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Sample records for breast imaging technical

  1. Development of Ultrasound Tomography for Breast Imaging: Technical Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Duric, N; Littrup, P; Babkin, A; Chambers, D; Azevedo, S; Arkady, K; Pevzner, R; Tokarev, M; Holsapple, E

    2004-09-30

    Ultrasound imaging is widely used in medicine because of its benign characteristics and real-time capabilities. Physics theory suggests that the application of tomographic techniques may allow ultrasound imaging to reach its full potential as a diagnostic tool allowing it to compete with other tomographic modalities such as X-ray CT and MRI. This paper describes the construction and use of a prototype tomographic scanner and reports on the feasibility of implementing tomographic theory in practice and the potential of US tomography in diagnostic imaging. Data were collected with the prototype by scanning two types of phantoms and a cadaveric breast. A specialized suite of algorithms was developed and utilized to construct images of reflectivity and sound speed from the phantom data. The basic results can be summarized as follows: (1) A fast, clinically relevant US tomography scanner can be built using existing technology. (2) The spatial resolution, deduced from images of reflectivity, is 0.4 mm. The demonstrated 10 cm depth-of-field is superior to that of conventional ultrasound and the image contrast is improved through the reduction of speckle noise and overall lowering of the noise floor. (3) Images of acoustic properties such as sound speed suggest that it is possible to measure variations in the sound speed of 5 m/s. An apparent correlation with X-ray attenuation suggests that the sound speed can be used to discriminate between various types of soft tissue. (4) Ultrasound tomography has the potential to improve diagnostic imaging in relation to breast cancer detection.

  2. Breast Imaging Artifacts.

    PubMed

    Odle, Teresa G

    2015-01-01

    Artifacts appear on breast images for a number of reasons. Radiologic technologists play an important role in identifying artifacts that can help or hinder breast cancer diagnosis and in minimizing artifacts that degrade image quality. This article describes various artifacts that occur in breast imaging, along with their causes. The article focuses on artifacts in mammography, with a heavy emphasis on digital mammography, and on magnetic resonance imaging of the breast. Artifacts in ultrasonography of the breast, digital breast tomosynthesis, and positron emission mammography also are discussed.

  3. Imaging Guided Breast Interventions.

    PubMed

    Masroor, Imrana; Afzal, Shaista; Sufian, Saira Naz

    2016-06-01

    Breast imaging is a developing field, with new and upcoming innovations, decreasing the morbidity and mortality related to breast pathologies with main emphasis on breast cancer. Breast imaging has an essential role in the detection and management of breast disease. It includes a multimodality approach, i.e. mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine techniques and interventional procedures, done for the diagnosis and definitive management of breast abnormalities. The range of methods to perform biopsy of a suspicious breast lesion found on imaging has also increased markedly from the 1990s with hi-technological progress in surgical as well as percutaneous breast biopsy methods. The image guided percutaneous breast biopsy procedures cause minimal breast scarring, save time, and relieve the patient of the anxiety of going to the operation theatre. The aim of this review was to describe and discuss the different image guided breast biopsy techniques presently employed along with the indications, contraindication, merits and demerits of each method. PMID:27353993

  4. Technical note: A new TLD-phantom measurement system for determining dose distribution levels in the right and left breast from spiral CT chest imaging.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jeffery L; Navarrete, Jorge L; Surprenant, Edgar; Sklansky, Jack; Eisenman, Jack I

    2002-01-01

    Two specially designed plastic/aluminum phantoms positioned thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) at the right and left breast location of an anthrophomorophic chest torso. Imaging was performed on a spiral CT for a Volume of the chest phantom through the breast area for a noncontiguous (pitch 1.5) helical chest scan. Conventional pencil beam ionization chamber measurements were made at the same operating parameters. The doses ranged from approximately 1 to 3 cGy. For both breast phantoms, the doses were highest for the medial inner quadrants near the mediastinum. The doses were lowest for the outer quadrants (lateral aspects) of both breasts.

  5. Evolution of Imaging in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Evelyn M; Crowley, James; Hagan, Catherine; Atkinson, Lisa L

    2016-06-01

    The following topics are discussed in this article. A historical review of the evolution of breast cancer imaging from thermography through digital breast tomosynthesis, molecular breast imaging, and advanced breast magnetic resonance imaging. Discussion of multiple clinical trials, their strengths, and weaknesses. Historical perspective on the Mammography Quality Standards Act and its relationship with development and implementation of the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). PMID:27029017

  6. Breast surface estimation for radar-based breast imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Williams, Trevor C; Sill, Jeff M; Fear, Elise C

    2008-06-01

    Radar-based microwave breast-imaging techniques typically require the antennas to be placed at a certain distance from or on the breast surface. This requires prior knowledge of the breast location, shape, and size. The method proposed in this paper for obtaining this information is based on a modified tissue sensing adaptive radar algorithm. First, a breast surface detection scan is performed. Data from this scan are used to localize the breast by creating an estimate of the breast surface. If required, the antennas may then be placed at specified distances from the breast surface for a second tumor-sensing scan. This paper introduces the breast surface estimation and antenna placement algorithms. Surface estimation and antenna placement results are demonstrated on three-dimensional breast models derived from magnetic resonance images.

  7. Semiautomated Multimodal Breast Image Registration

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Charlotte; Frayne, Richard; Fear, Elise

    2012-01-01

    Consideration of information from multiple modalities has been shown to have increased diagnostic power in breast imaging. As a result, new techniques such as microwave imaging continue to be developed. Interpreting these novel image modalities is a challenge, requiring comparison to established techniques such as the gold standard X-ray mammography. However, due to the highly deformable nature of breast tissues, comparison of 3D and 2D modalities is a challenge. To enable this comparison, a registration technique was developed to map features from 2D mammograms to locations in the 3D image space. This technique was developed and tested using magnetic resonance (MR) images as a reference 3D modality, as MR breast imaging is an established technique in clinical practice. The algorithm was validated using a numerical phantom then successfully tested on twenty-four image pairs. Dice's coefficient was used to measure the external goodness of fit, resulting in an excellent overall average of 0.94. Internal agreement was evaluated by examining internal features in consultation with a radiologist, and subjective assessment concludes that reasonable alignment was achieved. PMID:22481910

  8. Nuclear Breast Imaging: Clinical Results and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Berg, Wendie A

    2016-02-01

    Interest in nuclear breast imaging is increasing because of technical improvements in dedicated devices that allow the use of relatively low doses of radiotracers with high sensitivity for even small breast cancers. For women with newly diagnosed cancer, primary chemotherapy is often recommended, and improved methods of assessing treatment response are of interest. With widespread breast density notification, functional rather than anatomic methods of screening are of increasing interest as well. For a cancer imaging technology to be adopted, several criteria must be met that will be discussed: evidence of clinical benefit with minimal harm, standardized interpretive criteria, direct biopsy guidance, and acceptable cost-effectiveness.

  9. Computational simulation of breast compression based on segmented breast and fibroglandular tissues on magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Liu, Dongxu; Nie, Ke; Sun, Lizhi; Lin, Muqing; Chang, Daniel; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Su, Min-Ying

    2010-07-01

    This study presents a finite element-based computational model to simulate the three-dimensional deformation of a breast and fibroglandular tissues under compression. The simulation was based on 3D MR images of the breast, and craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique compression, as used in mammography, was applied. The geometry of the whole breast and the segmented fibroglandular tissues within the breast were reconstructed using triangular meshes by using the Avizo® 6.0 software package. Due to the large deformation in breast compression, a finite element model was used to simulate the nonlinear elastic tissue deformation under compression, using the MSC.Marc® software package. The model was tested in four cases. The results showed a higher displacement along the compression direction compared to the other two directions. The compressed breast thickness in these four cases at a compression ratio of 60% was in the range of 5-7 cm, which is a typical range of thickness in mammography. The projection of the fibroglandular tissue mesh at a compression ratio of 60% was compared to the corresponding mammograms of two women, and they demonstrated spatially matched distributions. However, since the compression was based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has much coarser spatial resolution than the in-plane resolution of mammography, this method is unlikely to generate a synthetic mammogram close to the clinical quality. Whether this model may be used to understand the technical factors that may impact the variations in breast density needs further investigation. Since this method can be applied to simulate compression of the breast at different views and different compression levels, another possible application is to provide a tool for comparing breast images acquired using different imaging modalities--such as MRI, mammography, whole breast ultrasound and molecular imaging--that are performed using different body positions and under different compression

  10. Recent advances in breast cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Newman, J

    1999-01-01

    Mammography is the best technique currently available for early detection of breast cancer, but it has limitations. Several new techniques are under investigation that may provide valuable complementary images. This article discusses some of the most promising adjuncts to film-screen mammography, including digital mammography, ultrasound of the breast, breast MR, scintimammography and sentinel node lymphoscintigraphy.

  11. Computational Simulation of Breast Compression Based on Segmented Breast and Fibroglandular Tissues on Magnetic Resonance Images

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Liu, Dongxu; Nie, Ke; Sun, Lizhi; Lin, Muqing; Chang, Daniel; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Su, Min-Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a finite element based computational model to simulate the three-dimensional deformation of the breast and the fibroglandular tissues under compression. The simulation was based on 3D MR images of the breast, and the craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique compression as used in mammography was applied. The geometry of whole breast and the segmented fibroglandular tissues within the breast were reconstructed using triangular meshes by using the Avizo® 6.0 software package. Due to the large deformation in breast compression, a finite element model was used to simulate the non-linear elastic tissue deformation under compression, using the MSC.Marc® software package. The model was tested in 4 cases. The results showed a higher displacement along the compression direction compared to the other two directions. The compressed breast thickness in these 4 cases at 60% compression ratio was in the range of 5-7 cm, which is the typical range of thickness in mammography. The projection of the fibroglandular tissue mesh at 60% compression ratio was compared to the corresponding mammograms of two women, and they demonstrated spatially matched distributions. However, since the compression was based on MRI, which has much coarser spatial resolution than the in-plane resolution of mammography, this method is unlikely to generate a synthetic mammogram close to the clinical quality. Whether this model may be used to understand the technical factors that may impact the variations in breast density measurements needs further investigation. Since this method can be applied to simulate compression of the breast at different views and different compression levels, another possible application is to provide a tool for comparing breast images acquired using different imaging modalities – such as MRI, mammography, whole breast ultrasound, and molecular imaging – that are performed using different body positions and different compression conditions. PMID:20601773

  12. Molecular imaging using PET for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Chikako; Miyakita, Yasuji; Yoshida, Masayuki; Hamada, Akinobu; Kanayama, Yousuke; Yonemori, Kan; Hashimoto, Jun; Tani, Hitomi; Kodaira, Makoto; Yunokawa, Mayu; Yamamoto, Harukaze; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging can visualize the biological processes at the molecular and cellular levels in vivo using certain tracers for specific molecular targets. Molecular imaging of breast cancer can be performed with various imaging modalities, however, positron emission tomography (PET) is a sensitive and non-invasive molecular imaging technology and this review will focus on PET molecular imaging of breast cancer, such as FDG-PET, FLT-PET, hormone receptor PET, and anti-HER2 PET.

  13. Development of breast phantoms for use in breast imaging simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, J. Michael

    Dedicated x-ray breast computed tomography (BCT) and breast tomosynthesis (BT) using a cone-beam flat-panel detector system are modalities under investigation by a number of research teams. Several teams, including the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS) Tomographic Breast Imaging Lab (TBIL), have fabricated a prototype, bench-top flat-panel CT breast imaging (CTBI) system. TBIL researchers also use computer simulation software to investigate various x-ray acquisition and reconstruction parameters. I have developed a methodology to use high resolution, low noise CT reconstructions of fresh mastectomy specimens in order to create an ensemble of three-dimensional (3D) digital breast phantoms that realistically model 3D compressed and uncompressed breast anatomy. The resulting breast phantoms can then be used to simulate realistic projection data for both BCT and BT systems thereby providing a powerful evaluation and optimization mechanism for research and development of novel breast imaging systems as well as the optimization of imaging techniques for such systems.

  14. Optical imaging for breast cancer prescreening

    PubMed Central

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Rodriguez, Suset; Jung, Young-Jin; Gonzalez, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer prescreening is carried out prior to the gold standard screening using X-ray mammography and/or ultrasound. Prescreening is typically carried out using clinical breast examination (CBE) or self-breast examinations (SBEs). Since CBE and SBE have high false-positive rates, there is a need for a low-cost, noninvasive, non-radiative, and portable imaging modality that can be used as a prescreening tool to complement CBE/SBE. This review focuses on the various hand-held optical imaging devices that have been developed and applied toward early-stage breast cancer detection or as a prescreening tool via phantom, in vivo, and breast cancer imaging studies. Apart from the various optical devices developed by different research groups, a wide-field fiber-free near-infrared optical scanner has been developed for transillumination-based breast imaging in our Optical Imaging Laboratory. Preliminary in vivo studies on normal breast tissues, with absorption-contrasted targets placed in the intramammary fold, detected targets as deep as 8.8 cm. Future work involves in vivo imaging studies on breast cancer subjects and comparison with the gold standard X-ray mammography approach. PMID:26229503

  15. Molecular breast imaging: an emerging modality for breast cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Screening mammography is recognized as an imperfect imaging tool that performs poorly in women with dense breast tissue – a limitation which has driven demand for supplemental screening techniques. One potential supplemental technique is molecular breast imaging (MBI). Significant improvements in gamma camera technology allow MBI to be performed at low radiation doses, comparable with those of tomosynthesis and mammography. A recent screening trial in women with dense breast tissue yielded a cancer detection rate of 3.2 per 1000 for mammography alone and 12.0 per 1000 for the combination of mammography and MBI. MBI also demonstrated a lower recall rate than that of mammography. MBI is a promising supplemental screening technique in women with dense breast tissue. PMID:25621015

  16. Causes of breast lumps (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast lumps are benign (non-cancerous), as in fibroadenoma, a condition that mostly affects women under age ... with the menstrual cycle, whereas a lump from fibroadenoma does not. While most breast lumps are benign, ...

  17. Dose reduction in molecular breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenaar, Douglas J.; Chowdhury, Samir; Hugg, James W.; Moats, Rex A.; Patt, Bradley E.

    2011-10-01

    Molecular Breast Imaging (MBI) is the imaging of radiolabeled drugs, cells, or nanoparticles for breast cancer detection, diagnosis, and treatment. Screening of broad populations of women for breast cancer with mammography has been augmented by the emergence of breast MRI in screening of women at high risk for breast cancer. Screening MBI may benefit the sub-population of women with dense breast tissue that obscures small tumors in mammography. Dedicated breast imaging equipment is necessary to enable detection of early-stage tumors less than 1 cm in size. Recent progress in the development of these instruments is reviewed. Pixellated CZT for single photon MBI imaging of 99mTc-sestamibi gives high detection sensitivity for early-stage tumors. The use of registered collimators in a near-field geometry gives significantly higher detection efficiency - a factor of 3.6-, which translates into an equivalent dose reduction factor given the same acquisition time. The radiation dose in the current MBI procedure has been reduced to the level of a four-view digital mammography study. In addition to screening of selected sub-populations, reduced MBI dose allows for dual-isotope, treatment planning, and repeated therapy assessment studies in the era of molecular medicine guided by quantitative molecular imaging.

  18. An overview of the status of imaging screening technology for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, J A; Andreopoulou, E

    2004-01-01

    With breast cancer incidence rates showing no signs of abating, advances in risk stratification and increasing awareness of cancer control, there is interest in expanding the breast imaging arsenal. Mammography is still the standard of care, and a recent meta-analysis of seven large studies supports its value as a screening tool. There is, however, clear need for improved sensitivity and specificity. Imaging of function, metabolism and molecular activity in breast tissue is of potential benefit in addressing these issues. In this article we provide an overview of the current methods of imaging in breast cancer, including mammography, ultrasound, digital mammography, magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Screening and surveillance should, ideally, be tailored to an individual's cancer risk and breast tissue. Current evidence questions the recent move toward magnetic resonance imaging as a single or multimodality strategy for breast cancer screening. In a high-risk group, the cost effectiveness of technical innovations may be justified.

  19. Dedicated 3D photoacoustic breast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Robert A.; Kuzmiak, Cherie M.; Lam, Richard B.; Reinecke, Daniel R.; Del Rio, Stephen P.; Steed, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report the design and imaging methodology of a photoacoustic scanner dedicated to imaging hemoglobin distribution throughout a human breast. Methods: The authors developed a dedicated breast photoacoustic mammography (PAM) system using a spherical detector aperture based on our previous photoacoustic tomography scanner. The system uses 512 detectors with rectilinear scanning. The scan shape is a spiral pattern whose radius varies from 24 to 96 mm, thereby allowing a field of view that accommodates a wide range of breast sizes. The authors measured the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) using a target comprised of 1-mm dots printed on clear plastic. Each dot absorption coefficient was approximately the same as a 1-mm thickness of whole blood at 756 nm, the output wavelength of the Alexandrite laser used by this imaging system. The target was immersed in varying depths of an 8% solution of stock Liposyn II-20%, which mimics the attenuation of breast tissue (1.1 cm−1). The spatial resolution was measured using a 6 μm-diameter carbon fiber embedded in agar. The breasts of four healthy female volunteers, spanning a range of breast size from a brassiere C cup to a DD cup, were imaged using a 96-mm spiral protocol. Results: The CNR target was clearly visualized to a depth of 53 mm. Spatial resolution, which was estimated from the full width at half-maximum of a profile across the PAM image of a carbon fiber, was 0.42 mm. In the four human volunteers, the vasculature was well visualized throughout the breast tissue, including to the chest wall. Conclusions: CNR, lateral field-of-view and penetration depth of our dedicated PAM scanning system is sufficient to image breasts as large as 1335 mL, which should accommodate up to 90% of the women in the United States. PMID:24320471

  20. Review of optical breast imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Grosenick, Dirk; Rinneberg, Herbert; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Taroni, Paola

    2016-09-01

    Diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy of the female breast is an area of active research. We review the present status of this field and discuss the broad range of methodologies and applications. Starting with a brief overview on breast physiology, the remodeling of vasculature and extracellular matrix caused by solid tumors is highlighted that is relevant for contrast in optical imaging. Then, the various instrumental techniques and the related methods of data analysis and image generation are described and compared including multimodality instrumentation, fluorescence mammography, broadband spectroscopy, and diffuse correlation spectroscopy. We review the clinical results on functional properties of malignant and benign breast lesions compared to host tissue and discuss the various methods to improve contrast between healthy and diseased tissue, such as enhanced spectroscopic information, dynamic variations of functional properties, pharmacokinetics of extrinsic contrast agents, including the enhanced permeability and retention effect. We discuss research on monitoring neoadjuvant chemotherapy and on breast cancer risk assessment as potential clinical applications of optical breast imaging and spectroscopy. Moreover, we consider new experimental approaches, such as photoacoustic imaging and long-wavelength tissue spectroscopy. PMID:27403837

  1. Breast MRI in Community Practice: Equipment and Imaging Techniques at Facilities in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC)

    PubMed Central

    DeMartini, Wendy B.; Ichikawa, Laura; Yankaskas, Bonnie C.; Buist, Diana; Kerlikowske, Karla; Geller, Berta; Onega, Tracy; Rosenberg, Robert D.; Lehman, Constance D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose MRI is increasingly used for detection of breast carcinoma. Little is known about breast MRI techniques among community practice facilities. This study evaluated equipment and acquisition techniques used by community facilities across the U.S., including compliance with minimum standards by the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) 6667 Trial and the European Society of Breast Imaging (EUSOBI). Methods Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) facilities performing breast MRI were identified and queried by survey regarding breast MRI equipment and technical parameters. Variables included scanner field strength, coil type, acquisition coverage, slice thickness and timing of initial post-contrast sequence. Results were tallied and percentages of facilities meeting ACRIN and EUSOBI standards were calculated Results From 23 facilities performing breast MRI, results were obtained from 14 (61%) facilities with 16 MRI scanners reporting 18 imaging parameters. Compliance with equipment recommendations of ≥1.5T field strength was 94% and of a dedicated breast coil was 100%. Eight-three percent of acquisitions used bilateral post-contrast technique and 78% used slice thickness <= 3 mm. Timing of initial post-contrast sequences ranged from 58 seconds to eight minutes 30 seconds, with 63% meeting recommendations for completion within four minutes. Conclusions Nearly all surveyed facilities met ACRIN and EUSOBI standards for breast MRI equipment. The majority met standards for acquisition parameters, although techniques varied, in particular for timing of initial post-contrast imaging. Further guidelines by the ACR Breast MRI Accreditation Program will be of importance in facilitating standardized and high quality breast MRI. PMID:21040870

  2. Using mastectomy specimens to develop breast models for breast tomosynthesis and CT breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, J. Michael; Das, Mini; Didier, Clay; Mah'D, Mufeed; Glick, Stephen J.

    2008-03-01

    Dedicated x-ray computed tomography (CT) of the breast using a cone-beam flat-panel detector system is a modality under investigation by a number of research teams. As previously reported, we have fabricated a prototype, bench-top flat-panel CT breast imaging (CTBI) system and developed computer simulation software to model such a system. We are developing a methodology to use high resolution, low noise CT reconstructions of fresh mastectomy specimens for generating an ensemble of 3D digital breast phantoms that realistically model 3D compressed and uncompressed breast anatomy. These breast models can be used to simulate realistic projection data for both breast tomosynthesis (BT) and CT systems thereby providing a powerful evaluation and optimization mechanism.

  3. Scintimammography as an Adjunctive Breast Imaging Technology

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective X-ray mammography (XMM) represents the most useful screening tool in breast cancer detection, especially for patients over 50. Unfortunately, XMM is not reliable in the assessment of dense breast tissue found in approximately 25% of women younger than 50 years of age, or in differentiating scar tissue from a tumor. Currently, ultrasound (US) is being used as an adjunct to XMM, with the purpose of improving sensitivity and specificity of XMM in breast cancer detection. In an attempt to reduce the biopsy rate resulting from false positive tests, other adjunctive technologies are being explored, including scintimammography (SMM). A number of papers in the current literature suggest the high value of SMM in breast cancer detection. This evaluation addresses the clinical indications for and effectiveness of SMM in the diagnosis of breast cancer. The Technology SMM is a nuclear medicine imaging technique that uses radionuclides and has the ability to image malignant breast tumors. SMM requires the administration of a gamma-ray emitting radiopharmaceutical to the patient, and a camera for imaging the lesion. The most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for SMM is TC-99m-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile MIBI. Review Strategy In the 2003 Medical Advisory Secretariat assessment of SMM in the diagnosis of breast cancer, a structured search was used to identify English-language studies published between 1992 and October 2002. A meta-analysis was then conducted of the literature which compared the diagnostic value of SMM with US as the second line imaging technique. An updated search strategy was developed in order to identify all studies published from October 2002 to January 2007. Summary of Findings The results of the meta-analysis showed that SMM is as effective as US in differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions. However, there may be a role for SMM as a third line adjunctive technique in the evaluation of breast abnormalities, in particular

  4. [Imaging in silicone breast implantation].

    PubMed

    Gielens, Maaike P M; Koolen, Pieter G L; Hermens, Roland A E C; Rutten, Matthieu J C M

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there have been concerns regarding the use of breast implants from Poly Implant Prothèse (PIP, Seyne sur Mer, France) for breast augmentation due to their tendency to rupture and the possibility of having toxic contents. MRI using a specific silicone-sensitive sequence has proven to be the most sensitive and specific technique in the detection of intra- and extracapsular implant rupture. However, given its high costs, it is important that this technique is used sparingly. In this clinical lesson, we compare the sensitivity and specificity of mammography, ultrasound, CT and MRI for the detection of breast implant rupture. Based on two cases, a diagnostic approach is given in order to reduce health care costs. PMID:24252405

  5. Ultrasonic imaging techniques for breast cancer detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, N. R.; Marquez, J. D.; Prewett, E. M.; Claytor, T. N.; Nadler, B. R.; Huang, L.

    2006-01-01

    Improving the resolution and specificity of current ultrasonic imaging technology can enhance its relevance to detection of early-stage breast cancers. Ultrasonic evaluation of breast lesions is desirable because it is quick, inexpensive, and does not expose the patient to potentially harmful ionizing radiation. Improved image quality and resolution enables earlier detection and more accurate diagnoses of tumors, thus reducing the number of biopsies performed, increasing treatment options, and lowering mortality, morbidity, and remission percentages. In this work, a novel ultrasonic imaging reconstruction method that exploits straight-ray migration is described. This technique, commonly used in seismic imaging, accounts for scattering more accurately than standard ultrasonic approaches, thus providing superior image resolution. A breast phantom with various inclusions is imaged using a pulse-echo approach. The data are processed using the ultrasonic migration method and results are compared to standard linear ultrasound and to x-ray computed tomography (CT) scans. For an ultrasonic frequency of 2.25 MHz, imaged inclusions and features of approximately 1mm are resolved, although better resolution is expected with minor modifications. Refinement of this application using other imaging techniques such as time-reversal mirrors (TRM), synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), decomposition of the time reversal operator (DORT), and factorization methods is also briefly discussed.

  6. [Digital breast tomosynthesis : technical principles, current clinical relevance and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Hellerhoff, K

    2010-11-01

    In recent years digital full field mammography has increasingly replaced conventional film mammography. High quality imaging is guaranteed by high quantum efficiency and very good contrast resolution with optimized dosing even for women with dense glandular tissue. However, digital mammography remains a projection procedure by which overlapping tissue limits the detectability of subtle alterations. Tomosynthesis is a procedure developed from digital mammography for slice examination of breasts which eliminates the effects of overlapping tissue and allows 3D imaging of breasts. A curved movement of the X-ray tube during scanning allows the acquisition of many 2D images from different angles. Subseqently, reconstruction algorithms employing a shift and add method improve the recognition of details at a defined level and at the same time eliminate smear artefacts due to overlapping structures. The total dose corresponds to that of conventional mammography imaging. The technical procedure, including the number of levels, suitable anodes/filter combinations, angle regions of images and selection of reconstruction algorithms, is presently undergoing optimization. Previous studies on the clinical value of tomosynthesis have examined screening parameters, such as recall rate and detection rate as well as information on tumor extent for histologically proven breast tumors. More advanced techniques, such as contrast medium-enhanced tomosynthesis, are presently under development and dual-energy imaging is of particular importance.

  7. Mono- and multimodal registration of optical breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Paul C.; Adams, Arthur; Elias, Sjoerd G.; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Viergever, Max A.; Pluim, Josien P. W.

    2012-08-01

    Optical breast imaging offers the possibility of noninvasive, low cost, and high sensitivity imaging of breast cancers. Poor spatial resolution and a lack of anatomical landmarks in optical images of the breast make interpretation difficult and motivate registration and fusion of these data with subsequent optical images and other breast imaging modalities. Methods used for registration and fusion of optical breast images are reviewed. Imaging concerns relevant to the registration problem are first highlighted, followed by a focus on both monomodal and multimodal registration of optical breast imaging. Where relevant, methods pertaining to other imaging modalities or imaged anatomies are presented. The multimodal registration discussion concerns digital x-ray mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography.

  8. Multimodal optical imaging for detecting breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Rakesh; Khan, Ashraf; Wirth, Dennis; Kamionek, Michal; Kandil, Dina; Quinlan, Robert; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.

    2012-06-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate wide-field and high-resolution multimodal optical imaging, including polarization, reflectance, and fluorescence for the intraoperative detection of breast cancer. Lumpectomy specimens were stained with 0.05 mg/ml aqueous solution of methylene blue (MB) and imaged. Wide-field reflectance images were acquired between 390 and 750 nm. Wide-field fluorescence images were excited at 640 nm and registered between 660 and 750 nm. High resolution confocal reflectance and fluorescence images were excited at 642 nm. Confocal fluorescence images were acquired between 670 nm and 710 nm. After imaging, the specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology. Histological slides were compared with wide-field and high-resolution optical images to evaluate correlation of tumor boundaries and cellular morphology, respectively. Fluorescence polarization imaging identified the location, size, and shape of the tumor in all the cases investigated. Averaged fluorescence polarization values of tumor were higher as compared to normal tissue. Statistical analysis confirmed the significance of these differences. Fluorescence confocal imaging enabled cellular-level resolution. Evaluation and statistical analysis of MB fluorescence polarization values registered from single tumor and normal cells demonstrated higher fluorescence polarization from cancer. Wide-field high-resolution fluorescence and fluorescence polarization imaging shows promise for intraoperative delineation of breast cancers.

  9. The quantitative potential for breast tomosynthesis imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, Christina M.; Samei, Ehsan; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Due to its limited angular scan range, breast tomosynthesis has lower resolution in the depth direction, which may limit its accuracy in quantifying tissue density. This study assesses the quantitative potential of breast tomosynthesis using relatively simple reconstruction and image processing algorithms. This quantitation could allow improved characterization of lesions as well as image processing to present tomosynthesis images with the familiar appearance of mammography by preserving more low-frequency information. Methods: All studies were based on a Siemens prototype MAMMOMAT Novation TOMO breast tomo system with a 45 deg. total angular span. This investigation was performed using both simulations and empirical measurements. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted using the breast tomosynthesis geometry and tissue-equivalent, uniform, voxelized phantoms with cuboid lesions of varying density embedded within. Empirical studies were then performed using tissue-equivalent plastic phantoms which were imaged on the actual prototype system. The material surrounding the lesions was set to either fat-equivalent or glandular-equivalent plastic. From the simulation experiments, the effects of scatter, lesion depth, and background material density were studied. The empirical experiments studied the effects of lesion depth, background material density, x-ray tube energy, and exposure level. Additionally, the proposed analysis methods were independently evaluated using a commercially available QA breast phantom (CIRS Model 11A). All image reconstruction was performed with a filtered backprojection algorithm. Reconstructed voxel values within each slice were corrected to reduce background nonuniformities. Results: The resulting lesion voxel values varied linearly with known glandular fraction (correlation coefficient R{sup 2}>0.90) under all simulated and empirical conditions, including for the independent tests with the QA phantom. Analysis of variance performed

  10. Breast MR Imaging for Equivocal Mammographic Findings: Help or Hindrance?

    PubMed

    Giess, Catherine S; Chikarmane, Sona A; Sippo, Dorothy A; Birdwell, Robyn L

    2016-01-01

    Breast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, because of its extremely high sensitivity in detecting invasive breast cancers, is sometimes used as a diagnostic tool to evaluate equivocal mammographic findings. However, breast MR imaging should never substitute for a complete diagnostic evaluation or for biopsy of suspected, localizable suspicious mammographic lesions, whenever possible. The modality's high cost, in addition to only moderate specificity, mandate that radiologists use it sparingly and with discrimination for problematic mammographic findings. It is rare that the reality or significance of a noncalcified mammographic finding remains equivocal or problematic at diagnostic mammography evaluation, which usually includes targeted ultrasonography (US). There are several reasons for this infrequent occurrence: (a) an asymmetry may persist on diagnostic views but be visible only on craniocaudal or mediolateral oblique projections, precluding three-dimensional localization for US or biopsy, or a lesion may persist on some diagnostic spot views but dissipate or efface on others; (b) uncertainty may exist as to whether apparent change is clinically important or owing to technical factors such as compression or positioning differences; or (c) a lesion may be suspected but biopsy options are limited owing to lack of a US correlate and lesion inaccessibility for stereotactic biopsy, or biopsy of a vague or questionably real lesion has been attempted unsuccessfully. This article will discuss the indications for problem-solving MR imaging for equivocal mammographic findings, present cases illustrating appropriate and inappropriate uses of problem-solving MR imaging, and present false-positive and false-negative cases affecting the specificity of breast MR imaging. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27284757

  11. Advances in imaging technologies for planning breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Anita T.

    2016-01-01

    The role and choice of preoperative imaging for planning in breast reconstruction is still a disputed topic in the reconstructive community, with varying opinion on the necessity, the ideal imaging modality, costs and impact on patient outcomes. Since the advent of perforator flaps their use in microsurgical breast reconstruction has grown. Perforator based flaps afford lower donor morbidity by sparing the underlying muscle provide durable results, superior cosmesis to create a natural looking new breast, and are preferred in the context of radiation therapy. However these surgeries are complex; more technically challenging that implant based reconstruction, and leaves little room for error. The role of imaging in breast reconstruction can assist the surgeon in exploring or confirming flap choices based on donor site characteristics and presence of suitable perforators. Vascular anatomical studies in the lab have provided the surgeon a foundation of knowledge on location and vascular territories of individual perforators to improve our understanding for flap design and safe flap harvest. The creation of a presurgical map in patients can highlight any abnormal or individual anatomical variance to optimize flap design, intraoperative decision-making and execution of flap harvest with greater predictability and efficiency. This article highlights the role and techniques for preoperative planning using the newer technologies that have been adopted in reconstructive clinical practice: computed tomographic angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), laser-assisted indocyanine green fluorescence angiography (LA-ICGFA) and dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT). The primary focus of this paper is on the application of CTA and MRA imaging modalities. PMID:27047790

  12. Advances in imaging technologies for planning breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Anita T; Saint-Cyr, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The role and choice of preoperative imaging for planning in breast reconstruction is still a disputed topic in the reconstructive community, with varying opinion on the necessity, the ideal imaging modality, costs and impact on patient outcomes. Since the advent of perforator flaps their use in microsurgical breast reconstruction has grown. Perforator based flaps afford lower donor morbidity by sparing the underlying muscle provide durable results, superior cosmesis to create a natural looking new breast, and are preferred in the context of radiation therapy. However these surgeries are complex; more technically challenging that implant based reconstruction, and leaves little room for error. The role of imaging in breast reconstruction can assist the surgeon in exploring or confirming flap choices based on donor site characteristics and presence of suitable perforators. Vascular anatomical studies in the lab have provided the surgeon a foundation of knowledge on location and vascular territories of individual perforators to improve our understanding for flap design and safe flap harvest. The creation of a presurgical map in patients can highlight any abnormal or individual anatomical variance to optimize flap design, intraoperative decision-making and execution of flap harvest with greater predictability and efficiency. This article highlights the role and techniques for preoperative planning using the newer technologies that have been adopted in reconstructive clinical practice: computed tomographic angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), laser-assisted indocyanine green fluorescence angiography (LA-ICGFA) and dynamic infrared thermography (DIRT). The primary focus of this paper is on the application of CTA and MRA imaging modalities. PMID:27047790

  13. Radiolabeled androgens and progestins as imaging agents for tumors of the prostate and breast. Technical progress report, February 1, 1992--January 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Katzenellenbogen, J.A.

    1992-08-08

    We are preparing progestins and androgens, labeled with the single photon emitters technetium-99m and rhenium-186 and the positron-emitting radionuclide fluorine-18. In both cases, ligands selected have very high affinity for the respective receptor, low affinity for blood and non-specific binders and to be reasonably resistant to metabolism: The progestins will be derivatives of the potent progestins ORG2058, norgestrel, RU486, and an unusual retroprogestin and the androgens will be derivatives of the high affinity analogs of natural and synthetic androgens. Radiometal labeling will involve carefully designed steroid conjugates with N{sub 2}S{sub 2} or related chelates, or novel metal linkages, and metal complexes that themselves mimic a steroid. Fluorine substitution will be made at positions where bulk and polarity are tolerated and metabolic defluorination is minimal. In vitro competitive binding studies will be performed on the unlabeled analogs to determine their binding characteristics towards a series of steroid receptors and blood binding proteins, and Log P values will be estimated from BPLC. Tissue distribution studies with the radiolabeled progestins will be done in estrogen-primed rats using the uterus as a target, and with the radioandrogens in estrogen-treated rats using the prostate as a target. Ultimately, in collaborative studies, these radiopharmaceuticals are to be used with SPECT or PET to image the receptor-positive tumors.

  14. Advanced Breast Imaging Availability by Screening Facility Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christoph I.; Bogart, Andy; Hubbard, Rebecca A.; Obadina, Eniola T.; Hill, Deirdre A.; Haas, Jennifer S.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer A.; Sprague, Brian L.; DeMartini, Wendy B.; Lehman, Constance D.; Onega, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objective To determine the relationship between screening mammography facility characteristics and on-site availability of advanced breast imaging services required for supplemental screening and the diagnostic evaluation of abnormal screening findings. Materials and Methods We analyzed data from all active imaging facilities across six regional registries of the National Cancer Institute-funded Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium offering screening mammography in calendar years 2011–2012 (n=105). We used generalized estimating equations regression models to identify associations between facility characteristics (e.g., academic affiliation, practice type) and availability of on-site advanced breast imaging (e.g., ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) and image-guided biopsy services. Results Breast MRI was not available at any non-radiology or breast imaging only facilities. A combination of breast US, breast MRI, and imaging-guided breast biopsy services was available at 76.0% of multi-specialty breast centers compared to 22.2% of full diagnostic radiology practices (p=0.0047) and 75.0% of facilities with academic affiliations compared to 29.0% of those without academic affiliations (p=0.04). Both supplemental screening breast ultrasound and screening breast MRI were available at 28.0% of multi-specialty breast centers compared to 4.7% of full diagnostic radiology practices (p<0.01) and 25.0% of academic facilities compared to 8.5% of non-academic facilities (p=0.02). Conclusion Screening facility characteristics are strongly associated with the availability of on-site advanced breast imaging and image-guided biopsy service. Therefore, the type of imaging facility a woman attends for screening may have important implications on her timely access to supplemental screening and diagnostic breast imaging services. PMID:25851643

  15. Computerized detection of breast cancer on automated breast ultrasound imaging of women with dense breasts

    PubMed Central

    Drukker, Karen; Sennett, Charlene A.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection method and investigate its feasibility for detection of breast cancer in automated 3D ultrasound images of women with dense breasts. Methods: The HIPAA compliant study involved a dataset of volumetric ultrasound image data, “views,” acquired with an automated U-Systems Somo•V® ABUS system for 185 asymptomatic women with dense breasts (BI-RADS Composition/Density 3 or 4). For each patient, three whole-breast views (3D image volumes) per breast were acquired. A total of 52 patients had breast cancer (61 cancers), diagnosed through any follow-up at most 365 days after the original screening mammogram. Thirty-one of these patients (32 cancers) had a screening-mammogram with a clinically assigned BI-RADS Assessment Category 1 or 2, i.e., were mammographically negative. All software used for analysis was developed in-house and involved 3 steps: (1) detection of initial tumor candidates, (2) characterization of candidates, and (3) elimination of false-positive candidates. Performance was assessed by calculating the cancer detection sensitivity as a function of the number of “marks” (detections) per view. Results: At a single mark per view, i.e., six marks per patient, the median detection sensitivity by cancer was 50.0% (16/32) ± 6% for patients with a screening mammogram-assigned BI-RADS category 1 or 2—similar to radiologists’ performance sensitivity (49.9%) for this dataset from a prior reader study—and 45.9% (28/61) ± 4% for all patients. Conclusions: Promising detection sensitivity was obtained for the computer on a 3D ultrasound dataset of women with dense breasts at a rate of false-positive detections that may be acceptable for clinical implementation. PMID:24387528

  16. Computerized detection of breast cancer on automated breast ultrasound imaging of women with dense breasts

    SciTech Connect

    Drukker, Karen Sennett, Charlene A.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Develop a computer-aided detection method and investigate its feasibility for detection of breast cancer in automated 3D ultrasound images of women with dense breasts. Methods: The HIPAA compliant study involved a dataset of volumetric ultrasound image data, “views,” acquired with an automated U-Systems Somo•V{sup ®} ABUS system for 185 asymptomatic women with dense breasts (BI-RADS Composition/Density 3 or 4). For each patient, three whole-breast views (3D image volumes) per breast were acquired. A total of 52 patients had breast cancer (61 cancers), diagnosed through any follow-up at most 365 days after the original screening mammogram. Thirty-one of these patients (32 cancers) had a screening-mammogram with a clinically assigned BI-RADS Assessment Category 1 or 2, i.e., were mammographically negative. All software used for analysis was developed in-house and involved 3 steps: (1) detection of initial tumor candidates, (2) characterization of candidates, and (3) elimination of false-positive candidates. Performance was assessed by calculating the cancer detection sensitivity as a function of the number of “marks” (detections) per view. Results: At a single mark per view, i.e., six marks per patient, the median detection sensitivity by cancer was 50.0% (16/32) ± 6% for patients with a screening mammogram-assigned BI-RADS category 1 or 2—similar to radiologists’ performance sensitivity (49.9%) for this dataset from a prior reader study—and 45.9% (28/61) ± 4% for all patients. Conclusions: Promising detection sensitivity was obtained for the computer on a 3D ultrasound dataset of women with dense breasts at a rate of false-positive detections that may be acceptable for clinical implementation.

  17. Phase-contrast x-ray imaging of the breast: recent developments towards clinics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coan, P.; Bravin, A.; Tromba, G.

    2013-12-01

    Breast imaging is one of the most demanding and delicate radiological applications. Mammography is the primary diagnosis tool in breast cancer detection and national screening programmes. Recognition of breast cancer depends on the detection of subtle architectural distortion, masses showing near normal breast tissue density, skin thickening and microcalcifications. The small differences in attenuation of x-rays between normal and malignant tissue result in low contrast and make cancer detection difficult in conventional x-ray absorption mammography. Because of these challenging aspects, breast imaging has been the first and most explored diagnostic field in phase-contrast imaging research. This novel imaging method has been extensively used and has demonstrated a unique capability in producing high-contrast and sensitive images at quasi-histological resolution. The most recent and significant technical developments are introduced and results obtained by the application of various phase-contrast imaging techniques for breast imaging are reported. The first phase-contrast mammography clinical trials project is also presented and the short- and long-term future perspectives of the method are discussed.

  18. Aerospace technology transfer to breast cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Winfield, D L

    1997-01-01

    In the United States in 1996, an estimated 44,560 women died of breast cancer, and 184,300 new cases were diagnosed. Advances in space technology are now making significant improvements in the imaging technologies used in managing this important foe. The first of these spinoffs, a digital spot mammography system used to perform stereotactic fine-needle breast biopsy, uses a backside-thinned CCD developed originally for the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrometer. This paper describes several successful biomedical applications which have resulted from collaborative technology transfer programs between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health (OWH). These programs have accelerated the introduction of direct digital mammography by two years. In follow-on work, RTI is now assisting the HHS Office on Women's Health to identify additional opportunities for transfer of aerospace, defense, and intelligence technologies to image-guided detection, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer. The technology identification and evaluation effort culminated in a May 1997 workshop, and the formative technology development partnerships are discussed.

  19. Aerospace technology transfer to breast cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Winfield, D L

    1997-01-01

    In the United States in 1996, an estimated 44,560 women died of breast cancer, and 184,300 new cases were diagnosed. Advances in space technology are now making significant improvements in the imaging technologies used in managing this important foe. The first of these spinoffs, a digital spot mammography system used to perform stereotactic fine-needle breast biopsy, uses a backside-thinned CCD developed originally for the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrometer. This paper describes several successful biomedical applications which have resulted from collaborative technology transfer programs between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health (OWH). These programs have accelerated the introduction of direct digital mammography by two years. In follow-on work, RTI is now assisting the HHS Office on Women's Health to identify additional opportunities for transfer of aerospace, defense, and intelligence technologies to image-guided detection, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer. The technology identification and evaluation effort culminated in a May 1997 workshop, and the formative technology development partnerships are discussed. PMID:11541150

  20. Molecular Imaging of Biomarkers in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ulaner, Gary A.; Riedl, Chris C.; Dickler, Maura N.; Jhaveri, Komal; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Weber, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The success of breast cancer therapy is ultimately defined by clinical endpoints such as survival. It is valuable to have biomarkers that can predict the most efficacious therapies or measure response to therapy early in the course of treatment. Molecular imaging has a promising role in complementing and overcoming some of the limitations of traditional biomarkers by providing the ability to perform noninvasive, repeatable whole-body assessments. The potential advantages of imaging biomarkers are obvious and initial clinical studies have been promising, but proof of clinical utility still requires prospective multicenter clinical trials. PMID:26834103

  1. Image stitching for three-pass whole breast ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ruey-Feng; Chen, Chii-Jen; Takada, Etsuo; Chou, Yi-Hong; Chen, Dar-Ren

    2006-03-01

    Early detection through screening is the best defense against morbidity and mortality from breast cancers. Mammography is the most used screening tool for detecting early breast cancer because it can easily obtain the view of whole breast. However, because the ultrasound images are cross-sectional images, not projection images like mammography, and the ultrasound probe does not fully cover the breast width, it is not a convenient screening tool when adjunct with screening mammography. The physician needs a lot of examination time to perform the breast screening. Recently, some whole breast ultrasound scanning machines are developed. The examination could be performed by an experienced technician. Because the probe width still does not fully cover the breast width, several scanning passes are required to obtain the whole breast image. The physician still cannot have a full view of breast. In this paper, an image stitching technique is proposed to stitch multi-pass images into a full-view image. The produced full-view image can reveal the breast anatomy and assists physicians to reduce extra manual adjustment.

  2. Issues to consider before implementing digital breast tomosynthesis into a breast imaging practice.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Lara A

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to discuss issues surrounding the implementation of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) into a clinical breast imaging practice and assist radiologists, technologists, and administrators who are considering the addition of this new technology to their practices. CONCLUSION. When appropriate attention is given to image acquisition, interpretation, storage, technologist and radiologist training, patient selection, billing, radiation dose, and marketing, implementation of DBT into a breast imaging practice can be successful. PMID:25714303

  3. Issues to consider before implementing digital breast tomosynthesis into a breast imaging practice.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Lara A

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to discuss issues surrounding the implementation of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) into a clinical breast imaging practice and assist radiologists, technologists, and administrators who are considering the addition of this new technology to their practices. CONCLUSION. When appropriate attention is given to image acquisition, interpretation, storage, technologist and radiologist training, patient selection, billing, radiation dose, and marketing, implementation of DBT into a breast imaging practice can be successful.

  4. High resolution PET breast imager with improved detection efficiency

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw

    2010-06-08

    A highly efficient PET breast imager for detecting lesions in the entire breast including those located close to the patient's chest wall. The breast imager includes a ring of imaging modules surrounding the imaged breast. Each imaging module includes a slant imaging light guide inserted between a gamma radiation sensor and a photodetector. The slant light guide permits the gamma radiation sensors to be placed in close proximity to the skin of the chest wall thereby extending the sensitive region of the imager to the base of the breast. Several types of photodetectors are proposed for use in the detector modules, with compact silicon photomultipliers as the preferred choice, due to its high compactness. The geometry of the detector heads and the arrangement of the detector ring significantly reduce dead regions thereby improving detection efficiency for lesions located close to the chest wall.

  5. [Current Development of Breast-Specific Gamma Imaging (BSGI) Technique].

    PubMed

    Sun, Da; Chen, Weijun

    2015-03-01

    Breast-Specific Gamma Imaging (BSGI) is an improved and optimizing nuclear medicine breast imaging technique on the basis of traditional gamma camera. It uses a high resolution, small field-of-view scintilla detector. The detector is designed with 3 073 individual detector crystals and 48 position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The FOV of detector is 15 cm x 20 cm, and optimal system resolution for breast imaging is 3 mm, can detect the diameter of only 2-3 mm small lesions. BSGI has better sensitivity in detecting subcentimetre or nonpalpable breast cancer. The sensitivity for the diagnosis of breast cancer is high, not influenced by the density of the breast tissue, implants, architectural distortion-or scars from prior surgery or radiation. So it is called a high resolution, small field-of-view breast-specific gamma camera. PMID:26204740

  6. Correlation of breast image alignment using biomechanical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Angela; Rajagopal, Vijay; Bier, Peter; Nielsen, Poul M. F.; Nash, Martyn P.

    2009-02-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death among women around the world. Researchers have found that a combination of imaging modalities (such as x-ray mammography, magnetic resonance, and ultrasound) leads to more effective diagnosis and management of breast cancers because each imaging modality displays different information about the breast tissues. In order to aid clinicians in interpreting the breast images from different modalities, we have developed a computational framework for generating individual-specific, 3D, finite element (FE) models of the breast. Medical images are embedded into this model, which is subsequently used to simulate the large deformations that the breasts undergo during different imaging procedures, thus warping the medical images to the deformed views of the breast in the different modalities. In this way, medical images of the breast taken in different geometric configurations (compression, gravity, etc.) can be aligned according to physically feasible transformations. In order to analyse the accuracy of the biomechanical model predictions, squared normalised cross correlation (NCC2) was used to provide both local and global comparisons of the model-warped images with clinical images of the breast subject to different gravity loaded states. The local comparison results were helpful in indicating the areas for improvement in the biomechanical model. To improve the modelling accuracy, we will need to investigate the incorporation of breast tissue heterogeneity into the model and altering the boundary conditions for the breast model. A biomechanical image registration tool of this kind will help radiologists to provide more reliable diagnosis and localisation of breast cancer.

  7. Image to physical space registration of supine breast MRI for image guided breast surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Rebekah H.; Meszoely, Ingrid M.; Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Weis, Jared A.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2014-03-01

    Breast conservation therapy (BCT) is a desirable option for many women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer and involves a lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy. However, approximately 50% of eligible women will elect for mastectomy over BCT despite equal survival benefit (provided margins of excised tissue are cancer free) due to uncertainty in outcome with regards to complete excision of cancerous cells, risk of local recurrence, and cosmesis. Determining surgical margins intraoperatively is difficult and achieving negative margins is not as robust as it needs to be, resulting in high re-operation rates and often mastectomy. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) can provide detailed information about tumor margin extents, however diagnostic images are acquired in a fundamentally different patient presentation than that used in surgery. Therefore, the high quality diagnostic MRIs taken in the prone position with pendant breast are not optimal for use in surgical planning/guidance due to the drastic shape change between preoperative images and the common supine surgical position. This work proposes to investigate the value of supine MRI in an effort to localize tumors intraoperatively using image-guidance. Mock intraoperative setups (realistic patient positioning in non-sterile environment) and preoperative imaging data were collected from a patient scheduled for a lumpectomy. The mock intraoperative data included a tracked laser range scan of the patient's breast surface, tracked center points of MR visible fiducials on the patient's breast, and tracked B-mode ultrasound and strain images. The preoperative data included a supine MRI with visible fiducial markers. Fiducial markers localized in the MRI were rigidly registered to their mock intraoperative counterparts using an optically tracked stylus. The root mean square (RMS) fiducial registration error using the tracked markers was 3.4mm. Following registration, the average closest point distance between the MR

  8. Infrared imager requirements for breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    González, Francisco Javier

    2007-01-01

    Infrared imaging was introduced into medicine in the late 1950s, early studies suggested there were applications of the technology in areas as diverse as detection of breast cancer and malfunctions of the nervous system, however the early instrumentation was not sensitive enough to detect the subtle changes in temperature needed to accurately detect and monitor disease. In recent years the sensitivity of infrared instruments has greatly improved. In this paper the bioheat transfer equation is solved for a simplified model of a female breast and a cancerous tumor in order to quantify the minimum size of a tumor or the maximum depth of a certain sized tumor that a modern state-of-the-art imager can detect. Finite Element simulations showed that current state-of-the-art imagers are capable of detecting 3 cm tumors located deeper than 7 cm from the skin surface and tumors smaller than 0.5 cm can be detected if they are close to the surface of the skin.

  9. Surface driven biomechanical breast image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiben, Björn; Vavourakis, Vasileios; Hipwell, John H.; Kabus, Sven; Lorenz, Cristian; Buelow, Thomas; Williams, Norman R.; Keshtgar, M.; Hawkes, David J.

    2016-03-01

    Biomechanical modelling enables large deformation simulations of breast tissues under different loading conditions to be performed. Such simulations can be utilised to transform prone Magnetic Resonance (MR) images into a different patient position, such as upright or supine. We present a novel integration of biomechanical modelling with a surface registration algorithm which optimises the unknown material parameters of a biomechanical model and performs a subsequent regularised surface alignment. This allows deformations induced by effects other than gravity, such as those due to contact of the breast and MR coil, to be reversed. Correction displacements are applied to the biomechanical model enabling transformation of the original pre-surgical images to the corresponding target position. The algorithm is evaluated for the prone-to-supine case using prone MR images and the skin outline of supine Computed Tomography (CT) scans for three patients. A mean target registration error (TRE) of 10:9 mm for internal structures is achieved. For the prone-to-upright scenario, an optical 3D surface scan of one patient is used as a registration target and the nipple distances after alignment between the transformed MRI and the surface are 10:1 mm and 6:3 mm respectively.

  10. 3D breast image registration--a review.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishna, Radhika

    2005-02-01

    Image registration is an important problem in breast imaging. It is used in a wide variety of applications that include better visualization of lesions on pre- and post-contrast breast MRI images, speckle tracking and image compounding in breast ultrasound images, alignment of positron emission, and standard mammography images on hybrid machines et cetera. It is a prerequisite to align images taken at different times to isolate small interval lesions. Image registration also has useful applications in monitoring cancer therapy. The field of breast image registration has gained considerable interest in recent years. While the primary focus of interest continues to be the registration of pre- and post-contrast breast MRI images, other areas like breast ultrasound registration have gained more attention in recent years. The focus of registration algorithms has also shifted from control point based semi-automated techniques, to more sophisticated voxel based automated techniques that use mutual information as a similarity measure. This paper visits the problem of breast image registration and provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art in this area. PMID:15649086

  11. Volume and tissue composition preserving deformation of breast CT images to simulate breast compression in mammographic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Chen, Lingyun; Lai, Chao-Jen; Liu, Xinming; Shen, Youtao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Ge, Shuaiping; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C.

    2009-02-01

    Images of mastectomy breast specimens have been acquired with a bench top experimental Cone beam CT (CBCT) system. The resulting images have been segmented to model an uncompressed breast for simulation of various CBCT techniques. To further simulate conventional or tomosynthesis mammographic imaging for comparison with the CBCT technique, a deformation technique was developed to convert the CT data for an uncompressed breast to a compressed breast without altering the breast volume or regional breast density. With this technique, 3D breast deformation is separated into two 2D deformations in coronal and axial views. To preserve the total breast volume and regional tissue composition, each 2D deformation step was achieved by altering the square pixels into rectangular ones with the pixel areas unchanged and resampling with the original square pixels using bilinear interpolation. The compression was modeled by first stretching the breast in the superior-inferior direction in the coronal view. The image data were first deformed by distorting the voxels with a uniform distortion ratio. These deformed data were then deformed again using distortion ratios varying with the breast thickness and re-sampled. The deformation procedures were applied in the axial view to stretch the breast in the chest wall to nipple direction while shrinking it in the mediolateral to lateral direction re-sampled and converted into data for uniform cubic voxels. Threshold segmentation was applied to the final deformed image data to obtain the 3D compressed breast model. Our results show that the original segmented CBCT image data were successfully converted into those for a compressed breast with the same volume and regional density preserved. Using this compressed breast model, conventional and tomosynthesis mammograms were simulated for comparison with CBCT.

  12. Imaging breast lesions using the Twente photoacoustic mammoscope: ongoing clinical experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heijblom, M.; Piras, D.; Xia, W.; van Hespen, J. C. G.; van den Engh, F. M.; Klaase, J. M.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.; Manohar, S.

    2012-02-01

    Current imaging modalities are often not able to detect early stages of breast cancer with high imaging contrast. Visualizing malignancy-associated increased hemoglobin concentrations might improve breast cancer diagnosis. Photoacoustic imaging can visualize hemoglobin in tissue with optical contrast and ultrasound resolution, which makes it potentially ideal for breast imaging. The Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope (PAM) has been designed specifically for this purpose. Based on a successful pilot study in 2007, a large clinical study using PAM has been started in December 2010. PAM uses a pulsed Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm to illuminate a region of interest on the breast. Photoacoustic signals are detected with a 1MHz, unfocused ultrasound detector array. Three dimensional data are reconstructed using an acoustic backprojection algorithm. Those reconstructed images are compared with conventional imaging and histopathology. In the first phase of the study, the goal was to optimize the visualization of malignancies. We performed sixteen technically acceptable measurements on confined breast malignancies. In the reconstructed volumes of all malignancies, a confined high contrast region could be identified at the expected lesion depth. After ten successful measurements, the illumination area was increased and the fluence was substantially decreased. This caused a further significant increase in PAM lesion contrast.

  13. Imaging probe for breast cancer localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soluri, A.; Scafè, R.; Capoccetti, F.; Burgio, N.; Schiaratura, A.; Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Cinti, M. N.; Mechella, M.; Amanti, A.; David, V.; Scopinaro, F.

    2003-01-01

    High spatial resolution, small Field Of View (FOV), fully portable scintillation cameras are lower cost and obviously lower weight than large FOV, not transportable Anger gamma cameras. Portable cameras allow easy transfer of the detector, thus of radioisotope imaging, where the bioptical procedure takes place. In this paper we describe a preliminary experience on radionuclide Breast Cancer (BC) imaging with a 22.8×22.8 mm 2 FOV minicamera, already used by our group for sentinel node detection with the name of Imaging Probe (IP). In this work IP BC detection was performed with the aim of guiding biopsy, in particular open biopsy, or to help or modify fine needle or needle addressing when main driving method was echography or digital radiography. The IP prototype weight was about 1 kg. This small scintillation camera is based on the compact Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube Hamamatsu R7600-00-C8, coupled to a CsI(Tl) scintillation array 2.6×2.6×5.0 mm 3 crystal-pixel size. Spatial resolution of the IP was 2.5 mm Full-Width at Half-Maximum at laboratory tests. IP was provided with acquisition software allowing quick change of pixels number on the computer acquisition frame and an on-line image-smoothing program. Both these programs were developed in order to allow nuclear physicians to quickly get target source when the patient was anesthetized in the operator room, with sterile conditions. 99mTc Sestamibi (MIBI) was injected at the dose of 740 MBq 1 h before imaging and biopsy to 14 patients with suspicious or known BC. Scintigraphic images were acquired before and after biopsy in each patient. Operator was allowed to take into account scintigraphic images as well as previously performed X-ray mammograms and echographies. High-resolution IP images were able to guide biopsy toward cancer or washout zones of the cancer, that are thought to be chemoresistant in 7 patients out of 10. Four patients, in whom IP and MIBI were not able to guide biopsy, did not show

  14. Breast cancer imaging: A perspective for the next decade

    PubMed Central

    Karellas, Andrew; Vedantham, Srinivasan

    2008-01-01

    Breast imaging is largely indicated for detection, diagnosis, and clinical management of breast cancer and for evaluation of the integrity of breast implants. In this work, a prospective view of techniques for breast cancer detection and diagnosis is provided based on an assessment of current trends. The potential role of emerging techniques that are under various stages of research and development is also addressed. It appears that the primary imaging tool for breast cancer screening in the next decade will be high-resolution, high-contrast, anatomical x-ray imaging with or without depth information. MRI and ultrasonography will have an increasingly important adjunctive role for imaging high-risk patients and women with dense breasts. Pilot studies with dedicated breast CT have demonstrated high-resolution three-dimensional imaging capabilities, but several technological barriers must be overcome before clinical adoption. Radionuclide based imaging techniques and x-ray imaging with intravenously injected contrast offer substantial potential as a diagnostic tools and for evaluation of suspicious lesions. Developing optical and electromagnetic imaging techniques hold significant potential for physiologic information and they are likely to be of most value when integrated with or adjunctively used with techniques that provide anatomic information. Experimental studies with breast specimens suggest that phase-sensitive x-ray imaging techniques can provide edge enhancement and contrast improvement but more research is needed to evaluate their potential role in clinical breast imaging. From the technological perspective, in addition to improvements within each modality, there is likely to be a trend towards multi-modality systems that combine anatomic with physiologic information. We are also likely to transition from a standardized screening, where all women undergo the same imaging exam (mammography), to selection of a screening modality or modalities based an

  15. Breast cancer imaging: a perspective for the next decade.

    PubMed

    Karellas, Andrew; Vedantham, Srinivasan

    2008-11-01

    Breast imaging is largely indicated for detection, diagnosis, and clinical management of breast cancer and for evaluation of the integrity of breast implants. In this work, a prospective view of techniques for breast cancer detection and diagnosis is provided based on an assessment of current trends. The potential role of emerging techniques that are under various stages of research and development is also addressed. It appears that the primary imaging tool for breast cancer screening in the next decade will be high-resolution, high-contrast, anatomical x-ray imaging with or without depth information. MRI and ultrasonography will have an increasingly important adjunctive role for imaging high-risk patients and women with dense breasts. Pilot studies with dedicated breast CT have demonstrated high-resolution three-dimensional imaging capabilities, but several technological barriers must be overcome before clinical adoption. Radionuclide based imaging techniques and x-ray imaging with intravenously injected contrast offer substantial potential as a diagnostic tools and for evaluation of suspicious lesions. Developing optical and electromagnetic imaging techniques hold significant potential for physiologic information and they are likely to be of most value when integrated with or adjunctively used with techniques that provide anatomic information. Experimental studies with breast specimens suggest that phase-sensitive x-ray imaging techniques can provide edge enhancement and contrast improvement but more research is needed to evaluate their potential role in clinical breast imaging. From the technological perspective, in addition to improvements within each modality, there is likely to be a trend towards multi-modality systems that combine anatomic with physiologic information. We are also likely to transition from a standardized screening, where all women undergo the same imaging exam (mammography), to selection of a screening modality or modalities based an

  16. Imaging Breast Density: Established and Emerging Modalities1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Gulsen, Gultekin; Su, Min-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density has been proven as an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Women with dense breast tissue visible on a mammogram have a much higher cancer risk than women with little density. A great research effort has been devoted to incorporate breast density into risk prediction models to better estimate each individual’s cancer risk. In recent years, the passage of breast density notification legislation in many states in USA requires that every mammography report should provide information regarding the patient’s breast density. Accurate definition and measurement of breast density are thus important, which may allow all the potential clinical applications of breast density to be implemented. Because the two-dimensional mammography-based measurement is subject to tissue overlapping and thus not able to provide volumetric information, there is an urgent need to develop reliable quantitative measurements of breast density. Various new imaging technologies are being developed. Among these new modalities, volumetric mammographic density methods and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging are the most well studied. Besides, emerging modalities, including different x-ray–based, optical imaging, and ultrasound-based methods, have also been investigated. All these modalities may either overcome some fundamental problems related to mammographic density or provide additional density and/or compositional information. The present review article aimed to summarize the current established and emerging imaging techniques for the measurement of breast density and the evidence of the clinical use of these density methods from the literature. PMID:26692524

  17. Fully automated quantitative analysis of breast cancer risk in DCE-MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Luan; Hu, Xiaoxin; Gu, Yajia; Li, Qiang

    2015-03-01

    Amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) in dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) images are two important indices for breast cancer risk assessment in the clinical practice. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a fully automated scheme for quantitative analysis of FGT and BPE in DCE-MR images. Our fully automated method consists of three steps, i.e., segmentation of whole breast, fibroglandular tissues, and enhanced fibroglandular tissues. Based on the volume of interest extracted automatically, dynamic programming method was applied in each 2-D slice of a 3-D MR scan to delineate the chest wall and breast skin line for segmenting the whole breast. This step took advantages of the continuity of chest wall and breast skin line across adjacent slices. We then further used fuzzy c-means clustering method with automatic selection of cluster number for segmenting the fibroglandular tissues within the segmented whole breast area. Finally, a statistical method was used to set a threshold based on the estimated noise level for segmenting the enhanced fibroglandular tissues in the subtraction images of pre- and post-contrast MR scans. Based on the segmented whole breast, fibroglandular tissues, and enhanced fibroglandular tissues, FGT and BPE were automatically computed. Preliminary results of technical evaluation and clinical validation showed that our fully automated scheme could obtain good segmentation of the whole breast, fibroglandular tissues, and enhanced fibroglandular tissues to achieve accurate assessment of FGT and BPE for quantitative analysis of breast cancer risk.

  18. Breast cancer imaging by microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Minghua; Ku, Geng; Jin, Xing; Wang, Lihong V.; Fornage, Bruno D.; Hunt, Kelly K.

    2005-04-01

    We report a preliminary study of breast cancer imaging by microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography. In this study, we built a prototype of breast cancer imager based on a circular scan mode. A 3-GHz 0.3~0.5-μs microwave is used as the excitation energy source. A 2.25-MHz ultrasound transducer scans the thermoacoustic signals. All the measured data is transferred to a personal computer for imaging based on our proposed back-projection reconstruction algorithms. We quantified the line spread function of the imaging system. It shows the spatial resolution of our experimental system reaches 0.5 mm. After phantom experiments demonstrated the principle of this technique, we moved the imaging system to the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center to image the excised breast cancer specimens. After the surgery performed by the physicians at the Cancer Center, the excised breast specimen was placed in a plastic cylindrical container with a diameter of 10 cm; and it was then imaged by three imaging modalities: radiograph, ultrasound and thermoacoustic imaging. Four excised breast specimens have been tested. The tumor regions have been clearly located. This preliminary study demonstrated the potential of microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography for applications in breast cancer imaging.

  19. Automated quality assessment in three-dimensional breast ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Schwaab, Julia; Diez, Yago; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; van Zelst, Jan; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Mourri, Ahmed Bensouda; Gregori, Johannes; Günther, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound (ABUS) is a valuable adjunct to x-ray mammography for breast cancer screening of women with dense breasts. High image quality is essential for proper diagnostics and computer-aided detection. We propose an automated image quality assessment system for ABUS images that detects artifacts at the time of acquisition. Therefore, we study three aspects that can corrupt ABUS images: the nipple position relative to the rest of the breast, the shadow caused by the nipple, and the shape of the breast contour on the image. Image processing and machine learning algorithms are combined to detect these artifacts based on 368 clinical ABUS images that have been rated manually by two experienced clinicians. At a specificity of 0.99, 55% of the images that were rated as low quality are detected by the proposed algorithms. The areas under the ROC curves of the single classifiers are 0.99 for the nipple position, 0.84 for the nipple shadow, and 0.89 for the breast contour shape. The proposed algorithms work fast and reliably, which makes them adequate for online evaluation of image quality during acquisition. The presented concept may be extended to further image modalities and quality aspects. PMID:27158633

  20. A review of biomechanically informed breast image registration.

    PubMed

    Hipwell, John H; Vavourakis, Vasileios; Han, Lianghao; Mertzanidou, Thomy; Eiben, Björn; Hawkes, David J

    2016-01-21

    Breast radiology encompasses the full range of imaging modalities from routine imaging via x-ray mammography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound (both two- and three-dimensional), to more recent technologies such as digital breast tomosynthesis, and dedicated breast imaging systems for positron emission mammography and ultrasound tomography. In addition new and experimental modalities, such as Photoacoustics, Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Electrical Impedance Tomography etc, are emerging. The breast is a highly deformable structure however, and this greatly complicates visual comparison of imaging modalities for the purposes of breast screening, cancer diagnosis (including image guided biopsy), tumour staging, treatment monitoring, surgical planning and simulation of the effects of surgery and wound healing etc. Due primarily to the challenges posed by these gross, non-rigid deformations, development of automated methods which enable registration, and hence fusion, of information within and across breast imaging modalities, and between the images and the physical space of the breast during interventions, remains an active research field which has yet to translate suitable methods into clinical practice. This review describes current research in the field of breast biomechanical modelling and identifies relevant publications where the resulting models have been incorporated into breast image registration and simulation algorithms. Despite these developments there remain a number of issues that limit clinical application of biomechanical modelling. These include the accuracy of constitutive modelling, implementation of representative boundary conditions, failure to meet clinically acceptable levels of computational cost, challenges associated with automating patient-specific model generation (i.e. robust image segmentation and mesh generation) and the complexity of applying biomechanical modelling methods in routine clinical practice. PMID:26733349

  1. A review of biomechanically informed breast image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipwell, John H.; Vavourakis, Vasileios; Han, Lianghao; Mertzanidou, Thomy; Eiben, Björn; Hawkes, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Breast radiology encompasses the full range of imaging modalities from routine imaging via x-ray mammography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound (both two- and three-dimensional), to more recent technologies such as digital breast tomosynthesis, and dedicated breast imaging systems for positron emission mammography and ultrasound tomography. In addition new and experimental modalities, such as Photoacoustics, Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Electrical Impedance Tomography etc, are emerging. The breast is a highly deformable structure however, and this greatly complicates visual comparison of imaging modalities for the purposes of breast screening, cancer diagnosis (including image guided biopsy), tumour staging, treatment monitoring, surgical planning and simulation of the effects of surgery and wound healing etc. Due primarily to the challenges posed by these gross, non-rigid deformations, development of automated methods which enable registration, and hence fusion, of information within and across breast imaging modalities, and between the images and the physical space of the breast during interventions, remains an active research field which has yet to translate suitable methods into clinical practice. This review describes current research in the field of breast biomechanical modelling and identifies relevant publications where the resulting models have been incorporated into breast image registration and simulation algorithms. Despite these developments there remain a number of issues that limit clinical application of biomechanical modelling. These include the accuracy of constitutive modelling, implementation of representative boundary conditions, failure to meet clinically acceptable levels of computational cost, challenges associated with automating patient-specific model generation (i.e. robust image segmentation and mesh generation) and the complexity of applying biomechanical modelling methods in routine clinical practice.

  2. Spectral imaging of breast fibroadenoma using second-harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liqin; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-09-01

    Fibroadenoma (FA), typically composed of stroma and epithelial cells, is a very common benign breast disease. Women with FA are associated with an increased risk of future breast cancer. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential of multiphoton laser scanning microscopy (MPLSM) for characterizing the morphology of collagen in the human breast fibroadenomas. In the study, high-contrast SHG images of human normal breast tissues and fibroadenoma tissues were obtained for comparison. The morphology of collagen was different between normal breast tissue and fibroadenoma. This study shows that MPLSM has the ability to distinguish fibroadenoma tissues from the normal breast tissues based on the noninvasive SHG imaging. With the advent of the clinical portability of miniature MPLSM, we believe that the technique has great potential to be used in vivo studies and for monitoring the treatment responses of fibroadenomas in clinical.

  3. Advances in Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Breast Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Demos, S; Vogel, A J; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2006-01-03

    A review is presented of recent advances in optical imaging and spectroscopy and the use of light for addressing breast cancer issues. Spectroscopic techniques offer the means to characterize tissue components and obtain functional information in real time. Three-dimensional optical imaging of the breast using various illumination and signal collection schemes in combination with image reconstruction algorithms may provide a new tool for cancer detection and monitoring of treatment.

  4. Optimal laser wavelength for photoacoustic imaging of breast microcalcifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeeun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Young Kwak, Jin; Yoo, Yangmo; Song, Tai-Kyong; Ho Chang, Jin

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents photoacoustic imaging (PAI) for real-time detection of micro-scale calcifications (e.g., <1 mm) in the breast, which are an indicator of the cancer occurrence. Optimal wavelength of incident laser for the microcalcification imaging was ascertained through ex vivo experiments with seven breast specimens of volunteers. In the ex vivo experiments, the maximum amplitude of photoacoustic signals from the microcalcifications occurred when the laser wavelength ranged from 690 to 700 nm. This result demonstrated that PAI can serve as a real-time imaging and guidance tool for diagnosis and biopsy of the breast microcalcifications.

  5. Three-dimensional digital breast histopathology imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, G. M.; Peressotti, C.; Mawdsley, G. E.; Eidt, S.; Ge, M.; Morgan, T.; Zubovits, J. T.; Yaffe, M. J.

    2005-04-01

    We have developed a digital histology imaging system that has the potential to improve the accuracy of surgical margin assessment in the treatment of breast cancer by providing finer sampling and 3D visualization. The system is capable of producing a 3D representation of histopathology from an entire lumpectomy specimen. We acquire digital photomicrographs of a stack of large (120 x 170 mm) histology slides cut serially through the entire specimen. The images are then registered and displayed in 2D and 3D. This approach dramatically improves sampling and can improve visualization of tissue structures compared to current, small-format histology. The system consists of a brightfield microscope, adapted with a freeze-frame digital video camera and a large, motorized translation stage. The image of each slide is acquired as a mosaic of adjacent tiles, each tile representing one field-of-view of the microscope, and the mosaic is assembled into a seamless composite image. The assembly is done by a program developed to build image sets at six different levels within a multiresolution pyramid. A database-linked viewing program has been created to efficiently register and display the animated stack of images, which occupies about 80 GB of disk space per lumpectomy at full resolution, on a high-resolution (3840 x 2400 pixels) colour monitor. The scanning or tiling approach to digitization is inherently susceptible to two artefacts which disrupt the composite image, and which impose more stringent requirements on system performance. Although non-uniform illumination across any one isolated tile may not be discernible, the eye readily detects this non-uniformity when the entire assembly of tiles is viewed. The pattern is caused by deficiencies in optical alignment, spectrum of the light source, or camera corrections. The imaging task requires that features as small as 3.2 &mum in extent be seamlessly preserved. However, inadequate accuracy in positioning of the translation

  6. Breast Imaging: How We Manage Diagnostic Technology at a Multidisciplinary Breast Center

    PubMed Central

    Tejerina Bernal, Alejandro; Tejerina Bernal, Antonio; Rabadán Doreste, Francisco; De Lara González, Ana; Roselló Llerena, Juan Antonio; Tejerina Gómez, Armando

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the most important aspects and problems related to the management of breast cancer imaging, at a center specialized in breast pathology. We review the established and emerging diagnostic techniques, their indications, and peculiarities: digital mammography, CAD systems, and the recent digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound and complementary elastography, molecular imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging, advanced sequences (diffusion), and positron emission mammography (PEM). The adequate integration and rational management of these techniques is essential, but this is not always easy, in order to achieve a successful diagnosis. PMID:22829820

  7. Scintimammography (Breast Specific Gamma Imaging-BSGI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... computer to help investigate an abnormality discovered on mammography. Its ability to detect cancer is not limited ... a breast abnormality that has been discovered on mammography. Scintimammography is also known as Breast Specific Gamma ...

  8. Generation of anatomically realistic numerical phantoms for optoacoustic breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Yang; Mitsuhashi, Kenji; Appleton, Catherine M.; Oraevsky, Alexander; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    Because optoacoustic tomography (OAT) can provide functional information based on hemoglobin contrast, it is a promising imaging modality for breast cancer diagnosis. Developing an effective OAT breast imaging system requires balancing multiple design constraints, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, computer- simulation studies are often conducted to facilitate this task. However, most existing computer-simulation studies of OAT breast imaging employ simple phantoms such as spheres or cylinders that over-simplify the complex anatomical structures in breasts, thus limiting the value of these studies in guiding real-world system design. In this work, we propose a method to generate realistic numerical breast phantoms for OAT research based on clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The phantoms include a skin layer that defines breast-air boundary, major vessel branches that affect light absorption in the breast, and fatty tissue and fibroglandular tissue whose acoustical heterogeneity perturbs acoustic wave propagation. By assigning realistic optical and acoustic parameters to different tissue types, we establish both optic and acoustic breast phantoms, which will be exported into standard data formats for cross-platform usage.

  9. Preoperative Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Contralateral Breast Cancer Occurrence Among Older Women With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jessica B.; Killelea, Brigid K.; Evans, Suzanne B.; Roberts, Kenneth B.; Silber, Andrea; Gross, Cary P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detects occult contralateral breast cancers (CBCs) in women with breast cancer, but the impact of detection on long-term CBC events is unclear. We examined whether MRI use decreases the occurrence of CBCs and the detection of stages II to IV disease among women who develop a CBC. Patients and Methods Analyzing the SEER-Medicare database, we assessed overall, synchronous (< 6 months after primary cancer diagnosis), and subsequent (ie, metachronous) stage-specific CBC occurrences in women who were diagnosed with stages I and II breast cancer during 2004-2009 and who were observed through 2011. Results Among 38,971 women with breast cancer, 6,377 (16.4%) received preoperative MRI. After propensity score matching, and compared with women who did not undergo MRI, preoperative MRI use was significantly associated with a higher synchronous CBC detection rate (126.4 v 42.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively; hazard ratio, 2.85; P < .001) but a lower subsequent CBC detection rate (3.3 v 4.5 per 1,000 person-years, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.68; P = .002). However, the 5-year cumulative incidence of CBC remained significantly higher among women undergoing MRI compared with those not undergoing MRI (7.2% v 4.0%, respectively; P < .001). The analyses of projected CBC events for 10,000 patients who receive MRI indicated that, after a 5-year follow-up, MRI use would detect an additional 192 in situ CBCs (95% CI, 125 to 279) and 120 stage I CBCs (95% CI, 62 to 193) but would not have a significant impact on stages II to IV CBC occurrences (∼ 6; 95% CI, −21 to 47). Conclusion An increased synchronous CBC detection rate, attributable to MRI, was not offset by a decrease of subsequent CBC occurrence among older women with early-stage breast cancer, suggesting that preoperative MRI in women with breast cancer may lead to overdiagnosis. PMID:26628465

  10. Multifractal analysis of dynamic infrared imaging of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimova, E.; Audit, B.; Roux, S. G.; Khalil, A.; Argoul, F.; Naimark, O.; Arneodo, A.

    2013-12-01

    The wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method was used in a multifractal analysis of skin breast temperature time-series recorded using dynamic infrared (IR) thermography. Multifractal scaling was found for healthy breasts as the signature of a continuous change in the shape of the probability density function (pdf) of temperature fluctuations across time scales from \\sim0.3 to 3 s. In contrast, temperature time-series from breasts with malignant tumors showed homogeneous monofractal temperature fluctuations statistics. These results highlight dynamic IR imaging as a very valuable non-invasive technique for preliminary screening in asymptomatic women to identify those with risk of breast cancer.

  11. Imaging dose in breast radiotherapy: does breast size affect the dose to the organs at risk and the risk of secondary cancer to the contralateral breast?

    SciTech Connect

    Batumalai, Vikneswary; Quinn, Alexandra; Jameson, Michael; Delaney, Geoff; Holloway, Lois

    2015-03-15

    Correct target positioning is crucial for accurate dose delivery in breast radiotherapy resulting in utilisation of daily imaging. However, the radiation dose from daily imaging is associated with increased probability of secondary induced cancer. The aim of this study was to quantify doses associated with three imaging modalities and investigate the correlation of dose and varying breast size in breast radiotherapy. Planning computed tomography (CT) data sets of 30 breast cancer patients were utilised to simulate the dose received by various organs from a megavoltage computed tomography (MV-CT), megavoltage electronic portal image (MV-EPI) and megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MV-CBCT). The mean dose to organs adjacent to the target volume (contralateral breast, lungs, spinal cord and heart) were analysed. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between imaging dose and primary breast volume and the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of induced secondary cancer was calculated for the contralateral breast. The highest contralateral breast mean dose was from the MV-CBCT (1.79 Gy), followed by MV-EPI (0.22 Gy) and MV-CT (0.11 Gy). A similar trend was found for all organs at risk (OAR) analysed. The primary breast volume inversely correlated with the contralateral breast dose for all three imaging modalities. As the primary breast volume increases, the likelihood of a patient developing a radiation-induced secondary cancer to the contralateral breast decreases. MV-CBCT showed a stronger relationship between breast size and LAR of developing a radiation-induced contralateral breast cancer in comparison with the MV-CT and MV-EPI. For breast patients, imaging dose to OAR depends on imaging modality and treated breast size. When considering the use of imaging during breast radiotherapy, the patient's breast size and contralateral breast dose should be taken into account.

  12. Breast cancer detection in rotational thermography images using texture features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Sheeja V.; Sasikala, M.; Bhavani Bharathi, G.; Jaipurkar, Sandeep D.

    2014-11-01

    Breast cancer is a major cause of mortality in young women in the developing countries. Early diagnosis is the key to improve survival rate in cancer patients. Breast thermography is a diagnostic procedure that non-invasively images the infrared emissions from breast surface to aid in the early detection of breast cancer. Due to limitations in imaging protocol, abnormality detection by conventional breast thermography, is often a challenging task. Rotational thermography is a novel technique developed in order to overcome the limitations of conventional breast thermography. This paper evaluates this technique's potential for automatic detection of breast abnormality, from the perspective of cold challenge. Texture features are extracted in the spatial domain, from rotational thermogram series, prior to and post the application of cold challenge. These features are fed to a support vector machine for automatic classification of normal and malignant breasts, resulting in a classification accuracy of 83.3%. Feature reduction has been performed by principal component analysis. As a novel attempt, the ability of this technique to locate the abnormality has been studied. The results of the study indicate that rotational thermography holds great potential as a screening tool for breast cancer detection.

  13. Breast Density Analysis with Automated Whole-Breast Ultrasound: Comparison with 3-D Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Lee, Yan-Wei; Chan, Si-Wa; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a semi-automatic breast segmentation method was proposed on the basis of the rib shadow to extract breast regions from 3-D automated whole-breast ultrasound (ABUS) images. The density results were correlated with breast density values acquired with 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI images of 46 breasts were collected from 23 women without a history of breast disease. Each subject also underwent ABUS. We used Otsu's thresholding method on ABUS images to obtain local rib shadow information, which was combined with the global rib shadow information (extracted from all slice projections) and integrated with the anatomy's breast tissue structure to determine the chest wall line. The fuzzy C-means classifier was used to extract the fibroglandular tissues from the acquired images. Whole-breast volume (WBV) and breast percentage density (BPD) were calculated in both modalities. Linear regression was used to compute the correlation of density results between the two modalities. The consistency of density measurement was also analyzed on the basis of intra- and inter-operator variation. There was a high correlation of density results between MRI and ABUS (R(2) = 0.798 for WBV, R(2) = 0.825 for PBD). The mean WBV from ABUS images was slightly smaller than the mean WBV from MR images (MRI: 342.24 ± 128.08 cm(3), ABUS: 325.47 ± 136.16 cm(3), p < 0.05). In addition, the BPD calculated from MR images was smaller than the BPD from ABUS images (MRI: 24.71 ± 15.16%, ABUS: 28.90 ± 17.73%, p < 0.05). The intra-operator and inter-operator variant analysis results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in breast density measurement variation between the two modalities. Our results revealed a high correlation in WBV and BPD between MRI and ABUS. Our study suggests that ABUS provides breast density information useful in the assessment of breast health. PMID:26831342

  14. Breast Density Analysis with Automated Whole-Breast Ultrasound: Comparison with 3-D Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Lee, Yan-Wei; Chan, Si-Wa; Yeh, Dah-Cherng; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a semi-automatic breast segmentation method was proposed on the basis of the rib shadow to extract breast regions from 3-D automated whole-breast ultrasound (ABUS) images. The density results were correlated with breast density values acquired with 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI images of 46 breasts were collected from 23 women without a history of breast disease. Each subject also underwent ABUS. We used Otsu's thresholding method on ABUS images to obtain local rib shadow information, which was combined with the global rib shadow information (extracted from all slice projections) and integrated with the anatomy's breast tissue structure to determine the chest wall line. The fuzzy C-means classifier was used to extract the fibroglandular tissues from the acquired images. Whole-breast volume (WBV) and breast percentage density (BPD) were calculated in both modalities. Linear regression was used to compute the correlation of density results between the two modalities. The consistency of density measurement was also analyzed on the basis of intra- and inter-operator variation. There was a high correlation of density results between MRI and ABUS (R(2) = 0.798 for WBV, R(2) = 0.825 for PBD). The mean WBV from ABUS images was slightly smaller than the mean WBV from MR images (MRI: 342.24 ± 128.08 cm(3), ABUS: 325.47 ± 136.16 cm(3), p < 0.05). In addition, the BPD calculated from MR images was smaller than the BPD from ABUS images (MRI: 24.71 ± 15.16%, ABUS: 28.90 ± 17.73%, p < 0.05). The intra-operator and inter-operator variant analysis results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in breast density measurement variation between the two modalities. Our results revealed a high correlation in WBV and BPD between MRI and ABUS. Our study suggests that ABUS provides breast density information useful in the assessment of breast health.

  15. Evaluation of scatter effects on image quality for breast tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Gang; Mainprize, James G.; Boone, John M.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2009-10-15

    Digital breast tomosynthesis uses a limited number (typically 10-20) of low-dose x-ray projections to produce a pseudo-three-dimensional volume tomographic reconstruction of the breast. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize and evaluate the effect of scattered radiation on the image quality for breast tomosynthesis. In a simulation, scatter point spread functions generated by a Monte Carlo simulation method were convolved over the breast projection to estimate the distribution of scatter for each angle of tomosynthesis projection. The results demonstrate that in the absence of scatter reduction techniques, images will be affected by cupping artifacts, and there will be reduced accuracy of attenuation values inferred from the reconstructed images. The effect of x-ray scatter on the contrast, noise, and lesion signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR) in tomosynthesis reconstruction was measured as a function of the tumor size. When a with-scatter reconstruction was compared to one without scatter for a 5 cm compressed breast, the following results were observed. The contrast in the reconstructed central slice image of a tumorlike mass (14 mm in diameter) was reduced by 30%, the voxel value (inferred attenuation coefficient) was reduced by 28%, and the SDNR fell by 60%. The authors have quantified the degree to which scatter degrades the image quality over a wide range of parameters relevant to breast tomosynthesis, including x-ray beam energy, breast thickness, breast diameter, and breast composition. They also demonstrate, though, that even without a scatter rejection device, the contrast and SDNR in the reconstructed tomosynthesis slice are higher than those of conventional mammographic projection images acquired with a grid at an equivalent total exposure.

  16. In vivo breast sound-speed imaging with ultrasound tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Li, Cuiping; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a bent-ray ultrasound tomography algorithm with total-variation (TV) regularization. We have applied this algorithm to 61 in vivo breast datasets collected with our in-house clinical prototype for imaging sound-speed distributions in the breast. Our analysis showed that TV regularization could preserve sharper lesion edges than the classic Tikhonov regularization. Furthermore, the image quality of our TV bent-ray sound-speed tomograms was superior to that of the straight-ray counterparts for all types of breasts within BI-RADS density categories 1-4. For all four breast types from fatty to dense, the improvements for average sharpness (in the unit of (m{center_dot} s) {sup -1}) of lesion edges in our TV bent-ray tomograms are between 2.1 to 3.4 fold compared to the straight ray tomograms. Reconstructed sound-speed tomograms illustrated that our algorithm could successfully image fatty and glandular tissues within the breast. We calculated the mean sound-speed values for fatty tissue and breast parenchyma as 1422 {+-} 9 mls (mean{+-} SD) and1487 {+-} 21 mls, respectively. Based on 32 lesions in a cohort of 61 patients, we also found that the mean sound-speed for malignant breast lesions (1548{+-}17 mls) was higher, on average, than that of benign ones (1513{+-}27 mls) (one-sided pbreast density (, and therefore, breast cancer risk), as well as detect and help differentiate breast lesions. Finally, our sound-speed tomograms may also be a useful tool to monitor clinical response of breast cancer patients to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.

  17. Double difference tomography for breast ultrasound sound speed imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cuiping; Duric, Neb; Rama, Olsi; Burger, Angelika; Polin, Lisa; Nechiporchik, Nicole

    2011-03-01

    Breast ultrasound tomography is a rapidly developing imaging modality that has the potential to impact breast cancer screening and diagnosis. Double difference (DD) tomography utilizes more accurate differential time-of-flight (ToF) data to reconstruct the sound speed structure of the breast. It can produce more precise and better resolution sound speed images than standard tomography that uses absolute ToF data. We apply DD tomography to phantom data and excised mouse mammary glands data. DD tomograms demonstrate sharper sound speed contrast than the standard tomograms.

  18. Geographic Access to Breast Imaging for U.S. Women

    PubMed Central

    Onega, Tracy; Hubbard, Rebecca; Hill, Deirdre; Lee, Christoph; Haas, Jennifer S.; Carlos, Heather A.; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer; Bogart, Andy; DeMartini, Wendy B.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Virnig, Beth A.; Buist, Diana S.M.; Henderson, Louise; Ttosteson, Anna N. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The breast imaging modalities of mammography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are widely used for screening, diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance of breast cancer. Geographic access to breast imaging modalities is not known at a national level overall or for population subgroups. Methods A retrospective study of 2004-2008 Medicare claims data to identify ZIP codes in which breast imaging occurred, and data were mapped. We estimated travel times to each modality for 215,798 census block groups in the contiguous U.S. Using Census 2010 data, we characterized travel times by socio-demographic factors for 92,788,909 women aged ≥30 years, overall, and by subgroups of age, race/ethnicity, rurality, education, and median income. Results Overall, 85% of women had travel times of ≤20 minutes to nearest mammography or ultrasound, and 70% had travel times of ≤20 minutes for MRI with little variation by age. Native American women had median travel times 2-3-fold longer to all three modalities, compared to women of other racial/ethnic groups. For rural women, median travel times to breast imaging were 4-8-fold longer than for urban women. Black and Asian women had shortest median travel times to all three modalities. Conclusion Travel times to mammography and ultrasound breast imaging are short for most women, but to breast MRI travel times are notably longer. Native American and rural women are disadvantaged in geographic access based on travel times to breast imaging. This work informs potential interventions to reduce inequities in access and utilization. PMID:24889479

  19. Automated Segmentation of Nuclei in Breast Cancer Histopathology Images

    PubMed Central

    Paramanandam, Maqlin; O’Byrne, Michael; Ghosh, Bidisha; Mammen, Joy John; Manipadam, Marie Therese; Thamburaj, Robinson; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    The process of Nuclei detection in high-grade breast cancer images is quite challenging in the case of image processing techniques due to certain heterogeneous characteristics of cancer nuclei such as enlarged and irregularly shaped nuclei, highly coarse chromatin marginalized to the nuclei periphery and visible nucleoli. Recent reviews state that existing techniques show appreciable segmentation accuracy on breast histopathology images whose nuclei are dispersed and regular in texture and shape; however, typical cancer nuclei are often clustered and have irregular texture and shape properties. This paper proposes a novel segmentation algorithm for detecting individual nuclei from Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained breast histopathology images. This detection framework estimates a nuclei saliency map using tensor voting followed by boundary extraction of the nuclei on the saliency map using a Loopy Back Propagation (LBP) algorithm on a Markov Random Field (MRF). The method was tested on both whole-slide images and frames of breast cancer histopathology images. Experimental results demonstrate high segmentation performance with efficient precision, recall and dice-coefficient rates, upon testing high-grade breast cancer images containing several thousand nuclei. In addition to the optimal performance on the highly complex images presented in this paper, this method also gave appreciable results in comparison with two recently published methods—Wienert et al. (2012) and Veta et al. (2013), which were tested using their own datasets. PMID:27649496

  20. Automated Segmentation of Nuclei in Breast Cancer Histopathology Images.

    PubMed

    Paramanandam, Maqlin; O'Byrne, Michael; Ghosh, Bidisha; Mammen, Joy John; Manipadam, Marie Therese; Thamburaj, Robinson; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    The process of Nuclei detection in high-grade breast cancer images is quite challenging in the case of image processing techniques due to certain heterogeneous characteristics of cancer nuclei such as enlarged and irregularly shaped nuclei, highly coarse chromatin marginalized to the nuclei periphery and visible nucleoli. Recent reviews state that existing techniques show appreciable segmentation accuracy on breast histopathology images whose nuclei are dispersed and regular in texture and shape; however, typical cancer nuclei are often clustered and have irregular texture and shape properties. This paper proposes a novel segmentation algorithm for detecting individual nuclei from Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained breast histopathology images. This detection framework estimates a nuclei saliency map using tensor voting followed by boundary extraction of the nuclei on the saliency map using a Loopy Back Propagation (LBP) algorithm on a Markov Random Field (MRF). The method was tested on both whole-slide images and frames of breast cancer histopathology images. Experimental results demonstrate high segmentation performance with efficient precision, recall and dice-coefficient rates, upon testing high-grade breast cancer images containing several thousand nuclei. In addition to the optimal performance on the highly complex images presented in this paper, this method also gave appreciable results in comparison with two recently published methods-Wienert et al. (2012) and Veta et al. (2013), which were tested using their own datasets. PMID:27649496

  1. High-frequency ultrasound imaging for breast cancer biopsy guidance.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Thomas; Yoon, Changhan; Choi, Hojong; Eliahoo, Payam; Kim, Hyung Ham; Yamashita, Mary W; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda J; Lang, Julie E; Sener, Stephen F; Vallone, John; Martin, Sue E; Kirk Shung, K

    2015-10-01

    Image-guided core needle biopsy is the current gold standard for breast cancer diagnosis. Microcalcifications, an important radiographic finding on mammography suggestive of early breast cancer such as ductal carcinoma in situ, are usually biopsied under stereotactic guidance. This procedure, however, is uncomfortable for patients and requires the use of ionizing radiation. It would be preferable to biopsy microcalcifications under ultrasound guidance since it is a faster procedure, more comfortable for the patient, and requires no radiation. However, microcalcifications cannot reliably be detected with the current standard ultrasound imaging systems. This study is motivated by the clinical need for real-time high-resolution ultrasound imaging of microcalcifications, so that biopsies can be accurately performed under ultrasound guidance. We have investigated how high-frequency ultrasound imaging can enable visualization of microstructures in ex vivo breast tissue biopsy samples. We generated B-mode images of breast tissue and applied the Nakagami filtering technique to help refine image output so that microcalcifications could be better assessed during ultrasound-guided core biopsies. We describe the preliminary clinical results of high-frequency ultrasound imaging of ex vivo breast biopsy tissue with microcalcifications and without Nakagami filtering and the correlation of these images with the pathology examination by hematoxylin and eosin stain and whole slide digital scanning. PMID:26693167

  2. Spectral imaging detects breast cancer in fresh unstained specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Alice; Gaon, Mark; Jeong, Jihoon; Karlan, Scott; Lindsley, Erik; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Xiong, Yizhi; Zhao, Tong; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2006-02-01

    Spectral imaging has recently been introduced in the biomedical field as a noninvasive, quantitative means of studying biological tissues. Many of its potential applications have been demonstrated (in vitro and, to a lesser degree, in vivo) with the use of stains or dyes. Successful translation to the clinical environment has been largely lagging, due to safety considerations and regulatory limitations preventing use of contrast agents in humans. We report experiments showing the feasibility of high-resolution spectral imaging of breast cancer without the use of contrast agents, thus completing the continuum of translational research, to in vivo imaging that will be directly applicable in the clinical environment. Our initial work focused on image acquisition using Fourier transform microinterferometry and subsequent segmentation of both stained and unstained breast cancer slides-derived image sets. We then applied our techniques to imaging fresh unstained ex vivo specimens of rat breast cancer and sentinel lymph nodes. We also investigated multiple methods of classification to optimize our image analyses, and preliminary results for the best algorithm tested yielded an overall sensitivity of 96%, and a specificity of 92% for cancer detection. Using spectral imaging and classification techniques, we were able to demonstrate that reliable detection of breast cancer in fixed and fresh unstained specimens of breast tissue is possible.

  3. Automated Segmentation of Nuclei in Breast Cancer Histopathology Images.

    PubMed

    Paramanandam, Maqlin; O'Byrne, Michael; Ghosh, Bidisha; Mammen, Joy John; Manipadam, Marie Therese; Thamburaj, Robinson; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    The process of Nuclei detection in high-grade breast cancer images is quite challenging in the case of image processing techniques due to certain heterogeneous characteristics of cancer nuclei such as enlarged and irregularly shaped nuclei, highly coarse chromatin marginalized to the nuclei periphery and visible nucleoli. Recent reviews state that existing techniques show appreciable segmentation accuracy on breast histopathology images whose nuclei are dispersed and regular in texture and shape; however, typical cancer nuclei are often clustered and have irregular texture and shape properties. This paper proposes a novel segmentation algorithm for detecting individual nuclei from Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained breast histopathology images. This detection framework estimates a nuclei saliency map using tensor voting followed by boundary extraction of the nuclei on the saliency map using a Loopy Back Propagation (LBP) algorithm on a Markov Random Field (MRF). The method was tested on both whole-slide images and frames of breast cancer histopathology images. Experimental results demonstrate high segmentation performance with efficient precision, recall and dice-coefficient rates, upon testing high-grade breast cancer images containing several thousand nuclei. In addition to the optimal performance on the highly complex images presented in this paper, this method also gave appreciable results in comparison with two recently published methods-Wienert et al. (2012) and Veta et al. (2013), which were tested using their own datasets.

  4. IN VIVO BREAST SOUND-SPEED IMAGING WITH ULTRASOUND TOMOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cuiping; Duric, Nebojsa; Littrup, Peter; Huang, Lianjie

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a bent-ray ultrasound tomography algorithm with total-variation (TV) regularization. We have applied this algorithm to 61 in vivo breast datasets collected with our in-house clinical prototype for imaging sound-speed distributions in the breast. Our analysis showed that TV regularization could preserve sharper lesion edges than the classic Tikhonov regularization. Furthermore, the image quality of our TV bent-ray sound-speed tomograms was superior to that of the straight-ray counterparts for all types of breasts within BI-RADS density categories 1 through 4. Our analysis showed that the improvements for average sharpness (in the unit of (m · s)−1) of lesion edges in our TV bent-ray tomograms are between 2.1 to 3.4-fold compared with the straight ray tomograms. Reconstructed sound-speed tomograms illustrated that our algorithm could successfully image fatty and glandular tissues within the breast. We calculated the mean sound-speed values for fatty tissue and breast parenchyma as 1422±9 m/s (mean±SD) and 1487±21 m/s, respectively. Based on 32 lesions in a cohort of 61 patients, we also found that the mean sound-speed for malignant breast lesions 1548±17 m/s was higher, on average, than that of benign ones (1513±27 m/s) (one-sided p < 0.001). These results suggest that, clinically, sound-speed tomograms can be used to assess breast density (and therefore, breast cancer risk), as well as detect and help differentiate breast lesions. Finally, our sound-speed tomograms may also be a useful tool to monitor the clinical response of breast cancer patients to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:19647920

  5. Development of a dynamic 4D anthropomorphic breast phantom for contrast-based breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiarashi, Nooshin; Lin, Yuan; Segars, William P.; Ghate, Sujata V.; Ikejimba, Lynda; Chen, Baiyu; Lo, Joseph Y.; Dobbins, James T., III; Nolte, Loren W.; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-03-01

    Mammography is currently the most widely accepted tool for detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, the sensitivity of mammography is reduced in women with dense breast tissue due to tissue overlap, which may obscure lesions. Digital breast tomosynthesis with contrast enhancement reduces tissue overlap and provides additional functional information about lesions (i.e. morphology and kinetics), which in turn may improve lesion characterization. The performance of such techniques is highly dependent on the structural composition of the breast, which varies significantly across patients. Therefore, optimization of breast imaging systems should be done with respect to this patient versatility. Furthermore, imaging techniques that employ contrast require the inclusion of a temporally varying breast composition with respect to the contrast agent kinetics to enable the optimization of the system. To these ends, we have developed a dynamic 4D anthropomorphic breast phantom, which can be used for optimizing a breast imaging system by incorporating material characteristics. The presented dynamic phantom is based on two recently developed anthropomorphic breast phantoms, which can be representative of a whole population through their randomized anatomical feature generation and various compression levels. The 4D dynamic phantom is incorporated with the kinetics of contrast agent uptake in different tissues and can realistically model benign and malignant lesions. To demonstrate the utility of the proposed dynamic phantom, contrast-enhanced digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis were simulated where a ray-tracing algorithm emulated the projections, a filtered back projection algorithm was used for reconstruction, and dual-energy and temporal subtractions were performed and compared.

  6. Breast image pre-processing for mammographic tissue segmentation.

    PubMed

    He, Wenda; Hogg, Peter; Juette, Arne; Denton, Erika R E; Zwiggelaar, Reyer

    2015-12-01

    During mammographic image acquisition, a compression paddle is used to even the breast thickness in order to obtain optimal image quality. Clinical observation has indicated that some mammograms may exhibit abrupt intensity change and low visibility of tissue structures in the breast peripheral areas. Such appearance discrepancies can affect image interpretation and may not be desirable for computer aided mammography, leading to incorrect diagnosis and/or detection which can have a negative impact on sensitivity and specificity of screening mammography. This paper describes a novel mammographic image pre-processing method to improve image quality for analysis. An image selection process is incorporated to better target problematic images. The processed images show improved mammographic appearances not only in the breast periphery but also across the mammograms. Mammographic segmentation and risk/density classification were performed to facilitate a quantitative and qualitative evaluation. When using the processed images, the results indicated more anatomically correct segmentation in tissue specific areas, and subsequently better classification accuracies were achieved. Visual assessments were conducted in a clinical environment to determine the quality of the processed images and the resultant segmentation. The developed method has shown promising results. It is expected to be useful in early breast cancer detection, risk-stratified screening, and aiding radiologists in the process of decision making prior to surgery and/or treatment.

  7. Simulation of mammograms and tomosynthesis imaging with cone beam breast CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Shaw, Chris C.; Chen, Lingyun; Lai, Chao-jen; Liu, Xinming; Wang, Tianpeng

    2008-03-01

    The use of mammography techniques for the screening and diagnosis of breast cancers has been limited by the overlapping of cancer symptoms with normal tissue structures. To overcome this problem, two methods have been developed and actively investigated recently: digital tomosynthesis mammography and cone beam breast CT. Comparison study with these three techniques will be helpful to understand their difference and further might be supervise the direction of breast imaging. This paper describes and discusses about a technique using a general-purpose PC cluster to develop a parallel computer simulation model to simulate mammograms and tomosynthesis imaging with cone beam CT images of a mastectomy breast specimen. The breast model used in simulating mammography and tomosynthesis was developed by re-scaling the CT numbers of cone beam CT images from 80kVp to 20 kev. The compression of breast was simulated by deformation of the breast model. Re-projection software with parallel computation was developed and used to compute projection images of this simulated compressed breast for a stationary detector and a linearly shifted x-ray source. The resulting images were then used to reconstruct tomosynthesis mammograms using shift-and-add algorithms. It was found that MCs in cone beam CT images were not visible in regular mammograms but faintly visible in tomosynthesis images. The scatter signal and noise property needs to be simulated and incorporated in the future.

  8. Diffuse optical imaging of the breast using structured-light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Jessica; Nouizi, Farouk; Cho, Jaedu; Zheng, Jie; Li, Yifan; Chen, Jeon-hor; Su, Min-Ying; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2015-03-01

    Diffuse optical imaging with structured-light illumination and detection can provide rapid, wide-field anatomical and functional imaging of the breast with an application for breast cancer screening. Our aims for this study were to test the feasibility of structured-light, test our pattern set, and develop and optimize our image reconstruction algorithm. For our phantom studies, we created an agar phantom with dimensions similar to a compressed breast. A cubic inclusion of 30mm by 30mm by 25mm with twice the amount of absorption contrast than the background was placed at the center. Near-infrared light of eleven patterns including a full illumination and single stripes was illuminated onto the breast phantom and detected with a CCD camera, with integration of the signals according to the patterns performed post-data acquisition, with a total of 121 measurements. These measurements were then used in our reconstruction algorithm that iteratively minimized the difference between the collected data and the estimation from our FEM-based forward model of photon diffusion to calculate the absorption values. Reconstructions of the 3D absorption maps detect an inclusion at the center and indicate that our selected set of patterns may be sufficient for structured-light imaging. We are currently improving our instrumentation and testing with additional phantom studies, while also performing simulations of numerical breast phantoms created from MR images to test structured-light's ability to image complex and realistic breast tissue composition. We hope to use this technique as optical method to image molecular markers, such as hemoglobin, water and lipid, within the breast.

  9. Breast diseases detection and pseudo-coloring presentation for gray infrared breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedi, Zahra; Sadri, Saeid; Soltani, Mohammad; Kavosh Tehrani, Masoud

    2011-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women (about 30% of all cancers); and is also the second common cancer after lung cancer. One woman out of eight develops breast cancer during lifetime. Breast thermography has a unique role in early detection of breast cancer and in this regards none of the other method such as mammography, ultrasound, CT scan and MRI could countervail it. The role of infrared imaging in early detection of breast cancer as an adjunct tool to mammography has been proved. Thermograms are usually provided in gray level images but findings show that gray images are not appropriate for human interpretation. Human beings can only discern a few dozen gray level values while they can distinguish thousands of colors. So in order to help thermologists to find abnormal regions in the thermograms, it's better to color thermograms. So pseudo-coloring of thermograms is one of the important factors for accurate diagnosis. In this research we offer comparing some common pseudo-coloring algorithms. Also a nonlinear function transform for pseudo-coloring of infrared breast images based on physiological properties of human eye is proposed, and its efficiency is shown by experience.

  10. Breast imaging with SoftVue: initial clinical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; Schmidt, Steven; Cheng, Xiaoyang; Seamans, John; Wallen, Andrea; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    We describe the clinical performance of SoftVue, a breast imaging device based on the principles of ultrasound tomography. Participants were enrolled in an IRB-approved study at Wayne State University, Detroit, MI. The main research findings indicate that SoftVue is able to image the whole uncompressed breast up to cup size H. Masses can be imaged in even the densest breasts with the ability to discern margins and mass shapes. Additionally, it is demonstrated that multi-focal disease can also be imaged. The system was also tested in its research mode for additional imaging capabilities. These tests demonstrated the potential for generating tissue stiffness information for the entire breast using through-transmission data. This research capability differentiates SoftVue from the other whole breast systems on the market. It is also shown that MRI-like images can be generated using alternative processing of the echo data. Ongoing research is focused on validating and quantifying these findings in a larger sample of study participants and quantifying SoftVue's ability to differentiate benign masses from cancer.

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Breast Interventions: Role in Biopsy Targeting and Lumpectomies.

    PubMed

    Gombos, Eva C; Jagadeesan, Jayender; Richman, Danielle M; Kacher, Daniel F

    2015-11-01

    Contrast-enhanced breast MR imaging is increasingly being used to diagnose breast cancer and to perform biopsy procedures. The American Cancer Society has advised women at high risk for breast cancer to have breast MR imaging screening as an adjunct to screening mammography. This article places special emphasis on biopsy and operative planning involving MR imaging and reviews use of breast MR imaging in monitoring response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Described are peer-reviewed data on currently accepted MR imaging-guided procedures for addressing benign and malignant breast diseases, including intraoperative imaging.

  12. Sexuality and body image in younger women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Schover, L R

    1994-01-01

    Breast cancer has the potential to be most devastating to the sexual function and self-esteem of premenopausal women. Nevertheless, not one study has systematically compared the impact of breast cancer treatment on sexual issues across age groups. Research shows that younger women with breast cancer have more severe emotional distress than older cohorts. In a group of patients seeking sexual rehabilitation in a cancer center, younger couples were more distressed, but also had the best prognosis with treatment. In theory, loss of a breast or poor breast appearance would be more distressing to women whose youth gives them high expectations for physical beauty. Seeking new dating relationships after breast cancer treatment is a special stressor for single women. Potential infertility also may impact on a woman's self-concept as a sexual person. Systemic treatment disrupts sexual function by causing premature menopause, with estrogen loss leading to vaginal atrophy and androgen loss perhaps decreasing sexual desire and arousability. Research on mastectomy versus breast conservation across all ages of women has demonstrated that general psychological distress, marital satisfaction, and overall sexual frequency and function do not differ between the two treatment groups. Women with breast conservation do rate their body image more highly and are more comfortable with nudity and breast caressing. There is some evidence that breast conservation offers more psychological "protection" for younger women. Research on the impact of breast reconstruction is sparse, but reveals similar patterns. Future studies should use rigorous methodology and focus on the impact of premature menopause and the effectiveness of sexual rehabilitation for younger women. PMID:7999462

  13. Percutaneous Image-Guided Ablation of Breast Tumors: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sag, Alan A.; Maybody, Majid; Comstock, Christopher; Solomon, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous non-surgical image-guided ablation is emerging as an adjunct or alternative to surgery in the management of benign and malignant breast tumors. This review covers the current state of the literature regarding percutaneous image-guided ablation modalities, clinical factors regarding patient selection, and future directions for research. PMID:25049447

  14. Dosimetry in x-ray-based breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dance, David R.; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-10-01

    The estimation of the mean glandular dose to the breast (MGD) for x-ray based imaging modalities forms an essential part of quality control and is needed for risk estimation and for system design and optimisation. This review considers the development of methods for estimating the MGD for mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and dedicated breast CT (DBCT). Almost all of the methodology used employs Monte Carlo calculated conversion factors to relate the measurable quantity, generally the incident air kerma, to the MGD. After a review of the size and composition of the female breast, the various mathematical models used are discussed, with particular emphasis on models for mammography. These range from simple geometrical shapes, to the more recent complex models based on patient DBCT examinations. The possibility of patient-specific dose estimates is considered as well as special diagnostic views and the effect of breast implants. Calculations using the complex models show that the MGD for mammography is overestimated by about 30% when the simple models are used. The design and uses of breast-simulating test phantoms for measuring incident air kerma are outlined and comparisons made between patient and phantom-based dose estimates. The most widely used national and international dosimetry protocols for mammography are based on different simple geometrical models of the breast, and harmonisation of these protocols using more complex breast models is desirable.

  15. How I report breast magnetic resonance imaging studies for breast cancer staging and screening.

    PubMed

    Vinnicombe, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is the most sensitive imaging technique for the diagnosis and local staging of primary breast cancer and yet, despite the fact that it has been in use for 20 years, there is little evidence that its widespread uncritical adoption has had a positive impact on patient-related outcomes.This has been attributed previously to the low specificity that might be expected with such a sensitive modality, but with modern techniques and protocols, the specificity and positive predictive value for malignancy can exceed that of breast ultrasound and mammography. A more likely explanation is that historically, clinicians have acted on MRI findings and altered surgical plans without prior histological confirmation. Furthermore, modern adjuvant therapy for breast cancer has improved so much that it has become a very tall order to show a an improvement in outcomes such as local recurrence rates.In order to obtain clinically useful information, it is necessary to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the technique and the physiological processes reflected in breast MRI. An appropriate indication for the scan, proper patient preparation and good scan technique, with rigorous quality assurance, are all essential prerequisites for a diagnostically relevant study.The use of recognised descriptors from a standardised lexicon is helpful, since assessment can then dictate subsequent recommendations for management, as in the American College of Radiology BI-RADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) lexicon (Morris et al., ACR BI-RADS® Atlas, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, 2013). It also enables audit of the service. However, perhaps the most critical factor in the generation of a meaningful report is for the reporting radiologist to have a thorough understanding of the clinical question and of the findings that will influence management. This has never been more important than at present, when we are in the throes of a

  16. Online advertising by three commercial breast imaging services: message takeout and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Pratt, Iain S; Donovan, Robert J; Lin, Chad; Saunders, Christobel; Slevin, Terry

    2013-10-01

    Mammography is widely acknowledged to be the most cost-effective technique for population screening for breast cancer. Recently in Australia, imaging modalities other than mammography, including thermography, electrical impedance, and computerised breast imaging, have been increasingly promoted as alternative methods of breast cancer screening. This study assessed the impact of three commercial breast imaging companies' promotional material upon consumers' beliefs about the effectiveness of the companies' technology in detecting breast cancer, and consumers' intentions to seek more information or consider having their breasts imaged by these modalities. Results showed 90% of respondents agreed that the companies' promotional material promoted the message that the advertised breast imaging method was effective in detecting breast cancer, and 80% agreed that the material promoted the message that the imaging method was equally or more effective than a mammogram. These findings have implications for women's preference for and uptake of alternative breast imaging services over mammography. PMID:23422256

  17. Online advertising by three commercial breast imaging services: message takeout and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca; Jalleh, Geoffrey; Pratt, Iain S; Donovan, Robert J; Lin, Chad; Saunders, Christobel; Slevin, Terry

    2013-10-01

    Mammography is widely acknowledged to be the most cost-effective technique for population screening for breast cancer. Recently in Australia, imaging modalities other than mammography, including thermography, electrical impedance, and computerised breast imaging, have been increasingly promoted as alternative methods of breast cancer screening. This study assessed the impact of three commercial breast imaging companies' promotional material upon consumers' beliefs about the effectiveness of the companies' technology in detecting breast cancer, and consumers' intentions to seek more information or consider having their breasts imaged by these modalities. Results showed 90% of respondents agreed that the companies' promotional material promoted the message that the advertised breast imaging method was effective in detecting breast cancer, and 80% agreed that the material promoted the message that the imaging method was equally or more effective than a mammogram. These findings have implications for women's preference for and uptake of alternative breast imaging services over mammography.

  18. Stereotactic mammography imaging combined with 3D US imaging for image guided breast biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Surry, K. J. M.; Mills, G. R.; Bevan, K.; Downey, D. B.; Fenster, A.

    2007-11-15

    Stereotactic X-ray mammography (SM) and ultrasound (US) guidance are both commonly used for breast biopsy. While SM provides three-dimensional (3D) targeting information and US provides real-time guidance, both have limitations. SM is a long and uncomfortable procedure and the US guided procedure is inherently two dimensional (2D), requiring a skilled physician for both safety and accuracy. The authors developed a 3D US-guided biopsy system to be integrated with, and to supplement SM imaging. Their goal is to be able to biopsy a larger percentage of suspicious masses using US, by clarifying ambiguous structures with SM imaging. Features from SM and US guided biopsy were combined, including breast stabilization, a confined needle trajectory, and dual modality imaging. The 3D US guided biopsy system uses a 7.5 MHz breast probe and is mounted on an upright SM machine for preprocedural imaging. Intraprocedural targeting and guidance was achieved with real-time 2D and near real-time 3D US imaging. Postbiopsy 3D US imaging allowed for confirmation that the needle was penetrating the target. The authors evaluated 3D US-guided biopsy accuracy of their system using test phantoms. To use mammographic imaging information, they registered the SM and 3D US coordinate systems. The 3D positions of targets identified in the SM images were determined with a target localization error (TLE) of 0.49 mm. The z component (x-ray tube to image) of the TLE dominated with a TLE{sub z} of 0.47 mm. The SM system was then registered to 3D US, with a fiducial registration error (FRE) and target registration error (TRE) of 0.82 and 0.92 mm, respectively. Analysis of the FRE and TRE components showed that these errors were dominated by inaccuracies in the z component with a FRE{sub z} of 0.76 mm and a TRE{sub z} of 0.85 mm. A stereotactic mammography and 3D US guided breast biopsy system should include breast compression for stability and safety and dual modality imaging for target localization

  19. Automatic 3D lesion segmentation on breast ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Hsien-Chi; Giger, Maryellen L.; Reiser, Ingrid; Drukker, Karen; Edwards, Alexandra; Sennett, Charlene A.

    2013-02-01

    Automatically acquired and reconstructed 3D breast ultrasound images allow radiologists to detect and evaluate breast lesions in 3D. However, assessing potential cancers in 3D ultrasound can be difficult and time consuming. In this study, we evaluate a 3D lesion segmentation method, which we had previously developed for breast CT, and investigate its robustness on lesions on 3D breast ultrasound images. Our dataset includes 98 3D breast ultrasound images obtained on an ABUS system from 55 patients containing 64 cancers. Cancers depicted on 54 US images had been clinically interpreted as negative on screening mammography and 44 had been clinically visible on mammography. All were from women with breast density BI-RADS 3 or 4. Tumor centers and margins were indicated and outlined by radiologists. Initial RGI-eroded contours were automatically calculated and served as input to the active contour segmentation algorithm yielding the final lesion contour. Tumor segmentation was evaluated by determining the overlap ratio (OR) between computer-determined and manually-drawn outlines. Resulting average overlap ratios on coronal, transverse, and sagittal views were 0.60 +/- 0.17, 0.57 +/- 0.18, and 0.58 +/- 0.17, respectively. All OR values were significantly higher the 0.4, which is deemed "acceptable". Within the groups of mammogram-negative and mammogram-positive cancers, the overlap ratios were 0.63 +/- 0.17 and 0.56 +/- 0.16, respectively, on the coronal views; with similar results on the other views. The segmentation performance was not found to be correlated to tumor size. Results indicate robustness of the 3D lesion segmentation technique in multi-modality 3D breast imaging.

  20. Multi-modal Ultrasound Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Valdés, L.; Pérez-Liva, M.; Camacho, J.; Udías, J. M.; Herraiz, J. L.; González-Salido, N.

    This work describes preliminary results of a two-modality imaging system aimed at the early detection of breast cancer. The first technique is based on compounding conventional echographic images taken at regular angular intervals around the imaged breast. The other modality obtains tomographic images of propagation velocity using the same circular geometry. For this study, a low-cost prototype has been built. It is based on a pair of opposed 128-element, 3.2 MHz array transducers that are mechanically moved around tissue mimicking phantoms. Compounded images around 360° provide improved resolution, clutter reduction, artifact suppression and reinforce the visualization of internal structures. However, refraction at the skin interface must be corrected for an accurate image compounding process. This is achieved by estimation of the interface geometry followed by computing the internal ray paths. On the other hand, sound velocity tomographic images from time of flight projections have been also obtained. Two reconstruction methods, Filtered Back Projection (FBP) and 2D Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (2D OSEM), were used as a first attempt towards tomographic reconstruction. These methods yield useable images in short computational times that can be considered as initial estimates in subsequent more complex methods of ultrasound image reconstruction. These images may be effective to differentiate malignant and benign masses and are very promising for breast cancer screening.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of Adenosis in the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Gity, Masoumeh; Arabkheradmand, Ali; Shakiba, Madjid; Khademi, Yassaman; Bijan, Bijan; Sadaghiani, Mohammad Salehi; Jalali, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Adenosis lesions of the breast, including sclerosing adenosis and adenosis tumors, are a group of benign proliferative disorders that may mimic the features of malignancy on imaging. In this study, we aim to describe the features of breast adenosis lesions with suspicious or borderline findings on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods In our database, we identified 49 pathologically proven breast adenosis lesions for which the final assessment of the breast MRI report was classified as either category 4 (n=45) or category 5 (n=4), according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) published by the American College of Radiology (ACR). The lesions had a final diagnosis of either pure adenosis (n=33, 67.3%) or mixed adenosis associated with other benign pathologies (n=16, 32.7%). Results Of the 49 adenosis lesions detected on DCE-MRI, 32 (65.3%) appeared as enhancing masses, 16 (32.7%) as nonmass enhancements, and one (2.1%) as a tiny enhancing focus. Analysis of the enhancing masses based on the ACR BI-RADS lexicon revealed that among the mass descriptors, the most common features were irregular shape in 12 (37.5%), noncircumscribed margin in 20 (62.5%), heterogeneous internal pattern in 16 (50.0%), rapid initial enhancement in 32 (100.0%), and wash-out delayed en-hancement pattern in 21 (65.6%). Of the 16 nonmass enhancing lesions, the most common descriptors included focal distribution in seven (43.8%), segmental distribution in six (37.5%), clumped internal pattern in nine (56.3%), rapid initial enhancement in 16 (100.0%), and wash-out delayed enhancement pattern in eight (50.0%). Conclusion Adenosis lesions of the breast may appear suspicious on breast MRI. Awareness of these suspi-cious-appearing features would be helpful in obviating unnecessary breast biopsies. PMID:26155296

  2. Evaluation of scatter effects on image quality for breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Gang; Mainprize, James G.; Boone, John M.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2007-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis uses a limited number of low-dose x-ray projections to produce a three-dimensional (3D) tomographic reconstruction of the breast. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize and evaluate the effect of scatter radiation on image quality for breast tomosynthesis. Generated by a Monte Carlo simulation method, scatter point spread functions (PSF) were convolved over the field of view (FOV) to estimate the distribution of scatter for each angle of tomosynthesis projection. The results demonstrated that in the absence of scatter reduction techniques, the scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) levels for the average breast are quite high (~0.4 at the centre of mass), and increased with increased breast thickness and with larger FOV. Associated with such levels of x-ray scatter are cupping artifacts, as well as reduced accuracy in reconstruction values. The effect of x-ray scatter on the contrast, noise, and signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR) in tomosynthesis reconstruction was measured as a function of tumour size. For example, the contrast in the reconstructed central slice of a tumour-like mass (14 mm in diameter) was degraded by 30% while the inaccuracy of the voxel value was 28%, and the reduction of SDNR was 60%. We have quantified the degree to which scatter degrades the image quality over a wide range of parameters, including x-ray beam energy, breast thickness, breast diameter, and breast composition. However, even without a scatter rejection device, the contrast and SDNR in the reconstructed tomosynthesis slice is higher than that of conventional mammographic projection images acquired with a grid at an equivalent total exposure.

  3. Identification of breast contour for nipple segmentation in breast magnetic resonance images

    SciTech Connect

    Gwo, Chih-Ying; Gwo, Allen; Wei, Chia-Hung; Huang, Pai Jung

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a method to simulate the breast contour and segment the nipple in breast magnetic resonance images. Methods: This study first identifies the chest wall and removes the chest part from the breast MR images. Subsequently, the cleavage and its motion artifacts are removed, distinguishing the separate breasts, where the edge points are sampled for curve fitting. Next, a region growing method is applied to find the potential nipple region. Finally, the potential nipple region above the simulated curve can be removed in order to retain the original smooth contour. Results: The simulation methods can achieve the least root mean square error (RMSE) for certain cases. The proposed YBnd and (Dmin+Dmax)/2 methods are significant due toP = 0.000. The breast contour curve detected by the two proposed methods is closer than that determined by the edge detection method. The (Dmin+Dmax)/2 method can achieve the lowest RMSE of 1.1029 on average, while the edge detection method results in the highest RMSE of 6.5655. This is only slighter better than the comparison methods, which implies that the performance of these methods depends upon the conditions of the cases themselves. Under this method, the maximal Dice coefficient is 0.881, and the centroid difference is 0.36 pixels. Conclusions: The contributions of this study are twofold. First, a method was proposed to identify and segment the nipple in breast MR images. Second, a curve-fitting method was used to simulate the breast contour, allowing the breast to retain its original smooth shape.

  4. Stereotactic Image-Guided Navigation During Breast Reconstruction in Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-08-27

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  5. Segmentation of ultrasound breast images based on a neutrosophic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Ling; Cheng, Heng-Da

    2010-11-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers of women. Ultrasound is often used for breast cancer diagnosis because it is harmless, portable, and low-cost. However, the segmentation of breast ultrasound (BUS) images is a difficult task due to their low contrast and speckle noise. Neutrosophy studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities and their interactions with different ideational spectra. It is a new philosophy to extend fuzzy logic and is the basis of neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability theory, neutrosophic set theory, and neutrosophic statistics. In this paper, we employ neutrosophy and develop a fully automatic algorithm for BUS image segmentation. By using neutrosophy, we integrate two conflicting opinions about speckle in ultrasound image: speckle is noise and speckle includes pattern information. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach is accurate, effective, and robust.

  6. Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Karabutov, Alexander A.; Solomatin, Sergey V.; Savateeva, Elena V.; Andreev, Valeri A.; Gatalica, Zoran; Singh, Harbans; Fleming, R. Declan

    2001-06-01

    A clinical prototype of the laser optoacoustic imaging system (LOIS) was employed for breast cancer detection and localization in patients with confirmed breast cancer and scheduled for radical mastectomy. The prototype LOIS used a single optical fiber for delivery of laser pulses, an arc shaped 32-element PVDF transducer array for ultrawide-band piezoelectric detection of optoacoustic signals and a single-channel data acquisition card for signal processing. The resonance ultrasound frequency of the 110 micrometers PVDF film was outside detectable range of ultrasound. Spatial resolution of the transducer array was slightly better than 1mm in radial direction and slightly worse than 1 mm in lateral direction. The system was optimized for contrast and sensitivity. Data acquisition, signal conditioning and image processing were significantly improved and optimized resulting in reduced image frame rate of 2 seconds employing 700 MHz Aphlon processor. The computer code for digital signal processing employed band-pass hyper-Gaussian filtering and denoising. An automatic recognition of the optoacoustic signal detected from the irradiated surface was implemented in order to visualize the breast surface and improve the accuracy of tumor localization. Radial back- projection algorithm was employed adopting combination of integration along spherical wavefronts and integration along planar wavefronts (as in Radon transform) for image reconstruction. The system performance was evaluated initially in breast tissue-like phantoms with embedded blood vessels. Clinical studies in breast cancer patients scheduled for surgical mastectomy were performed and compared with x-ray radiography, ultrasound and pathology reports.

  7. Opto-acoustic breast imaging with co-registered ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalev, Jason; Clingman, Bryan; Herzog, Don; Miller, Tom; Stavros, A. Thomas; Oraevsky, Alexander; Kist, Kenneth; Dornbluth, N. Carol; Otto, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    We present results from a recent study involving the ImagioTM breast imaging system, which produces fused real-time two-dimensional color-coded opto-acoustic (OA) images that are co-registered and temporally inter- leaved with real-time gray scale ultrasound using a specialized duplex handheld probe. The use of dual optical wavelengths provides functional blood map images of breast tissue and tumors displayed with high contrast based on total hemoglobin and oxygen saturation of the blood. This provides functional diagnostic information pertaining to tumor metabolism. OA also shows morphologic information about tumor neo-vascularity that is complementary to the morphological information obtained with conventional gray scale ultrasound. This fusion technology conveniently enables real-time analysis of the functional opto-acoustic features of lesions detected by readers familiar with anatomical gray scale ultrasound. We demonstrate co-registered opto-acoustic and ultrasonic images of malignant and benign tumors from a recent clinical study that provide new insight into the function of tumors in-vivo. Results from the Feasibility Study show preliminary evidence that the technology may have the capability to improve characterization of benign and malignant breast masses over conventional diagnostic breast ultrasound alone and to improve overall accuracy of breast mass diagnosis. In particular, OA improved speci city over that of conventional diagnostic ultrasound, which could potentially reduce the number of negative biopsies performed without missing cancers.

  8. A quantitative analysis of breast densities using cone beam CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt Benítez, Ricardo; Ning, Ruola; Conover, David; Liu, Shaohua

    2009-02-01

    Duct patterns are formed by desmoplastic reactions as most breast carcinomas are. Hence, it has been suggested that the denser a breast is, the higher the likelihood to develop breast cancer. Consequently, breast density has been one of the suggested parameters to estimate the risk to develop breast cancer. Currently, the main technique to evaluate breast densities is through mammograms. However, mammograms have the disadvantage of displaying overlapping structures within the breast. Although there are efficient techniques to obtain breast densities from mammograms, mammography can only provide a rough estimate because of the overlapping breast tissue. In this study, cone beam CT images were utilized to evaluate the breast density of sixteen breast images. First, a breast phantom with known volumes representing fatty, glandular and calcified tissues was designed to calibrate the system. Since cone beam CT provides 3D-isotropic resolution images throughout the field of view, the issue of overlapping structures disappears, allowing greater accuracy in evaluating the volumes of each different part of the phantom. Then, using cone beam CT breast images, the breast density of eight patients was evaluated using a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm that differentiates between fatty, glandular and calcified tissues. The results demonstrated that cone beam CT images provide a better tool to evaluate the breast density of the whole breast more accurately. The results also demonstrated that using this semi-automatic segmentation algorithm improves the efficiency of classifying the breast into the four classifications as recommended by the American College of Radiology.

  9. Rotational flaps in oncologic breast surgery. Anatomical and technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Acea Nebril, Benigno; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; García Novoa, Alejandra; Varela Lamas, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Local flaps are a group of surgical procedures that can solve the thoracic closure of large defects after breast cancer surgery with low morbidity. Its use in skin necrosis complications after conservative surgery or skin sparing mastectomies facilitates the initiation of adjuvant treatments and reduces delays in this patient group. This article describes the anatomical basis for the planning of thoracic and abdominal local flaps. Also, the application of these local flaps for closing large defects in the chest and selective flaps for skin coverage by necrosis in breast conserving surgery.

  10. Rotational flaps in oncologic breast surgery. Anatomical and technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Acea Nebril, Benigno; Builes Ramírez, Sergio; García Novoa, Alejandra; Varela Lamas, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Local flaps are a group of surgical procedures that can solve the thoracic closure of large defects after breast cancer surgery with low morbidity. Its use in skin necrosis complications after conservative surgery or skin sparing mastectomies facilitates the initiation of adjuvant treatments and reduces delays in this patient group. This article describes the anatomical basis for the planning of thoracic and abdominal local flaps. Also, the application of these local flaps for closing large defects in the chest and selective flaps for skin coverage by necrosis in breast conserving surgery. PMID:27140865

  11. Characterization of image quality for 3D scatter-corrected breast CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachon, Jan H.; Shah, Jainil; Tornai, Martin P.

    2011-03-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the image quality of our dedicated, quasi-monochromatic spectrum, cone beam breast imaging system under scatter corrected and non-scatter corrected conditions for a variety of breast compositions. CT projections were acquired of a breast phantom containing two concentric sets of acrylic spheres that varied in size (1-8mm) based on their polar position. The breast phantom was filled with 3 different concentrations of methanol and water, simulating a range of breast densities (0.79-1.0g/cc); acrylic yarn was sometimes included to simulate connective tissue of a breast. For each phantom condition, 2D scatter was measured for all projection angles. Scatter-corrected and uncorrected projections were then reconstructed with an iterative ordered subsets convex algorithm. Reconstructed image quality was characterized using SNR and contrast analysis, and followed by a human observer detection task for the spheres in the different concentric rings. Results show that scatter correction effectively reduces the cupping artifact and improves image contrast and SNR. Results from the observer study indicate that there was no statistical difference in the number or sizes of lesions observed in the scatter versus non-scatter corrected images for all densities. Nonetheless, applying scatter correction for differing breast conditions improves overall image quality.

  12. Automatic correspondence detection in mammogram and breast tomosynthesis images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, Jan; Krüger, Julia; Bischof, Arpad; Barkhausen, Jörg; Handels, Heinz

    2012-02-01

    Two-dimensional mammography is the major imaging modality in breast cancer detection. A disadvantage of mammography is the projective nature of this imaging technique. Tomosynthesis is an attractive modality with the potential to combine the high contrast and high resolution of digital mammography with the advantages of 3D imaging. In order to facilitate diagnostics and treatment in the current clinical work-flow, correspondences between tomosynthesis images and previous mammographic exams of the same women have to be determined. In this paper, we propose a method to detect correspondences in 2D mammograms and 3D tomosynthesis images automatically. In general, this 2D/3D correspondence problem is ill-posed, because a point in the 2D mammogram corresponds to a line in the 3D tomosynthesis image. The goal of our method is to detect the "most probable" 3D position in the tomosynthesis images corresponding to a selected point in the 2D mammogram. We present two alternative approaches to solve this 2D/3D correspondence problem: a 2D/3D registration method and a 2D/2D mapping between mammogram and tomosynthesis projection images with a following back projection. The advantages and limitations of both approaches are discussed and the performance of the methods is evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using a software phantom and clinical breast image data. Although the proposed 2D/3D registration method can compensate for moderate breast deformations caused by different breast compressions, this approach is not suitable for clinical tomosynthesis data due to the limited resolution and blurring effects perpendicular to the direction of projection. The quantitative results show that the proposed 2D/2D mapping method is capable of detecting corresponding positions in mammograms and tomosynthesis images automatically for 61 out of 65 landmarks. The proposed method can facilitate diagnosis, visual inspection and comparison of 2D mammograms and 3D tomosynthesis images for

  13. From Bombs to Breast Cancer Imaging: Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Martineau, Rebecca M

    2012-07-26

    . Currently, there is fierce debate surrounding the age at which breast cancer screening should begin, and once begun, how often it should occur. The American Cancer Society recommends yearly mammograms starting at age 40. On the other hand, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine so early. Rather, the Task Force recommends biennial mammography screening for women aged 50 to 74 years. The ten-year discrepancy in the onset of screening results from recent data suggesting that the frequent use of X-ray radiation during screenings could potentially increase the likelihood of developing cancer. This danger is increased by the low sensitivity and accuracy of mammograms, which sometimes require multiple screenings to yield results. Furthermore, mammograms are often not only inaccurate, but average appalling misdiagnoses rates: about 80% false positives and 15% false negatives. These misdiagnoses lead to unwarranted biopsies at an estimated health care cost of $2 billion per year, while at the same time, resulting in excessive cases of undetected cancer. As such, the National Cancer Institute recommends more studies on the advantages of types and frequency of screenings, as well as alternative screening options. The UST technology developed at LANL could be an alternative option to greatly improve the specificity and sensitivity of breast cancer screening without using ionizing radiation. LANL is developing high-resolution ultrasound tomography algorithms and a clinical ultrasound tomography scanner to conduct patient studies at the UNM Hospital. During UST scanning, the patient lies face-down while her breast, immersed in a tank of warm water, is scanned by phased-transducer arrays. UST uses recorded ultrasound signals to reconstruct a high-resolution three-dimensional image of the breast, showing the spatial distribution of mechanical properties within the breast. Breast cancers are detected by higher values of mechanical properties compared to

  14. Modeling digital breast tomosynthesis imaging systems for optimization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Beverly Amy

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a new imaging modality for breast imaging. In tomosynthesis, multiple images of the compressed breast are acquired at different angles, and the projection view images are reconstructed to yield images of slices through the breast. One of the main problems to be addressed in the development of DBT is the optimal parameter settings to obtain images ideal for detection of cancer. Since it would be unethical to irradiate women multiple times to explore potentially optimum geometries for tomosynthesis, it is ideal to use a computer simulation to generate projection images. Existing tomosynthesis models have modeled scatter and detector without accounting for oblique angles of incidence that tomosynthesis introduces. Moreover, these models frequently use geometry-specific physical factors measured from real systems, which severely limits the robustness of their algorithms for optimization. The goal of this dissertation was to design the framework for a computer simulation of tomosynthesis that would produce images that are sensitive to changes in acquisition parameters, so an optimization study would be feasible. A computer physics simulation of the tomosynthesis system was developed. The x-ray source was modeled as a polychromatic spectrum based on published spectral data, and inverse-square law was applied. Scatter was applied using a convolution method with angle-dependent scatter point spread functions (sPSFs), followed by scaling using an angle-dependent scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR). Monte Carlo simulations were used to generate sPSFs for a 5-cm breast with a 1-cm air gap. Detector effects were included through geometric propagation of the image onto layers of the detector, which were blurred using depth-dependent detector point-spread functions (PRFs). Depth-dependent PRFs were calculated every 5-microns through a 200-micron thick CsI detector using Monte Carlo simulations. Electronic noise was added as Gaussian noise as a

  15. Compositional breast imaging using a dual-energy mammography protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Laidevant, Aurelie D.; Malkov, Serghei; Flowers, Chris I.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A.

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: Mammography has a low sensitivity in dense breasts due to low contrast between malignant and normal tissue confounded by the predominant water density of the breast. Water is found in both adipose and fibroglandular tissue and constitutes most of the mass of a breast. However, significant protein mass is mainly found in the fibroglandular tissue where most cancers originate. If the protein compartment in a mammogram could be imaged without the influence of water, the sensitivity and specificity of the mammogram may be improved. This article describes a novel approach to dual-energy mammography, full-field digital compositional mammography (FFDCM), which can independently image the three compositional components of breast tissue: water, lipid, and protein. Methods: Dual-energy attenuation and breast shape measures are used together to solve for the three compositional thicknesses. Dual-energy measurements were performed on breast-mimicking phantoms using a full-field digital mammography unit. The phantoms were made of materials shown to have similar x-ray attenuation properties of the compositional compartments. They were made of two main stacks of thicknesses around 2 and 4 cm. Twenty-six thickness and composition combinations were used to derive the compositional calibration using a least-squares fitting approach. Results: Very high accuracy was achieved with a simple cubic fitting function with root mean square errors of 0.023, 0.011, and 0.012 cm for the water, lipid, and protein thicknesses, respectively. The repeatability (percent coefficient of variation) of these measures was tested using sequential images and was found to be 0.5%, 0.5%, and 3.3% for water, lipid, and protein, respectively. However, swapping the location of the two stacks of the phantom on the imaging plate introduced further errors showing the need for more complete system uniformity corrections. Finally, a preliminary breast image is presented of each of the compositional

  16. Breast imaging with ultrasound tomography: a comparative study with MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranger, Bryan; Littrup, Peter; Duric, Neb; Li, Cuiping; Schmidt, Steven; Lupinacci, Jessica; Myc, Lukasz; Szczepanski, Amy; Rama, Olsi; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of an ultrasound tomography (UST) prototype relative to magnetic resonance (MR) for imaging overall breast anatomy and accentuating tumors relative to background tissue. The study was HIPAA compliant, approved by the Institutional Review Board, and performed after obtaining the requisite informed consent. Twenty-three patients were imaged with MR and the UST prototype. T1 weighted images with fat saturation, with and without gadolinium enhancement, were used to examine anatomical structures and tumors, while T2 weighted images were used to identify cysts. The UST scans generated sound speed, attenuation, and reflection images. A qualitative visual comparison of the MRI and UST images was then used to identify anatomical similarities. A more focused approach that involved a comparison of reported masses, lesion volumes, and breast density was used to quantify the findings from the visual assessment. Our acoustic tomography prototype imaged distributions of fibrous stroma, parenchyma, fatty tissues, and lesions in patterns similar to those seen in the MR images. The range of thresholds required to establish tumor volume equivalency between MRI and UST suggested that a universal threshold for isolating masses relative to background tissue is feasible with UST. UST has demonstrated the ability to visualize and characterize breast tissues in a manner comparable to MRI. Thresholding techniques accentuate masses relative to background anatomy, which may prove clinically useful for early cancer detection.

  17. Quantitative mitochondrial redox imaging of breast cancer metastatic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, He N.; Nioka, Shoko; Glickson, Jerry D.; Chance, Britton; Li, Lin Z.

    2010-05-01

    Predicting tumor metastatic potential remains a challenge in cancer research and clinical practice. Our goal was to identify novel biomarkers for differentiating human breast tumors with different metastatic potentials by imaging the in vivo mitochondrial redox states of tumor tissues. The more metastatic (aggressive) MDA-MB-231 and less metastatic (indolent) MCF-7 human breast cancer mouse xenografts were imaged with the low-temperature redox scanner to obtain multi-slice fluorescence images of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and oxidized flavoproteins (Fp). The nominal concentrations of NADH and Fp in tissue were measured using reference standards and used to calculate the Fp redox ratio, Fp/(NADH+Fp). We observed significant core-rim differences, with the core being more oxidized than the rim in all aggressive tumors but not in the indolent tumors. These results are consistent with our previous observations on human melanoma mouse xenografts, indicating that mitochondrial redox imaging potentially provides sensitive markers for distinguishing aggressive from indolent breast tumor xenografts. Mitochondrial redox imaging can be clinically implemented utilizing cryogenic biopsy specimens and is useful for drug development and for clinical diagnosis of breast cancer.

  18. MRI-Derived 3-D-Printed Breast Phantom for Microwave Breast Imaging Validation.

    PubMed

    Burfeindt, Matthew J; Colgan, Timothy J; Mays, R Owen; Shea, Jacob D; Behdad, Nader; Van Veen, Barry D; Hagness, Susan C

    2012-01-01

    We propose a 3-D-printed breast phantom for use in preclinical experimental microwave imaging studies. The phantom is derived from an MRI of a human subject; thus, it is anthropomorphic, and its interior is very similar to an actual distribution of fibroglandular tissues. Adipose tissue in the breast is represented by the solid plastic (printed) regions of the phantom, while fibroglandular tissue is represented by liquid-filled voids in the plastic. The liquid is chosen to provide a biologically relevant dielectric contrast with the printed plastic. Such a phantom enables validation of microwave imaging techniques. We describe the procedure for generating the 3-D-printed breast phantom and present the measured dielectric properties of the 3-D-printed plastic over the frequency range 0.5-3.5 GHz. We also provide an example of a suitable liquid for filling the fibroglandular voids in the plastic.

  19. Efficient iterative image reconstruction algorithm for dedicated breast CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antropova, Natalia; Sanchez, Adrian; Reiser, Ingrid S.; Sidky, Emil Y.; Boone, John; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2016-03-01

    Dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) is currently being studied as a potential screening method for breast cancer. The X-ray exposure is set low to achieve an average glandular dose comparable to that of mammography, yielding projection data that contains high levels of noise. Iterative image reconstruction (IIR) algorithms may be well-suited for the system since they potentially reduce the effects of noise in the reconstructed images. However, IIR outcomes can be difficult to control since the algorithm parameters do not directly correspond to the image properties. Also, IIR algorithms are computationally demanding and have optimal parameter settings that depend on the size and shape of the breast and positioning of the patient. In this work, we design an efficient IIR algorithm with meaningful parameter specifications and that can be used on a large, diverse sample of bCT cases. The flexibility and efficiency of this method comes from having the final image produced by a linear combination of two separately reconstructed images - one containing gray level information and the other with enhanced high frequency components. Both of the images result from few iterations of separate IIR algorithms. The proposed algorithm depends on two parameters both of which have a well-defined impact on image quality. The algorithm is applied to numerous bCT cases from a dedicated bCT prototype system developed at University of California, Davis.

  20. Polyvinyl chloride plastisol breast phantoms for ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Isabela Miller; De Matheo, Lucas Lobianco; Costa Júnior, José Francisco Silva; Borba, Cecília de Melo; von Krüger, Marco Antonio; Infantosi, Antonio Fernando Catelli; Pereira, Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasonic phantoms are objects that mimic some features of biological tissues, allowing the study of their interactions with ultrasound (US). In the diagnostic-imaging field, breast phantoms are an important tool for testing performance and optimizing US systems, as well as for training medical professionals. This paper describes the design and manufacture of breast lesions by using polyvinyl chloride plastisol (PVCP) as the base material. Among the materials available for this study, PVCP was shown to be stable, durable, and easy to handle. Furthermore, it is a nontoxic, nonpolluting, and low-cost material. The breast's glandular tissue (image background) was simulated by adding graphite powder with a concentration of 1% to the base material. Mixing PVCP and graphite powder in differing concentrations allows one to simulate lesions with different echogenicity patterns (anechoic, hypoechoic, and hyperechoic). From this mixture, phantom materials were obtained with speed of sound varying from 1379.3 to 1397.9ms(-1) and an attenuation coefficient having values between 0.29 and 0.94dBcm(-1) for a frequency of 1MHz at 24°C. A single layer of carnauba wax was added to the lesion surface in order to evaluate its applicability for imaging. The images of the phantoms were acquired using commercial ultrasound equipment; a specialist rated the images, elaborating diagnoses representative of both benign and malignant lesions. The results indicated that it was possible to easily create a phantom by using low-cost materials, readily available in the market and stable at room temperature, as the basis of ultrasonic phantoms that reproduce the image characteristics of fatty breast tissue and typical lesions of the breast.

  1. Polyvinyl chloride plastisol breast phantoms for ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Isabela Miller; De Matheo, Lucas Lobianco; Costa Júnior, José Francisco Silva; Borba, Cecília de Melo; von Krüger, Marco Antonio; Infantosi, Antonio Fernando Catelli; Pereira, Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasonic phantoms are objects that mimic some features of biological tissues, allowing the study of their interactions with ultrasound (US). In the diagnostic-imaging field, breast phantoms are an important tool for testing performance and optimizing US systems, as well as for training medical professionals. This paper describes the design and manufacture of breast lesions by using polyvinyl chloride plastisol (PVCP) as the base material. Among the materials available for this study, PVCP was shown to be stable, durable, and easy to handle. Furthermore, it is a nontoxic, nonpolluting, and low-cost material. The breast's glandular tissue (image background) was simulated by adding graphite powder with a concentration of 1% to the base material. Mixing PVCP and graphite powder in differing concentrations allows one to simulate lesions with different echogenicity patterns (anechoic, hypoechoic, and hyperechoic). From this mixture, phantom materials were obtained with speed of sound varying from 1379.3 to 1397.9ms(-1) and an attenuation coefficient having values between 0.29 and 0.94dBcm(-1) for a frequency of 1MHz at 24°C. A single layer of carnauba wax was added to the lesion surface in order to evaluate its applicability for imaging. The images of the phantoms were acquired using commercial ultrasound equipment; a specialist rated the images, elaborating diagnoses representative of both benign and malignant lesions. The results indicated that it was possible to easily create a phantom by using low-cost materials, readily available in the market and stable at room temperature, as the basis of ultrasonic phantoms that reproduce the image characteristics of fatty breast tissue and typical lesions of the breast. PMID:27153374

  2. Simulated lesion, human observer performance comparison between thin-section dedicated breast CT images versus computed thick-section simulated projection images of the breast.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Boone, J M; Abbey, C K; Hargreaves, J; Bateni, C; Lindfors, K K; Yang, K; Nosratieh, A; Hernandez, A; Gazi, P

    2015-04-21

    The objective of this study was to compare the lesion detection performance of human observers between thin-section computed tomography images of the breast, with thick-section (>40 mm) simulated projection images of the breast. Three radiologists and six physicists each executed a two alterative force choice (2AFC) study involving simulated spherical lesions placed mathematically into breast images produced on a prototype dedicated breast CT scanner. The breast image data sets from 88 patients were used to create 352 pairs of image data. Spherical lesions with diameters of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 11 mm were simulated and adaptively positioned into 3D breast CT image data sets; the native thin section (0.33 mm) images were averaged to produce images with different slice thicknesses; average section thicknesses of 0.33, 0.71, 1.5 and 2.9 mm were representative of breast CT; the average 43 mm slice thickness served to simulate simulated projection images of the breast.The percent correct of the human observer's responses were evaluated in the 2AFC experiments. Radiologists lesion detection performance was significantly (p < 0.05) better in the case of thin-section images, compared to thick section images similar to mammography, for all but the 1 mm lesion diameter lesions. For example, the average of three radiologist's performance for 3 mm diameter lesions was 92% correct for thin section breast CT images while it was 67% for the simulated projection images. A gradual reduction in observer performance was observed as the section thickness increased beyond about 1 mm. While a performance difference based on breast density was seen in both breast CT and the projection image results, the average radiologist performance using breast CT images in dense breasts outperformed the performance using simulated projection images in fatty breasts for all lesion diameters except 11 mm. The average radiologist performance outperformed that of the average physicist observer, however trends

  3. Simulated lesion, human observer performance comparison between thin-section dedicated breast CT images versus computed thick-section simulated projection images of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L; Boone, JM; Abbey, CK; Hargreaves, J; Bateni, C; Lindfors, KK; Yang, K; Nosratieh, A; Hernandez, A; Gazi, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to compare the lesion detection performance of human observers between thin-section computed tomography images of the breast, with thick-section (>40 mm) simulated projection images of the breast. Methods Three radiologists and six physicists each executed a two alterative force choice (2AFC) study involving simulated spherical lesions placed mathematically into breast images produced on a prototype dedicated breast CT scanner. The breast image data sets from 88 patients were used to create 352 pairs of image data. Spherical lesions with diameters of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 11 mm were simulated and adaptively positioned into 3D breast CT image data sets; the native thin section (0.33 mm) images were averaged to produce images with different slice thicknesses; average section thicknesses of 0.33 mm, 0.71 mm, 1.5 mm, and 2.9 mm were representative of breast CT; the average 43 mm slice thickness served to simulate simulated projection images of the breast. Results The percent correct of the human observer’s responses were evaluated in the 2AFC experiments. Radiologists lesion detection performance was significantly (p<0.05) better in the case of thin-section images, compared to thick section images similar to mammography, for all but the 1 mm lesion diameter lesions. For example, the average of three radiologist’s performance for 3 mm diameter lesions was 92 % correct for thin section breast CT images while it was 67 % for the simulated projection images. A gradual reduction in observer performance was observed as the section thickness increased beyond about 1 mm. While a performance difference based on breast density was seen in both breast CT and the projection image results, the average radiologist performance using breast CT images in dense breasts outperformed the performance using simulated projection images in fatty breasts for all lesion diameters except 11 mm. The average radiologist performance outperformed that of the

  4. Heterogeneous Breast Phantom Development for Microwave Imaging Using Regression Models

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Camerin; Noghanian, Sima

    2012-01-01

    As new algorithms for microwave imaging emerge, it is important to have standard accurate benchmarking tests. Currently, most researchers use homogeneous phantoms for testing new algorithms. These simple structures lack the heterogeneity of the dielectric properties of human tissue and are inadequate for testing these algorithms for medical imaging. To adequately test breast microwave imaging algorithms, the phantom has to resemble different breast tissues physically and in terms of dielectric properties. We propose a systematic approach in designing phantoms that not only have dielectric properties close to breast tissues but also can be easily shaped to realistic physical models. The approach is based on regression model to match phantom's dielectric properties with the breast tissue dielectric properties found in Lazebnik et al. (2007). However, the methodology proposed here can be used to create phantoms for any tissue type as long as ex vivo, in vitro, or in vivo tissue dielectric properties are measured and available. Therefore, using this method, accurate benchmarking phantoms for testing emerging microwave imaging algorithms can be developed. PMID:22550473

  5. Application of thermoacoustic computed tomography to breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruger, Robert A.; Kiser, William L., Jr.; Reinecke, Daniel R.; Kruger, Gabe A.

    1999-05-01

    Acoustic pressure waves are induced in soft tissue whenever time-varying radiation is absorbed. By recording these time- dependent pressure waves over a sufficient number of angles surrounding the tissue being imaged, it is possible to reconstruct the pattern of radiation absorption within the tissue in three dimensions with spatial resolution that is independent of the carrier frequency of the irradiating energy. We recently constructed the world's first thermoacoustic computed tomography (TACT) scanner, which exploits this physical interaction. Initial in vivo imaging of a human breast was performed using safe levels of 434 MHz radiation. Good soft tissue differentiation with 2 - 5 mm spatial resolution to a depth of 40 mm was achieved. The absorption properties of the breast and the irradiation pattern within the breast determined the TACT image contrast. The length of the RF pulse, the size of the transducers and their frequency response, the geometry of the detector array, and the reconstruction algorithm that was used determined the spatial resolution. We conclude that TACT imaging may have application to breast cancer detection.

  6. Nonrigid registration algorithm for longitudinal breast MR images and the preliminary analysis of breast tumor response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xia; Dawant, Benoit M.; Welch, E. Brian; Chakravarthy, A. Bapsi; Freehardt, Darla; Mayer, Ingrid; Kelley, Mark; Meszoely, Ingrid; Gore, John C.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

    2009-02-01

    Although useful for the detection of breast cancers, conventional imaging methods, including mammography and ultrasonography, do not provide adequate information regarding response to therapy. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has emerged as a promising technique to provide relevant information on tumor status. Consequently, accurate longitudinal registration of breast MR images is critical for the comparison of changes induced by treatment at the voxel level. In this study, a nonrigid registration algorithm is proposed to allow for longitudinal registration of breast MR images obtained throughout the course of treatment. We accomplish this by modifying the adaptive bases algorithm (ABA) through adding a tumor volume preserving constraint in the cost function. The registration results demonstrate the proposed algorithm can successfully register the longitudinal breast MR images and permit analysis of the parameter maps. We also propose a novel validation method to evaluate the proposed registration algorithm quantitatively. These validations also demonstrate that the proposed algorithm constrains tumor deformation well and performs better than the unconstrained ABA algorithm.

  7. Numerical simulations of the thermoacoustic computed tomography breast imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiser, William Lester, Jr.

    A thermoacoustic wave is produced when an object absorbs energy and experiences a subsequent thermal expansion. We have developed a Thermoacoustic Computed Tomography (TACT) breast imaging system to exploit the thermoacoustic phenomena as a method of soft tissue imaging. By exposing the breast to short pulses of 434 MHz microwaves, ultrasonic pulses are generated and detected with a hemispherical transducer array submersed in a water bath. Filtering and back projecting the transducer signals generates a 3-D image that maps the localized microwave absorption properties of the breast. In an effort to understand the factors limiting image quality, the TACT system was numerically simulated. The simulations were used to generate the transducer signals that would be collected by the TACT system during a scan of an object. These simulated data streams were then fed into the system image reconstruction software to provide images of simulated phantoms. The effects of transducer diameter, transducer response, transducer array geometry and stimulating pulse width on the spatial and contrast resolution of the system were quantified using the simulations. The spatial resolution was highly dependent upon location in the imaging volume. This was due to the off axis response of transducers of finite aperture. Simulated data were compared with experimental data, obtained by imaging a parallel-piped resolution phantom, to verify the accuracy of the simulation code. A contrast-detail phantom was numerically simulated to determine the ability of the system to image spheres of diameters <1 cm with absorption values on the order of physiologic saline, when located in a background of noise. The results of the contrast-detail analysis were dependent on the location of the spheres in the imaging volume and the diameter of the simulated transducers. This work sets the foundation for the initial image quality studies of the TACT system. Improvements to the current imaging system, based on

  8. Combined Optical and X-ray Tomosynthesis Breast Imaging1

    PubMed Central

    Selb, Juliette; Carp, Stefan A.; Boverman, Gregory; Miller, Eric L.; Brooks, Dana H.; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.; Boas, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the optical and physiologic properties of normal and lesion-bearing breasts by using a combined optical and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) imaging system. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval and patient informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study. Combined optical and tomosynthesis imaging analysis was performed in 189 breasts from 125 subjects (mean age, 56 years ± 13 [standard deviation]), including 138 breasts with negative findings and 51 breasts with lesions. Three-dimensional (3D) maps of total hemoglobin concentration (HbT), oxygen saturation (So2), and tissue reduced scattering coefficients were interpreted by using the coregistered DBT images. Paired and unpaired t tests were performed between various tissue types to identify significant differences. Results: The estimated average bulk HbT from 138 normal breasts was 19.2 μmol/L. The corresponding mean So2 was 0.73, within the range of values in the literature. A linear correlation (R = 0.57, P < .0001) was found between HbT and the fibroglandular volume fraction derived from the 3D DBT scans. Optical reconstructions of normal breasts revealed structures corresponding to chest-wall muscle, fibroglandular, and adipose tissues in the HbT, So2, and scattering images. In 26 malignant tumors of 0.6–2.5 cm in size, HbT was significantly greater than that in the fibroglandular tissue of the same breast (P = .0062). Solid benign lesions (n = 17) and cysts (n = 8) had significantly lower HbT contrast than did the malignant lesions (P = .025 and P = .0033, respectively). Conclusion: The optical and DBT images were structurally consistent. The malignant tumors and benign lesions demonstrated different HbT and scattering contrasts, which can potentially be exploited to reduce the false-positive rate of conventional mammography and unnecessary biopsies. © RSNA, 2010 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol

  9. Harmonic Motion Microwave Doppler Imaging method for breast tumor detection.

    PubMed

    Top, Can Barıs; Tafreshi, Azadeh Kamali; Gençer, Nevzat G

    2014-01-01

    Harmonic Motion Microwave Doppler Imaging (HMMDI) method is recently proposed as a non-invasive hybrid breast imaging technique for tumor detection. The acquired data depend on acoustic, elastic and electromagnetic properties of the tissue. The potential of the method is analyzed with simulation studies and phantom experiments. In this paper, the results of these studies are summarized. It is shown that HMMDI method has a potential to detect malignancies inside fibro-glandular tissue.

  10. Harmonic Motion Microwave Doppler Imaging method for breast tumor detection.

    PubMed

    Top, Can Barıs; Tafreshi, Azadeh Kamali; Gençer, Nevzat G

    2014-01-01

    Harmonic Motion Microwave Doppler Imaging (HMMDI) method is recently proposed as a non-invasive hybrid breast imaging technique for tumor detection. The acquired data depend on acoustic, elastic and electromagnetic properties of the tissue. The potential of the method is analyzed with simulation studies and phantom experiments. In this paper, the results of these studies are summarized. It is shown that HMMDI method has a potential to detect malignancies inside fibro-glandular tissue. PMID:25571382

  11. Breast Tissue Characterization with Photon-counting Spectral CT Imaging: A Postmortem Breast Study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Huanjun; Klopfer, Michael J.; Ducote, Justin L.; Masaki, Fumitaro

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the feasibility of breast tissue characterization in terms of water, lipid, and protein contents with a spectral computed tomographic (CT) system based on a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) photon-counting detector by using postmortem breasts. Materials and Methods Nineteen pairs of postmortem breasts were imaged with a CZT-based photon-counting spectral CT system with beam energy of 100 kVp. The mean glandular dose was estimated to be in the range of 1.8–2.2 mGy. The images were corrected for pulse pile-up and other artifacts by using spectral distortion corrections. Dual-energy decomposition was then applied to characterize each breast into water, lipid, and protein contents. The precision of the three-compartment characterization was evaluated by comparing the composition of right and left breasts, where the standard error of the estimations was determined. The results of dual-energy decomposition were compared by using averaged root mean square to chemical analysis, which was used as the reference standard. Results The standard errors of the estimations of the right-left correlations obtained from spectral CT were 7.4%, 6.7%, and 3.2% for water, lipid, and protein contents, respectively. Compared with the reference standard, the average root mean square error in breast tissue composition was 2.8%. Conclusion Spectral CT can be used to accurately quantify the water, lipid, and protein contents in breast tissue in a laboratory study by using postmortem specimens. © RSNA, 2014 PMID:24814180

  12. Intracystic mural nodules of the breast: benign versus malignant; a multidisciplinary imaging and management approach.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Melissa J

    2015-06-01

    This case report illustrates the presence of intracystic mural nodules within the breast, a benign proliferative disorder associated with the fibrocystic spectrum: papillary apocrine metaplasia. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the physical and histological attributes of benign intracystic mural nodules, and the ability to distinguish these from a malignant papilloma and carcinoma. Also, the technical and patient considerations, as well as the appropriate imaging and interventional methods required to ensure correct patient management pathway are discussed, extending into an analysis of the psychological effects felt by patients undergoing assessment.

  13. An infrared image based methodology for breast lesions screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, K. C. C.; Vargas, J. V. C.; Reisemberger, G. G.; Freitas, F. N. P.; Oliari, S. H.; Brioschi, M. L.; Louveira, M. H.; Spautz, C.; Dias, F. G.; Gasperin, P.; Budel, V. M.; Cordeiro, R. A. G.; Schittini, A. P. P.; Neto, C. D.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential of utilizing a structured methodology for breast lesions screening, based on infrared imaging temperature measurements of a healthy control group to establish expected normality ranges, and of breast cancer patients, previously diagnosed through biopsies of the affected regions. An analysis of the systematic error of the infrared camera skin temperature measurements was conducted in several different regions of the body, by direct comparison to high precision thermistor temperature measurements, showing that infrared camera temperatures are consistently around 2 °C above the thermistor temperatures. Therefore, a method of conjugated gradients is proposed to eliminate the infrared camera direct temperature measurement imprecision, by calculating the temperature difference between two points to cancel out the error. The method takes into account the human body approximate bilateral symmetry, and compares measured dimensionless temperature difference values (Δ θ bar) between two symmetric regions of the patient's breast, that takes into account the breast region, the surrounding ambient and the individual core temperatures, and doing so, the results interpretation for different individuals become simple and non subjective. The range of normal whole breast average dimensionless temperature differences for 101 healthy individuals was determined, and admitting that the breasts temperatures exhibit a unimodal normal distribution, the healthy normal range for each region was considered to be the dimensionless temperature difference plus/minus twice the standard deviation of the measurements, Δ θ bar ‾ + 2σ Δ θ bar ‾ , in order to represent 95% of the population. Forty-seven patients with previously diagnosed breast cancer through biopsies were examined with the method, which was capable of detecting breast abnormalities in 45 cases (96%). Therefore, the conjugated gradients method was considered effective

  14. Volumetric breast density evaluation from ultrasound tomography images

    SciTech Connect

    Glide-Hurst, Carri K.; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter

    2008-09-15

    Previous ultrasound tomography work conducted by our group showed a direct correlation between measured sound speed and physical density in vitro, and increased in vivo sound speed with increasing mammographic density, a known risk factor for breast cancer. Building on these empirical results, the purpose of this work was to explore a metric to quantify breast density using our ultrasound tomography sound speed images in a manner analogous to computer-assisted mammogram segmentation for breast density analysis. Therefore, volumetric ultrasound percent density (USPD) is determined by segmenting high sound speed areas from each tomogram using a k-means clustering routine, integrating these results over the entire volume of the breast, and dividing by whole-breast volume. First, a breast phantom comprised of fat inclusions embedded in fibroglandular tissue was scanned four times with both our ultrasound tomography clinical prototype (with 4 mm spatial resolution) and CT. The coronal transmission tomograms and CT images were analyzed using semiautomatic segmentation routines, and the integrated areas of the phantom's fat inclusions were compared between the four repeated scans. The average variability for inclusion segmentation was {approx}7% and {approx}2%, respectively, and a close correlation was observed in the integrated areas between the two modalities. Next, a cohort of 93 patients was imaged, yielding volumetric coverage of the breast (45-75 sound speed tomograms/patient). The association of USPD with mammographic percent density (MPD) was evaluated using two measures: (1) qualitative, as determined by a radiologist's visual assessment using BI-RADS Criteria and (2) quantitative, via digitization and semiautomatic segmentation of craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique mammograms. A strong positive association between BI-RADS category and USPD was demonstrated [Spearman {rho}=0.69 (p<0.001)], with significant differences between all BI-RADS categories as assessed

  15. Towards breast tomography with synchrotron radiation at Elettra: first images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, R.; Arfelli, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Bottigli, U.; Brez, A.; Brun, F.; Brunetti, A.; Delogu, P.; Di Lillo, F.; Dreossi, D.; Fanti, V.; Fedon, C.; Golosio, B.; Lanconelli, N.; Mettivier, G.; Minuti, M.; Oliva, P.; Pinchera, M.; Rigon, L.; Russo, P.; Sarno, A.; Spandre, G.; Tromba, G.; Zanconati, F.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the SYRMA-CT collaboration is to set-up the first clinical trial of phase-contrast breast CT with synchrotron radiation (SR). In order to combine high image quality and low delivered dose a number of innovative elements are merged: a CdTe single photon counting detector, state-of-the-art CT reconstruction and phase retrieval algorithms. To facilitate an accurate exam optimization, a Monte Carlo model was developed for dose calculation using GEANT4. In this study, high isotropic spatial resolution (120 μm)3 CT scans of objects with dimensions and attenuation similar to a human breast were acquired, delivering mean glandular doses in the range of those delivered in clinical breast CT (5-25 mGy). Due to the spatial coherence of the SR beam and the long distance between sample and detector, the images contain, not only absorption, but also phase information from the samples. The application of a phase-retrieval procedure increases the contrast-to-noise ratio of the tomographic images, while the contrast remains almost constant. After applying the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique to low-dose phase-retrieved data sets (about 5 mGy) with a reduced number of projections, the spatial resolution was found to be equal to filtered back projection utilizing a four fold higher dose, while the contrast-to-noise ratio was reduced by 30%. These first results indicate the feasibility of clinical breast CT with SR.

  16. Broadband near-infrared tomography for breast cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia

    Near-infrared (NIR) light provides potential for a new approach to non-invasive detection, diagnosis and clinical management of breast cancer. Using NIR spectroscopic imaging techniques, the physiological information about breast tissue composition can be quantitatively estimated, including hemoglobin, water and lipid concentrations, together with scattering properties. In this thesis work, strategies to improve the accuracy of NIR imaging have been explored experimentally and numerically. A novel Ti:Sapphire laser-based frequency domain tomography system was developed to achieve maximum spectral information, using intrinsic phase-locked detection of the signal propagation. The improvement in quantification through addition of more wavelengths was demonstrated in simulations and in tissue-phantom experiments. A hybrid NIR tomography system combining frequency domain and continuous wave spectroscopy approaches was implemented for imaging healthy subjects and women with malignant breast tumors. Adding measurements at wavelengths above 850nm with the continuous wave method significantly improved the accuracy of water and lipid estimation. When used in cancer imaging in vivo, the NIR contrast information is consistent with physiological and pathological values expected in tumor as seen by investigational studies with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and pathology analysis.

  17. Automated analysis of image mammogram for breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhasanah, Sampurno, Joko; Faryuni, Irfana Diah; Ivansyah, Okto

    2016-03-01

    Medical imaging help doctors in diagnosing and detecting diseases that attack the inside of the body without surgery. Mammogram image is a medical image of the inner breast imaging. Diagnosis of breast cancer needs to be done in detail and as soon as possible for determination of next medical treatment. The aim of this work is to increase the objectivity of clinical diagnostic by using fractal analysis. This study applies fractal method based on 2D Fourier analysis to determine the density of normal and abnormal and applying the segmentation technique based on K-Means clustering algorithm to image abnormal for determine the boundary of the organ and calculate the area of organ segmentation results. The results show fractal method based on 2D Fourier analysis can be used to distinguish between the normal and abnormal breast and segmentation techniques with K-Means Clustering algorithm is able to generate the boundaries of normal and abnormal tissue organs, so area of the abnormal tissue can be determined.

  18. Breast image feature learning with adaptive deconvolutional networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, Andrew R.; Drukker, Karen; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2012-03-01

    Feature extraction is a critical component of medical image analysis. Many computer-aided diagnosis approaches employ hand-designed, heuristic lesion extracted features. An alternative approach is to learn features directly from images. In this preliminary study, we explored the use of Adaptive Deconvolutional Networks (ADN) for learning high-level features in diagnostic breast mass lesion images with potential application to computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) and content-based image retrieval (CBIR). ADNs (Zeiler, et. al., 2011), are recently-proposed unsupervised, generative hierarchical models that decompose images via convolution sparse coding and max pooling. We trained the ADNs to learn multiple layers of representation for two breast image data sets on two different modalities (739 full field digital mammography (FFDM) and 2393 ultrasound images). Feature map calculations were accelerated by use of GPUs. Following Zeiler et. al., we applied the Spatial Pyramid Matching (SPM) kernel (Lazebnik, et. al., 2006) on the inferred feature maps and combined this with a linear support vector machine (SVM) classifier for the task of binary classification between cancer and non-cancer breast mass lesions. Non-linear, local structure preserving dimension reduction, Elastic Embedding (Carreira-Perpiñán, 2010), was then used to visualize the SPM kernel output in 2D and qualitatively inspect image relationships learned. Performance was found to be competitive with current CADx schemes that use human-designed features, e.g., achieving a 0.632+ bootstrap AUC (by case) of 0.83 [0.78, 0.89] for an ultrasound image set (1125 cases).

  19. CT guided diffuse optical tomography for breast cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baikejiang, Reheman; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Dianwen; Li, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) has attracted attentions in the last two decades due to its intrinsic sensitivity in imaging chromophores of tissues such as blood, water, and lipid. However, DOT has not been clinically accepted yet due to its low spatial resolution caused by strong optical scattering in tissues. Structural guidance provided by an anatomical imaging modality enhances the DOT imaging substantially. Here, we propose a computed tomography (CT) guided multispectral DOT imaging system for breast cancer detection. To validate its feasibility, we have built a prototype DOT imaging system which consists of a laser at wavelengths of 650 and an electron multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera. We have validated the CT guided DOT reconstruction algorithms with numerical simulations and phantom experiments, in which different imaging setup parameters, such as projection number of measurements, the width of measurement patch, have been investigated. Our results indicate that an EMCCD camera with air cooling is good enough for the transmission mode DOT imaging. We have also found that measurements at six projections are sufficient for DOT to reconstruct the optical targets with 4 times absorption contrast when the CT guidance is applied. Finally, we report our effort and progress on the integration of the multispectral DOT imaging system into a breast CT scanner.

  20. Innovative biomagnetic imaging sensors for breast cancer: A model-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Y.; Golkowski, M.

    2012-04-01

    Breast cancer is a serious potential health problem for all women and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. The current screening procedures and imaging techniques, including x-ray mammography, clinical biopsy, ultrasound imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging, provide only 73% accuracy in detecting breast cancer. This gives the impetus to explore alternate techniques for imaging the breast and detecting early stage tumors. Among the complementary methods, the noninvasive biomagnetic breast imaging is attractive and promising, because both ionizing radiation and breast compressions that the prevalent x-ray mammography suffers from are avoided. It furthermore offers very high contrast because of the significant electromagnetic properties' differences between the cancerous, benign, and normal breast tissues. In this paper, a hybrid and accurate modeling tool for biomagnetic breast imaging is developed, which couples the electromagnetic and ultrasonic energies, and initial validations between the model predication and experimental findings are conducted.

  1. Objective breast symmetry evaluation using 3-D surface imaging.

    PubMed

    Eder, Maximilian; Waldenfels, Fee V; Swobodnik, Alexandra; Klöppel, Markus; Pape, Ann-Kathrin; Schuster, Tibor; Raith, Stefan; Kitzler, Elena; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Machens, Hans-Günther; Kovacs, Laszlo

    2012-04-01

    This study develops an objective breast symmetry evaluation using 3-D surface imaging (Konica-Minolta V910(®) scanner) by superimposing the mirrored left breast over the right and objectively determining the mean 3-D contour difference between the 2 breast surfaces. 3 observers analyzed the evaluation protocol precision using 2 dummy models (n = 60), 10 test subjects (n = 300), clinically tested it on 30 patients (n = 900) and compared it to established 2-D measurements on 23 breast reconstructive patients using the BCCT.core software (n = 690). Mean 3-D evaluation precision, expressed as the coefficient of variation (VC), was 3.54 ± 0.18 for all human subjects without significant intra- and inter-observer differences (p > 0.05). The 3-D breast symmetry evaluation is observer independent, significantly more precise (p < 0.001) than the BCCT.core software (VC = 6.92 ± 0.88) and may play a part in an objective surgical outcome analysis after incorporation into clinical practice.

  2. Applications of nanomedicine in breast cancer detection, imaging, and therapy.

    PubMed

    Saadeh, Yamaan; Leung, Tiffany; Vyas, Arpita; Chaturvedi, Lakshmi Shankar; Perumal, Omathanu; Vyas, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer remains as one of the most common cancer diagnosis and cause of cancer related death among women. Fortunately, nanomedicine has brought forth new potential and hope in breast cancer research. The extremely small size of nanoparticles makes it advantageous and potentially superior to use in tumor detection and imaging. One of the more extensively studied particles is quantum dots, semiconductor crystals which are capable of enhanced labeling and imaging of cancer cells. In addition, due to serious toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents, nano-formulations of breast cancer chemotherapy are under investigation and development. This may provide easier administering route and reduced frequency of drugs. With the use of nanoparticles, drug delivery can be carried out in a minimally invasive fashion and treatment regimens can be made much more targeted and specific for each patient. In this review article, we provide an overview on the role nanomedicine has played in breast cancer and mention some of the latest diagnostic and treatment modalities researched to date.

  3. Higher-order scene statistics of breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Sohl-Dickstein, Jascha N.; Olshausen, Bruno A.; Eckstein, Miguel P.; Boone, John M.

    2009-02-01

    Researchers studying human and computer vision have found description and construction of these systems greatly aided by analysis of the statistical properties of naturally occurring scenes. More specifically, it has been found that receptive fields with directional selectivity and bandwidth properties similar to mammalian visual systems are more closely matched to the statistics of natural scenes. It is argued that this allows for sparse representation of the independent components of natural images [Olshausen and Field, Nature, 1996]. These theories have important implications for medical image perception. For example, will a system that is designed to represent the independent components of natural scenes, where objects occlude one another and illumination is typically reflected, be appropriate for X-ray imaging, where features superimpose on one another and illumination is transmissive? In this research we begin to examine these issues by evaluating higher-order statistical properties of breast images from X-ray projection mammography (PM) and dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT). We evaluate kurtosis in responses of octave bandwidth Gabor filters applied to PM and to coronal slices of bCT scans. We find that kurtosis in PM rises and quickly saturates for filter center frequencies with an average value above 0.95. By contrast, kurtosis in bCT peaks near 0.20 cyc/mm with kurtosis of approximately 2. Our findings suggest that the human visual system may be tuned to represent breast tissue more effectively in bCT over a specific range of spatial frequencies.

  4. Fast 3-D Tomographic Microwave Imaging for Breast Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    Meaney, Paul M.; Kaufman, Peter A.; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta M.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave breast imaging (using electromagnetic waves of frequencies around 1 GHz) has mostly remained at the research level for the past decade, gaining little clinical acceptance. The major hurdles limiting patient use are both at the hardware level (challenges in collecting accurate and noncorrupted data) and software level (often plagued by unrealistic reconstruction times in the tens of hours). In this paper we report improvements that address both issues. First, the hardware is able to measure signals down to levels compatible with sub-centimeter image resolution while keeping an exam time under 2 min. Second, the software overcomes the enormous time burden and produces similarly accurate images in less than 20 min. The combination of the new hardware and software allows us to produce and report here the first clinical 3-D microwave tomographic images of the breast. Two clinical examples are selected out of 400+ exams conducted at the Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center (Lebanon, NH). The first example demonstrates the potential usefulness of our system for breast cancer screening while the second example focuses on therapy monitoring. PMID:22562726

  5. Initial study of breast tissue retraction toward image guided breast surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, Michael J.; Meszoely, Ingrid M.; Ondrake, Janet E.; Pheiffer, Thomas S.; Simpson, Amber L.; Sun, Kay; Miga, Michael I.

    2012-02-01

    Image-guided surgery may reduce the re-excision rate in breast-conserving tumor-resection surgery, but image guidance is difficult since the breast undergoes significant deformation during the procedure. In addition, any imaging performed preoperatively is usually conducted in a very different presentation to that in surgery. Biomechanical models combined with low-cost ultrasound imaging and laser range scanning may provide an inexpensive way to provide intraoperative guidance information while also compensating for soft tissue deformations that occur during breast-conserving surgery. One major cause of deformation occurs after an incision into the tissue is made and the skin flap is pulled back with the use of retractors. Since the next step in the surgery would be to start building a surgical plane around the tumor to remove cancerous tissue, in an image-guidance environment, it would be necessary to have a model that corrects for the deformation caused by the surgeon to properly guide the application of resection tools. In this preliminary study, two anthropomorphic breast phantoms were made, and retractions were performed on both with improvised retractors. One phantom underwent a deeper retraction that the other. A laser range scanner (LRS) was used to monitor phantom tissue change before and after retraction. The surface data acquired with the LRS and retractors were then used to drive the solution of a finite element model. The results indicate an encouraging level of agreement between model predictions and data. The surface target error for the phantom with the deep retraction was 2.2 +/- 1.2 mm (n=47 targets) with the average deformation of the surface targets at 4.2 +/- 1.6mm. For the phantom with the shallow retraction, the surface target error was 2.1 +/- 1.0 mm (n=70 targets) with the average deformation of the surface targets at 4.0 +/- 2.0 mm.

  6. Ultrasound - Breast

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge) and to characterize potential abnormalities seen on mammography or breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrasound imaging ... supply in breast lesions . Supplemental Breast Cancer Screening Mammography is the only screening tool for breast cancer ...

  7. Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer: Present and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcantara, David; Pernia Leal, Manuel; Garcia, Irene; Garcia-Martin, Maria Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Medical imaging technologies have undergone explosive growth over the past few decades and now play a central role in clinical oncology. But the truly transformative power of imaging in the clinical management of cancer patients lies ahead. Today, imaging is at a crossroads, with molecularly targeted imaging agents expected to broadly expand the capabilities of conventional anatomical imaging methods. Molecular imaging will allow clinicians to not only see where a tumour is located in the body, but also to visualize the expression and activity of specific molecules (e.g. proteases and protein kinases) and biological processes (e.g. apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis) that influence tumour behavior and/or response to therapy. Breast cancer, the most common cancer among women and a research area where our group is actively involved, is a very heterogeneous disease with diverse patterns of development and response to treatment. Hence, molecular imaging is expected to have a major impact on this type of cancer, leading to important improvements in diagnosis, individualized treatment, and drug development, as well as our understanding of how breast cancer arises.

  8. Molecular imaging of breast cancer: present and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Alcantara, David; Leal, Manuel Pernia; García-Bocanegra, Irene; García-Martín, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging technologies have undergone explosive growth over the past few decades and now play a central role in clinical oncology. But the truly transformative power of imaging in the clinical management of cancer patients lies ahead. Today, imaging is at a crossroads, with molecularly targeted imaging agents expected to broadly expand the capabilities of conventional anatomical imaging methods. Molecular imaging will allow clinicians to not only see where a tumor is located in the body, but also to visualize the expression and activity of specific molecules (e.g., proteases and protein kinases) and biological processes (e.g., apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis) that influence tumor behavior and/or response to therapy. Breast cancer, the most common cancer among women and a research area where our group is actively involved, is a very heterogeneous disease with diverse patterns of development and response to treatment. Hence, molecular imaging is expected to have a major impact on this type of cancer, leading to important improvements in diagnosis, individualized treatment, and drug development, as well as our understanding of how breast cancer arises. PMID:25566530

  9. A TSVD Analysis of Microwave Inverse Scattering for Breast Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Jacob D.; Van Veen, Barry D.; Hagness, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of methods have been applied to the inverse scattering problem for breast imaging at microwave frequencies. While many techniques have been leveraged toward a microwave imaging solution, they are all fundamentally dependent on the quality of the scattering data. Evaluating and optimizing the information contained in the data are, therefore, instrumental in understanding and achieving optimal performance from any particular imaging method. In this paper, a method of analysis is employed for the evaluation of the information contained in simulated scattering data from a known dielectric profile. The method estimates optimal imaging performance by mapping the data through the inverse of the scattering system. The inverse is computed by truncated singular-value decomposition of a system of scattering equations. The equations are made linear by use of the exact total fields in the imaging volume, which are available in the computational domain. The analysis is applied to anatomically realistic numerical breast phantoms. The utility of the method is demonstrated for a given imaging system through the analysis of various considerations in system design and problem formulation. The method offers an avenue for decoupling the problem of data selection from the problem of image formation from that data. PMID:22113770

  10. Breast density measurement: 3D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images versus 2D digital mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Lai, Chao-Jen; Chen, Lingyun; Liu, Xinming; Shen, Youtao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Ge, Shuaiping; Yi, Ying; Wang, Tianpeng; Yang, Wei T.; Shaw, Chris C.

    2009-02-01

    Breast density has been recognized as one of the major risk factors for breast cancer. However, breast density is currently estimated using mammograms which are intrinsically 2D in nature and cannot accurately represent the real breast anatomy. In this study, a novel technique for measuring breast density based on the segmentation of 3D cone beam CT (CBCT) images was developed and the results were compared to those obtained from 2D digital mammograms. 16 mastectomy breast specimens were imaged with a bench top flat-panel based CBCT system. The reconstructed 3D CT images were corrected for the cupping artifacts and then filtered to reduce the noise level, followed by using threshold-based segmentation to separate the dense tissue from the adipose tissue. For each breast specimen, volumes of the dense tissue structures and the entire breast were computed and used to calculate the volumetric breast density. BI-RADS categories were derived from the measured breast densities and compared with those estimated from conventional digital mammograms. The results show that in 10 of 16 cases the BI-RADS categories derived from the CBCT images were lower than those derived from the mammograms by one category. Thus, breasts considered as dense in mammographic examinations may not be considered as dense with the CBCT images. This result indicates that the relation between breast cancer risk and true (volumetric) breast density needs to be further investigated.

  11. Miniature imaging photometer. Phase 2. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Eather, R.H.; Lance, C.A.

    1990-07-15

    Progress is presented in the design and fabrication of a miniature imaging photometer for aurora and airglow studies. Detailed descriptions are presented of present status of optical design and fabrication, detector selection and detector housing fabrication, electronics and control system design and prototyping, selection of image analysis hardware and software, and control software development.

  12. Diagnosis of breast cancer biopsies using quantitative phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Han, Kevin; Luo, Zelun; Macias, Virgilia; Tangella, Krishnarao; Balla, Andre; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    The standard practice in the histopathology of breast cancers is to examine a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue biopsy under a microscope. The pathologist looks at certain morphological features, visible under the stain, to diagnose whether a tumor is benign or malignant. This determination is made based on qualitative inspection making it subject to investigator bias. Furthermore, since this method requires a microscopic examination by the pathologist it suffers from low throughput. A quantitative, label-free and high throughput method for detection of these morphological features from images of tissue biopsies is, hence, highly desirable as it would assist the pathologist in making a quicker and more accurate diagnosis of cancers. We present here preliminary results showing the potential of using quantitative phase imaging for breast cancer screening and help with differential diagnosis. We generated optical path length maps of unstained breast tissue biopsies using Spatial Light Interference Microscopy (SLIM). As a first step towards diagnosis based on quantitative phase imaging, we carried out a qualitative evaluation of the imaging resolution and contrast of our label-free phase images. These images were shown to two pathologists who marked the tumors present in tissue as either benign or malignant. This diagnosis was then compared against the diagnosis of the two pathologists on H&E stained tissue images and the number of agreements were counted. In our experiment, the agreement between SLIM and H&E based diagnosis was measured to be 88%. Our preliminary results demonstrate the potential and promise of SLIM for a push in the future towards quantitative, label-free and high throughput diagnosis.

  13. Breast MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    MRI - breast; Magnetic resonance imaging - breast; Breast cancer - MRI; Breast cancer screening - MRI ... the same breast or the other breast after breast cancer has been diagnosed Distinguish between scar tissue and ...

  14. Digital Mammography Imaging: Breast Tomosynthesis and Advanced Applications

    PubMed Central

    Helvie, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis This article discusses recent developments in advanced derivative technologies associated with digital mammography. Digital breast tomosynthesis – its principles, development, and early clinical trials are reviewed. Contrast enhanced digital mammography and combined imaging systems with digital mammography and ultrasound are also discussed. Although all these methods are currently research programs, they hold promise for improving cancer detection and characterization if early results are confirmed by clinical trials. PMID:20868894

  15. Scintillator and photodetector array optimization for functional breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garibaldi, F.; Cisbani, E.; Colilli, S.; Cusanno, F.; Giuliani, F.; Gricia, M.; Lucentini, M.; Pierangeli, L.; Santavenere, F.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Cinti, M. N.; Scafe, R.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine methods have been proposed as a means of imaging primary breast lesions and regional metastatic involvement based on tumor physiology. Recently, the positive predictive value of scintimammography using 99Tc labelled SestaMIBI has been reported to be as high as 81%, with an associated negative predictive value of 97%. Visualization of small (<1 cm) lesions using scintimammography may be complicated, however, by the effects of overlying and underlying background uptake of MIBI in the breast soft tissue and the deterioration of lesion contrast with distance from the gamma camera. For these reasons dedicated compact gamma cameras have been proposed and successfully used. Nevertheless, the detection of very small tumors (<5-10 mm) is still very difficult. Many parameters affect the breast small tumors detection. The degree of pixellation of both the scintillator and photodetector is critical for the intrinsic position resolution of the detector and for the overall imaging performance. In this paper, we examine the basic imaging properties of systems using arrays of scintillators and pixellated photodetectors. The influence of readout systems is also taken into account. Simulations as well as preliminary experimental results are presented.

  16. Photoacoustic image patterns of breast carcinoma and comparisons with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and vascular stained histopathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heijblom, M.; Piras, D.; Brinkhuis, M.; van Hespen, J. C. G.; van den Engh, F. M.; van der Schaaf, M.; Klaase, J. M.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Steenbergen, W.; Manohar, S.

    2015-07-01

    Photoacoustic (optoacoustic) imaging can visualize vasculature deep in tissue using the high contrast of hemoglobin to light, with the high-resolution possible with ultrasound detection. Since angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancer, leads to increased vascularity, photoacoustics holds promise in imaging breast cancer as shown in proof-of-principle studies. Here for the first time, we investigate if there are specific photoacoustic appearances of breast malignancies which can be related to the tumor vascularity, using an upgraded research imaging system, the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope. In addition to comparisons with x-ray and ultrasound images, in subsets of cases the photoacoustic images were compared with MR images, and with vascular staining in histopathology. We were able to identify lesions in suspect breasts at the expected locations in 28 of 29 cases. We discovered generally three types of photoacoustic appearances reminiscent of contrast enhancement types reported in MR imaging of breast malignancies, and first insights were gained into the relationship with tumor vascularity.

  17. Microwave imaging of the breast with incorporated structural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golnabi, Amir H.; Meaney, Paul M.; Geimer, Shireen D.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2010-03-01

    Microwave imaging for biomedical applications, especially for early detection of breast cancer and effective treatment monitoring, has attracted increasing interest in last several decades. This fact is due to the high contrast between the dielectric properties of the normal and malignant breast tissues at microwave frequencies ranging from high megahertz to low gigahertz. The available range of dielectric properties for different soft tissue can provide considerable functional information about tissue health. Nonetheless, one of the limiting weaknesses of microwave imaging is, unlike that for conventional modalities such as X-ray CT or MRI, it cannot inherently provide high-resolution images. The conventional modalities can produce highly resolved anatomical information but often cannot provide the functional information required for diagnoses. We have developed a soft prior regularization strategy that can incorporate the prior anatomical information from X-ray CT, MR or other sources, and use it in a way to exploit the resolution of these images while also retaining the functional nature of the microwave images. The anatomical information is first used to create an imaging zone mesh, which segments separate internal substructures, and an associated weighting matrix that numerically groups the values of closely related nodes within the mesh. This information is subsequently used as a regularizing term for the Gauss-Newton reconstruction algorithm. This approach exploits existing technology in a systematic way without making potentially biased assumptions about the properties of visible structures. In this paper we continue our initial investigation on this matter with a series of breast-shaped simulation and phantom experiments.

  18. Photoacoustic Imaging of Breast Microcalcifications: A Preliminary Study with 8-Gauge Core-Biopsied Breast Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ga Ram; Kang, Jeeun; Kwak, Jin Young; Chang, Jin Ho; Kim, Seung Il; Youk, Ji Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Background We presented the photoacoustic imaging (PAI) tool and to evaluate whether microcalcifications in breast tissue can be detected on photoacoustic (PA) images. Methods We collected 21 cores containing microcalcifications (n = 11, microcalcification group) and none (n = 10, control group) in stereotactic or ultrasound (US) guided 8-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsies. Photoacoustic (PA) images were acquired through ex vivo experiments by transmitting laser pulses with two different wavelengths (700 nm and 800 nm). The presence of microcalcifications in PA images were blindly assessed by two radiologists and compared with specimen mammography. A ratio of the signal amplitude occurring at 700 nm to that occurring at 800 nm was calculated for each PA focus and was called the PAI ratio. Results Based on the change of PA signal amplitude between 700 nm and 800 nm, 10 out of 11 specimens containing microcalcifications and 8 out of 10 specimens without calcifications were correctly identified on blind review; the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive and negative predictive values of our blind review were 90.91%, 80.0%, 85.71%, 83.33% and 88.89%. The PAI ratio in the microcalcification group was significantly higher than that in the control group (the median PAI ratio, 2.46 versus 1.11, respectively, P = .001). On subgroup analysis in the microcalcification group, neither malignant diagnosis nor the number or size of calcification-foci was proven to contribute to PAI ratios. Conclusion Breast microcalcifications generated distinguishable PA signals unlike breast tissue without calcifications. So, PAI, a non-ionizing and non-invasive hybrid imaging technique, can be an alternative in overcoming the limitations of conventional US imaging. PMID:25153128

  19. Imaging of common breast implants and implant-related complications: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amisha T; Jankharia, Bijal B

    2016-01-01

    The number of women undergoing breast implant procedures is increasing exponentially. It is, therefore, imperative for a radiologist to be familiar with the normal and abnormal imaging appearances of common breast implants. Diagnostic imaging studies such as mammography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging are used to evaluate implant integrity, detect abnormalities of the implant and its surrounding capsule, and detect breast conditions unrelated to implants. Magnetic resonance imaging of silicone breast implants, with its high sensitivity and specificity for detecting implant rupture, is the most reliable modality to asses implant integrity. Whichever imaging modality is used, the overall aim of imaging breast implants is to provide the pertinent information about implant integrity, detect implant failures, and to detect breast conditions unrelated to the implants, such as cancer. PMID:27413269

  20. Population of 100 realistic, patient-based computerized breast phantoms for multi-modality imaging research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segars, W. Paul; Veress, Alexander I.; Wells, Jered R.; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Kiarashi, Nooshin; Lo, Joseph Y.; Samei, Ehsan; Dobbins, James T.

    2014-03-01

    Breast imaging is an important area of research with many new techniques being investigated to further reduce the morbidity and mortality of breast cancer through early detection. Computerized phantoms can provide an essential tool to quantitatively compare new imaging systems and techniques. Current phantoms, however, lack sufficient realism in depicting the complex 3D anatomy of the breast. In this work, we created one-hundred realistic and detailed 3D computational breast phantoms based on high-resolution CT datasets from normal patients. We also developed a finiteelement application to simulate different compression states of the breast, making the phantoms applicable to multimodality imaging research. The breast phantoms and tools developed in this work were packaged into user-friendly software applications to distribute for breast imaging research.

  1. Comparison of breast specific gamma imaging and molecular breast tomosynthesis in breast cancer detection: Evaluation in phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zongyi; Williams, Mark B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Breast specific gamma imaging or molecular breast imaging (BSGI) obtains 2D images of 99mTc sestamibi distribution in the breast. Molecular breast tomosynthesis (MBT) maps the tracer distribution in 3D by acquiring multiple projections over a limited angular range. Here, the authors compare the performance of the two technologies in terms of spatial resolution, lesion contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in phantom studies under conditions of clinically relevant sestamibi dose and imaging time. Methods: The systems tested were a Dilon 6800 and a MBT prototype developed at the University of Virginia. Both systems comprise a pixelated sodium iodide scintillator, an array of position sensitive photomultipliers, and a parallel hole collimator. The active areas and energy resolution of the systems are similar. System sensitivity, spatial resolution, lesion contrast, and CNR were measured using a Petri dish, a point source phantom, and a breast phantom containing simulated lesions at two depths, respectively. A single BSGI projection was acquired. Five MBT projections were acquired over ±20°. For both modalities, the total scan count density was comparable to that observed for each in typical 10 min human scans following injection of 22 mCi (814 MBq) of 99mTc-sestamibi. To assess the impact of reducing the tracer dose, the pixel counts of projection images were later binomially subsampled by a factor of 2 to give images corresponding to an injected activity of approximately 11 mCi (407 MBq). Both unprocessed (pixelated) BSGI projections and interpolated (smoothed) BSGI images displayed by default on the Dilon 6800 workstation were analyzed. Volumetric images were reconstructed from the MBT projections using a maximum likelihood expectation maximization algorithm and extracted slices were analyzed. Results: Over a depth range of 1.5–7.5 cm, BSGI spatial resolution was 5.6–11.5 mm in unprocessed projections and 5.7–12.0 mm in interpolated images

  2. A Dataset for Breast Cancer Histopathological Image Classification.

    PubMed

    Spanhol, Fabio A; Oliveira, Luiz S; Petitjean, Caroline; Heutte, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Today, medical image analysis papers require solid experiments to prove the usefulness of proposed methods. However, experiments are often performed on data selected by the researchers, which may come from different institutions, scanners, and populations. Different evaluation measures may be used, making it difficult to compare the methods. In this paper, we introduce a dataset of 7909 breast cancer histopathology images acquired on 82 patients, which is now publicly available from http://web.inf.ufpr.br/vri/breast-cancer-database. The dataset includes both benign and malignant images. The task associated with this dataset is the automated classification of these images in two classes, which would be a valuable computer-aided diagnosis tool for the clinician. In order to assess the difficulty of this task, we show some preliminary results obtained with state-of-the-art image classification systems. The accuracy ranges from 80% to 85%, showing room for improvement is left. By providing this dataset and a standardized evaluation protocol to the scientific community, we hope to gather researchers in both the medical and the machine learning field to advance toward this clinical application.

  3. Breast Imaging Utilizing Dedicated Gamma Camera and (99m)Tc-MIBI: Experience at the Tel Aviv Medical Center and Review of the Literature Breast Imaging.

    PubMed

    Even-Sapir, Einat; Golan, Orit; Menes, Tehillah; Weinstein, Yuliana; Lerman, Hedva

    2016-07-01

    The scope of the current article is the clinical role of gamma cameras dedicated for breast imaging and (99m)Tc-MIBI tumor-seeking tracer, as both a screening modality among a healthy population and as a diagnostic modality in patients with breast cancer. Such cameras are now commercially available. The technology utilizing a camera composed of a NaI (Tl) detector is termed breast-specific gamma imaging. The technology of dual-headed camera composed of semiconductor cadmium zinc telluride detectors that directly converts gamma-ray energy into electronic signals is termed molecular breast imaging. Molecular breast imaging system has been installed at the Department of Nuclear medicine at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv in 2009. The article reviews the literature well as our own experience.

  4. Ultrasound imaging of breast tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Kenneth; Umphrey, Heidi; Lockhart, Mark; Robbin, Michelle; Forero-Torres, Andres

    2015-09-01

    A novel image processing strategy is detailed for simultaneous measurement of tumor perfusion and neovascular morphology parameters from a sequence of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) images. After normalization and tumor segmentation, a global time-intensity curve describing contrast agent flow was analyzed to derive surrogate measures of tumor perfusion (i.e., peak intensity, time-to-peak intensity, area under the curve, wash-in rate, wash-out rate). A maximum intensity image was generated from these same segmented image sequences, and each vascular component was skeletonized via a thinning algorithm. This skeletonized data set and collection of vessel segments were then investigated to extract parameters related to the neovascular network and physical architecture (i.e., vessel-to-tissue ratio, number of bifurcations, vessel count, average vessel length and tortuosity). An efficient computation of local perfusion parameters was also introduced and operated by averaging time-intensity curve data over each individual neovascular segment. Each skeletonized neovascular segment was then color-coded by these local measures to produce a parametric map detailing spatial properties of tumor perfusion. Longitudinal DCE-US image data sets were collected in six patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer using a Philips iU22 ultrasound system equipped with a L9-3 transducer and Definity contrast agent. Patients were imaged using US before and after contrast agent dosing at baseline and again at weeks 6, 12, 18 and 24 after treatment started. Preliminary clinical results suggested that breast tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be associated with temporal and spatial changes in DCE-US-derived parametric measures of tumor perfusion. Moreover, changes in neovascular morphology parametric measures may also help identify any breast tumor response (or lack thereof) to systemic treatment. Breast cancer management from early detection to therapeutic

  5. Image quality evaluation of breast tomosynthesis with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Malliori, A.; Bliznakova, K.; Speller, R. D.; Horrocks, J. A.; Rigon, L.; Tromba, G.; Pallikarakis, N.

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: This study investigates the image quality of tomosynthesis slices obtained from several acquisition sets with synchrotron radiation using a breast phantom incorporating details that mimic various breast lesions, in a heterogeneous background. Methods: A complex Breast phantom (MAMMAX) with a heterogeneous background and thickness that corresponds to 4.5 cm compressed breast with an average composition of 50% adipose and 50% glandular tissue was assembled using two commercial phantoms. Projection images using acquisition arcs of 24 Degree-Sign , 32 Degree-Sign , 40 Degree-Sign , 48 Degree-Sign , and 56 Degree-Sign at incident energy of 17 keV were obtained from the phantom with the synchrotron radiation for medical physics beamline at ELETTRA Synchrotron Light Laboratory. The total mean glandular dose was set equal to 2.5 mGy. Tomograms were reconstructed with simple multiple projection algorithm (MPA) and filtered MPA. In the latter case, a median filter, a sinc filter, and a combination of those two filters were applied on the experimental data prior to MPA reconstruction. Visual inspection, contrast to noise ratio, contrast, and artifact spread function were the figures of merit used in the evaluation of the visualisation and detection of low- and high-contrast breast features, as a function of the reconstruction algorithm and acquisition arc. To study the benefits of using monochromatic beams, single projection images at incident energies ranging from 14 to 27 keV were acquired with the same phantom and weighted to synthesize polychromatic images at a typical incident x-ray spectrum with W target. Results: Filters were optimised to reconstruct features with different attenuation characteristics and dimensions. In the case of 6 mm low-contrast details, improved visual appearance as well as higher contrast to noise ratio and contrast values were observed for the two filtered MPA algorithms that exploit the sinc filter. These features are better visualized

  6. Kilovoltage cone-beam CT imaging dose during breast radiotherapy: A dose comparison between a left and right breast setup

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Alexandra; Holloway, Lois; Begg, Jarrad; Nelson, Vinod; Metcalfe, Peter

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the delivered dose from a kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) acquired in breast treatment position for a left and right breast setup. The dose was measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters positioned within a female anthropomorphic phantom at organ locations. Imaging was performed on an Elekta Synergy XVI system with the phantom setup on a breast board. The image protocol involved 120 kVp, 140 mAs, and a 270° arc rotation clockwise 0° to 270° for the left breast setup and 270° to 180° for the right breast setup (maximum arc rotations possible). The dose delivered to the left breast, right breast, and heart was 5.1 mGy, 3.9 mGy, and 4.0 mGy for the left breast setup kV-CBCT, and 6.4 mGy, 6.0 mGy, and 4.8 mGy for the right breast setup kV-CBCT, respectively. The rotation arc of the kV-CBCT influenced the dose delivered, with the right breast setup kV-CBCT found to deliver a dose of up to 4 mGy or 105% higher to the treated breast′s surface in comparison with the left breast setup. This is attributed to the kV-CBCT source being more proximal to the anterior of the phantom for a right breast setup, whereas the source is more proximal to the posterior of the patient for a left-side scan.

  7. Detecting breast microcalcifications using super-resolution ultrasound imaging: a clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lianjie; Labyed, Yassin; Hanson, Kenneth; Sandoval, Daniel; Pohl, Jennifer; Williamson, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Imaging breast microcalcifications is crucial for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. It is challenging for current clinical ultrasound to image breast microcalcifications. However, new imaging techniques using data acquired with a synthetic-aperture ultrasound system have the potential to significantly improve ultrasound imaging. We recently developed a super-resolution ultrasound imaging method termed the phase-coherent multiple-signal classification (PC-MUSIC). This signal subspace method accounts for the phase response of transducer elements to improve image resolution. In this paper, we investigate the clinical feasibility of our super-resolution ultrasound imaging method for detecting breast microcalcifications. We use our custom-built, real-time synthetic-aperture ultrasound system to acquire breast ultrasound data for 40 patients whose mammograms show the presence of breast microcalcifications. We apply our super-resolution ultrasound imaging method to the patient data, and produce clear images of breast calcifications. Our super-resolution ultrasound PC-MUSIC imaging with synthetic-aperture ultrasound data can provide a new imaging modality for detecting breast microcalcifications in clinic without using ionizing radiation.

  8. Beamforming-Enhanced Inverse Scattering for Microwave Breast Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Burfeindt, Matthew J.; Shea, Jacob D.; Van Veen, Barry D.; Hagness, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a focal-beamforming-enhanced formulation of the distorted Born iterative method (DBIM) for microwave breast imaging. Incorporating beamforming into the imaging algorithm has the potential to mitigate the effect of noise on the image reconstruction. We apply the focal-beamforming-enhanced DBIM algorithm to simulated array measurements from two MRI-derived, anatomically realistic numerical breast phantoms and compare its performance to that of the DBIM formulated with two non-focal schemes. The first scheme simply averages scattered field data from reciprocal antenna pairs while the second scheme discards reciprocal pairs. Images of the dielectric properties are reconstructed for signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) ranging from 35 dB down to 0 dB. We show that, for low SNR, the focal beamforming algorithm creates reconstructions that are of higher fidelity with respect to the exact dielectric profiles of the phantoms as compared to reconstructions created using the non-focal schemes. At high SNR, the focal and non-focal reconstructions are of comparable quality. PMID:26663930

  9. Motion artifact reduction in breast dynamic infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Valentina; Knaflitz, Marco; Molinari, Filippo

    2009-03-01

    Dynamic infrared imaging is a promising technique in breast oncology. In this paper, a quantum well infrared photodetector infrared camera is used to acquire a sequence of consecutive thermal images of the patient's breast for 10 s. Information on the local blood perfusion is obtained from the spectral analysis of the time series at each image pixel. Due to respiratory and motion artifacts, the direct comparison of the temperature values that a pixel assumes along the sequence becomes difficult. In fact, the small temperature changes due to blood perfusion, of the order of 10-50 mK, which constitute the signal of interest in the time domain, are superimposed onto large temperature fluctuations due to the subject's motion, which represent noise. To improve the time series S/N, and as a consequence, enhance the specificity and sensitivity of the dynamic infrared examination, it is important to realign the thermal images of the acquisition sequence, thus reducing motion artifacts. In a previous study, we demonstrated that a registration algorithm based on fiducial points is suitable to both clinical applications and research, when associated with a proper set of skin markers. In this paper, we quantitatively evaluate the performance of different marker sets by means of a model that allows for estimating the S/N increment due to registration, and we conclude that a 12-marker set is a good compromise between motion artifact reduction and the time required to prepare the patient.

  10. Bioluminescence imaging of estrogen receptor activity during breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Vantaggiato, Cristina; Dell'Omo, Giulia; Ramachandran, Balaji; Manni, Isabella; Radaelli, Enrico; Scanziani, Eugenio; Piaggio, Giulia; Maggi, Adriana; Ciana, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ER) are known to play an important regulatory role in mammary gland development as well as in its neoplastic transformation. Although several studies highlighted the contribution of ER signaling in the breast transformation, little is known about the dynamics of ER state of activity during carcinogenesis due to the lack of appropriate models for measuring the extent of receptor signaling in time, in the same animal. To this aim, we have developed a reporter mouse model for the non-invasive in vivo imaging of ER activity: the ERE-Luc reporter mouse. ERE-Luc is a transgenic mouse generated with a firefly luciferase (Luc) reporter gene driven by a minimal promoter containing an estrogen responsive element (ERE). This model allows to measure receptor signaling in longitudinal studies by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Here, we have induced sporadic mammary cancers by treating systemically ERE-Luc reporter mice with DMBA (9,10-dimethyl 1,2-benzanthracene) and measured receptor signaling by in vivo imaging in individual animals from early stage until a clinically palpable tumor appeared in the mouse breast. We showed that DMBA administration induces an increase of bioluminescence in the whole abdominal area 6 h after treatment, the signal rapidly disappears. Several weeks later, strong bioluminescence is observed in the area corresponding to the mammary glands. In vivo and ex vivo imaging analysis demonstrated that this bioluminescent signal is localized in the breast area undergoing neoplastic transformation. We conclude that this non-invasive assay is a novel relevant tool to identify the activation of the ER signaling prior the morphological detection of the neoplastic transformation. PMID:27069764

  11. Bioluminescence imaging of estrogen receptor activity during breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Vantaggiato, Cristina; Dell'Omo, Giulia; Ramachandran, Balaji; Manni, Isabella; Radaelli, Enrico; Scanziani, Eugenio; Piaggio, Giulia; Maggi, Adriana; Ciana, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ER) are known to play an important regulatory role in mammary gland development as well as in its neoplastic transformation. Although several studies highlighted the contribution of ER signaling in the breast transformation, little is known about the dynamics of ER state of activity during carcinogenesis due to the lack of appropriate models for measuring the extent of receptor signaling in time, in the same animal. To this aim, we have developed a reporter mouse model for the non-invasive in vivo imaging of ER activity: the ERE-Luc reporter mouse. ERE-Luc is a transgenic mouse generated with a firefly luciferase (Luc) reporter gene driven by a minimal promoter containing an estrogen responsive element (ERE). This model allows to measure receptor signaling in longitudinal studies by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Here, we have induced sporadic mammary cancers by treating systemically ERE-Luc reporter mice with DMBA (9,10-dimethyl 1,2-benzanthracene) and measured receptor signaling by in vivo imaging in individual animals from early stage until a clinically palpable tumor appeared in the mouse breast. We showed that DMBA administration induces an increase of bioluminescence in the whole abdominal area 6 h after treatment, the signal rapidly disappears. Several weeks later, strong bioluminescence is observed in the area corresponding to the mammary glands. In vivo and ex vivo imaging analysis demonstrated that this bioluminescent signal is localized in the breast area undergoing neoplastic transformation. We conclude that this non-invasive assay is a novel relevant tool to identify the activation of the ER signaling prior the morphological detection of the neoplastic transformation.

  12. Diagnostic Workup and Costs of a Single Supplemental Molecular Breast Imaging Screen of Mammographically Dense Breasts

    PubMed Central

    Hruska, Carrie B.; Conners, Amy Lynn; Jones, Katie N.; O’Connor, Michael K.; Moriarty, James P.; Boughey, Judy C.; Rhodes, Deborah J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine additional diagnostic workup and costs generated by addition of a single molecular breast imaging (MBI) examination to screening mammography for women with dense breasts. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Women with mammographically dense breasts presenting for screening mammography underwent adjunct MBI performed with 300 MBq 99mTc-sestamibi and a direct-conversion cadmium-zinc-telluride dual-head gamma camera. All subsequent imaging tests and biopsies were tracked for a minimum of 1 year. The positive predictive value of biopsies performed (PPV3), benign biopsy rate, cost per patient screened, and cost per cancer detected were determined. RESULTS A total of 1651 women enrolled in the study. Among the 1585 participants with complete reference standard, screening mammography alone prompted diagnostic workup of 175 (11.0%) patients and biopsy of 20 (1.3%) and yielded five malignancies (PPV3, 25%). Results of combined screening mammography plus MBI prompted diagnostic workup of 279 patients (17.6%) and biopsy of 67 (4.2%) and yielded 19 malignancies (PPV3, 28.4%). The benign biopsy rates were 0.9% (15 of 1585) for screening mammography alone and 3.0% (48 of 1585) for the combination (p < 0.001). The addition of MBI increased the cost per patient screened from $176 for mammography alone to $571 for the combination. However, cost per cancer detected was lower for the combination ($47,597) than for mammography alone ($55,851). CONCLUSION The addition of MBI to screening mammography of women with dense breasts increased the overall costs and benign biopsy rate but also increased the cancer detection rate, which resulted in a lower cost per cancer detected than with screening mammography alone. PMID:26001247

  13. The Image of Career and Technical Education. Practice Application Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bettina Lankard

    Career and technical education (CTE) instructors can use four strategies to present a new image of CTE as a viable strategy for education and work. Strategy 1 is to give students something to brag about. Three ways to help students see their vocational studies as unique and special opportunities for satisfying and rich experiences are to provide…

  14. Automated planning of breast radiotherapy using cone beam CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Amit, Guy; Purdie, Thomas G.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Develop and clinically validate a methodology for using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in an automated treatment planning framework for breast IMRT. Methods: A technique for intensity correction of CBCT images was developed and evaluated. The technique is based on histogram matching of CBCT image sets, using information from “similar” planning CT image sets from a database of paired CBCT and CT image sets (n = 38). Automated treatment plans were generated for a testing subset (n = 15) on the planning CT and the corrected CBCT. The plans generated on the corrected CBCT were compared to the CT-based plans in terms of beam parameters, dosimetric indices, and dose distributions. Results: The corrected CBCT images showed considerable similarity to their corresponding planning CTs (average mutual information 1.0±0.1, average sum of absolute differences 185 ± 38). The automated CBCT-based plans were clinically acceptable, as well as equivalent to the CT-based plans with average gantry angle difference of 0.99°±1.1°, target volume overlap index (Dice) of 0.89±0.04 although with slightly higher maximum target doses (4482±90 vs 4560±84, P < 0.05). Gamma index analysis (3%, 3 mm) showed that the CBCT-based plans had the same dose distribution as plans calculated with the same beams on the registered planning CTs (average gamma index 0.12±0.04, gamma <1 in 99.4%±0.3%). Conclusions: The proposed method demonstrates the potential for a clinically feasible and efficient online adaptive breast IMRT planning method based on CBCT imaging, integrating automation.

  15. Augmented Reality Imaging System: 3D Viewing of a Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, David B.; Boone, John M.; Petricoin, Emanuel; Liotta, Lance; Wilson, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective To display images of breast cancer from a dedicated breast CT using Depth 3-Dimensional (D3D) augmented reality. Methods A case of breast cancer imaged using contrast-enhanced breast CT (Computed Tomography) was viewed with the augmented reality imaging, which uses a head display unit (HDU) and joystick control interface. Results The augmented reality system demonstrated 3D viewing of the breast mass with head position tracking, stereoscopic depth perception, focal point convergence and the use of a 3D cursor and joy-stick enabled fly through with visualization of the spiculations extending from the breast cancer. Conclusion The augmented reality system provided 3D visualization of the breast cancer with depth perception and visualization of the mass's spiculations. The augmented reality system should be further researched to determine the utility in clinical practice. PMID:27774517

  16. Classification System for Identifying Women at Risk for Altered Partial Breast Irradiation Recommendations After Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalchik, Kristin V.; Vallow, Laura A.; McDonough, Michelle; Thomas, Colleen S.; Heckman, Michael G.; Peterson, Jennifer L.; Adkisson, Cameron D.; Serago, Christopher; McLaughlin, Sarah A.

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To study the utility of preoperative breast MRI for partial breast irradiation (PBI) patient selection, using multivariable analysis of significant risk factors to create a classification rule. Methods and Materials: Between 2002 and 2009, 712 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent preoperative bilateral breast MRI at Mayo Clinic Florida. Of this cohort, 566 were retrospectively deemed eligible for PBI according to the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-39 inclusion criteria using physical examination, mammogram, and/or ultrasound. Magnetic resonance images were then reviewed to determine their impact on patient eligibility. The patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated to determine risk factors for altered PBI eligibility after MRI and to create a classification rule. Results: Of the 566 patients initially eligible for PBI, 141 (25%) were found ineligible because of pathologically proven MRI findings. Magnetic resonance imaging detected additional ipsilateral breast cancer in 118 (21%). Of these, 62 (11%) had more extensive disease than originally noted before MRI, and 64 (11%) had multicentric disease. Contralateral breast cancer was detected in 28 (5%). Four characteristics were found to be significantly associated with PBI ineligibility after MRI on multivariable analysis: premenopausal status (P=.021), detection by palpation (P<.001), first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer (P=.033), and lobular histology (P=.002). Risk factors were assigned a score of 0-2. The risk of altered PBI eligibility from MRI based on number of risk factors was 0:18%; 1:22%; 2:42%; 3:65%. Conclusions: Preoperative bilateral breast MRI altered the PBI recommendations for 25% of women. Women who may undergo PBI should be considered for breast MRI, especially those with lobular histology or with 2 or more of the following risk factors: premenopausal, detection by palpation, and first-degree relative with a history of

  17. Design of optimal collimation for dedicated molecular breast imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Weinmann, Amanda L.; Hruska, Carrie B.; O'Connor, Michael K.

    2009-03-15

    Molecular breast imaging (MBI) is a functional imaging technique that uses specialized small field-of-view gamma cameras to detect the preferential uptake of a radiotracer in breast lesions. MBI has potential to be a useful adjunct method to screening mammography for the detection of occult breast cancer. However, a current limitation of MBI is the high radiation dose (a factor of 7-10 times that of screening mammography) associated with current technology. The purpose of this study was to optimize the gamma camera collimation with the aim of improving sensitivity while retaining adequate resolution for the detection of sub-10-mm lesions. Square-hole collimators with holes matched to the pixilated cadmium zinc telluride detector elements of the MBI system were designed. Data from MBI patient studies and parameters of existing dual-head MBI systems were used to guide the range of desired collimator resolutions, source-to-collimator distances, pixel sizes, and collimator materials that were examined. General equations describing collimator performance for a conventional gamma camera were used in the design process along with several important adjustments to account for the specialized imaging geometry of the MBI system. Both theoretical calculations and a Monte Carlo model were used to measure the geometric efficiency (or sensitivity) and resolution of each designed collimator. Results showed that through optimal collimation, collimator sensitivity could be improved by factors of 1.5-3.2, while maintaining a collimator resolution of either {<=}5 or {<=}7.5 mm at a distance of 3 cm from the collimator face. These gains in collimator sensitivity permit an inversely proportional drop in the required dose to perform MBI.

  18. Image Cytometry Data From Breast Lesions Analyzed using Hybrid Networks.

    PubMed

    Mat Sakim, H A; Mat Isa, N A; G Naguib, Raouf; Sherbet, Gajanan

    2005-01-01

    The treatment and therapy to be administered on breast cancer patients are dependent on the stage of the disease at time of diagnosis. It is therefore crucial to determine the stage at the earliest time possible. Tumor dissemination to axillary lymph nodes has been regarded as an indication of tumor aggression, thus the stage of the disease. Neural networks have been employed in many applications including breast cancer prognosis. The performance of the networks have often been quoted based on accuracy and mean squared error. In this paper, the performance of hybrid networks based on Multilayer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function networks to predict axillary lymph node involvement have been investigated. A measurement of how confident the networks are with respect to the results produced is also proposed. The input layer of the networks include four image cytometry features extracted from fine needle aspiration of breast lesions. The highest accuracy achieved by the hybrid networks was 69% only. However, most of the correctly predicted cases had a high confidence level.

  19. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part I. The image acquisition process

    SciTech Connect

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-15

    Mammography is a very well-established imaging modality for the early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. However, since the introduction of digital imaging to the realm of radiology, more advanced, and especially tomographic imaging methods have been made possible. One of these methods, breast tomosynthesis, has finally been introduced to the clinic for routine everyday use, with potential to in the future replace mammography for screening for breast cancer. In this two part paper, the extensive research performed during the development of breast tomosynthesis is reviewed, with a focus on the research addressing the medical physics aspects of this imaging modality. This first paper will review the research performed on the issues relevant to the image acquisition process, including system design, optimization of geometry and technique, x-ray scatter, and radiation dose. The companion to this paper will review all other aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging, including the reconstruction process.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation of breast imaging using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fitousi, N. T.; Delis, H.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Synchrotron radiation (SR), being the brightest artificial source of x-rays with a very promising geometry, has raised the scientific expectations that it could be used for breast imaging with optimized results. The ''in situ'' evaluation of this technique is difficult to perform, mostly due to the limited available SR facilities worldwide. In this study, a simulation model for SR breast imaging was developed, based on Monte Carlo simulation techniques, and validated using data acquired in the SYRMEP beamline of the Elettra facility in Trieste, Italy. Furthermore, primary results concerning the performance of SR were derived. Methods: The developed model includes the exact setup of the SR beamline, considering that the x-ray source is located at almost 23 m from the slit, while the photon energy was considered to originate from a very narrow Gaussian spectrum. Breast phantoms, made of Perspex and filled with air cavities, were irradiated with energies in the range of 16-28 keV. The model included a Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S detector with the same characteristics as the one available in the SYRMEP beamline. Following the development and validation of the model, experiments were performed in order to evaluate the contrast resolution of SR. A phantom made of adipose tissue and filled with inhomogeneities of several compositions and sizes was designed and utilized to simulate the irradiation under conventional mammography and SR conditions. Results: The validation results of the model showed an excellent agreement with the experimental data, with the correlation for contrast being 0.996. Significant differences only appeared at the edges of the phantom, where phase effects occur. The initial evaluation experiments revealed that SR shows very good performance in terms of the image quality indices utilized, namely subject contrast and contrast to noise ratio. The response of subject contrast to energy is monotonic; however, this does not stand for contrast to noise

  1. Automated 3D whole-breast ultrasound imaging: results of a clinical pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leproux, Anaïs; van Beek, Michiel; de Vries, Ute; Wasser, Martin; Bakker, Leon; Cuisenaire, Olivier; van der Mark, Martin; Entrekin, Rob

    2010-03-01

    We present the first clinical results of a novel fully automated 3D breast ultrasound system. This system was designed to match a Philips diffuse optical mammography system to enable straightforward coregistration of optical and ultrasound images. During a measurement, three 3D transducers scan the breast at 4 different views. The resulting 12 datasets are registered together into a single volume using spatial compounding. In a pilot study, benign and malignant masses could be identified in the 3D images, however lesion visibility is less compared to conventional breast ultrasound. Clear breast shape visualization suggests that ultrasound could support the reconstruction and interpretation of diffuse optical tomography images.

  2. Breast Imaging in the Era of Big Data: Structured Reporting and Data Mining

    PubMed Central

    Margolies, Laurie R.; Pandey, Gaurav; Horowitz, Eliot R.; Mendelson, David S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this article is to describe structured reporting and the development of large databases for use in data mining in breast imaging. CONCLUSION The results of millions of breast imaging examinations are reported with structured tools based on the BI-RADS lexicon. Much of these data are stored in accessible media. Robust computing power creates great opportunity for data scientists and breast imagers to collaborate to improve breast cancer detection and optimize screening algorithms. Data mining can create knowledge, but the questions asked and their complexity require extremely powerful and agile databases. New data technologies can facilitate outcomes research and precision medicine. PMID:26587797

  3. Three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging system in line confocal mode for breast cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Fei; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2010-11-01

    We present a three-dimensional (3-D) photoacoustic imaging system (PAIS) in line confocal mode for breast cancer detection. With the line confocal mode, the spatial resolution of the PAIS was tested to be improved about three times compared with the nonconfocal mode PAIS. Furthermore, with a flexible scanning system and no compression on the breast, the PAIS could supply a comfortable and safe diagnosis process for the patient. An ex vivo breast tumor imaging experiment was performed and the tumor was visualized by the 3-D photoacoustic image. The experimental result demonstrated that the system had great potential of application in breast cancer detection.

  4. Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Assessment of Internal Mammary Lymph Node Status in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung Won

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of malignant internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLNs) and benign IMLNs in breast cancer patients. Methods From 2009 to 2014, the records of 85 patients with IMLNs were archived using MRI report data; 26 patients with small size (long axis diameter <5 mm) nodes were subsequently excluded. The current study evaluated internal mammary lymph nodes in 59 patients who underwent breast MRI for breast cancer staging and for posttherapy follow-up. All MRI findings were retrospectively evaluated. Malignancy was determined based on pathologic examination and positron emission tomography computed tomography findings. Independent t-tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, chi-square tests, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis were used. Results Among MRI features, there were statistically significant differences between benign and malignant IMLN groups, in short axis length (3.6±1.3 vs. 8.2±2.9 mm, respectively), long axis length (8.1±2.4 vs. 14.5±4.8 mm, respectively), short/long axis ratio (0.45±0.10 vs. 0.59±0.17, respectively), absent fatty hilum (mean, 0% vs. 95%, respectively), and restricted diffusion (15.8% vs. 85.0%, respectively) (p<0.050). Multiplicity and location of intercostal spaces was not different between the two groups. Short axis length was the most discriminative variable for predicting metastatic nodes (area under the ROC curve, 0.951; threshold, 4 mm; sensitivity, 92.5%; specificity, 84.2%). Conclusion Conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI are helpful to detect metastasis of internal mammary lymph nodes in breast cancer. PMID:27382396

  5. A computer simulation study comparing lesion detection accuracy with digital mammography, breast tomosynthesis, and cone-beam CT breast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gong Xing; Glick, Stephen J.; Liu, Bob; Vedula, Aruna A.; Thacker, Samta

    2006-04-15

    Although conventional mammography is currently the best modality to detect early breast cancer, it is limited in that the recorded image represents the superposition of a three-dimensional (3D) object onto a 2D plane. Recently, two promising approaches for 3D volumetric breast imaging have been proposed, breast tomosynthesis (BT) and CT breast imaging (CTBI). To investigate possible improvements in lesion detection accuracy with either breast tomosynthesis or CT breast imaging as compared to digital mammography (DM), a computer simulation study was conducted using simulated lesions embedded into a structured 3D breast model. The computer simulation realistically modeled x-ray transport through a breast model, as well as the signal and noise propagation through a CsI based flat-panel imager. Polyenergetic x-ray spectra of Mo/Mo 28 kVp for digital mammography, Mo/Rh 28 kVp for BT, and W/Ce 50 kVp for CTBI were modeled. For the CTBI simulation, the intensity of the x-ray spectra for each projection view was determined so as to provide a total average glandular dose of 4 mGy, which is approximately equivalent to that given in conventional two-view screening mammography. The same total dose was modeled for both the DM and BT simulations. Irregular lesions were simulated by using a stochastic growth algorithm providing lesions with an effective diameter of 5 mm. Breast tissue was simulated by generating an ensemble of backgrounds with a power law spectrum, with the composition of 50% fibroglandular and 50% adipose tissue. To evaluate lesion detection accuracy, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study was performed with five observers reading an ensemble of images for each case. The average area under the ROC curves (A{sub z}) was 0.76 for DM, 0.93 for BT, and 0.94 for CTBI. Results indicated that for the same dose, a 5 mm lesion embedded in a structured breast phantom was detected by the two volumetric breast imaging systems, BT and CTBI, with statistically

  6. Hybrid PET/MR imaging: physics and technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shetal N; Huang, Steve S

    2015-08-01

    In just over a decade, hybrid imaging with FDG PET/CT has become a standard bearer in the management of cancer patients. An exquisitely sensitive whole-body imaging modality, it combines the ability to detect subtle biologic changes with FDG PET and the anatomic information offered by CT scans. With advances in MR technology and advent of novel targeted PET radiotracers, hybrid PET/MRI is an evolutionary technique that is poised to revolutionize hybrid imaging. It offers unparalleled spatial resolution and functional multi-parametric data combined with biologic information in the non-invasive detection and characterization of diseases, without the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation. This article reviews the basic principles of FDG PET and MR imaging, discusses the salient technical developments of hybrid PET/MR systems, and provides an introduction to FDG PET/MR image acquisition.

  7. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System Category 3 Lesions Detected on Whole-Breast Screening Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sang Yu; Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Hahn, Soo Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed the incidence and cancer rate of probably benign lesions detected on bilateral whole-breast screening ultrasound (US), which corresponded to US Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 3, and evaluated the proper management of those lesions. Methods This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board in our institution, which waived informed patient consent. We retrospectively reviewed US images of 1,666 patients who underwent bilateral whole-breast screening US as a supplemental screening test to negative screening mammography or screening US only. The incidence, clinical course, and cancer rate of screening US-detected probably benign lesions corresponding to US BI-RADS category 3 were investigated, and the size and multiplicity of screening US-detected category 3 lesions were evaluated. Results Probably benign lesions corresponding to US BI-RADS category 3 were detected in 689 of 1,666 patients (41.4%) who underwent screening US. Among them, 653 had follow-up US images for at least 24 months, and among these 653, 190 (29.1%) had multiple bilateral category 3 lesions. Moreover, 539 of 1,666 patients (32.4%) had lesions ≤1 cm in size and 114 of 1,666 (6.8%) had lesions >1 cm (median, 0.82 cm; range, 0.3–4.2 cm). Four of the 653 patients (0.6%) showed suspicious interval changes and were categorized into BI-RADS category 4. Biopsy analysis confirmed only one lesion as invasive ductal carcinoma at the 6-month follow-up; another lesion was an intraductal papilloma and the remaining two were fibroadenomas. Overall cancer rate of the screening US-detected BI-RADS category 3 lesions was 0.2%. Conclusion The incidence of category 3 lesions detected on screening US only was very high, but the cancer rate was very low. Therefore, in an average-risk population, routine screening US is preferable over short-term follow-up for BI-RADS category 3 lesions detected on whole-breast screening US. PMID:27721880

  8. Breast segmentation in MR images using three-dimensional spiral scanning and dynamic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Luan; Lian, Yanyun; Gu, Yajia; Li, Qiang

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been widely used for risk assessment and diagnosis of breast cancer in clinic. To develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system, breast segmentation is the first important and challenging task. The accuracy of subsequent quantitative measurement of breast density and abnormalities depends on accurate definition of the breast area in the images. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a fully automated method for accurate segmentation of breast in three-dimensional (3-D) MR images. A fast method was developed to identify bounding box, i.e., the volume of interest (VOI), for breasts. A 3-D spiral scanning method was used to transform the VOI of each breast into a single two-dimensional (2-D) generalized polar-coordinate image. Dynamic programming technique was applied to the transformed 2-D image for delineating the "optimal" contour of the breast. The contour of the breast in the transformed 2-D image was utilized to reconstruct the segmentation results in the 3-D MR images using interpolation and lookup table. The preliminary results on 17 cases show that the proposed method can obtain accurate segmentation of the breast based on subjective observation. By comparing with the manually delineated region of 16 breasts in 8 cases, an overlap index of 87.6% +/- 3.8% (mean +/- SD), and a volume agreement of 93.4% +/- 4.5% (mean +/- SD) were achieved, respectively. It took approximately 3 minutes for our method to segment the breast in an MR scan of 256 slices.

  9. Differentiating cancerous from normal breast tissue by redox imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, He N.; Tchou, Julia; Feng, Min; Zhao, Huaqing; Li, Lin Z.

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal metabolism can be a hallmark of cancer occurring early before detectable histological changes and may serve as an early detection biomarker. The current gold standard to establish breast cancer (BC) diagnosis is histological examination of biopsy. Previously we have found that pre-cancer and cancer tissues in animal models displayed abnormal mitochondrial redox state. Our technique of quantitatively measuring the mitochondrial redox state has the potential to be implemented as an early detection tool for cancer and may provide prognostic value. We therefore in this present study, investigated the feasibility of quantifying the redox state of tumor samples from 16 BC patients. Tumor tissue aliquots were collected from both normal and cancerous tissue from the affected cancer-bearing breasts of 16 female patients (5 TNBC, 9 ER+, 2 ER+/Her2+) shortly after surgical resection. All specimens were snap-frozen with liquid nitrogen on site and scanned later with the Chance redox scanner, i.e., the 3D cryogenic NADH/oxidized flavoprotein (Fp) fluorescence imager. Our preliminary results showed that both NADH and Fp (including FAD, i.e., flavin adenine dinucleotide) signals in the cancerous tissues roughly tripled to quadrupled those in the normal tissues (p<0.05) and the redox ratio Fp/(NADH+Fp) was about 27% higher in the cancerous tissues than in the normal ones (p<0.05). Our findings suggest that the redox state could differentiate between cancer and non-cancer breast tissues in human patients and this novel redox scanning procedure may assist in tissue diagnosis in freshly procured biopsy samples prior to tissue fixation. We are in the process of evaluating the prognostic value of the redox imaging indices for BC.

  10. Microwave Radar Imaging of Heterogeneous Breast Tissue Integrating A Priori Information

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Thomas N.; Sarafianou, Mantalena; Craddock, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional radar-based image reconstruction techniques fail when they are applied to heterogeneous breast tissue, since the underlying in-breast relative permittivity is unknown or assumed to be constant. This results in a systematic error during the process of image formation. A recent trend in microwave biomedical imaging is to extract the relative permittivity from the object under test to improve the image reconstruction quality and thereby to enhance the diagnostic assessment. In this paper, we present a novel radar-based methodology for microwave breast cancer detection in heterogeneous breast tissue integrating a 3D map of relative permittivity as a priori information. This leads to a novel image reconstruction formulation where the delay-and-sum focusing takes place in time rather than range domain. Results are shown for a heterogeneous dense (class-4) and a scattered fibroglandular (class-2) numerical breast phantom using Bristol's 31-element array configuration. PMID:25435861

  11. A comparative study in ultrasound breast imaging classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, Moi Hoon; Edirisinghe, Eran A.; Bez, Helmut E.

    2009-02-01

    American College of Radiology introduces a standard in classification, the breast imaging reporting and data system (BIRADS), standardize the reporting of ultrasound findings, clarify its interpretation, and facilitate communication between clinicians. The effective use of new technologies to support healthcare initiatives is important and current research is moving towards implementing computer tools in the diagnostics process. Initially a detailed study was carried out to evaluate the performance of two commonly used appearance based classification algorithms, based on the use of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and two dimensional linear discriminant analysis (2D-LDA). The study showed that these two appearance based classification approaches are not capable of handling the classification of ultrasound breast image lesions. Therefore further investigations in the use of a popular feature based classifier - Support Vector Machine (SVM) was conducted. A pre-processing step before feature based classification is feature extraction, which involve shape, texture and edge descriptors for the Region of Interest (ROI). The input dataset to SVM classification is from a fully automated ROI detection. We achieve the success rate of 0.550 in PCA, 0.500 in LDA, and 0.931 in SVM. The best combination of features in SVM classification is to combine the shape, texture and edge descriptors, with sensitivity 0.840 and specificity 0.968. This paper briefly reviews the background to the project and then details the ongoing research. In conclusion, we discuss the contributions, limitations, and future plans of our work.

  12. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics. PMID:27599892

  13. Multiplexed ion beam imaging (MIBI) of human breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Angelo, Michael; Bendall, Sean C.; Finck, Rachel; Hale, Matthew B.; Hitzman, Chuck; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Levenson, Richard M.; Lowe, John B.; Liu, Scot D.; Zhao, Shuchun; Natkunam, Yasodha; Nolan, Garry P.

    2014-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a tool for visualizing protein expression employed as part of the diagnostic work-up for the majority of solid tissue malignancies. Existing IHC methods use antibodies tagged with fluorophores or enzyme reporters that generate colored pigments. Because these reporters exhibit spectral and spatial overlap when used simultaneously, multiplexed IHC is not routinely used in clinical settings. We have developed a method that uses secondary ion mass spectrometry to image antibodies tagged with isotopically pure elemental metal reporters. Multiplexed ion beam imaging (MIBI) is capable of analyzing up to 100 targets simultaneously over a five-log dynamic range. Here, we used MIBI to analyze formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human breast tumor tissue sections stained with ten labels simultaneously. The resulting data suggest that MIBI will provide new insights by integrating tissue microarchitecture with highly multiplexed protein expression patterns, and will be valuable for basic research, drug discovery and clinical diagnostics. PMID:24584119

  14. Multiplexed ion beam imaging of human breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Michael; Bendall, Sean C; Finck, Rachel; Hale, Matthew B; Hitzman, Chuck; Borowsky, Alexander D; Levenson, Richard M; Lowe, John B; Liu, Scot D; Zhao, Shuchun; Natkunam, Yasodha; Nolan, Garry P

    2014-04-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a tool for visualizing protein expression that is employed as part of the diagnostic workup for the majority of solid tissue malignancies. Existing IHC methods use antibodies tagged with fluorophores or enzyme reporters that generate colored pigments. Because these reporters exhibit spectral and spatial overlap when used simultaneously, multiplexed IHC is not routinely used in clinical settings. We have developed a method that uses secondary ion mass spectrometry to image antibodies tagged with isotopically pure elemental metal reporters. Multiplexed ion beam imaging (MIBI) is capable of analyzing up to 100 targets simultaneously over a five-log dynamic range. Here, we used MIBI to analyze formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human breast tumor tissue sections stained with ten labels simultaneously. The resulting data suggest that MIBI can provide new insights into disease pathogenesis that will be valuable for basic research, drug discovery and clinical diagnostics.

  15. Breast density mapping based upon system calibration, x-ray techniques, and FFDM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Biao; Smith, Andrew P.; Jing, Zhenxue; Wu, Tao

    2007-03-01

    Clinical studies have correlated a high breast density to a women's risk of breast cancer. A breast density measurement that can quantitatively depict the volume distribution and percentage of dense tissues in breasts would be very useful for risk factor assessment of breast cancer, and might be more predictive of risks than the common but subjective and coarse 4-point BIRADS scale. This paper proposes to use a neural-network mapping to compute the breast density information based upon system calibration data, x-ray techniques, and Full Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) images. The mapping consists of four modules, namely, system calibration, generator of beam quality, generator of normalized absorption, and a multi-layer feed-forward neural network. As the core of breast density mapping, the network accepts x-ray target/filter combination, normalized x-ray absorption, pixel-wise breast thickness map, and x-ray beam quality during image acquisition as input elements, and exports a pixel-wise breast density distribution and a single breast density percentage for the imaged breast. Training and testing data sets for the design and verification of the network were formulated from calibrated x-ray beam quality, imaging data with a step wedge phantom under a variety x-ray imaging techniques, and nominal breast densities of tissue equivalent materials. The network was trained using a Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm based back-propagation learning method. Various thickness and glandular density phantom studies were performed with clinical x-ray techniques. Preliminary results showed that the neural network mapping is promising in accurately computing glandular density distribution and breast density percentage.

  16. Automatic tissue segmentation of breast biopsies imaged by QPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Nguyen, Tan; Kandel, Mikhail; Marcias, Virgilia; Do, Minh; Tangella, Krishnarao; Balla, Andre; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    The current tissue evaluation method for breast cancer would greatly benefit from higher throughput and less inter-observer variation. Since quantitative phase imaging (QPI) measures physical parameters of tissue, it can be used to find quantitative markers, eliminating observer subjectivity. Furthermore, since the pixel values in QPI remain the same regardless of the instrument used, classifiers can be built to segment various tissue components without need for color calibration. In this work we use a texton-based approach to segment QPI images of breast tissue into various tissue components (epithelium, stroma or lumen). A tissue microarray comprising of 900 unstained cores from 400 different patients was imaged using Spatial Light Interference Microscopy. The training data were generated by manually segmenting the images for 36 cores and labelling each pixel (epithelium, stroma or lumen.). For each pixel in the data, a response vector was generated by the Leung-Malik (LM) filter bank and these responses were clustered using the k-means algorithm to find the centers (called textons). A random forest classifier was then trained to find the relationship between a pixel's label and the histogram of these textons in that pixel's neighborhood. The segmentation was carried out on the validation set by calculating the texton histogram in a pixel's neighborhood and generating a label based on the model learnt during training. Segmentation of the tissue into various components is an important step toward efficiently computing parameters that are markers of disease. Automated segmentation, followed by diagnosis, can improve the accuracy and speed of analysis leading to better health outcomes.

  17. Surface impedance based microwave imaging method for breast cancer screening: contrast-enhanced scenario.

    PubMed

    Güren, Onan; Çayören, Mehmet; Ergene, Lale Tükenmez; Akduman, Ibrahim

    2014-10-01

    A new microwave imaging method that uses microwave contrast agents is presented for the detection and localization of breast tumours. The method is based on the reconstruction of breast surface impedance through a measured scattered field. The surface impedance modelling allows for representing the electrical properties of the breasts in terms of impedance boundary conditions, which enable us to map the inner structure of the breasts into surface impedance functions. Later a simple quantitative method is proposed to screen breasts against malignant tumours where the detection procedure is based on weighted cross correlations among impedance functions. Numerical results demonstrate that the method is capable of detecting small malignancies and provides reasonable localization.

  18. Ultrasound breast imaging using frequency domain reverse time migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, O.; Zuberi, M. A. H.; Pratt, R. G.; Duric, N.

    2016-04-01

    Conventional ultrasonography reconstruction techniques, such as B-mode, are based on a simple wave propagation model derived from a high frequency approximation. Therefore, to minimize model mismatch, the central frequency of the input pulse is typically chosen between 3 and 15 megahertz. Despite the increase in theoretical resolution, operating at higher frequencies comes at the cost of lower signal-to-noise ratio. This ultimately degrades the image contrast and overall quality at higher imaging depths. To address this issue, we investigate a reflection imaging technique, known as reverse time migration, which uses a more accurate propagation model for reconstruction. We present preliminary simulation results as well as physical phantom image reconstructions obtained using data acquired with a breast imaging ultrasound tomography prototype. The original reconstructions are filtered to remove low-wavenumber artifacts that arise due to the inclusion of the direct arrivals. We demonstrate the advantage of using an accurate sound speed model in the reverse time migration process. We also explain how the increase in computational complexity can be mitigated using a frequency domain approach and a parallel computing platform.

  19. Task-based optimization of image reconstruction in breast CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Adrian A.; Sidky, Emil Y.; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate a task-based assessment of image quality in dedicated breast CT in order to optimize the number of projection views acquired. The methodology we employ is based on the Hotelling Observer (HO) and its associated metrics. We consider two tasks: the Rayleigh task of discerning between two resolvable objects and a single larger object, and the signal detection task of classifying an image as belonging to either a signalpresent or signal-absent hypothesis. HO SNR values are computed for 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1000 projection view images, with the total imaging radiation dose held constant. We use the conventional fan-beam FBP algorithm and investigate the effect of varying the width of a Hanning window used in the reconstruction, since this affects both the noise properties of the image and the under-sampling artifacts which can arise in the case of sparse-view acquisitions. Our results demonstrate that fewer projection views should be used in order to increase HO performance, which in this case constitutes an upper-bound on human observer performance. However, the impact on HO SNR of using fewer projection views, each with a higher dose, is not as significant as the impact of employing regularization in the FBP reconstruction through a Hanning filter.

  20. Development of anatomically and dielectrically accurate breast phantoms for microwave imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Halloran, M.; Lohfeld, S.; Ruvio, G.; Browne, J.; Krewer, F.; Ribeiro, C. O.; Inacio Pita, V. C.; Conceicao, R. C.; Jones, E.; Glavin, M.

    2014-05-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. In the United States alone, it accounts for 31% of new cancer cases, and is second only to lung cancer as the leading cause of deaths in American women. More than 184,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed each year resulting in approximately 41,000 deaths. Early detection and intervention is one of the most significant factors in improving the survival rates and quality of life experienced by breast cancer sufferers, since this is the time when treatment is most effective. One of the most promising breast imaging modalities is microwave imaging. The physical basis of active microwave imaging is the dielectric contrast between normal and malignant breast tissue that exists at microwave frequencies. The dielectric contrast is mainly due to the increased water content present in the cancerous tissue. Microwave imaging is non-ionizing, does not require breast compression, is less invasive than X-ray mammography, and is potentially low cost. While several prototype microwave breast imaging systems are currently in various stages of development, the design and fabrication of anatomically and dielectrically representative breast phantoms to evaluate these systems is often problematic. While some existing phantoms are composed of dielectrically representative materials, they rarely accurately represent the shape and size of a typical breast. Conversely, several phantoms have been developed to accurately model the shape of the human breast, but have inappropriate dielectric properties. This study will brie y review existing phantoms before describing the development of a more accurate and practical breast phantom for the evaluation of microwave breast imaging systems.

  1. Evaluating the impact of x-ray spectral shape on image quality in flat-panel CT breast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, Stephen J.; Thacker, Samta; Gong Xing; Liu, Bob

    2007-01-15

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in exploring the feasibility of dedicated computed tomography (CT) breast imaging using a flat-panel digital detector in a truncated cone-beam imaging geometry. Preliminary results are promising and it appears as if three-dimensional tomographic imaging of the breast has great potential for reducing the masking effect of superimposed parenchymal structure typically observed with conventional mammography. In this study, a mathematical framework used for determining optimal design and acquisition parameters for such a CT breast imaging system is described. The ideal observer signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is used as a figure of merit, under the assumptions that the imaging system is linear and shift invariant. Computation of the ideal observer SNR used a parallel-cascade model to predict signal and noise propagation through the detector, as well as a realistic model of the lesion detection task in breast imaging. For all evaluations, the total mean glandular dose for a CT breast imaging study was constrained to be approximately equivalent to that of a two-view conventional mammography study. The framework presented was used to explore the effect of x-ray spectral shape across an extensive range of kVp settings, filter material types, and filter thicknesses. The results give an indication of how spectral shape can affect image quality in flat-panel CT breast imaging.

  2. Advancements in Imaging Technology for Detection and Diagnosis of Palpable Breast Masses.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Barbara M; Hong, Andrea S; Letter, Haley; Odell, Matthew C

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women worldwide and the most common cause of cancer death in women. The most common presentation of breast cancer is the presence of a palpable mass, whether noted by the patient during breast self-examination or noted during clinical breast examination. There are a variety of imaging modalities now available for the evaluation of a palpable abnormality. A thorough understanding of the indications, risks, and benefits can help the clinician guide the patient through an appropriate, comprehensive imaging work up. PMID:27101239

  3. Margin assessment of three-dimensional breast cancer phantoms using terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Tyler; Walter, Alec; El-Shenawee, Magda

    2016-03-01

    This work focuses on pulsed terahertz imaging for the application of surgical margin assessment of breast cancer. Various phantom tissue types and orientations are tested here to refine imaging methodology that can detect breast cancer up to 0.5-1.0 mm from the edge of the sample. The depth of the cancer within the sample is estimated using time of flight analysis of the reflected peaks in the pulsed time domain signal. Breast tissue phantoms have been designed to resemble fresh infiltrating ductal carcinoma, fibroglandular tissue, and fatty tissue of the breast to accomplish this work.

  4. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco

    2012-07-31

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  5. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco

    2012-07-01

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  6. Rapid imaging of surgical breast excisions using direct temporal sampling two photon fluorescent lifetime imaging

    PubMed Central

    Giacomelli, Michael G.; Sheikine, Yuri; Vardeh, Hilde; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Two photon fluorescent lifetime imaging is a modality that enables depth-sectioned, molecularly-specific imaging of cells and tissue using intrinsic contrast. However, clinical applications have not been well explored due to low imaging speed and limited field of view, which make evaluating large pathology samples extremely challenging. To address these limitations, we have developed direct temporal sampling two photon fluorescent lifetime imaging (DTS-FLIM), a method which enables a several order of magnitude increase in imaging speed by capturing an entire lifetime decay in a single fluorescent excitation. We use this greatly increased speed to perform a preliminary study using gigapixel-scale imaging of human breast pathology surgical specimens. PMID:26600997

  7. Enhanced imaging of microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis through improved image-reconstruction algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Sidky, Emil Y.; Pan Xiaochuan; Reiser, Ingrid S.; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: The authors develop a practical, iterative algorithm for image-reconstruction in undersampled tomographic systems, such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Methods: The algorithm controls image regularity by minimizing the image total p variation (TpV), a function that reduces to the total variation when p=1.0 or the image roughness when p=2.0. Constraints on the image, such as image positivity and estimated projection-data tolerance, are enforced by projection onto convex sets. The fact that the tomographic system is undersampled translates to the mathematical property that many widely varied resultant volumes may correspond to a given data tolerance. Thus the application of image regularity serves two purposes: (1) Reduction in the number of resultant volumes out of those allowed by fixing the data tolerance, finding the minimum image TpV for fixed data tolerance, and (2) traditional regularization, sacrificing data fidelity for higher image regularity. The present algorithm allows for this dual role of image regularity in undersampled tomography. Results: The proposed image-reconstruction algorithm is applied to three clinical DBT data sets. The DBT cases include one with microcalcifications and two with masses. Conclusions: Results indicate that there may be a substantial advantage in using the present image-reconstruction algorithm for microcalcification imaging.

  8. Enhanced imaging of microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis through improved image-reconstruction algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Sidky, Emil Y.; Pan, Xiaochuan; Reiser, Ingrid S.; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The authors develop a practical, iterative algorithm for image-reconstruction in undersampled tomographic systems, such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Methods: The algorithm controls image regularity by minimizing the image total p variation (TpV), a function that reduces to the total variation when p=1.0 or the image roughness whenp=2.0. Constraints on the image, such as image positivity and estimated projection-data tolerance, are enforced by projection onto convex sets. The fact that the tomographic system is undersampled translates to the mathematical property that many widely varied resultant volumes may correspond to a given data tolerance. Thus the application of image regularity serves two purposes: (1) Reduction in the number of resultant volumes out of those allowed by fixing the data tolerance, finding the minimum image TpV for fixed data tolerance, and (2) traditional regularization, sacrificing data fidelity for higher image regularity. The present algorithm allows for this dual role of image regularity in undersampled tomography. Results: The proposed image-reconstruction algorithm is applied to three clinical DBT data sets. The DBT cases include one with microcalcifications and two with masses. Conclusions: Results indicate that there may be a substantial advantage in using the present image-reconstruction algorithm for microcalcification imaging. PMID:19994501

  9. A minimum spanning forest based classification method for dedicated breast CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, Robert; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Fei, Baowei

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To develop and test an automated algorithm to classify different types of tissue in dedicated breast CT images. Methods: Images of a single breast of five different patients were acquired with a dedicated breast CT clinical prototype. The breast CT images were processed by a multiscale bilateral filter to reduce noise while keeping edge information and were corrected to overcome cupping artifacts. As skin and glandular tissue have similar CT values on breast CT images, morphologic processing is used to identify the skin based on its position information. A support vector machine (SVM) is trained and the resulting model used to create a pixelwise classification map of fat and glandular tissue. By combining the results of the skin mask with the SVM results, the breast tissue is classified as skin, fat, and glandular tissue. This map is then used to identify markers for a minimum spanning forest that is grown to segment the image using spatial and intensity information. To evaluate the authors’ classification method, they use DICE overlap ratios to compare the results of the automated classification to those obtained by manual segmentation on five patient images. Results: Comparison between the automatic and the manual segmentation shows that the minimum spanning forest based classification method was able to successfully classify dedicated breast CT image with average DICE ratios of 96.9%, 89.8%, and 89.5% for fat, glandular, and skin tissue, respectively. Conclusions: A 2D minimum spanning forest based classification method was proposed and evaluated for classifying the fat, skin, and glandular tissue in dedicated breast CT images. The classification method can be used for dense breast tissue quantification, radiation dose assessment, and other applications in breast imaging.

  10. TH-A-18A-01: Innovation in Clinical Breast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, B; Yang, K; Yaffe, M; Chen, J

    2014-06-15

    Several novel modalities have been or are on the verge of being introduced into the breast imaging clinic. These include tomosynthesis imaging, dedicated breast CT, contrast-enhanced digital mammography, and automated breast ultrasound, all of which are covered in this course. Tomosynthesis and dedicated breast CT address the problem of tissue superimposition that limits mammography screening performance, by improved or full resolution of the 3D breast morphology. Contrast-enhanced digital mammography provides functional information that allows for visualization of tumor angiogenesis. 3D breast ultrasound has high sensitivity for tumor detection in dense breasts, but the imaging exam was traditionally performed by radiologists. In automated breast ultrasound, the scan is performed in an automated fashion, making for a more practical imaging tool, that is now used as an adjunct to digital mammography in breast cancer screening. This course will provide medical physicists with an in-depth understanding of the imaging physics of each of these four novel imaging techniques, as well as the rationale and implementation of QC procedures. Further, basic clinical applications and work flow issues will be discussed. Learning Objectives: To be able to describe the underlying physical and physiological principles of each imaging technique, and to understand the corresponding imaging acquisition process. To be able to describe the critical system components and their performance requirements. To understand the rationale and implementation of quality control procedures, as well as regulatory requirements for systems with FDA approval. To learn about clinical applications and understand risks and benefits/strength and weakness of each modality in terms of clinical breast imaging.

  11. Mammographic quantitative image analysis and biologic image composition for breast lesion characterization and classification

    SciTech Connect

    Drukker, Karen Giger, Maryellen L.; Li, Hui; Duewer, Fred; Malkov, Serghei; Joe, Bonnie; Kerlikowske, Karla; Shepherd, John A.; Flowers, Chris I.; Drukteinis, Jennifer S.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether biologic image composition of mammographic lesions can improve upon existing mammographic quantitative image analysis (QIA) in estimating the probability of malignancy. Methods: The study population consisted of 45 breast lesions imaged with dual-energy mammography prior to breast biopsy with final diagnosis resulting in 10 invasive ductal carcinomas, 5 ductal carcinomain situ, 11 fibroadenomas, and 19 other benign diagnoses. Analysis was threefold: (1) The raw low-energy mammographic images were analyzed with an established in-house QIA method, “QIA alone,” (2) the three-compartment breast (3CB) composition measure—derived from the dual-energy mammography—of water, lipid, and protein thickness were assessed, “3CB alone”, and (3) information from QIA and 3CB was combined, “QIA + 3CB.” Analysis was initiated from radiologist-indicated lesion centers and was otherwise fully automated. Steps of the QIA and 3CB methods were lesion segmentation, characterization, and subsequent classification for malignancy in leave-one-case-out cross-validation. Performance assessment included box plots, Bland–Altman plots, and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions (invasive and DCIS) was 0.81 (standard error 0.07) for the “QIA alone” method, 0.72 (0.07) for “3CB alone” method, and 0.86 (0.04) for “QIA+3CB” combined. The difference in AUC was 0.043 between “QIA + 3CB” and “QIA alone” but failed to reach statistical significance (95% confidence interval [–0.17 to + 0.26]). Conclusions: In this pilot study analyzing the new 3CB imaging modality, knowledge of the composition of breast lesions and their periphery appeared additive in combination with existing mammographic QIA methods for the distinction between different benign and malignant lesion types.

  12. Mitosis Detection for Invasive Breast Cancer Grading in Histopathological Images.

    PubMed

    Paul, Angshuman; Mukherjee, Dipti Prasad

    2015-11-01

    Histopathological grading of cancer not only offers an insight to the patients' prognosis but also helps in making individual treatment plans. Mitosis counts in histopathological slides play a crucial role for invasive breast cancer grading using the Nottingham grading system. Pathologists perform this grading by manual examinations of a few thousand images for each patient. Hence, finding the mitotic figures from these images is a tedious job and also prone to observer variability due to variations in the appearances of the mitotic cells. We propose a fast and accurate approach for automatic mitosis detection from histopathological images. We employ area morphological scale space for cell segmentation. The scale space is constructed in a novel manner by restricting the scales with the maximization of relative-entropy between the cells and the background. This results in precise cell segmentation. The segmented cells are classified in mitotic and non-mitotic category using the random forest classifier. Experiments show at least 12% improvement in F1 score on more than 450 histopathological images at 40× magnification.

  13. Effects of scatter radiation on reconstructed images in digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bob; Li, Xinhua

    2009-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of scatter radiation on the reconstructed images in digital breast tomosynthesis. Projection images of a 6 cm anthropomorphic breast phantom were acquired using a Hologic prototype digital breast tomosynthesis system. Scatter intensities in projection images were sampled with a beam stop method. The scatter intensity at any pixel was obtained by two dimensional fitting. Primary-only projection images were generated by subtracting the scatter contributions from the original projection images. The 3-dimensional breast was reconstructed first based on original projection images which contained the contributions from both primary rays and scattered radiation using three different reconstruction algorithms. The same breast volume was reconstructed again using the same algorithms but based on primaryonly projection images. The image artifacts, pixel value difference to noise ratio (PDNR), and detected image features in these two sets of reconstructed slices were compared to evaluate the effects of scatter radiation. It was found that the scatter radiation caused inaccurate reconstruction of the x-ray attenuation property of the tissue. X-ray attenuation coefficients could be significantly underestimated in the region where scatter intensity is high. This phenomenon is similar to the cupping artifacts found in computed tomography. The scatter correction is important if accurate x-ray attenuation of the tissues is needed. No significant improvement in terms of numbers of detected image features was observed after scatter correction. More sophisticated phantom dedicated to digital breast tomosynthesis may be needed for further evaluation.

  14. Three-dimensional finite element model for lesion correspondence in breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yan; Li, Lihua; Goldgof, Dmitry; Sarkar, Sudeep; Anton, Sorin; Clark, Robert A.

    2004-05-01

    Predicting breast tissue deformation is of great significance in several medical applications such as biopsy, diagnosis, and surgery. In breast surgery, surgeons are often concerned with a specific portion of the breast, e.g., tumor, which must be located accurately beforehand. Also clinically it is important for combining the information provided by images from several modalities or at different times, for the detection/diagnosis, treatment planning and guidance of interventions. Multi-modality imaging of the breast obtained by X-ray mammography, MRI is thought to be best achieved through some form of data fusion technique. However, images taken by these various techniques are often obtained under entirely different tissue configurations, compression, orientation or body position. In these cases some form of spatial transformation of image data from one geometry to another is required such that the tissues are represented in an equivalent configuration. We propose to use a 3D finite element model for lesion correspondence in breast imaging. The novelty of the approach lies in the following facts: (1) Finite element is the most accurate technique for modeling deformable objects such as breast. The physical soundness and mathematical rigor of finite element method ensure the accuracy and reliability of breast modeling that is essential for lesion correspondence. (2) When both MR and mammographic images are available, a subject-specific 3D breast model will be built from MRIs. If only mammography is available, a generic breast model will be used for two-view mammography reading. (3) Incremental contact simulation of breast compression allows accurate capture of breast deformation and ensures the quality of lesion correspondence. (4) Balance between efficiency and accuracy is achieved through adaptive meshing. We have done intensive research based on phantom and patient data.

  15. Digital Image Processing Technique for Breast Cancer Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán-Cabrera, R.; Guzmán-Sepúlveda, J. R.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; May-Arrioja, D. A.; Ruiz-Pinales, J.; Ibarra-Manzano, O. G.; Aviña-Cervantes, G.; Parada, A. González

    2013-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of death in women and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Primary prevention in the early stages of the disease becomes complex as the causes remain almost unknown. However, some typical signatures of this disease, such as masses and microcalcifications appearing on mammograms, can be used to improve early diagnostic techniques, which is critical for women’s quality of life. X-ray mammography is the main test used for screening and early diagnosis, and its analysis and processing are the keys to improving breast cancer prognosis. As masses and benign glandular tissue typically appear with low contrast and often very blurred, several computer-aided diagnosis schemes have been developed to support radiologists and internists in their diagnosis. In this article, an approach is proposed to effectively analyze digital mammograms based on texture segmentation for the detection of early stage tumors. The proposed algorithm was tested over several images taken from the digital database for screening mammography for cancer research and diagnosis, and it was found to be absolutely suitable to distinguish masses and microcalcifications from the background tissue using morphological operators and then extract them through machine learning techniques and a clustering algorithm for intensity-based segmentation.

  16. Nonlinear dual-spectral image fusion for improving cone-beam-CT-based breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zikuan; Ning, Ruola; Conover, David; Willison, Kathleen

    2006-03-01

    Cone-beam breast computed tomography (CB Breast CT) can easily detect micro-calcifications and distinguish fat and glandular tissues from normal breast tissue. However, it may be a challenging task for CB Breast CT to distinguish benign from malignant tumors because of the subtle difference in x-ray attenuation. Due to the use of polyenergetic x-ray source, the x-ray and tissue interaction exhibits energy-dependent attenuation behavior, a phenomenon that, to date, has not been used for breast tissue characterization. We will exploit this spectral nature by equipping our CB Breast CT with dual-spectral imaging. The dual-spectral cone-beam scanning produces two spectral image datasets, from which we propose a nonlinear dual-spectral image fusion scheme to combine them into a single dataset, thereby incorporating the spectral information. In implementation, we will perform dual-spectral image fusion through a bi-variable polynomial that can be established by applying dual-spectral imaging to a reference material (with eight different thicknesses). From the fused dataset, we can reconstruct a volume, called a reference-equivalent volume or a fusion volume. By selecting the benign tissue as a reference material, we obtain a benign-equivalent volume. Likewise, we obtain a malignant-equivalent volume as well. In the pursuit of the discrimination of benign versus malignant tissues in a breast image, we perform intra-image as well as inter-image processing. The intra-image processing is an intensity transformation imposed only to a tomographic breast image itself, while the inter-image processing is exerted on two tomographic images extracted from two volumes. The nonlinear fusion scheme possesses these properties: 1) no noise magnification; 2) no feature dimensionality problem, and 3) drastic enhancement among specific features offered by nonlinear mapping. Its disadvantage lies in the possible misinterpretation resulting from nonlinear mapping.

  17. Overuse of imaging the male breast-findings in 557 patients.

    PubMed

    Lapid, Oren; Siebenga, Pieter; Zonderland, Harmien M

    2015-01-01

    Gynecomastia is the most common abnormality of the male breast. However, breast cancer may occur, albeit with a significantly lower incidence than in females. Imaging is often used as part of the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the utilization and outcome of imaging with mammography or ultrasound of the male breast in a university hospital's department of radiology. A retrospective study assessing the imaging of the male breast in 557 patients over a 10-year period. Referral was done mainly by general surgeons and general practitioners. The most common indication was enlargement of the breast, described as gynecomastia or swelling in 74% of patients, followed by pain in 24% and "lumps" in 10%. The modalities used were mammography in 65%, ultrasound in 51% and both in 26%. Most examinations, 519, were BI-RADS 1 or 2, and 38 were BI-RADS 3 or higher. Altogether 160 patients had additional fine-needle aspiration or biopsy. Malignancies were diagnosed in five patients (0.89%). Imaging had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 99%. The positive predictive value was 44% and the negative predictive value 99.8%. Malignancies are rare in the male breast. The probability of finding cancer when performing imaging of clinically benign findings in the male breast is negligible. Imaging is not warranted unless there are suspicious abnormalities. Routine imaging of gynecomastia should be discouraged.

  18. Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma of the breast: imaging and histopathologic characteristics of this rare disease.

    PubMed

    Scali, Elena P; Ali, Rola H; Hayes, Malcolm; Tyldesley, Scott; Hassell, Patricia

    2013-11-01

    Low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma is a rare histologic subtype of breast carcinoma that has a variable mammographic and sonographic appearance, which overlaps with both benign and malignant neoplasms. Because of its lack of unique imaging features, a diagnosis of low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma is based on histopathology. The recognition of this entity is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of breast masses and carries implications for prognosis, which is more favorable than other types of breast carcinoma.

  19. Imaging Diagnostic and Therapeutic Targets - Steroid Receptors in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Amy M.; Clark, Amy S.; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Linden, Hannah M.; Dehdashti, Farrokh

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) are important steroid hormone receptor biomarkers used to determine prognosis and predict benefit from endocrine therapies for breast cancer patients. Receptor expression is routinely measured in biopsy specimens using immunohistochemistry, although such testing can be challenging particularly in the setting of metastatic disease. ERα and PR can be quantitatively assayed non-invasively with positron emission tomography (PET). This approach provides the opportunity to assess receptor expression and function in “real-time”, within the entire tumor, and across distant sites of metastatic disease. This article reviews the current evidence of ERα and PR PET imaging as predictive and early response biomarkers for endocrine therapy. PMID:26834106

  20. Imaging Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer: Staging and Response Assessment.

    PubMed

    Cook, Gary J R; Azad, Gurdip K; Goh, Vicky

    2016-02-01

    Bone metastases are common in patients with advanced breast cancer. Given the significant associated morbidity, the introduction of new, effective systemic therapies, and the improvement in survival time, early detection and response assessment of skeletal metastases have become even more important. Although planar bone scanning has recognized limitations, in particular, poor specificity in staging and response assessment, it continues to be the main method in current clinical practice for staging of the skeleton in patients at risk of bone metastases. However, the accuracy of bone scanning can be improved with the addition of SPECT/CT. There have been reported improvements in sensitivity and specificity for staging of the skeleton with either bone-specific PET/CT tracers, such as (18)F-NaF, or tumor-specific tracers, such as (18)F-FDG, although these methods are less widely available and more costly. There is a paucity of data on the use of (18)F-NaF PET/CT for response assessment in breast cancer, but there is increasing evidence that (18)F-FDG PET/CT may improve on current methods in this regard. At the same time, interest and experience in using whole-body morphologic MRI augmented with diffusion-weighted imaging for both staging and response assessment in the skeleton have been increasing. However, data on comparisons of these methods with PET methods to determine the best technique for current clinical practice or for clinical trials are insufficient. There are early data supporting the use (18)F-FDG PET/MRI to assess malignant disease in the skeleton, with the possibility of taking advantage of the synergies offered by combining morphologic, physiologic, and metabolic imaging.

  1. Breast tumor detection using UWB circular-SAR tomographic microwave imaging.

    PubMed

    Oloumi, Daniel; Boulanger, Pierre; Kordzadeh, Atefeh; Rambabu, Karumudi

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the possibility of detecting tumors in human breast using ultra-wideband (UWB) circular synthetic aperture radar (CSAR). CSAR is a subset of SAR which is a radar imaging technique using a circular data acquisition pattern. Tomographic image reconstruction is done using a time domain global back projection technique adapted to CSAR. Experiments are conducted on a breast phantoms made of pork fat emulating normal and cancerous conditions. Preliminary experimental results show that microwave imaging of a breast phantom using UWB-CSAR is a simple and low-cost method, efficiently capable of detecting the presence of tumors.

  2. An Interactive Method Based on the Live Wire for Segmentation of the Breast in Mammography Images

    PubMed Central

    Zewei, Zhang; Tianyue, Wang; Li, Guo; Tingting, Wang; Lu, Xu

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy of computer-aided diagnosis of breast lumps, the authors introduce an improved interactive segmentation method based on Live Wire. This paper presents the Gabor filters and FCM clustering algorithm is introduced to the Live Wire cost function definition. According to the image FCM analysis for image edge enhancement, we eliminate the interference of weak edge and access external features clear segmentation results of breast lumps through improving Live Wire on two cases of breast segmentation data. Compared with the traditional method of image segmentation, experimental results show that the method achieves more accurate segmentation of breast lumps and provides more accurate objective basis on quantitative and qualitative analysis of breast lumps. PMID:25024740

  3. An interactive method based on the live wire for segmentation of the breast in mammography images.

    PubMed

    Zewei, Zhang; Tianyue, Wang; Li, Guo; Tingting, Wang; Lu, Xu

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy of computer-aided diagnosis of breast lumps, the authors introduce an improved interactive segmentation method based on Live Wire. This paper presents the Gabor filters and FCM clustering algorithm is introduced to the Live Wire cost function definition. According to the image FCM analysis for image edge enhancement, we eliminate the interference of weak edge and access external features clear segmentation results of breast lumps through improving Live Wire on two cases of breast segmentation data. Compared with the traditional method of image segmentation, experimental results show that the method achieves more accurate segmentation of breast lumps and provides more accurate objective basis on quantitative and qualitative analysis of breast lumps.

  4. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications.

    PubMed

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  5. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications

    PubMed Central

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  6. Segmentation of the pectoral muscle in breast MR images using structure tensor and deformable model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myungeun; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2012-02-01

    Recently, breast MR images have been used in wider clinical area including diagnosis, treatment planning, and treatment response evaluation, which requests quantitative analysis and breast tissue segmentation. Although several methods have been proposed for segmenting MR images, segmenting out breast tissues robustly from surrounding structures in a wide range of anatomical diversity still remains challenging. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a practical and general-purpose approach for segmenting the pectoral muscle boundary based on the structure tensor and deformable model. The segmentation work flow comprises four key steps: preprocessing, detection of the region of interest (ROI) within the breast region, segmenting the pectoral muscle and finally extracting and refining the pectoral muscle boundary. From experimental results we show that the proposed method can segment the pectoral muscle robustly in diverse patient cases. In addition, the proposed method will allow the application of the quantification research for various breast images.

  7. Computer-Aided Assessment of Tumor Grade for Breast Cancer in Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study involved developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for discriminating the grades of breast cancer tumors in ultrasound (US) images. Histological tumor grades of breast cancer lesions are standard prognostic indicators. Tumor grade information enables physicians to determine appropriate treatments for their patients. US imaging is a noninvasive approach to breast cancer examination. In this study, 148 3-dimensional US images of malignant breast tumors were obtained. Textural, morphological, ellipsoid fitting, and posterior acoustic features were quantified to characterize the tumor masses. A support vector machine was developed to classify breast tumor grades as either low or high. The proposed CAD system achieved an accuracy of 85.14% (126/148), a sensitivity of 79.31% (23/29), a specificity of 86.55% (103/119), and an AZ of 0.7940. PMID:25810750

  8. Computer-aided assessment of tumor grade for breast cancer in ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dar-Ren; Chien, Cheng-Liang; Kuo, Yan-Fu

    2015-01-01

    This study involved developing a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for discriminating the grades of breast cancer tumors in ultrasound (US) images. Histological tumor grades of breast cancer lesions are standard prognostic indicators. Tumor grade information enables physicians to determine appropriate treatments for their patients. US imaging is a noninvasive approach to breast cancer examination. In this study, 148 3-dimensional US images of malignant breast tumors were obtained. Textural, morphological, ellipsoid fitting, and posterior acoustic features were quantified to characterize the tumor masses. A support vector machine was developed to classify breast tumor grades as either low or high. The proposed CAD system achieved an accuracy of 85.14% (126/148), a sensitivity of 79.31% (23/29), a specificity of 86.55% (103/119), and an A Z of 0.7940.

  9. Nuclear imaging of the breast: Translating achievements in instrumentation into clinical use

    PubMed Central

    Hruska, Carrie B.; O'Connor, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Approaches to imaging the breast with nuclear medicine and/or molecular imaging methods have been under investigation since the late 1980s when a technique called scintimammography was first introduced. This review charts the progress of nuclear imaging of the breast over the last 20 years, covering the development of newer techniques such as breast specific gamma imaging, molecular breast imaging, and positron emission mammography. Key issues critical to the adoption of these technologies in the clinical environment are discussed, including the current status of clinical studies, the efforts at reducing the radiation dose from procedures associated with these technologies, and the relevant radiopharmaceuticals that are available or under development. The necessary steps required to move these technologies from bench to bedside are also discussed. PMID:23635248

  10. Nuclear imaging of the breast: Translating achievements in instrumentation into clinical use

    SciTech Connect

    Hruska, Carrie B.; O'Connor, Michael K.

    2013-05-15

    Approaches to imaging the breast with nuclear medicine and/or molecular imaging methods have been under investigation since the late 1980s when a technique called scintimammography was first introduced. This review charts the progress of nuclear imaging of the breast over the last 20 years, covering the development of newer techniques such as breast specific gamma imaging, molecular breast imaging, and positron emission mammography. Key issues critical to the adoption of these technologies in the clinical environment are discussed, including the current status of clinical studies, the efforts at reducing the radiation dose from procedures associated with these technologies, and the relevant radiopharmaceuticals that are available or under development. The necessary steps required to move these technologies from bench to bedside are also discussed.

  11. Automated 3D ultrasound image segmentation to aid breast cancer image interpretation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Peng; Lee, Won-Mean; Roubidoux, Marilyn A; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Xueding; Carson, Paul L

    2016-02-01

    Segmentation of an ultrasound image into functional tissues is of great importance to clinical diagnosis of breast cancer. However, many studies are found to segment only the mass of interest and not all major tissues. Differences and inconsistencies in ultrasound interpretation call for an automated segmentation method to make results operator-independent. Furthermore, manual segmentation of entire three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes is time-consuming, resource-intensive, and clinically impractical. Here, we propose an automated algorithm to segment 3D ultrasound volumes into three major tissue types: cyst/mass, fatty tissue, and fibro-glandular tissue. To test its efficacy and consistency, the proposed automated method was employed on a database of 21 cases of whole breast ultrasound. Experimental results show that our proposed method not only distinguishes fat and non-fat tissues correctly, but performs well in classifying cyst/mass. Comparison of density assessment between the automated method and manual segmentation demonstrates good consistency with an accuracy of 85.7%. Quantitative comparison of corresponding tissue volumes, which uses overlap ratio, gives an average similarity of 74.54%, consistent with values seen in MRI brain segmentations. Thus, our proposed method exhibits great potential as an automated approach to segment 3D whole breast ultrasound volumes into functionally distinct tissues that may help to correct ultrasound speed of sound aberrations and assist in density based prognosis of breast cancer.

  12. Does Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Combined With Conventional Imaging Modalities Decrease the Rates of Surgical Margin Involvement and Reoperation?

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hung-Wen; Chen, Chih-Jung; Lin, Ying-Jen; Chen, Shu-Ling; Wu, Hwa-Koon; Wu, Yu-Ting; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Dar-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to assess whether preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with conventional breast imaging techniques decreases the rates of margin involvement and reexcision. Data on patients who underwent surgery for primary operable breast cancer were obtained from the Changhua Christian Hospital (CCH) breast cancer database. The rate of surgical margin involvement and the rate of reoperation were compared between patients who underwent conventional breast imaging modalities (Group A: mammography and sonography) and those who received breast MRI in addition to conventional imaging (Group B: mammography, sonography, and MRI). A total of 1468 patients were enrolled in this study. Among the 733 patients in Group A, 377 (51.4%) received breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and 356 (48.6%) received mastectomy. Among the 735 patients in Group B, 348 (47.3%) received BCS and 387 (52.7%) received mastectomy. There were no significant differences in operative method between patients who received conventional imaging alone and those that received MRI and conventional imaging (P = 0.13). The rate of detection of pathological multifocal/multicentric breast cancer was markedly higher in patients who received preoperative MRI than in those who underwent conventional imaging alone (14.3% vs 8.6%, P < 0.01). The overall rate of surgical margin involvement was significantly lower in patients who received MRI (5.0%) than in those who received conventional imaging alone (9.0%) (P < 0.01). However, a significant reduction in rate of surgical margin positivity was only observed in patients who received BCS (Group A, 14.6%; Group B, 6.6%, P < 0.01). The overall BCS reoperation rates were 11.7% in the conventional imaging group and 3.2% in the combined MRI group (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in rate of residual cancer in specimens obtained during reoperation between the 2 preoperative imaging groups

  13. Potential Impact of Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Breast on Patient Selection for Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehr, Marietta; Wolfgarten, Matthias; Stoelzle, Marco; Leutner, Claudia; Hoeller, Tobias; Schrading, Simone; Kuhl, Christiane; Schild, Hans; Kuhn, Walther; Braun, Michael

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) after breast-conserving therapy is currently under investigation in prospective randomized studies. Multifocality and multicentricity are exclusion criteria for APBI. Preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can detect ipsilateral and contralateral invasive tumor foci or ductal carcinoma in situ in addition to conventional diagnostic methods (clinical examination, mammography, and ultrasonography). The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the impact of preoperative MRI on patient selection for APBI. Methods and Materials: From 2002 to 2007, a total of 579 consecutive, nonselected patients with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer received preoperative breast MRI in addition to conventional imaging studies at the Bonn University Breast Cancer Center. In retrospect, 113 patients would have met the criteria for APBI using conventional imaging workup (clinical tumor size {<=}3 cm; negative axillary lymph node status; unifocal disease; no evidence of distant metastases; no invasive lobular carcinoma, ductal and lobular carcinoma in situ, or Paget's disease). We analyzed the amount of additional ipsilateral and contralateral tumor foci detected by MRI. Results: MRI detected additional tumor foci in 8.8% of patients eligible for APBI (11 tumor foci in 10 of 113 patients), either ipsilateral (n = 7, 6.2%) or contralateral (n = 4, 3.5%). In 1 patient, MRI helped detect additional tumor focus both ipsilaterally and contralaterally. Conclusions: Preoperative breast MRI is able to identify additional tumor foci in a clinically relevant number of cases in this highly selected group of patients with low-risk disease and may be useful in selecting patients for APBI.

  14. Evaluation of the possibility to use thick slabs of reconstructed outer breast tomosynthesis slice images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, Hannie; Dustler, Magnus; Tingberg, Anders; Timberg, Pontus

    2016-03-01

    The large image volumes in breast tomosynthesis (BT) have led to large amounts of data and a heavy workload for breast radiologists. The number of slice images can be decreased by combining adjacent image planes (slabbing) but the decrease in depth resolution can considerably affect the detection of lesions. The aim of this work was to assess if thicker slabbing of the outer slice images (where lesions seldom are present) could be a viable alternative in order to reduce the number of slice images in BT image volumes. The suggested slabbing (an image volume with thick outer slabs and thin slices between) were evaluated in two steps. Firstly, a survey of the depth of 65 cancer lesions within the breast was performed to estimate how many lesions would be affected by outer slabs of different thicknesses. Secondly, a selection of 24 lesions was reconstructed with 2, 6 and 10 mm slab thickness to evaluate how the appearance of lesions located in the thicker slabs would be affected. The results show that few malignant breast lesions are located at a depth less than 10 mm from the surface (especially for breast thicknesses of 50 mm and above). Reconstruction of BT volumes with 6 mm slab thickness yields an image quality that is sufficient for lesion detection for a majority of the investigated cases. Together, this indicates that thicker slabbing of the outer slice images is a promising option in order to reduce the number of slice images in BT image volumes.

  15. An object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis imaging system.

    PubMed

    Seyyedi, Saeed; Cengiz, Kubra; Kamasak, Mustafa; Yildirim, Isa

    2013-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is an innovative imaging modality that provides 3D reconstructed images of breast to detect the breast cancer. Projections obtained with an X-ray source moving in a limited angle interval are used to reconstruct 3D image of breast. Several reconstruction algorithms are available for DBT imaging. Filtered back projection algorithm has traditionally been used to reconstruct images from projections. Iterative reconstruction algorithms such as algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) were later developed. Recently, compressed sensing based methods have been proposed in tomosynthesis imaging problem. We have developed an object-oriented simulator for 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) imaging system using C++ programming language. The simulator is capable of implementing different iterative and compressed sensing based reconstruction methods on 3D digital tomosynthesis data sets and phantom models. A user friendly graphical user interface (GUI) helps users to select and run the desired methods on the designed phantom models or real data sets. The simulator has been tested on a phantom study that simulates breast tomosynthesis imaging problem. Results obtained with various methods including algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and total variation regularized reconstruction techniques (ART+TV) are presented. Reconstruction results of the methods are compared both visually and quantitatively by evaluating performances of the methods using mean structural similarity (MSSIM) values. PMID:24371468

  16. Effects of image lag and scatter for dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital breast tomosynthesis using a CsI flat-panel based system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, Ann-Katherine; Puong, Sylvie; Iordache, Razvan; Muller, Serge

    2011-03-01

    Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital breast tomosynthesis (CE-DBT) using an iodinated contrast agent is an imaging technique providing 3D functional images of breast lesion vascularity and tissue perfusion. The iodine uptake in the breast is very small and causes only small changes in x-ray transmission; typically less than 5%. This presents significant technical challenges on the imaging system performance. The purpose of this paper was to characterize image lag and scattered radiation and their effects on image quality for dual-energy CE-DBT using a CsI(Tl) phosphor-based detector. Lag was tested using typical clinical acquisition sequences and exposure parameters and under various detector read-out modes. The performance of a prototype anti-scatter grid and its potential benefit on the magnitude and range of the cupping artifact were investigated. Analyses were performed through phantom experiments. Our results illustrate that the magnitude of image lag is negligible and breast texture cancelation is almost perfect when the detector is read out several times between x-ray exposures. The anti-scatter grid effectively reduces scatter and the cupping artifact.

  17. Characterization of the homogeneous tissue mixture approximation in breast imaging dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Bliznakova, Kristina; Qin Xulei; Fei Baowei; Feng, Steve Si Jia

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the estimate of normalized glandular dose in mammography and breast CT imaging obtained using the actual glandular tissue distribution in the breast to that obtained using the homogeneous tissue mixture approximation. Methods: Twenty volumetric images of patient breasts were acquired with a dedicated breast CT prototype system and the voxels in the breast CT images were automatically classified into skin, adipose, and glandular tissue. The breasts in the classified images underwent simulated mechanical compression to mimic the conditions present during mammographic acquisition. The compressed thickness for each breast was set to that achieved during each patient's last screening cranio-caudal (CC) acquisition. The volumetric glandular density of each breast was computed using both the compressed and uncompressed classified images, and additional images were created in which all voxels representing adipose and glandular tissue were replaced by a homogeneous mixture of these two tissues in a proportion corresponding to each breast's volumetric glandular density. All four breast images (compressed and uncompressed; heterogeneous and homogeneous tissue) were input into Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the normalized glandular dose during mammography (compressed breasts) and dedicated breast CT (uncompressed breasts). For the mammography simulations the x-ray spectra used was that used during each patient's last screening CC acquisition. For the breast CT simulations, two x-ray spectra were used, corresponding to the x-ray spectra with the lowest and highest energies currently being used in dedicated breast CT prototype systems under clinical investigation. The resulting normalized glandular dose for the heterogeneous and homogeneous versions of each breast for each modality was compared. Results: For mammography, the normalized glandular dose based on the homogeneous tissue approximation was, on average, 27% higher than that estimated using the

  18. Nanoradiopharmaceuticals for breast cancer imaging: development, characterization, and imaging in inducted animals

    PubMed Central

    Sarcinelli, Michelle Alvares; Albernaz, Marta de Souza; Szwed, Marzena; Iscaife, Alexandre; Leite, Kátia Ramos Moreira; Junqueira, Mara de Souza; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; da Silva, Emerson Oliveira; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies as polymeric nanoparticles are quite interesting and endow this new drug category with many advantages, especially by reducing the number of adverse reactions and, in the case of radiopharmaceuticals, also reducing the amount of radiation (dose) administered to the patient. In this study, a nanoradiopharmaceutical was developed using polylactic acid (PLA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/montmorillonite (MMT)/trastuzumab nanoparticles labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) for breast cancer imaging. In order to confirm the nanoparticle formation, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering were performed. Cytotoxicity of the nanoparticle and biodistribution with 99mTc in healthy and inducted animals were also measured. The results from atomic force microscopy showed that the nanoparticles were spherical, with a size range of ~200–500 nm. The dynamic light scattering analysis demonstrated that over 90% of the nanoparticles produced had a size of 287 nm with a zeta potential of −14,6 mV. The cytotoxicity results demonstrated that the nanoparticles were capable of reaching breast cancer cells. The biodistribution data demonstrated that the PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab nanoparticles labeled with 99mTc have great renal clearance and also a high uptake by the lesion, as ~45% of the PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab nanoparticles injected were taken up by the lesion. The data support PLA/PVA/MMT/trastuzumab labeled with 99mTc nanoparticles as nanoradiopharmaceuticals for breast cancer imaging. PMID:27713638

  19. Features of Undiagnosed Breast Cancers at Screening Breast MR Imaging and Potential Utility of Computer-Aided Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Mirinae; Bae, Min Sun; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Won Hwa; Lee, Su Hyun; Chu, Ajung

    2016-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively evaluate the features of undiagnosed breast cancers on prior screening breast magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients who were subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer, as well as the potential utility of MR-computer-aided evaluation (CAE). Materials and Methods Between March 2004 and May 2013, of the 72 consecutive pairs of prior negative MR images and subsequent MR images with diagnosed cancers (median interval, 32.8 months; range, 5.4-104.6 months), 36 (50%) had visible findings (mean size, 1.0 cm; range, 0.3-5.2 cm). The visible findings were divided into either actionable or underthreshold groups by the blinded review by 5 radiologists. MR imaging features, reasons for missed cancer, and MR-CAE features according to actionability were evaluated. Results Of the 36 visible findings on prior MR images, 33.3% (12 of 36) of the lesions were determined to be actionable and 66.7% (24 of 36) were underthreshold; 85.7% (6 of 7) of masses and 31.6% (6 of 19) of non-mass enhancements were classified as actionable lesions. Mimicking physiologic enhancements (27.8%, 10 of 36) and small lesion size (27.8%, 10 of 36) were the most common reasons for missed cancer. Actionable findings tended to show more washout or plateau kinetic patterns on MR-CAE than underthreshold findings, as the 100% of actionable findings and 46.7% of underthreshold findings showed washout or plateau (p = 0.008). Conclusion MR-CAE has the potential for reducing the number of undiagnosed breast cancers on screening breast MR images, the majority of which are caused by mimicking physiologic enhancements or small lesion size. PMID:26798217

  20. [Autologous fat grafting in the breast: oncological implications].

    PubMed

    Nizet, J-L; Gonzalez, A; Peulen, O; Castronovo, V

    2011-01-01

    Autologous fat grafting for breast is increasing dramatically. This fat injection needs accurate technical conditions, and shows very good and long-lasting clinical results. Nevertheless, in breast conservative treatment sequellae, fat injection could lead to difficulties in breast imaging, but also there is some concerns about the potential oncologic risks of these procedures.

  1. Technical Note: Skin thickness measurements using high-resolution flat-panel cone-beam dedicated breast CT

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Linxi; Vedantham, Srinivasan; Karellas, Andrew; O'Connell, Avice M.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the mean and range of location-averaged breast skin thickness using high-resolution dedicated breast CT for use in Monte Carlo-based estimation of normalized glandular dose coefficients. Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed image data from a clinical study investigating dedicated breast CT. An algorithm similar to that described by Huang et al.['The effect of skin thickness determined using breast CT on mammographic dosimetry,' Med. Phys. 35(4), 1199-1206 (2008)] was used to determine the skin thickness in 137 dedicated breast CT volumes from 136 women. The location-averaged mean breast skin thickness for each breast was estimated and the study population mean and range were determined. Pathology results were available for 132 women, and were used to investigate if the distribution of location-averaged mean breast skin thickness varied with pathology. The effect of surface fitting to account for breast curvature was also studied. Results: The study mean ({+-} interbreast SD) for breast skin thickness was 1.44 {+-} 0.25 mm (range: 0.87-2.34 mm), which was in excellent agreement with Huang et al. Based on pathology, pair-wise statistical analysis (Mann-Whitney test) indicated that at the 0.05 significance level, there were no significant difference in the location-averaged mean breast skin thickness distributions between the groups: benign vs malignant (p= 0.223), benign vs hyperplasia (p= 0.651), hyperplasia vs malignant (p= 0.229), and malignant vs nonmalignant (p= 0.172). Conclusions: Considering this study used a different clinical prototype system, and the study participants were from a different geographical location, the observed agreement between the two studies suggests that the choice of 1.45 mm thick skin layer comprising the epidermis and the dermis for breast dosimetry is appropriate. While some benign and malignant conditions could cause skin thickening, in this study cohort the location-averaged mean breast skin thickness

  2. Anatomy-Correlated Breast Imaging and Visual Grading Analysis Using Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound™

    PubMed Central

    Iuanow, Elaine; Malik, Bilal; Obuchowski, Nancy A.; Wiskin, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study presents correlations between cross-sectional anatomy of human female breasts and Quantitative Transmission (QT) Ultrasound, does discriminate classifier analysis to validate the speed of sound correlations, and does a visual grading analysis comparing QT Ultrasound with mammography. Materials and Methods. Human cadaver breasts were imaged using QT Ultrasound, sectioned, and photographed. Biopsies confirmed microanatomy and areas were correlated with QT Ultrasound images. Measurements were taken in live subjects from QT Ultrasound images and values of speed of sound for each identified anatomical structure were plotted. Finally, a visual grading analysis was performed on images to determine whether radiologists' confidence in identifying breast structures with mammography (XRM) is comparable to QT Ultrasound. Results. QT Ultrasound identified all major anatomical features of the breast, and speed of sound calculations showed specific values for different breast tissues. Using linear discriminant analysis overall accuracy is 91.4%. Using visual grading analysis readers scored the image quality on QT Ultrasound as better than on XRM in 69%–90% of breasts for specific tissues. Conclusions. QT Ultrasound provides accurate anatomic information and high tissue specificity using speed of sound information. Quantitative Transmission Ultrasound can distinguish different types of breast tissue with high resolution and accuracy. PMID:27752261

  3. Photoacoustic imaging for deep targets in the breast using a multichannel 2D array transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhixing; Wang, Xueding; Morris, Richard F.; Padilla, Frederic R.; Lecarpentier, Gerald L.; Carson, Paul L.

    2011-03-01

    A photoacoustic (PA) imaging system was developed to achieve high sensitivity for the detection and characterization of vascular anomalies in the breast in the mammographic geometry. Signal detection from deep in the breast was achieved by a broadband 2D PVDF planar array that has a round shape with one side trimmed straight to improve fit near the chest wall. This array has 572 active elements and a -6dB bandwidth of 0.6-1.7 MHz. The low frequency enhances imaging depth and increases the size of vascular collections displayed without edge enhancement. The PA signals from all the elements go through low noise preamplifiers in the probe that are very close to the array elements for optimized noise control. Driven by 20 independent on-probe signal processing channels, imaging with both high sensitivity and good speed was achieved. To evaluate the imaging depth and the spatial resolution of this system,2.38mm I.D. artificial vessels embedded deeply in ex vivo breasts harvested from fresh cadavers and a 3mm I.D. tube in breast mimicking phantoms made of pork loin and fat tissues were imaged. Using near-infrared laser light with incident energy density within the ANSI safety limit, imaging depths of up to 49 mm in human breasts and 52 mm in phantoms were achieved. With a high power tunable laser working on multiple wavelengths, this system might contribute to 3D noninvasive imaging of morphological and physiological tissue features throughout the breast.

  4. Transmission RF diffuse optical tomography instrument for human breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kijoon; Konecky, Soren D.; Choe, Regine; Ban, Han Y.; Corlu, Alper; Durduran, Turgut; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel clinical breast diffuse optical tomography (DOT) instrument for CW and RF data acquisition in transmission geometry. It is designed to be able to acquire a massive amount of data in a short amount of time available for patient measurement by using a 209-channel galvo-based fast optical switch and a fast electron-multiplying CCD. In addition to CW measurements, RF measurements were made by using an electro-optic modulator for source modulation and a gain-modulated image intensifier for detection. The patient bed has many clinically-oriented features as well as improved data acquisition rate and transmission RF measurement capability. A series of preliminary results will be shown, including a heterodyne RF experiment for bulk property measurement and a CW experiment for 3D imaging. In order to deal with large data size, a linear reconstruction algorithm that exploits separability of the inverse problem in Fourier domain is used for fast and memory-load-free reconstruction.

  5. SU-E-I-53: Variation in Measurements of Breast Skin Thickness Obtained Using Different Imaging Modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, U; Kumaraswamy, N; Markey, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate variation in measurements of breast skin thickness obtained using different imaging modalities, including mammography, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Breast skin thicknesses as measured by mammography, CT, ultrasound, and MRI were compared. Mammographic measurements of skin thickness were obtained from published studies that utilized standard positioning (upright) and compression. CT measurements of skin thickness were obtained from a published study of a prototype breast CT scanner in which the women were in the prone position and the breast was uncompressed. Dermatological ultrasound exams of the breast skin were conducted at our institution, with the subjects in the upright position and the breast uncompressed. Breast skin thickness was calculated from breast MRI exams at our institution, with the patient in the prone position and the breast uncompressed. Results: T tests for independent samples demonstrated significant differences in the mean breast skin thickness as measured by different imaging modalities. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences in breast skin thickness across different quadrants of the breast for some modalities. Conclusion: The measurement of breast skin thickness is significantly different across different imaging modalities. Differences in the amount of compression and differences in patient positioning are possible reasons why measurements of breast skin thickness vary by modality.

  6. The Effects of Applying Breast Compression in Dynamic Contrast Material–enhanced MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Macura, Katarzyna J.; Kamel, Ihab R.; Bluemke, David A.; Jacobs, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of breast compression on breast cancer masses, contrast material enhancement of glandular tissue, and quality of magnetic resonance (MR) images in the identification and characterization of breast lesions. Materials and Methods This was a HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board–approved retrospective study, with waiver of informed consent. Images from 300 MR imaging examinations in 149 women (mean age ± standard deviation, 51.5 years ± 10.9; age range, 22–76 years) were evaluated. The women underwent diagnostic MR imaging (no compression) and MR-guided biopsy (with compression) between June 2008 and February 2013. Breast compression was expressed as a percentage relative to the noncompressed breast. Percentage enhancement difference was calculated between noncompressed- and compressed-breast images obtained in early and delayed contrast-enhanced phases. Breast density, lesion type (mass vs non-masslike enhancement [NMLE]), lesion size, percentage compression, and kinetic curve type were evaluated. Linear regression, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and κ test were performed. Results Mean percentage compression was 31.3% ± 9.2 (range, 5.8%–53.2%). Percentage enhancement was higher in noncompressed- versus compressed-breast studies in early (146% ± 66 vs 107% ± 42, respectively; P < .001) and delayed (158% ± 68 vs 107% ± 42, respectively; P = .1) phases. Among breast lesions, 12% (seven of 59) were significantly smaller when compressed, which led to underestimation of TNM classification (P < .001). Breast masses (n = 35) showed significantly higher early percentage enhancement (157% ± 71) than lesions with NMLE (n = 15, 120% ± 40; P = .02) and a percentage enhancement difference (47.5% ± 64 vs 17% ± 28, respectively; P = .023). Kinetic curve performance for identifying invasive cancer decreased after compression (area under ROC curve = 0.53 vs 0.71, respectively; P = .02). Breast compression

  7. Body image issues after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy with breast reconstruction in healthy women at risk for hereditary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gopie, Jessica P; Mureau, Marc A M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Ter Kuile, Moniek M; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B E; Timman, Reinier; Tibben, Aad

    2013-09-01

    The outcome of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy with breast reconstruction (BPM-IBR) in healthy BRCA1/2 mutation carriers can be potentially burdensome for body image and the intimate relationship. Therefore, in the current analysis the impact on body image, sexual and partner relationship satisfaction was prospectively investigated in women opting for BPM-IBR as well as cancer distress and general quality of life. Healthy women undergoing BPM-IBR completed questionnaires preoperatively (T0, n = 48), at 6 months (T1, n = 44) and after finishing breast reconstruction (median 21 months, range 12-35) (T2, n = 36). With multi-level regression analyses the course of outcome variables was investigated and a statistically significant change in body image and/or sexual and partner relationship satisfaction was predicted by baseline covariates. Body image significantly decreased at T1. At T2 sexual relationship satisfaction and body image tended to be lower compared to baseline. The overall partner relationship satisfaction did not significantly change. At T2, 37 % of the women reported that their breasts felt unpleasantly, 29 % was not satisfied with their breast appearance and 21 % felt embarrassed for their naked body. Most body image issues remained unchanged in 30 % of the women. A negative body image was predicted by high preoperative cancer distress. BPM-IBR was associated with adverse impact on body image in a substantial subgroup, but satisfaction with the overall sexual and partner relationship did not significantly change in time. The psychosocial impact of BPM-IBR in unaffected women should not be underestimated. Psychological support should ideally be integrated both before and after BPM-IBR.

  8. Segmentation of the whole breast from low-dose chest CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang; Salvatore, Mary; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Reeves, Anthony P.

    2015-03-01

    The segmentation of whole breast serves as the first step towards automated breast lesion detection. It is also necessary for automatically assessing the breast density, which is considered to be an important risk factor for breast cancer. In this paper we present a fully automated algorithm to segment the whole breast in low-dose chest CT images (LDCT), which has been recommended as an annual lung cancer screening test. The automated whole breast segmentation and potential breast density readings as well as lesion detection in LDCT will provide useful information for women who have received LDCT screening, especially the ones who have not undergone mammographic screening, by providing them additional risk indicators for breast cancer with no additional radiation exposure. The two main challenges to be addressed are significant range of variations in terms of the shape and location of the breast in LDCT and the separation of pectoral muscles from the glandular tissues. The presented algorithm achieves robust whole breast segmentation using an anatomy directed rule-based method. The evaluation is performed on 20 LDCT scans by comparing the segmentation with ground truth manually annotated by a radiologist on one axial slice and two sagittal slices for each scan. The resulting average Dice coefficient is 0.880 with a standard deviation of 0.058, demonstrating that the automated segmentation algorithm achieves results consistent with manual annotations of a radiologist.

  9. Image reconstruction for a Positron Emission Tomograph optimized for breast cancer imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Virador, Patrick R.G.

    2000-04-01

    The author performs image reconstruction for a novel Positron Emission Tomography camera that is optimized for breast cancer imaging. This work addresses for the first time, the problem of fully-3D, tomographic reconstruction using a septa-less, stationary, (i.e. no rotation or linear motion), and rectangular camera whose Field of View (FOV) encompasses the entire volume enclosed by detector modules capable of measuring Depth of Interaction (DOI) information. The camera is rectangular in shape in order to accommodate breasts of varying sizes while allowing for soft compression of the breast during the scan. This non-standard geometry of the camera exacerbates two problems: (a) radial elongation due to crystal penetration and (b) reconstructing images from irregularly sampled data. Packing considerations also give rise to regions in projection space that are not sampled which lead to missing information. The author presents new Fourier Methods based image reconstruction algorithms that incorporate DOI information and accommodate the irregular sampling of the camera in a consistent manner by defining lines of responses (LORs) between the measured interaction points instead of rebinning the events into predefined crystal face LORs which is the only other method to handle DOI information proposed thus far. The new procedures maximize the use of the increased sampling provided by the DOI while minimizing interpolation in the data. The new algorithms use fixed-width evenly spaced radial bins in order to take advantage of the speed of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), which necessitates the use of irregular angular sampling in order to minimize the number of unnormalizable Zero-Efficiency Bins (ZEBs). In order to address the persisting ZEBs and the issue of missing information originating from packing considerations, the algorithms (a) perform nearest neighbor smoothing in 2D in the radial bins (b) employ a semi-iterative procedure in order to estimate the unsampled data

  10. Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors: Automated measurement development for full field digital mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, E. E.; Sellers, T. A.; Lu, B.; Heine, J. J.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) breast composition descriptors are used for standardized mammographic reporting and are assessed visually. This reporting is clinically relevant because breast composition can impact mammographic sensitivity and is a breast cancer risk factor. New techniques are presented and evaluated for generating automated BI-RADS breast composition descriptors using both raw and calibrated full field digital mammography (FFDM) image data.Methods: A matched case-control dataset with FFDM images was used to develop three automated measures for the BI-RADS breast composition descriptors. Histograms of each calibrated mammogram in the percent glandular (pg) representation were processed to create the new BR{sub pg} measure. Two previously validated measures of breast density derived from calibrated and raw mammograms were converted to the new BR{sub vc} and BR{sub vr} measures, respectively. These three measures were compared with the radiologist-reported BI-RADS compositions assessments from the patient records. The authors used two optimization strategies with differential evolution to create these measures: method-1 used breast cancer status; and method-2 matched the reported BI-RADS descriptors. Weighted kappa (κ) analysis was used to assess the agreement between the new measures and the reported measures. Each measure's association with breast cancer was evaluated with odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for body mass index, breast area, and menopausal status. ORs were estimated as per unit increase with 95% confidence intervals.Results: The three BI-RADS measures generated by method-1 had κ between 0.25–0.34. These measures were significantly associated with breast cancer status in the adjusted models: (a) OR = 1.87 (1.34, 2.59) for BR{sub pg}; (b) OR = 1.93 (1.36, 2.74) for BR{sub vc}; and (c) OR = 1.37 (1.05, 1.80) for BR{sub vr}. The measures generated by method-2 had κ between 0.42–0.45. Two of these measures

  11. Image guided versus palpation guided core needle biopsy of palpable breast masses: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Smriti; Kumari, Swati; Srivastava, Anurag; Thulkar, Sanjay; Mathur, Sandeep; Veedu, Prasad Thotton

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Biopsy of palpable breast masses can be performed manually by palpation guidance or under imaging guidance. Based on retrospective studies, image guided biopsy is considered more accurate than palpation guided breast biopsy; however, these techniques have not been compared prospectively. We conducted this prospective study to verify the superiority and determine the size of beneficial effect of image guided biopsy over palpation guided biopsy. Methods: Over a period of 18 months, 36 patients each with palpable breast masses were randomized into palpation guided and image guided breast biopsy arms. Ultrasound was used for image guidance in 33 patients and mammographic (stereotactic) guidance in three patients. All biopsies were performed using 14 gauge automated core biopsy needles. Inconclusive, suspicious or imaging-histologic discordant biopsies were repeated. Results: Malignancy was found in 30 of 36 women in palpation guided biopsy arm and 27 of 36 women in image guided biopsy arm. Palpation guided biopsy had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 46.7, 100, 100, 27.3 per cent, respectively, for diagnosing breast cancer. Nineteen of 36 women (52.8%) required repeat biopsy because of inadequate samples (7 of 19), suspicious findings (2 of 19) or imaging-histologic discordance (10 of 19). On repeat biopsy, malignancy was found in all cases of imaging-histologic discordance. Image guided biopsy had 96.3 per cent sensitivity and 100 per cent specificity. There was no case of inadequate sample or imaging-histologic discordance with image guided biopsy. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in palpable breast masses, image guided biopsy was superior to palpation guided biopsy in terms of sensitivity, false negative rate and repeat biopsy rates. PMID:27488003

  12. Bone Fragment Detection in Chicken Breast Fillets using Transmittance Image Enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper is concerned with the detection of bone fragments embedded in de-boned skinless chicken breast fillets by modeling optical images generated by back-lighting. Imaging of chicken fillets is often dominated by multiple scattering properties of the fillets. Thus, resulting images from multi...

  13. Breast imaging using the Twente photoacoustic mammoscope (PAM): new clinical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heijblom, Michelle; Piras, Daniele; Ten Tije, Ellen; Xia, Wenfeng; van Hespen, Johan; Klaase, Joost; van den Engh, Frank; van Leeuwen, Ton; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-07-01

    Worldwide, yearly about 450,000 women die from the consequences of breast cancer. Current imaging modalities are not optimal in discriminating benign from malignant tissue. Visualizing the malignancy-associated increased hemoglobin concentration might significantly improve early diagnosis of breast cancer. Since photoacoustic imaging can visualize hemoglobin in tissue with optical contrast and ultrasound-like resolution, it is potentially an ideal method for early breast cancer imaging. The Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope (PAM) has been developed specifically for breast imaging. Recently, a large clinical study has been started in the Medisch Spectrum Twente in Oldenzaal using PAM. In PAM, the breast is slightly compressed between a window for laser light illumination and a flat array ultrasound detector. The measurements are performed using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, pulsed at 1064 nm and a 1 MHz unfocused ultrasound detector array. Three-dimensional data are reconstructed using a delay and sum reconstruction algorithm. Those reconstructed images are compared with conventional imaging and histopathology. In the first phase of the study 12 patients with a malignant lesion and 2 patients with a benign cyst have been measured. The results are used to guide developments in photoacoustic mammography in order to pave the way towards an optimal technique for early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  14. Breast density quantification using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with bias field correction: A postmortem study

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Huanjun; Johnson, Travis; Lin, Muqing; Le, Huy Q.; Ducote, Justin L.; Su, Min-Ying; Molloi, Sabee

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Quantification of breast density based on three-dimensional breast MRI may provide useful information for the early detection of breast cancer. However, the field inhomogeneity can severely challenge the computerized image segmentation process. In this work, the effect of the bias field in breast density quantification has been investigated with a postmortem study. Methods: T1-weighted images of 20 pairs of postmortem breasts were acquired on a 1.5 T breast MRI scanner. Two computer-assisted algorithms were used to quantify the volumetric breast density. First, standard fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering was used on raw images with the bias field present. Then, the coherent local intensity clustering (CLIC) method estimated and corrected the bias field during the iterative tissue segmentation process. Finally, FCM clustering was performed on the bias-field-corrected images produced by CLIC method. The left–right correlation for breasts in the same pair was studied for both segmentation algorithms to evaluate the precision of the tissue classification. Finally, the breast densities measured with the three methods were compared to the gold standard tissue compositions obtained from chemical analysis. The linear correlation coefficient, Pearson'sr, was used to evaluate the two image segmentation algorithms and the effect of bias field. Results: The CLIC method successfully corrected the intensity inhomogeneity induced by the bias field. In left–right comparisons, the CLIC method significantly improved the slope and the correlation coefficient of the linear fitting for the glandular volume estimation. The left–right breast density correlation was also increased from 0.93 to 0.98. When compared with the percent fibroglandular volume (%FGV) from chemical analysis, results after bias field correction from both the CLIC the FCM algorithms showed improved linear correlation. As a result, the Pearson'sr increased from 0.86 to 0.92 with the bias field correction

  15. Diffusion Weighted MR Imaging of Breast and Correlation of Prognostic Factors in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kızıldağ Yırgın, İnci; Arslan, Gözde; Öztürk, Enis; Yırgın, Hakan; Taşdemir, Nihat; Gemici, Ayşegül Akdoğan; Kabul, Fatma Çelik; Kaya, Eyüp

    2016-01-01

    Background: Through Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI), information related to early molecular changes, changes in the permeability of cell membranes, and early morphologic and physiologic changes such as cell swelling can be obtained. Aims: We investigated the correlation between the prognostic factors of breast cancer and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in DWI sequences of malignant lesions. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Patients who were referred to our clinic between September 2012 and September 2013, who underwent dynamic breast MRI before or after biopsy and whose biopsy results were determined as malignant, were included in our study. Before the dynamic analysis, DWI sequences were taken. ADC relationship with all prognostic factors was investigated. Pearson correlation test was used to compare the numerical data, while Spearman correlation and Fisher exact tests were used to compare the categorical data. The advanced relationships were evaluated with linear regression analysis and univariate analysis. The efficiency of the parameters was evaluated using ROC analysis. The significance level (P) was accepted as 0.05. Results: In total, 41 female patients with an average age of 49.4 years (age interval 21–77) and 44 lesions were included into the study. In the Pearson correlation test, no statistically significant difference was determined between ADC and the patient’s age and tumor size. In the Spearman correlation test, a statistically significant difference was determined between nuclear grade (NG) and ADC (r=−0.424, p=0.04); no statistically significant correlation was observed between the other prognostic factors with each other and ADC values. In the linear regression analysis, the relationship of NG with ADC was found to be more significant alone than when comparing all parameters (corrected r2=0.196, p=0.005). Further evaluations between the NG and ADC correlation were carried out with ROC analysis. A

  16. Effect of Breast Compression on Lesion Characteristic Visibility with Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Faulconer, L.; Parham, C; Connor, D; Kuzmiak, C; Koomen, M; Lee, Y; Cho, K; Rafoth, J; Livasy, C; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Conventional mammography can not distinguish between transmitted, scattered, or refracted x-rays, thus requiring breast compression to decrease tissue depth and separate overlapping structures. Diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) uses monochromatic x-rays and perfect crystal diffraction to generate images with contrast based on absorption, refraction, or scatter. Because DEI possesses inherently superior contrast mechanisms, the current study assesses the effect of breast compression on lesion characteristic visibility with DEI imaging of breast specimens. Eleven breast tissue specimens, containing a total of 21 regions of interest, were imaged by DEI uncompressed, half-compressed, or fully compressed. A fully compressed DEI image was displayed on a soft-copy mammography review workstation, next to a DEI image acquired with reduced compression, maintaining all other imaging parameters. Five breast imaging radiologists scored image quality metrics considering known lesion pathology, ranking their findings on a 7-point Likert scale. When fully compressed DEI images were compared to those acquired with approximately a 25% difference in tissue thickness, there was no difference in scoring of lesion feature visibility. For fully compressed DEI images compared to those acquired with approximately a 50% difference in tissue thickness, across the five readers, there was a difference in scoring of lesion feature visibility. The scores for this difference in tissue thickness were significantly different at one rocking curve position and for benign lesion characterizations. These results should be verified in a larger study because when evaluating the radiologist scores overall, we detected a significant difference between the scores reported by the five radiologists. Reducing the need for breast compression might increase patient comfort during mammography. Our results suggest that DEI may allow a reduction in compression without substantially compromising clinical image

  17. Experimental implementation of coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging of cancerous and healthy breast tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmanan, Manu N.; Greenberg, Joel A.; Samei, Ehsan; Kapadia, Anuj J.

    2015-03-01

    A fast and accurate scatter imaging technique to differentiate cancerous and healthy breast tissue is introduced in this work. Such a technique would have wide-ranging clinical applications from intra-operative margin assessment to breast cancer screening. Coherent Scatter Computed Tomography (CSCT) has been shown to differentiate cancerous from healthy tissue, but the need to raster scan a pencil beam at a series of angles and slices in order to reconstruct 3D images makes it prohibitively time consuming. In this work we apply the coded aperture coherent scatter spectral imaging technique to reconstruct 3D images of breast tissue samples from experimental data taken without the rotation usually required in CSCT. We present our experimental implementation of coded aperture scatter imaging, the reconstructed images of the breast tissue samples and segmentations of the 3D images in order to identify the cancerous and healthy tissue inside of the samples. We find that coded aperture scatter imaging is able to reconstruct images of the samples and identify the distribution of cancerous and healthy tissues (i.e., fibroglandular, adipose, or a mix of the two) inside of them. Coded aperture scatter imaging has the potential to provide scatter images that automatically differentiate cancerous and healthy tissue inside of ex vivo samples within a time on the order of a minute.

  18. Region-of-interest breast images with the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope (PAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manohar, Srirang; Vaartjes, Sanne E.; van Hespen, Johan G. C.; Klaase, Joost M.; van den Engh, Frank M.; The, Andy K. H.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2007-02-01

    The Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope (PAM) is based on generating laser-induced ultrasound from absorbing structures in the breast. The heart of the instrument is a flat PVDF based detector matrix comprising 590 active elements. The exciting source is an Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm with 5 ns pulses. The instrument is built around a hospital bed. A study protocol was designed to explore the feasibility of using the photoacoustic technique as embodied in PAM to detect cancer in the breasts of patients with suspect/symptomatic breasts. The protocol was approved by a Medical Ethics testing committee and the instrument approved for laser and electrical safety. The protocol was executed at the Medisch Spectrum Twente by using the mammoscope to obtain photoacoustic region-of-interest (ROI) images of the suspect/symptomatic breasts. We report on one case and compare the photoacoustic images obtained with x-ray mammograms and ultrasound images.

  19. Investigating possible improvements in image quality with energy-weighting photon-counting breast CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Stephen J.; Kalluri, Kesava

    2011-03-01

    In an effort to improve the early stage detection and diagnosis of breast cancer, a number of research groups have been investigating the use of x-ray computerized tomography (CT) systems dedicated for use in imaging the breast. For a number of reasons, the performance of energy integrating detectors are sub-optimal for use in CT imaging of the breast. It is expected that the next generation of x-ray detectors for digital radiography and CT will have the capability of counting individually measured photons and recording their energy. In this paper, we used computer simulations to evaluate improvements in image quality that can be attained using energy weighting photon counting detectors for breast CT and a lower kVp settings. Results from this study suggest that improvements in SNR performance can be attained with photon counting detectors as compared to energy integrating detectors.

  20. A Reconstruction Algorithm for Breast Cancer Imaging With Electrical Impedance Tomography in Mammography Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Tzu-Jen; Isaacson, David; Saulnier, Gary J.; Newell, Jonathan C.

    2009-01-01

    The conductivity and permittivity of breast tumors are known to differ significantly from those of normal breast tissues, and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is being studied as a modality for breast cancer imaging to exploit these differences. At present, X-ray mammography is the primary standard imaging modality used for breast cancer screening in clinical practice, so it is desirable to study EIT in the geometry of mammography. This paper presents a forward model of a simplified mammography geometry and a reconstruction algorithm for breast tumor imaging using EIT techniques. The mammography geometry is modeled as a rectangular box with electrode arrays on the top and bottom planes. A forward model for the electrical impedance imaging problem is derived for a homogeneous conductivity distribution and is validated by experiment using a phantom tank. A reconstruction algorithm for breast tumor imaging based on a linearization approach and the proposed forward model is presented. It is found that the proposed reconstruction algorithm performs well in the phantom experiment, and that the locations of a 5-mm-cube metal target and a 6-mm-cube agar target could be recovered at a target depth of 15 mm using a 32 electrode system. PMID:17405377

  1. Effect of Bismuth Breast Shielding on Radiation Dose and Image Quality in Coronary CT Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Elliston, Carl D.; Groves, Daniel W.; Cheng, Bin; Wolff, Steven D.; Pearson, Gregory D. N.; Peters, M. Robert; Johnson, Lynne L.; Bokhari, Sabahat; Johnson, Gary W.; Bhatia, Ketan; Pozniakoff, Theodore; Brenner, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is associated with high radiation dose to the female breasts. Bismuth breast shielding offers the potential to significantly reduce dose to the breasts and nearby organs, but the magnitude of this reduction and its impact on image quality and radiation dose have not been evaluated. Methods Radiation doses from CCTA to critical organs were determined using metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors positioned in a customized anthropomorphic whole-body dosimetry verification phantom. Image noise and signal were measured in regions of interest (ROIs) including the coronary arteries. Results With bismuth shielding, breast radiation dose was reduced 46–57% depending on breast size and scanning technique, with more moderate dose reduction to the heart, lungs, and esophagus. However, shielding significantly decreased image signal (by 14.6 HU) and contrast (by 28.4 HU), modestly but significantly increased image noise in ROIs in locations of coronary arteries, and decreased contrast-to-noise ratio by 20.9%.. Conclusions While bismuth breast shielding can significantly decrease radiation dose to critical organs, it is associated with an increase in image noise, decrease in contrast-to-noise, and changes tissue attenuation characteristics in the location of the coronary arteries. PMID:22068687

  2. Screening Magnetic Resonance Imaging Recommendations and Outcomes in Patients at High Risk for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Sima; Strigel, Roberta M; Pettke, Erica; Wilke, Lee; Tevaarwerk, Amye J; DeMartini, Wendy; Wisinski, Kari B

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine MRI screening recommendations and the subsequent outcomes in women with increased risk for breast cancer evaluated by oncology subspecialists at an academic center. Patients and Methods Patients evaluated between 1/1/2007– 3/1/2011 under diagnosis codes for family history of breast or ovarian cancer, genetic syndromes, lobular carcinoma in situ or atypical hyperplasia were included. Patients with a history of breast cancer were excluded. Retrospective review of prospectively acquired demographics, lifetime risk of breast cancer and screening recommendations were obtained from the medical record. Retrospective review of the results of prospectively interpreted breast imaging examinations and image-guided biopsies were analyzed. Results 282 women were included. The majority of patients were premenopausal with a median age of 43. Most (69%) were referred due to a family history of breast or ovarian cancers. MRI was recommended for 84% of patients based on a documented lifetime risk > 20%. Most women referred for MRI screening (88%) were compliant with this recommendation. A total of 299 breast MRI examinations were performed in 146 patients. Biopsy was performed for 32 (11%) exams and 10 cancers were detected for a PPV of 31% (based on biopsy performed) and an overall per exam cancer yield of 3.3%. Three cancers were detected in patients who did not undergo screening MRI. The 13 cancers were Stage 0-II; all patients were without evidence of disease with a median follow-up of 22 months. Conclusion In a cohort of women seen by breast subspecialty providers, screening breast MRI was recommended according to guidelines, and used primarily premenopausal women with a family history or genetic predisposition to breast cancer. Adherence to MRI screening recommendations was high and cancer yield from breast MRI was similar to that in clinical trials. PMID:25789917

  3. Serum calcium levels, TRPM7, TRPC1, microcalcifications, and breast cancer using breast imaging reporting and data system scores

    PubMed Central

    Mandavilli, Shravya; Singh, Brij B; Sahmoun, Abe E

    2013-01-01

    Background An association between higher serum calcium (Ca2+) levels and breast cancer has been previously reported. However, little is known regarding the relationship between serum Ca2+ levels and the expression of Ca2+ channels in the presence of breast microcalcifications. Methods A retrospective analysis of women newly diagnosed with breast microcalcifications was performed based on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). The expression of TRPC1, TRPC3, and TRPM7 using normal biopsy without microcalcifications (controls) and infiltrating ductal carcinoma with microcalcifications was evaluated. Results Data on 138 women were analyzed. Seventy percent of women had a BI-RADS score (1–3) corresponding to benign disease. Seventy-six percent of women with a BI-RADS score (4 or 5) were diagnosed with breast cancer, 56% were cancers in situ, and 93% were infiltrating ductal carcinomas. No difference in the distribution of corrected serum Ca2+ levels between BI-RADS scores (1–3) and BI-RADS scores (4–5) (P = 0.82) was observed. Serum Ca2+ levels were similar in women without cancer and women diagnosed with breast cancer (P = 0.94). However, the expression of TRPM7 and TRPC1, but not TRPC3, Ca2+ channels were increased in infiltrating ductal carcinoma samples with microcalcifications when compared with age-matched controls without calcification or cancer. Conclusion We observed an increase in the expression of TRPM7 and TRPC1 Ca2+ channels in infiltrating ductal carcinoma samples with microcalcifications, whereas no change in serum Ca2+ levels was observed. Together these data suggest that increased expression of these channels might lead to an increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels thereby restoring serum Ca2+ levels, but these can contribute to the breast microcalcifications. However, future studies exploring the intracellular Ca2+ levels as well as the role of TRPM7 and TRPC1 function according to BI-RADS scores are needed. PMID:23662076

  4. Energy dispersive photon counting detectors for breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, William C.; Wessel, Jan C.; Malakhov, Nail; Wawrzyniak, Gregor; Hartsough, Neal E.; Gandhi, Thulasidharan; Nygard, Einar; Iwanczyk, Jan S.

    2013-09-01

    We report on our efforts toward the development of silicon (Si) strip detectors for energy-resolved clinical breast imaging. Typically, x-ray integrating detectors based on scintillating cesium iodide CsI(Tl) or amorphous selenium (a- Se) are used in most commercial systems. Recently, mammography instrumentation has been introduced based on photon counting silicon Si strip detectors. Mammography requires high flux from the x-ray generator, therefore, in order to achieve energy resolved single photon counting, a high output count rate (OCR) for the detector must be achieved at the required spatial resolution and across the required dynamic range for the application. The required performance in terms of the OCR, spatial resolution, and dynamic range must be obtained with sufficient field of view (FOV) for the application thus requiring the tiling of pixel arrays and scanning techniques. Room temperature semiconductors, operating as direct conversion x-ray sensors, can provide the required speed when connected to application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) operating at fast peaking times with multiple fixed thresholds per pixel, provided that the sensors are designed for rapid signal formation across the x-ray energy ranges of the application at the required energy and spatial resolutions. We present our methods and results from the optimization of prototype detectors based on Si strip structures. We describe the detector optimization and the development of ASIC readout electronics that provide the required spatial resolution, low noise, high count rate capabilities and minimal power consumption.

  5. Characterization of a prototype tabletop x-ray CT breast imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, J. Michael; Glick, Stephen J.; Gong, Xing; Didier, Clay; Mah'd, Mufeed

    2007-03-01

    Planar X-ray mammography is the standard medical imaging modality for the early detection of breast cancer. Based on advancements in digital flat-panel detector technology, dedicated x-ray computed tomography (CT) mammography is a modality under investigation that offers the potential for improved breast tumor imaging. We have implemented a prototype half cone-beam CT breast imaging system that utilizes an indirect flat-panel detector. This prototype can be used to explore and evaluate the effect of varying acquisition and reconstruction parameters on image quality. This report describes our system and characterizes the performance of the system through the analysis of Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and Noise Power Spectrum (NPS). All CT reconstructions were made using Feldkamp's filtered backprojection algorithm. The 3D MTF was determined by the analysis of the plane spread function (PlSF) derived from the surface spread function (SSF) of reconstructed 6.3mm spheres. 3D NPS characterization was performed through the analysis of a 3D volume extracted from zero-mean CT noise of air reconstructions. The effect of varying locations on MTF and the effect of different Butterworth filter cutoff frequencies on NPS are reported. Finally, we present CT images of mastectomy excised breast tissue. Breast specimen images were acquired on our CTMS using an x-ray technique similar to the one used during performance characterization. Specimen images demonstrate the inherent CT capability to reduce the masking effect of anatomical noise. Both the quantitative system characterization and the breast specimen images continue to reinforce the hope that dedicated flat-panel detector, x-ray cone-beam CT will eventually provide enhanced breast cancer detection capability.

  6. RECIST for Response (Clinical and Imaging) in Neoadjuvant Clinical Trials in Operable Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Semiglazov, Vladimir

    2015-05-01

    Although approximately 70% of breast cancer patients demonstrate a clinical response on neoadjuvant systemic therapy on physical examination or on anatomic radiographic imaging, only 3%-40% achieve a pathologic complete response (pCR). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is superior to physical examination, ultrasound, and mammography in response evaluation during neoadjuvant systemic therapy. The accuracy of breast MRI to predict pCR has a moderate sensitivity, but high specificity. The accuracy of anatomic imaging to assess residual disease and predict pCR depended on anatomic radiographic imaging cancer subtypes. Response monitoring using breast is accurate in triple-negative or HER2-positive tumors. It was inaccurate in estrogen receptor-positive/HER2-negative subtype. Another approach currently under investigation is dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and diffusion weighted-imaging, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. PMID:26063880

  7. Cerenkov luminescence imaging of human breast cancer: a Monte Carlo simulations study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschi, F.; Pagliazzi, M.; Spinelli, A. E.

    2016-03-01

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is a novel molecular imaging technique based on the detection of Cerenkov light produced by beta particles traveling through biological tissues. In this paper we simulated using 18F and 90Y the possibility of detecting Cerenkov luminescence in human breast tissues, in order to evaluate the potential of the CLI technique in a clinical setting. A human breast digital phantom was obtained from an 18F-FDG CT-PET scan. The spectral features of the breast surface emission were obtained as well as the simulated images obtainable by a cooled CCD detector. The simulated images revealed a signal to noise ratio equal to 6 for a 300 s of acquisition time. We concluded that a dedicated human Cerenkov imaging detector can be designed in order to offer a valid low cost alternative to diagnostic techniques in nuclear medicine, in particular allowing the detection of beta-minus emitters used in radiotherapy.

  8. Breast Cancer Detection by B7-H3 Targeted Ultrasound Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Jensen, Kristin C.; Wilson, Katheryne E.; Tian, Lu; Lutz, Amelie M.; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound complements mammography as an imaging modality for breast cancer detection, especially in patients with dense breast tissue, but its utility is limited by low diagnostic accuracy. One emerging molecular tool to address this limitation involves contrast-enhanced ultrasound using microbubbles targeted to molecular signatures on tumor neovasculature. In this study, we illustrate how tumor vascular expression of B7-H3 (CD276), a member of the B7 family of ligands for T cell co-regulatory receptors, can be incorporated into an ultrasound method that can distinguish normal, benign, precursor and malignant breast pathologies for diagnostic purposes. Through an immunohistochemical analysis of 248 human breast specimens, we found that vascular expression of B7-H3 was selectively and significantly higher in breast cancer tissues. B7-H3 immunostaining on blood vessels distinguished benign/precursors from malignant lesions with high diagnostic accuracy in human specimens. In a transgenic mouse model of cancer, the B7-H3-targeted ultrasound imaging signal was increased significantly in breast cancer tissues and highly correlated with ex vivo expression levels of B7-H3 on quantitative immunofluorescence. Our findings offer a preclinical proof of concept for the use of B7-H3-targeted ultrasound molecular imaging as a tool to improve the diagnostic accuracy of breast cancer detection in patients. PMID:25899053

  9. Breast cancer tumor size assessment with mammography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging at a community based multidisciplinary breast center.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Sarah Ines; Scholle, Max; Buckmaster, Jennifer; Paley, Robert Hunter; Kowdley, Gopal Chandru

    2012-04-01

    Paramount to staging and patient management is accurately measuring the size of invasive breast cancers. We assessed the accuracy of mammography (MG), ultrasonography (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at our community-based hospital in which multiple radiologists and imaging machines are used in the care of our patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database of 277 patients seen at our breast center from 2009 to 2010. We tabulated MG, US, and MRI-reported tumor sizes in 161 women with pathology-proven invasive breast cancer and compared the preoperative size measurements with final pathologic tumor size. In the 161 patients, 169 lesions were identified. Imaging using all three modalities was available in 47 patients. When compared with final pathology, MRI had a correlation of r = 0.75 to mean tumor size as compared with US (r = 0.67) and MG (r = 0.76). Mean tumor size was 1.90 cm by MG, 1.87 cm by US, 2.40 cm by MRI, and 2.19 cm by pathology. We were able to achieve an excellent correlation of pathologic tumor size to preoperative imaging. The absolute differences in size between the modalities were small. MRI, in select patients, added to the assessment of tumor size based on US and MG. PMID:22472402

  10. Effect of shaped filter design on dose and image quality in breast CT.

    PubMed

    Lück, Ferdinand; Kolditz, Daniel; Hupfer, Martin; Kalender, Willi A

    2013-06-21

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of shaped filters specifically designed for dedicated breast computed tomography (CT) scanners on dose and image quality. Optimization of filter shape and material in fan direction was performed using two different design methods, one aiming at homogeneous noise distributions in the CT images and the other aiming at a uniform dose distribution in the breast. The optimal filter thickness as a function of fan angle was determined iteratively to fulfil the above mentioned criteria for each breast diameter. Different filter materials (aluminium, copper, carbon, polytetrafluoroethylene) and breast phantoms with diameters between 80-180 mm were investigated. Noise uniformity in the reconstructed images, obtained from CT simulations based on ray-tracing methods, and dose in the breast, calculated with a Monte Carlo software tool, were used as figure of merit. Furthermore, CT-value homogeneity, the distribution of noise in cone direction, spatial resolution from centre to periphery and the contrast-to-noise ratio weighted by dose (CNRD) were evaluated. In addition, the decrease of scatter due to shaped filters was investigated. Since only few or one filter are practical in clinical CT systems, the effects of one shaped filter for different breast diameters were also investigated. In this case the filter, designed for the largest breast diameter, was simulated at variable source-to-filter distances depending on breast diameter. With the filter design method aiming at uniform noise distribution best results were obtained for aluminium as the filter material. Noise uniformity improved from 20} down to 5} and dose was reduced by about 30-40} for all breast diameters. No decrease of noise uniformity in cone direction, CT-value homogeneity, spatial resolution and the CNRD was detected with the shaped filter. However, a small improvement of CNRD was observed. Furthermore, a scatter reduction of about 20-30} and a more

  11. Effect of shaped filter design on dose and image quality in breast CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lück, Ferdinand; Kolditz, Daniel; Hupfer, Martin; Kalender, Willi A.

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of shaped filters specifically designed for dedicated breast computed tomography (CT) scanners on dose and image quality. Optimization of filter shape and material in fan direction was performed using two different design methods, one aiming at homogeneous noise distributions in the CT images and the other aiming at a uniform dose distribution in the breast. The optimal filter thickness as a function of fan angle was determined iteratively to fulfil the above mentioned criteria for each breast diameter. Different filter materials (aluminium, copper, carbon, polytetrafluoroethylene) and breast phantoms with diameters between 80-180 mm were investigated. Noise uniformity in the reconstructed images, obtained from CT simulations based on ray-tracing methods, and dose in the breast, calculated with a Monte Carlo software tool, were used as figure of merit. Furthermore, CT-value homogeneity, the distribution of noise in cone direction, spatial resolution from centre to periphery and the contrast-to-noise ratio weighted by dose (CNRD) were evaluated. In addition, the decrease of scatter due to shaped filters was investigated. Since only few or one filter are practical in clinical CT systems, the effects of one shaped filter for different breast diameters were also investigated. In this case the filter, designed for the largest breast diameter, was simulated at variable source-to-filter distances depending on breast diameter. With the filter design method aiming at uniform noise distribution best results were obtained for aluminium as the filter material. Noise uniformity improved from 20} down to 5} and dose was reduced by about 30-40} for all breast diameters. No decrease of noise uniformity in cone direction, CT-value homogeneity, spatial resolution and the CNRD was detected with the shaped filter. However, a small improvement of CNRD was observed. Furthermore, a scatter reduction of about 20-30} and a more

  12. The use of 3D laser imaging and a new breast replica cast as a method to optimize autologous breast reconstruction after mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Ahcan, Uros; Bracun, Drago; Zivec, Katarina; Pavlic, Rok; Butala, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Aesthetically pleasing and symmetrical breasts are the goal of reconstructive breast surgery. Sometimes, however, multiple procedures are needed to improve a reconstructed breast's symmetry and appearance. In order to avoid additional corrective procedures, we have developed a new method that uses a reverse engineering technique to produce what we call a new breast replica cast (NBRC). The NBRC is a mould of the contralateral healthy breast, designed according to preoperative laser 3D images. During surgery, the mould is used to help shape the new breast. With this method, we are able to achieve breast symmetry in terms of volume, projection, contour, and position on the chest wall more accurately, more quickly, and more safely than before.

  13. EDITORIAL: Optical mammography: Imaging and characterization of breast lesions by pulsed near-infrared laser light (OPTIMAMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Rinneberg, Herbert

    2005-06-01

    semi-empirical and rigorous mathematical methods for data analysis and image reconstruction, and by technical improvements to instrumentation. Throughout the project, developments in technology and methodology were assessed through appropriate evaluation on human subjects. The nine project partners also applied different measurement techniques to a concerted effort to reliably measure the scattering and absorption properties of normal breast tissue, benign lesions and tumours at various near-infrared wavelengths in vivo non-invasively, during breast surgery, and ex vivo on tissue specimens and biopsy samples. In May 2004, on the successful completion of the OPTIMAMM project, a European workshop entitled `Applied Medical Photonics: from Tissue Characterization to Optical Mammography' was held in Berlin, jointly organized by the OPTIMAMM consortium and by another consortium representing the European network on `Medical Photonics'. At this meeting, all the the OPTIMAMM partners presented summaries of their results obtained during the lifetime of the project. Subsequently, the ten collaborating research groups have prepared a series of papers which focus on the specific results of the consortia and review its overall achievements. This special issue of Physics in Medicine and Biology presents these ten papers (pages 2429-2596), which have been accepted for publication following the usual thorough peer-review process for this journal. The first four papers describe the results of the two parallel clinical assessments of scanning time-domain optical mammography, involving a combined total of about 350 patients. These include descriptions of technical developments and the results of efforts to determine the optical properties of benign lesions and carcinomas. The first two contributions summarize the work performed by collaborating groups based in Berlin. A scanning laser pulse optical mammograph, which records craniocaudal and mediolateral projection images of the compressed

  14. Mouse Models of Breast Cancer: Platforms for Discovering Precision Imaging Diagnostics and Future Cancer Medicine.

    PubMed

    Manning, H Charles; Buck, Jason R; Cook, Rebecca S

    2016-02-01

    Representing an enormous health care and socioeconomic challenge, breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Although many of the challenges associated with preventing, treating, and ultimately curing breast cancer are addressable in the laboratory, successful translation of groundbreaking research to clinical populations remains an important barrier. Particularly when compared with research on other types of solid tumors, breast cancer research is hampered by a lack of tractable in vivo model systems that accurately recapitulate the relevant clinical features of the disease. A primary objective of this article was to provide a generalizable overview of the types of in vivo model systems, with an emphasis primarily on murine models, that are widely deployed in preclinical breast cancer research. Major opportunities to advance precision cancer medicine facilitated by molecular imaging of preclinical breast cancer models are discussed. PMID:26834104

  15. Mouse Models of Breast Cancer: Platforms for Discovering Precision Imaging Diagnostics and Future Cancer Medicine.

    PubMed

    Manning, H Charles; Buck, Jason R; Cook, Rebecca S

    2016-02-01

    Representing an enormous health care and socioeconomic challenge, breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Although many of the challenges associated with preventing, treating, and ultimately curing breast cancer are addressable in the laboratory, successful translation of groundbreaking research to clinical populations remains an important barrier. Particularly when compared with research on other types of solid tumors, breast cancer research is hampered by a lack of tractable in vivo model systems that accurately recapitulate the relevant clinical features of the disease. A primary objective of this article was to provide a generalizable overview of the types of in vivo model systems, with an emphasis primarily on murine models, that are widely deployed in preclinical breast cancer research. Major opportunities to advance precision cancer medicine facilitated by molecular imaging of preclinical breast cancer models are discussed.

  16. Effect of the glandular composition on digital breast tomosynthesis image quality and dose optimisation.

    PubMed

    Marques, T; Ribeiro, A; Di Maria, S; Belchior, A; Cardoso, J; Matela, N; Oliveira, N; Janeiro, L; Almeida, P; Vaz, P

    2015-07-01

    In the image quality assessment for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a breast phantom with an average percentage of 50 % glandular tissue is seldom used, which may not be representative of the breast tissue composition of the women undergoing such examination. This work aims at studying the effect of the glandular composition of the breast on the image quality taking into consideration different sizes of lesions. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the state-of-the-art computer program PENELOPE to validate the image acquisition system of the DBT equipment as well as to calculate the mean glandular dose for each projection image and for different breast compositions. The integrated PENELOPE imaging tool (PenEasy) was used to calculate, in mammography, for each clinical detection task the X-ray energy that maximises the figure of merit. All the 2D cranial-caudal projections for DBT were simulated and then underwent the reconstruction process applying the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique. Finally, through signal-to-noise ratio analysis, the image quality in DBT was assessed. PMID:25836692

  17. Effect of the glandular composition on digital breast tomosynthesis image quality and dose optimisation.

    PubMed

    Marques, T; Ribeiro, A; Di Maria, S; Belchior, A; Cardoso, J; Matela, N; Oliveira, N; Janeiro, L; Almeida, P; Vaz, P

    2015-07-01

    In the image quality assessment for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), a breast phantom with an average percentage of 50 % glandular tissue is seldom used, which may not be representative of the breast tissue composition of the women undergoing such examination. This work aims at studying the effect of the glandular composition of the breast on the image quality taking into consideration different sizes of lesions. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the state-of-the-art computer program PENELOPE to validate the image acquisition system of the DBT equipment as well as to calculate the mean glandular dose for each projection image and for different breast compositions. The integrated PENELOPE imaging tool (PenEasy) was used to calculate, in mammography, for each clinical detection task the X-ray energy that maximises the figure of merit. All the 2D cranial-caudal projections for DBT were simulated and then underwent the reconstruction process applying the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique. Finally, through signal-to-noise ratio analysis, the image quality in DBT was assessed.

  18. Carbon nanotube electron field emitters for x-ray imaging of human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gidcumb, Emily; Gao, Bo; Shan, Jing; Inscoe, Christy; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2014-06-20

    For imaging human breast cancer, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been shown to improve image quality and breast cancer detection in comparison to two-dimensional (2D) mammography. Current DBT systems have limited spatial resolution and lengthy scan times. Stationary DBT (s-DBT), utilizing an array of carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission x-ray sources, provides increased spatial resolution and potentially faster imaging than current DBT systems. This study presents the results of detailed evaluations of CNT cathodes for x-ray breast imaging tasks. The following were investigated: high current, long-term stability of CNT cathodes for DBT; feasibility of using CNT cathodes to perform a 2D radiograph function; and cathode performance through several years of imaging. Results show that a breast tomosynthesis system using CNT cathodes could run far beyond the experimentally tested lifetime of one to two years. CNT cathodes were found capable of producing higher currents than typical DBT would require, indicating that the s-DBT imaging time can be further reduced. The feasibility of using a single cathode of the s-DBT tube to perform 2D mammography in 4 s was demonstrated. Over the lifetime of the prototype s-DBT system, it was found that both cathode performance and transmission rate were stable and consistent.

  19. Carbon nanotube electron field emitters for x-ray imaging of human breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gidcumb, Emily; Gao, Bo; Shan, Jing; Inscoe, Christy; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto

    2014-06-01

    For imaging human breast cancer, digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been shown to improve image quality and breast cancer detection in comparison to two-dimensional (2D) mammography. Current DBT systems have limited spatial resolution and lengthy scan times. Stationary DBT (s-DBT), utilizing an array of carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission x-ray sources, provides increased spatial resolution and potentially faster imaging than current DBT systems. This study presents the results of detailed evaluations of CNT cathodes for x-ray breast imaging tasks. The following were investigated: high current, long-term stability of CNT cathodes for DBT; feasibility of using CNT cathodes to perform a 2D radiograph function; and cathode performance through several years of imaging. Results show that a breast tomosynthesis system using CNT cathodes could run far beyond the experimentally tested lifetime of one to two years. CNT cathodes were found capable of producing higher currents than typical DBT would require, indicating that the s-DBT imaging time can be further reduced. The feasibility of using a single cathode of the s-DBT tube to perform 2D mammography in 4 s was demonstrated. Over the lifetime of the prototype s-DBT system, it was found that both cathode performance and transmission rate were stable and consistent.

  20. Anatomical background noise power spectrum in differential phase contrast breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2015-03-01

    In x-ray breast imaging, the anatomical noise background of the breast has a significant impact on the detection of lesions and other features of interest. This anatomical noise is typically characterized by a parameter, β, which describes a power law dependence of anatomical noise on spatial frequency (the shape of the anatomical noise power spectrum). Large values of β have been shown to reduce human detection performance, and in conventional mammography typical values of β are around 3.2. Recently, x-ray differential phase contrast (DPC) and the associated dark field imaging methods have received considerable attention as possible supplements to absorption imaging for breast cancer diagnosis. However, the impact of these additional contrast mechanisms on lesion detection is not yet well understood. In order to better understand the utility of these new methods, we measured the β indices for absorption, DPC, and dark field images in 15 cadaver breast specimens using a benchtop DPC imaging system. We found that the measured β value for absorption was consistent with the literature for mammographic acquisitions (β = 3.61±0.49), but that both DPC and dark field images had much lower values of β (β = 2.54±0.75 for DPC and β = 1.44±0.49 for dark field). In addition, visual inspection showed greatly reduced anatomical background in both DPC and dark field images. These promising results suggest that DPC and dark field imaging may help provide improved lesion detection in breast imaging, particularly for those patients with dense breasts, in whom anatomical noise is a major limiting factor in identifying malignancies.

  1. Characterization of materials for optimal near-infrared and x-ray imaging of the breast.

    PubMed

    Michaelsen, Kelly; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Pogue, Brian W; Brooks, Ken; Defreitas, Ken; Shaw, Ian; Poplack, Steven P; Paulsen, Keith D

    2012-09-01

    Development of a detector case for complete co-registration of images in a non-fiber-based combined near-infrared spectral tomography and digital breast tomosynthesis, required analysis to find materials that could support a breast under full mammographic compression without affecting the x-ray images or the quality of the near infrared measurements. Several possible solutions were considered, and many types of plastics were tested in the development of the detector case. Light channeling within the detector case changed the data obtained in resin and agarose phantoms, lowering recovered absorption values. Additional developments focusing on blocking stray light were successful and permitted a normal subject imaging exam.

  2. Regional spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue using pulsed terahertz transmission imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Tyler; El-Shenawee, Magda; Campbell, Lucas

    2016-03-01

    This work seeks to obtain the properties of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tumor tissues using transmission imaging and spectroscopy. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast tumors are first sectioned into slices of 20 μm and 30 μm and placed between two tsurupica slides. The slides are then scanned in a pulsed terahertz system using transmission imaging. The tissue regions in adjacent pathology section are compared to the transmission imaging scan in order to define a region of points over which to average the electrical properties results from the scan.

  3. Differential diagnosis of breast cancer using quantitative, label-free and molecular vibrational imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaliang; Li, Fuhai; Gao, Liang; Wang, Zhiyong; Thrall, Michael J; Shen, Steven S; Wong, Kelvin K; Wong, Stephen T C

    2011-08-01

    We present a label-free, chemically-selective, quantitative imaging strategy to identify breast cancer and differentiate its subtypes using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. Human normal breast tissue, benign proliferative, as well as in situ and invasive carcinomas, were imaged ex vivo. Simply by visualizing cellular and tissue features appearing on CARS images, cancerous lesions can be readily separated from normal tissue and benign proliferative lesion. To further distinguish cancer subtypes, quantitative disease-related features, describing the geometry and distribution of cancer cell nuclei, were extracted and applied to a computerized classification system. The results show that in situ carcinoma was successfully distinguished from invasive carcinoma, while invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma were also distinguished from each other. Furthermore, 80% of intermediate-grade IDC and 85% of high-grade IDC were correctly distinguished from each other. The proposed quantitative CARS imaging method has the potential to enable rapid diagnosis of breast cancer.

  4. Comparison of full-scan and half-scan for cone beam breast CT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lingyun; Shaw, Chris C.; Lai, Chao-jen; Altunbas, Mustafa C.; Wang, Tianpeng; Tu, Shu-ju; Liu, Xinming

    2006-03-01

    The half-scan cone beam technique, requiring a scan for 180° plus detector width only, can help achieve both shorter scan time as well as higher exposure in each individual projection image. This purpose of this paper is to investigate whether half-scan cone beam CT technique can provide acceptable images for clinical application. The half-scan cone beam reconstruction algorithm uses modified Parker's weighting function and reconstructs from slightly more than half of the projection views for full-scan, giving out promising results. A rotation phantom, stationary gantry bench top system was built to conduct experiments to evaluate half-scan cone beam breast CT technique. A post-mastectomy breast specimen, a stack of lunch meat slices embedded with various sizes of calcifications and a polycarbonate phantom inserted with glandular and adipose tissue equivalents are imaged and reconstructed for comparison study. A subset of full-scan projection images of a mastectomy specimen were extracted and used as the half-scan projection data for reconstruction. The results show half-scan reconstruction algorithm for cone beam breast CT images does not significantly degrade image quality when compared with the images of same or even half the radiation dose level. Our results are encouraging, emphasizing the potential advantages in the use of half-scan technique for cone beam breast imaging.

  5. Optimization of image quality in breast tomosynthesis using lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timberg, Pontus; Ruschin, Mark; Båth, Magnus; Hemdal, Bengt; Andersson, Ingvar; Svahn, Tony; Mattsson, Sören; Tingberg, Anders

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how image quality in breast tomosynthesis (BT) is affected when acquisition modes are varied, using human breast specimens containing malignant tumors and/or microcalcifications. Images of thirty-one breast lumpectomy and mastectomy specimens were acquired on a BT prototype based on a Mammomat Novation (Siemens) full-field digital mammography system. BT image acquisitions of the same specimens were performed varying the number of projections, angular range, and detector signal collection mode (binned and nonbinned in the scan direction). An enhanced filtered back projection reconstruction method was applied with constant settings of spectral and slice thickness filters. The quality of these images was evaluated via relative visual grading analysis (VGA) human observer performance experiments using image quality criteria. Results from the relative VGA study indicate that image quality increases with number of projections and angular range. A binned detector collecting mode results in less noise, but reduced resolution of structures. Human breast specimens seem to be suitable for comparing image sets in BT with image quality criteria.

  6. Mitosis detection in breast cancer histology images with deep neural networks.

    PubMed

    Cireşan, Dan C; Giusti, Alessandro; Gambardella, Luca M; Schmidhuber, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    We use deep max-pooling convolutional neural networks to detect mitosis in breast histology images. The networks are trained to classify each pixel in the images, using as context a patch centered on the pixel. Simple postprocessing is then applied to the network output. Our approach won the ICPR 2012 mitosis detection competition, outperforming other contestants by a significant margin.

  7. Local binary pattern texture-based classification of solid masses in ultrasound breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Monica M. S.; Sehgal, Chandra M.; Udupa, Jayaram K.

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality among women. Ultrasound examination can be used to assess breast masses, complementarily to mammography. Ultrasound images reveal tissue information in its echoic patterns. Therefore, pattern recognition techniques can facilitate classification of lesions and thereby reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies. Our hypothesis was that image texture features on the boundary of a lesion and its vicinity can be used to classify masses. We have used intensity-independent and rotation-invariant texture features, known as Local Binary Patterns (LBP). The classifier selected was K-nearest neighbors. Our breast ultrasound image database consisted of 100 patient images (50 benign and 50 malignant cases). The determination of whether the mass was benign or malignant was done through biopsy and pathology assessment. The training set consisted of sixty images, randomly chosen from the database of 100 patients. The testing set consisted of forty images to be classified. The results with a multi-fold cross validation of 100 iterations produced a robust evaluation. The highest performance was observed for feature LBP with 24 symmetrically distributed neighbors over a circle of radius 3 (LBP24,3) with an accuracy rate of 81.0%. We also investigated an approach with a score of malignancy assigned to the images in the test set. This approach provided an ROC curve with Az of 0.803. The analysis of texture features over the boundary of solid masses showed promise for malignancy classification in ultrasound breast images.

  8. Real-time optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer using an interleaved two laser imaging system coregistered with ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermilov, Sergey A.; Fronheiser, Matthew P.; Nadvoretsky, Vyacheslav; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Su, Richard; Conjusteau, André; Mehta, Ketan; Otto, Pamela; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2010-02-01

    We present results from a clinical case study on imaging breast cancer using a real-time interleaved two laser optoacoustic imaging system co-registered with ultrasound. The present version of Laser Optoacoustic Ultrasonic Imaging System (LOUIS) utilizes a commercial linear ultrasonic transducer array, which has been modified to include two parallel rectangular optical bundles, to operate in both ultrasonic (US) and optoacoustic (OA) modes. In OA mode, the images from two optical wavelengths (755 nm and 1064 nm) that provide opposite contrasts for optical absorption of oxygenated vs deoxygenated blood can be displayed simultaneously at a maximum rate of 20 Hz. The real-time aspect of the system permits probe manipulations that can assist in the detection of the lesion. The results show the ability of LOUIS to co-register regions of high absorption seen in OA images with US images collected at the same location with the dual modality probe. The dual wavelength results demonstrate that LOUIS can potentially provide breast cancer diagnostics based on different intensities of OA images of the lesion obtained at 755 nm and 1064 nm. We also present new data processing based on deconvolution of the LOUIS impulse response that helps recover original optoacoustic pressure profiles. Finally, we demonstrate the image analysis tool that provides automatic detection of the tumor boundary and quantitative metrics of the optoacoustic image quality. Using a blood vessel phantom submerged in a tissue-like milky background solution we show that the image contrast is minimally affected by the phantom distance from the LOUIS probe until about 60-65 mm. We suggest using the image contrast for quantitative assessment of an OA image of a breast lesion, as a part of the breast cancer diagnostics procedure.

  9. Expected resolution and detectability of adenocarcinoma tumors within human breast in time-resolved images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandjbakhche, Amir H.; Nossal, Ralph J.; Dadmarz, Roya; Schwartzentruber, Douglas; Bonner, Robert F.

    1995-04-01

    The prospects for time-resolved optical mammography rests on the ability to detect adenocarcinoma within the breast with sufficient resolution and specificity to compete with X-ray mammography. We characterized the optical properties of an unusually large (6 cm diameter) fresh adenocarcinoma and normal breast tissue (determined by histology to be predominantly adipose tissue) obtained from a patient undergoing mastectomy. Large specimens (5 mm thick and 3 cm wide) allowed the determination of absorption and scattering coefficients and their spatial heterogeneity as probed with a 1 mm diameter laser beam at 633 nm and 800 nm utilizing total reflectance and transmittance measure with integrating spheres. The difference between scattering coefficients of the malignant tumor and those of normal (principally adipose) breast tissue at 633 nm was much greater than the heterogeneity within each sample. This scattering difference is the principal source of contrast, particularly in time-resolved images. However, the high scattering coefficient of normal breast tissue at 633 nm limits the practicality of time-resolved mammography of a human breast compressed to 5 cm. Although the scattering coefficient of the normal breast tissue decreases at 800 nm, the differences between the optical properties of normal and abnormal breast tissue also are reduced. We used these empirical results in theoretical expressions obtained from random walk theory to quantify the expected resolution, contrast, and the detected intensity of 3, 6, and 9 mm tumors within otherwise homogeneous human breasts as a function of the gating-time of time-resolved optical mammography.

  10. High-definition Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging of breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, L. Suzanne; Kadjacsy-Balla, Andre; Bhargava, Rohit

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer diagnosis relies on staining serial sections of a biopsy in a process that can be time intensive and costly. Fourier transform infrared imaging (FT-IR) is a non-destructive, label-free chemical imaging technique that uses the vibrational structure of the biological molecules of the sample to provide contrast for images at any absorption peak in the mid-infrared. The full potential of spectroscopic imaging has been limited by the spatial resolution provided by most commercial instruments. By increasing the magnification and numerical aperture of the microscope, image pixel sizes on the order of 1.1 micron can be achieved, allowing HD FT-IR spectroscopic imaging to provide high quality images that could aid in histopathology, diagnosis, and studies of breast cancer progression.

  11. 47 CFR 15.513 - Technical requirements for medical imaging systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Technical requirements for medical imaging... DEVICES Ultra-Wideband Operation § 15.513 Technical requirements for medical imaging systems. (a) The UWB... MHz and 10,600 MHz. (b) Operation under the provisions of this section is limited to medical...

  12. 47 CFR 15.513 - Technical requirements for medical imaging systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Technical requirements for medical imaging... DEVICES Ultra-Wideband Operation § 15.513 Technical requirements for medical imaging systems. (a) The UWB... MHz and 10,600 MHz. (b) Operation under the provisions of this section is limited to medical...

  13. 47 CFR 15.513 - Technical requirements for medical imaging systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical requirements for medical imaging... DEVICES Ultra-Wideband Operation § 15.513 Technical requirements for medical imaging systems. (a) The UWB... MHz and 10,600 MHz. (b) Operation under the provisions of this section is limited to medical...

  14. 47 CFR 15.513 - Technical requirements for medical imaging systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Technical requirements for medical imaging... DEVICES Ultra-Wideband Operation § 15.513 Technical requirements for medical imaging systems. (a) The UWB... MHz and 10,600 MHz. (b) Operation under the provisions of this section is limited to medical...

  15. Multi-Band Miniaturized Patch Antennas for a Compact, Shielded Microwave Breast Imaging Array.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Suzette M; Al-Joumayly, Mudar A; Burfeindt, Matthew J; Behdad, Nader; Hagness, Susan C

    2013-12-18

    We present a comprehensive study of a class of multi-band miniaturized patch antennas designed for use in a 3D enclosed sensor array for microwave breast imaging. Miniaturization and multi-band operation are achieved by loading the antenna with non-radiating slots at strategic locations along the patch. This results in symmetric radiation patterns and similar radiation characteristics at all frequencies of operation. Prototypes were fabricated and tested in a biocompatible immersion medium. Excellent agreement was obtained between simulations and measurements. The trade-off between miniaturization and radiation efficiency within this class of patch antennas is explored via a numerical analysis of the effects of the location and number of slots, as well as the thickness and permittivity of the dielectric substrate, on the resonant frequencies and gain. Additionally, we compare 3D quantitative microwave breast imaging performance achieved with two different enclosed arrays of slot-loaded miniaturized patch antennas. Simulated array measurements were obtained for a 3D anatomically realistic numerical breast phantom. The reconstructed breast images generated from miniaturized patch array data suggest that, for the realistic noise power levels assumed in this study, the variations in gain observed across this class of multi-band patch antennas do not significantly impact the overall image quality. We conclude that these miniaturized antennas are promising candidates as compact array elements for shielded, multi-frequency microwave breast imaging systems.

  16. Multi-Band Miniaturized Patch Antennas for a Compact, Shielded Microwave Breast Imaging Array.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Suzette M; Al-Joumayly, Mudar A; Burfeindt, Matthew J; Behdad, Nader; Hagness, Susan C

    2013-12-18

    We present a comprehensive study of a class of multi-band miniaturized patch antennas designed for use in a 3D enclosed sensor array for microwave breast imaging. Miniaturization and multi-band operation are achieved by loading the antenna with non-radiating slots at strategic locations along the patch. This results in symmetric radiation patterns and similar radiation characteristics at all frequencies of operation. Prototypes were fabricated and tested in a biocompatible immersion medium. Excellent agreement was obtained between simulations and measurements. The trade-off between miniaturization and radiation efficiency within this class of patch antennas is explored via a numerical analysis of the effects of the location and number of slots, as well as the thickness and permittivity of the dielectric substrate, on the resonant frequencies and gain. Additionally, we compare 3D quantitative microwave breast imaging performance achieved with two different enclosed arrays of slot-loaded miniaturized patch antennas. Simulated array measurements were obtained for a 3D anatomically realistic numerical breast phantom. The reconstructed breast images generated from miniaturized patch array data suggest that, for the realistic noise power levels assumed in this study, the variations in gain observed across this class of multi-band patch antennas do not significantly impact the overall image quality. We conclude that these miniaturized antennas are promising candidates as compact array elements for shielded, multi-frequency microwave breast imaging systems. PMID:25392561

  17. Multi-Band Miniaturized Patch Antennas for a Compact, Shielded Microwave Breast Imaging Array

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Suzette M.; Al-Joumayly, Mudar A.; Burfeindt, Matthew J.; Behdad, Nader; Hagness, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of a class of multi-band miniaturized patch antennas designed for use in a 3D enclosed sensor array for microwave breast imaging. Miniaturization and multi-band operation are achieved by loading the antenna with non-radiating slots at strategic locations along the patch. This results in symmetric radiation patterns and similar radiation characteristics at all frequencies of operation. Prototypes were fabricated and tested in a biocompatible immersion medium. Excellent agreement was obtained between simulations and measurements. The trade-off between miniaturization and radiation efficiency within this class of patch antennas is explored via a numerical analysis of the effects of the location and number of slots, as well as the thickness and permittivity of the dielectric substrate, on the resonant frequencies and gain. Additionally, we compare 3D quantitative microwave breast imaging performance achieved with two different enclosed arrays of slot-loaded miniaturized patch antennas. Simulated array measurements were obtained for a 3D anatomically realistic numerical breast phantom. The reconstructed breast images generated from miniaturized patch array data suggest that, for the realistic noise power levels assumed in this study, the variations in gain observed across this class of multi-band patch antennas do not significantly impact the overall image quality. We conclude that these miniaturized antennas are promising candidates as compact array elements for shielded, multi-frequency microwave breast imaging systems. PMID:25392561

  18. Image quality and dose assessment in digital breast tomosynthesis: A Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, M.; Di Maria, S.; Oliveira, N.; Matela, N.; Janeiro, L.; Almeida, P.; Vaz, P.

    2014-11-01

    Mammography is considered a standard technique for the early detection of breast cancer. However, its sensitivity is limited essentially due to the issue of the overlapping breast tissue. This limitation can be partially overcome, with a relatively new technique, called digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). For this technique, optimization of acquisition parameters which maximize image quality, whilst complying with the ALARA principle, continues to be an area of considerable research. The aim of this work was to study the best quantum energies that optimize the image quality with the lowest achievable dose in DBT and compare these results with the digital mammography (DM) ones. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the state-of-the-art computer program MCNPX 2.7.0 in order to generate several 2D cranio-caudal (CC) projections obtained during an acquisition of a standard DBT examination. Moreover, glandular absorbed doses and photon flux calculations, for each projection image, were performed. A homogeneous breast computational phantom with 50%/50% glandular/adipose tissue composition was used and two compressed breast thicknesses were evaluated: 4 cm and 8 cm. The simulated projection images were afterwards reconstructed with an algebraic reconstruction tool and the signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) was calculated in order to evaluate the image quality in DBT and DM. Finally, a thorough comparison between the results obtained in terms of SDNR and dose assessment in DBT and DM was performed.

  19. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer using cytological images: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Saha, Monjoy; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2016-10-01

    Cytological evaluation by microscopic image-based characterization [imprint cytology (IC) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC)] plays an integral role in primary screening/detection of breast cancer. The sensitivity of IC and FNAC as a screening tool is dependent on the image quality and the pathologist's level of expertise. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is used to assists the pathologists by developing various machine learning and image processing algorithms. This study reviews the various manual and computer-aided techniques used so far in breast cytology. Diagnostic applications were studied to estimate the role of CAD in breast cancer diagnosis. This paper presents an overview of image processing and pattern recognition techniques that have been used to address several issues in breast cytology-based CAD including slide preparation, staining, microscopic imaging, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and diagnostic classification. This review provides better insights to readers regarding the state of the art the knowledge on CAD-based breast cancer diagnosis to date. PMID:27528421

  20. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer using cytological images: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Saha, Monjoy; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2016-10-01

    Cytological evaluation by microscopic image-based characterization [imprint cytology (IC) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC)] plays an integral role in primary screening/detection of breast cancer. The sensitivity of IC and FNAC as a screening tool is dependent on the image quality and the pathologist's level of expertise. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is used to assists the pathologists by developing various machine learning and image processing algorithms. This study reviews the various manual and computer-aided techniques used so far in breast cytology. Diagnostic applications were studied to estimate the role of CAD in breast cancer diagnosis. This paper presents an overview of image processing and pattern recognition techniques that have been used to address several issues in breast cytology-based CAD including slide preparation, staining, microscopic imaging, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and diagnostic classification. This review provides better insights to readers regarding the state of the art the knowledge on CAD-based breast cancer diagnosis to date.

  1. Near-infrared spectral imaging of the female breast for quantitative oximetry in optical mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Yang; Liu Ning; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-04-01

    We present a hybrid continuous-wave, frequency-domain instrument for near-infrared spectral imaging of the female breast based on a tandem, planar scanning of one illumination optical fiber and one collection optical fiber configured in a transmission geometry. The spatial sampling rate of 25 points/cm{sup 2} is increased to 400 points/cm{sup 2} by postprocessing the data with a 2D cubic spline interpolation. We then apply a previously developed spatial second-derivative algorithm to an edge-corrected intensity image (N-image) to enhance the visibility and resolution of optical inhomogeneities in breast tissue such as blood vessels and tumors. The spectral data at each image pixel consist of 515-point spectra over the 650-900 nm wavelength range, thus featuring a spectral density of two data points per nanometer. We process the measured spectra with a paired-wavelength spectral analysis method to quantify the oxygen saturation of detected optical inhomogeneities, under the assumption that they feature a locally higher hemoglobin concentration. Our initial measurements on two healthy human subjects have generated high-resolution optical mammograms displaying a network of blood vessels with values of hemoglobin saturation typically falling within the 60%-95% range, which is physiologically reasonable. This approach to spectral imaging and oximetry of the breast has the potential to efficiently exploit the high intrinsic contrast provided by hemoglobin in breast tissue and to contribute a useful tool in the detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of breast pathologies.

  2. Feasibility demonstration of frequency domain terahertz imaging in breast cancer margin determination

    PubMed Central

    Yngvesson, Sigfrid K.; St. Peter, Benjamin; Siqueira, Paul; Kelly, Patrick; Glick, Stephen; Karellas, Andrew; Khan, Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    In breast conservation surgery, surgeons attempt to remove malignant tissue along with a surrounding margin of healthy tissue. Subsequent pathological analysis determines if those margins are clear of malignant tissue, a process that typically requires at least one day. Only then can it be determined whether a follow-up surgery is necessary. This possibility of re-excision is undesirable in terms of reducing patient morbidity, emotional stress and healthcare. It has been shown that terahertz (THz) images of breast specimens can accurately differentiate between breast carcinoma, normal fibroglandular tissue, and adipose tissue. That study employed the Time-Domain Spectroscopy (TDS) technique. We are instead developing a new technique, Frequency-Domain Terahertz Imaging (FDTI). In this joint project between UMass/Amherst and UMass Medical School/Worcester (UMMS), we are investigating the feasibility of the FDTI technique for THz reflection imaging of breast cancer margins. Our system, which produces mechanically scanned images of size 2cm × 2cm, uses a THz gas laser. The system is calibrated with mixtures of water and ethanol and reflection coefficients as low as 1% have been measured. Images from phantoms and specimens cut from breast cancer lumpectomies at UMMS will be presented. Finally, there will be a discussion of a possible transition of this FDTI setup to a compact and inexpensive CMOS THz camera for use in the operating room. PMID:24353380

  3. Feasibility demonstration of frequency domain terahertz imaging in breast cancer margin determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yngvesson, Sigfrid K.; St. Peter, Benjamin; Siqueira, Paul; Kelly, Patrick; Glick, Stephen; Karellas, Andrew; Khan, Ashraf

    2012-03-01

    In breast conservation surgery, surgeons attempt to remove malignant tissue along with a surrounding margin of healthy tissue. Subsequent pathological analysis determines if those margins are clear of malignant tissue, a process that typically requires at least one day. Only then can it be determined whether a follow-up surgery is necessary. This possibility of re-excision is undesirable in terms of reducing patient morbidity, emotional stress and healthcare. It has been shown that terahertz (THz) images of breast specimens can accurately differentiate between breast carcinoma, normal fibroglandular tissue, and adipose tissue. That study employed the Time-Domain Spectroscopy (TDS) technique. We are instead developing a new technique, Frequency-Domain Terahertz Imaging (FDTI). In this joint project between UMass/Amherst and UMass Medical School/Worcester (UMMS), we are investigating the feasibility of the FDTI technique for THz reflection imaging of breast cancer margins. Our system, which produces mechanically scanned images of size 2cm x 2cm, uses a THz gas laser. The system is calibrated with mixtures of water and ethanol and reflection coefficients as low as 1% have been measured. Images from phantoms and specimens cut from breast cancer lumpectomies at UMMS will be presented. Finally, there will be a discussion of a possible transition of this FDTI setup to a compact and inexpensive CMOS THz camera for use in the operating room.

  4. Combined magnetic resonance, fluorescence, and histology imaging strategy in a human breast tumor xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lu; Greenwood, Tiffany R.; Amstalden van Hove, Erika R.; Chughtai, Kamila; Raman, Venu; Winnard, Paul T.; Heeren, Ron; Artemov, Dmitri; Glunde, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Applications of molecular imaging in cancer and other diseases frequently require combining in vivo imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance and optical imaging, with ex vivo optical, fluorescence, histology, and immunohistochemical (IHC) imaging, to investigate and relate molecular and biological processes to imaging parameters within the same region of interest. We have developed a multimodal image reconstruction and fusion framework that accurately combines in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), ex vivo brightfield and fluorescence microscopic imaging, and ex vivo histology imaging. Ex vivo brightfield microscopic imaging was used as an intermediate modality to facilitate the ultimate link between ex vivo histology and in vivo MRI/MRSI. Tissue sectioning necessary for optical and histology imaging required generation of a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction module for 2D ex vivo optical and histology imaging data. We developed an external fiducial marker based 3D reconstruction method, which was able to fuse optical brightfield and fluorescence with histology imaging data. Registration of 3D tumor shape was pursued to combine in vivo MRI/MRSI and ex vivo optical brightfield and fluorescence imaging data. This registration strategy was applied to in vivo MRI/MRSI, ex vivo optical brightfield/fluorescence, as well as histology imaging data sets obtained from human breast tumor models. 3D human breast tumor data sets were successfully reconstructed and fused with this platform. PMID:22945331

  5. Full Intelligent Cancer Classification of Thermal Breast Images to Assist Physician in Clinical Diagnostic Applications.

    PubMed

    Lashkari, AmirEhsan; Pak, Fatemeh; Firouzmand, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. The important key to treat the breast cancer is early detection of it because according to many pathological studies more than 75% - 80% of all abnormalities are still benign at primary stages; so in recent years, many studies and extensive research done to early detection of breast cancer with higher precision and accuracy. Infra-red breast thermography is an imaging technique based on recording temperature distribution patterns of breast tissue. Compared with breast mammography technique, thermography is more suitable technique because it is noninvasive, non-contact, passive and free ionizing radiation. In this paper, a full automatic high accuracy technique for classification of suspicious areas in thermogram images with the aim of assisting physicians in early detection of breast cancer has been presented. Proposed algorithm consists of four main steps: pre-processing & segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. At the first step, using full automatic operation, region of interest (ROI) determined and the quality of image improved. Using thresholding and edge detection techniques, both right and left breasts separated from each other. Then relative suspected areas become segmented and image matrix normalized due to the uniqueness of each person's body temperature. At feature extraction stage, 23 features, including statistical, morphological, frequency domain, histogram and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) based features are extracted from segmented right and left breast obtained from step 1. To achieve the best features, feature selection methods such as minimum Redundancy and Maximum Relevance (mRMR), Sequential Forward Selection (SFS), Sequential Backward Selection (SBS), Sequential Floating Forward Selection (SFFS), Sequential Floating Backward Selection (SFBS) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) have been used at step 3. Finally to classify and TH labeling procedures

  6. Full Intelligent Cancer Classification of Thermal Breast Images to Assist Physician in Clinical Diagnostic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lashkari, AmirEhsan; Pak, Fatemeh; Firouzmand, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. The important key to treat the breast cancer is early detection of it because according to many pathological studies more than 75% – 80% of all abnormalities are still benign at primary stages; so in recent years, many studies and extensive research done to early detection of breast cancer with higher precision and accuracy. Infra-red breast thermography is an imaging technique based on recording temperature distribution patterns of breast tissue. Compared with breast mammography technique, thermography is more suitable technique because it is noninvasive, non-contact, passive and free ionizing radiation. In this paper, a full automatic high accuracy technique for classification of suspicious areas in thermogram images with the aim of assisting physicians in early detection of breast cancer has been presented. Proposed algorithm consists of four main steps: pre-processing & segmentation, feature extraction, feature selection and classification. At the first step, using full automatic operation, region of interest (ROI) determined and the quality of image improved. Using thresholding and edge detection techniques, both right and left breasts separated from each other. Then relative suspected areas become segmented and image matrix normalized due to the uniqueness of each person's body temperature. At feature extraction stage, 23 features, including statistical, morphological, frequency domain, histogram and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) based features are extracted from segmented right and left breast obtained from step 1. To achieve the best features, feature selection methods such as minimum Redundancy and Maximum Relevance (mRMR), Sequential Forward Selection (SFS), Sequential Backward Selection (SBS), Sequential Floating Forward Selection (SFFS), Sequential Floating Backward Selection (SFBS) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) have been used at step 3. Finally to classify and TH labeling procedures

  7. Automatic nipple detection on 3D images of an automated breast ultrasound system (ABUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javanshir Moghaddam, Mandana; Tan, Tao; Karssemeijer, Nico; Platel, Bram

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that applying Automated Breast Ultrasound in addition to mammography in women with dense breasts can lead to additional detection of small, early stage breast cancers which are occult in corresponding mammograms. In this paper, we proposed a fully automatic method for detecting the nipple location in 3D ultrasound breast images acquired from Automated Breast Ultrasound Systems. The nipple location is a valuable landmark to report the position of possible abnormalities in a breast or to guide image registration. To detect the nipple location, all images were normalized. Subsequently, features have been extracted in a multi scale approach and classification experiments were performed using a gentle boost classifier to identify the nipple location. The method was applied on a dataset of 100 patients with 294 different 3D ultrasound views from Siemens and U-systems acquisition systems. Our database is a representative sample of cases obtained in clinical practice by four medical centers. The automatic method could accurately locate the nipple in 90% of AP (Anterior-Posterior) views and in 79% of the other views.

  8. Misclassification of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) mammographic density and implications for breast density reporting legislation

    PubMed Central

    Gard, Charlotte C.; Aiello Bowles, Erin J.; Miglioretti, Diana L.; Taplin, Stephen H.; Rutter, Carolyn M.

    2015-01-01

    U.S. states have begun legislating mammographic breast density reporting to women, requiring that women undergoing screening mammography who have dense breast tissue (BI-RADS density c or d) receive written notification of their breast density; however, the impact that misclassification of breast density will have on this reporting remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess reproducibility of the four-category Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) density measure and examine its relationship with a continuous measure of percent density. We enrolled 19 radiologists, experienced in breast imaging, from a single integrated healthcare system. Radiologists interpreted 341 screening mammograms at two points in time six months apart. We assessed intra- and inter-observer agreement in radiologists’ interpretations of BI-RADS density and explored whether agreement depended upon radiologist characteristics. We examined the relationship between BI-RADS density and percent density in a subset of 282 examinations. Intra-radiologist agreement was moderate to substantial, with kappa varying across radiologists from 0.50–0.81 (mean=0.69, 95% CI (0.63, 0.73)). Intra-radiologist agreement was higher for radiologists with ≥10 years experience interpreting mammograms (difference in mean kappa=0.10, 95% CI (0.01, 0.24)). Inter-radiologist agreement varied widely across radiologist pairs from slight to substantial, with kappa ranging from 0.02–0.72 (mean=0.46, 95% CI (0.36, 0.55)). Of 145 examinations interpreted as “non-dense” (BI-RADS density a or b) by the majority of radiologists, 82.8% were interpreted as “dense” (BI-RADS density c or d) by at least one radiologist. Of 187 examinations interpreted as “dense” by the majority of radiologists, 47.1% were interpreted as “non-dense” by at least one radiologist. While the examinations of almost half of the women in our study were interpreted clinically as having BI-RADS density c or d, only

  9. Toward a practical ultrasound waveform tomography algorithm for improving breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cuiping; Sandhu, Gursharan S.; Roy, Olivier; Duric, Neb; Allada, Veerendra; Schmidt, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasound tomography is an emerging modality for breast imaging. However, most current ultrasonic tomography imaging algorithms, historically hindered by the limited memory and processor speed of computers, are based on ray theory and assume a homogeneous background which is inaccurate for complex heterogeneous regions. Therefore, wave theory, which accounts for diffraction effects, must be used in ultrasonic imaging algorithms to properly handle the heterogeneous nature of breast tissue in order to accurately image small lesions. However, application of waveform tomography to medical imaging has been limited by extreme computational cost and convergence. By taking advantage of the computational architecture of Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), the intensive processing burden of waveform tomography can be greatly alleviated. In this study, using breast imaging methods, we implement a frequency domain waveform tomography algorithm on GPUs with the goal of producing high-accuracy and high-resolution breast images on clinically relevant time scales. We present some simulation results and assess the resolution and accuracy of our waveform tomography algorithms based on the simulation data.

  10. Methods for mitigating the effect of noise, interference, and model error on microwave breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burfeindt, Matthew J.

    Microwave inverse scattering shows promise for meeting important clinical needs in breast imaging that arise due to drawbacks in traditional imaging technologies. The dielectric contrast between different breast tissue types, the 3-D nature of various inverse scattering algorithms, as well as microwave technology's relative safety and low cost motivate a microwave-based approach. However, challenges remain for this type of imaging technique, as it requires solving a linear system that is ill-posed and underdetermined, thus making it sensitive to noise, interference, and mismatch between the assumed and actual properties of the propagation environment. In this document, we report a series of studies performed with the goal of mitigating the effect of these types of signal errors on the imaging results. We conduct a numerical feasibility study to demonstrate the efficacy of microwave breast imaging using an enclosed array of miniaturized, multi-band patch antennas designed to account for the ill-posed nature of the imaging problem. We then conduct several experimental studies with an array prototype, wherein we characterize the sensitivity of the array to model error as well as create experimental reconstructions of both geometrically-simple objects and an MRI-derived 3-D-printed breast phantom. Lastly, we incorporate a beamforming-enhancement into the imaging algorithm with the goal of making it less sensitive to signal error.

  11. Method for combined FDG-PET and radiographic imaging of primary breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Adler, Lee P; Weinberg, Irving N; Bradbury, Michelle S; Levine, Edward A; Lesko, Nadine M; Geisinger, Kim R; Berg, Wendie A; Freimanis, Rita I

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a hybrid functional/anatomic breast imaging platform with biopsy capability for facilitating lesion detection and diagnosis. This platform consists of an investigative dedicated positron emission mammography (PEM) device mounted on a stereotactic X-ray mammography system, permitting sequential acquisition of mammographic and emission images during a single breast compression. There is automatic coregistration of images from both modalities, and these results can be successfully correlated with histopathologic findings. The potential utility of functional images correlated to anatomic images would include noninvasively detecting clinically and radiographically occult cancers, assessing response to therapy, discriminating between benign and malignant breast masses, and ultimately reducing the number of invasive and costly surgical interventions. A spot-digital mammogram and subsequent PEM image, collected over a 4-minute period, were obtained in a single patient with the breast in compression after intravenous injection of (F-18)-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) at the time of stereotactic biopsy. The authors conclude that FDG-based lesion localization information may be combined with the lesion X-ray attenuation characteristics using this common imaging platform.

  12. Coded aperture coherent scatter imaging for breast cancer detection: a Monte Carlo evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmanan, Manu N.; Morris, Robert E.; Greenberg, Joel A.; Samei, Ehsan; Kapadia, Anuj J.

    2016-03-01

    It is known that conventional x-ray imaging provides a maximum contrast between cancerous and healthy fibroglandular breast tissues of 3% based on their linear x-ray attenuation coefficients at 17.5 keV, whereas coherent scatter signal provides a maximum contrast of 19% based on their differential coherent scatter cross sections. Therefore in order to exploit this potential contrast, we seek to evaluate the performance of a coded- aperture coherent scatter imaging system for breast cancer detection and investigate its accuracy using Monte Carlo simulations. In the simulations we modeled our experimental system, which consists of a raster-scanned pencil beam of x-rays, a bismuth-tin coded aperture mask comprised of a repeating slit pattern with 2-mm periodicity, and a linear-array of 128 detector pixels with 6.5-keV energy resolution. The breast tissue that was scanned comprised a 3-cm sample taken from a patient-based XCAT breast phantom containing a tomosynthesis- based realistic simulated lesion. The differential coherent scatter cross section was reconstructed at each pixel in the image using an iterative reconstruction algorithm. Each pixel in the reconstructed image was then classified as being either air or the type of breast tissue with which its normalized reconstructed differential coherent scatter cross section had the highest correlation coefficient. Comparison of the final tissue classification results with the ground truth image showed that the coded aperture imaging technique has a cancerous pixel detection sensitivity (correct identification of cancerous pixels), specificity (correctly ruling out healthy pixels as not being cancer) and accuracy of 92.4%, 91.9% and 92.0%, respectively. Our Monte Carlo evaluation of our experimental coded aperture coherent scatter imaging system shows that it is able to exploit the greater contrast available from coherently scattered x-rays to increase the accuracy of detecting cancerous regions within the breast.

  13. Evaluation of real-time acoustical holography for breast imaging and biopsy guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Constance D.; Andre, Michael P.; Fecht, Barbara A.; Johansen, Jennifer M.; Shelby, Ronald L.; Shelby, Jerod O.

    1999-05-01

    Ultrasound is an attractive modality for adjunctive characterization of certain breast lesions, but it is not considered specific for cancer and it is not recommended for screening. An imaging technique remarkably different from pulse-echo ultrasound, termed Optical SonographyTM (Advanced Diagnostics, Inc.), uses the through-transmission signal. The method was applied to breast examinations in 41 asymptomatic and symptomatic women ranging in age from 18 to 83 years to evaluate this imaging modality for detection and characterization of breast disease and normal tissue. This approach uses coherent sound and coherent light to produce real-time, large field-of-view images with pronounced edge definition in soft tissues of the body. The system patient interface was modified to improve coupling to the breast and bring the chest wall to within 3 cm of the sound beam. System resolution (full width half maximum of the line-spread function) was 0.5 mm for a swept-frequency beam centered at 2.7 MHz. Resolution degrades slightly in the periphery of the very large 15.2-cm field of view. Dynamic range of the reconstructed 'raw' images (no post processing) was 3000:1. Included in the study population were women with dense parenchyma, palpable ductal carcinoma in situ with negative mammography, superficial and deep fibroadenomas, and calcifications. Successful breast imaging was performed in 40 of 41 women. These images were then compared with images generated using conventional X-ray mammography and pulse-echo ultrasound. Margins of lesions and internal textures were particularly well defined and provided substantial contrast to fatty and dense parenchyma. In two malignant lesions, Optical SonographyTM appeared to approximate more closely tumor extent compared to mammography than pulse-echo sonography. These preliminary studies indicate the method has unique potential for detecting, differentiating, and guiding the biopsy of breast lesions using real-time acoustical holography.

  14. Feeling like me again: a grounded theory of the role of breast reconstruction surgery in self-image.

    PubMed

    McKean, L N; Newman, E F; Adair, P

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to develop a theoretical understanding of the role of breast reconstruction in women's self-image. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women from breast cancer support groups who had undergone breast reconstruction surgery. A grounded theory methodology was used to explore their experiences. The study generated a model of 'breast cancer, breast reconstruction and self-image', with a core category entitled 'feeling like me again' and two principal categories of 'normal appearance' and 'normal life'. A further two main categories, 'moving on' and 'image of sick person' were generated. The results indicated a role of breast reconstruction in several aspects of self-image including the restoration of pre-surgery persona, which further promoted adjustment.

  15. Validity of breast-specific gamma imaging for Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System 4 lesions on mammography and/or ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min Jeng; Yu, Yeong Beom; Park, Kyoung Sik; Chung, Hyun Woo; So, Young; Choi, Nami; Kim, Mi Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) in Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 4 lesions on mammography and/or ultrasound. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 162 patients who underwent BSGI in BI-RADS 4 lesions on mammography and/or ultrasound. Results Of the 162 breast lesions, 66 were malignant tumors and 96 were benign tumors. Sensitivity and specificity of BSGI were 90.9% and 78.1%, and positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 74.1% and 92.6%. The sensitivity or specificity of mammography and ultrasound were 74.2% and 56.3% and 87.9% and 19.8%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of BSGI for breast lesions ≤1 cm were 88.0% and 86.8%, while the values of beast lesions >1 cm were 92.7% and 61.5%. The sensitivity or specificity of BSGI and mammography for patients with dense breasts were 92.0% and 81.3% and 72.0% and 50.0%, respectively. 26 patients showed neither a nodule nor microcalcification on ultrasound, but showed suspicious calcification on mammography. The sensitivity and specificity of BSGI with microcalcification only lesion were 75.0% and 94.4%. Conclusion This study demonstrated that BSGI had shown high sensitivity and specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive values in BI-RADS 4 lesions on ultrasound and/or mammography. BSGI showed excellent results in dense breasts, in lesions that are less than 1 cm in size and lesions with suspicious microcalcification only. PMID:27073789

  16. The effects of gantry tilt on breast dose and image noise in cardiac CT

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, Michael E.; Gandhi, Diksha; Schmidt, Taly Gilat; Stevens, Grant M.; Foley, W. Dennis

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This study investigated the effects of tilted-gantry acquisition on image noise and glandular breast dose in females during cardiac computed tomography (CT) scans. Reducing the dose to glandular breast tissue is important due to its high radiosensitivity and limited diagnostic significance in cardiac CT scans.Methods: Tilted-gantry acquisition was investigated through computer simulations and experimental measurements. Upon IRB approval, eight voxelized phantoms were constructed from previously acquired cardiac CT datasets. Monte Carlo simulations quantified the dose deposited in glandular breast tissue over a range of tilt angles. The effects of tilted-gantry acquisition on breast dose were measured on a clinical CT scanner (CT750HD, GE Healthcare) using an anthropomorphic phantom with MOSFET dosimeters in the breast regions. In both simulations and experiments, scans were performed at gantry tilt angles of 0°–30°, in 5° increments. The percent change in breast dose was calculated relative to the nontilted scan for all tilt angles. The percent change in noise standard deviation due to gantry tilt was calculated in all reconstructed simulated and experimental images.Results: Tilting the gantry reduced the breast dose in all simulated and experimental phantoms, with generally greater dose reduction at increased gantry tilts. For example, at 30° gantry tilt, the dosimeters located in the superior, middle, and inferior breast regions measured dose reductions of 74%, 61%, and 9%, respectively. The simulations estimated 0%–30% total breast dose reduction across the eight phantoms and range of tilt angles. However, tilted-gantry acquisition also increased the noise standard deviation in the simulated phantoms by 2%–50% due to increased pathlength through the iodine-filled heart. The experimental phantom, which did not contain iodine in the blood, demonstrated decreased breast dose and decreased noise at all gantry tilt angles.Conclusions: Tilting the

  17. Evaluation of a hemi-spherical wideband antenna array for breast cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemm, M.; Craddock, I. J.; Preece, A.; Leendertz, J.; Benjamin, R.

    2008-12-01

    Using similar techniques to ground penetrating radars, microwave detection of breast tumors is a potential nonionizing and noninvasive alternative to traditional body-imaging techniques. In order to develop an imaging system, the team at Bristol have been working on a number of antenna array prototypes, based around a stacked-patch element, starting with simple pairs of elements and progressing to fully populated planar arrays. As the system commences human subject trials, a curved breast phantom has been developed along with an approximately hemi-spherical conformal array. This contribution will present details of the conformal array design and initial results from this unique experimental imaging system as applied to an anatomically shaped breast phantom.

  18. Investigation of near infrared autofluorescence imaging for the detection of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Demos, S G; Bold, R; White, R d; Ramsamooj, R

    2005-08-19

    Detection of breast cancer in fresh tissue obtained from surgery is investigated using Near-infrared autofluorescence imaging under laser excitation at 532-nm and 632.8-nm. The differences in intensity between the three main components of breast tissue (cancer, fibrous and adipose) are estimated and compared to those obtained from cross-polarized light scattering images recorded under polarized illumination at 700-nm. The optical spectroscopic images for each tissue sample were subsequently compared with the histopathology slides. The experimental results indicate that the intensity of the near-infrared emission is considerably different in breast cancer compared to that of the adjacent non-neoplastic tissues (adipose and fibrous tissue). The experimental results suggest that 632.8-nm excitation offers key advantages compared to 532-nm excitation.

  19. Database-guided breast tumor detection and segmentation in 2D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingdan; Zhou, Shaohua K.; Brunke, Shelby; Lowery, Carol; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2010-03-01

    Ultrasonography is a valuable technique for diagnosing breast cancer. Computer-aided tumor detection and segmentation in ultrasound images can reduce labor cost and streamline clinic workflows. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic system to detect and segment breast tumors in 2D ultrasound images. Our system, based on database-guided techniques, learns the knowledge of breast tumor appearance exemplified by expert annotations. For tumor detection, we train a classifier to discriminate between tumors and their background. For tumor segmentation, we propose a discriminative graph cut approach, where both the data fidelity and compatibility functions are learned discriminatively. The performance of the proposed algorithms is demonstrated on a large set of 347 images, achieving a mean contour-to-contour error of 3.75 pixels with about 4.33 seconds.

  20. Optical tomography of the breast using a multi-channel time-resolved imager.

    PubMed

    Yates, Tara; Hebden, Jeremy C; Gibson, Adam; Everdell, Nick; Arridge, Simon R; Douek, Michael

    2005-06-01

    A time-resolved optical tomography system has been used to generate cross-sectional images of the human breast. Images are reconstructed using an iterative, nonlinear algorithm and measurements of mean photon flight time relative to those acquired on a homogeneous reference phantom. Thirty-eight studies have been performed on three healthy volunteers and 21 patients with a variety of breast lesions including cancer. We have successfully detected 17 out of 19 lesions, and shown that optical images of the healthy breast of the same volunteer display a heterogeneity which is repeatable over a period of months. However, results also indicate that the lack of accurate quantitation of optical parameters and limited morphological information limits the ability to characterize different types of lesions and distinguish benign from malignant tissues. Drawbacks of our current methodology and plans for overcoming them are discussed.

  1. Review of three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging for oncoplastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Rachel L; Stevens, Roger J G; Harris, Paul A; Rusby, Jennifer E

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional surface imaging (3D-SI) is being marketed as a tool in aesthetic breast surgery. It has recently also been studied in the objective evaluation of cosmetic outcome of oncological procedures. The aim of this review is to summarise the use of 3D-SI in oncoplastic, reconstructive and aesthetic breast surgery. An extensive literature review was undertaken to identify published studies. Two reviewers independently screened all abstracts and selected relevant articles using specific inclusion criteria. Seventy two articles relating to 3D-SI for breast surgery were identified. These covered endpoints such as image acquisition, calculations and data obtainable, comparison of 3D and 2D imaging and clinical research applications of 3D-SI. The literature provides a favourable view of 3D-SI. However, evidence of its superiority over current methods of clinical decision making, surgical planning, communication and evaluation of outcome is required before it can be accepted into mainstream practice.

  2. Molecular and Functional Imaging of Bone Metastases in Breast and Prostate Cancers: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Azad, Gurdip Kaur; Taylor, Benjamin; Rubello, Domenico; Colletti, Patrick M; Goh, Vicky; Cook, Gary J

    2016-01-01

    Our ability to accurately assess the skeleton for metastases in breast and prostate cancers has improved significantly in recent years with hybrid imaging methods. Nevertheless, no consensus has been reached on the best imaging modality for diagnosis and treatment response assessment of skeletal disease. Hybrid SPECT/CT has low false-positive and false-negative rates compared with planar bone scintigraphy (BS) or BS augmented with SPECT in breast and prostate cancers. In breast cancer, 18F-FDG PET is more sensitive and accurate at detecting bone metastases than BS. Currently, little evidence has accrued to support the superiority of 18F-fluoride (18F-NaF) PET in diagnosing osseous metastases or monitoring treatment response in breast cancer when compared with conventional imaging. In prostate cancer, the sensitivities of 18F-NaF PET/CT, 18F-fluorocholine (18F-choline), or 11C-choline PET/CT are equivalent, although 11C-/18F-choline PET/CT scans are more specific. Whole-body MRI, using anatomical sequences complemented by diffusion-weighted MRI, shows early evidence of utility for diagnosis and monitoring therapy response. We review the literature for staging and response assessment in metastatic breast and prostate cancer. While staging accuracy has significantly improved with hybrid imaging, optimal methods for assessing early treatment response have not been determined, and this is an area of active research.

  3. Assessing the future of diffuse optical imaging technologies for breast cancer management

    SciTech Connect

    Tromberg, Bruce J.; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Yodh, Arjun G.; Boas, David A.; Cerussi, Albert E.

    2008-06-15

    Diffuse optical imaging (DOI) is a noninvasive optical technique that employs near-infrared (NIR) light to quantitatively characterize the optical properties of thick tissues. Although NIR methods were first applied to breast transillumination (also called diaphanography) nearly 80 years ago, quantitative DOI methods employing time- or frequency-domain photon migration technologies have only recently been used for breast imaging (i.e., since the mid-1990s). In this review, the state of the art in DOI for breast cancer is outlined and a multi-institutional Network for Translational Research in Optical Imaging (NTROI) is described, which has been formed by the National Cancer Institute to advance diffuse optical spectroscopy and imaging (DOSI) for the purpose of improving breast cancer detection and clinical management. DOSI employs broadband technology both in near-infrared spectral and temporal signal domains in order to separate absorption from scattering and quantify uptake of multiple molecular probes based on absorption or fluorescence contrast. Additional dimensionality in the data is provided by integrating and co-registering the functional information of DOSI with x-ray mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which provide structural information or vascular flow information, respectively. Factors affecting DOSI performance, such as intrinsic and extrinsic contrast mechanisms, quantitation of biochemical components, image formation/visualization, and multimodality co-registration are under investigation in the ongoing research NTROI sites. One of the goals is to develop standardized DOSI platforms that can be used as stand-alone devices or in conjunction with MRI, mammography, or ultrasound. This broad-based, multidisciplinary effort is expected to provide new insight regarding the origins of breast disease and practical approaches for addressing several key challenges in breast cancer, including: Detecting disease in mammographically dense tissue

  4. Development of a Novel Breast Cancer Detector based on Improved Holography Concave Grating Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Zeng, Lvming; Huang, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer can be detected by B-mode ultrasonic imaging, X-mammography, CT imaging, and MRI. But some drawbacks existed in these methods, their applications was limited in some certain. So, a novel high resolution breast cancer detector (BCD) is developed in this paper. Meanwhile, an improved holography concave grating imaging spectrometer (HCGIS) is designed. In this HCGIS, the holography concave grating is used as the diffraction grating. Additionally, CCD with combined image acquisition (IAQ) card and the 3D scan platform are used as the spectral image acquisition component. This BCD consists of the light source unit, light-path unit, check cavity, splitting-light unit, spectrum acquisition and imaging unit, signal processing unit, computer and data analysis software unit, etc. Experimental results show that the spectral range of the novel BCD can reach 300-1000 nm, its wavelength resolution can reach 1nm, and this system uses the back-split-light technology and the splitting-light structure of holography concave grating. Compared with the other instruments of breast cancer detection, this BCD has many advantages, such as, compacter volume, simpler algorithm, faster processing speed, higher accuracy, cheaper cost and higher resolution, etc. Therefore, this BCD will have the potential values in the detection of breast disease.

  5. Computational segmentation of collagen fibers from second-harmonic generation images of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bredfeldt, Jeremy S; Liu, Yuming; Pehlke, Carolyn A; Conklin, Matthew W; Szulczewski, Joseph M; Inman, David R; Keely, Patricia J; Nowak, Robert D; Mackie, Thomas R; Eliceiri, Kevin W

    2014-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging can help reveal interactions between collagen fibers and cancer cells. Quantitative analysis of SHG images of collagen fibers is challenged by the heterogeneity of collagen structures and low signal-to-noise ratio often found while imaging collagen in tissue. The role of collagen in breast cancer progression can be assessed post acquisition via enhanced computation. To facilitate this, we have implemented and evaluated four algorithms for extracting fiber information, such as number, length, and curvature, from a variety of SHG images of collagen in breast tissue. The image-processing algorithms included a Gaussian filter, SPIRAL-TV filter, Tubeness filter, and curvelet-denoising filter. Fibers are then extracted using an automated tracking algorithm called fiber extraction (FIRE). We evaluated the algorithm performance by comparing length, angle and position of the automatically extracted fibers with those of manually extracted fibers in twenty-five SHG images of breast cancer. We found that the curvelet-denoising filter followed by FIRE, a process we call CT-FIRE, outperforms the other algorithms under investigation. CT-FIRE was then successfully applied to track collagen fiber shape changes over time in an in vivo mouse model for breast cancer.

  6. Folate Receptor-Beta Has Limited Value for Fluorescent Imaging in Ovarian, Breast and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Esther; van der Vegt, Bert; van der Sluis, Tineke; Kooijman, Paulien; Low, Philip S.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; Arts, Henriette J. G.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Bart, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Aims Tumor-specific targeted imaging is rapidly evolving in cancer diagnosis. The folate receptor alpha (FR-α) has already been identified as a suitable target for cancer therapy and imaging. FR-α is present on ~40% of human cancers. FR-β is known to be expressed on several hematologic malignancies and on activated macrophages, but little is known about FR-β expression in solid tumors. Additional or simultaneous expression of FR-β could help extend the indications for folate-based drugs and imaging agents. In this study, the expression pattern of FR-β is evaluated in ovarian, breast and colorectal cancer. Methods FR-β expression was analyzed by semi-quantitative scoring of immunohistochemical staining on tissue microarrays (TMAs) of 339 ovarian cancer patients, 418 breast cancer patients, on 20 slides of colorectal cancer samples and on 25 samples of diverticulitis. Results FR-β expression was seen in 21% of ovarian cancer samples, 9% of breast cancer samples, and 55% of colorectal cancer samples. Expression was weak or moderate. Of the diverticulitis samples, 80% were positive for FR-β expression in macrophages. FR-β status neither correlated to known disease-related variables, nor showed association with overall survival and progression free survival in ovarian and breast cancer. In breast cancer, negative axillary status was significantly correlated to FR-β expression (p=0.022). Conclusions FR-β expression was low or absent in the majority of ovarian, breast and colorectal tumor samples. From the present study we conclude that the low FR-β expression in ovarian and breast tumor tissue indicates limited practical use of this receptor in diagnostic imaging and therapeutic purposes. Due to weak expression, FR-β is not regarded as a suitable target in colorectal cancer. PMID:26248049

  7. Non-invasive imaging of breast cancer with diffusing near-infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konecky, Soren D.

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a new medical imaging technique that combines biomedical optics with the principles of computed tomography. We use DOT to quantitatively reconstruct images of complex phantoms with millimeter sized features located centimeters deep within a highly-scattering medium. A non-contact instrument is employed to collect large data sets consisting of greater than 107 source-detector pairs. Images are reconstructed using a fast image reconstruction algorithm based on an analytic solution to the inverse scattering problem for diffuse light. We also describe a next generation DOT breast imaging device for frequency domain transmission data acquisition in the parallel plate geometry. Frequency domain heterodyne measurements are made by intensity modulating a continuous wave laser source with an electro-optic modulator (EOM) and detecting the transmitted light with a gain-modulated image intensifier coupled to a CCD. Finally, we acquire and compare three-dimensional tomographic breast images of three females with suspicious masses using DOT and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Co-registration of DOT and PET images is facilitated by a mutual information maximization algorithm. We also compare DOT and whole-body PET images of 14 patients with breast abnormalities. Positive correlations are found between both total hemoglobin concentration and tissue scattering, and fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake.

  8. Patient-blaming and representation of risk factors in breast cancer images.

    PubMed

    Andsager, J L; Hust, S J; Powers, A

    2000-01-01

    Media coverage of some cancers in the past often equated cancer with a death sentence. Breast cancer coverage in 1990s magazines, however, has become less fatalistic, more frequent, and discusses a broader range of issues than before. This study examined whether the visual images accompanying magazine articles about breast cancer have also evolved. We used Goffman's (1976) rituals of subordination to measure patient-blaming and subordinating, disempowering images. We also analyzed race/ethnicity, body type, and age of females in the images to gauge whether these demographic risk factors were represented in a random sample of images from nine magazines over a 30-year period. Magazines analyzed represented three genres-women's magazines, fashion/beauty, and general news. Findings suggest that patient-blaming images have decreased in some categories and women portrayed are slightly more representative of risk factors of age and race/ethnicity. Magazine images tended to reinforce stereotyped portrayals of femininity to the detriment of cancer patients. Fashion/beauty magazines, aimed at younger women, were most likely to portray breast cancer images in stereotyped, patient-blaming ways, with the least representative images of risk factors. The social construction of feminine beauty seems to overpower accuracy in creating these images.

  9. Breast cancer screening: emerging role of new imaging techniques as adjuncts to mammography.

    PubMed

    Houssami, Nehmat; Lord, Sarah J; Ciatto, Stefano

    2009-05-01

    Early detection of breast cancer has been shown to reduce breast cancer deaths in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of mammography in women aged 50-69 years, with weaker evidence of benefit in those aged 40-49 or 70 years and older. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography have been evaluated in breast cancer screening, relative to, or in addition to, mammography, in selected populations; neither test has been examined in an RCT, and thus evidence of associated screening benefit is uncertain. MRI is more sensitive than mammography in screening women with suspected or proven inherited mutations of the breast cancer genes. The addition of MRI in screening this population detects 8-24 additional cancers per 1000 screens, but also significantly increases a woman's risk of being recalled for investigation or surgical biopsy for false-positive findings. In Australia, Medicare funding for MRI screening of women in specific risk groups was announced in February 2009. Ultrasonography can detect cancers not identified on mammography in asymptomatic women with dense breast tissue. Incremental ultrasound cancer detection is reported in 0.27%-0.46% of women with mammography-negative dense breasts; evidence varies on its association with false-positive findings. Computer-aided detection (CAD) is a complementary tool to mammography, prompting the reader to consider lesions on the mammogram that may represent cancer. Emerging evidence and improved CAD technology are likely to help define its role in breast screening. PMID:19413520

  10. Quantification of lesion size, depth, and uptake using a dual-head molecular breast imaging system.

    PubMed

    Hruskaa, Carrie B; O'Connor, Michael K

    2008-04-01

    A method to perform quantitative lesion analysis in molecular breast imaging (MBI) was developed using the opposing views from a novel dual-head dedicated gamma camera. Monte Carlo simulations and phantom models were used to simulate MBI images with known lesion parameters. A relationship between the full widths at 25%, 35%, and 50% of the maximum of intensity profiles through lesions and the true lesion diameter as a function of compressed breast thickness was developed in order to measure lesion diameter. Using knowledge of compressed breast thickness and the attenuation of gamma rays in soft tissue, a method was developed to measure the depth of the lesion to the collimator face. Using the measured lesion diameter and measurements of counts in the lesion and background breast region, relative radiotracer uptake or tumor to background ratio (T/B ratio) was calculated. Validation of the methods showed that the size, depth, and T/B ratio can be accurately measured for a range of small breast lesions with T/B ratios between 10:1 and 40:1 in breasts with compressed thicknesses between 4 and 10 cm. Future applications of this work include providing information about lesion location in patients for performing a biopsy of site and the development of a threshold for the T/B ratio that can distinguish benign from malignant disease. PMID:18491531

  11. Paget disease of the breast: mammographic, US, and MR imaging findings with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyo Soon; Jeong, Su Jin; Lee, Ji Shin; Park, Min Ho; Kim, Jin Woong; Shin, Sang Soo; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2011-01-01

    Paget disease is a rare malignancy of the breast characterized by infiltration of the nipple epidermis by adenocarcinoma cells. The clinical features of Paget disease are characteristic and should increase the likelihood of the diagnosis being made. An important point is that more than 90% of cases of Paget disease are associated with an additional underlying breast malignancy. Paget disease is frequently associated with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in the underlying lactiferous ducts of the nipple-areolar complex; it may even be associated with DCIS or invasive breast cancer elsewhere in the breast, at least 2 cm from the nipple-areolar complex. Nevertheless, mammographic findings may be negative in up to 50% of cases. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be useful in patients with Paget disease for evaluation of the nipple-areolar complex and identification of an additional underlying malignancy in the breast. The appropriate surgical treatment must be carefully selected and individualized on the basis of radiologic findings, especially those obtained with breast MR imaging.

  12. Quantification of lesion size, depth, and uptake using a dual-head molecular breast imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Hruska, Carrie B.; O’Connor, Michael K.

    2008-01-01

    A method to perform quantitative lesion analysis in molecular breast imaging (MBI) was developed using the opposing views from a novel dual-head dedicated gamma camera. Monte Carlo simulations and phantom models were used to simulate MBI images with known lesion parameters. A relationship between the full widths at 25%, 35%, and 50% of the maximum of intensity profiles through lesions and the true lesion diameter as a function of compressed breast thickness was developed in order to measure lesion diameter. Using knowledge of compressed breast thickness and the attenuation of gamma rays in soft tissue, a method was developed to measure the depth of the lesion to the collimator face. Using the measured lesion diameter and measurements of counts in the lesion and background breast region, relative radiotracer uptake or tumor to background ratio (T∕B ratio) was calculated. Validation of the methods showed that the size, depth, and T∕B ratio can be accurately measured for a range of small breast lesions with T∕B ratios between 10:1 and 40:1 in breasts with compressed thicknesses between 4 and 10 cm. Future applications of this work include providing information about lesion location in patients for performing a biopsy of site and the development of a threshold for the T∕B ratio that can distinguish benign from malignant disease. PMID:18491531

  13. [Tattooing of the nipple-areola complex in breast reconstruction: Technical note].

    PubMed

    Riot, S; Devinck, F; Aljudaibi, N; Duquennoy-Martinot, V; Guerreschi, P

    2016-04-01

    The reconstruction of the nipple-areola complex is an essential step in breast reconstruction. It announces the end of the reconstruction process, which is often long and sometimes difficult to live for the patient and will significantly improve the perception of body image. Concerning the reconstruction of the areola, tattooing is one of the preferred techniques. It's a simple, quick and safe procedure with a high satisfaction rate. This technique is still perfectible in our opinion, because the random lifetime of pigmentation is a recognized disadvantage of this procedure. We propose a modification of the conventional technique for improving the quality of dermopigmentation while reducing its completion time. Our method is to perform a dermabrasion before starting the tattoo. Indeed, dermabrasion allows better penetration of the pigments inside the dermis and thus offers two advantages: a more durable result over time and reduced operation time by reducing the number of passing of the machine tattoo. Finally, our tattooing technique seems relevant and totally appropriate: its realization is simple, reproducible, does not increase the overall cost of reconstruction, provides timesavings and gives a better long-term result. PMID:26740462

  14. Medical image segmentation to estimate HER2 gene status in breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios-Navarro, Guillermo; Acirón-Pomar, José Manuel; Vilchez-Sorribas, Enrique; Zambrano, Eddie Galarza

    2016-02-01

    This work deals with the estimation of HER2 Gene status in breast tumour images treated with in situ hybridization techniques (ISH). We propose a simple algorithm to obtain the amplification factor of HER2 gene. The obtained results are very close to those obtained by specialists in a manual way. The developed algorithm is based on colour image segmentation and has been included in a software application tool for breast tumour analysis. The developed tool focus on the estimation of the seriousness of tumours, facilitating the work of pathologists and contributing to a better diagnosis.

  15. Development and Testing of a Single Frequency Terahertz Imaging System for Breast Cancer Detection

    PubMed Central

    St. Peter, Benjamin; Yngvesson, Sigfrid; Siqueira, Paul; Kelly, Patrick; Khan, Ashraf; Glick, Stephen; Karellas, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The ability to discern malignant from benign tissue in excised human breast specimens in Breast Conservation Surgery (BCS) was evaluated using single frequency terahertz radiation. Terahertz (THz) images of the specimens in reflection mode were obtained by employing a gas laser source and mechanical scanning. The images were correlated with optical histological micrographs of the same specimens, and a mean discrimination of 73% was found for five out of six samples using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. The system design and characterization is discussed in detail. The initial results are encouraging but further development of the technology and clinical evaluation is needed to evaluate its feasibility in the clinical environment. PMID:25055306

  16. Frequency-domain ultrasound waveform tomography breast attenuation imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Gursharan Yash Singh; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; West, Erik; Montgomery, Katelyn; Boone, Michael; Duric, Neb

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound waveform tomography techniques have shown promising results for the visualization and characterization of breast disease. By using frequency-domain waveform tomography techniques and a gradient descent algorithm, we have previously reconstructed the sound speed distributions of breasts of varying densities with different types of breast disease including benign and malignant lesions. By allowing the sound speed to have an imaginary component, we can model the intrinsic attenuation of a medium. We can similarly recover the imaginary component of the velocity and thus the attenuation. In this paper, we will briefly review ultrasound waveform tomography techniques, discuss attenuation and its relations to the imaginary component of the sound speed, and provide both numerical and ex vivo examples of waveform tomography attenuation reconstructions.

  17. Development of radiation dose reduction techniques for cadmium zinc telluride detectors in molecular breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Michael K.; Hruska, Carrie B.; Weinmann, Amanda; Manduca, Armando; Rhodes, Deborah J.

    2010-08-01

    Background: Molecular breast imaging (MBI) is a novel breast imaging technique that uses Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) gamma cameras to detect the uptake of Tc-99m sestamibi in breast tumors. Current techniques employ an administered dose of 20-30 mCi Tc-99m, delivering an effective dose of 6.5-10 mSv to the body. This is ~ 5-10 times that of mammography. The goal of this study was to reduce the radiation dose by a factor of 5-10, while maintaining image quality. Methods: A total of 4 dose reduction schemes were evaluated - a) optimized collimation, b) improved utilization of the energy spectrum below the photopeak, c) adaptive geometric mean algorithm developed for combination of images from opposing detectors, and d) non local means filtering (NLMF) for noise reduction and image enhancement. Validation of the various schemes was performed using a breast phantom containing a variety of tumors and containing activity matched to that observed in clinical studies. Results: Development of tungsten collimators with holes matched to the CZT pixels yielded a 2.1-2.9 gain in system sensitivity. Improved utilization of the energy spectra yielded a 1.5-2.0 gain in sensitivity. Development of a modified geometric mean algorithm yielded a 1.4 reduction in image noise, while retaining contrast. Images of the breast phantom demonstrated that a factor of 5 reduction in dose was achieved. Additional refinements to the NLMF should enable an additional factor of 2 reduction in dose. Conclusion: Significant dose reduction in MBI to levels comparable to mammography can be achieved while maintaining image quality.

  18. Breast cancer detection among young survivors of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma with screening magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Tieu, Minh Thi; Cigsar, Candemir; Ahmed, Sameera; Ng, Andrea; Diller, Lisa; Millar, B-A; Crystal, Pavel; Hodgson, David C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Female survivors of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) who have received chest radiotherapy are at increased risk of breast cancer. Guidelines for early breast cancer screening among these survivors are based on little data regarding clinical outcomes. This study reports outcomes of breast cancer screening with MRI and mammography (MMG) after childhood HL. METHODS We evaluated the results of breast MRI and MMG screening among 96 female survivors of childhood HL treated with chest radiotherapy. Outcomes measured included imaging sensitivity and specificity, breast cancer characteristics, and incidence of additional imaging and breast biopsy. RESULTS Median age at first screening was 30 years, and the median number of MRI screening rounds was 3. Ten breast cancers were detected in 9 women at a median age of 39 years (range, 24-43 years). Half were invasive and half were preinvasive. The median size of invasive tumors was 8 mm (range, 3-15 mm), and none had lymph node involvement. Sensitivity and specificity of the screening modalities were as follows: for MRI alone, 80% and 93.5%, respectively; MMG alone, 70% and 95%, respectively; both modalities combined, 100% and 88.6%, respectively. All invasive tumors were detected by MRI. Additional investigations were required in 52 patients, (54%), and 26 patients (27%) required breast biopsy, with 10 patients requiring more than 1 biopsy. CONCLUSIONS Screening including breast MRI with MMG has high sensitivity and specificity in pediatric HL survivors, with breast cancers detected at an early stage, although it is associated with a substantial rate of additional investigations. Cancer 2014;120:2507–2513. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. Screening female survivors of pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma for breast cancer with MRI and mammography detected tumors at an earlier stage than prior studies of mammography alone, although a substantial proportion of

  19. Imaging Features of Breast Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans in Various Modalities Including FDG-PET CT

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Suk Hyun; Lee, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is an uncommon malignant mesenchymal tumor of the dermis, which most commonly appears on the body and extremities. A preoperative diagnosis of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is extremely difficult, because it is a very rare entity and its appearance is often similar to that of benign breast lesion. Here, we presented a case of breast dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans with associated radiological mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and fludeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography computerized tomography (FDG-PET CT) features. To our knowledge, our case is the first report of PET-CT findings of breast dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Furthermore, we reviewed characteristic radiologic features of this rare entity, which are helpful for differentiating it from other primary benign breast lesions. PMID:27703659

  20. Adaptive enhancement and visualization techniques for 3D THz images of breast cancer tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuhao; Bowman, Tyler; Gauch, John; El-Shenawee, Magda

    2016-03-01

    This paper evaluates image enhancement and visualization techniques for pulsed terahertz (THz) images of tissue samples. Specifically, our research objective is to effectively differentiate between heterogeneous regions of breast tissues that contain tumors diagnosed as triple negative infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC). Tissue slices and blocks of varying thicknesses were prepared and scanned using our lab's THz pulsed imaging system. One of the challenges we have encountered in visualizing the obtained images and differentiating between healthy and cancerous regions of the tissues is that most THz images have a low level of details and narrow contrast, making it difficult to accurately identify and visualize the margins around the IDC. To overcome this problem, we have applied and evaluated a number of image processing techniques to the scanned 3D THz images. In particular, we employed various spatial filtering and intensity transformation techniques to emphasize the small details in the images and adjust the image contrast. For each of these methods, we investigated how varying filter sizes and parameters affect the amount of enhancement applied to the images. Our experimentation shows that several image processing techniques are effective in producing THz images of breast tissue samples that contain distinguishable details, making further segmentation of the different image regions promising.

  1. Detecting breast microcalcifications using super-resolution and wave-equation ultrasound imaging: a numerical phantom study

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Simonetti, Francesco; Huthwaite, Peter; Rosenberg, Robert; Williamson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound image resolution and quality need to be significantly improved for breast microcalcification detection. Super-resolution imaging with the factorization method has recently been developed as a promising tool to break through the resolution limit of conventional imaging. In addition, wave-equation reflection imaging has become an effective method to reduce image speckles by properly handling ultrasound scattering/diffraction from breast heterogeneities during image reconstruction. We explore the capabilities of a novel super-resolution ultrasound imaging method and a wave-equation reflection imaging scheme for detecting breast microcalcifications. Super-resolution imaging uses the singular value decomposition and a factorization scheme to achieve an image resolution that is not possible for conventional ultrasound imaging. Wave-equation reflection imaging employs a solution to the acoustic-wave equation in heterogeneous media to backpropagate ultrasound scattering/diffraction waves to scatters and form images of heterogeneities. We construct numerical breast phantoms using in vivo breast images, and use a finite-difference wave-equation scheme to generate ultrasound data scattered from inclusions that mimic microcalcifications. We demonstrate that microcalcifications can be detected at full spatial resolution using the super-resolution ultrasound imaging and wave-equation reflection imaging methods.

  2. Detecting breast microcalcifications using super-resolution and wave-equation ultrasound imaging: a numerical phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lianjie; Simonetti, Francesco; Huthwaite, Peter; Rosenberg, Robert; Williamson, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Ultrasound image resolution and quality need to be significantly improved for breast microcalcification detection. Super-resolution imaging with the factorization method has recently been developed as a promising tool to break through the resolution limit of conventional imaging. In addition, wave-equation reflection imaging has become an effective method to reduce image speckles by properly handling ultrasound scattering/diffraction from breast heterogeneities during image reconstruction. We explore the capabilities of a novel super-resolution ultrasound imaging method and a wave-equation reflection imaging scheme for detecting breast microcalcifications. Super-resolution imaging uses the singular value decomposition and a factorization scheme to achieve an image resolution that is not possible for conventional ultrasound imaging. Wave-equation reflection imaging employs a solution to the acoustic-wave equation in heterogeneous media to backpropagate ultrasound scattering/diffraction waves to scatters and reconstruct images of heterogeneities. We construct numerical breast phantoms using in vivo breast images, and use a finite-difference wave-equation scheme to generate ultrasound data scattered from inclusions that mimic microcalcifications. We demonstrate that microcalcifications can be detected at full spatial resolution using the super-resolution ultrasound imaging and wave-equation reflection imaging methods.

  3. Development and assessment of a Microsoft Kinect based system for imaging the breast in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Wheat, J S; Choppin, S; Goyal, A

    2014-06-01

    Three-dimensional surface imaging technologies have been used in the planning and evaluation of breast reconstructive and cosmetic surgery. The aim of this study was to develop a 3D surface imaging system based on the Microsoft Kinect and assess the accuracy and repeatability with which the system could image the breast. A system comprising two Kinects, calibrated to provide a complete 3D image of the mannequin was developed. Digital measurements of Euclidean and surface distances between landmarks showed acceptable agreement with manual measurements. The mean differences for Euclidean and surface distances were 1.9mm and 2.2mm, respectively. The system also demonstrated good intra- and inter-rater reliability (ICCs>0.999). The Kinect-based 3D surface imaging system offers a low-cost, readily accessible alternative to more expensive, commercially available systems, which have had limited clinical use.

  4. MammoSys: A content-based image retrieval system using breast density patterns.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Júlia E E; Machado, Alexei M C; Chavez, Guillermo C; Lopes, Ana Paula B; Deserno, Thomas M; Araújo, Arnaldo de A

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, we present a content-based image retrieval system designed to retrieve mammographies from large medical image database. The system is developed based on breast density, according to the four categories defined by the American College of Radiology, and is integrated to the database of the Image Retrieval in Medical Applications (IRMA) project, that provides images with classification ground truth. Two-dimensional principal component analysis is used in breast density texture characterization, in order to effectively represent texture and allow for dimensionality reduction. A support vector machine is used to perform the retrieval process. Average precision rates are in the range from 83% to 97% considering a data set of 5024 images. The results indicate the potential of the system as the first stage of a computer-aided diagnosis framework.

  5. Three-Dimensional Surface Imaging is an Effective Tool for Measuring Breast Volume: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo Yeon; Kim, Min Jung; Lew, Dae Hyun; Song, Seung Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate breast volume assessment is a prerequisite to preoperative planning, as well as intraoperative decision making in breast reconstruction surgery. The use of three-dimensional surface imaging (3D scanning) to assess breast volume has many advantages. However, before employing 3D scanning in the field, the tool's validity should be demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to confirm the validity of 3D-scanning technology for evaluating breast volume. Methods We reviewed the charts of 25 patients who underwent breast reconstruction surgery immediately after total mastectomy. Breast volumes using the Axis Three 3D scanner, water-displacement technique, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained bilaterally in the preoperative period. During the operation, the tissue removed during total mastectomy was weighed and the specimen volume was calculated from the weight. Then, we compared the volume obtained from 3D scanning with those obtained using the water-displacement technique, MRI, and the calculated volume of the tissue removed. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of breast volumes obtained from 3D scanning, as compared to the volumes obtained using the water-displacement technique and specimen weight, demonstrated excellent reliability. The ICC of breast volumes obtained using 3D scanning, as compared to those obtained by MRI, demonstrated substantial reliability. Passing-Bablok regression showed agreement between 3D scanning and the water-displacement technique, and showed a linear association of 3D scanning with MRI and specimen volume, respectively. Conclusions When compared with the classical water-displacement technique and MRI-based volumetry, 3D scanning showed significant reliability and a linear association with the other two methods. PMID:27689050

  6. Three-Dimensional Surface Imaging is an Effective Tool for Measuring Breast Volume: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo Yeon; Kim, Min Jung; Lew, Dae Hyun; Song, Seung Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate breast volume assessment is a prerequisite to preoperative planning, as well as intraoperative decision making in breast reconstruction surgery. The use of three-dimensional surface imaging (3D scanning) to assess breast volume has many advantages. However, before employing 3D scanning in the field, the tool's validity should be demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to confirm the validity of 3D-scanning technology for evaluating breast volume. Methods We reviewed the charts of 25 patients who underwent breast reconstruction surgery immediately after total mastectomy. Breast volumes using the Axis Three 3D scanner, water-displacement technique, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained bilaterally in the preoperative period. During the operation, the tissue removed during total mastectomy was weighed and the specimen volume was calculated from the weight. Then, we compared the volume obtained from 3D scanning with those obtained using the water-displacement technique, MRI, and the calculated volume of the tissue removed. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of breast volumes obtained from 3D scanning, as compared to the volumes obtained using the water-displacement technique and specimen weight, demonstrated excellent reliability. The ICC of breast volumes obtained using 3D scanning, as compared to those obtained by MRI, demonstrated substantial reliability. Passing-Bablok regression showed agreement between 3D scanning and the water-displacement technique, and showed a linear association of 3D scanning with MRI and specimen volume, respectively. Conclusions When compared with the classical water-displacement technique and MRI-based volumetry, 3D scanning showed significant reliability and a linear association with the other two methods.

  7. Imaging the urokinase plasminongen activator receptor in preclinical breast cancer models of acquired drug resistance.

    PubMed

    LeBeau, Aaron M; Sevillano, Natalia; King, Mandy L; Duriseti, Sai; Murphy, Stephanie T; Craik, Charles S; Murphy, Laura L; VanBrocklin, Henry F

    2014-01-01

    Subtype-targeted therapies can have a dramatic impact on improving the quality and quantity of life for women suffering from breast cancer. Despite an initial therapeutic response, cancer recurrence and acquired drug-resistance are commonplace. Non-invasive imaging probes that identify drug-resistant lesions are urgently needed to aid in the development of novel drugs and the effective utilization of established therapies for breast cancer. The protease receptor urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a target that can be exploited for non-invasive imaging. The expression of uPAR has been associated with phenotypically aggressive breast cancer and acquired drug-resistance. Acquired drug-resistance was modeled in cell lines from two different breast cancer subtypes, the uPAR negative luminal A subtype and the uPAR positive triple negative subtype cell line MDA-MB-231. MCF-7 cells, cultured to be resistant to tamoxifen (MCF-7 TamR), were found to significantly over-express uPAR compared to the parental cell line. uPAR expression was maintained when resistance was modeled in triple-negative breast cancer by generating doxorubicin and paclitaxel resistant MDA-MB-231 cells (MDA-MB-231 DoxR and MDA-MB-231 TaxR). Using the antagonistic uPAR antibody 2G10, uPAR was imaged in vivo by near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging and (111)In-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Tumor uptake of the (111)In-SPECT probe was high in the three drug-resistant xenografts (> 46 %ID/g) and minimal in uPAR negative xenografts at 72 hours post-injection. This preclinical study demonstrates that uPAR can be targeted for imaging breast cancer models of acquired resistance leading to potential clinical applications. PMID:24505235

  8. Hypofractionated Image Guided Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-24

    Central Nervous System Metastases; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Predominant Intraductal Component; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma With Predominant in Situ Component; Liver Metastases; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lung Metastases; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Tumors Metastatic to Brain

  9. Evaluation of breast cancer chemotherapy efficacy with multifractal spectrum analysis of magnetic resonance image.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Hu, Wen-yong; Liu, Li-zhi; Pang, Ya-chun; Shao, Yuan-zhi

    2014-01-01

    Multifractal spectrum analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) breast MR images was used to establish a new quantitative analysis method for solid tumor blood perfusion and to explore its applicability in evaluating efficacy of breast cancer chemotherapy. Five randomly selected patients suffering from newly diagnosed malignant breast nodule lesions were enrolled in this study, and four of them were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Their DCE breast MR images were collected before and after treatment. Chemotherapeutic efficacy was analyzed using international response evaluation criteria for solid tumors (RECIST). Sandbox method for statistical number density was employed to measure and calculate multifractal spectra of DCE breast MR images with spatiotemporal characteristics. Multifractal spectral data of malignant lesions before and after chemotherapy were compared. Multifractal spectra of malignant lesions show an asymmetric bell-shape. Chemotherapy efficacy was assessed to be partial remission (PR) for three patients and their multifractal spectral width significantly increased after chemotherapy while to be stable disease (SD) for other patient and of her changed slightly. Multifractal spectral width correlates with blood-supply condition of tumor lesion before and after chemotherapy, providing a potential suitable characteristic parameter for evaluating chemotherapeutic efficacy quantitatively.

  10. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer based on fine needle biopsy microscopic images.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Marek; Filipczuk, Paweł; Obuchowicz, Andrzej; Korbicz, Józef; Monczak, Roman

    2013-10-01

    Prompt and widely available diagnostics of breast cancer is crucial for the prognosis of patients. One of the diagnostic methods is the analysis of cytological material from the breast. This examination requires extensive knowledge and experience of the cytologist. Computer-aided diagnosis can speed up the diagnostic process and allow for large-scale screening. One of the largest challenges in the automatic analysis of cytological images is the segmentation of nuclei. In this study, four different clustering algorithms are tested and compared in the task of fast nuclei segmentation. K-means, fuzzy C-means, competitive learning neural networks and Gaussian mixture models were incorporated for clustering in the color space along with adaptive thresholding in grayscale. These methods were applied in a medical decision support system for breast cancer diagnosis, where the cases were classified as either benign or malignant. In the segmented nuclei, 42 morphological, topological and texture features were extracted. Then, these features were used in a classification procedure with three different classifiers. The system was tested for classification accuracy by means of microscopic images of fine needle breast biopsies. In cooperation with the Regional Hospital in Zielona Góra, 500 real case medical images from 50 patients were collected. The acquired classification accuracy was approximately 96-100%, which is very promising and shows that the presented method ensures accurate and objective data acquisition that could be used to facilitate breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:24034748

  11. Differential diagnosis of breast masses in South Korean premenopausal women using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leproux, Anaïs; Kim, You Me; Min, Jun Won; McLaren, Christine E.; Chen, Wen-Pin; O'Sullivan, Thomas D.; Lee, Seung-ha; Chung, Phil-Sang; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2016-07-01

    Young patients with dense breasts have a relatively low-positive biopsy rate for breast cancer (˜1 in 7). South Korean women have higher breast density than Westerners. We investigated the benefit of using a functional and metabolic imaging technique, diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI), to help the standard of care imaging tools to distinguish benign from malignant lesions in premenopausal Korean women. DOSI uses near-infrared light to measure breast tissue composition by quantifying tissue concentrations of water (ctH2O), bulk lipid (ctLipid), deoxygenated (ctHHb), and oxygenated (ctHbO2) hemoglobin. DOSI spectral signatures specific to abnormal tissue and absent in healthy tissue were also used to form a malignancy index. This study included 19 premenopausal subjects (average age 41±9), corresponding to 11 benign and 10 malignant lesions. Elevated lesion to normal ratio of ctH2O, ctHHb, ctHbO2, total hemoglobin (THb=ctHHb+ctHbO2), and tissue optical index (ctHHb×ctH2O/ctLipid) were observed in the malignant lesions compared to the benign lesions (p<0.02). THb and malignancy index were the two best single predictors of malignancy, with >90% sensitivity and specificity. Malignant lesions showed significantly higher metabolism and perfusion than benign lesions. DOSI spectral features showed high discriminatory power for distinguishing malignant and benign lesions in dense breasts of the Korean population.

  12. Designing steriod receptor-based radiotracers to image breast and prostate tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Katzenellenbogen, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    Imaging of breast or prostate cancers based on their content of steroid receptors poses a major challenge in the design of radiotracers. Receptors for steroid hormones are proteins that interact at specific sites in chromatin. Several analogs of estrogens, progestins and androgens have been radiolabeled and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for receptor binding affinity and selectivity. Breast tumors in patients have been imaged with [{sup 18}F]fluoroestradiol. Scintigraphic images with radiolabeled progestin analogs may be useful for monitoring the efficacy of tamoxifen treatment in breast cancer patients. Tissue distribution and imaging studies in animals with fluorine-substituted androgens indicate that it may be possible to develop a steroid receptor-based radiotracer for staging prostate cancer. Radiochemists are reporting some progress in labeling steroid receptor ligands with {sup 99m}Tc. By using the techniques of molecular nuclear medicine, new imaging procedures could be developed that might provide more precise information to help characterize disease and effect treatment decisions in patients with breast or prostate cancers. 55 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Establishing daily quality control (QC) in screen-film mammography using leeds tor (max) phantom at the breast imaging unit of USTH-Benavides Cancer Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acaba, K. J. C.; Cinco, L. D.; Melchor, J. N.

    2016-03-01

    Daily QC tests performed on screen film mammography (SFM) equipment are essential to ensure that both SFM unit and film processor are working in a consistent manner. The Breast Imaging Unit of USTH-Benavides Cancer Institute has been conducting QC following the test protocols in the IAEA Human Health Series No.2 manual. However, the availability of Leeds breast phantom (CRP E13039) in the facility made the task easier. Instead of carrying out separate tests on AEC constancy and light sensitometry, only one exposure of the phantom is done to accomplish the two tests. It was observed that measurements made on mAs output and optical densities (ODs) using the Leeds TOR (MAX) phantom are comparable with that obtained from the usual conduct of tests, taking into account the attenuation characteristic of the phantom. Image quality parameters such as low contrast and high contrast details were also evaluated from the phantom image. The authors recognize the usefulness of the phantom in determining technical factors that will help improve detection of smallest pathological details on breast images. The phantom is also convenient for daily QC monitoring and economical since less number of films is expended.

  14. An Optimized Online Verification Imaging Procedure for External Beam Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, David J.; Kron, Tomas; Chua, Boon

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capabilities of a kilovoltage (kV) on-board imager (OBI)-equipped linear accelerator in the setting of on-line verification imaging for external-beam partial breast irradiation. Available imaging techniques were optimized and assessed for image quality using a modified anthropomorphic phantom. Imaging dose was also assessed. Imaging techniques were assessed for physical clearance between patient and treatment machine using a volunteer. Nonorthogonal kV image pairs were identified as optimal in terms of image quality, clearance, and dose. After institutional review board approval, this approach was used for 17 patients receiving accelerated partial breast irradiation. Imaging was performed before every fraction verification with online correction of setup deviations >5 mm (total image sessions = 170). Treatment staff rated risk of collision and visibility of tumor bed surgical clips where present. Image session duration and detected setup deviations were recorded. For all cases, both image projections (n = 34) had low collision risk. Surgical clips were rated as well as visualized in all cases where they were present (n = 5). The average imaging session time was 6 min, 16 sec, and a reduction in duration was observed as staff became familiar with the technique. Setup deviations of up to 1.3 cm were detected before treatment and subsequently confirmed offline. Nonorthogonal kV image pairs allowed effective and efficient online verification for partial breast irradiation. It has yet to be tested in a multicenter study to determine whether it is dependent on skilled treatment staff.

  15. Reproducing 2D breast mammography images with 3D printed phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Matthew; Ghammraoui, Bahaa; Badal, Andreu

    2016-03-01

    Mammography is currently the standard imaging modality used to screen women for breast abnormalities and, as a result, it is a tool of great importance for the early detection of breast cancer. Physical phantoms are commonly used as surrogates of breast tissue to evaluate some aspects of the performance of mammography systems. However, most phantoms do not reproduce the anatomic heterogeneity of real breasts. New fabrication technologies, such as 3D printing, have created the opportunity to build more complex, anatomically realistic breast phantoms that could potentially assist in the evaluation of mammography systems. The primary objective of this work is to present a simple, easily reproducible methodology to design and print 3D objects that replicate the attenuation profile observed in real 2D mammograms. The secondary objective is to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of the competing 3D printing technologies, and characterize the x-ray properties of the different materials they use. Printable phantoms can be created using the open-source code introduced in this work, which processes a raw mammography image to estimate the amount of x-ray attenuation at each pixel, and outputs a triangle mesh object that encodes the observed attenuation map. The conversion from the observed pixel gray value to a column of printed material with equivalent attenuation requires certain assumptions and knowledge of multiple imaging system parameters, such as x-ray energy spectrum, source-to-object distance, compressed breast thickness, and average breast material attenuation. A detailed description of the new software, a characterization of the printed materials using x-ray spectroscopy, and an evaluation of the realism of the sample printed phantoms are presented.

  16. Cone-beam CT breast imaging with a flat panel detector: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lingyun; Shaw, Chris C.; Tu, Shu-Ju; Altunbas, Mustafa C.; Wang, Tianpeng; Lai, Chao-Jen; Liu, Xinming; Kappadath, S. C.

    2005-04-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using a flat panel based cone-beam computer tomography (CT) system for 3-D breast imaging with computer simulation and imaging experiments. In our simulation study, 3-D phantoms were analytically modeled to simulate a breast loosely compressed into cylindrical shape with embedded soft tissue masses and calcifications. Attenuation coefficients were estimated to represent various types of breast tissue, soft tissue masses and calcifications to generate realistic image signal and contrast. Projection images were computed to incorporate x-ray attenuation, geometric magnification, x-ray detection, detector blurring, image pixelization and digitization. Based on the two-views mammography comparable dose level on the central axis of the phantom (also the rotation axis), x-ray kVp/filtration, transmittance through the phantom, detected quantum efficiency (DQE), exposure level, and imaging geometry, the photon fluence was estimated and used to estimate the phantom noise level on a pixel-by-pixel basis. This estimated noise level was then used with the random number generator to produce and add a fluctuation component to the noiseless transmitted image signal. The noise carrying projection images were then convolved with a Gaussian-like kernel, computed from measured 1-D line spread function (LSF) to simulated detector blurring. Additional 2-D Gaussian-like kernel is designed to suppress the noise fluctuation that inherently originates from projection images so that the reconstructed image detectability of low contrast masses phantom can be improved. Image reconstruction was performed using the Feldkamp algorithm. All simulations were performed on a 24 PC (2.4 GHz Dual-Xeon CPU) cluster with MPI parallel programming. With 600 mrads mean glandular dose (MGD) at the phantom center, soft tissue masses as small as 1 mm in diameter can be detected in a 10 cm diameter 50% glandular 50% adipose or fatter breast tissue, and 2 mm or larger

  17. 47 CFR 15.509 - Technical requirements for ground penetrating radars and wall imaging systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Technical requirements for ground penetrating radars and wall imaging systems. 15.509 Section 15.509 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... ground penetrating radars and wall imaging systems. (a) The UWB bandwidth of an imaging system...

  18. 47 CFR 15.509 - Technical requirements for ground penetrating radars and wall imaging systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Technical requirements for ground penetrating radars and wall imaging systems. 15.509 Section 15.509 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... ground penetrating radars and wall imaging systems. (a) The UWB bandwidth of an imaging system...

  19. 47 CFR 15.509 - Technical requirements for ground penetrating radars and wall imaging systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical requirements for ground penetrating radars and wall imaging systems. 15.509 Section 15.509 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... ground penetrating radars and wall imaging systems. (a) The UWB bandwidth of an imaging system...

  20. 47 CFR 15.509 - Technical requirements for ground penetrating radars and wall imaging systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Technical requirements for ground penetrating radars and wall imaging systems. 15.509 Section 15.509 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... ground penetrating radars and wall imaging systems. (a) The UWB bandwidth of an imaging system...

  1. 47 CFR 15.509 - Technical requirements for ground penetrating radars and wall imaging systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Technical requirements for ground penetrating radars and wall imaging systems. 15.509 Section 15.509 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... ground penetrating radars and wall imaging systems. (a) The UWB bandwidth of an imaging system...

  2. 47 CFR 15.510 - Technical requirements for through D-wall imaging systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... imaging system by remote control provided the imaging system ceases transmission within 10 seconds of the... FREQUENCY DEVICES Ultra-Wideband Operation § 15.510 Technical requirements for through D-wall imaging... of this section shall bear the following or similar statement in a conspicuous location on the...

  3. 47 CFR 15.513 - Technical requirements for medical imaging systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... system, it is permissible to operate an imaging system by remote control provided the imaging system... DEVICES Ultra-Wideband Operation § 15.513 Technical requirements for medical imaging systems. (a) The UWB... radiated emissions at or below 960 MHz from a device operating under the provisions of this section...

  4. 47 CFR 15.510 - Technical requirements for through D-wall imaging systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... imaging system by remote control provided the imaging system ceases transmission within 10 seconds of the... FREQUENCY DEVICES Ultra-Wideband Operation § 15.510 Technical requirements for through D-wall imaging... of this section shall bear the following or similar statement in a conspicuous location on the...

  5. Clinical feasibility study of combined optoacoustic and ultrasonic imaging modality providing coregistered functional and anatomical maps of breast tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalev, Jason; Herzog, Don; Clingman, Bryan; Miller, Tom; Kist, Kenneth; Dornbluth, N. Carol; McCorvey, B. Michelle; Otto, Pamela; Ermilov, Sergey; Nadvoretsky, Vyacheslav; Conjusteau, Andre; Su, Richard; Tsyboulski, Dmitri; Oraevsky, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    Two-dimensional optoacoustic imaging with a hand-held probe operated in backward mode is being developed for diagnostic imaging of breast cancer to evaluate the feasibility of a dual-modality optoacoustic plus ultrasonic system that maps functional information of anatomical tissue structures with ultrasonic resolution. Tissue is illuminated at 757nm and 1064nm for optical contrast between hypoxic blood of breast carcinomas and normally oxygenated blood in benign masses. The system is optimized and calibrated in phantoms for a pilot clinical study of patients with breast masses suspected for malignancy. Capability of the non-invasive system to improve detection and diagnosis of breast tumors is discussed.

  6. Full Angle Spatial Compound of ARFI images for breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    González-Salido, Nuria; Medina, Luis; Camacho, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    Automated ultrasound breast imaging would overcome most of the limitations that precludes conventional hand-held echography to be an effective screening method for breast cancer diagnosis. If a three dimensional (3D) ultrasound dataset is acquired without manual intervention of the technician, repeatability and patient follow-up could be improved. Furthermore, depending on the system configuration, resolution and contrast could be enhanced with regard to conventional echography, improving lesion detectability and evaluation. Having multiple modalities is another major advantage of these automated systems, currently under development by several research groups. Because of their circular structure, some of them include through-transmission measurements that allow constructing speed of sound and attenuation maps, which adds complementary information to the conventional reflectivity B-Mode image. This work addresses the implementation of the Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging technique in a Full Angle Spatial Compound (FASC) automated breast imaging system. It is of particular interest because of the high specificity of ARFI for breast cancer diagnosis, by representing tissue elasticity differences rather than acoustic reflectivity. First, the image formation process is analyzed and a compounding strategy is proposed for ARFI-FASC. Then, experimental results with a prototype system and two gelatin phantoms are presented: Phantom A with a hard inclusion in a soft background, and phantom B with three soft inclusions in a hard background and with three steel needles. It is demonstrated that the full angle composition of ARFI images improves image quality, enhancing Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) from 4.9 to 20.6 and 3.6 to 13.5 in phantoms A and B respectively. Furthermore, this CNR increase improved detectability of small structures (needles) with regard to images obtained from a single location, in which image texture masked their presence. PMID:27362998

  7. Hot spot detection for breast cancer in Ki-67 stained slides: image dependent filtering approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, M. Khalid Khan; Downs-Kelly, Erinn; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2014-03-01

    We present a new method to detect hot spots from breast cancer slides stained for Ki67 expression. It is common practice to use centroid of a nucleus as a surrogate representation of a cell. This often requires the detection of individual nuclei. Once all the nuclei are detected, the hot spots are detected by clustering the centroids. For large size images, nuclei detection is computationally demanding. Instead of detecting the individual nuclei and treating hot spot detection as a clustering problem, we considered hot spot detection as an image filtering problem where positively stained pixels are used to detect hot spots in breast cancer images. The method first segments the Ki-67 positive pixels using the visually meaningful segmentation (VMS) method that we developed earlier. Then, it automatically generates an image dependent filter to generate a density map from the segmented image. The smoothness of the density image simplifies the detection of local maxima. The number of local maxima directly corresponds to the number of hot spots in the breast cancer image. The method was tested on 23 different regions of interest images extracted from 10 different breast cancer slides stained with Ki67. To determine the intra-reader variability, each image was annotated twice for hot spots by a boardcertified pathologist with a two-week interval in between her two readings. A computer-generated hot spot region was considered a true-positive if it agrees with either one of the two annotation sets provided by the pathologist. While the intra-reader variability was 57%, our proposed method can correctly detect hot spots with 81% precision.

  8. Mass spectrometry images acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelin in MDA-MB-231 breast tumor models.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Kamila; Jiang, Lu; Greenwood, Tiffany R; Glunde, Kristine; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-02-01

    The lipid compositions of different breast tumor microenvironments are largely unknown due to limitations in lipid imaging techniques. Imaging lipid distributions would enhance our understanding of processes occurring inside growing tumors, such as cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Recent developments in MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enable rapid and specific detection of lipids directly from thin tissue sections. In this study, we performed multimodal imaging of acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines (PC), a lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and a sphingomyelin (SM) from different microenvironments of breast tumor xenograft models, which carried tdTomato red fluorescent protein as a hypoxia-response element-driven reporter gene. The MSI molecular lipid images revealed spatially heterogeneous lipid distributions within tumor tissue. Four of the most-abundant lipid species, namely PC(16:0/16:0), PC(16:0/18:1), PC(18:1/18:1), and PC(18:0/18:1), were localized in viable tumor regions, whereas LPC(16:0/0:0) was detected in necrotic tumor regions. We identified a heterogeneous distribution of palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine, PC(16:0/22:1), and SM(d18:1/16:0) sodium adduct, which colocalized primarily with hypoxic tumor regions. For the first time, we have applied a multimodal imaging approach that has combined optical imaging and MALDI-MSI with ion mobility separation to spatially localize and structurally identify acylcarnitines and a variety of lipid species present in breast tumor xenograft models. PMID:22930811

  9. Intra- and Interfractional Variations for Prone Breast Irradiation: An Indication for Image-Guided Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, Natalya V.; Stepaniak, Christopher; White, Julia; Wilson, J. Frank; Li, X. Allen

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: Intra- and interfractional errors for breast cancer patients undergoing breast irradiation in the prone position were analyzed. Methods and Materials: To assess intrafractional error resulting from respiratory motion, four-dimensional computed tomography scans were acquired for 3 prone and 3 supine patients, and the respiratory motion was compared for the two positions. To assess the interfractional error caused by daily set-up variations, daily electronic portal images of one of the treatment beams were taken for 15 prone-positioned patients. Portal images were then overlaid with images from the planning system that included the breast contour and the isocenter, treatment beam portal, and isocenter. The shift between the planned and actual isocenter was recorded for each portal image, and descriptive statistics were collected for each patient. The margins were calculated using the 2{sigma}+0.7{sigma} recipe, as well as 95% confidence interval based on the pooled standard deviation of the datasets. Results: Respiratory motion of the chest wall is drastically reduced from 2.3 {+-} 0.9 mm in supine position to -0.1 {+-} 0.4 mm in prone position. The daily set-up errors vary in magnitude from 0.0 cm to 1.65 cm and are patient dependent. The margins were defined by considering only the standard deviation to be 1.1 cm, and 2.0 cm when the systematic errors were considered using the 2{sigma}+0.7{sigma} recipe. Conclusions: Prone positioning of patients for breast irradiation significantly reduces the uncertainty introduced by intrafractional respiratory motion. The presence of large systematic error in the interfractional variations necessitates a large clinical target volume-to-planning target volume margin and indicates the importance of image guidance for partial breast irradiation in the prone position, particularly using imaging modality capable of identifying the lumpectomy cavity.

  10. Photoacoustic imaging of breast tumor vascularization: a comparison with MRI and histopathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heijblom, Michelle; Piras, Daniele; van den Engh, Frank M.; Klaase, Joost M.; Brinkhuis, Mariël.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2013-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females. Early diagnosis improves the survival chances for the disease and that is why there is an ongoing search for improved methods for visualizing breast cancer. One of the hallmarks of breast cancer is the increase in tumor vascularization that is associated with angiogenesis: a crucial factor for survival of malignancies. Photoacoustic imaging can visualize the malignancyassociated increased hemoglobin concentration with optical contrast and ultrasound resolution, without the use of ionizing radiation or contrast agents and is therefore theoretically an ideal method for breast imaging. Previous clinical studies using the Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope (PAM), which works in forward mode using a single wavelength (1064 nm), showed that malignancies can indeed be identified in the photoacoustic imaging volume as high contrast areas. However, the specific appearance of the malignancies led to questions about the contrast mechanism in relation to tumor vascularization. In this study, the photoacoustic lesion appearance obtained with an updated version of PAM is compared with the lesion appearance on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), both in general (19 patients) and on an individual basis (7 patients). Further, in 3 patients an extended histopathology protocol is being performed in which malignancies are stained for vascularity using an endothelial antibody: CD31. The correspondence between PAM and MRI and between PAM and histopathology makes it likely that the high photoacoustic contrast at 1064 nm is indeed largely the consequence of the increased tumor vascularization.

  11. In vivo quantitative imaging of normal and cancerous breast tissue using broadband diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Jiang, Shudong; Li, Zhongze; diFlorio-Alexander, Roberta M.; Barth, Richard J.; Kaufman, Peter A.; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: A NIR tomography system that combines frequency domain (FD) and continuous wave (CW) measurements was used to image normal and malignant breast tissues. Methods: FD acquisitions were confined to wavelengths less than 850 nm because of detector limitations, whereas light from longer wavelengths (up to 948 nm) was measured in CW mode with CCD-coupled spectrometer detection. The two data sets were combined and processed in a single spectrally constrained reconstruction to map concentrations of hemoglobin, water, and lipid, as well as scattering parameters in the breast. Results: Chromophore concentrations were imaged in the breasts of nine asymptomatic volunteers to evaluate their intrasubject and intersubject variability. Normal subject data showed physiologically expected trends. Images from three cancer patients indicate that the added CW data is critical to recovering the expected increases in water and decreases in lipid content within malignancies. Contrasts of 1.5 to twofold in hemoglobin and water values were found in cancers. Conclusions:In vivo breast imaging with instrumentation that combines FD and CW NIR data acquisition in a single spectral reconstruction produces more accurate hemoglobin, water, and lipid results relative to FD data alone. PMID:20831079

  12. Real-time 3D surface-image-guided beam setup in radiotherapy of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Djajaputra, David; Li Shidong

    2005-01-01

    We describe an approach for external beam radiotherapy of breast cancer that utilizes the three-dimensional (3D) surface information of the breast. The surface data of the breast are obtained from a 3D optical camera that is rigidly mounted on the ceiling of the treatment vault. This 3D camera utilizes light in the visible range therefore it introduces no ionization radiation to the patient. In addition to the surface topographical information of the treated area, the camera also captures gray-scale information that is overlaid on the 3D surface image. This allows us to visualize the skin markers and automatically determine the isocenter position and the beam angles in the breast tangential fields. The field sizes and shapes of the tangential, supraclavicular, and internal mammary gland fields can all be determined according to the 3D surface image of the target. A least-squares method is first introduced for the tangential-field setup that is useful for compensation of the target shape changes. The entire process of capturing the 3D surface data and subsequent calculation of beam parameters typically requires less than 1 min. Our tests on phantom experiments and patient images have achieved the accuracy of 1 mm in shift and 0.5 deg. in rotation. Importantly, the target shape and position changes in each treatment session can both be corrected through this real-time image-guided system.

  13. Hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for visualization of moisture distribution in cooked chicken breast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spectroscopy has proven to be an efficient tool for measuring the properties of meat. In this article, the hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique is investigated for the determination of moisture content in cooked chicken breast over the VIS/NIR (400–1000 nm) spectral ranges. Moisture measurements we...

  14. Investigation of iterative image reconstruction in low-dose breast CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Junguo; Yang, Kai; Boone, John M.; Han, Xiao; Sidky, Emil Y.; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2014-06-01

    There is interest in developing computed tomography (CT) dedicated to breast-cancer imaging. Because breast tissues are radiation-sensitive, the total radiation exposure in a breast-CT scan is kept low, often comparable to a typical two-view mammography exam, thus resulting in a challenging low-dose-data-reconstruction problem. In recent years, evidence has been found that suggests that iterative reconstruction may yield images of improved quality from low-dose data. In this work, based upon the constrained image total-variation minimization program and its numerical solver, i.e., the adaptive steepest descent-projection onto the convex set (ASD-POCS), we investigate and evaluate iterative image reconstructions from low-dose breast-CT data of patients, with a focus on identifying and determining key reconstruction parameters, devising surrogate utility metrics for characterizing reconstruction quality, and tailoring the program and ASD-POCS to the specific reconstruction task under consideration. The ASD-POCS reconstructions appear to outperform the corresponding clinical FDK reconstructions, in terms of subjective visualization and surrogate utility metrics.

  15. Towards Quantification of Functional Breast Images Using Dedicated SPECT With Non-Traditional Acquisition Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Kristy L.; Cutler, Spencer J.; Madhav, Priti; Tornai, Martin P.

    2012-01-01

    Quantification of radiotracer uptake in breast lesions can provide valuable information to physicians in deciding patient care or determining treatment efficacy. Physical processes (e.g., scatter, attenuation), detector/collimator characteristics, sampling and acquisition trajectories, and reconstruction artifacts contribute to an incorrect measurement of absolute tracer activity and distribution. For these experiments, a cylinder with three syringes of varying radioactivity concentration, and a fillable 800 mL breast with two lesion phantoms containing aqueous 99mTc pertechnetate were imaged using the SPECT sub-system of the dual-modality SPECT-CT dedicated breast scanner. SPECT images were collected using a compact CZT camera with various 3D acquisitions including vertical axis of rotation, 30° tilted, and complex sinusoidal trajectories. Different energy windows around the photopeak were quantitatively compared, along with appropriate scatter energy windows, to determine the best quantification accuracy after attenuation and dual-window scatter correction. Measured activity concentrations in the reconstructed images for syringes with greater than 10 µCi /mL corresponded to within 10% of the actual dose calibrator measured activity concentration for ±4% and ±8% photopeak energy windows. The same energy windows yielded lesion quantification results within 10% in the breast phantom as well. Results for the more complete complex sinsusoidal trajectory are similar to the simple vertical axis acquisition, and additionally allows both anterior chest wall sampling, no image distortion, and reasonably accurate quantification. PMID:22262925

  16. Towards Quantification of Functional Breast Images Using Dedicated SPECT With Non-Traditional Acquisition Trajectories.

    PubMed

    Perez, Kristy L; Cutler, Spencer J; Madhav, Priti; Tornai, Martin P

    2011-10-01

    Quantification of radiotracer uptake in breast lesions can provide valuable information to physicians in deciding patient care or determining treatment efficacy. Physical processes (e.g., scatter, attenuation), detector/collimator characteristics, sampling and acquisition trajectories, and reconstruction artifacts contribute to an incorrect measurement of absolute tracer activity and distribution. For these experiments, a cylinder with three syringes of varying radioactivity concentration, and a fillable 800 mL breast with two lesion phantoms containing aqueous (99m)Tc pertechnetate were imaged using the SPECT sub-system of the dual-modality SPECT-CT dedicated breast scanner. SPECT images were collected using a compact CZT camera with various 3D acquisitions including vertical axis of rotation, 30° tilted, and complex sinusoidal trajectories. Different energy windows around the photopeak were quantitatively compared, along with appropriate scatter energy windows, to determine the best quantification accuracy after attenuation and dual-window scatter correction. Measured activity concentrations in the reconstructed images for syringes with greater than 10 µCi /mL corresponded to within 10% of the actual dose calibrator measured activity concentration for ±4% and ±8% photopeak energy windows. The same energy windows yielded lesion quantification results within 10% in the breast phantom as well. Results for the more complete complex sinsusoidal trajectory are similar to the simple vertical axis acquisition, and additionally allows both anterior chest wall sampling, no image distortion, and reasonably accurate quantification.

  17. Comparison of time-series registration methods in breast dynamic infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riyahi-Alam, S.; Agostini, V.; Molinari, F.; Knaflitz, M.

    2015-03-01

    Automated motion reduction in dynamic infrared imaging is on demand in clinical applications, since movement disarranges time-temperature series of each pixel, thus originating thermal artifacts that might bias the clinical decision. All previously proposed registration methods are feature based algorithms requiring manual intervention. The aim of this work is to optimize the registration strategy specifically for Breast Dynamic Infrared Imaging and to make it user-independent. We implemented and evaluated 3 different 3D time-series registration methods: 1. Linear affine, 2. Non-linear Bspline, 3. Demons applied to 12 datasets of healthy breast thermal images. The results are evaluated through normalized mutual information with average values of 0.70 ±0.03, 0.74 ±0.03 and 0.81 ±0.09 (out of 1) for Affine, Bspline and Demons registration, respectively, as well as breast boundary overlap and Jacobian determinant of the deformation field. The statistical analysis of the results showed that symmetric diffeomorphic Demons' registration method outperforms also with the best breast alignment and non-negative Jacobian values which guarantee image similarity and anatomical consistency of the transformation, due to homologous forces enforcing the pixel geometric disparities to be shortened on all the frames. We propose Demons' registration as an effective technique for time-series dynamic infrared registration, to stabilize the local temperature oscillation.

  18. Coherent optical imaging and guided interventions in breast cancer: translating technology into clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boppart, Stephen A.; Nguyen, Freddy T.; Zysk, Adam M.; Chaney, Eric J.; Kotynek, Jan G.; Oliphant, Uretz J.; Bellafiore, Frank J.; Rowland, Kendrith M.; Johnson, Patricia A.

    2008-04-01

    Breast cancer continues to be one of the most widely diagnosed forms of cancer in women and the second leading type of cancer deaths for women. The metastatic spread and staging of breast cancer is typically evaluated through the nodal assessment of the regional lymphatic system, and often this is performed during the surgical resection of the tumor mass. The recurrence rate of breast cancer is highly dependent on several factors including the complete removal of the primary tumor during surgery, and the presence of cancer cells in involved lymph nodes. Hence, developing means to more accurately resect tumor cells, along with the tumor mass, and ensure negative surgical margins, offers the potential to impact outcomes of breast cancer. The use of diffuse optical tomography has been applied for screening optical mammography applications as an alternative to standard x-ray mammography. The use of coherence ranging and coherent optical imaging in breast tissue has also found numerous applications, including intra-operative assessment of tumor margin status during lumpectomy procedures, assessment of lymph node changes for staging metastatic spread, and for guiding needle-biopsy procedures. The development, pre-clinical testing, and translation of techniques such as low-coherence interferometry (LCI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) into clinical applications in breast cancer is demonstrated in these feasibility studies.

  19. Application of imaging mass spectrometry for the molecular diagnosis of human breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xinxin; He, Jiuming; Li, Tiegang; Lu, Zhaohui; Sun, Jian; Meng, Yunxiao; Abliz, Zeper; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Distinguishing breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a key step in breast surgery, especially to determine whether DCIS is associated with tumor cell micro-invasion. However, there is currently no reliable method to obtain molecular information for breast tumor analysis during surgery. Here, we present a novel air flow-assisted ionization (AFAI) mass spectrometry imaging method that can be used in ambient environments to differentiate breast cancer by analyzing lipids. In this study, we demonstrate that various subtypes and histological grades of IDC and DCIS can be discriminated using AFAI-MSI: phospholipids were more abundant in IDC than in DCIS, whereas fatty acids were more abundant in DCIS than in IDC. The classification of specimens in the subtype and grade validation sets showed 100% and 78.6% agreement with the histopathological diagnosis, respectively. Our work shows the rapid classification of breast cancer utilizing AFAI-MSI. This work suggests that this method could be developed to provide surgeons with nearly real-time information to guide surgical resections. PMID:26868906

  20. Development of breast cancer tissue phantoms for terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Alec; Bowman, Tyler; El-Shenawee, Magda

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this work was to develop phantoms that match the refractive indices and absorption coefficients between 0.15 and 2.0 THz of the freshly excised tissues commonly found in breast tumors. Since a breast cancer tumor can contain fibrous and fatty tissues alongside the cancerous tissues, a phantom had to be developed for each. In order to match the desired properties of the tissues, oil in water emulsions were solidified using the proven phantom component TX151. The properties of each potential phantom were verified through THz time-domain spectroscopy on a TPS Spectra 3000. Using this method, phantoms for fibrous and cancerous tissue were successfully developed while a commercially available material was found which matched the optical properties of fatty tissue.

  1. An image, looking east into Room 112A, filled with technical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    An image, looking east into Room 112A, filled with technical equipment pertinent to the building's recent use - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Electronics Laboratory Building (E Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  2. A Visual Image Approach to Teaching Entry-Level Technical Terminology to Learning Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David C.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Evaluates the use of self-instructional learning packages using a visual image approach for teaching the technical language of five trade areas to learning handicapped high school students enrolled in regular vocational education classes. (FL)

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pilewskie, Melissa; King, Tari A

    2014-07-15

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer remains controversial. Here we review the current use of breast MRI and the impact of MRI on short-term surgical outcomes and rates of local recurrence. In addition, we address the use of MRI in specific patient populations, such as those with ductal carcinoma in situ, invasive lobular carcinoma, and occult primary breast cancer, and discuss the potential role of MRI for assessing response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Although MRI has improved sensitivity compared with conventional imaging, this has not translated into improved short-term surgical outcomes or long-term patient benefit, such as improved local control or survival, in any patient population. MRI is an important diagnostic test in the evaluation of patients presenting with occult primary breast cancer and has shown promise in monitoring response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy; however, the data do not support the routine use of perioperative MRI in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Cancer 2014;120:120:2080-2089. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  4. Temporal change analysis for improved tumor detection in dedicated CT breast imaging using affine and free-form deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Joyoni; O'Connor, J. Michael; Chen, Yu; Glick, Stephen J.

    2008-03-01

    Preliminary evidence has suggested that computerized tomographic (CT) imaging of the breast using a cone-beam, flat-panel detector system dedicated solely to breast imaging has potential for improving detection and diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer. Hypothetically, a powerful mechanism for assisting in early stage breast cancer detection from annual screening breast CT studies would be to examine temporal changes in the breast from year-to-year. We hypothesize that 3D image registration could be used to automatically register breast CT volumes scanned at different times (e.g., yearly screening exams). This would allow radiologists to quickly visualize small changes in the breast that have developed during the period since the last screening CT scan, and use this information to improve the diagnostic accuracy of early-stage breast cancer detection. To test our hypothesis, fresh mastectomy specimens were imaged with a flat-panel CT system at different time points, after moving the specimen to emulate the re-positioning motion of the breast between yearly screening exams. Synthetic tumors were then digitally inserted into the second CT scan at a clinically realistic location (to emulate tumor growth from year-to-year). An affine and a spline-based 3D image registration algorithm was implemented and applied to the CT reconstructions of the specimens acquired at different times. Subtraction of registered image volumes was then performed to better analyze temporal change. Results from this study suggests that temporal change analysis in 3D breast CT can potentially be a powerful tool in improving the visualization of small lesion growth.

  5. A New Markov Random Field Segmentation Method for Breast Lesion Segmentation in MR images.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Reza; Norozi, Narges

    2011-07-01

    Breast cancer is a major public health problem for women in the Iran and many other parts of the world. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) plays a pivotal role in breast cancer care, including detection, diagnosis, and treatment monitoring. But segmentation of these images which is seriously affected by intensity inhomogeneities created by radio-frequency coils is a challenging task. Markov Random Field (MRF) is used widely in medical image segmentation especially in MR images. It is because this method can model intensity inhomogeneities occurring in these images. But this method has two critical weaknesses: Computational complexity and sensitivity of the results to the models parameters. To overcome these problems, in this paper, we present Improved-Markov Random Field (I-MRF) method for breast lesion segmentation in MR images. Unlike the conventional MRF, in the proposed approach, we don't use the Iterative Conditional Mode (ICM) method or Simulated Annealing (SA) for class membership estimation of each pixel (lesion and non-lesion). The prior distribution of the class membership is modeled as a ratio of two conditional probability distributions in a neighborhood which is defined for each pixel: probability distribution of similar pixels and non-similar ones. Since our proposed approach don't use an iterative method for maximizing the posterior probability, above mentioned problems are solved. Experimental results show that performance of segmentation in this approach is higher than conventional MRF in terms of accuracy, precision, and Computational complexity.

  6. Fusion of digital breast tomosynthesis images via wavelet synthesis for improved lesion conspicuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariharan, Harishwaran; Pomponiu, Victor; Zheng, Bin; Whiting, Bruce; Gur, David

    2014-03-01

    Full-field digital mammography (FFDM) is the most common screening procedure for detecting early breast cancer. However, due to complications such as overlapping breast tissue in projection images, the efficacy of FFDM reading is reduced. Recent studies have shown that digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), in combination with FFDM, increases detection sensitivity considerably while decreasing false-positive, recall rates. There is a huge interest in creating diagnostically accurate 2-D interpretations from the DBT slices. Most of the 2-D syntheses rely on visualizing the maximum intensities (brightness) from each slice through different methods. We propose a wavelet based fusion method, where we focus on preserving holistic information from larger structures such as masses while adding high frequency information that is relevant and helpful for diagnosis. This method enables the spatial generation of a 2D image from a series of DBT images, each of which contains both smooth and coarse structures distributed in the wavelet domain. We believe that the wavelet-synthesized images, generated from their DBT image datasets, provide radiologists with improved lesion and micro-calcification conspicuity as compared with FFDM images. The potential impact of this fusion method is (1) Conception of a device-independent, data-driven modality that increases the conspicuity of lesions, thereby facilitating early detection and potentially reducing recall rates; (2) Reduction of the accompanying radiation dose to the patient.

  7. Simulation study comparing high-purity germanium and cadmium zinc telluride detectors for breast imaging.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L; Peterson, T E

    2014-11-21

    We conducted simulations to compare the potential imaging performance for breast cancer detection with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) systems with 1% and 3.8% energy resolution at 140 keV, respectively. Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) simulation package, we modelled both 5 mm-thick CZT and 10 mm-thick HPGe detectors with the same parallel-hole collimator for the imaging of a breast/torso phantom. Simulated energy spectra were generated, and planar images were created for various energy windows around the 140 keV photopeak. Relative sensitivity and scatter and the torso fractions were calculated along with tumour contrast and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Simulations showed that utilizing a ±1.25% energy window with an HPGe system better suppressed torso background and small-angle scattered photons than a comparable CZT system using a -5%/+10% energy window. Both systems provided statistically similar contrast and SNR, with HPGe providing higher relative sensitivity. Lowering the counts of HPGe images to match CZT count density still yielded equivalent contrast between HPGe and CZT. Thus, an HPGe system may provide equivalent breast imaging capability at lower injected radioactivity levels when acquiring for equal imaging time.

  8. Simulation study comparing high-purity germanium and cadmium zinc telluride detectors for breast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, DL; Peterson, TE

    2014-01-01

    We conducted simulations to compare the potential imaging performance for breast cancer detection with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) systems with 1% and 3.8% energy resolution at 140 keV, respectively. Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) simulation package, we modelled both 5 mm-thick CZT and 10 mm-thick HPGe detectors with the same parallel-hole collimator for the imaging of a breast/torso phantom. Simulated energy spectra were generated, and planar images were created for various energy windows around the 140-keV photopeak. Relative sensitivity and scatter and the torso fractions were calculated along with tumour contrast and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Simulations showed that utilizing a ±1.25% energy window with an HPGe system better suppressed torso background and small-angle scattered photons than a comparable CZT system using a −5%/+10% energy window. Both systems provided statistically similar contrast and SNR, with HPGe providing higher relative sensitivity. Lowering the counts of HPGe images to match CZT count density still yielded equivalent contrast between HPGe and CZT. Thus, an HPGe system may provide equivalent breast imaging capability at lower injected radioactivity levels when acquiring for equal imaging time. PMID:25360792

  9. Dual energy contrast enhanced breast imaging optimization using contrast to noise ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvanitis, C. D.; Royle, G.; Speller, R.

    2007-03-01

    The properties of dual energy contrast enhanced breast imaging have been analyzed by imaging a 4 cm breast equivalent phantom consisting of adipose and glandular equivalent plastics. This phantom had superimposed another thin plastic which incorporated a 2 mm deep cylinder filled with iodinated contrast media. The iodine projected thicknesses used for this study was 3 mg/cm2. Low and high energy spectra that straddle the iodine K-edge were used. Critical parameters such as the energy spectra and exposure are discussed, along with post processing by means of nonlinear energy dependent function. The dual energy image was evaluated using the relative contrast to noise ratio of a 2.5 mm x 2.5 mm region of the image at the different iodine concentrations incorporating different breast composition with respect to the noniodinated areas. Optimum results were achieved when the low and high-energy images were used in such a way that relative contrast to noise ratio of the iodine with respect to the background tissue was maximum. A figure of merit suggests that higher noise levels can be tolerated at the benefit of lower exposure. Contrast media kinetics of a phantom incorporating a water flow of 20.4 ml/min through the plastic cylinder suggests that time domain imaging could be performed with this approach. The results suggest that optimization of dual energy contrast enhanced mammography has the potential to lead to the development of perfusion digital mammography.

  10. Detection of breast surgical margins with optical coherence tomography imaging: a concept evaluation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savastru, Dan; Chang, Ernest W.; Miclos, Sorin; Pitman, Martha B.; Patel, Ankit; Iftimia, Nicusor

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the concept of using high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to rapidly assess surgical specimens and determine if cancer positive margins were left behind in the surgical bed. A mouse model of breast cancer was used in this study. Surgical specimens from 30 animals were investigated with OCT and automated interpretation of the OCT images was performed and tested against histopathology findings. Specimens from 10 animals were used to build a training set of OCT images, while the remaining 20 specimens were used for a validation set of images. The validation study showed that automated interpretation of OCT images can differentiate tissue types and detect cancer positive margins with at least 81% sensitivity and 89% specificity. The findings of this pilot study suggest that OCT imaging of surgical specimens and automated interpretation of OCT data may enable in the future real-time feedback to the surgeon about margin status in patients with breast cancer, and potentially with other types of cancers. Currently, such feedback is not provided and if positive margins are left behind, patients have to undergo another surgical procedure. Therefore, this approach can have a potentially high impact on breast surgery outcome.

  11. A genetic strategy for combined screening and localized imaging of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Warram, Jason M.; Borovjagin, Anton V.; Zinn, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Improvements are needed for the early detection of breast cancer, as current imaging methods lack sensitivity to detect small tumors and assess their disease phenotype. PROCEDURES To address this issue the dual reporter adenoviral vector (Ad5/3-Id1-SEAP-Id1-mCherry) was produced with a cancer specific Id1 promoter driving expression of a blood-based screening reporter (secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase, SEAP) and a fluorescent imaging reporter (mCherry). This diagnostic system was assessed for its screening potential on breast cancer cell lines of various aggressive phenotypes. Reporter expression was measured and correlated with promoter level expression using western blot. Adenovirus receptor expression was normalized against reporter expression with luciferase infectivity assays. Ad5/3-Id1-SEAP-Id1-mCherry infected MDA-MB-231 cells combined with uninfected cells were implanted into the mammary fat pad of athymic nude mice to recapitulate low dose tumor delivery. Id1 driven SEAP expression and mCherry imaging were monitored to validate diagnostic sensitivity and efficacy. RESULTS Infected breast cancer cell lines displayed SEAP levels in the media that were 10-fold above background by 2 days after infection. Ad5/3-Id1-SEAP-Id1-mCherry infected cells (MOI=10) implanted in athymic nude mice demonstrated a 14-fold increase in serum SEAP levels over baseline when as little as 2.5% of the tumor contained infected cells. This robust response was also found for the mCherry reporter which was clearly visible in tumor xenografts on day 2 post implantation. CONCLUSIONS This diagnostic system that combines screening with imaging for early detection and monitoring of breast cancer can be easily extended to other reporters/modalities and cancer-targeting methods. Combining screening with imaging in a genetic, cancer-specific mechanism allows sensitive multi-modal detection and localization of breast cancer. PMID:20658194

  12. 3.0 Tesla vs 1.5 Tesla breast magnetic resonance imaging in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Reni S; Chen, Christine; Vashi, Reena; Hooley, Regina J; Philpotts, Liane E

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To compare 3.0 Tesla (T) vs 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging systems in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. METHODS: Upon Institutional Review Board approval, a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective review of 147 consecutive 3.0T MR examinations and 98 consecutive 1.5T MR examinations in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer between 7/2009 and 5/2010 was performed. Eleven patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the 3.0T group were excluded. Mammographically occult suspicious lesions (BIRADS Code 4 and 5) additional to the index cancer in the ipsilateral and contralateral breast were identified. Lesion characteristics and pathologic diagnoses were recorded, and results achieved with both systems compared. Statistical significance was analyzed using Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS: In the 3.0T group, 206 suspicious lesions were identified in 55% (75/136) of patients and 96% (198/206) of these lesions were biopsied. In the 1.5T group, 98 suspicious lesions were identified in 53% (52/98) of patients and 90% (88/98) of these lesions were biopsied. Biopsy results yielded additional malignancies in 24% of patients in the 3.0T group vs 14% of patients in the 1.5T group (33/136 vs 14/98, P = 0.07). Average size and histology of the additional cancers was comparable. Of patients who had a suspicious MR imaging study, additional cancers were found in 44% of patients in the 3.0T group vs 27% in the 1.5T group (33/75 vs 14/52, P = 0.06), yielding a higher positive predictive value (PPV) for biopsies performed with the 3.0T system. CONCLUSION: 3.0T MR imaging detected more additional malignancies in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer and yielded a higher PPV for biopsies performed with the 3.0T system. PMID:24003354

  13. Estrogen Receptor-Targeted Contrast Agents for Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Breast Cancer Hormonal Status.

    PubMed

    Pais, Adi; Degani, Hadassa

    2016-01-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) α is overexpressed in most breast cancers, and its level serves as a major prognostic factor. It is important to develop quantitative molecular imaging methods that specifically detect ER in vivo and assess its function throughout the entire primary breast cancer and in metastatic breast cancer lesions. This study presents the biochemical and molecular features, as well as the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) effects of two novel ER-targeted contrast agents (CAs), based on pyridine-tetra-acetate-Gd(III) chelate conjugated to 17β-estradiol (EPTA-Gd) or to tamoxifen (TPTA-Gd). The experiments were conducted in solution, in human breast cancer cells, and in severe combined immunodeficient mice implanted with transfected ER-positive and ER-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts. Binding studies with ER in solution and in human breast cancer cells indicated affinities in the micromolar range of both CAs. Biochemical and molecular studies in breast cancer cell cultures showed that both CAs exhibit estrogen-like agonistic activity, enhancing cell proliferation, as well as upregulating cMyc oncogene and downregulating ER expression levels. The MRI longitudinal relaxivity was significantly augmented by EPTA-Gd in ER-positive cells as compared to ER-negative cells. Dynamic contrast-enhanced studies with EPTA-Gd in vivo indicated specific augmentation of the MRI water signal in the ER-positive versus ER-negative xenografts, confirming EPTA-Gd-specific interaction with ER. In contrast, TPTA-Gd did not show increased enhancement in ER-positive tumors and did not appear to interact in vivo with the tumors' ER. However, TPTA-Gd was found to interact strongly with muscle tissue, enhancing muscle signal intensity in a mechanism independent of the presence of ER. The specificity of EPTA-Gd interaction with ER in vivo was further verified by acute and chronic competition with tamoxifen. The chronic tamoxifen treatment also revealed that this

  14. Estrogen Receptor-Targeted Contrast Agents for Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Breast Cancer Hormonal Status

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Adi; Degani, Hadassa

    2016-01-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) α is overexpressed in most breast cancers, and its level serves as a major prognostic factor. It is important to develop quantitative molecular imaging methods that specifically detect ER in vivo and assess its function throughout the entire primary breast cancer and in metastatic breast cancer lesions. This study presents the biochemical and molecular features, as well as the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) effects of two novel ER-targeted contrast agents (CAs), based on pyridine-tetra-acetate-Gd(III) chelate conjugated to 17β-estradiol (EPTA-Gd) or to tamoxifen (TPTA-Gd). The experiments were conducted in solution, in human breast cancer cells, and in severe combined immunodeficient mice implanted with transfected ER-positive and ER-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts. Binding studies with ER in solution and in human breast cancer cells indicated affinities in the micromolar range of both CAs. Biochemical and molecular studies in breast cancer cell cultures showed that both CAs exhibit estrogen-like agonistic activity, enhancing cell proliferation, as well as upregulating cMyc oncogene and downregulating ER expression levels. The MRI longitudinal relaxivity was significantly augmented by EPTA-Gd in ER-positive cells as compared to ER-negative cells. Dynamic contrast-enhanced studies with EPTA-Gd in vivo indicated specific augmentation of the MRI water signal in the ER-positive versus ER-negative xenografts, confirming EPTA-Gd-specific interaction with ER. In contrast, TPTA-Gd did not show increased enhancement in ER-positive tumors and did not appear to interact in vivo with the tumors’ ER. However, TPTA-Gd was found to interact strongly with muscle tissue, enhancing muscle signal intensity in a mechanism independent of the presence of ER. The specificity of EPTA-Gd interaction with ER in vivo was further verified by acute and chronic competition with tamoxifen. The chronic tamoxifen treatment also revealed that this

  15. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound improved performance of breast imaging reporting and data system evaluation of critical breast lesions

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jun; Chen, Ji-Dong; Chen, Qing; Yue, Lin-Xian; Zhou, Guo; Lan, Cheng; Li, Yi; Wu, Chi-Hua; Lu, Jing-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) can improve the precision of breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) categorization. METHODS: A total of 230 patients with 235 solid breast lesions classified as BI-RADS 4 on conventional ultrasound were evaluated. CEUS was performed within one week before core needle biopsy or surgical resection and a revised BI-RADS classification was assigned based on 10 CEUS imaging characteristics. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was then conducted to evaluate the diagnostic performance of CEUS-based BI-RADS assignment with pathological examination as reference criteria. RESULTS: The CEUS-based BI-RADS evaluation classified 116/235 (49.36%) lesions into category 3, 20 (8.51%), 13 (5.53%) and 12 (5.11%) lesions into categories 4A, 4B and 4C, respectively, and 74 (31.49%) into category 5. Selecting CEUS-based BI-RADS category 4A as an appropriate cut-off gave sensitivity and specificity values of 85.4% and 87.8%, respectively, for the diagnosis of malignant disease. The cancer-to-biopsy yield was 73.11% with CEUS-based BI-RADS 4A selected as the biopsy threshold compared with 40.85% otherwise, while the biopsy rate was only 42.13% compared with 100% otherwise. Overall, only 4.68% of invasive cancers were misdiagnosed. CONCLUSION: This pilot study suggests that evaluation of BI-RADS 4 breast lesions with CEUS results in reduced biopsy rates and increased cancer-to-biopsy yields. PMID:27358689

  16. Stereotactic (Mammographically Guided) Breast Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z Stereotactic Breast Biopsy Stereotactic breast biopsy uses mammography – a specific type of breast imaging that uses ... the breast are often detected by physical examination, mammography, or other imaging studies. However, it is not ...

  17. A case of a giant pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast: magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Solomou, Ekaterini; Kraniotis, Pantelis; Patriarcheas, Georgios

    2012-04-12

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign myofibroblastic process. We present the case of a 17-year-old girl who underwent diagnostic work-up due to an enlargement of her left breast. She was submitted to ultrasounds and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which depicted a 14 cm lesion in her left breast. The patient was later operated and histology revealed PASH. Although PASH may range from 0.6-12 cm, a few lesions over 12 cm have been described, the largest being 20 cm. Large series present mammographic and ultrasonographic features of PASH in the literature, but little has been reported on the MR characteristics of PASH up to today. Signal on the T1-weighted image (T1WI) and T2-weighted image (T2WI) may vary. Curves generated from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) studies are mainly type I or less frequently type II. There are no reports about diffusion-weighted imaging and corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for PASH in the literature. ADC values in our case lie within the range of values reported for other benign breast lesions. The presence of slit-like spaces within the lesion on MR imaging along with DCE-MRI type I curve and ADC values consistent with a benign lesion may favour the diagnosis of PASH. Tissue biopsy is necessary, however for the final diagnosis. This case report will further contribute to the understanding of MR imaging features of PASH, especially in cases where mammography is not indicated.

  18. Contrast enhancement in dense breast images using the modulation transfer function.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Fátima L S; Schiabel, Homero; Benatti, Rodrigo H

    2002-12-01

    This work proposes a method aimed at enhancing the contrast in dense breast images in mammography. It includes a new preprocessing technique, which uses information on the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the mammographic system in the whole radiation field. The method is applied to improve the efficiency of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme. Seventy-five regions of interest (ROIs) from dense mammograms were acquired in two pieces of equipment (a CGR Senographe 500t and a Philips Mammodiagnost) and were digitized in a Lumiscan 50 laser scanner. A computational procedure determines the effective focal spot size in each region of interest from the measured focal spot in the center for a given mammographic equipment. Using computational simulation the MTF is then calculated for each field region. A procedure that enlarges the high-frequency portion of this function is applied and a convolution between the resulting new function and the original image is performed. Both original and enhanced images were submitted to a processing procedure for detecting clustered microcalcifications in order to compare the performance for dense breast images. ROIs were divided into four groups, two for each piece of equipment-one with clustered microcalcifications and another without microcalcifications. Our results show that in about 10% of the enhanced images more signals were detected when compared to the results for the original dense breast images. This is important because the usual processing techniques used in CAD schemes present poor results when applied to dense breast images. Since the MTF method is a well-recognized tool in the evaluation of radiographic systems, this new technique could be used to associate quality assurance procedures with the processing schemes employed in CAD for mammography.

  19. The electromagnetic-trait imaging computation of traveling wave method in breast tumor microwave sensor system.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhi-Fu; Han, Zhong-Ling; Yao, Meng

    2011-01-01

    Using the difference of dielectric constant between malignant tumor tissue and normal breast tissue, breast tumor microwave sensor system (BRATUMASS) determines the detected target of imaging electromagnetic trait by analyzing the properties of target tissue back wave obtained after near-field microwave radicalization (conelrad). The key of obtained target properties relationship and reconstructed detected space is to analyze the characteristics of the whole process from microwave transmission to back wave reception. Using traveling wave method, we derive spatial transmission properties and the relationship of the relation detected points distances, and valuate the properties of each unit by statistical valuation theory. This chapter gives the experimental data analysis results.

  20. A FTIR imaging characterization of fibroblasts stimulated by various breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saroj; Shabi, Thankaraj Salammal; Goormaghtigh, Erik

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the microenvironment plays a major role in breast cancer progression. Yet, the mechanism explaining the transition from normal fibroblasts to cancer-stimulated fibroblasts remains to be elucidated. Here we report a FTIR imaging study of the effects of three different breast cancer cell lines on normal fibroblasts in culture. Fibroblast activation process was monitored by FTIR imaging and spectra compared by multivariate statistical analyses. Principal component analysis evidenced that the fibroblasts stimulated by these cancer cell lines grouped together and remained distinctly separated from normal fibroblasts indicating a modified different chemical composition in the cancer-stimulated fibroblasts. Similar changes in fibroblasts were induced by the various breast cancer cell lines belonging to different sub-types. Most significant changes were observed in the region of 2950 and 1230 cm(-1), possibly related to changes in lipids and in the 1230 cm(-1) area assigned to phosphate vibrations (nucleotides). Interestingly, the cancer-cell induced changes in the fibroblasts also occurred when there was no possible direct contact between the two cell lines in the co-culture. When contact was possible, the spectral changes were similar, suggesting that soluble factors but not direct cell-cell interactions were responsible for fibroblast activation. Overall, the results indicate that IR imaging could be used in the future for analyzing the microenvironment of breast tumors.

  1. Partial dependence of breast tumor malignancy on ultrasound image features derived from boosted trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Su; Li, Wenying; Chen, Yaqing; Lu, Hongtao; Chen, Wufan; Chen, Yazhu

    2010-04-01

    Various computerized features extracted from breast ultrasound images are useful in assessing the malignancy of breast tumors. However, the underlying relationship between the computerized features and tumor malignancy may not be linear in nature. We use the decision tree ensemble trained by the cost-sensitive boosting algorithm to approximate the target function for malignancy assessment and to reflect this relationship qualitatively. Partial dependence plots are employed to explore and visualize the effect of features on the output of the decision tree ensemble. In the experiments, 31 image features are extracted to quantify the sonographic characteristics of breast tumors. Patient age is used as an external feature because of its high clinical importance. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of the tree ensembles can reach 0.95 with sensitivity of 0.95 (61/64) at the associated specificity 0.74 (77/104). The partial dependence plots of the four most important features are demonstrated to show the influence of the features on malignancy, and they are in accord with the empirical observations. The results can provide visual and qualitative references on the computerized image features for physicians, and can be useful for enhancing the interpretability of computer-aided diagnosis systems for breast ultrasound.

  2. Quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willner, M.; Herzen, J.; Grandl, S.; Auweter, S.; Mayr, D.; Hipp, A.; Chabior, M.; Sarapata, A.; Achterhold, K.; Zanette, I.; Weitkamp, T.; Sztrókay, A.; Hellerhoff, K.; Reiser, M.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-04-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has received growing interest in recent years due to its high capability in visualizing soft tissue. Breast imaging became the focus of particular attention as it is considered the most promising candidate for a first clinical application of this contrast modality. In this study, we investigate quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) at conventional polychromatic x-ray sources. Different breast specimens have been scanned at a laboratory phase-contrast imaging setup and were correlated to histopathology. Ascertained tumor types include phylloides tumor, fibroadenoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Identified tissue types comprising adipose, fibroglandular and tumor tissue have been analyzed in terms of phase-contrast Hounsfield units and are compared to high-quality, high-resolution data obtained with monochromatic synchrotron radiation, as well as calculated values based on tabulated tissue properties. The results give a good impression of the method’s prospects and limitations for potential tumor detection and the associated demands on such a phase-contrast breast CT system. Furthermore, the evaluated quantitative tissue values serve as a reference for simulations and the design of dedicated phantoms for phase-contrast mammography.

  3. Quantum dots-based double-color imaging of HER2 positive breast cancer invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiu-Li; Peng, Chun-Wei; Chen, Chuang; Yang, Xue-Qin; Hu, Ming-Bai; Xia, He-Shun; Liu, Shao-Ping; and others

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} HER2 level is closely related to the biologic behaviors of breast cancer cells. {yields} A new method to simultaneously image HER2 and type IV collagen was established. {yields} HER2 status and type IV collagen degradation predict breast cancer invasion. {yields} The complex interactions between tumor and its environment were revealed. -- Abstract: It has been well recognized that human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) level in breast cancer (BC) is closely related to the malignant biologic behaviors of the tumor, including invasion and metastasis. Yet, there has been a lack of directly observable evidence to support such notion. Here we report a quantum dots (QDs)-based double-color imaging technique to simultaneously show the HER2 level on BC cells and the type IV collagen in the tumor matrix. In benign breast tumor, the type IV collagen was intact. With the increasing of HER2 expression level, there has been a progressive decrease in type IV collagen around the cancer nest. At HER2 (3+) expression level, there has virtually been a total destruction of type IV collagen. Moreover, HER2 (3+) BC cells also show direct invasion into the blood vessels. This novel imaging method provides direct observable evidence to support the theory that the HER2 expression level is directly related to BC invasion.

  4. Noninvasive enhanced mid-IR imaging of breast cancer development in vivo.

    PubMed

    Case, Jason R; Young, Madison A; Dréau, D; Trammell, Susan R

    2015-11-01

    Lumpectomy coupled with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy is commonly used to treat breast cancer patients. We are developing an enhanced thermal IR imaging technique that has the potential to provide real-time imaging to guide tissue excision during a lumpectomy by delineating tumor margins. This enhanced thermal imaging method is a combination of IR imaging (8 to 10  μm ) and selective heating of blood (∼0.5°C ) relative to surrounding water-rich tissue using LED sources at low powers. Postacquisition processing of these images highlights temporal changes in temperature and the presence of vascular structures. In this study, fluorescent, standard thermal, and enhanced thermal imaging modalities, as well as physical caliper measurements, were used to monitor breast cancer tumor volumes over a 30-day study period in 19 mice implanted with 4T1-RFP tumor cells. Tumor volumes calculated from fluorescent imaging follow an exponential growth curve for the first 22 days of the study. Cell necrosis affected the tumor volume estimates based on the fluorescent images after day 22. The tumor volumes estimated from enhanced thermal imaging, standard thermal imaging, and caliper measurements all show exponential growth over the entire study period. A strong correlation was found between tumor volumes estimated using fluorescent imaging, standard IR imaging, and caliper measurements with enhanced thermal imaging, indicating that enhanced thermal imaging monitors tumor growth. Further, the enhanced IR images reveal a corona of bright emission along the edges of the tumor masses associated with the tumor margin. In the future, this IR technique might be used to estimate tumor margins in real time during surgical procedures. PMID:26524680

  5. Noninvasive enhanced mid-IR imaging of breast cancer development in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Jason R.; Young, Madison A.; Dréau, D.; Trammell, Susan R.

    2015-11-01

    Lumpectomy coupled with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy is commonly used to treat breast cancer patients. We are developing an enhanced thermal IR imaging technique that has the potential to provide real-time imaging to guide tissue excision during a lumpectomy by delineating tumor margins. This enhanced thermal imaging method is a combination of IR imaging (8 to 10 μm) and selective heating of blood (˜0.5°C) relative to surrounding water-rich tissue using LED sources at low powers. Postacquisition processing of these images highlights temporal changes in temperature and the presence of vascular structures. In this study, fluorescent, standard thermal, and enhanced thermal imaging modalities, as well as physical caliper measurements, were used to monitor breast cancer tumor volumes over a 30-day study period in 19 mice implanted with 4T1-RFP tumor cells. Tumor volumes calculated from fluorescent imaging follow an exponential growth curve for the first 22 days of the study. Cell necrosis affected the tumor volume estimates based on the fluorescent images after day 22. The tumor volumes estimated from enhanced thermal imaging, standard thermal imaging, and caliper measurements all show exponential growth over the entire study period. A strong correlation was found between tumor volumes estimated using fluorescent imaging, standard IR imaging, and caliper measurements with enhanced thermal imaging, indicating that enhanced thermal imaging monitors tumor growth. Further, the enhanced IR images reveal a corona of bright emission along the edges of the tumor masses associated with the tumor margin. In the future, this IR technique might be used to estimate tumor margins in real time during surgical procedures.

  6. Three-dimensional breast image reconstruction from a limited number of views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Thomas G.; Stewart, Alexander X.; Stanton, Martin J.; Wu, Tao; Phillips, Walter C.

    2000-04-01

    Typically in three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) imaging, hundreds or thousands of x-ray projection images are recorded. The image-collection time and patient dose required rule out conventional CT as a tool for screening mammography. We have developed a CT method that overcomes these limitations by using (1) a novel image collection geometry, (2) new digital electronic x-ray detector technology, and (3) modern image reconstruction procedures. The method, which we call Computed Planar Mammography (CPM), is made possible by the full-field, low-noise, high-resolution CCD-based detector design that we have previously developed. With this method, we need to record only a limited number (10 - 50) of low-dose x- ray images of the breast. The resulting 3D full breast image has a resolution in two orientations equal to the full detector resolution (47 microns), and a lower, variable resolution (0.5 - 10 mm) in the third orientation. This 3D reconstructed image can then be viewed as a series of cross- sectional layers, or planes, each at the full detector resolution. Features due to overlapping tissue, which could not be differentiated in a conventional mammogram, are separated into layers at different depths. We demonstrate the features and capabilities of this method by presenting reconstructed images of phantoms and mastectomy specimens. Finally, we discuss outstanding issues related to the further development of this procedure, as well as considerations for its clinical implementation.

  7. [Use of imaging methods in the current screening, diagnostics and treatment of breast cancer - Professional guidelines. 3rd Breast Cancer Consensus Meeting].

    PubMed

    Forrai, Gábor; Ambrózay, Éva; Bidlek, Mária; Borbély, Katalin; Kovács, Eszter; Lengyel, Zsolt; Ormándi, Katalin; Péntek, Zoltán; Riedl, Erika; Sebõ, Éva; Szabó, Éva

    2016-09-01

    Breast radiologists and nuclear medical specialists have refreshed their previous statement text during the 3rd Hungarian Breast Cancer Consensus Meeting. They suggest taking into consideration this actual protocol for the screening, diagnostics and treatment of breast tumors, from now on. This recommendation includes the description of the newest technologies, the recent results of scientific research, as well as the role of imaging methods in the therapeutic processes and the follow-up. Suggestions for improvement of the Hungarian current practice and other related issues as forensic medicine, media connections, regulations, and reimbursement are also detailed. The statement text has been cross-checked with the related medical disciplines. PMID:27579719

  8. An imaging evaluation of the simultaneously integrated boost breast radiotherapy technique

    SciTech Connect

    Turley, Jessica; Claridge Mackonis, Elizabeth

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate in-field megavoltage (MV) imaging of simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) breast fields to determine its feasibility in treatment verification for the SIB breast radiotherapy technique, and to assess whether the current-imaging protocol and treatment margins are sufficient. For nine patients undergoing SIB breast radiotherapy, in-field MV images of the SIB fields were acquired on days that regular treatment verification imaging was performed. The in-field images were matched offline according to the scar wire on digitally reconstructed radiographs. The offline image correction results were then applied to a margin recipe formula to calculate safe margins that account for random and systematic uncertainties in the position of the boost volume when an offline correction protocol has been applied. After offline assessment of the acquired images, 96% were within the tolerance set in the current department-imaging protocol. Retrospectively performing the maximum position deviations on the Eclipse™ treatment planning system demonstrated that the clinical target volume (CTV) boost received a minimum dose difference of 0.4% and a maximum dose difference of 1.4% less than planned. Furthermore, applying our results to the Van Herk margin formula to ensure that 90% of patients receive 95% of the prescribed dose, the calculated CTV margins were comparable to the current departmental procedure used. Based on the in-field boost images acquired and the feasible application of these results to the margin formula the current CTV-planning target volume margins used are appropriate for the accurate treatment of the SIB boost volume without additional imaging.

  9. A PC-controlled microwave tomographic scanner for breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padhi, Shantanu; Howard, John; Fhager, A.; Bengtsson, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the design and development of a personal computer based controller for a microwave tomographic system for breast cancer detection. The system uses motorized, dual-polarized antennas and a custom-made GUI interface to control stepper motors, a wideband vector network analyzer (VNA) and to coordinate data acquisition and archival in a local MDSPlus database. Both copolar and cross-polar scattered field components can be measured directly. Experimental results are presented to validate the various functionalities of the scanner.

  10. Contrast enhancement in dense breast images to aid clustered microcalcifications detection.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Fátima L S; Schiabel, Homero; Goes, Claudio E

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a method to provide contrast enhancement in dense breast digitized images, which are difficult cases in testing of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) schemes. Three techniques were developed, and data from each method were combined to provide a better result in relation to detection of clustered microcalcifications. Results obtained during the tests indicated that, by combining all the developed techniques, it is possible to improve the performance of a processing scheme designed to detect microcalcification clusters. It also allows operators to distinguish some of these structures in low-contrast images, which were not detected via conventional processing before the contrast enhancement. This investigation shows the possibility of improving CAD schemes for better detection of microcalcifications in dense breast images.

  11. A Model for Diagnosing Breast Cancerous Tissue from Thermal Images Using Active Contour and Lyapunov Exponent

    PubMed Central

    GHAYOUMI ZADEH, Hossein; HADDADNIA, Javad; MONTAZERI, Alimohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The segmentation of cancerous areas in breast images is important for the early detection of disease. Thermal imaging has advantages, such as being non-invasive, non-radiation, passive, quick, painless, inexpensive, and non-contact. Imaging technique is the focus of this research. Methods: The proposed model in this paper is a combination of surf and corners that are very resistant. Obtained features are resistant to changes in rotation and revolution then with the help of active contours, this feature has been used for segmenting cancerous areas. Results: Comparing the obtained results from the proposed method and mammogram show that proposed method is Accurate and appropriate. Benign and malignance of segmented areas are detected by Lyapunov exponent. Values obtained include TP=91.31%, FN=8.69%, FP=7.26%. Conclusion: The proposed method can classify those abnormally segmented areas of the breast, to the Benign and malignant cancer. PMID:27398339

  12. A multi-image approach to CADx of breast cancer with integration into PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elter, Matthias; Wittenberg, Thomas; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Deserno, Thomas M.

    2009-02-01

    While screening mammography is accepted as the most adequate technique for the early detection of breast cancer, its low positive predictive value leads to many breast biopsies performed on benign lesions. Therefore, we have previously developed a knowledge-based system for computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) of mammographic lesions. It supports the radiologist in the discrimination of benign and malignant lesions. So far, our approach operates on the lesion level and employs the paradigm of content-based image retrieval (CBIR). Similar lesions with known diagnosis are retrieved automatically from a library of references. However, radiologists base their diagnostic decisions on additional resources, such as related mammographic projections, other modalities (e.g. ultrasound, MRI), and clinical data. Nonetheless, most CADx systems disregard the relation between the craniocaudal (CC) and mediolateral-oblique (MLO) views of conventional mammography. Therefore, we extend our approach to the full case level: (i) Multi-frame features are developed that jointly describe a lesion in different views of mammography. Taking into account the geometric relation between different images, these features can also be extracted from multi-modal data; (ii) the CADx system architecture is extended appropriately; (iii) the CADx system is integrated into the radiology information system (RIS) and the picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Here, the framework for image retrieval in medical applications (IRMA) is used to support access to the patient's health care record. Of particular interest is the application of the proposed CADx system to digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), which has the potential to succeed digital mammography as the standard technique for breast cancer screening. The proposed system is a natural extension of CADx approaches that integrate only two modalities. However, we are still collecting a large enough database of breast lesions with images from

  13. Workflow improvements for digital breast tomosynthesis: computerized generation of enhanced synthetic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotin, Sergei V.; Yin, Yin; Haldankar, Hrishikesh; Hoffmeister, Jeffrey W.; Periaswamy, Senthil

    2016-03-01

    In a typical 2D mammography workflow scenario, a computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithm is used as a second reader producing marks for a radiologist to review. In the case of 3D digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), the display of CAD detections at multiple reconstruction heights would lead to an increased image browsing and interpretation time. We propose an alternative approach in which an algorithm automatically identifies suspicious regions of interest from 3D reconstructed DBT slices and then merges the findings with the corresponding 2D synthetic projection image which is then reviewed. The resultant enhanced synthetic 2D image combines the benefits of a familiar 2D breast view with superior appearance of suspicious locations from 3D slices. Moreover, clicking on 2D suspicious locations brings up the display of the corresponding 3D regions in a DBT volume allowing navigation between 2D and 3D images. We explored the use of these enhanced synthetic images in a concurrent read paradigm by conducting a study with 5 readers and 30 breast exams. We observed that the introduction of the enhanced synthetic view reduced radiologist's average interpretation time by 5.4%, increased sensitivity by 6.7% and increased specificity by 15.6%.

  14. Computational synthesis of ultrasound breast images from a three-dimensional anatomical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yi-Ting; Lacefield, James C.

    2005-04-01

    A three-dimensional breast anatomy model has been implemented using spline surfaces and fractal structures to represent the architecture of the lactiferous ducts, mammary fat lobules, skin, and supporting connective tissues. The model randomly varies user-specified structural parameters to provide an unlimited number of realizations of the gross anatomy. Cross-sectional views extracted by slicing through a realization of the model are input to a two-dimensional k-space (i.e., spatial frequency domain) ultrasound propagation simulator. The k-space simulator iterates pressure and particle velocity fields in 30-ns steps to compute scattering from the structures defined by the anatomical model and small random variations in compressibility that are added to generate speckle. A synthetic aperture method is employed to simulate B-mode imaging with a 5 MHz, 192-element linear array operated using multiple transmit focal zones and dynamic receive focusing. Simulated images of random-scattering phantoms possess approximately Rayleigh speckle statistics. The anatomical model is expected to yield images with speckle statistics comparable to clinical breast images. The long-term objectives of these simulations are to investigate sources of focus aberration in ultrasound breast imaging and the impact of aberration on cancer detection. [Work supported by an NSERC Discovery Grant.

  15. A new test phantom with different breast tissue compositions for image quality assessment in conventional and digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachoud, Marc; Lepori, D.; Valley, Jean-François; Verdun, Francis R.

    2004-12-01

    Our objective is to describe a new test phantom that permits the objective assessment of image quality in conventional and digital mammography for different types of breast tissue. A test phantom, designed to represent a compressed breast, was made from tissue equivalent materials. Three separate regions, with different breast tissue compositions, are used to evaluate low and high contrast resolution, spatial resolution and image noise. The phantom was imaged over a range of kV using a Contour 2000 (Bennett) mammography unit with a Kodak MinR 2190-MinR L screen film combination and a Senograph 2000D (General Electric) digital mammography unit. Objective image quality assessments for different breast tissue compositions were performed using the phantom for conventional and digital mammography. For a similar mean glandular dose (MGD), the digital system gives a significantly higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) than the screen film system for 100% glandular tissue. In conclusion, in mammography, a range of exposure conditions is used for imaging because of the different breast tissue compositions encountered clinically. Ideally, the patient dose image quality relationship should be optimized over the range of exposure conditions. The test phantom presented in this work permits image quality parameters to be evaluated objectively for three different types of breast tissue. Thus, it is a useful tool for optimizing the patient dose image quality relationship.

  16. Imaging Findings of Plasmacytoma of Both Breasts as a Preceding Manifestation of Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Mi

    2016-01-01

    Breast plasmacytoma is an extremely rare tumor. It can occur as a primary isolated tumor or as an extramedullary manifestation in multiple myeloma. This report describes the unusual case of a primary extramedullary plasmacytoma that progressed to multiple myeloma within 15 months in a 35-year-old woman. The patient had been initially diagnosed with a primary extramedullary plasmacytoma of the epidural soft tissue at the cervical 6-thoracic 1 spine level and the stomach. The patient had received chemotherapy and the disease had been in remission. One year later, the disease recurred, affecting both breasts, right clavicle, and orbit. Three months later, the disease had progressed to multiple myeloma. I report this case, focusing on the findings of mammography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography of bilateral breast plasmacytoma, and provide a review of the literature. PMID:26925106

  17. Discrimination of Breast Tumors in Ultrasonic Images by Classifier Ensemble Trained with AdaBoost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, Atsushi; Shimizu, Akinobu; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for acurate automated discrimination of breast tumors (carcinoma, fibroadenoma, and cyst). We defined 199 features related to diagnositic observations noticed when a doctor judges breast tumors, such as internal echo, shape, and boundary echo. These features included novel features based on a parameter of log-compressed K distribution, which reflect physical characteristics of ultrasonic B-mode imaging. Furthermore, we propose a discrimination method of breast tumors by using an ensemble classifier based on the multi-class AdaBoost algorithm with effective features selection. Verification by analyzing 200 carcinomas, 30 fibroadenomas and 30 cycts showed the usefulness of the newly defined features and the effectiveness of the discrimination by using an ensemble classifier trained by AdaBoost.

  18. A novel breast ultrasound system for providing coronal images: system development and feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-wei; Li, Cheng; Li, An-hua; Zheng, Yong-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Breast ultrasound images along coronal plane contain important diagnosis information. However, conventional clinical 2D ultrasound cannot provide such images. In order to solve this problem, we developed a novel ultrasound system aimed at providing breast coronal images. In this system, a spatial sensor was fixed on an ultrasound probe to obtain the image spatial data. A narrow-band rendering method was used to form coronal images based on B-mode images and their corresponding spatial data. Software was developed for data acquisition, processing, rendering and visualization. In phantom experiments, 20 inclusions with different size (5-20 mm) were measured using this new system. The results obtained by the new method well correlated with those measured by a micrometer (y=1.0147x, R(2)=0.9927). The phantom tests also showed that this system had excellent intra- and inter-operator repeatability (ICC>0.995). Three subjects with breast lesions were scanned in vivo using this new system and a commercially available three-dimensional (3D) probe. The average scanning times for the two systems were 64 s and 74 s, respectively. The results revealed that this new method required shorter scanning time. The tumor sizes measured on the coronal plane provided by the new method were smaller by 5.6-11.9% in comparison with the results of the 3D probe. The phantom tests and preliminary subject tests indicated the feasibility of this system for clinical applications by providing additional information for clinical breast ultrasound diagnosis.

  19. Computer-aided breast MR image feature analysis for prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Aghaei, Faranak; Tan, Maxine; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin; Hollingsworth, Alan B.; Qian, Wei

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To identify a new clinical marker based on quantitative kinetic image features analysis and assess its feasibility to predict tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: The authors assembled a dataset involving breast MR images acquired from 68 cancer patients before undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Among them, 25 patients had complete response (CR) and 43 had partial and nonresponse (NR) to chemotherapy based on the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors. The authors developed a computer-aided detection scheme to segment breast areas and tumors depicted on the breast MR images and computed a total of 39 kinetic image features from both tumor and background parenchymal enhancement regions. The authors then applied and tested two approaches to classify between CR and NR cases. The first one analyzed each individual feature and applied a simple feature fusion method that combines classification results from multiple features. The second approach tested an attribute selected classifier that integrates an artificial neural network (ANN) with a wrapper subset evaluator, which was optimized using a leave-one-case-out validation method. Results: In the pool of 39 features, 10 yielded relatively higher classification performance with the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) ranging from 0.61 to 0.78 to classify between CR and NR cases. Using a feature fusion method, the maximum AUC = 0.85 ± 0.05. Using the ANN-based classifier, AUC value significantly increased to 0.96 ± 0.03 (p < 0.01). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that quantitative analysis of kinetic image features computed from breast MR images acquired prechemotherapy has potential to generate a useful clinical marker in predicting tumor response to chemotherapy.

  20. Computer-aided breast MR image feature analysis for prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Aghaei, Faranak; Tan, Maxine; Hollingsworth, Alan B.; Qian, Wei; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To identify a new clinical marker based on quantitative kinetic image features analysis and assess its feasibility to predict tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods: The authors assembled a dataset involving breast MR images acquired from 68 cancer patients before undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Among them, 25 patients had complete response (CR) and 43 had partial and nonresponse (NR) to chemotherapy based on the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors. The authors developed a computer-aided detection scheme to segment breast areas and tumors depicted on the breast MR images and computed a total of 39 kinetic image features from both tumor and background parenchymal enhancement regions. The authors then applied and tested two approaches to classify between CR and NR cases. The first one analyzed each individual feature and applied a simple feature fusion method that combines classification results from multiple features. The second approach tested an attribute selected classifier that integrates an artificial neural network (ANN) with a wrapper subset evaluator, which was optimized using a leave-one-case-out validation method. Results: In the pool of 39 features, 10 yielded relatively higher classification performance with the areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) ranging from 0.61 to 0.78 to classify between CR and NR cases. Using a feature fusion method, the maximum AUC = 0.85 ± 0.05. Using the ANN-based classifier, AUC value significantly increased to 0.96 ± 0.03 (p < 0.01). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that quantitative analysis of kinetic image features computed from breast MR images acquired prechemotherapy has potential to generate a useful clinical marker in predicting tumor response to chemotherapy. PMID:26520742

  1. Comparison of breast tissue measurements using magnetic resonance imaging, digital mammography and a mathematical algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lee-Jane W.; Nishino, Thomas K.; Johnson, Raleigh F.; Nayeem, Fatima; Brunder, Donald G.; Ju, Hyunsu; Leonard, Morton H., Jr.; Grady, James J.; Khamapirad, Tuenchit

    2012-11-01

    Women with mostly mammographically dense fibroglandular tissue (breast density, BD) have a four- to six-fold increased risk for breast cancer compared to women with little BD. BD is most frequently estimated from two-dimensional (2D) views of mammograms by a histogram segmentation approach (HSM) and more recently by a mathematical algorithm consisting of mammographic imaging parameters (MATH). Two non-invasive clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols: 3D gradient-echo (3DGRE) and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) were modified for 3D volumetric reconstruction of the breast for measuring fatty and fibroglandular tissue volumes by a Gaussian-distribution curve-fitting algorithm. Replicate breast exams (N = 2 to 7 replicates in six women) by 3DGRE and STIR were highly reproducible for all tissue-volume estimates (coefficients of variation <5%). Reliability studies compared measurements from four methods, 3DGRE, STIR, HSM, and MATH (N = 95 women) by linear regression and intra-class correlation (ICC) analyses. Rsqr, regression slopes, and ICC, respectively, were (1) 0.76-0.86, 0.8-1.1, and 0.87-0.92 for %-gland tissue, (2) 0.72-0.82, 0.64-0.96, and 0.77-0.91, for glandular volume, (3) 0.87-0.98, 0.94-1.07, and 0.89-0.99, for fat volume, and (4) 0.89-0.98, 0.94-1.00, and 0.89-0.98, for total breast volume. For all values estimated, the correlation was stronger for comparisons between the two MRI than between each MRI versus mammography, and between each MRI versus MATH data than between each MRI versus HSM data. All ICC values were >0.75 indicating that all four methods were reliable for measuring BD and that the mathematical algorithm and the two complimentary non-invasive MRI protocols could objectively and reliably estimate different types of breast tissues.

  2. Technical advances of interventional fluoroscopy and flat panel image receptor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pei-Jan Paul

    2008-11-01

    In the past decade, various radiation reducing devices and control circuits have been implemented on fluoroscopic imaging equipment. Because of the potential for lengthy fluoroscopic procedures in interventional cardiovascular angiography, these devices and control circuits have been developed for the cardiac catheterization laboratories and interventional angiography suites. Additionally, fluoroscopic systems equipped with image intensifiers have benefited from technological advances in x-ray tube, x-ray generator, and spectral shaping filter technologies. The high heat capacity x-ray tube, the medium frequency inverter generator with high performance switching capability, and the patient dose reduction spectral shaping filter had already been implemented on the image intensified fluoroscopy systems. These three underlying technologies together with the automatic dose rate and image quality (ADRIQ) control logic allow patients undergoing cardiovascular angiography procedures to benefit from "lower patient dose" with "high image quality." While photoconductor (or phosphor plate) x-ray detectors and signal capture thin film transistor (TFT) and charge coupled device (CCD) arrays are analog in nature, the advent of the flat panel image receptor allowed for fluoroscopy procedures to become more streamlined. With the analog-to-digital converter built into the data lines, the flat panel image receptor appears to become a digital device. While the transition from image intensified fluoroscopy systems to flat panel image receptor fluoroscopy systems is part of the on-going "digitization of imaging," the value of a flat panel image receptor may have to be evaluated with respect to patient dose, image quality, and clinical application capabilities. The advantage of flat panel image receptors has yet to be fully explored. For instance, the flat panel image receptor has its disadvantages as compared to the image intensifiers; the cost of the equipment is probably the most

  3. Design of a contrast-enhanced dual-energy tomosynthesis system for breast cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörnig, M. D.; Bätz, L.; Mertelmeier, T.

    2012-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a three-dimensional X-ray imaging modality that has the potential to decrease the superimposition effect of breast structural noise, thereby increasing lesion conspicuity. To further improve breast cancer detection, our work has been devoted to develop a prototype for contrast-enhanced dual-energy tomosynthesis (CEDET). CEDET involves the injection of an iodinated contrast agent and measures the relative increase in uptake of contrast in the suspected breast cancer lesion. Either temporal or dual-energy subtraction techniques may be used to implement CEDET. Both 2D contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography and 3D tomosynthesis can be applied. Here we present the design of a prototype CEDET system based on the Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration and employing two additional high-energy filters in addition to the standard Rh filter, the latter being used for the low-energy acquisitions. A quality factor of squared signal-difference-to-noise-ratio of iodine per pixel area and average glandular dose as a function of breast thickness is used to optimize the filter material, the filter thickness, and the tube voltage. The average glandular dose can be calculated from the entrance surface air kerma using computed conversion coefficients DgN for the used X-ray spectra. We also present the results of DQE measurements of the amorphous selenium detector involved. Finally, results of phantom tests for tomosynthesis acquisition and first clinical data in the 2D mode will be shown.

  4. Evaluation of expert criteria for preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Carolyn E; Tumyan, Lusine; Gonser, Laura; Shaw, Sara L; Vora, Lalit; Paz, I Benjamin; Ellenhorn, Joshua D I; Yim, John H

    2014-08-01

    Despite 2 randomized trials reporting no reduction in operations or local recurrence at 1 year, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in diagnostic workup of breast cancer. We evaluated 5 utilization criteria recently proposed by experts. Of women (n = 340) newly diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer who underwent bilateral MRI, most (69.4%) met at least 1 criterion before MRI: mammographic density (44.4%), under consideration for partial breast irradiation (PBI) (19.7%), genetic-familial risk (12.9%), invasive lobular carcinoma (11.8%), and multifocal/multicentric disease (10.6%). MRI detected occult malignant lesion or extension of index lesion in 21.2% of index, 3.3% of contralateral, breasts. No expert criterion was associated with MRI-detected malignant lesion, which associated instead with pre-MRI plan of lumpectomy without PBI (48.2% of subjects): Odds Ratio 3.05, 95% CI 1.57-5.91 (p adjusted for multiple hypothesis testing = 0.007, adjusted for index-vs-contralateral breast and covariates). The expert guidelines were not confirmed by clinical evidence.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging- Versus Computed Tomography-Based Target Volume Delineation of the Glandular Breast Tissue (Clinical Target Volume Breast) in Breast-Conserving Therapy: An Exploratory Study

    SciTech Connect

    Giezen, Marina; Kouwenhoven, Erik; Scholten, Astrid N.; Coerkamp, Emile G.; Heijenbrok, Mark; Jansen, Wim P.A.; Mast, Mirjam E.; Petoukhova, Anna L.; Struikmans, Henk

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To examine MRI and CT for glandular breast tissue (GBT) volume delineation and to assess interobserver variability. Methods and Materials: Fifteen breast cancer patients underwent a planning CT and MRI, consecutively, in the treatment position. Four observers (two radiation oncologists and two radiologists) delineated the GBT according to the CT and separately to the MR images. Volumes, centers of mass, maximum extensions with standard deviations (SD), and interobserver variability were quantified. Observers viewed delineation differences between MRI and CT and delineation differences among observers. Results: In cranio-lateral and cranio-medial directions, GBT volumes were delineated larger using MRI when compared with those delineated with CT. Center of mass on MRI shifted a mean (SD) 17% (4%) into the cranial direction and a mean 3% (4%) into the dorsal direction when compared with that on the planning CT. Only small variations between observers were noted. The GBT volumes were approximately 4% larger on MRI (mean [SD] ratio MRI to CT GBT volumes, 1.04 [0.06]). Findings were concordant with viewed MRI and CT images and contours. Conformity indices were only slightly different; mean conformity index was 77% (3%) for MRI and 79% (4%) for CT. Delineation differences arising from personal preferences remained recognizable irrespective of the imaging modality used. Conclusions: Contoured GBT extends substantially further into the cranio-lateral and cranio-medial directions on MRI when compared with CT. Interobserver variability is comparable for both imaging modalities. Observers should be aware of existing personal delineation preferences. Institutions are recommended to review and discuss target volume delineations and to design supplementary guidelines if necessary.

  6. Breast-specific gamma imaging as an adjunct modality for the diagnosis of invasive breast cancer with correlation to tumour size and grade

    PubMed Central

    Tadwalkar, R V; Rapelyea, J A; Torrente, J; Rechtman, L R; Teal, C B; Mcswain, A P; Donnelly, C; Kidwell, A B; Coffey, C M; Brem, R F

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI) in the detection of invasive breast cancers and to characterise the sensitivity of BSGI based on tumour size and pathological grade. Methods 139 females with invasive carcinoma who underwent BSGI were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were injected in the antecubital vein with 20–30 mCi (925–1110 MBq) of 99mTc-sestamibi. Images were obtained with a high-resolution, breast-specific gamma camera (Dilon 6800; Dilon Technologies, Newport News, VA) and were categorised based on radiotracer uptake as normal, normal with heterogeneous uptake, probably abnormal and abnormal. For a positive examination, the region of the area of increased uptake had to correlate with the laterality and location of the biopsy-proven cancer. Results 149 invasive cancers in 139 patients with a mean size of 1.8 cm (0.2–8.5 cm) were included. 146 were identified with BSGI (98.0%). All cancers which measured ≥0.7 cm (n=123) as well as all cancers grade 2 or higher (n=102), regardless of tumour size, were identified with BSGI (100%). There were 6 cancers that were pathological grade 1 and measured <7 mm, of which 50% (3/6) were identified with BSGI. The overall sensitivity of BSGI for the detection of invasive breast cancer is 98.0%. The sensitivity for subcentimetre cancers is 88.5% (23/26). Conclusion BSGI has a high sensitivity for the detection of invasive breast cancer. Our results demonstrate that BSGI detected all invasive breast cancers pathological grade 2 and higher regardless of size and all cancers which measured ≥7 mm regardless of grade. BSGI can reliably detect invasive breast cancers and is a useful adjunct imaging modality for the diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:21712429

  7. Technical challenges for the construction of a medical image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, Francis J.; Ammer, Kurt; Wiecek, Boguslaw; Plassmann, Peter; Jones, Carl D.; Jung, Anna; Murawski, Piotr

    2005-10-01

    Infrared thermal imaging was first made available to medicine in the early 1960's. Despite a large number of research publications on the clinical application of the technique, the images have been largely qualitative. This is in part due to the imaging technology itself, and the problem of data exchange between different medical users, with different hardware. An Anglo Polish collaborative study was set up in 2001 to identify and resolve the sources of error and problems in medical thermal imaging. Standardisation of the patient preparation, imaging hardware, image capture and analysis has been studied and developed by the group. A network of specialist centres in Europe is planned to work to establish the first digital reference atlas of quantifiable images of the normal healthy human body. Further processing techniques can then be used to classify abnormalities found in disease states. The follow up of drug treatment has been successfully monitored in clinical trials with quantitative thermal imaging. The collection of normal reference images is in progress. This paper specifies the areas found to be the source of unwanted variables, and the protocols to overcome them.

  8. The prognostic significance of determining DNA content in breast cancer by DNA image cytometry: the role of high grade aneuploidy in node negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim‐Assaf, Selma; Coumbos, Alexandra; Hopfenmüller, Werner; Foss, Hans‐Dieter; Stein, Harald; Kühn, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Aim To investigate the role of DNA aneuploidy, particularly in patients with node negative breast cancer, in order to identify the different risk profiles within the pool of heterogeneous breast cancers. Methods Imprint smears from 370 breast carcinomas were Feulgen‐stained and measured by DNA image analysis. DNA aneuploidy was graded by the amount of aneuploid cells (DNA content >5c) and highly aneuploid cells (DNA content >9c) in a breast tumour population. These results were correlated to the clinical long‐term follow‐up. A statistical cut‐off value of >10 aneuploid cells (>5c) and of >1 highly aneuploid cell (>9c) was evaluated as significant for disease‐free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results Subgroups among patients with breast cancer with aneuploid cells below the cut‐off value showed a significantly longer DFS and OS than those with aneuploid cells above this value. Patients with node negative breast cancer with >10 aneuploid cells (>5c) and >1 highly aneuploid cell (>9c) showed an unfavourable prognosis similar to patients with node positive breast cancer with <10 aneuploid cells (>5c) and <1 highly aneuploid tumour cell (>9c) in DFS and OS. Conclusion Nuclear DNA content, as an objective marker of tumour aggressiveness, provides prognostic information in patients with both node negative and node positive breast cancer. Based on DNA aneuploidy, the clinically inhomogeneous group of patients with node negative breast cancer can be stratified into low‐risk and high‐risk subgroups. Therefore, DNA ploidy analysis may identify high‐risk patients with lymph node negative breast cancer who might benefit from additional adjuvant therapy. PMID:17557867

  9. Early detection of breast cancer: a molecular optical imaging approach using novel estrogen conjugate fluorescent dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Shubhadeep; Jose, Iven

    2011-02-01

    Estrogen induced proliferation of mutant cells is widely understood to be the one of major risk determining factor in the development of breast cancer. Hence determination of the Estrogen Receptor[ER] status is of paramount importance if cancer pathogenesis is to be detected and rectified at an early stage. Near Infrared Fluorescence [NIRf] Molecular Optical Imaging is emerging as a powerful tool to monitor bio-molecular changes in living subjects. We discuss pre-clinical results in our efforts to develop an optical imaging diagnostic modality for the early detection of breast cancer. We have successfully carried out the synthesis and characterization of a novel target-specific NIRf dye conjugate aimed at measuring Estrogen Receptor[ER] status. The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-β estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of Indocyanine Green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1,1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5-carboxylic acid, sodium salt. In-vitro studies regarding specific binding and endocytocis of the dye performed on ER+ve [MCF-7] and control [MDA-MB-231] adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell lines clearly indicated nuclear localization of the dye for MCF-7 as compared to plasma level staining for MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells showed ~4.5-fold increase in fluorescence signal intensity compared to MDA-MB-231. A 3-D mesh model mimicking the human breast placed in a parallel-plate DOT Scanner is created to examine the in-vivo efficacy of the dye before proceeding with clinical trials. Photon migration and florescence flux intensity is modeled using the finite-element method with the coefficients (quantum yield, molar extinction co-efficient etc.) pertaining to the dye as obtained from photo-physical and in-vitro studies. We conclude by stating that this lipophilic dye can be potentially used as a target specific exogenous contrast agent in molecular optical imaging for early detection of breast cancer.

  10. A comparison of image interpretation times in full field digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astley, Susan; Connor, Sophie; Lim, Yit; Tate, Catriona; Entwistle, Helen; Morris, Julie; Whiteside, Sigrid; Sergeant, Jamie; Wilson, Mary; Beetles, Ursula; Boggis, Caroline; Gilbert, Fiona

    2013-03-01

    Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT) provides three-dimensional images of the breast that enable radiologists to discern whether densities are due to overlapping structures or lesions. To aid assessment of the cost-effectiveness of DBT for screening, we have compared the time taken to interpret DBT images and the corresponding two-dimensional Full Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) images. Four Consultant Radiologists experienced in reading FFDM images (4 years 8 months to 8 years) with training in DBT interpretation but more limited experience (137-407 cases in the past 6 months) were timed reading between 24 and 32 two view FFDM and DBT cases. The images were of women recalled from screening for further assessment and women under surveillance because of a family history of breast cancer. FFDM images were read before DBT, according to local practice. The median time for readers to interpret FFDM images was 17.0 seconds, with an interquartile range of 12.3-23.6 seconds. For DBT, the median time was 66.0 seconds, and the interquartile range was 51.1-80.5 seconds. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Reading times were significantly longer in family history clinics (p<0.01). Although it took approximately four times as long to interpret DBT than FFDM images, the cases were more complex than would be expected for routine screening, and with higher mammographic density. The readers were relatively inexperienced in DBT interpretation and may increase their speed over time. The difference in times between clinics may be due to increased throughput at assessment, or decreased density.

  11. In vivo breast cancer characterization imaging using two monoclonal antibodies activatably labeled with near infrared fluorophores

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The gene expression profiles of cancer cells are closely related to their aggressiveness and metastatic potential. Antibody-based immunohistochemistry (IHC) of tissue specimens is a common method of identifying expressed proteins in cancer cells and increasingly inform treatment decisions. Molecular imaging is a potential method of performing similar IHC studies in vivo without the requirement for biopsy or tumor excision. To date, antibody-based imaging has been limited by high background levels related to slow clearance, making such imaging practical. However, optically activatable imaging agents, which are only fluorescent when bound to their cognate receptor, open the possibility of doing in vivo multi-color IHC. Methods We describe the use of activatable, near infrared fluorescence-labeled AlexaFluor680 (Alexa680) conjugated panitumumab (Pan) targeted against human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (Pan-Alexa680) and Indocyanine Green (ICG) conjugated trastuzumab (Tra) targeted against human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) (Tra-ICG) were synthesized and evaluated in cells in vitro and in an orthotopic breast cancer mouse model in vivo. Results Pan-Alexa680 (self-quenched; SQ) and Tra-ICG were initially quenched but demonstrated a 5.2- and 50-fold dequenching capacity under detergent treatment, respectively. In vitro microscopy and flow cytometry using MDA-MB-468 (EGFR+/HER2-) and 3T3/HER2 cells (EGFR-/HER2+), demonstrated specific fluorescence signal for each cell type based on binding to Pan-Alexa680(SQ) or Tra-ICG. An in vivo imaging study employing a cocktail of Pan-Alexa680(SQ) and Tra-ICG (each 50 μg) was injected into mice with orthotopic MDA-MB-468 and 3T3/HER2 tumors in the breast. Each probe visualized only the target-specific breast tumor. Conclusions Multi-color target-specific fluorescence breast cancer imaging can be achieved in vivo by employing two activatable fluorescent probes administered as a cocktail. The

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of novel breast imaging modalities based on coherent x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghammraoui, Bahaa; Badal, Andreu

    2014-07-01

    We present upgraded versions of MC-GPU and penEasy_Imaging, two open-source Monte Carlo codes for the simulation of radiographic projections and CT, that have been extended and validated to account for the effect of molecular interference in the coherent x-ray scatter. The codes were first validation by comparison between simulated and measured energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) spectra. A second validation was by evaluation of the rejection factor of a focused anti-scatter grid. To exemplify the capabilities of the new codes, the modified MC-GPU code was used to examine the possibility of characterizing breast tissue composition and microcalcifications in a volume of interest inside a whole breast phantom using EDXRD and to simulate a coherent scatter computed tomography (CSCT) system based on first generation CT acquisition geometry. It was confirmed that EDXRD and CSCT have the potential to characterize tissue composition inside a whole breast. The GPU-accelerated code was able to simulate, in just a few hours, a complete CSCT acquisition composed of 9758 independent pencil-beam projections. In summary, it has been shown that the presented software can be used for fast and accurate simulation of novel breast imaging modalities relying on scattering measurements and therefore can assist in the characterization and optimization of promising modalities currently under development.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of novel breast imaging modalities based on coherent x-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Ghammraoui, Bahaa; Badal, Andreu

    2014-07-01

    We present upgraded versions of MC-GPU and penEasy_Imaging, two open-source Monte Carlo codes for the simulation of radiographic projections and CT, that have been extended and validated to account for the effect of molecular interference in the coherent x-ray scatter. The codes were first validation by comparison between simulated and measured energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) spectra. A second validation was by evaluation of the rejection factor of a focused anti-scatter grid. To exemplify the capabilities of the new codes, the modified MC-GPU code was used to examine the possibility of characterizing breast tissue composition and microcalcifications in a volume of interest inside a whole breast phantom using EDXRD and to simulate a coherent scatter computed tomography (CSCT) system based on first generation CT acquisition geometry. It was confirmed that EDXRD and CSCT have the potential to characterize tissue composition inside a whole breast. The GPU-accelerated code was able to simulate, in just a few hours, a complete CSCT acquisition composed of 9758 independent pencil-beam projections. In summary, it has been shown that the presented software can be used for fast and accurate simulation of novel breast imaging modalities relying on scattering measurements and therefore can assist in the characterization and optimization of promising modalities currently under development. PMID:24898114

  14. Joint analysis of non-concurrent magnetic resonance imaging and diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azar, Fred S.; Lee, Kijoon; Choe, Regine; Corlu, Alper; Konecky, Soren D.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2007-02-01

    We have developed a novel method for combining non-concurrent MR and DOT data, which integrates advanced multimodal registration and segmentation algorithms within a well-defined workflow. The method requires little user interaction, is computationally efficient for practical applications, and enables joint MR/DOT analysis. The method presents additional advantages: More flexibility than integrated MR/DOT imaging systems, The ability to independently develop a standalone DOT system without the stringent limitations imposed by the MRI device environment, Enhancement of sensitivity and specificity for breast tumor detection, Combined analysis of structural and functional data, Enhancement of DOT data reconstruction through the use of MR-derived a priori structural information. We have conducted an initial patient study which asks an important question: how can functional information on a tumor obtained from DOT data be combined with the anatomy of that tumor derived from MRI data? The study confirms that tumor areas in the patient breasts exhibit significantly higher total hemoglobin concentration (THC) than their surroundings. The results show significance in intra-patient THC variations, and justify the use of our normalized difference measure defined as the distance from the average THC inside the breast, to the average THC inside the tumor volume in terms of the THC standard deviation inside the breast. This method contributes to the long-term goal of enabling standardized direct comparison of MRI and DOT and facilitating validation of DOT imaging methods in clinical studies.

  15. Imaging tumour heterogeneity of the consequences of a PKCα-substrate interaction in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Weitsman, Gregory; Lawler, Katherine; Kelleher, Muireann T; Barrett, James E; Barber, Paul R; Shamil, Eamon; Festy, Frederic; Patel, Gargi; Fruhwirth, Gilbert O; Huang, Lufei; Tullis, Iain D C; Woodman, Natalie; Ofo, Enyinnaya; Ameer-Beg, Simon M; Irshad, Sheeba; Condeelis, John; Gillett, Cheryl E; Ellis, Paul A; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Coolen, Anthony C C; Ng, Tony

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer heterogeneity demands that prognostic models must be biologically driven and recent clinical evidence indicates that future prognostic signatures need evaluation in the context of early compared with late metastatic risk prediction. In pre-clinical studies, we and others have shown that various protein-protein interactions, pertaining to the actin microfilament-associated proteins, ezrin and cofilin, mediate breast cancer cell migration, a prerequisite for cancer metastasis. Moreover, as a direct substrate for protein kinase Cα, ezrin has been shown to be a determinant of cancer metastasis for a variety of tumour types, besides breast cancer; and has been described as a pivotal regulator of metastasis by linking the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton. In the present article, we demonstrate that our tissue imaging-derived parameters that pertain to or are a consequence of the PKC-ezrin interaction can be used for breast cancer prognostication, with inter-cohort reproducibility. The application of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded patient samples to probe protein proximity within the typically <10 nm range to address the oncological challenge of tumour heterogeneity, is discussed.

  16. Advanced Imaging and Receipt of Guideline Concordant Care in Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Buist, Diana S. M.; Gold, Laura S.; Zeliadt, Steven; Hunter Merrill, Rachel; Etzioni, Ruth; Ramsey, Scott D.; Sullivan, Sean D.; Kessler, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Objective. It is unknown whether advanced imaging (AI) is associated with higher quality breast cancer (BC) care. Materials and Methods. Claims and Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data were linked for women diagnosed with incident stage I-III BC between 2002 and 2008 in western Washington State. We examined receipt of preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or AI (defined as computed tomography [CT]/positron emission tomography [PET]/PET/CT) versus mammogram and/or ultrasound (M-US) alone and receipt of guideline concordant care (GCC) using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Of 5247 women, 67% received M-US, 23% MRI, 8% CT, and 3% PET/PET-CT. In 2002, 5% received MRI and 5% AI compared to 45% and 12%, respectively, in 2008. 79% received GCC, but GCC declined over time and was associated with younger age, urban residence, less comorbidity, shorter time from diagnosis to surgery, and earlier year of diagnosis. Breast MRI was associated with GCC for lumpectomy plus radiation therapy (RT) (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.08–2.26, and p = 0.02) and AI was associated with GCC for adjuvant chemotherapy for estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) BC (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.59, and p = 0.01). Conclusion. GCC was associated with prior receipt of breast MRI and AI for lumpectomy plus RT and adjuvant chemotherapy for ER+ BC, respectively. PMID:27525122

  17. Application of a Novel Microvascular Imaging Technique in Breast Lesion Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yongfeng, Zhao; Ping, Zhou; Wengang, Liu; Yang, Shao; Shuangming, Tian

    2016-09-01

    Conventional power Doppler imaging (PDI) and the novel Superb Microvascular Imaging (SMI) technique were applied to observe the distribution of microvessels in 135 breast lesions, using semi-quantitative grading, penetrating vessel evaluation and flow distribution pattern to evaluate diagnostic efficacy. Compared with PDI, SMI detected more flow signals and details of microvessels. Further, when a centrally distributed branching or diffusing mode was used as a criterion for diagnosing malignancy, SMI improved diagnosis of breast masses. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of SMI-assessed flow distribution were 85.4%, 92.6%, 83.3% and 93.5%, respectively, compared with 70.7%, 92.6%, 80.5% and 87.9% for PDI. We also found that flow distribution pattern analysis is superior to semi-quantitative grading and the penetrating vessel method in differentiating malignant breast lesions. Our work here further supports SMI as a novel and promising technique in visualizing microvasculature in breast lesions that may be of paramount use in initial diagnosis as well as follow-up assessment in various treatment regimes.

  18. High-Resolution CT Imaging of Single Breast Cancer Microcalcifications In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kazumasa; Liu, Fangbing; Hoppin, Jack; Lunsford, Elaine P.; Lackas, Christian; Hesterman, Jacob; Lenkinski, Robert E.; Fujii, Hirofumi; Frangioni, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Microcalcification is a hallmark of breast cancer and a key diagnostic feature for mammography. We recently described the first robust animal model of breast cancer microcalcification. In this study, we hypothesized that high-resolution computed tomography (CT) could potentially detect the genesis of a single microcalcification in vivo and quantify its growth over time. Using a commercial CT scanner, we systematically optimized acquisition and reconstruction parameters. Two ray-tracing image reconstruction algorithms were tested, a voxel-driven “fast” cone beam algorithm (FCBA) and a detector-driven “exact” cone beam algorithm (ECBA). By optimizing acquisition and reconstruction parameters, we were able to achieve a resolution of 104 µm full-width at half maximum (FWHM). At an optimal detector sampling frequency, ECBA provided a 28 µm (21%) FWHM improvement in resolution over FCBA. In vitro, we were able to image a single 300 µm by 100 µm hydroxyapatite crystal. In a syngeneic rat model of breast cancer, we were able to detect the genesis of a single microcalcification in vivo and follow its growth longitudinally over weeks. Taken together, this study provides an in vivo “gold standard” for the development of calcification-specific contrast agents and a model system for studying the mechanism of breast cancer microcalcification. PMID:21504703

  19. Advanced Imaging and Receipt of Guideline Concordant Care in Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Loggers, Elizabeth Trice; Buist, Diana S M; Gold, Laura S; Zeliadt, Steven; Hunter Merrill, Rachel; Etzioni, Ruth; Ramsey, Scott D; Sullivan, Sean D; Kessler, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Objective. It is unknown whether advanced imaging (AI) is associated with higher quality breast cancer (BC) care. Materials and Methods. Claims and Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data were linked for women diagnosed with incident stage I-III BC between 2002 and 2008 in western Washington State. We examined receipt of preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or AI (defined as computed tomography [CT]/positron emission tomography [PET]/PET/CT) versus mammogram and/or ultrasound (M-US) alone and receipt of guideline concordant care (GCC) using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Of 5247 women, 67% received M-US, 23% MRI, 8% CT, and 3% PET/PET-CT. In 2002, 5% received MRI and 5% AI compared to 45% and 12%, respectively, in 2008. 79% received GCC, but GCC declined over time and was associated with younger age, urban residence, less comorbidity, shorter time from diagnosis to surgery, and earlier year of diagnosis. Breast MRI was associated with GCC for lumpectomy plus radiation therapy (RT) (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.08-2.26, and p = 0.02) and AI was associated with GCC for adjuvant chemotherapy for estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) BC (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.17-2.59, and p = 0.01). Conclusion. GCC was associated with prior receipt of breast MRI and AI for lumpectomy plus RT and adjuvant chemotherapy for ER+ BC, respectively. PMID:27525122

  20. Differential diagnosis of breast cancer using quantitative, label-free and molecular vibrational imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaliang; Li, Fuhai; Gao, Liang; Wang, Zhiyong; Thrall, Michael J.; Shen, Steven S.; Wong, Kelvin K.; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a label-free, chemically-selective, quantitative imaging strategy to identify breast cancer and differentiate its subtypes using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. Human normal breast tissue, benign proliferative, as well as in situ and invasive carcinomas, were imaged ex vivo. Simply by visualizing cellular and tissue features appearing on CARS images, cancerous lesions can be readily separated from normal tissue and benign proliferative lesion. To further distinguish cancer subtypes, quantitative disease-related features, describing the geometry and distribution of cancer cell nuclei, were extracted and applied to a computerized classification system. The results show that in situ carcinoma was successfully distinguished from invasive carcinoma, while invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular carcinoma were also distinguished from each other. Furthermore, 80% of intermediate-grade IDC and 85% of high-grade IDC were correctly distinguished from each other. The proposed quantitative CARS imaging method has the potential to enable rapid diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:21833355

  1. Superelliptical Insert Gradient Coil with a Field Modifying Layer for Breast Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung M.; Goodrich, K. Craig; Hadley, J. Rock; Kim, Seong-Eun; Zeng, Gengsheng L.; Morrell, Glen R.; McAlpine, Matthew A.; Chronik, Blaine A.; Parker, Dennis L.

    2010-01-01

    Many Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) applications such as Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) of the breast require high spatial and temporal resolution, and can benefit from improved gradient performance, e.g. increased gradient strength, and reduced gradient rise time. The improved gradient performance required to achieve high spatial and temporal resolution for this application may be achieved by using local insert gradients specifically designed for a target anatomy. Current flat gradient systems cannot create an imaging volume large enough to accommodate both breasts, further, their gradient fields are not homogeneous, dropping off rapidly with distance from the gradient coil surface. To attain an imaging volume adequate for bilateral breast MRI, a planar local gradient system design has been modified into a superellipse shape, creating homogeneous gradient volumes (HGVs) that are 182% (Gx), 57% (Gy), and 75% (Gz) wider (left/right direction) than those of the corresponding standard planar gradient. Adding an additional field-modifying (FM) gradient winding results in an additional improvement of the homogeneous gradient field near the gradient coil surface over the already enlarged HGVs of the superelliptical gradients (67%, 89%, and 214% for Gx, Gy, and Gz respectively). A prototype y-gradient insert has been built to demonstrate imaging and implementation characteristics of the superellipse gradient in a 3T MRI system. PMID:20939085

  2. Clinical image benefits after model-based reconstruction for low dose dedicated breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haneda, Eri; Tkaczyk, J. Eric; Palma, Giovanni; Iordache, Rǎzvan; Muller, Serge; De Man, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    Model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) is implemented to process full clinical data sets of dedicated breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in a low dose condition and achieves less spreading of anatomical structure between slices. MBIR is a statistical based reconstruction which can control the trade-off between data fitting and image regularization. In this study, regularization is formulated with anisotropic prior weighting that independently controls the image regularization between in-plane and out-of-plane voxel neighbors. Studies at complete and partial convergence show that the appropriate formulation of data-fit and regularization terms along with anisotropic prior weighting leads to a solution with improved localization of objects within a more narrow range of slices. This result is compared with the solutions using simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT), which is one of the state of art reconstruction in DBT. MBIR yields higher contrast-to-noise for medium and large size microcalcifications and diagnostic structures in volumetric breast images and supports opportunity for dose reduction for 3D breast imaging.

  3. High-performance near-infrared imaging for breast cancer detection.

    PubMed

    El-Sharkawy, Yasser H; El-Sherif, Ashraf F

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for the noninvasive determination of the size, position, and optical properties of tumors in the human breast. The tumor is first detected by photothermal imaging. It is then sized, located, and optically characterized using designed digital image processing and edge-detection pattern recognition. The method assumes that the tumor is spherical and inhomogeneous and embedded in an otherwise homogeneous tissue. Heat energy is deposited in the tissue by absorption of near-infrared (NIR) Nd:YAG laser radiation, and its subsequent conversion to heat via vibrational relaxation causes a rise in temperature of the tissue. The tumor absorbs and scatters NIR light more strongly than the surrounding healthy tissue. Heat will diffuse through the tissue, causing a rise in temperature of the surrounding tissue. Differentiation between normal and cancerous tissues is determined using IR thermal imaging. Results are presented on a 55-year-old patient with a papillary breast cancer. We found that these results provide the clinician with more detailed information about breast lesions detected by photothermal imaging and thereby enhance its potential for specificity.

  4. High-performance near-infrared imaging for breast cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.; El-Sherif, Ashraf F.

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for the noninvasive determination of the size, position, and optical properties of tumors in the human breast. The tumor is first detected by photothermal imaging. It is then sized, located, and optically characterized using designed digital image processing and edge-detection pattern recognition. The method assumes that the tumor is spherical and inhomogeneous and embedded in an otherwise homogeneous tissue. Heat energy is deposited in the tissue by absorption of near-infrared (NIR) Nd:YAG laser radiation, and its subsequent conversion to heat via vibrational relaxation causes a rise in temperature of the tissue. The tumor absorbs and scatters NIR light more strongly than the surrounding healthy tissue. Heat will diffuse through the tissue, causing a rise in temperature of the surrounding tissue. Differentiation between normal and cancerous tissues is determined using IR thermal imaging. Results are presented on a 55-year-old patient with a papillary breast cancer. We found that these results provide the clinician with more detailed information about breast lesions detected by photothermal imaging and thereby enhance its potential for specificity.

  5. Early breast cancer detection method based on a simulation study of single-channel passive microwave radiometry imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostopoulos, Spiros A.; Savva, Andonis D.; Asvestas, Pantelis A.; Nikolopoulos, Christos D.; Capsalis, Christos N.; Cavouras, Dionisis A.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to provide a methodology for detecting temperature alterations in human breast, based on single channel microwave radiometer imaging. Radiometer measurements were simulated by modelling the human breast, the temperature distribution, and the antenna characteristics. Moreover, a simulated lesion of variable size and position in the breast was employed to provide for slight temperature changes in the breast. To detect the presence of a lesion, the temperature distribution in the breast was reconstructed. This was accomplished by assuming that temperature distribution is the mixture of distributions with unknown parameters, which were determined by means of the least squares and the singular value decomposition methods. The proposed method was validated in a variety of scenarios by altering the lesion size and location and radiometer position. The method proved capable in identifying temperature alterations caused by lesions, at different locations in the breast.

  6. [Breast tomosynthesis: a new tool for diagnosing breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Martínez Miravete, P; Etxano, J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to be the most common malignant tumor in women in occidental countries. Mammography is currently the technique of choice for screening programs; however, although it has been widely validated, mammography has its limitations, especially in dense breasts. Breast tomosynthesis is a revolutionary advance in the diagnosis of breast cancer. It makes it possible to define lesions that are occult in the glandular tissue and therefore to detect breast tumors that are impossible to see on conventional mammograms. In considering the combined use of mammography and tomosynthesis, many factors must be taken into account apart from cancer detection; these include additional radiation, the recall rate, and the time necessary to carry out and interpret the two tests. In this article, we review the technical principles of tomosynthesis, it main uses, and the future perspective for this imaging technique.

  7. Phosphorimager and PD densitometer imaging system network. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This document discusses the research projects undertaken as a result of the availability of the PhosphorImager and PD Densitometer Imaging System Network, at the University of Georgia`s Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. The benefit gained from the equipment is described for each project.

  8. A Global Covariance Descriptor for Nuclear Atypia Scoring in Breast Histopathology Images.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adnan Mujahid; Sirinukunwattana, Korsuk; Rajpoot, Nasir

    2015-09-01

    Nuclear atypia scoring is a diagnostic measure commonly used to assess tumor grade of various cancers, including breast cancer. It provides a quantitative measure of deviation in visual appearance of cell nuclei from those in normal epithelial cells. In this paper, we present a novel image-level descriptor for nuclear atypia scoring in breast cancer histopathology images. The method is based on the region covariance descriptor that has recently become a popular method in various computer vision applications. The descriptor in its original form is not suitable for classification of histopathology images as cancerous histopathology images tend to possess diversely heterogeneous regions in a single field of view. Our proposed image-level descriptor, which we term as the geodesic mean of region covariance descriptors, possesses all the attractive properties of covariance descriptors lending itself to tractable geodesic-distance-based k-nearest neighbor classification using efficient kernels. The experimental results suggest that the proposed image descriptor yields high classification accuracy compared to a variety of widely used image-level descriptors.