors at 28 days after orthotopic transplantation of 4T1 cells into the mammary fat pad. We investigated the uptake of HPMA copolymer conjugated with Alexa Fluor 647 and folic acid (P-Alexa647-FA) and HPMA copolymer conjugated with IRDye 800CW (P-IRDye), following their retroorbital injection into the primary and metastatic tumor-bearing mice. A significant uptake of P-IRDye was observed at all primary and metastatic tumor sites in these mice, and the P-Alexa647-FA signal was found specifically within CD11b+TAMs co-stained with pan macrophage marker CD68. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, a novel capacity of a P-Alexa647-FA conjugate to colocalize to CD11b+CD68+ TAMs in both primary and metastatic breast tumors. This underscores the potential of this HPMA nanocarrier to deliver functional therapeutics that specifically target tumor-promoting macrophage activation and/or polarization during tumor development. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Molecular photoacoustic imaging of breast cancer using an actively targeted conjugated polymer

    PubMed Central

    Balasundaram, Ghayathri; Ho, Chris Jun Hui; Li, Kai; Driessen, Wouter; Dinish, US; Wong, Chi Lok; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Liu, Bin; Olivo, Malini

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) are upcoming optical contrast agents in view of their unique optical properties and versatile synthetic chemistry. Biofunctionalization of these polymer-based nanoparticles enables molecular imaging of biological processes. In this work, we propose the concept of using a biofunctionalized CP for noninvasive photoacoustic (PA) molecular imaging of breast cancer. In particular, after verifying the PA activity of a CP nanoparticle (CP dots) in phantoms and the targeting efficacy of a folate-functionalized version of the same (folate-CP dots) in vitro, we systemically administered the probe into a folate receptor-positive (FR+ve) MCF-7 breast cancer xenograft model to demonstrate the possible application of folate-CP dots for imaging FR+ve breast cancers in comparison to CP dots with no folate moieties. We observed a strong PA signal at the tumor site of folate-CP dots-administered mice as early as 1 hour after administration as a result of the active targeting of the folate-CP dots to the FR+ve tumor cells but a weak PA signal at the tumor site of CP-dots-administered mice as a result of the passive accumulation of the probe by enhanced permeability and retention effect. We also observed that folate-CP dots produced ~4-fold enhancement in the PA signal in the tumor, when compared to CP dots. These observations demonstrate the great potential of this active-targeting CP to be used as a contrast agent for molecular PA diagnostic imaging in various biomedical applications. PMID:25609951

  8. TTK/hMPS1 is an attractive therapeutic target for triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Maire, Virginie; Baldeyron, Céline; Richardson, Marion; Tesson, Bruno; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Gravier, Eléonore; Marty-Prouvost, Bérengère; De Koning, Leanne; Rigaill, Guillem; Dumont, Aurélie; Gentien, David; Barillot, Emmanuel; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Depil, Stéphane; Cruzalegui, Francisco; Pierré, Alain; Tucker, Gordon C; Dubois, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents a subgroup of breast cancers (BC) associated with the most aggressive clinical behavior. No targeted therapy is currently available for the treatment of patients with TNBC. In order to discover potential therapeutic targets, we searched for protein kinases that are overexpressed in human TNBC biopsies and whose silencing in TNBC cell lines causes cell death. A cohort including human BC biopsies obtained at Institut Curie as well as normal tissues has been analyzed at a gene-expression level. The data revealed that the human protein kinase monopolar spindle 1 (hMPS1), also known as TTK and involved in mitotic checkpoint, is specifically overexpressed in TNBC, compared to the other BC subgroups and healthy tissues. We confirmed by immunohistochemistry and reverse phase protein array that TNBC expressed higher levels of TTK protein compared to the other BC subgroups. We then determined the biological effects of TTK depletion by RNA interference, through analyses of tumorigenic capacity and cell viability in different human TNBC cell lines. We found that RNAi-mediated depletion of TTK in various TNBC cell lines severely compromised their viability and their ability to form colonies in an anchorage-independent manner. Moreover, we observed that TTK silencing led to an increase in H2AX phosphorylation, activation of caspases 3/7, sub-G1 cell population accumulation and high annexin V staining, as well as to a decrease in G1 phase cell population and an increased aneuploidy. Altogether, these data indicate that TTK depletion in TNBC cells induces apoptosis. These results point out TTK as a protein kinase overexpressed in TNBC that may represent an attractive therapeutic target specifically for this poor prognosis associated subgroup of breast cancer.

  9. TTK/hMPS1 Is an Attractive Therapeutic Target for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maire, Virginie; Baldeyron, Céline; Richardson, Marion; Tesson, Bruno; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Gravier, Eléonore; Marty-Prouvost, Bérengère; De Koning, Leanne; Rigaill, Guillem; Dumont, Aurélie; Gentien, David; Barillot, Emmanuel; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Depil, Stéphane; Cruzalegui, Francisco; Pierré, Alain; Tucker, Gordon C.; Dubois, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) represents a subgroup of breast cancers (BC) associated with the most aggressive clinical behavior. No targeted therapy is currently available for the treatment of patients with TNBC. In order to discover potential therapeutic targets, we searched for protein kinases that are overexpressed in human TNBC biopsies and whose silencing in TNBC cell lines causes cell death. A cohort including human BC biopsies obtained at Institut Curie as well as normal tissues has been analyzed at a gene-expression level. The data revealed that the human protein kinase monopolar spindle 1 (hMPS1), also known as TTK and involved in mitotic checkpoint, is specifically overexpressed in TNBC, compared to the other BC subgroups and healthy tissues. We confirmed by immunohistochemistry and reverse phase protein array that TNBC expressed higher levels of TTK protein compared to the other BC subgroups. We then determined the biological effects of TTK depletion by RNA interference, through analyses of tumorigenic capacity and cell viability in different human TNBC cell lines. We found that RNAi-mediated depletion of TTK in various TNBC cell lines severely compromised their viability and their ability to form colonies in an anchorage-independent manner. Moreover, we observed that TTK silencing led to an increase in H2AX phosphorylation, activation of caspases 3/7, sub-G1 cell population accumulation and high annexin V staining, as well as to a decrease in G1 phase cell population and an increased aneuploidy. Altogether, these data indicate that TTK depletion in TNBC cells induces apoptosis. These results point out TTK as a protein kinase overexpressed in TNBC that may represent an attractive therapeutic target specifically for this poor prognosis associated subgroup of breast cancer. PMID:23700430

  10. Genetic Alterations of Triple Negative Breast Cancer By Targeted Next Generation Sequencing And Correlation With Tumor Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, Paul S; Ng, Charlotte K.Y.; Brogi, Edi; Eisenberg, Rachel E; Won, Helen H.; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; De Filippo, Maria R.; Ioris, Rafael; Akram, Muzaffar; Norton, Larry; Weigelt, Britta; Berger, Michael F.; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.; Wen, Hannah Y.

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer represents a heterogeneous group of breast carcinomas, both at the histologic and genetic level. While recent molecular studies have comprehensively characterized the genetic landscape of these tumors, few have integrated a detailed histologic examination into the analysis. In this study, we defined the genetic alterations in 39 triple negative breast cancers using a high-depth targeted massively parallel sequencing assay and correlated the findings with a detailed morphologic analysis. We obtained representative frozen tissue of primary triple negative breast cancers from patients treated at our institution between 2002 and 2010. We characterized tumors according to their histologic subtype and morphologic features. DNA was extracted from paired frozen primary tumor and normal tissue samples and was subjected to a targeted massively parallel sequencing platform comprising 229 cancer associated genes common across all experiments. The average number of non-synonymous mutations was 3 (range 0–10) per case. The most frequent somatic alterations were mutations in TP53 (74%) and PIK3CA (10%) and MYC amplifications (26%). Triple negative breast cancers with apocrine differentiation less frequently harbored TP53 mutations (25%) and MYC gains (0%), and displayed a high mutation frequency in PIK3CA and other PI3K signaling pathway related genes (75%). Using a targeted massively parallel sequencing platform, we identified the key somatic genetic alterations previously reported in triple negative breast cancers. Furthermore, our findings show that triple negative breast cancers with apocrine differentiation constitute a distinct subset, characterized by a high frequency of PI3K pathway alterations similar to luminal subtypes of breast cancer. PMID:26939876

  11. shRNA kinome screen identifies TBK1 as a therapeutic target for HER2+ breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Deng, Tao; Liu, Jeff C; Chung, Philip E D; Uehling, David; Aman, Ahmed; Joseph, Babu; Ketela, Troy; Jiang, Zhe; Schachter, Nathan F; Rottapel, Robert; Egan, Sean E; Al-Awar, Rima; Moffat, Jason; Zacksenhaus, Eldad

    2014-04-01

    HER2(+) breast cancer is currently treated with chemotherapy plus anti-HER2 inhibitors. Many patients do not respond or relapse with aggressive metastatic disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapeutics that can target HER2(+) breast cancer and potentiate the effect of anti-HER2 inhibitors, in particular those that can target tumor-initiating cells (TIC). Here, we show that MMTV-Her2/Neu mammary tumor cells cultured as nonadherent spheres or as adherent monolayer cells select for stabilizing mutations in p53 that "immortalize" the cultures and that, after serial passages, sphere conditions maintain TICs, whereas monolayer cells gradually lose these tumorigenic cells. Using tumorsphere formation as surrogate for TICs, we screened p53-mutant Her2/Neu(+) tumorsphere versus monolayer cells with a lentivirus short hairpin RNA kinome library. We identified kinases such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase and the TGFβR protein family, previously implicated in HER2(+) breast cancer, as well as autophagy factor ATG1/ULK1 and the noncanonical IκB kinase (IKK), TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), which have not been previously linked to HER2(+) breast cancer. Knockdown of TBK1 or pharmacologic inhibition of TBK1 and the related protein, IKKε, suppressed growth of both mouse and human HER2(+) breast cancer cells. TBK1/IKKε inhibition promoted cellular senescence by suppressing p65-NF-κB and inducing p16(Ink4a). In addition, TBK1/IKKε inhibition cooperated with lapatinib, a HER2/EGFR1-targeted drug, to accelerate apoptosis and kill HER2(+) breast cancer cells both in culture and in xenografts. Our results suggest that patients with HER2(+) breast cancer may benefit from anti-TBK1/IKKε plus anti-HER2 combination therapies and establish conditions that can be used to screen for additional TIC-specific inhibitors of HER2(+) breast cancer.

  12. Genetic alterations of triple negative breast cancer by targeted next-generation sequencing and correlation with tumor morphology.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Paul S; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Brogi, Edi; Eisenberg, Rachel E; Won, Helen H; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; De Filippo, Maria R; Ioris, Rafael; Akram, Muzaffar; Norton, Larry; Weigelt, Britta; Berger, Michael F; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Wen, Hannah Y

    2016-05-01

    Triple negative breast cancer represents a heterogeneous group of breast carcinomas, both at the histologic and genetic level. Although recent molecular studies have comprehensively characterized the genetic landscape of these tumors, few have integrated a detailed histologic examination into the analysis. In this study, we defined the genetic alterations in 39 triple negative breast cancers using a high-depth targeted massively parallel sequencing assay and correlated the findings with a detailed morphologic analysis. We obtained representative frozen tissue of primary triple negative breast cancers from patients treated at our institution between 2002 and 2010. We characterized tumors according to their histologic subtype and morphologic features. DNA was extracted from paired frozen primary tumor and normal tissue samples and was subjected to a targeted massively parallel sequencing platform comprising 229 cancer-associated genes common across all experiments. The average number of non-synonymous mutations was 3 (range 0-10) per case. The most frequent somatic alterations were mutations in TP53 (74%) and PIK3CA (10%) and MYC amplifications (26%). Triple negative breast cancers with apocrine differentiation less frequently harbored TP53 mutations (25%) and MYC gains (0%), and displayed a high mutation frequency in PIK3CA and other PI3K signaling pathway-related genes (75%). Using a targeted massively parallel sequencing platform, we identified the key somatic genetic alterations previously reported in triple negative breast cancers. Furthermore, our findings show that triple negative breast cancers with apocrine differentiation constitute a distinct subset, characterized by a high frequency of PI3K pathway alterations similar to luminal subtypes of breast cancer.

  13. Recurrent Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... you may have received after your first breast cancer diagnosis was intended to kill any cancer cells that ... 35 at the time of their original breast cancer diagnosis, face a higher risk of recurrent breast cancer. ...

  14. [Optimized definition and delineation of supraclavicular lymph nodes target in postmastectomy radiotherapy for breast cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Huang, Shujing; Huang, Xiaobo; Wang, Xicheng; Zhang, Yujing; Sun, Jiayuan; He, Liru; Wen, Ge; He, Zhichun

    2014-07-01

    To explore the optimized methods to define and delineate supraclavicular lymph nodal target in postmastectomy radiotherapy for breast cancer patients. From September 2012 to August 2013, a total of 10 breast cancer patients at Sun Yan-sen University Cancer were selected for mastectomy plus postoperative radiotherapy. The clinical target volume (CTV) of every patient was delineated on CT-slices after computed tomography (CT) simulation by 6 radiation oncologists. Then the coverage discrepancy in anatomic lymphatic drainage subregions was analyzed among both CTVs by different oncologists and CTVs for patients with different clinical characters. The average volume of SCLN-CTVs was 110 ± 28 cm(3). All SCLN, neck-IV and axilla III regions were covered in CTV, none of axillaIregion. The covergy rates of nonsurgery-axillaII, Rotter-LN, intraclavicular-LN, neck-Vb, scalenus gap, neck-III and surgery-axilla IIregions was 75%, 85%, 73%, 88%, 68%, 10%, 17% , respectively. SCLN, neck-IV and axilla III regions should be covered according to consensus. However, the opinions of nonsurgery-axillaII, Rotter-LN, intraclavicular-LN, neck-Vb, scalenus gap, neck-III and surgery-axilla IIremain divisive.

  15. Bone targeted therapy for preventing skeletal-related events in metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Irelli, Azzurra; Cocciolone, Valentina; Cannita, Katia; Zugaro, Luigi; Di Staso, Mario; Lanfiuti Baldi, Paola; Paradisi, Stefania; Sidoni, Tina; Ricevuto, Enrico; Ficorella, Corrado

    2016-06-01

    Cancer cells can alter physiological mechanisms within bone resulting in high bone turnover, and consequently in skeletal-related events (SREs), causing severe morbidity in affected patients. The goals of bone targeted therapy, as bisphosphonates and denosumab, are the reduction of incidence and the delay in occurrence of the SREs, to improve quality of life and pain control. The toxicity profile is similar between bisphosphonates and denosumab, even if pyrexia, bone pain, arthralgia, renal failure and hypercalcemia are more common with bisphosphonates, while hypocalcemia and toothache are more frequently reported with denosumab. Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) occurred infrequently without statistically significant difference. The present review aims to provide an assessment on bone targeted therapies for preventing the occurrence of SREs in bone metastatic breast cancer patients, critically analyzing the evidence available so far on their effectiveness, in light of the different mechanisms of action. Thus, we try to provide tools for the most fitting treatment of bone metastatic breast cancer patients. We also provide an overview on the usefulness of bone turnover markers in clinical practice and new molecules currently under study for the treatment of bone metastatic disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DELIVERY OF siRNA INTO BREAST CANCER CELLS VIA PHAGE FUSION PROTEIN-TARGETED LIPOSOMES

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, Deepa; Musacchio, Tiziana; Fagbohun, Olusegun A.; Gillespie, James W.; Deinnocentes, Patricia; Bird, R. Curtis; Bookbinder, Lonnie; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Petrenko, Valery A.

    2011-01-01

    Efficacy of siRNAs as potential anticancer therapeutics can be increased by their targeted delivery into cancer cells via tumor-specific ligands. Phage display offers an unique approach to identify highly specific and selective ligands that can deliver nanocarriers to the site of disease. In this study, we proved a novel approach for intracellular delivery of siRNAs into breast cancer cells through their encapsulation into liposomes targeted to the tumor cells with preselected intact phage proteins. The targeted siRNA liposomes were obtained by a fusion of two parental liposomes containing spontaneously inserted siRNA and fusion phage proteins. The presence of pVIII coat protein fused to a MCF-7 cell-targeting peptide DMPGTVLP in the liposomes was confirmed by Western blotting. The novel phage-targeted siRNA-nanopharmaceuticals demonstrate significant down-regulation of PRDM14 gene expression and PRDM14 protein synthesis in the target MCF- 7 cells. This approach offers the potential for development of new anticancer siRNA-based targeted nanomedicines. PMID:21050894

  17. A Partnership Training Program: Studying Targeted Drug Delivery Using Nanoparticles In Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    labeled with dye AF680 and the cell nuclei were stained with DAPI. The drug-delivery efficiency of scfbDb was also demonstrated with anti-tumor...effects of the targeted delivery, anti-angiogenics and chemotherapeutics in breast cancer animal models. Histological staining will be used to study the...was 200 mg/mL) for 24 h. Excess micelles were removed by washing three times with PBS, then cells were stained with 200 mL DAPI (20 mg/mL) for 1 min

  18. Vascular-endothelial-growth-factor (VEGF) targeting therapies for endocrine refractory or resistant metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Anna Dorothea; Thomssen, Christoph; Haerting, Johannes; Unverzagt, Susanne

    2012-07-11

    Vascular-endothelial-growth-factor (VEGF) is a key mediator of angiogenesis. VEGF-targeting therapies have shown significant benefits and been successfully integrated in routine clinical practice for other types of cancer, such as metastatic colorectal cancer. By contrast, individual trial results in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are highly variable and their value is controversial. To evaluate the benefits (in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS)) and harms (toxicity) of VEGF-targeting therapies in patients with hormone-refractory or hormone-receptor negative metastatic breast cancer. Searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group's Specialised Register, registers of ongoing trials and proceedings of conferences were conducted in January and September 2011, starting in 2000. Reference lists were scanned and members of the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group, experts and manufacturers of relevant drug were contacted to obtain further information. No language restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate treatment benefit and non-randomised studies in the routine oncology practice setting to evaluate treatment harms. We performed data collection and analysis according to the published protocol. Individual patient data was sought but not provided. Therefore, the meta-analysis had to be based on published data. Summary statistics for the primary endpoint (PFS) were hazard ratios (HRs). We identified seven RCTs, one register, and five ongoing trials from a total of 347 references. The published trials for VEGF-targeting drugs in MBC were limited to bevacizumab. Four trials, including a total of 2886 patients, were available for the comparison of first-line chemotherapy, with versus without bevacizumab. PFS (HR 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 0.73) and response rate were significantly better for patients treated with bevacizumab, with moderate heterogeneity regarding the magnitude of the

  19. Anti-miR-203 suppresses ER-positive breast cancer growth and stemness by targeting SOCS3

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Naoshad; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Steele, Robert; Ray, Ratna B.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a major public health problem worldwide in women and existing treatments are not adequately effective for this deadly disease. microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of many target genes and play pivotal roles in the development, as well as in the suppression of many cancers including breast cancer. We previously observed that miR-203 was highly upregulated in breast cancer tissues and in ER-positive breast cancer cell lines. In our present study, we observed that anti-miR-203 suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation in vitro. Orthotopic implantation of miR-203 depleted MCF-7 cells into nude mice displays smaller tumor growth as compared to control MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, miR-203 expression is significantly higher in ER-positive breast cancer patients as compared to ER-negative patients. We identified suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) as a direct target of miR-203. Here we observed that miR-203 expression is inversely correlated with SOCS3 expression in ER-positive breast cancer samples. Additionally, we found that anti-miR-203 suppressed the expression of pStat3, pERK and c-Myc in MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 cells. We also demonstrated that anti-miR-203 decreased mammospheres formation and expression of stem cell markers in MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 cells. Taken together, our data suggest that anti-miR-203 has potential as a novel therapeutic strategy in ER-positive breast cancer treatment. PMID:27517632

  20. Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis If you’ve been diagnosed with breast ... cancer or how fast it’s growing. Types of Breast Cancer There are several types of breast cancer. The ...

  1. Functionalized magnetic dextran-spermine nanocarriers for targeted delivery of doxorubicin to breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tarvirdipour, Shabnam; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim; Soleimani, Masoud; Bardania, Hassan

    2016-03-30

    In recent decades, targeted drug delivery systems for breast cancer treatment emerged as an ideal alternative and promising solution to reduce systemic side effects of chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, the preparation and characterization of cationic doxorubicin (DOX) loaded magnetic dextran-spermine (DEX-SP) nanocarriers (DEX-SP-DOX) by ionic gelation were fully investigated. Then, anti-HER2 as a monoclonal antibody (mAb) and targeting ligand was conjugated via EDC/NHS reagents. The binding was confirmed by Bradford assay and further assessments were carried out by size and zeta potential measurements. Cytotoxicity effect and internalization of magnetic nanocarriers were assessed by MTT and Prussian blue assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. DLS measurements indicated that the size of nanocarriers increased from 62 to 84 nm by conjugation of anti-HER2 to them. The in vitro release of DOX from mAb conjugated magnetic nanocarriers at pHs 5 and 7.4 was found to be 85 and 55.5%, respectively. The MTT and Prussian blue assays demonstrated enhanced and selective uptake of DEX-SP-DOX-mAb by SKBR cell (HER2 overexpressed cells) in comparison with unconjugated nanocarriers due to higher cellular binding. The TEM result also confirmed cellular internalization of DEX-SP-DOX-mAb magnetic nanocarriers. These results are very promising for targeted delivery of DOX to HER2 positive breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Aptamer-conjugated Magnetic Nanoparticles as Targeted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Keshtkar, Mohammad; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Khoshfetrat, Seyyed Mehdi; Mehrgardi, Masoud A.; Aghaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of breast cancer is the most effective way to improve the survival rate in women. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers high spatial resolution and good anatomic details, and its lower sensitivity can be improved by using targeted molecular imaging. In this study, AS1411 aptamer was conjugated to Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles for specific targeting of mouse mammary carcinoma (4T1) cells that overexpress nucleolin. In vitro cytotoxicity of aptamer-conjugated nanoparticles was assessed on 4T1 and HFFF-PI6 (control) cells. The ability of the synthesized nanoprobe to target specifically the nucleolin overexpressed cells was assessed with the MRI technique. Results show that the synthesized nanoprobe produced strongly darkened T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images with 4T1 cells, whereas the MR images of HFFF-PI6 cells incubated with the nanoprobe are brighter, showing small changes compared to water. The results demonstrate that in a Fe concentration of 45 μg/mL, the nanoprobe reduced by 90% MR image intensity in 4T1 cells compared with the 27% reduction in HFFF-PI6 cells. Analysis of MR signal intensity showed statistically significant signal intensity difference between 4T1 and HFFF-PI6 cells treated with the nanoprobe. MRI experiments demonstrate the high potential of the synthesized nanoprobe as a specific MRI contrast agent for detection of nucleolin-expressing breast cancer cells. PMID:28028501

  3. Targeting Signal Transduction Pathways in Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Lee S.; Ashurst, Helen Louise

    2010-01-01

    Greater understanding of the underlying etiology and biology of breast cancer is enabling the clinical development of targeted therapies for metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Following the successful introduction of trastuzumab, the first human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) biologically targeted therapy to become widely used in MBC patients, other agents have been developed. Novel agents include monoclonal antibodies such as pertuzumab, which bind to receptors on the cell surface, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as lapatinib, which target intracellular pathways such as that of the epidermal growth factor receptor. There is also growing clinical experience with antiangiogenic agents, particularly in combination with chemotherapy. These include the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, which targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, and multitargeted TKIs with antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activities, such as sunitinib. Combination treatment with multiple agents targeting both the HER family and angiogenic pathways (e.g., trastuzumab plus bevacizumab) is also showing activity in the clinical setting. Despite recent advances, there are unanswered questions regarding the management of MBC with targeted agents. Future studies are necessary to determine the optimal combinations, doses, and schedules required to maximize clinical activity while minimizing toxicity. Despite the temptation to use a targeted agent in all patients, identification of patient subgroups most likely to benefit must be a key goal and will be critical to the successful future use of these treatments. The aim of this review is to summarize some of the key signaling pathways involved in tumor progression and some of the novel therapies that are in development for MBC. PMID:20200040

  4. MiR-221 promotes stemness of breast cancer cells by targeting DNMT3b.

    PubMed

    Roscigno, Giuseppina; Quintavalle, Cristina; Donnarumma, Elvira; Puoti, Ilaria; Diaz-Lagares, Angel; Iaboni, Margherita; Fiore, Danilo; Russo, Valentina; Todaro, Matilde; Romano, Giulia; Thomas, Renato; Cortino, Giuseppina; Gaggianesi, Miriam; Esteller, Manel; Croce, Carlo M; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2016-01-05

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small part of the heterogeneous tumor cell population possessing self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potential as well as a great ability to sustain tumorigenesis. The molecular pathways underlying CSC phenotype are not yet well characterized. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small noncoding RNAs that play a powerful role in biological processes. Early studies have linked miRs to the control of self-renewal and differentiation in normal and cancer stem cells. We aimed to study the functional role of miRs in human breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), also named mammospheres. We found that miR-221 was upregulated in BCSCs compared to their differentiated counterpart. Similarly, mammospheres from T47D cells had an increased level of miR-221 compared to differentiated cells. Transfection of miR-221 in T47D cells increased the number of mammospheres and the expression of stem cell markers. Among miR-221's targets, we identified DNMT3b. Furthermore, in BCSCs we found that DNMT3b repressed the expression of various stemness genes, such as Nanog and Oct 3/4, acting on the methylation of their promoters, partially reverting the effect of miR-221 on stemness. We hypothesize that miR-221 contributes to breast cancer tumorigenicity by regulating stemness, at least in part through the control of DNMT3b expression.

  5. A review of systematic reviews of the cost-effectiveness of hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Diaby, Vakaramoko; Tawk, Rima; Sanogo, Vassiki; Xiao, Hong; Montero, Alberto J

    2015-05-01

    Breast cancer is a global health concern. In fact, breast cancer is the primary cause of death among women worldwide and constitutes the most expensive malignancy to treat. As health care resources are finite, decisions regarding the adoption and coverage of breast cancer treatments are increasingly being based on "value for money," i.e., cost-effectiveness. As the evidence about the cost-effectiveness of breast cancer treatments is abundant, therefore difficult to navigate, systematic reviews of published systematic reviews offer the advantage of bringing together the results of separate systematic reviews in a single report. As a consequence, this paper presents an overview of systematic reviews of the cost-effectiveness of hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy for breast cancer to inform policy and reimbursement decision-making. A systematic review was conducted of published systematic reviews documenting cost-effectiveness analyses of breast cancer treatments from 2000 to 2014. Systematic reviews identified through a literature search of health and economic databases were independently assessed against inclusion and exclusion criteria. Systematic reviews of original evaluations were included only if they targeted breast cancer patients and specific breast cancer treatments (hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy only), documented incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, and were reported in the English language. The search strategy used a combination of these key words: "breast cancer," "systematic review/meta-analysis," and "cost-effectiveness/economics." Data were extracted using predefined extraction forms and qualitatively appraised using the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR) tool. The literature search resulted in 511 bibliographic records, of which ten met our inclusion criteria. Five reviews were conducted in the early-stage breast cancer setting and five reviews in the metastatic setting. In early-stage breast

  6. A review of systematic reviews of the cost-effectiveness of hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Diaby, Vakaramoko; Xiao, Hong; Montero, Alberto J.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a global health concern. In fact, breast cancer is the primary cause of death among women worldwide and constitutes the most expensive malignancy to treat. As health care resources are finite, decisions regarding the adoption and coverage of breast cancer treatments are increasingly being based on “value for money,” i.e., cost-effectiveness. As the evidence about the cost-effectiveness of breast cancer treatments is abundant, therefore difficult to navigate, systematic reviews of published systematic reviews offer the advantage of bringing together the results of separate systematic reviews in a single report. As a consequence, this paper presents an overview of systematic reviews of the cost-effectiveness of hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy for breast cancer to inform policy and reimbursement decision-making. A systematic review was conducted of published systematic reviews documenting cost-effectiveness analyses of breast cancer treatments from 2000 to 2014. Systematic reviews identified through a literature search of health and economic databases were independently assessed against inclusion and exclusion criteria. Systematic reviews of original evaluations were included only if they targeted breast cancer patients and specific breast cancer treatments (hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy only), documented incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, and were reported in the English language. The search strategy used a combination of these key words: “breast cancer,” “systematic review/meta-analysis,” and “cost-effectiveness/economics.” Data were extracted using predefined extraction forms and qualitatively appraised using the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR) tool. The literature search resulted in 511 bibliographic records, of which ten met our inclusion criteria. Five reviews were conducted in the early-stage breast cancer setting and five reviews in the metastatic setting. In

  7. Patients' satisfaction in early breast cancer treatment: Change in treatment over time and impact of HER2-targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Spano, Jean-Philippe; Azria, David; Gonçalves, Anthony

    2015-06-01

    Although breast cancer remains a major cause of cancer death, its related death rate has dropped in the last years through early tumor detection and better available treatments. With the development of innovative techniques and new molecules as well as new routes of administration, local treatment and adjuvant therapy of early breast cancer have evolved, from mutilating, time-consuming and/or painful procedures to breast-conservative ones, sparing healthy tissues, reducing the total dose of treatment and the treatment time which in turn reduce the occurrence and severity of toxicity. In parallel with these improvements leading to an increase in survival rate, patients' health-related quality of life has become a major concern. This review aims at describing the evolution of early breast cancer treatment, and its impact on patients' quality of life, convenience, and satisfaction, including a special insight into emerging human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy.

  8. Transcription factor Fos-related antigen 1 is an effective target for a breast cancer vaccine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yunping; Zhou, He; Mizutani, Masato; Mizutani, Noriko; Reisfeld, Ralph A.; Xiang, Rong

    2003-07-01

    Protection against breast cancer was achieved with a DNA vaccine against murine transcription factor Fos-related antigen 1, which is overexpressed in aggressively proliferating D2F2 murine breast carcinoma. Growth of primary s.c. tumor and dissemination of pulmonary metastases was markedly suppressed by this oral DNA vaccine, carried by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium, encoding murine Fos-related antigen 1, fused with mutant polyubiquitin, and cotransformed with secretory murine IL-18. The life span of 60% of vaccinated mice was tripled in the absence of detectable tumor growth after lethal tumor cell challenge. Immunological mechanisms involved activation of T, natural killer, and dendritic cells, as indicated by up-regulation of their activation markers and costimulatory molecules. Markedly increased specific target cell lysis was mediated by both MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cells and natural killer cells isolated from splenocytes of vaccinated mice, including a significant release of proinflammatory cytokines IFN- and IL-2. Importantly, fluorescence analysis of fibroblast growth factor 2 and tumor cell-induced vessel growth in Matrigel plugs demonstrated marked suppression of angiogenesis only in vaccinated animals. Taken together, this multifunctional DNA vaccine proved effective in protecting against growth and metastases of breast cancer by combining the action of immune effector cells with suppression of tumor angiogenesis. vaccine | tumor | metastases | antiangiogenesis

  9. Treating triple negative breast cancer cells with erlotinib plus a select antioxidant overcomes drug resistance by targeting cancer cell heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Bin; Mitrea, Cristina; Wijesinghe, Priyanga; Marchetti, Luca; Girsch, Emily; Farr, Rebecca L.; Boerner, Julie L; Mohammad, Ramzi; Dyson, Greg; Terlecky, Stanley R.; Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia

    2017-01-01

    Among breast cancer patients, those diagnosed with the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype have the worst prog-nosis. TNBC does not express estrogen receptor-alpha, progesterone receptor, or the HER2 oncogene; therefore, TNBC lacks targets for molecularly-guided therapies. The concept that EGFR oncogene inhibitor drugs could be used as targeted treatment against TNBC has been put forth based on estimates that 30–60% of TNBC express high levels of EGFR. However, results from clinical trials testing EGFR inhibitors, alone or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy, did not improve patient outcomes. Results herein offer an explanation as to why EGFR inhibitors failed TNBC patients and support how combining a select antioxidant and an EGFR-specific small molecule kinase inhibitor (SMKI) could be an effective, novel therapeutic strategy. Treatment with CAT-SKL—a re-engineered protein form of the antioxidant enzyme catalase—inhibited cancer stem-like cells (CSCs), and treatment with the EGFR-specific SMKI erlotinib inhibited non-CSCs. Thus, combining the antioxidant CAT-SKL with erlotinib targeted both CSCs and bulk cancer cells in cultures of EGFR-expressing TNBC-derived cells. We also report evidence that the mechanism for CAT-SKL inhibition of CSCs may depend on antioxidant-induced downregulation of a short alternative mRNA splicing variant of the methyl-CpG binding domain 2 gene, isoform MBD2c. PMID:28281569

  10. Treating triple negative breast cancer cells with erlotinib plus a select antioxidant overcomes drug resistance by targeting cancer cell heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Bao, Bin; Mitrea, Cristina; Wijesinghe, Priyanga; Marchetti, Luca; Girsch, Emily; Farr, Rebecca L; Boerner, Julie L; Mohammad, Ramzi; Dyson, Greg; Terlecky, Stanley R; Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia

    2017-03-10

    Among breast cancer patients, those diagnosed with the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype have the worst prog-nosis. TNBC does not express estrogen receptor-alpha, progesterone receptor, or the HER2 oncogene; therefore, TNBC lacks targets for molecularly-guided therapies. The concept that EGFR oncogene inhibitor drugs could be used as targeted treatment against TNBC has been put forth based on estimates that 30-60% of TNBC express high levels of EGFR. However, results from clinical trials testing EGFR inhibitors, alone or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy, did not improve patient outcomes. Results herein offer an explanation as to why EGFR inhibitors failed TNBC patients and support how combining a select antioxidant and an EGFR-specific small molecule kinase inhibitor (SMKI) could be an effective, novel therapeutic strategy. Treatment with CAT-SKL-a re-engineered protein form of the antioxidant enzyme catalase-inhibited cancer stem-like cells (CSCs), and treatment with the EGFR-specific SMKI erlotinib inhibited non-CSCs. Thus, combining the antioxidant CAT-SKL with erlotinib targeted both CSCs and bulk cancer cells in cultures of EGFR-expressing TNBC-derived cells. We also report evidence that the mechanism for CAT-SKL inhibition of CSCs may depend on antioxidant-induced downregulation of a short alternative mRNA splicing variant of the methyl-CpG binding domain 2 gene, isoform MBD2c.

  11. Radiation-enhanced therapeutic targeting of galectin-1 enriched malignant stroma in triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Upreti, Meenakshi; Jyoti, Amar; Johnson, Sara E.; Swindell, Elden P.; Napier, Dana; Sethi, Pallavi; Chan, Ryan; Feddock, Jonathan M.; Weiss, Heidi L.; O'Halloran, Thomas V.; Mark Evers, B.

    2016-01-01

    Currently there are no FDA approved targeted therapies for Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC). Ongoing clinical trials for TNBC have focused primarily on targeting the epithelial cancer cells. However, targeted delivery of cytotoxic payloads to the non-transformed tumor associated-endothelium can prove to be an alternate approach that is currently unexplored. The present study is supported by recent findings on elevated expression of stromal galectin-1 in clinical samples of TNBC and our ongoing findings on stromal targeting of radiation induced galectin-1 by the anginex-conjugated arsenic-cisplatin loaded liposomes using a novel murine tumor model. We demonstrate inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis in response to the multimodal nanotherapeutic strategy using a TNBC model with orthotopic tumors originating from 3D tumor tissue analogs (TTA) comprised of tumor cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. The ‘rigorous’ combined treatment regimen of radiation and targeted liposomes is also shown to be well tolerated. More importantly, the results presented provide a means to exploit clinically relevant radiation dose for concurrent receptor mediated enhanced delivery of chemotherapy while limiting overall toxicity. The proposed study is significant as it falls in line with developing combinatorial therapeutic approaches for stroma-directed tumor targeting using tumor models that have an appropriate representation of the TNBC microenvironment. PMID:27223428

  12. Breast Cancer -- Male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  13. Breast Cancer Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  14. Docosahexaenoic acid suppresses breast cancer cell metastasis by targeting matrix-metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Soyeon; Kim, Soyeon; Heo, Jun-Young; Kweon, Gi-Ryang; Wu, Tong; Park, Jong-Il; Lim, Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women, and nearly half of breast cancer patients develop distant metastatic disease after therapy. Despite the significant advances that have been achieved in understanding breast cancer metastasis in the past decades, metastatic cancer is still hard to cure. Here, we demonstrated an anti-cancer mechanism of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that suppressed lung metastasis in breast cancer. DHA could inhibit proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro, and this was mainly through blocking Cox-2-PGE2-NF-κB-MMPs cascades. DHA treatment significantly decreased Cox-2 and NF-κB expression as well as nuclear translocation of NF-κB in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, DHA also reduced NF-κB binding to DNA which may lead to inactivation of MMPs. Moreover, in vivo studies using Fat-1 transgenic mice showed remarkable decrease of tumor growth and metastasis to EO771 cells to lung in DHA-rich environment. In conclusion, DHA attenuated breast cancer progression and lung metastasis in part through suppressing MMPs, and these findings suggest chemoprevention and potential therapeutic strategy to overcome malignant breast cancer. PMID:27363023

  15. Nuclear Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor is a Functional Molecular Target in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Toni M.; Iida, Mari; Luthar, Neha; Kostopoulos, Kellie T.; Corrigan, Kelsey L.; Wleklinski, Matthew J.; Yang, David; Wisinski, Kari B.; Salgia, Ravi; Wheeler, Deric L.

    2014-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subclass of breast cancers (i.e. estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, and HER2 negative) that have poor prognosis and very few identified molecular targets. Strikingly, a high percentage of TNBC’s overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), yet EGFR inhibition has yielded little clinical benefit. Over the last decade, advances in EGFR biology have established that EGFR functions in two distinct signaling pathways: 1) classical membrane-bound signaling, and 2) nuclear signaling. Previous studies have demonstrated that nuclear EGFR (nEGFR) can enhance resistance to anti-EGFR therapies and is correlated with poor overall survival in breast cancer. Based on these findings we hypothesized that nEGFR may promote intrinsic resistance to cetuximab in TNBC. To examine this question, a battery of TNBC cell lines and human tumors were screened and found to express nEGFR. Knockdown of EGFR expression demonstrated that TNBC cell lines retained dependency on EGFR for proliferation, yet all cell lines were resistant to cetuximab. Further, Src Family Kinases (SFKs) influenced nEGFR translocation in TNBC cell lines and in vivo tumor models, where inhibition of SFK activity led to potent reductions in nEGFR expression. Inhibition of nEGFR translocation led to a subsequent accumulation of EGFR on the plasma membrane, which greatly enhanced sensitivity of TNBC cells to cetuximab. Collectively, these data suggest that targeting both the nEGFR signaling pathway, through the inhibition of its nuclear transport, and the classical EGFR signaling pathway with cetuximab may be a viable approach for the treatment of TNBC patients. PMID:24634415

  16. AECHL-1 targets breast cancer progression via inhibition of metastasis, prevention of EMT and suppression of Cancer Stem Cell characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Aparajita; Sawant, Mithila A.; Kavishwar, Gayatri; Lavhale, Manish; Sitasawad, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) features among the most aggressive manifestations of cancer due to its enhanced metastatic potential and immunity to therapeutics which target hormone receptors. Under such scenarios, anti-cancer compounds with an ability to influence multiple targets, or an entire process, will have an advantage over specific signal transduction inhibitors. To counter the metastatic threat it is essential to target cellular components central to the processes of cancer cell migration and adaptation. Our previous work on a novel triterpenoid, AECHL-1, explored its anti-cancer potential, and linked it to elevated ER stress in cancer cells, while its anti-angiogenic potential was credited for its ability to manipulate the cytoskeleton. Here, we broaden its range of action by showing that it curbs the metastatic ability of TNBC cells, both in vitro in MDA-MB-231 cell line and in vivo, in mouse models of metastasis. AECHL-1 does so by disrupting the cytoskeletal network, and also suppressing NF-κB and β-Catenin mediated key molecular pathways. These activities also contributed to AECHL-1 mediated suppression of TGF-β/TNF-α induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell characteristic. Thus, we present AECHL-1 as a promising therapeutic inhibitor of metastatic disease. PMID:27974826

  17. MicroRNA-154 inhibits growth and invasion of breast cancer cells through targeting E2F5.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Fei, Dan; Zong, Shan; Fan, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggested that microRNA-154 (miR-154) might play important roles in the development of various cancer types. However, the role of miR-154 in breast cancer progression remains largely unknown. Here, miR-154 expression level was measured via quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in 36 pairs of human breast cancer tissues and adjacent normal breast tissues and in a panel of human breast cancer cell lines. Cell proliferation, cycle, migration, and invasion were assessed by CCK8 assay, flow cytometer assay, wound healing assay and transwell invasion assay, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay and Western blot was used to verify E2F transcription factor 5 protein (E2F5) as a novel target gene of miR-154. Our results showed that miR-154 was frequently downregulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-154 in MCF-7 cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and increased cell arrest at G0/G1 stage in vitro. E2F5 was identified as a target of miR-154, and its expression was inversely correlated with miR-154 expression in clinical breast cancer tissues. In addition, downregulation of E2F5 in MCF7 cells had similar effect on cell proliferation, cycle, migration and invasion by miR-154 induced. These findings indicate that miR-154 acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting E2F5, suggesting miR-154 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer.

  18. Dietary targeting of tumor suppressors and oncogenes for breast cancer prevention

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breast cancer is a complex disease that arises from genetic and epigenetic changes in molecules that are critical for growth control, DNA repair, apoptosis, and differentiation. The incidence of breast cancer varies worldwide, implicating diet and lifestyle disparities among the general population a...

  19. Identification of Breast Cancer Specific Proteolytic Activities for Targeted Prodrug Activation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    overexpress hK2 to generate models that can be used for in vivo testing. Studies with Human Breast Cancer extracts Our original intention was to...microsomes for detection by fluorescence based cell sorting. Once we have optimized the system we will begin to analyze extracts from breast...tested for hydrolysis in breast cancer ECF extracts to determine best peptide sequence for further development 10 DAMD17-03-1-0304 P.I. Denmeade

  20. Spectroscopic Photoacoustic Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer using a B7-H3-targeted ICG Contrast Agent

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Katheryne E.; Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Jensen, Kristen; Machtaler, Steven; Tian, Lu; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Breast cancer imaging methods lack diagnostic accuracy, in particular for patients with dense breast tissue, and improved techniques are critically needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antibody-indocyanine green (ICG) conjugates, which undergo dynamic absorption spectrum shifts after cellular endocytosis and degradation, and spectroscopic photoacoustic (sPA) imaging to differentiate normal breast tissue from breast cancer by imaging B7-H3, a novel breast cancer associated molecular target. Methods: Quantitative immunohistochemical staining of endothelial and epithelial B7-H3 expression was assessed in 279 human breast tissue samples, including normal (n=53), benign lesions (11 subtypes, n=129), and breast cancers (4 subtypes, n=97). After absorption spectra of intracellular and degraded B7-H3-ICG and Isotype control-ICG (Iso-ICG) were characterized, sPA imaging in a transgenic murine breast cancer model (FVB/N-Tg(MMTVPyMT)634Mul) was performed and compared to imaging of control conditions [B7-H3-ICG in tumor negative animals (n=60), Iso-ICG (n=30), blocking B7-H3+B7-H3-ICG (n=20), and free ICG (n=20)] and validated with ex vivo histological analysis. Results: Immunostaining showed differential B7-H3 expression on both the endothelium and tumor epithelium in human breast cancer with an area under the ROC curve of 0.93 to differentiate breast cancer vs non-cancer. Combined in vitro/in vivo imaging showed that sPA allowed specific B7-H3-ICG detection down to the 13 nM concentration and differentiation from Iso-ICG. sPA molecular imaging of B7-H3-ICG showed a 3.01-fold (P<0.01) increase in molecular B7-H3-ICG signal in tumors compared to control conditions. Conclusions: B7-H3 is a promising target for both vascular and epithelial sPA imaging of breast cancer. Leveraging antibody-ICG contrast agents and their dynamic optical absorption spectra allows for highly specific sPA imaging of breast cancer. PMID:28529630

  1. miR-22 suppresses tumorigenesis and improves radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells by targeting Sirt1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xia; Li, Yuehua; Wang, Dan; Wei, Xiaoer

    2017-09-07

    miR-22 has been shown to be frequently downregulated and act as a tumor suppressor in multiple cancers including breast cancers. However, the role of miR-22 in regulating the radioresistance of breast cancer cells, as well as its underlying mechanism is still not well understood. The expressions of miR-22 and sirt1 at mRNA and protein levels were examined by qRT-PCR and Western Blot. The effects of miR-22 overexpression and sirt1 knockdown on cell viability, apoptosis, radiosensitivity, γ-H2AX foci formation were evaluated by CCK-8 assay, flow cytometry, colony formation assay, and γ-H2AX foci formation assay, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay and qRT-PCR analysis were performed to confirm the interaction between miR-22 and sirt1. miR-22 was downregulated and sirt1 was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cells. miR-22 overexpression or sirt1 knockdown significantly suppressed viability, induced apoptosis, reduced survival fraction, and increased the number of γ-H2AX foci in breast cancer cells. Sirt1 was identified as a target of miR-22 and miR-22 negatively regulated sirt1 expression. Ectopic expression of sirt1 dramatically reversed the inhibitory effect of miR-22 on cell viability and promotive effect on apoptotic rates and radiosensitivity in breast cancer cells. miR-22 suppresses tumorigenesis and improves radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells by targeting sirt1, providing a promising therapeutic target for breast cancer.

  2. Targeting Innate Immunity with dsRNA-Conjugated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Promotes Antitumor Effects on Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ultimo, Amelia; Giménez, Cristina; Bartovsky, Pavel; Aznar, Elena; Sancenón, Félix; Marcos, M Dolores; Amorós, Pedro; Bernardo, Ana R; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Jiménez-Lara, Ana M; Murguía, José R

    2016-01-26

    We describe herein a Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) targeting delivery system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles capped with the synthetic double stranded RNA polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) for controlled cargo delivery in SK-BR-3 breast carcinoma cells. Our results show that poly(I:C)-conjugated nanoparticles efficiently targeted breast cancer cells due to dsRNA-TLR3 interaction. Such interaction also triggered apoptotic pathways in SK-BR-3, significantly decreasing cells viability. Poly(I:C) cytotoxic effect in breast carcinoma cells was enhanced by loading nanoparticles' mesopores with the anthracyclinic antibiotic doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent.

  3. A combination of trastuzumab and BAG-1 inhibition synergistically targets HER2 positive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Robson, Natalia; Yeomans, Alison; Bailey, Sarah; Laversin, Stephanie; Beers, Stephen; Sayan, A Emre; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Troppmair, Jakob; Packham, Graham; Cutress, Ramsey

    2016-04-05

    Treatment of HER2+ breast cancer with trastuzumab is effective and combination anti-HER2 therapies have demonstrated benefit over monotherapy in the neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of targeting the BAG-1 protein co-chaperone in trastuzumab-responsive or -resistant cells. In the METABRIC dataset, BAG-1 mRNA was significantly elevated in HER2+ breast tumors and predicted overall survival in a multivariate analysis (HR = 0.81; p = 0.022). In a breast cell line panel, BAG-1 protein was increased in HER2+ cells and was required for optimal growth as shown by siRNA knockdown. Overexpression of BAG-1S in HER2+ SKBR3 cells blocked growth inhibition by trastuzumab, whereas overexpression of a mutant BAG-1S protein (BAG-1S H3AB), defective in binding HSC70, potentiated the effect of trastuzumab. Injection of a Tet-On SKBR3 clone, induced to overexpress myc-BAG-1S into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice, resulted in 2-fold larger tumors compared to uninduced controls. Induction of myc-BAG-1S expression in two Tet-On SKBR3 clones attenuated growth inhibition by trastuzumab in vitro. Targeting endogenous BAG-1 by siRNA enhanced growth inhibition of SKBR3 and BT474 cells by trastuzumab, while BAG-1 protein-protein interaction inhibitor (Thio-S or Thio-2) plus trastuzumab combination treatment synergistically attenuated growth. In BT474 cells this reduced protein synthesis, caused G1/S cell cycle arrest and targeted the ERK and AKT signaling pathways. In a SKBR3 subpopulation with acquired resistance to trastuzumab BAG-1 targeting remained effective and either Thio-2 or BAG-1 siRNA reduced growth more compared to trastuzumab-responsive parental cells. In summary, targeting BAG-1 function in combination with anti-HER2 therapy might prove beneficial.

  4. A combination of trastuzumab and BAG-1 inhibition synergistically targets HER2 positive breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Robson, Natalia; Yeomans, Alison; Bailey, Sarah; Laversin, Stephanie; Beers, Stephen; Sayan, A. Emre; Ashton-Key, Margaret; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Troppmair, Jakob; Packham, Graham; Cutress, Ramsey

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of HER2+ breast cancer with trastuzumab is effective and combination anti-HER2 therapies have demonstrated benefit over monotherapy in the neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of targeting the BAG-1 protein co-chaperone in trastuzumab-responsive or -resistant cells. In the METABRIC dataset, BAG-1 mRNA was significantly elevated in HER2+ breast tumors and predicted overall survival in a multivariate analysis (HR = 0.81; p = 0.022). In a breast cell line panel, BAG-1 protein was increased in HER2+ cells and was required for optimal growth as shown by siRNA knockdown. Overexpression of BAG-1S in HER2+ SKBR3 cells blocked growth inhibition by trastuzumab, whereas overexpression of a mutant BAG-1S protein (BAG-1S H3AB), defective in binding HSC70, potentiated the effect of trastuzumab. Injection of a Tet-On SKBR3 clone, induced to overexpress myc-BAG-1S into the mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice, resulted in 2-fold larger tumors compared to uninduced controls. Induction of myc-BAG-1S expression in two Tet-On SKBR3 clones attenuated growth inhibition by trastuzumab in vitro. Targeting endogenous BAG-1 by siRNA enhanced growth inhibition of SKBR3 and BT474 cells by trastuzumab, while BAG-1 protein-protein interaction inhibitor (Thio-S or Thio-2) plus trastuzumab combination treatment synergistically attenuated growth. In BT474 cells this reduced protein synthesis, caused G1/S cell cycle arrest and targeted the ERK and AKT signaling pathways. In a SKBR3 subpopulation with acquired resistance to trastuzumab BAG-1 targeting remained effective and either Thio-2 or BAG-1 siRNA reduced growth more compared to trastuzumab-responsive parental cells. In summary, targeting BAG-1 function in combination with anti-HER2 therapy might prove beneficial. PMID:26958811

  5. Targeting breast cancer-initiating/stem cells with melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24

    PubMed Central

    Bhutia, Sujit K.; Das, Swadesh K.; Azab, Belal; Menezes, Mitchell E.; Dent, Paul; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) displays a broad range of antitumor properties including cancer-specific induction of apoptosis, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and modulation of antitumor immune responses. In our study, we elucidated the role of MDA-7/IL-24 in inhibiting growth of breast cancer-initiating/stem cells. Ad.mda-7 infection decreased proliferation of breast cancer-initiating/stem cells without affecting normal breast stem cells. Ad.mda-7 induced apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress in breast cancer-initiating/stem cells similar to unsorted breast cancer cells and inhibited the self-renewal property of breast cancer-initiating/stem cells by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Prevention of inhibition of Wnt signaling by LiCl increased cell survival upon Ad.mda-7 treatment, suggesting that Wnt signaling inhibition might play a key role in MDA-7/IL-24-mediated death of breast cancer-initiating/stem cells. In a nude mouse subcutaneous xenograft model, Ad.mda-7 injection profoundly inhibited growth of tumors generated from breast cancer-initiating/stem cells and also exerted a potent “bystander” activity inhibiting growth of distant uninjected tumors. Further studies revealed that tumor growth inhibition by Ad.mda-7 was associated with a decrease in proliferation and angiogenesis, two intrinsic features of MDA-7/IL-24, and a reduction in vivo in the percentage of breast cancer-initiating/stem cells. Our findings demonstrate that MDA-7/IL-24 is not only nontoxic to normal cells and normal stem cells but also can kill both unsorted cancer cells and enriched populations of cancer-initiating/stem cells, providing further documentation that MDA-7/IL-24 might be a safe and effective way to eradicate cancers and also potentially establish disease-free survival. PMID:23720015

  6. Anti-HER2/neu peptide-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted delivery of paclitaxel to breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Qingxin; Kievit, Forrest M.; Kant, Rajeev J.; Lin, Guanyou; Jeon, Mike; Zhang, Miqin

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) for targeted therapy are required to have appropriate size, stability, drug loading and release profiles, and efficient targeting ligands. However, many of the existing NPs such as albumin, liposomes, polymers, gold NPs, etc. encounter size limit, toxicity and stability issues when loaded with drugs, fluorophores, and targeting ligands. Furthermore, antibodies are bulky and this can greatly affect the physicochemical properties of the NPs, whereas many small molecule-based targeting ligands lack specificity. Here, we report the utilization of biocompatible, biodegradable, small (~30 nm) and stable iron oxide NPs (IONPs) for targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to HER2/neu positive breast cancer cells using an anti-HER2/neu peptide (AHNP) targeting ligand. We demonstrate the uniform size and high stability of these NPs in biological medium, their effective tumour targeting in live mice, as well as their efficient cellular targeting and selective killing in human HER2/neu-positive breast cancer cells.Nanoparticles (NPs) for targeted therapy are required to have appropriate size, stability, drug loading and release profiles, and efficient targeting ligands. However, many of the existing NPs such as albumin, liposomes, polymers, gold NPs, etc. encounter size limit, toxicity and stability issues when loaded with drugs, fluorophores, and targeting ligands. Furthermore, antibodies are bulky and this can greatly affect the physicochemical properties of the NPs, whereas many small molecule-based targeting ligands lack specificity. Here, we report the utilization of biocompatible, biodegradable, small (~30 nm) and stable iron oxide NPs (IONPs) for targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to HER2/neu positive breast cancer cells using an anti-HER2/neu peptide (AHNP) targeting ligand. We demonstrate the uniform size and high stability of these NPs in biological medium, their effective tumour targeting in live mice, as well as their efficient cellular

  7. Role of HER2 mutations in refractory metastatic breast cancers: targeted sequencing results in patients with refractory breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeon Hee; Shin, Hyun-Tae; Jung, Hae Hyun; Choi, Yoon-La; Ahn, TaeJin; Park, Kyunghee; Lee, Aeri; Do, In-Gu; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Jin Seok; Park, Woong-Yang; Im, Young-Hyuck

    2015-10-13

    In women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC), introduction of the anti-HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor-2) directed therapies including trastuzumab, pertuzumab, lapatinib, and/or trastuzumab-DM1 has markedly improved overall survival. However, not all cases of HER2-positive breast tumours derive similar benefit from HER2-directed therapy, and a significant number of patients experience disease progression because of primary or acquired resistance to anti-HER2-directed therapies. We integrated genomic and clinicopathological analyses in a cohort of patients with refractory breast cancer to anti-HER2 therapies to identify the molecular basis for clinical heterogeneity. To study the molecular basis underlying refractory MBC, we obtained 36 MBC tumours tissues and used next-generation sequencing to investigate the mutational and transcriptional profiles of 83 genes. We focused on HER2 mutational sites and HER2 pathways to identify the roles of HER2 mutations and the HER2 pathway in the refractoriness to anti-HER2 therapies. Analysis using massively parallel sequencing platform, CancerSCAN™, revealed that HER2 mutations were found in six of 36 patients (16.7%). One patient was ER (estrogen receptor)-positive and HER2-negative and the other five HER2 mutated patients were HER2-positive and HR (hormone receptor)-negative. Most importantly, four of these five patients did not show any durable clinical response to HER2-directed therapies. The HER2 pathway score obtained through transcriptional analyses identified that Growth Receptor Biding protein 2 (GRB2) was the most significantly down regulated gene in the HER2 mutated samples. Detection of HER2 mutations using higher deep DNA sequencing may identify a predictive biomarker of resistance to HER2-directed therapy. Functional validation is warranted.

  8. A novel agent exerts antitumor activity in breast cancer cells by targeting mitochondrial complex II

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Guozhen; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wa; Wang, Li; Li, Chuwen; Shan, Luchen; Xu, Changjiang; Zhang, Qingwen; Wang, Yuqiang; Di, Lijun; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain, including mitochondrial complex II, has emerged as a potential target for cancer therapy. In the present study, a novel conjugate of danshensu (DSS) and tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), DT-010, was synthesized. Our results showed that DT-010 is more potent than its parental compounds separately or in combination, in inhibiting the proliferation of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells by inducing cytotoxicity and promoting cell cycle arrest. It also inhibited the growth of 4T1 breast cancer cells in vivo. DT-010 suppressed the fundamental parameters of mitochondrial function in MCF-7 cells, including basal respiration, ATP turnover, maximal respiration. Treatment with DT-010 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells resulted in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased ATP production. DT-010 also promoted ROS generation, while treatment with ROS scavenger, NAC (N-acetyl-L-cysteine), reversed DT-010-induced cytotoxicity. Further study showed that DT-010 suppressed succinate-induced mitochondrial respiration and impaired mitochondrial complex II enzyme activity indicating that DT-010 may inhibit mitochondrial complex II. Overall, our results suggested that the antitumor activity of DT-010 is associated with inhibition of mitochondrial complex II, which triggers ROS generation and mitochondrial dysfunction in breast cancer cells. PMID:27081033

  9. CD44-Tropic Polymeric Nanocarrier for Breast Cancer Targeted Rapamycin Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yunqi; Zhang, Ti; Duan, Shaofeng; Davies, Neal M.; Forrest, M. Laird

    2014-01-01

    In contrast with the conventional targeting of nanoparticles to cancer cells with antibody or peptide conjugates, a hyaluronic acid (HA) matrix nanoparticle with intrinsic-CD44-tropism was developed to deliver rapamycin for localized CD44-positive breast cancer treatment. Rapamycin was chemically conjugated to the particle surface via a novel sustained-release linker, 3-amino-4-methoxy-benzoic acid. The release of the drug from the HA nanoparticle was improved by 42-fold compared to HA-temsirolimus in buffered saline. In CD44 positive MDA-MB-468 cells, using HA as drug delivery carrier, the cell-viability was significantly decreased compared to free rapamycin and CD44-blocked controls. Rat pharmacokinetics showed that the area-under-the-curve of HA nanoparticle formulation was 2.96-fold greater than that of the free drug, and the concomitant total body clearance was 8.82-fold slower. Moreover, in immunocompetent BALB/c mice bearing CD44-positive 4T1.2neu breast cancer, the rapamycin1loaded HA particles significantly improved animal survival, suppressed tumor growth and reduced the prevalence of lung metastasis. PMID:24637218

  10. Targeting radioresistant breast cancer cells by single agent CHK1 inhibitor via enhancing replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhanwen; Gao, Jinnan; Yang, Shuming; Gorityala, Shashank; Xiong, Xiahui; Deng, Ou; Ma, Zhefu; Yan, Chunhong; Susana, Gonzalo; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Junran

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) remains a standard therapeutic modality for breast cancer patients. However, intrinsic or acquired resistance limits the efficacy of RT. Here, we demonstrate that CHK1 inhibitor AZD7762 alone significantly inhibited the growth of radioresistant breast cancer cells (RBCC). Given the critical role of ATR/CHK1 signaling in suppressing oncogene-induced replication stress (RS), we hypothesize that CHK1 inhibition leads to the specific killing for RBCC due to its abrogation in the suppression of RS induced by oncogenes. In agreement, the expression of oncogenes c-Myc/CDC25A/c-Src/H-ras/E2F1 and DNA damage response (DDR) proteins ATR/CHK1/BRCA1/CtIP were elevated in RBCC. AZD7762 exposure led to significantly higher levels of RS in RBCC, compared to the parental cells. The mechanisms by which CHK1 inhibition led to specific increase of RS in RBCC were related to the interruptions in the replication fork dynamics and the homologous recombination (HR). In summary, RBCC activate oncogenic pathways and thus depend upon mechanisms controlled by CHK1 signaling to maintain RS under control for survival. Our study provided the first example where upregulating RS by CHK1 inhibitor contributes to the specific killing of RBCC, and highlight the importance of the CHK1 as a potential target for treatment of radioresistant cancer cells. PMID:27167194

  11. Biodegradable nanoparticles for targeted ultrasound imaging of breast cancer cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Li, Jie; Rosol, Thomas J.; Pan, Xueliang; Voorhees, Jeffrey L.

    2007-08-01

    Disease-specific enhanced imaging through a targeted agent promises to improve the specificity of medical ultrasound. Nanoparticles may provide unique advantages for targeted ultrasound imaging due to their novel physical and surface properties. In this study, we examined a nanoparticle agent developed from a biodegradable polymer, polylactic acid (PLA). The nanoparticles (mean diameter = 250 nm) were surface conjugated to an anti-Her2 antibody (i.e., Herceptin) for specific binding to breast cancer cells that overexpress Her2 receptors. We examined the targeting specificity and the resultant ultrasound enhancement in Her2-positive and negative cells. Flow cytometry and confocal imaging were used to assess the nanoparticle-cell binding. Her2-positive cells demonstrated substantial staining after incubation with nanoparticle/antibody conjugates, while minimal staining was found in Her2-negative cells, indicating receptor-specific binding of the conjugated PLA nanoparticles. In high-resolution ultrasound B-mode images, the average gray scale of the Her2-positive cells was consistently and significantly higher after nanoparticle treatment (133 ± 4 in treated cells versus 109 ± 4 in control, p < 0.001, n = 5), while no difference was detected in the cells that did not overexpress the receptors (117 ± 3 in treated cells versus 118 ± 5 in control). In conclusion, the feasibility of using targeted nanoparticles to enhance ultrasonic images was demonstrated in vitro. This may be a promising approach to target cancer biomarkers for site-specific ultrasound imaging.

  12. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Factor ERLIN2: Oncogenic Roles and Molecular Targeting of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    cancer. Cancer Research. 2006;66:11632-43. 4. Gelsi-Boyer V, Orsetti B, Cervera N, Finetti P, Sircoulomb F, Rouge C, et al. Comprehensive profiling of...interacting oncogenes on the 8p11-p12 amplicon in human breast cancer. Cancer Res 2006, 66(24):11632– 11643. 4. Gelsi-Boyer V, Orsetti B, Cervera N

  13. Unbiased analysis of potential targets of breast cancer susceptibility loci by Capture Hi-C.

    PubMed

    Dryden, Nicola H; Broome, Laura R; Dudbridge, Frank; Johnson, Nichola; Orr, Nick; Schoenfelder, Stefan; Nagano, Takashi; Andrews, Simon; Wingett, Steven; Kozarewa, Iwanka; Assiotis, Ioannis; Fenwick, Kerry; Maguire, Sarah L; Campbell, James; Natrajan, Rachael; Lambros, Maryou; Perrakis, Eleni; Ashworth, Alan; Fraser, Peter; Fletcher, Olivia

    2014-11-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 70 common variants that are associated with breast cancer risk. Most of these variants map to non-protein-coding regions and several map to gene deserts, regions of several hundred kilobases lacking protein-coding genes. We hypothesized that gene deserts harbor long-range regulatory elements that can physically interact with target genes to influence their expression. To test this, we developed Capture Hi-C (CHi-C), which, by incorporating a sequence capture step into a Hi-C protocol, allows high-resolution analysis of targeted regions of the genome. We used CHi-C to investigate long-range interactions at three breast cancer gene deserts mapping to 2q35, 8q24.21, and 9q31.2. We identified interaction peaks between putative regulatory elements ("bait fragments") within the captured regions and "targets" that included both protein-coding genes and long noncoding (lnc) RNAs over distances of 6.6 kb to 2.6 Mb. Target protein-coding genes were IGFBP5, KLF4, NSMCE2, and MYC; and target lncRNAs included DIRC3, PVT1, and CCDC26. For one gene desert, we were able to define two SNPs (rs12613955 and rs4442975) that were highly correlated with the published risk variant and that mapped within the bait end of an interaction peak. In vivo ChIP-qPCR data show that one of these, rs4442975, affects the binding of FOXA1 and implicate this SNP as a putative functional variant.

  14. Three-layered polyplex as a microRNA targeted delivery system for breast cancer gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Dai, Yu; Zhang, Xiaojin; Chen, Jihua

    2017-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, play an important role in modulating cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Since miRNAs can regulate multiple cancer-related genes simultaneously, regulating miRNAs could target a set of related oncogenic genes or pathways. Owing to their reduced immune response and low toxicity, miRNAs with small size and low molecular weight have become increasingly promising therapeutic drugs in cancer therapy. However, one of the major challenges of miRNAs-based cancer therapy is to achieve specific, effective, and safe delivery of therapeutic miRNAs into cancer cells. Here we provide a strategy using three-layered polyplex with folic acid as a targeting group to systemically deliver miR-210 into breast cancer cells, which results in breast cancer growth being inhibited.

  15. Overexpression of miR-206 suppresses glycolysis, proliferation and migration in breast cancer cells via PFKFB3 targeting

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Xin; Lyu, Pengwei; Cao, Zhang; Li, Jingruo; Guo, Guangcheng; Xia, Wanjun; Gu, Yuanting

    2015-08-07

    miRNAs, sorting as non-coding RNAs, are differentially expressed in breast tumor and act as tumor promoters or suppressors. miR-206 could suppress the progression of breast cancer, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The study here was aimed to investigate the effect of miR-206 on human breast cancers. We found that miR-206 was down-regulated while one of its predicted targets, 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFKFB3) was up-regulated in human breast carcinomas. 17β-estradiol dose-dependently decreased miR-206 expression as well as enhanced PFKFB3 mRNA and protein expression in estrogen receptor α (ERα) positive breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we identified that miR-206 directly interacted with 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of PFKFB3 mRNA. miR-206 modulated PFKFB3 expression in MCF-7, T47D and SUM159 cells, which was influenced by 17β-estradiol depending on ERα expression. In addition, miR-206 overexpression impeded fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (F2,6BP) production, diminished lactate generation and reduced cell proliferation and migration in breast cancer cells. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that miR-206 regulated PFKFB3 expression in breast cancer cells, thereby stunting glycolysis, cell proliferation and migration. - Highlights: • miR-206 was down-regulated and PFKFB3 was up-regulated in human breast carcinomas. • 17β-estradiol regulated miR-206 and PFKFB3 expression in ERα+ cancer cells. • miR-206directly interacted with 3′-UTR of PFKFB3 mRNA. • miR-206 fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (F2,6BP) impeded production and lactate generation. • miR-206 reduced cell proliferation and migration in breast cancer cells.

  16. Treatment patterns among elderly patients with stage IV breast cancer treated with HER-2-targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Lang, Kathleen; Hao, Yanni; Huang, Huan; Lin, Iris; Rogerio, Jaqueline Willemann; Menzin, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate treatment patterns among elderly, newly diagnosed stage IV breast cancer patients receiving HER-2-targeted therapy. Women aged 65+ with an incident diagnosis of stage IV breast cancer (index) and no history of other cancer were identified from 2006 to 2010 linked Surveillance, Epidemiology and End RESULTS and Medicare data. Continuous enrollment from 1 year preindex (baseline) through disenrollment, death or the end of the data (follow-up) was required. Patients were required to receive HER-2-targeted therapy (trastuzumab or lapatinib) during follow-up. Treatment therapies during follow-up were evaluated, as was the distribution of treatment combinations. Initial treatment regimens were evaluated based on the treatment(s) received after index. A 42-day gap in therapy or the addition of a biologic therapy was used as a marker for a subsequent regimen. A total of 173 patients were identified (mean [standard deviation] age: 73.9 [6.7] years). The majority received trastuzumab (>93%) during follow-up (mean [standard deviation] duration: 24.3 [11.3] months), with 9.8% receiving lapatinib. Most received chemotherapy (83.2%), approximately half received surgery (55.5%), over 40% received hormonal therapy and a third received radiation (35.3%). Trastuzumab + chemotherapy was the most common initial treatment regimen (43.9%); less common therapies include trastuzumab alone (17.3%), and trastuzumab + chemotherapy + hormonal (13.3%). Among patients receiving chemotherapy, the majority received a taxane-based chemotherapy. The average treatment duration for any treatment regimen was just less than a year (44.9-52.5 weeks). Among this population, the majority received taxane-based combination chemotherapy, consistent with National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines.

  17. Reversal of doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer by mitochondria-targeted pH-responsive micelles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pengcheng; Yu, Haijun; Guo, Chengyue; Cui, Zhirui; Chen, Xianzhi; Yin, Qi; Zhang, Pengcheng; Yang, Xiangliang; Cui, Honggang; Li, Yaping

    2015-03-01

    Chemotherapy is an important approach for clinical cancer treatment. However, the success of chemotherapy is usually hindered by the occurrence of intrinsic or acquired multidrug resistance of cancer cells. Herein, we reported an effective approach to overcome doxorubicin (DOX) resistance in MCF-7/ADR breast cancer using DOX-loaded pH-responsive micelles. The micelles were prepared from a pH-responsive diblock copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PEG-b-PDPA), and a vitamin E derivate (D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate, TPGS) (denoted as PDPA/TPGS micelles). At neutral pH of 7.4, DOX was loaded into the hydrophobic core of PDPA/TPGS micelles via a film sonication method. After cellular uptake, the DOX payload was released in early endosomes by acidic pH-triggered micelle dissociation. Meanwhile, the TPGS component synergistically improved the cytotoxicity of DOX by targeting mitochondrial organelles and reducing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. In vitro cell culture experiments using DOX-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells demonstrated that PDPA/TPGS micelles reduced the IC50 of DOX by a sixfold magnitude. In vivo animal studies showed that DOX-loaded PDPA/TPGS micelles (PDPA/TPGS@DOX) inhibited tumor growth more efficiently than free DOX in a nude mouse model bearing orthotopic MCF-7/ADR tumor. All these results imply that the mitochondria-targeted pH-responsive PDPA/TPGS micelles have significant potential for efficiently combating DOX resistance in breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Breast Cancer In Women

    Cancer.gov

    This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  19. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Breast Cancer KidsHealth > For Kids > Breast Cancer Print A A ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  20. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men ... usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. Other breast symptoms can include Dimpled ...

  1. Breast Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer Funding: Young Breast Cancer Survivors Funding: Breast Cancer Genomics Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Risk by Age Trends What CDC Is Doing Research African American Women and Mass Media Campaign Public Service Announcements Print ...

  2. miR-145 suppresses breast cancer cell migration by targeting FSCN-1 and inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Kang, Xing; Xia, Xuefeng; Wo, Like; Gu, Xidong; Hu, Yuanyuan; Xie, Xiaohong; Chang, Helena; Lou, Lihua; Shen, Xuning

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, regulate fundamental cellular and developmental processes such as cell growth, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. In our present study, we investigated the inhibitory role of miR-145 on breast cancer cell migration as well as its underlying mechanism. Wound healing assay and transwell migration assay showed that ectopic expression of miR-145 significantly inhibited breast cancer cell migration. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that FSCN-1 was a putative target of miR-145. The expression of FSCN-1 varied among four different breast cancer cells, and inversely correlated with miR-145 levels. Moreover, miR-145 mimic transfection enhanced the expression of FSCN-1 in Bcap-37 and HCC-1937 cells. We also found that siRNA- mediated down-regulation of FSCN-1 inhibited cell motility in breast cancer cells. In addition, we found that up-regulation of miR-145 blocked EMT and decreased the expression of MMP-2/9 in breast cancer cells. These results reveal a new link between miR-145, FSCN-1 and EMT in the regulation of breast cancer migration.

  3. miR-145 suppresses breast cancer cell migration by targeting FSCN-1 and inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hong; Kang, Xing; Xia, Xuefeng; Wo, Like; Gu, Xidong; Hu, Yuanyuan; Xie, Xiaohong; Chang, Helena; Lou, Lihua; Shen, Xuning

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs, regulate fundamental cellular and developmental processes such as cell growth, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. In our present study, we investigated the inhibitory role of miR-145 on breast cancer cell migration as well as its underlying mechanism. Wound healing assay and transwell migration assay showed that ectopic expression of miR-145 significantly inhibited breast cancer cell migration. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that FSCN-1 was a putative target of miR-145. The expression of FSCN-1 varied among four different breast cancer cells, and inversely correlated with miR-145 levels. Moreover, miR-145 mimic transfection enhanced the expression of FSCN-1 in Bcap-37 and HCC-1937 cells. We also found that siRNA- mediated down-regulation of FSCN-1 inhibited cell motility in breast cancer cells. In addition, we found that up-regulation of miR-145 blocked EMT and decreased the expression of MMP-2/9 in breast cancer cells. These results reveal a new link between miR-145, FSCN-1 and EMT in the regulation of breast cancer migration. PMID:27508031