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Sample records for breast tumor metastasis

  1. Tungsten targets the tumor microenvironment to enhance breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Alicia M; Sabourin, Valérie; Molina, Manuel Flores; Police, Alice M; Negro Silva, Luis Fernando; Plourde, Dany; Lemaire, Maryse; Ursini-Siegel, Josie; Mann, Koren K

    2015-01-01

    The number of individuals exposed to high levels of tungsten is increasing, yet there is limited knowledge of the potential human health risks. Recently, a cohort of breast cancer patients was left with tungsten in their breasts following testing of a tungsten-based shield during intraoperative radiotherapy. While monitoring tungsten levels in the blood and urine of these patients, we utilized the 66Cl4 cell model, in vitro and in mice to study the effects of tungsten exposure on mammary tumor growth and metastasis. We still detect tungsten in the urine of patients' years after surgery (mean urinary tungsten concentration at least 20 months post-surgery = 1.76 ng/ml), even in those who have opted for mastectomy, indicating that tungsten does not remain in the breast. In addition, standard chelation therapy was ineffective at mobilizing tungsten. In the mouse model, tungsten slightly delayed primary tumor growth, but significantly enhanced lung metastasis. In vitro, tungsten did not enhance 66Cl4 proliferation or invasion, suggesting that tungsten was not directly acting on 66Cl4 primary tumor cells to enhance invasion. In contrast, tungsten changed the tumor microenvironment, enhancing parameters known to be important for cell invasion and metastasis including activated fibroblasts, matrix metalloproteinases, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. We show, for the first time, that tungsten enhances metastasis in an animal model of breast cancer by targeting the microenvironment. Importantly, all these tumor microenvironmental changes are associated with a poor prognosis in humans. PMID:25324207

  2. Tungsten Targets the Tumor Microenvironment to Enhance Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Bolt, Alicia M.; Sabourin, Valérie; Molina, Manuel Flores; Police, Alice M.; Negro Silva, Luis Fernando; Plourde, Dany; Lemaire, Maryse; Ursini-Siegel, Josie; Mann, Koren K.

    2015-01-01

    The number of individuals exposed to high levels of tungsten is increasing, yet there is limited knowledge of the potential human health risks. Recently, a cohort of breast cancer patients was left with tungsten in their breasts following testing of a tungsten-based shield during intraoperative radiotherapy. While monitoring tungsten levels in the blood and urine of these patients, we utilized the 66Cl4 cell model, in vitro and in mice to study the effects of tungsten exposure on mammary tumor growth and metastasis. We still detect tungsten in the urine of patients’ years after surgery (mean urinary tungsten concentration at least 20 months post-surgery = 1.76 ng/ml), even in those who have opted for mastectomy, indicating that tungsten does not remain in the breast. In addition, standard chelation therapy was ineffective at mobilizing tungsten. In the mouse model, tungsten slightly delayed primary tumor growth, but significantly enhanced lung metastasis. In vitro, tungsten did not enhance 66Cl4 proliferation or invasion, suggesting that tungsten was not directly acting on 66Cl4 primary tumor cells to enhance invasion. In contrast, tungsten changed the tumor microenvironment, enhancing parameters known to be important for cell invasion and metastasis including activated fibroblasts, matrix metalloproteinases, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. We show, for the first time, that tungsten enhances metastasis in an animal model of breast cancer by targeting the microenvironment. Importantly, all these tumor microenvironmental changes are associated with a poor prognosis in humans. PMID:25324207

  3. Tungsten targets the tumor microenvironment to enhance breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Alicia M; Sabourin, Valérie; Molina, Manuel Flores; Police, Alice M; Negro Silva, Luis Fernando; Plourde, Dany; Lemaire, Maryse; Ursini-Siegel, Josie; Mann, Koren K

    2015-01-01

    The number of individuals exposed to high levels of tungsten is increasing, yet there is limited knowledge of the potential human health risks. Recently, a cohort of breast cancer patients was left with tungsten in their breasts following testing of a tungsten-based shield during intraoperative radiotherapy. While monitoring tungsten levels in the blood and urine of these patients, we utilized the 66Cl4 cell model, in vitro and in mice to study the effects of tungsten exposure on mammary tumor growth and metastasis. We still detect tungsten in the urine of patients' years after surgery (mean urinary tungsten concentration at least 20 months post-surgery = 1.76 ng/ml), even in those who have opted for mastectomy, indicating that tungsten does not remain in the breast. In addition, standard chelation therapy was ineffective at mobilizing tungsten. In the mouse model, tungsten slightly delayed primary tumor growth, but significantly enhanced lung metastasis. In vitro, tungsten did not enhance 66Cl4 proliferation or invasion, suggesting that tungsten was not directly acting on 66Cl4 primary tumor cells to enhance invasion. In contrast, tungsten changed the tumor microenvironment, enhancing parameters known to be important for cell invasion and metastasis including activated fibroblasts, matrix metalloproteinases, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. We show, for the first time, that tungsten enhances metastasis in an animal model of breast cancer by targeting the microenvironment. Importantly, all these tumor microenvironmental changes are associated with a poor prognosis in humans.

  4. Plumbagin inhibits breast tumor bone metastasis and osteolysis by modulating the tumor-bone microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Xiao, J; Wu, X; Li, W; Yang, Z; Xie, J; Xu, L; Cai, X; Lin, Z; Guo, W; Luo, J; Liu, M

    2012-09-01

    Bone metastasis is a common and serious consequence of breast cancer. Bidirectional interaction between tumor cells and the bone marrow microenvironment drives a so-called 'vicious cycle' that promotes tumor cell malignancy and stimulates osteolysis. Targeting these interactions and pathways in the tumor-bone microenvironment has been an encouraging strategy for bone metastasis therapy. In the present study, we examined the effects of plumbagin on breast cancer bone metastasis. Our data indicated that plumbagin inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion, suppressed the expression of osteoclast-activating factors, altered the cancer cell induced RANKL/OPG ratio in osteoblasts, and blocked both cancer cell- and RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis. In mouse model of bone metastasis, we further demonstrated that plumbagin significantly repressed breast cancer cell metastasis and osteolysis, inhibited cancer cell induced-osteoclastogenesis and the secretion of osteoclast-activating factors in vivo. At the molecular level, we found that plumbagin abrogated RANKL-induced NF-κB and MAPK pathways by blocking RANK association with TRAF6 in osteoclastogenesis, and by inhibiting the expression of osteoclast-activating factors through the suppression of NF-κB activity in breast cancer cells. Taken together, our data demonstrate that plumbagin inhibits breast tumor bone metastasis and osteolysis by modulating the tumor-bone microenvironment and that plumbagin may serve as a novel agent in the treatment of tumor bone metastasis.

  5. CXCL12-γ in primary tumors drives breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ray, P; Stacer, A C; Fenner, J; Cavnar, S P; Meguiar, K; Brown, M; Luker, K E; Luker, G D

    2015-04-16

    Compelling evidence shows that chemokine C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) drives metastasis in multiple malignancies. Similar to other key cytokines in cancer, CXCL12 exists as several isoforms with distinct biophysical properties that may alter signaling and functional outputs. However, effects of CXCL12 isoforms in cancer remain unknown. CXCL12-α, -β and -γ showed cell-type-specific differences in activating signaling through G protein-dependent pathways in cell-based assays, while CXCL12-γ had greatest effects on recruitment of the adapter protein β-arrestin 2. CXCL12-β and -γ also stimulated endothelial tube formation to a greater extent than CXCL12-α. To investigate the effects of CXCL12 isoforms on tumor growth and metastasis, we used a mouse xenograft model of metastatic human breast cancer combining CXCR4+ breast cancer cells and mammary fibroblasts secreting an isoform of CXCL12. Altough all CXCL12 isoforms produced comparable growth of mammary tumors, CXCL12-γ significantly increased metastasis to bone marrow and other sites. Breast cancer cells originating from tumors with CXCL12-γ fibroblasts upregulated RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand), contributing to bone marrow tropism of metastatic cancer cells. CXCL12-γ was expressed in metastatic tissues in mice, and we also detected CXCL12-γ in malignant pleural effusions from patients with breast cancer. In our mouse model, mammary fibroblasts disseminated to sites of breast cancer metastases, providing another mechanism to increase levels of CXCL12 in metastatic environments. These studies identify CXCL12-γ as a potent pro-metastatic molecule with important implications for cancer biology and effective therapeutic targeting of CXCL12 pathways.

  6. CXCL12-γ in Primary Tumors Drives Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Paramita; Stacer, Amanda C.; Fenner, Joseph; Cavnar, Stephen P.; Meguiar, Kaille; Brown, Martha; Luker, Kathryn E.; Luker, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Compelling evidence shows that chemokine CXCL12 drives metastasis in multiple malignancies. Similar to other key cytokines in cancer, CXCL12 exists as several isoforms with distinct biophysical properties that may alter signaling and functional outputs. However, effects of CXCL12 isoforms in cancer remain unknown. CXCL12-α, β, and γ showed cell-type specific differences in activating signaling through G protein-dependent pathways in cell-based assays, while CXCL12-γ had greatest effects on recruitment of the adapter protein β-arrestin 2. CXCL12-β and γ also stimulated endothelial tube formation to a greater extent than CXCL12-α. To investigate effects of CXCL12 isoforms on tumor growth and metastasis, we used a mouse xenograft model of metastatic human breast cancer combining CXCR4+ breast cancer cells and mammary fibroblasts secreting an isoform of CXCL12. While all CXCL12 isoforms produced comparable growth of mammary tumors, CXCL12-γ significantly increased metastasis to bone marrow and other sites. Breast cancer cells originating from tumors with CXCL12-γ fibroblasts upregulated RANKL, contributing to bone marrow tropism of metastatic cancer cells. CXCL12-γ was expressed in metastatic tissues in mice, and we also detected CXCL12-γ in malignant pleural effusions from patients with breast cancer. In our mouse model, mammary fibroblasts disseminated to sites of breast cancer metastases, providing another mechanism to increase levels of CXCL12 in metastatic environments. These studies identify CXCL12-γ as a potent pro-metastatic molecule with important implications for cancer biology and effective therapeutic targeting of CXCL12 pathways. PMID:24909174

  7. Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: an unusual case of breast cancer metastatic to a solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Velez-Cubian, Frank O; Gabordi, Robert C; Smith, Prudence V; Toloza, Eric M

    2016-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that most commonly involves the visceral or parietal pleura, but that has also been described arising from virtually all organs. This neoplasm exhibits rich vascularity, a characteristic it shares with renal cell carcinoma, making these tumors especially suitable for harboring metastases. We present a case of a 64-year-old woman with history of right breast cancer treated six years previously and who presents with a left pulmonary SFT containing metastatic invasive ductal breast carcinoma as well as a synchronous contralateral primary adenocarcinoma of the lung. The literature on tumor-to-tumor metastasis is then reviewed.

  8. Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: an unusual case of breast cancer metastatic to a solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Velez-Cubian, Frank O; Gabordi, Robert C; Smith, Prudence V; Toloza, Eric M

    2016-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that most commonly involves the visceral or parietal pleura, but that has also been described arising from virtually all organs. This neoplasm exhibits rich vascularity, a characteristic it shares with renal cell carcinoma, making these tumors especially suitable for harboring metastases. We present a case of a 64-year-old woman with history of right breast cancer treated six years previously and who presents with a left pulmonary SFT containing metastatic invasive ductal breast carcinoma as well as a synchronous contralateral primary adenocarcinoma of the lung. The literature on tumor-to-tumor metastasis is then reviewed. PMID:27293861

  9. Tumor-to-tumor metastasis: an unusual case of breast cancer metastatic to a solitary fibrous tumor

    PubMed Central

    Velez-Cubian, Frank O.; Gabordi, Robert C.; Smith, Prudence V.

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that most commonly involves the visceral or parietal pleura, but that has also been described arising from virtually all organs. This neoplasm exhibits rich vascularity, a characteristic it shares with renal cell carcinoma, making these tumors especially suitable for harboring metastases. We present a case of a 64-year-old woman with history of right breast cancer treated six years previously and who presents with a left pulmonary SFT containing metastatic invasive ductal breast carcinoma as well as a synchronous contralateral primary adenocarcinoma of the lung. The literature on tumor-to-tumor metastasis is then reviewed. PMID:27293861

  10. Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R arrests growth of breast-cancer brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Miwa, Shinji; Zhang, Nan; Hoffman, Robert M; Zhao, Ming

    2015-02-20

    Brain metastasis is a morbid, treatment-resistant, end-stage frequent occurrence in breast cancer patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R on breast cancer brain metastases. High brain-metastatic variants of murine 4T1 breast cancer cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) were injected orthotopically in the mammary fat pad in non-transgenic nude mice or in the left ventricle of non-transgenic nude mice and transgenic nude mice expressing nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP). ND-GFP mice express GFP in nascent blood vessels. In the orthotopically-injected mice, the primary tumor was surgically-resected in order to allow brain metastasis to develop. At various time points, the tumors and vasculature in the brain were imaged by confocal and stereo fluorescence microscopy. Some of the breast cancer cells that reached the brain extravasated and grew perivascularly and some of the cells proliferated within the vasculature. S. typhimurium A1-R significantly inhibited brain metastasis in both metastatic models and increased survival of the orthotopically-transplanted, primary-tumor-resected mice (p<0.05). The results of the present study suggest the clinical potential of bacterial therapy of breast cancer brain metastasis.

  11. Tumor seeding after diagnostic vitrectomy for choroidal metastasis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kung, Ya-Hsin; Wu, Tsung-Tien; Lin, Chia-Shian

    2012-09-01

    Choroidal metastasis is the most common type of intraocular tumor in adults, and in females the most common primary site is the breast. We report a case of unilateral choroidal metastasis with exudative retinal detachment as the initial presentation of recurrent breast cancer, and subsequent ophthalmic metastasis following diagnostic vitrectomy. A 49-year-old woman with a 7-year-history of well-treated bilateral breast cancer had been suffering from blurred vision in the left eye for 1 week. Ocular examination was normal except for superotemporal retinal detachment in the left eye. Neither retinal break nor choroidal mass was seen. The patient received scleral buckling and pneumatic retinopexy without significant improvement. Fluorescein angiography revealed a suspected choroidal metastasis in the left eye, but ocular ultrasonography did not show a visible choroidal mass. Two consecutive diagnostic vitrectomies with cytology could not confirm malignancy. A systemic workup was also negative. Six months later, two tumor masses were noted over two of the sclerotomy wounds of the left eye. Pathology showed adenocarcinoma compatible with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Ocular metastasis may present as infiltrative choroidal lesions with exudative retinal detachment without a visible mass. Invasive procedures, such as fine-needle aspiration biopsy and diagnostic vitrectomy, may risk tumor seeding.

  12. The role of tumor-associated macrophages in breast carcinoma invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ju; Li, Xiaojing; Liu, Xiuping; Liu, Yongjuan

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in normal and malignant breast tissue and the draining lymph nodes, and to explore its effect on breast cancer invasion and metastasis. The infiltration densities of TAMs was observed using immunohistochemical staining of CD68 in 100 cases of breast cancer specimens and its paired adjacent non-cancer breast tissues and draining lymph modes, and then to evaluate the relation of TAMs to various clinicopathological features including patients prognosis in breast carcinoma. We observed the infiltration densities of TAMs were significantly higher in breast carcinoma tissue than in adjacent normal tissue and significantly higher in much larger size and higher stage cases. Furthermore, infiltration densities of TAMs have negative correlation with the 5-year survival rates of breast cancer patients. But in matched lymph-nodes, the infiltration densities of TAMs were significantly lower in cancerous metastatic lymph-node samples than in non-metastatic one. Therefore, our data suggests that TAMs infiltration in primary tumor promote invasion and lymphatic metastasis of breast cancer and have negative correlation with patients prognosis in breast cancer, but in lymph-node TAMs may play another role and need further study in the future.

  13. Occult Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor Metastasis to the Breast Detected on Screening Mammogram

    PubMed Central

    Policeni, Fabiana; Pakalniskis, Brittany; Yang, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic tumors are rare in the breast. Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNETs) are slow-growing neoplasms that arise from neuroendocrine cells, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchial tree. Metastatic WDNET to the breast is a rare entity. We present a case report of ileal WDNET metastatic to the breast which was initially identified as a small mass in the patient's left breast on screening mammography. Targeted ultrasound identified a suspicious mass, and ultrasound-guided percutaneous core biopsy was performed. Pathology revealed metastatic WDNET. Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was then performed and demonstrated left axillary Level 2 lymphadenopathy, and liver lesions were suspicious for metastasis. The patient underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT) to evaluate for distant metastatic disease. A spiculated mass was found near the ileocecal valve, suggestive of primary ileal WDNET. In addition, CT identified multiple liver lesions, most compatible with metastasis. Indium 111 OctreoScan confirmed radiotracer uptake in the ileum consistent with primary neuroendocrine tumor. In this report, we review the imaging characteristics of metastatic WDNET to the breast by different imaging modalities including mammogram, ultrasound, and breast MRI. PMID:27761301

  14. Claudin-2 promotes breast cancer liver metastasis by facilitating tumor cell interactions with hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tabariès, Sébastien; Dupuy, Fanny; Dong, Zhifeng; Monast, Anie; Annis, Matthew G; Spicer, Jonathan; Ferri, Lorenzo E; Omeroglu, Atilla; Basik, Mark; Amir, Eitan; Clemons, Mark; Siegel, Peter M

    2012-08-01

    We previously identified claudin-2 as a functional mediator of breast cancer liver metastasis. We now confirm that claudin-2 levels are elevated in liver metastases, but not in skin metastases, compared to levels in their matched primary tumors in patients with breast cancer. Moreover, claudin-2 is specifically expressed in liver-metastatic breast cancer cells compared to populations derived from bone or lung metastases. The increased liver tropism exhibited by claudin-2-expressing breast cancer cells requires claudin-2-mediated interactions between breast cancer cells and primary hepatocytes. Furthermore, the reduction of the claudin-2 expression level, either in cancer cells or in primary hepatocytes, diminishes these heterotypic cell-cell interactions. Finally, we demonstrate that the first claudin-2 extracellular loop is essential for mediating tumor cell-hepatocyte interactions and the ability of breast cancer cells to form liver metastases in vivo. Thus, during breast cancer liver metastasis, claudin-2 shifts from acting within tight-junctional complexes to functioning as an adhesion molecule between breast cancer cells and hepatocytes.

  15. Prevention of Distant Lung Metastasis After Photodynamic Therapy Application in a Breast Cancer Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; Muehlmann, Luis Alexandre; Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Portilho, Flávia Arruda; de Souza, Ludmilla Regina; Silva, Jaqueline Rodrigues; Lacava, Zulmira Guerrero Marques; Bocca, Anamelia Lorenzetti; Chaves, Sacha Braun; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the activity of photodynamic therapy mediated by aluminum-chlorophthalocyanine contained in a polymeric nanostructured carrier composed by methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride (PVM/MA) against local subcutaneous breast cancer tumors and its effects against distant metastasis in a mouse tumor model. In our results, we observed a decrease in breast cancer tumor growth, prevention of distant lung metastases, and a significant increased survival in mice treated with photodynamic therapy. In addition to these results, we observed that tumor-bearing mice without treatment developed a significant extension of liver hematopoiesis that was significantly reduced in mice treated with photodynamic therapy. We hypothesized and showed that this reduction in (1) metastasis and (2) liver hematopoiesis may be related to the systemic activity of immature hematopoietic cells, specifically the myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which were suppressed in mice treated with photodynamic therapy. These cells produce a tolerogenic tumor environment that protects tumor tissues from immunological surveillance. Therefore, we suggest that photodynamic therapy could be employed in combination with other conventional therapies; such as surgery and radiotherapy, to improve the overall survival of patients diagnosed with breast cancer, as observed in our experimental resuIts.

  16. Prevention of Distant Lung Metastasis After Photodynamic Therapy Application in a Breast Cancer Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; Muehlmann, Luis Alexandre; Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Portilho, Flávia Arruda; de Souza, Ludmilla Regina; Silva, Jaqueline Rodrigues; Lacava, Zulmira Guerrero Marques; Bocca, Anamelia Lorenzetti; Chaves, Sacha Braun; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the activity of photodynamic therapy mediated by aluminum-chlorophthalocyanine contained in a polymeric nanostructured carrier composed by methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride (PVM/MA) against local subcutaneous breast cancer tumors and its effects against distant metastasis in a mouse tumor model. In our results, we observed a decrease in breast cancer tumor growth, prevention of distant lung metastases, and a significant increased survival in mice treated with photodynamic therapy. In addition to these results, we observed that tumor-bearing mice without treatment developed a significant extension of liver hematopoiesis that was significantly reduced in mice treated with photodynamic therapy. We hypothesized and showed that this reduction in (1) metastasis and (2) liver hematopoiesis may be related to the systemic activity of immature hematopoietic cells, specifically the myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which were suppressed in mice treated with photodynamic therapy. These cells produce a tolerogenic tumor environment that protects tumor tissues from immunological surveillance. Therefore, we suggest that photodynamic therapy could be employed in combination with other conventional therapies; such as surgery and radiotherapy, to improve the overall survival of patients diagnosed with breast cancer, as observed in our experimental resuIts. PMID:27301195

  17. Relation between primary tumor FDG avidity and site of first distant metastasis in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chae Hong; Moon, Seung Hwan; Cho, Young Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Identification of tumor imaging features associated with metastatic pattern may allow better understanding of cancer dissemination. Here, we investigated how primary tumor 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity influences the first site of breast cancer metastasis. Subjects were 264 patients with advanced breast cancer who underwent positron emission tomography/computed tomography at diagnosis and had metastasis at presentation (n = 193) or metastatic relapse after surgery (n = 71). Primary tumor FDG avidity (maximum SUV [SUVmax] ≥10.1) was compared with histology and first metastatic sites. The most common site of first metastasis was the bone, occurring in 62.7% of patients with metastasis at presentation and 38.0% of those with metastatic relapse. First metastasis to lung occurred in 30.1% and 35.2%, and to liver in 25.4% and 15.2% of respective groups. In patients with metastasis at presentation, primary tumors were FDG avid in 98/193 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (37.8% vs 22.1%; P = 0.018). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors were FDG avid in 31/71 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (48.4% vs 25.0%; P = 0.041) and liver (29.0% vs 5.0%; P = 0.008). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors that were FDG avid but hormone receptor negative had more first metastasis to lung (57.9% vs 26.9%; P = 0.016). FDG-avid primary breast tumors have favored first spread to the lung and liver, which suggests that tumor cells with heightened glycolytic activity better colonize these organs. PMID:27512840

  18. Relation between primary tumor FDG avidity and site of first distant metastasis in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Hong; Moon, Seung Hwan; Cho, Young Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2016-08-01

    Identification of tumor imaging features associated with metastatic pattern may allow better understanding of cancer dissemination. Here, we investigated how primary tumor F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity influences the first site of breast cancer metastasis.Subjects were 264 patients with advanced breast cancer who underwent positron emission tomography/computed tomography at diagnosis and had metastasis at presentation (n = 193) or metastatic relapse after surgery (n = 71). Primary tumor FDG avidity (maximum SUV [SUVmax] ≥10.1) was compared with histology and first metastatic sites.The most common site of first metastasis was the bone, occurring in 62.7% of patients with metastasis at presentation and 38.0% of those with metastatic relapse. First metastasis to lung occurred in 30.1% and 35.2%, and to liver in 25.4% and 15.2% of respective groups. In patients with metastasis at presentation, primary tumors were FDG avid in 98/193 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (37.8% vs 22.1%; P = 0.018). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors were FDG avid in 31/71 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (48.4% vs 25.0%; P = 0.041) and liver (29.0% vs 5.0%; P = 0.008). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors that were FDG avid but hormone receptor negative had more first metastasis to lung (57.9% vs 26.9%; P = 0.016).FDG-avid primary breast tumors have favored first spread to the lung and liver, which suggests that tumor cells with heightened glycolytic activity better colonize these organs.

  19. Bioenergy and Breast Cancer: A Report on Tumor Growth and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Mark; Schmidt, Jade

    2016-01-01

    As many as 80% of the 296,000 women and 2,240 men diagnosed with breast cancer in the United States will seek out complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments. One such therapy is Healing Touch (HT), recognized by the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) as a treatment modality. Using a multiple experimental groups design, fifty-six six- to eight-week-old Balb/c mice were injected with 4T1 breast cancer tumor cells and randomly divided into intervention and positive control groups. Five days after tumor cell injection, mice in the intervention groups received HT either daily or every other day for 10 minutes by one HT practitioner. At 15 days after tumor cell injection, tumor size was measured, and metastasis was evaluated by a medical pathologist after necropsy. Tumor size did not differ significantly among the groups (F(3,52) = 0.75, p value = 0.53). The presence of metastasis did not differ across groups (chi-square(3) = 3.902, p = 0.272) or when compared within an organ (liver: chi-square(3) = 2.507, p = 0.474; lungs: chi-square(3) = 3.804, p = 0.283; spleen: chi-square(3) = 0.595, p = 0.898). However, these results did indicate a moderate, though insignificant, positive impact of HT and highlight the need for continued research into dose, length of treatment, and measurable outcomes (tumor size, metastasis) to provide evidence to suggest application for nursing care. PMID:27688787

  20. Bioenergy and Breast Cancer: A Report on Tumor Growth and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Running, Alice; Greenwood, Mark; Hildreth, Laura; Schmidt, Jade

    2016-01-01

    As many as 80% of the 296,000 women and 2,240 men diagnosed with breast cancer in the United States will seek out complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments. One such therapy is Healing Touch (HT), recognized by the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) as a treatment modality. Using a multiple experimental groups design, fifty-six six- to eight-week-old Balb/c mice were injected with 4T1 breast cancer tumor cells and randomly divided into intervention and positive control groups. Five days after tumor cell injection, mice in the intervention groups received HT either daily or every other day for 10 minutes by one HT practitioner. At 15 days after tumor cell injection, tumor size was measured, and metastasis was evaluated by a medical pathologist after necropsy. Tumor size did not differ significantly among the groups (F(3,52) = 0.75, p value = 0.53). The presence of metastasis did not differ across groups (chi-square(3) = 3.902, p = 0.272) or when compared within an organ (liver: chi-square(3) = 2.507, p = 0.474; lungs: chi-square(3) = 3.804, p = 0.283; spleen: chi-square(3) = 0.595, p = 0.898). However, these results did indicate a moderate, though insignificant, positive impact of HT and highlight the need for continued research into dose, length of treatment, and measurable outcomes (tumor size, metastasis) to provide evidence to suggest application for nursing care.

  1. Bioenergy and Breast Cancer: A Report on Tumor Growth and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Running, Alice; Greenwood, Mark; Hildreth, Laura; Schmidt, Jade

    2016-01-01

    As many as 80% of the 296,000 women and 2,240 men diagnosed with breast cancer in the United States will seek out complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments. One such therapy is Healing Touch (HT), recognized by the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) as a treatment modality. Using a multiple experimental groups design, fifty-six six- to eight-week-old Balb/c mice were injected with 4T1 breast cancer tumor cells and randomly divided into intervention and positive control groups. Five days after tumor cell injection, mice in the intervention groups received HT either daily or every other day for 10 minutes by one HT practitioner. At 15 days after tumor cell injection, tumor size was measured, and metastasis was evaluated by a medical pathologist after necropsy. Tumor size did not differ significantly among the groups (F(3,52) = 0.75, p value = 0.53). The presence of metastasis did not differ across groups (chi-square(3) = 3.902, p = 0.272) or when compared within an organ (liver: chi-square(3) = 2.507, p = 0.474; lungs: chi-square(3) = 3.804, p = 0.283; spleen: chi-square(3) = 0.595, p = 0.898). However, these results did indicate a moderate, though insignificant, positive impact of HT and highlight the need for continued research into dose, length of treatment, and measurable outcomes (tumor size, metastasis) to provide evidence to suggest application for nursing care. PMID:27688787

  2. Bioenergy and Breast Cancer: A Report on Tumor Growth and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Mark; Schmidt, Jade

    2016-01-01

    As many as 80% of the 296,000 women and 2,240 men diagnosed with breast cancer in the United States will seek out complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments. One such therapy is Healing Touch (HT), recognized by the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) as a treatment modality. Using a multiple experimental groups design, fifty-six six- to eight-week-old Balb/c mice were injected with 4T1 breast cancer tumor cells and randomly divided into intervention and positive control groups. Five days after tumor cell injection, mice in the intervention groups received HT either daily or every other day for 10 minutes by one HT practitioner. At 15 days after tumor cell injection, tumor size was measured, and metastasis was evaluated by a medical pathologist after necropsy. Tumor size did not differ significantly among the groups (F(3,52) = 0.75, p value = 0.53). The presence of metastasis did not differ across groups (chi-square(3) = 3.902, p = 0.272) or when compared within an organ (liver: chi-square(3) = 2.507, p = 0.474; lungs: chi-square(3) = 3.804, p = 0.283; spleen: chi-square(3) = 0.595, p = 0.898). However, these results did indicate a moderate, though insignificant, positive impact of HT and highlight the need for continued research into dose, length of treatment, and measurable outcomes (tumor size, metastasis) to provide evidence to suggest application for nursing care.

  3. ABL kinases promote breast cancer osteolytic metastasis by modulating tumor-bone interactions through TAZ and STAT5 signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Rouse, Clay; Jasper, Jeff S; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2016-02-01

    Bone metastases occur in up to 70% of advanced breast cancer. For most patients with breast cancer, bone metastases are predominantly osteolytic. Interactions between tumor cells and stromal cells in the bone microenvironment drive osteolytic bone metastasis, a process that requires the activation of osteoclasts, cells that break down bone. We report that ABL kinases promoted metastasis of breast cancer cells to bone by regulating the crosstalk between tumor cells and the bone microenvironment. ABL kinases protected tumor cells from apoptosis induced by TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), activated the transcription factor STAT5, and promoted osteolysis through the STAT5-dependent expression of genes encoding the osteoclast-activating factors interleukin-6 (IL-6) and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1). Furthermore, in breast cancer cells, ABL kinases increased the abundance of the Hippo pathway mediator TAZ and the expression of TAZ-dependent target genes that promote bone metastasis. Knockdown of ABL kinases or treatment with ABL-specific allosteric inhibitor impaired osteolytic metastasis of breast cancer cells in mice. These findings revealed a role for ABL kinases in regulating tumor-bone interactions and provide a rationale for using ABL-specific inhibitors to limit breast cancer metastasis to bone. PMID:26838548

  4. Combination of anti-angiogenic therapies reduces osteolysis and tumor burden in experimental breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Bachelier, Richard; Confavreux, Cyrille B; Peyruchaud, Olivier; Croset, Martine; Goehrig, Delphine; van der Pluijm, Gabri; Clézardin, Philippe

    2014-09-15

    The clinical efficacy of anti-angiogenic monotherapies in metastatic breast cancer is less than originally anticipated, and it is not clear what the response of bone metastasis to anti-angiogenic therapies is. Here, we examined the impact of neutralizing tumor-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in animal models of subcutaneous tumor growth and bone metastasis formation. Silencing of VEGF expression (Sh-VEGF) in osteotropic human MDA-MB-231/B02 breast cancer cells led to a substantial growth inhibition of subcutaneous Sh-VEGF B02 tumor xenografts, as a result of reduced angiogenesis, when compared to that observed with animals bearing mock-transfected (Sc-VEGF) B02 tumors. However, there was scant evidence that either the silencing of tumor-derived VEGF or the use of a VEGF-neutralizing antibody (bevacizumab) affected B02 breast cancer bone metastasis progression in animals. We also examined the effect of vatalanib (a VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor) in this mouse model of bone metastasis. However, vatalanib failed to inhibit bone metastasis caused by B02 breast cancer cells. In sharp contrast, vatalanib in combination with bevacizumab reduced not only bone destruction but also skeletal tumor growth in animals bearing breast cancer bone metastases, when compared with either agent alone. Thus, our study highlights the importance of targeting both the tumor compartment and the host tissue (i.e., skeleton) to efficiently block the development of bone metastasis. We believe this is a crucially important observation as the clinical benefit of anti-angiogenic monotherapies in metastatic breast cancer is relatively modest. PMID:24615579

  5. Aquaporin-1 gene deletion reduces breast tumor growth and lung metastasis in tumor-producing MMTV-PyVT mice

    PubMed Central

    Esteva-Font, Cristina; Jin, Byung-Ju; Verkman, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is a plasma membrane water-transporting protein expressed strongly in tumor microvascular endothelia. We previously reported impaired angiogenesis in implanted tumors in AQP1-deficient mice and reduced migration of AQP1-deficient endothelial cells in vitro. Here, we investigated the consequences of AQP1 deficiency in mice that spontaneously develop well-differentiated, luminal-type breast adenomas with lung metastases [mouse mammary tumor virus-driven polyoma virus middle T oncogene (MMTV-PyVT)]. AQP1+/+ MMTV-PyVT mice developed large breast tumors with total tumor mass 3.5 ± 0.5 g and volume 265 ± 36 mm3 (se, 11 mice) at age 98 d. Tumor mass (1.6±0.2 g) and volume (131±15 mm3, 12 mice) were greatly reduced in AQP1−/− MMTV-PyVT mice (P<0.005). CD31 immunofluorescence showed abnormal microvascular anatomy in tumors of AQP1−/− MMTV-PyVT mice, with reduced vessel density. HIF-1α expression was increased in tumors in AQP1−/− MMTV-PyVT mice. The number of lung metastases (5±1/mouse) was much lower than in AQP1+/+ MMTV-PyVT mice (31±8/mouse, P<0.005). These results implicate AQP1 as an important determinant of tumor angiogenesis and, hence, as a potential drug target for adjuvant therapy of solid tumors.—Esteva-Font, C., Jin, B.-J., Verkman, A. S. Aquaporin-1 gene deletion reduces breast tumor growth and lung metastasis in tumor-producing MMTV-PyVT mice. PMID:24334548

  6. RAGE mediates S100A7-induced breast cancer growth and metastasis by modulating the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Nasser, Mohd W.; Wani, Nissar Ahmad; Ahirwar, Dinesh K.; Powell, Catherine A.; Ravi, Janani; Elbaz, Mohamad; Zhao, Helong; Padilla, Laura; Zhang, Xiaoli; Shilo, Konstantin; Ostrowski, Michael; Shapiro, Charles; Carson, William E.; Ganju, Ramesh K.

    2015-01-01

    RAGE is a multi-functional receptor implicated in diverse processes including inflammation and cancer. In this study, we report that RAGE expression is upregulated widely in aggressive triple-negative breast cancer cells, both in primary tumors and lymph node metastases. In evaluating the functional contributions of RAGE in breast cancer, we found RAGE-deficient mice displayed a reduced propensity for breast tumor growth. In an established model of lung metastasis, systemic blockade by injection of a RAGE neutralizing antibody inhibited metastasis development. Mechanistic investigations revealed that RAGE bound to the pro-inflammatory ligand S100A7 and mediated its ability to activate ERK, NF-κB and cell migration. In an S100A7 transgenic mouse model of breast cancer (mS100a7a15 mice), administration of either RAGE neutralizing antibody or soluble RAGE was sufficient to inhibit tumor progression and metastasis. In this model, we found that RAGE/S100A7 conditioned the tumor microenvironment by driving the recruitment of MMP9-positive tumor-associated macrophages. Overall, our results highlight RAGE as a candidate biomarker for triple-negative breast cancers and they reveal a functional role for RAGE/S100A7 signaling in linking inflammation to aggressive breast cancer development. PMID:25572331

  7. IMP1 suppresses breast tumor growth and metastasis through the regulation of its target mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Huang, Wenhe; Chen, Shaoying; Zhou, Yanchun; Li, Deling; Singer, Robert H.; Gu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported the ability of IMP1 in inhibiting proliferation and invasiveness of breast carcinoma cells in vitro. In the current study, we utilized a mouse xenograft model to further investigate the function of IMP1 in breast tumor progression and its underlying mechanism. We demonstrated that IMP1 expression significantly suppressed the growth of MDA231 cell-derived xenograft tumors and subsequent lung metastasis. Microarray analyses and differential gene expression identified handful mRNAs, many of which were involved in breast tumor-growth and metastasis. Further studies revealed that these mRNAs were directly interacted with the KH34 domain of IMP1 and this interaction post-transcriptionally regulated their corresponding protein expression. Either deletion of the KH34 domain of IMP1 or alteration of the expression of IMP1-bound mRNAs affected cell proliferation and tumor growth, producing the same phenotypes as IMP1 knockdown. Correlation of increased IMP1 expression with the reduced levels of its bound mRNAs, such as PTGS2, GDF15 and IGF-2 transcripts, was also observed in human breast tumors. Our studies provide insights into a molecular mechanism that the positive function of IMP1 to inhibit breast tumor growth and metastasis could be through the regulation of its target mRNAs. PMID:26910917

  8. ABL kinases promote breast cancer osteolytic metastasis by modulating tumor-bone interactions through TAZ and STAT5 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Rouse, Clay; Jasper, Jeff S.; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastases occur in up to 70% of advanced breast cancer. For most patients with breast cancer, bone metastases are predominantly osteolytic. Interactions between tumor cells and stromal cells in the bone microenvironment drive osteolytic bone metastasis, a process that requires the activation of osteoclasts, cells that break down bone. Here, we report that ABL kinases promoted metastasis of breast cancer cells to bone by regulating the crosstalk between tumor and the bone microenvironment. ABL kinases protected tumor cells from apoptosis induced by TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), activated the transcription factor STAT5, and promoted osteolysis through the STAT5-dependent expression of genes encoding the osteoclast activating factors interleukin 6 (IL6) and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1). Furthermore, ABL kinases increased the abundance of the Hippo pathway mediator TAZ and the expression of TAZ-dependent target genes that promote bone metastasis. Knockdown of ABL kinases or treatment with ABL-specific allosteric inhibitor impaired osteolytic metastasis of breast cancer cells in mice. These findings revealed a role for ABL kinases in regulating tumor-bone interactions and provide a rationale for targeting both tumor and the bone microenvironment with ABL-specific inhibitors. PMID:26838548

  9. Small molecule 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate suppresses breast tumor metastasis by regulating the SHP-1/STAT3/MMPs signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Li; Chen, Guoliang; Zhang, Jing; Li, Zhenxi; Lu, Weiqiang; Liu, Mingyao; Pang, Xiufeng

    2014-11-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is implicated breast cancer metastasis and represents a potential target for developing new anti-tumor metastasis drugs. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the natural agent 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), derived from the rhizomes and seeds of Languas galanga, could suppress breast cancer metastasis by targeting STAT3 signaling pathway. ACA was examined for its effects on breast cancer migration/invasion and metastasis using Transwell assays in vitro and breast cancer skeletal metastasis mouse model in vivo (n = 10 mice per group). The inhibitory effect of ACA on cellular STAT3 signaling pathway was investigated by series of biochemistry analysis. The chavicol preferentially suppressed cancer cell migration and invasion, and this activity was superior to its cytotoxic effects. ACA suppressed both constitutive and interleukin-6-inducible STAT3 activation and diminished the accumulation of STAT3 in the nucleus and its DNA-binding activity. More importantly, ACA treatment led to significant up-regulation of Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1), and the ACA-induced depression of cancer cell migration and STAT3 signaling could be apparently reversed by blockade of SHP-1. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9, gene products of STAT3 that regulate cell invasion, were specifically suppressed by ACA. In tumor metastasis model, ACA potently inhibited the human breast cancer cell-induced osteolysis, and had little apparent in vivo toxicity at the test concentrations. ACA is a novel drug candidate for the inhibition of tumor metastasis through interference with the SHP-1/STAT3/MMPs signaling pathway.

  10. Tocotrienol-Adjuvanted Dendritic Cells Inhibit Tumor Growth and Metastasis: A Murine Model of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Hafid, Sitti Rahma; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty

    2013-01-01

    Tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) from palm oil is reported to possess anti-cancer and immune-enhancing effects. In this study, TRF supplementation was used as an adjuvant to enhance the anti-cancer effects of dendritic cells (DC)-based cancer vaccine in a syngeneic mouse model of breast cancer. Female BALB/c mice were inoculated with 4T1 cells in mammary pad to induce tumor. When the tumor was palpable, the mice in the experimental groups were injected subcutaneously with DC-pulsed with tumor lysate (TL) from 4T1 cells (DC+TL) once a week for three weeks and fed daily with 1 mg TRF or vehicle. Control mice received unpulsed DC and were fed with vehicle. The combined therapy of using DC+TL injections and TRF supplementation (DC+TL+TRF) inhibited (p<0.05) tumor growth and metastasis. Splenocytes from the DC+TL+TRF group cultured with mitomycin-C (MMC)-treated 4T1 cells produced higher (p<0.05) levels of IFN-γ and IL-12. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) assay also showed enhanced tumor-specific killing (p<0.05) by CD8+ T-lymphocytes isolated from mice in the DC+TL+TRF group. This study shows that TRF has the potential to be used as an adjuvant to enhance effectiveness of DC-based vaccines. PMID:24069344

  11. Retrieval of Disseminated Tumor Cells Colonizing the Bone in Murine Breast Cancer Metastasis Models

    PubMed Central

    Welte, Thomas; Yu, Cuijuan

    2016-01-01

    In breast cancer, the most frequent site of metastasis is bone. Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) can be detected in the bone marrow of patients by their expression of epithelial or oncogenic markers [1], and the presence and frequency of these DTCs are associated with poor prognosis. However, many of the details behind this process remain elusive, including the biological properties and fates of these apparently indolent cancer cells. To provide pre-clinical models of DTCs, we have developed a procedure that allows for controlled and enhanced delivery of tumor cells to the bone in animal experiments via injection into the iliac artery of the hind limb [2]. To our surprise, we found that most cancer cells became integrated into the solid bone matrix shortly after arriving in the bone, and only a minority can be flushed out with the bone marrow. Here we describe a method that helps to retrieve DTCs homing to the bone in which we achieve an improved recovery of those tumor cells closely associated with the bone microenvironment. In our view it is especially important to analyze these tumor cell subpopulations, as they may take full advantage of growth-, survival- and immune-protective signals provided by neighbor cells. We also show a pilot study on how this approach may be applied to the analysis of cancer dormancy. Our study suggests that the detection and retrieval of DTCs in clinical studies are incomplete because they are conducted exclusively with bone marrow aspirates. PMID:26490041

  12. Targeting Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin; Mu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various metastatic traits that contribute to the metastasis cascade of breast cancer, which may provide novel avenues for therapeutic targeting. PMID:26380552

  13. Radiofrequency thermal ablation of breast tumors combined with intralesional administration of IL-7 and IL-15 augments anti-tumor immune responses and inhibits tumor development and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Mehran; Kmieciak, Maciej; Graham, Laura; Morales, Johanna K; Bear, Harry D; Manjili, Masoud H

    2008-01-01

    Tumor development or recurrence is always a matter of concern following radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) of tumors. To determine whether combining RFA with immunologically active cytokines might induce tumor-specific immune responses against mammary carcinoma and inhibit tumor development or metastasis, we evaluated intralesional injection of IL-7 and IL-15 in RFA-treated murine tumors. We used two different breast carcinoma models: neu-overexpressing mouse mammary carcinoma (MMC) in FVBN202 transgenic mouse and 4T1 tumors in Balb/c mouse. MMC tend to relapse even in the presence of neu-specific immune responses, and 4T1 is a weakly immunogenic, aggressive and highly metastatic transplantable tumor. In vivo growth of both of these tumors is also associated with increased numbers of CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). We showed for the first time that unlike RFA alone, RFA combined with the administration of intralesional IL-7 and IL-15 (after RFA), induced immune responses to tumors, inhibited tumor development and lung metastasis, and reduced MDSC. PMID:18425677

  14. Inhibition of metastatic tumor growth and metastasis via targeting metastatic breast cancer by chlorotoxin-modified liposomes.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chao; He, Bing; Dai, Wenbing; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Guangji; Yin, Lifang; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-10-01

    A liposome system modified with chlorotoxin (ClTx), a scorpion venom peptide previously utilized for targeting brain tumors, was established. Its targeting efficiency and antimetastasis behavior against metastatic breast cancer highly expressed MMP-2, the receptor of ClTx, were investigated. 4T1, a metastatic breast cancer cell line derived from a murine breast tumor, was selected as the cell model. As results, the ClTx-modified liposomes displayed specific binding to 4T1 as determined by flow cytometry and confocal imaging. The cytotoxicity assay revealed that the ClTx modification increased the toxicity compared with nonmodified liposomes. In addition, the modified liposomes also exhibited high in vivo targeting efficiency in the BALB/c mice bearing 4T1 tumors. Importantly, this system inhibited the growth of metastatic tumor and prevented the incidence of lung metastasis in mice bearing 4T1 tumors with only low systemic toxicity. The data obtained from the in vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that the ClTx-modified liposomes increased the drug delivery to metastatic breast cancers. This study proved that the ClTx-modified liposomes had targeting ability to metastatic breast cancer in addition to brain cancer, and displayed an obvious antimetastasis effect. Generally, it may provide a promising strategy for metastatic breast cancer therapy.

  15. Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix Texture Analysis of Breast Tumor Images in Prognosis of Distant Metastasis Risk.

    PubMed

    Vujasinovic, Tijana; Pribic, Jelena; Kanjer, Ksenija; Milosevic, Nebojsa T; Tomasevic, Zorica; Milovanovic, Zorka; Nikolic-Vukosavljevic, Dragica; Radulovic, Marko

    2015-06-01

    Owing to exceptional heterogeneity in the outcome of invasive breast cancer it is essential to develop highly accurate prognostic tools for effective therapeutic management. Based on this pressing need, we aimed to improve breast cancer prognosis by exploring the prognostic value of tumor histology image analysis. Patient group (n=78) selection was based on invasive breast cancer diagnosis without systemic treatment with a median follow-up of 147 months. Gray-level co-occurrence matrix texture analysis was performed retrospectively on primary tumor tissue section digital images stained either nonspecifically with hematoxylin and eosin or specifically with a pan-cytokeratin antibody cocktail for epithelial malignant cells. Univariate analysis revealed stronger association with metastasis risk by texture analysis when compared with clinicopathological parameters. The combination of individual clinicopathological and texture variables into composite scores resulted in further powerful enhancement of prognostic performance, with an accuracy of up to 90%, discrimination efficiency by the area under the curve [95% confidence interval (CI)] of 0.94 (0.87-0.99) and hazard ratio (95% CI) of 20.1 (7.5-109.4). Internal validation was successfully performed by bootstrap and split-sample cross-validation, suggesting that the models are generalizable. Whereas further validation is needed on an external set of patients, this preliminary study indicates the potential use of primary breast tumor histology texture as a highly accurate, simple, and cost-effective prognostic indicator of distant metastasis risk. PMID:25857827

  16. Stat3 orchestrates interaction between endothelial and tumor cells and inhibition of Stat3 suppresses brain metastasis of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsueh-Te; Xue, Jianfei; Chou, Ping-Chieh; Zhou, Aidong; Yang, Phillip; Conrad, Charles A; Aldape, Kenneth D; Priebe, Waldemar; Patterson, Cam; Sawaya, Raymond; Xie, Keping; Huang, Suyun

    2015-04-30

    Brain metastasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with breast cancer. Our previous studies indicated that Stat3 plays an important role in brain metastasis. Here, we present evidence that Stat3 functions at the level of the microenvironment of brain metastases. Stat3 controlled constitutive and inducible VEGFR2 expression in tumor-associated brain endothelial cells. Furthermore, inhibition of Stat3 by WP1066 decreased the incidence of brain metastases and increased survival in a preclinical model of breast cancer brain metastasis. WP1066 inhibited Stat3 activation in tumor-associated endothelial cells, reducing their infiltration and angiogenesis. WP1066 also inhibited breast cancer cell invasion. Our results indicate that WP1066 can inhibit tumor angiogenesis and brain metastasis mediated by Stat3 in endothelial and tumor cells.

  17. Radio-photothermal therapy mediated by a single compartment nanoplatform depletes tumor initiating cells and reduces lung metastasis in the orthotopic 4T1 breast tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Min; Zhao, Jun; Tian, Mei; Song, Shaoli; Zhang, Rui; Gupta, Sanjay; Tan, Dongfeng; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro; Li, Chun

    2015-11-01

    Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and are believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Combination therapies can overcome the limitation of conventional cancer treatments, and have demonstrated promising application in the clinic. Here, we show that dual modality radiotherapy (RT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) mediated by a single compartment nanosystem copper-64-labeled copper sulfide nanoparticles ([64Cu]CuS NPs) could suppress breast tumor metastasis through eradication of TICs. Positron electron tomography (PET) imaging and biodistribution studies showed that more than 90% of [64Cu]CuS NPs was retained in subcutaneously grown BT474 breast tumor 24 h after intratumoral (i.t.) injection, indicating the NPs are suitable for the combination therapy. Combined RT/PTT therapy resulted in significant tumor growth delay in the subcutaneous BT474 breast cancer model. Moreover, RT/PTT treatment significantly prolonged the survival of mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast tumors compared to no treatment, RT alone, or PTT alone. The RT/PTT combination therapy significantly reduced the number of tumor nodules in the lung and the formation of tumor mammospheres from treated 4T1 tumors. No obvious side effects of the CuS NPs were noted in the treated mice in a pilot toxicity study. Taken together, our data support the feasibility of a therapeutic approach for the suppression of tumor metastasis through localized RT/PTT therapy.Tumor Initiating Cells (TICs) are resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and are believed to be responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Combination therapies can overcome the limitation of conventional cancer treatments, and have demonstrated promising application in the clinic. Here, we show that dual modality radiotherapy (RT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) mediated by a single compartment nanosystem copper-64-labeled copper sulfide nanoparticles ([64Cu]CuS NPs) could suppress

  18. Depletion of plasmacytoid dendritic cells inhibits tumor growth and prevents bone metastasis of the breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Anandi; Hensel, Jonathan A.; Chanda, Diptiman; Harris, Brittney A.; Siegal, Gene P.; Maheshwari, Akhil; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) have been reported in breast cancer patients, the significance of which remains undefined. Using three different immunocompetent mouse models of BCa bone metastasis, we identified a key role for pDC in facilitating tumor growth through immunosuppression and aggressive osteolysis. Following infiltration of macrophages upon breast cancer dissemination, there was a steady increase of pDC within the bone, which resulted in a sustained Th2 response along with elevated levels of Treg and MDSC. Subsequently, pDC and CD4+ T cells, producing osteolytic cytokines, increased with tumor burden causing severe bone damage. Micro-CT and histology analyses of bone showed destruction of femur and tibia. Therapeutic significance of this finding was confirmed by depletion of pDC, which resulted in decreased tumor burden and bone loss by activating tumor-specific cytolytic CD8+ T cells and decreasing suppressor cell populations. Thus, pDC depletion may offer a novel adjuvant strategy to therapeutically influence breast cancer bone metastasis. PMID:23018462

  19. Gene expression markers in circulating tumor cells may predict bone metastasis and response to hormonal treatment in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiying; Molina, Julian; Jiang, John; Ferber, Matthew; Pruthi, Sandhya; Jatkoe, Timothy; Derecho, Carlo; Rajpurohit, Yashoda; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Yixin

    2013-11-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have recently attracted attention due to their potential as prognostic and predictive markers for the clinical management of metastatic breast cancer patients. The isolation of CTCs from patients may enable the molecular characterization of these cells, which may help establish a minimally invasive assay for the prediction of metastasis and further optimization of treatment. Molecular markers of proven clinical value may therefore be useful in predicting disease aggressiveness and response to treatment. In our earlier study, we identified a gene signature in breast cancer that appears to be significantly associated with bone metastasis. Among the genes that constitute this signature, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) was identified as the most differentially expressed gene associated with bone metastasis. In this study, we investigated 25 candidate gene markers in the CTCs of metastatic breast cancer patients with different metastatic sites. The panel of the 25 markers was investigated in 80 baseline samples (first blood draw of CTCs) and 30 follow-up samples. In addition, 40 healthy blood donors (HBDs) were analyzed as controls. The assay was performed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with RNA extracted from CTCs captured by the CellSearch system. Our study indicated that 12 of the genes were uniquely expressed in CTCs and 10 were highly expressed in the CTCs obtained from patients compared to those obtained from HBDs. Among these genes, the expression of keratin 19 was highly correlated with the CTC count. The TFF1 expression in CTCs was a strong predictor of bone metastasis and the patients with a high expression of estrogen receptor β in CTCs exhibited a better response to hormonal treatment. Molecular characterization of these genes in CTCs may provide a better understanding of the mechanism underlying tumor metastasis and identify gene markers in CTCs for predicting disease progression and

  20. Gene expression markers in circulating tumor cells may predict bone metastasis and response to hormonal treatment in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    WANG, HAIYING; MOLINA, JULIAN; JIANG, JOHN; FERBER, MATTHEW; PRUTHI, SANDHYA; JATKOE, TIMOTHY; DERECHO, CARLO; RAJPUROHIT, YASHODA; ZHENG, JIAN; WANG, YIXIN

    2013-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have recently attracted attention due to their potential as prognostic and predictive markers for the clinical management of metastatic breast cancer patients. The isolation of CTCs from patients may enable the molecular characterization of these cells, which may help establish a minimally invasive assay for the prediction of metastasis and further optimization of treatment. Molecular markers of proven clinical value may therefore be useful in predicting disease aggressiveness and response to treatment. In our earlier study, we identified a gene signature in breast cancer that appears to be significantly associated with bone metastasis. Among the genes that constitute this signature, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) was identified as the most differentially expressed gene associated with bone metastasis. In this study, we investigated 25 candidate gene markers in the CTCs of metastatic breast cancer patients with different metastatic sites. The panel of the 25 markers was investigated in 80 baseline samples (first blood draw of CTCs) and 30 follow-up samples. In addition, 40 healthy blood donors (HBDs) were analyzed as controls. The assay was performed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with RNA extracted from CTCs captured by the CellSearch system. Our study indicated that 12 of the genes were uniquely expressed in CTCs and 10 were highly expressed in the CTCs obtained from patients compared to those obtained from HBDs. Among these genes, the expression of keratin 19 was highly correlated with the CTC count. The TFF1 expression in CTCs was a strong predictor of bone metastasis and the patients with a high expression of estrogen receptor β in CTCs exhibited a better response to hormonal treatment. Molecular characterization of these genes in CTCs may provide a better understanding of the mechanism underlying tumor metastasis and identify gene markers in CTCs for predicting disease progression and

  1. Therapeutic Touch Has Significant Effects on Mouse Breast Cancer Metastasis and Immune Responses but Not Primary Tumor Size.

    PubMed

    Gronowicz, Gloria; Secor, Eric R; Flynn, John R; Jellison, Evan R; Kuhn, Liisa T

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based integrative medicine therapies have been introduced to promote wellness and offset side-effects from cancer treatment. Energy medicine is an integrative medicine technique using the human biofield to promote well-being. The biofield therapy chosen for study was Therapeutic Touch (TT). Breast cancer tumors were initiated in mice by injection of metastatic 66cl4 mammary carcinoma cells. The control group received only vehicle. TT or mock treatments were performed twice a week for 10 minutes. Two experienced TT practitioners alternated treatments. At 26 days, metastasis to popliteal lymph nodes was determined by clonogenic assay. Changes in immune function were measured by analysis of serum cytokines and by fluorescent activated cells sorting (FACS) of immune cells from the spleen and lymph nodes. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or tumor size. Metastasis was significantly reduced in the TT-treated mice compared to mock-treated mice. Cancer significantly elevated eleven cytokines. TT significantly reduced IL-1-a, MIG, IL-1b, and MIP-2 to control/vehicle levels. FACS demonstrated that TT significantly reduced specific splenic lymphocyte subsets and macrophages were significantly elevated with cancer. Human biofield therapy had no significant effect on primary tumor but produced significant effects on metastasis and immune responses in a mouse breast cancer model.

  2. Therapeutic Touch Has Significant Effects on Mouse Breast Cancer Metastasis and Immune Responses but Not Primary Tumor Size

    PubMed Central

    Gronowicz, Gloria; Secor, Eric R.; Flynn, John R.; Jellison, Evan R.; Kuhn, Liisa T.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based integrative medicine therapies have been introduced to promote wellness and offset side-effects from cancer treatment. Energy medicine is an integrative medicine technique using the human biofield to promote well-being. The biofield therapy chosen for study was Therapeutic Touch (TT). Breast cancer tumors were initiated in mice by injection of metastatic 66cl4 mammary carcinoma cells. The control group received only vehicle. TT or mock treatments were performed twice a week for 10 minutes. Two experienced TT practitioners alternated treatments. At 26 days, metastasis to popliteal lymph nodes was determined by clonogenic assay. Changes in immune function were measured by analysis of serum cytokines and by fluorescent activated cells sorting (FACS) of immune cells from the spleen and lymph nodes. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or tumor size. Metastasis was significantly reduced in the TT-treated mice compared to mock-treated mice. Cancer significantly elevated eleven cytokines. TT significantly reduced IL-1-a, MIG, IL-1b, and MIP-2 to control/vehicle levels. FACS demonstrated that TT significantly reduced specific splenic lymphocyte subsets and macrophages were significantly elevated with cancer. Human biofield therapy had no significant effect on primary tumor but produced significant effects on metastasis and immune responses in a mouse breast cancer model. PMID:26113869

  3. Dietary soy isoflavones increase metastasis to lungs in an experimental model of breast cancer with bone micro-tumors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xujuan; Belosay, Aashvini; Hartman, James A; Song, Huaxin; Zhang, Yukun; Wang, Wendan; Doerge, Daniel R; Helferich, William G

    2015-04-01

    Bone is one of the most common sites for metastasis in breast cancer (BC). Micro-metastasis in bone marrow was detected in 30% of patients with stage I, II, or III BC at primary surgery and is a strong indicator of poor prognosis. The role dietary soy isoflavones play in BC with bone micro-metastasis is unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of genistein, daidzein, (-)-equol or a mixture of soy isoflavones on BC with bone micro-metastasis using an experimental model of murine mammary cancer 4T1 cells engineered with luciferase. A small number (1000) of 4T1 cells were injected into the tibia of female Balb/c mice to establish micro-tumors in bone. Soy isoflavones were supplemented in the AIN-93G diet at 750 mg/kg and were provided to mice from 3 weeks before to 3 weeks after cell injection. Bioluminescent imaging was conducted on day 2 (D2), D6, D8, D16 and D20 post cell injection and the results indicated dietary soy isoflavones enhanced the growth of bone micro-tumors on D8. Furthermore, dietary soy isoflavones stimulated metastatic tumor formation in lungs and increased Ki-67 protein expression in these metastasized tumors. In vitro, soy isoflavones (<10 µM) had limited effects on the growth, motility or invasion of 4T1 cells. Thus, the in vivo stimulatory effect could be likely due to systemic effects between the host, 4T1 tumors and soy isoflavones. In conclusion, soy isoflavones stimulate BC with bone micro-metastasis in mice and further investigations are needed regarding their consumption by BC survivors.

  4. Regulation of triple-negative breast cancer cell metastasis by the tumor-suppressor liver kinase B1

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, L V; Tate, C R; Hoang, V T; Burks, H E; Gilliam, D; Martin, E C; Elliott, S; Miller, D B; Buechlein, A; Rusch, D; Tang, H; Nephew, K P; Burow, M E; Collins-Burow, B M

    2015-01-01

    Liver kinase B1 (LKB1), also known as serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11), has been identified as a tumor suppressor in many cancers including breast. Low LKB1 expression has been associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients, and we report here a significant association between loss of LKB1 expression and reduced patient survival specifically in the basal subtype of breast cancer. Owing to the aggressive nature of the basal subtype as evidenced by high incidences of metastasis, the purpose of this study was to determine if LKB1 expression could regulate the invasive and metastatic properties of this specific breast cancer subtype. Induction of LKB1 expression in basal-like breast cancer (BLBC)/triple-negative breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and BT-549, inhibited invasiveness in vitro and lung metastatic burden in an orthotopic xenograft model. Further analysis of BLBC cells overexpressing LKB1 by unbiased whole transcriptomics (RNA-sequencing) revealed striking regulation of metastasis-associated pathways, including cell adhesion, extracellular matrix remodeling, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In addition, LKB1 overexpression inhibited EMT-associated genes (CDH2, Vimentin, Twist) and induced the epithelial cell marker CDH1, indicating reversal of the EMT phenotype in the MDA-MB-231 cells. We further demonstrated marked inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase 1 expression and activity via regulation of c-Jun through inhibition of p38 signaling in LKB1-expressing cells. Taken together, these data support future development of LKB1 inducing therapeutics for the suppression of invasion and metastasis of BLBC. PMID:26436950

  5. The class I HDAC inhibitor Romidepsin targets inflammatory breast cancer tumor emboli and synergizes with paclitaxel to inhibit metastasis.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Fredika M; Chu, Khoi; Boley, Kimberly M; Ye, Zaiming; Liu, Hui; Wright, Moishia C; Moraes, Ricardo; Zhang, Xuejun; Green, Tessa L; Barsky, Sanford H; Heise, Carla; Cristofanilli, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most metastatic variant of locally advanced breast cancer. IBC has distinctive characteristics including invasion of tumor emboli into the skin and rapid disease progression. Given our previous studies suggesting that HDAC inhibitors have promise in targeting IBC, the present study revealed that the class I HDAC inhibitor Romidepsin (FK-288, Istodax; Celgene Corporation, Summit, NJ) potently induced destruction of IBC tumor emboli and lymphatic vascular architecture. associated with inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha, (HIF1alpha) proteins in the Mary-X pre-clinical model of IBC. Romidepsin treatment induced clinically relevant biomarkers in including induction of acetylated Histone 3 (Ac-H3) proteins, apoptosis, and increased p21WAF1/CIP1. Romidepsin, alone and synergistically when combined with Paclitaxel, effectively eliminated both primary tumors and metastatic lesions at multiple sites formed by the SUM149 IBC cell line. This is the first report of the ability of an HDAC inhibitor to eradicate IBC tumor emboli, to destroy the integrity of lymphatic vessel architecture and to target metastasis. Furthermore, Romidepsin, in combination with a taxane, warrants evaluation as a therapeutic strategy that may effectively target the skin involvement and rapid metastasis that are hallmarks of IBC.

  6. Monitoring of tumor growth and metastasis potential in MDA-MB-435s/ tk-luc human breast cancer xenografts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ya-Fang; Lin, Yi-Yu; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Liu, Ren-Shen; Pang, Fei; Hwang, Jeng-Jong

    2007-02-01

    Molecular imaging of reporter gene expression provides a rapid, sensitive and non-invasive monitoring of tumor behaviors. In this study, we reported the establishment of a novel animal model for longitudinal examination of tumor growth kinetics and metastatic spreading in vivo. The highly metastatic human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-435s cell line was engineered to stably express herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1- tk) and luciferase ( luc). Both 131I-FIAU and D-luciferin were used as reporter probes. For orthotopic tumor formation, MDA-MB-435s/ tk-luc cells were implanted into the first nipple of 6-week-old female NOD/SCID mice. For metastatic study, cells were injected via the lateral tail vein. Mice-bearing MDA-MB-435s/ tk-luc tumors were scanned for tumor growth and metastatsis using Xenogen IVIS50 system. Gamma scintigraphy and whole-body autoradiography were also applied to confirm the tumor localization. The results of bioluminescence imaging as well as histopathological finding showed that tumors could be detected in femur, spine, ovary, lungs, kidney, adrenal gland, lymph nodes and muscle at 16 weeks post i.v. injection, and correlated photons could be quantified. This MDA-MB-435s/ tk-luc human breast carcinoma-bearing mouse model combined with multimodalities of molecular imaging may facilitate studies on the molecular mechanisms of cancer invasion and metastasis.

  7. Suppressive effects of a proton beam on tumor growth and lung metastasis through the inhibition of metastatic gene expression in 4T1 orthotopic breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yun-Suk; Lee, Kyu-Shik; Chun, So-Young; Jang, Tae Jung; Nam, Kyung-Soo

    2016-07-01

    A proton beam is a next generation tool to treat intractable cancer. Although the therapeutic effects of a proton beam are well known, the effect on tumor metastasis is not fully described. Here, we investigated the effects of a proton beam on metastasis in highly invasive 4T1 murine breast cancer cells and their orthotopic breast cancer model. Cells were irradiated with 2, 4, 8 or 16 Gy proton beam, and changes in cell proliferation, survival, and migration were observed by MTT, colony forming and wound healing assays. 4T1 breast cancer cell-implanted BALB/c mice were established and the animals were randomly divided into 4 groups when tumor size reached 200 mm3. Breast tumors were selectively irradiated with 10, 20 or 30 Gy proton beam. Breast tumor sizes were measured twice a week, and breast tumor and lung tissues were pathologically observed. Metastasis-regulating gene expression was assessed with quantitative RT-PCR. A proton beam dose-dependently decreased cell proliferation, survival and migration in 4T1 murine breast cancer cells. Also, growth of breast tumors in the 4T1 orthotopic breast cancer model was significantly suppressed by proton beam irradiation without significant change of body weight. Furthermore, fewer tumor nodules metastasized from breast tumor into lung in mice irradiated with 30 Gy proton beam, but not with 10 and 20 Gy, than in control. We observed correspondingly lower expression levels of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which are important factors in cancer metastasis, in breast tumor irradiated with 30 Gy proton beam. Proton beam irradiation did not affect expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2. Taken together, the data suggest that, although proton beam therapy is an effective tool for breast cancer treatment, a suitable dose is necessary to prevent metastasis-linked relapse and poor prognosis. PMID:27176787

  8. Targeting RPL39 and MLF2 reduces tumor initiation and metastasis in breast cancer by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Bhuvanesh; Granados-Principal, Sergio; Zhu, Rui; Benz, Stephen; Rabizadeh, Shahrooz; Soon-Shiong, Patrick; Yu, Ke-Da; Shao, Zhimin; Li, Xiaoxian; Gilcrease, Michael; Lai, Zhao; Chen, Yidong; Huang, Tim H.-M.; Shen, Haifa; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Zhan, Ming; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Mittal, Vivek; Chen, Xi; Gross, Steven S.; Chang, Jenny C.

    2014-01-01

    We previously described a gene signature for breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) derived from patient biopsies. Selective shRNA knockdown identified ribosomal protein L39 (RPL39) and myeloid leukemia factor 2 (MLF2) as the top candidates that affect BCSC self-renewal. Knockdown of RPL39 and MLF2 by specific siRNA nanoparticles in patient-derived and human cancer xenografts reduced tumor volume and lung metastases with a concomitant decrease in BCSCs. RNA deep sequencing identified damaging mutations in both genes. These mutations were confirmed in patient lung metastases (n = 53) and were statistically associated with shorter median time to pulmonary metastasis. Both genes affect the nitric oxide synthase pathway and are altered by hypoxia. These findings support that extensive tumor heterogeneity exists within primary cancers; distinct subpopulations associated with stem-like properties have increased metastatic potential. PMID:24876273

  9. Herbal Extract SH003 Suppresses Tumor Growth and Metastasis of MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells by Inhibiting STAT3-IL-6 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Sang-Mi; Park, Sunju; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Cancer inflammation promotes cancer progression, resulting in a high risk of cancer. Here, we demonstrate that our new herbal extract, SH003, suppresses both tumor growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells via inhibiting STAT3-IL-6 signaling path. Our new herbal formula, SH003, mixed extract from Astragalus membranaceus, Angelica gigas, and Trichosanthes kirilowii Maximowicz, suppressed MDA-MB-231 tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo and reduced the viability and metastatic abilities of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Furthermore, SH003 inhibited STAT3 activation, which resulted in a reduction of IL-6 production. Therefore, we conclude that SH003 suppresses highly metastatic breast cancer growth and metastasis by inhibiting STAT3-IL-6 signaling path. PMID:24976685

  10. miR-136 suppresses tumor invasion and metastasis by targeting RASAL2 in triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    YAN, MEISI; LI, XIAOBO; TONG, DANDAN; HAN, CHANGSONG; ZHAO, RAN; HE, YAN; JIN, XIAOMING

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of cancer migration, invasion and metastasis. Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) have a high incidence of early relapse and metastasis; however, the molecular basis for metastasis and recurrence in these individuals remains largely unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-136 is an anti-invasive microRNA in TNBC and suppresses mesenchymal invasion and metastasis. Our results demonstrated that miR-136 was downregulated in TNBC and negative correlated with the WHO grades. However, RASAL2 was identified as a functional target of miR-136, and was overexpressed in TNBC and correlates with pathological grades. Moreover, overexpression of RASAL2 in a breast cancer cell line rescued miR-136-mediated cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, these results indicate that the miR-136/RASAL2/MET axis act as a suppressor of TNBC metastasis. PMID:27108696

  11. Targeting COX-2 and EP4 to control tumor growth, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and metastasis to the lungs and lymph nodes in a breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xiping; Majumder, Mousumi; Girish, Gannareddy V; Mohindra, Vik; Maruyama, Takayuki; Lala, Peeyush K

    2012-08-01

    We reported that cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 expression in human breast cancer stimulated cancer cell migration and invasiveness, production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and lymphangiogenesis in situ, largely from endogenous PGE2-mediated stimulation of prostaglandin E (EP)1 and EP4 receptors, presenting them as candidate therapeutic targets against lymphatic metastasis. As human breast cancer xenografts in immuno-compromised mice have limitations for preclinical testing, we developed a syngeneic murine breast cancer model of spontaneous lymphatic metastasis mimicking human and applied it for mechanistic and therapeutic studies. We tested the roles of COX-2 and EP receptors in VEGF-C and -D production by a highly metastatic COX-2 expressing murine breast cancer cell line C3L5. These cells expressed all EP receptors and produced VEGF-C and -D, both inhibited with COX-2 inhibitors or EP4 (but not EP1, EP2 or EP3) antagonists. C3H/HeJ mice, when implanted SC in both inguinal regions with C3L5 cells suspended in growth factor-reduced Matrigel, exhibited rapid tumor growth, tumor-associated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis (respectively measured with CD31 and LYVE-1 immunostaining), metastasis to the inguinal and axillary lymph nodes and the lungs. Chronic oral administration of COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor indomethacin, COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib and an EP4 antagonist ONO-AE3-208, but not an EP1 antagonist ONO-8713 at nontoxic doses markedly reduced tumor growth, lymphangiogenesis, angiogenesis, and metastasis to lymph nodes and lungs. Residual tumors in responding mice revealed reduced VEGF-C and -D proteins, AkT phosphorylation and increased apoptotic/proliferative cell ratios consistent with blockade of EP4 signaling. We suggest that EP4 antagonists deserve clinical testing for chemo-intervention of lymphatic metastasis in human breast cancer.

  12. The milk protein α-casein functions as a tumor suppressor via activation of STAT1 signaling, effectively preventing breast cancer tumor growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Bonuccelli, Gloria; Castello-Cros, Remedios; Capozza, Franco; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Lin, Zhao; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Xuanmao, Jiao; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Howell, Anthony; Lisanti, Michael P.; Sotgia, Federica

    2012-01-01

    Here, we identified the milk protein α-casein as a novel suppressor of tumor growth and metastasis. Briefly, Met-1 mammary tumor cells expressing α-casein showed a ~5-fold reduction in tumor growth and a near 10-fold decrease in experimental metastasis. To identify the molecular mechanism(s), we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Interestingly, our results show that α-casein upregulates gene transcripts associated with interferon/STAT1 signaling and downregulates genes associated with “stemness.” These findings were validated by immunoblot and FACS analysis, which showed the upregulation and hyperactivation of STAT1 and a decrease in the number of CD44(+) “cancer stem cells.” These gene signatures were also able to predict clinical outcome in human breast cancer patients. Thus, we conclude that a lactation-based therapeutic strategy using recombinant α-casein would provide a more natural and non-toxic approach to the development of novel anticancer therapies. PMID:23047602

  13. Interaction of platelet-derived autotaxin with tumor integrin αVβ3 controls metastasis of breast cancer cells to bone.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Raphael; Lee, Sue-Chin; David, Marion; Bordet, Jean-Claude; Norman, Derek D; Patil, Renukadevi; Miller, Duane; Sahay, Debashish; Ribeiro, Johnny; Clézardin, Philippe; Tigyi, Gabor J; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2014-11-13

    Autotaxin (ATX), through its lysophospholipase D activity controls physiological levels of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in blood. ATX is overexpressed in multiple types of cancers, and together with LPA generated during platelet activation promotes skeletal metastasis of breast cancer. However, the pathophysiological sequelae of regulated interactions between circulating LPA, ATX, and platelets remain undefined in cancer. In this study, we show that ATX is stored in α-granules of resting human platelets and released upon tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation, leading to the production of LPA. Our in vitro and in vivo experiments using human breast cancer cells that do not express ATX (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-B02) demonstrate that nontumoral ATX controls the early stage of bone colonization by tumor cells. Moreover, expression of a dominant negative integrin αvβ3-Δ744 or treatment with the anti-human αvβ3 monoclonal antibody LM609, completely abolished binding of ATX to tumor cells, demonstrating the requirement of a fully active integrin αvβ3 in this process. The present results establish a new mechanism for platelet contribution to LPA-dependent metastasis of breast cancer cells, and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of disrupting the binding of nontumor-derived ATX with the tumor cells for the prevention of metastasis.

  14. An Orthotopic Mouse Model of Spontaneous Breast Cancer Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Paschall, Amy V; Liu, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the primary cause of mortality of breast cancer patients. The mechanism underlying cancer cell metastasis, including breast cancer metastasis, is largely unknown and is a focus in cancer research. Various breast cancer spontaneous metastasis mouse models have been established. Here, we report a simplified procedure to establish orthotopic transplanted breast cancer primary tumor and resultant spontaneous metastasis that mimic human breast cancer metastasis. Combined with the bioluminescence live tumor imaging, this mouse model allows tumor growth and progression kinetics to be monitored and quantified. In this model, a low dose (1 x 10(4) cells) of 4T1-Luc breast cancer cells was injected into BALB/c mouse mammary fat pad using a tuberculin syringe. Mice were injected with luciferin and imaged at various time points using a bioluminescent imaging system. When the primary tumors grew to the size limit as in the IACUC-approved protocol (approximately 30 days), mice were anesthetized under constant flow of 2% isoflurane and oxygen. The tumor area was sterilized with 70% ethanol. The mouse skin around the tumor was excised to expose the tumor which was removed with a pair of sterile scissors. Removal of the primary tumor extends the survival of the 4T-1 tumor-bearing mice for one month. The mice were then repeatedly imaged for metastatic tumor spreading to distant organs. Therapeutic agents can be administered to suppress tumor metastasis at this point. This model is simple and yet sensitive in quantifying breast cancer cell growth in the primary site and progression kinetics to distant organs, and thus is an excellent model for studying breast cancer growth and progression, and for testing anti-metastasis therapeutic and immunotherapeutic agents in vivo. PMID:27584043

  15. Induction of proinflammatory mediators by CHI3L1 is reduced by chitin treatment: decreased tumor metastasis in a breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Libreros, Stephania; Garcia-Areas, Ramon; Shibata, Yoshimi; Carrio, Roberto; Torroella-Kouri, Marta; Iragavarapu-Charyulu, Vijaya

    2012-07-15

    Disseminated metastasis accounts for over 90% of breast cancer deaths. Recently, elevated serum levels of a glycoprotein known as chitinase-3 like-protein-1 (CHI3L1) has been correlated with poor prognosis and shorter survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer. In this study, we show that there are increased levels of CHI3L1 in plasma of tumor-bearing mice and that both tumor cells and immune cells express and secrete CHI3L1. However, the biological and physiological functions of CHI3L1 are still unclear. We demonstrate that while CHI3L1 has an inhibitory role in the expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), CHI3L1 up-regulates pro-inflammatory mediators, C-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), chemokine CX motif ligand 2 (CXCL2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) all of which contribute to tumor growth and metastasis. We found that in vitro inhibition of CHI3L1 by siRNA suppressed the production of CCL2, CXCL2 and MMP-9 by macrophages. In vivo treatment of mammary tumor-bearing mice with chitin (β-(1-4)-poly-N-acetyl D-glucosamine), a TH(1) adjuvant and a ligand for CHI3L1, promoted immune effector functions with increased production of IFN-γ and decreased CCL2, CXCL2 and MMP-9 expression. In vivo administration of chitin to mammary tumor-bearing mice significantly decreased lung metastasis. These studies show that CHI3L1 plays a role in tumor progression and that chitin can inhibit the pleiotropic effects of CHI3L1 giving support to the idea that CHI3L1 is a useful therapeutic target for treatment of breast cancer.

  16. Rhus coriaria suppresses angiogenesis, metastasis and tumor growth of breast cancer through inhibition of STAT3, NFκB and nitric oxide pathways

    PubMed Central

    El Hasasna, Hussain; Saleh, Alaaeldin; Samri, Halima Al; Athamneh, Khawlah; Attoub, Samir; Arafat, Kholoud; Benhalilou, Nehla; Alyan, Sofyan; Viallet, Jean; Dhaheri, Yusra Al; Eid, Ali; Iratni, Rabah

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported that Rhus coriaria exhibits anticancer activities by promoting cell cycle arrest and autophagic cell death of the metastatic triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Here, we investigated the effect of Rhus coriaria on the migration, invasion, metastasis and tumor growth of TNBC cells. Our current study revealed that non-cytotoxic concentrations of Rhus coriaria significantly inhibited migration and invasion, blocked adhesion to fibronectin and downregulated MMP-9 and prostaglandin E2 (PgE2). Not only did Rhus coriaria decrease their adhesion to HUVECs and to lung microvascular endothelial (HMVEC-L) cells, but it also inhibited the transendothelial migration of MDA-MB-231 cells through TNF-α-activated HUVECs. Furthermore, we found that Rhus coriaria inhibited angiogenesis, reduced VEGF production in both MDA-MB-231 and HUVECs and downregulated the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8. The underlying mechanism for Rhus coriaria effects appears to be through inhibiting NFκB, STAT3 and nitric oxide (NO) pathways. Most importantly, by using chick embryo tumor growth assay, we showed that Rhus coriaria suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. The results described in the present study identify Rhus coriaria as a promising chemopreventive and therapeutic candidate that modulate triple negative breast cancer growth and metastasis. PMID:26888313

  17. Concordance of folate receptor-α expression between biopsy, primary tumor and metastasis in breast cancer and lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Ann-Jean; Charehbili, Ayoub; Hoogstins, Charlotte E.S.; Prevoo, Hendrica A. J. M.; Singhal, Sunil; Low, Philip S.; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2016-01-01

    Folate receptor alpha (FRα) is known to be upregulated in a variety of cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and breast cancer. To ensure reliable implementation of diagnostic- and therapeutic agents, concordance of FRα expression between biopsy, primary tumor and metastases is important. Using immunohistochemistry (Mab 26B3.F2) these concordances were investigated in 60 NSCLC and 40 breast cancer patients. False positivity of FRα expression on breast and lung cancer biopsies was limited to less than 5%. In NSCLC, FRα expression was shown in 21/34 adenocarcinomas and 4/26 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Concordance of FRα expression between biopsy and primary tumor was achieved in respectively 83% and 91% of adenocarcinomas and SCCs. Approximately 80% of all local and distant metastases of NSCLC patients showed concordant FRα expression as their corresponding primary tumor. In breast cancer, FRα positivity was shown in 12/40 biopsies, 20/40 lumpectomies and 6/20 LN metastases, with concordance of 68% between biopsy and primary tumor and 60% between primary tumor and LN metastases. In conclusion, this study shows high concordance rates of FRα expression between biopsies and metastases compared to primary NSCLC and breast cancers, underscoring the applicability of FRα-targeted agents in these patients. PMID:26943581

  18. Vasculogenic mimicry and tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxin; Qiao, Lili; Liang, Ning; Xie, Jian; Luo, Hui; Deng, Guodong; Zhang, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    Vasculogenic mimicry (VM), a microvascular channel made up of nonendothelial cells, has been accepted as a new model of neovascularization in aggressive tumors, owning to the specific capacity of malignant cells to form vessel-like networks which provide sufficient blood supply for tumor growth. Multiple molecular mechanisms, especially vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor A2 (EphA2), phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR1), and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1a, have been reported to participate in VM formation which is associated with tumor migration and invasion. In addition, hypoxia, cancer stem cells (CSCs) and epithelial-mesenehymal transition (EMT) are regarded as significant factors in VM formation and tumor metastasis. Due to the important effects of VM on tumor progression, a review was carried out in the present study, to synthetically analyze the relationship between VM and tumor metastasis. PMID:27569069

  19. Enhanced MAF Oncogene Expression and Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovic, Milica; Arnal-Estapé, Anna; Rojo, Federico; Bellmunt, Anna; Tarragona, Maria; Guiu, Marc; Planet, Evarist; Garcia-Albéniz, Xabier; Morales, Mónica; Urosevic, Jelena; Gawrzak, Sylwia; Rovira, Ana; Prat, Aleix; Nonell, Lara; Lluch, Ana; Jean-Mairet, Joël; Coleman, Robert; Albanell, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are currently no biomarkers for early breast cancer patient populations at risk of bone metastasis. Identification of mediators of bone metastasis could be of clinical interest. Methods: A de novo unbiased screening approach based on selection of highly bone metastatic breast cancer cells in vivo was used to determine copy number aberrations (CNAs) associated with bone metastasis. The CNAs associated with bone metastasis were examined in independent primary breast cancer datasets with annotated clinical follow-up. The MAF gene encoded within the CNA associated with bone metastasis was subjected to gain and loss of function validation in breast cancer cells (MCF7, T47D, ZR-75, and 4T1), its downstream mechanism validated, and tested in clinical samples. A multivariable Cox cause-specific hazard model with competing events (death) was used to test the association between 16q23 or MAF and bone metastasis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: 16q23 gain CNA encoding the transcription factor MAF mediates breast cancer bone metastasis through the control of PTHrP. 16q23 gain (hazard ratio (HR) for bone metastasis = 14.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.4 to 32.9, P < .001) as well as MAF overexpression (HR for bone metastasis = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.7 to 3.8, P < .001) in primary breast tumors were specifically associated with risk of metastasis to bone but not to other organs. Conclusions: These results suggest that MAF is a mediator of breast cancer bone metastasis. 16q23 gain or MAF protein overexpression in tumors may help to select patients at risk of bone relapse. PMID:26376684

  20. Targeting of TGF-β-activated protein kinase 1 inhibits chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 expression, tumor growth and metastasis in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Wen-Chun; Hou, Ming-Feng

    2015-01-01

    TGF-β-activated protein kinase 1 (TAK1) is a critical mediator in inflammation, immune response and cancer development. Our previous study demonstrated that activation of TAK1 increases the expression of chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 (CCR7) and promotes lymphatic invasion ability of breast cancer cells. However, the expression and association of activated TAK1 and CCR7 in breast tumor tissues is unknown and the therapeutic effect by targeting TAK1 is also unclear. We showed that activated TAK1 (as indicated by phospho-TAK1) and its binding protein TAB1 are strongly expressed in breast tumor tissues (77% and 74% respectively). In addition, increase of phospho-TAK1 or TAB1 is strongly associated with over-expression of CCR7. TAK1 inhibitor 5Z-7-Oxozeaenol (5Z-O) inhibited TAK1 activity, suppressed downstream signaling pathways including p38, IκB kinase (IKK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and reduced CCR7 expression in metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, 5Z-O repressed NF-κB- and c-JUN-mediated transcription of CCR7 gene. Knockdown of TAB1 attenuated CCR7 expression and tumor growth in an orthotopic animal study. More importantly, lymphatic invasion and lung metastasis were suppressed. Collectively, our results demonstrate that constitutive activation of TAK1 is frequently found in human breast cancer and this kinase is a potential therapeutic target for this cancer. PMID:25557171

  1. Tumor-evoked regulatory B cells promote breast cancer metastasis by converting resting CD4⁺ T cells to T-regulatory cells.

    PubMed

    Olkhanud, Purevdorj B; Damdinsuren, Bazarragchaa; Bodogai, Monica; Gress, Ronald E; Sen, Ranjan; Wejksza, Katarzyna; Malchinkhuu, Enkhzol; Wersto, Robert P; Biragyn, Arya

    2011-05-15

    Pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer requires recruitment and expansion of T-regulatory cells (Treg) that promote escape from host protective immune cells. However, it remains unclear precisely how tumors recruit Tregs to support metastatic growth. Here we report the mechanistic involvement of a unique and previously undescribed subset of regulatory B cells. These cells, designated tumor-evoked Bregs (tBreg), phenotypically resemble activated but poorly proliferative mature B2 cells (CD19(+) CD25(High) CD69(High)) that express constitutively active Stat3 and B7-H1(High) CD81(High) CD86(High) CD62L(Low) IgM(Int). Our studies with the mouse 4T1 model of breast cancer indicate that the primary role of tBregs in lung metastases is to induce TGF-β-dependent conversion of FoxP3(+) Tregs from resting CD4(+) T cells. In the absence of tBregs, 4T1 tumors cannot metastasize into the lungs efficiently due to poor Treg conversion. Our findings have important clinical implications, as they suggest that tBregs must be controlled to interrupt the initiation of a key cancer-induced immunosuppressive event that is critical to support cancer metastasis. PMID:21444674

  2. Breast metastasis from vaginal cancer.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Neeraja; Scharifker, Daniel; Varsegi, George; Almeida, Zoyla

    2016-07-21

    Vaginal cancer is a rare malignancy accounting for 1-2% of all pelvic neoplasms. Dissemination usually occurs through local invasion and rarely metastasises to distal locations. Metastasis of vaginal cancer to the breast is extremely infrequent and unique. A 66-year-old Asian woman presented with vaginal bleeding and was found to have a vaginal mass and a left breast mass. Pathological assessment of the biopsies revealed identical squamous cell characteristics of both masses. We describe a very rare and novel case of a distally located vaginal carcinoma with metastasis to the breast Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IV (FIGO IVB). Robot-assisted extrafascial total hysterectomy with local vaginal mass excision and partial mastectomy of the left breast were performed. After surgery, the patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy followed by breast and pelvic radiotherapy, with maintained complete remission after 3 years of follow-up. This combination of findings and treatment is very distinct with a unique and favourable response.

  3. Breast metastasis from vaginal cancer.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Neeraja; Scharifker, Daniel; Varsegi, George; Almeida, Zoyla

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal cancer is a rare malignancy accounting for 1-2% of all pelvic neoplasms. Dissemination usually occurs through local invasion and rarely metastasises to distal locations. Metastasis of vaginal cancer to the breast is extremely infrequent and unique. A 66-year-old Asian woman presented with vaginal bleeding and was found to have a vaginal mass and a left breast mass. Pathological assessment of the biopsies revealed identical squamous cell characteristics of both masses. We describe a very rare and novel case of a distally located vaginal carcinoma with metastasis to the breast Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IV (FIGO IVB). Robot-assisted extrafascial total hysterectomy with local vaginal mass excision and partial mastectomy of the left breast were performed. After surgery, the patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy followed by breast and pelvic radiotherapy, with maintained complete remission after 3 years of follow-up. This combination of findings and treatment is very distinct with a unique and favourable response. PMID:27444140

  4. Low local blood perfusion, high white blood cell and high platelet count are associated with primary tumor growth and lung metastasis in a 4T1 mouse breast cancer metastasis model

    PubMed Central

    WANG, CHUAN; CHEN, YING-GE; GAO, JIAN-LI; LYU, GUI-YUAN; SU, JIE; ZHANG, QI; JI, XIN; YAN, JI-ZHONG; QIU, QIAO-LI; ZHANG, YUE-LI; LI, LIN-ZI; XU, HAN-TING; CHEN, SU-HONG

    2015-01-01

    It was originally thought that no single routine blood test result would be able to indicate whether or not a patient had cancer; however, several novel studies have indicated that the median survival and prognosis of cancer patients were markedly associated with the systemic circulation features of cancer patients. In addition, certain parameters, such as white blood cell (WBC) count, were largely altered in malignant tumors. In the present study, routine blood tests were performed in order to observe the change of blood cells in tumor-bearing mice following the implantation of 4T1 breast cancer cells into the mammary fat pad; in addition, blood flow in breast tumor sites was measured indirectly using laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI), in an attempt to explain the relevance between the blood circulation features and the growth or metastasis of breast cancer in mice model. The LDPI and blood test results indicated that the implantation of 4T1 breast cancer cells into BALB/c mice led to thrombosis as well as high WBC count, high platelet count, high plateletcrit and low blood perfusion. Following implantation of the 4T1 cells for four weeks, the lung metastatic number was determined and the Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that the number of visceral lung metastatic sites had a marked negative association with the ratio of basophils (BASO%; r=-0.512; P<0.01) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin was significantly correlated with primary tumor weight (r=0.425; P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that tumor growth led to thrombosis and acute anemia in mice; in addition, when blood BASO% was low, an increased number of lung metastases were observed in tumor-bearing mice. PMID:26622565

  5. Remodeling of the Methylation Landscape in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Reyngold, Marsha; Turcan, Sevin; Giri, Dilip; Kannan, Kasthuri; Walsh, Logan A.; Viale, Agnes; Drobnjak, Marija; Vahdat, Linda T.; Lee, William; Chan, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    The development of breast cancer metastasis is accompanied by dynamic transcriptome changes and dramatic alterations in nuclear and chromatin structure. The basis of these changes is incompletely understood. The DNA methylome of primary breast cancers contribute to transcriptomic heterogeneity and different metastatic behavior. Therefore we sought to characterize methylome remodeling during regional metastasis. We profiled the DNA methylome and transcriptome of 44 matched primary breast tumors and regional metastases. Striking subtype-specific patterns of metastasis-associated methylome remodeling were observed, which reflected the molecular heterogeneity of breast cancers. These divergent changes occurred primarily in CpG island (CGI)-poor areas. Regions of methylome reorganization shared by the subtypes were also observed, and we were able to identify a metastasis-specific methylation signature that was present across the breast cancer subclasses. These alterations also occurred outside of CGIs and promoters, including sequences flanking CGIs and intergenic sequences. Integrated analysis of methylation and gene expression identified genes whose expression correlated with metastasis-specific methylation. Together, these findings significantly enhance our understanding of the epigenetic reorganization that occurs during regional breast cancer metastasis across the major breast cancer subtypes and reveal the nature of methylome remodeling during this process. PMID:25083786

  6. HER2 discordance between primary breast cancer and its paired metastasis: tumor biology or test artefact? Insights through meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Houssami, Nehmat; Macaskill, Petra; Balleine, Rosemary L; Bilous, Michael; Pegram, Mark D

    2011-10-01

    The proto-oncogene, HER2, has prognostic and predictive relevance in invasive breast cancer (IBC). HER2 testing of primary IBC guides treatment selection and is assumed to reflect HER2 status of associated metastases, although HER2 discordance between IBC and metastasis has been reported. Systematic review and meta-analysis of HER2 status in IBC and its paired loco-regional or distant metastasis were done. Quality appraisal considered whether (within-subject) testing conditions were maintained for paired primary and metastasis. Random effects logistic regression models were used to estimate pooled within-subject HER2 discordant proportions and to examine study-level covariates, including tumor-related and testing-related variables, potentially associated with HER2 discordance differences across (between) studies. Modelled paired HER2 data for primary and metastatic cancer (2520 subjects, 26 studies) showed a pooled HER2 discordance of 5.5% (3.6-8.5%). Sensitivity analysis, excluding the only study not maintaining same conditions for paired testing, gave a pooled estimate of 5.2% (3.5-7.8%). Pooled discordant proportion was not associated with differences between studies in test type, test scoring or interpretation criteria, subjects' median age, study time-frame, or HER2 positivity in primary cancer (all P > 0.05). However, type of metastasis was significantly associated with estimated HER2 discordance (P = 0.0017): studies of primary tumor paired with distant metastases had higher discordance [11.5% (6.9-18.6%)] than studies of primary paired with lymph node metastases only [4.1% (2.4-7.2%)], or those paired with nodal or various metastases [3.3% (2.0-5.6%)]; P < 0.01. HER2 discordant proportion was higher where paired metastases were metachronous relative to synchronous to primary IBC (P = 0.0024). Sensitivity analysis provided weak evidence (P = 0.074) that discordance in the direction of change from HER2-negative primary cancer to HER2-positive paired

  7. Receptor Activator of NF-kB (RANK) Expression in Primary Tumors Associates with Bone Metastasis Occurrence in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Bruno; Gaeta, Laura; Pantano, Francesco; Russo, Antonio; Ortega, Cinzia; Porta, Camillo; Galluzzo, Sara; Armento, Grazia; La Verde, Nicla; Caroti, Cinzia; Treilleux, Isabelle; Ruggiero, Alessandro; Perrone, Giuseppe; Addeo, Raffaele; Clezardin, Philippe; Muda, Andrea Onetti; Tonini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Background Receptor activator of NFkB (RANK), its ligand (RANKL) and the decoy receptor of RANKL (osteoprotegerin, OPG) play a pivotal role in bone remodeling by regulating osteoclasts formation and activity. RANKL stimulates migration of RANK-expressing tumor cells in vitro, conversely inhibited by OPG. Materials and Methods We examined mRNA expression levels of RANKL/RANK/OPG in a publicly available microarray dataset of 295 primary breast cancer patients. We next analyzed RANK expression by immunohistochemistry in an independent series of 93 primary breast cancer specimens and investigated a possible association with clinicopathological parameters, bone recurrence and survival. Results Microarray analysis showed that lower RANK and high OPG mRNA levels correlate with longer overall survival (P = 0.0078 and 0.0335, respectively) and disease-free survival (P = 0.059 and 0.0402, respectively). Immunohistochemical analysis of RANK showed a positive correlation with the development of bone metastases (P = 0.023) and a shorter skeletal disease-free survival (SDFS, P = 0.037). Specifically, univariate analysis of survival showed that “RANK-negative” and “RANK-positive” patients had a SDFS of 105.7 months (95% CI: 73.9–124.4) and 58.9 months (95% CI: 34.7–68.5), respectively. RANK protein expression was also associated with accelerated bone metastasis formation in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.029). Conclusions This is the first demonstration of the role of RANK expression in primary tumors as a predictive marker of bone metastasis occurrence and SDFS in a large population of breast cancer patients. PMID:21559440

  8. Gastric Metastasis of Breast Cancer: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Fernandes, Gustavo; Batista Bugiato Faria, Luiza D.; de Assis Pereira, Isadora; Neves, Natália C. Moreira; Vieira, Yasmine Oliveira; Leal, Alessandro I. Cavalcanti

    2016-01-01

    Gastric metastasis is rare but it can be the initial symptom of cancer. The second leading cause of this type of metastasis is breast cancer. A lack of clinical signs and nonspecific side effects of the treatment of primary tumors can lead to the misdiagnosis of metastatic gastric cancer. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy and immunohistochemistry should be used for diagnosis. Treatment is palliative; it includes chemo, endocrine, and radiation therapies. Four patients with breast cancer and gastric metastasis were identified. All the patients tested positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, and received chemotherapy and hormone therapy. One patient underwent surgery and two received radiation therapy. Patients with breast cancer and gastrointestinal symptoms should be investigated for gastric metastasis, given its morbidity and negative impact on quality of life. PMID:27746881

  9. Integrin activation controls metastasis in human breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felding-Habermann, Brunhilde; O'Toole, Timothy E.; Smith, Jeffrey W.; Fransvea, Emilia; Ruggeri, Zaverio M.; Ginsberg, Mark H.; Hughes, Paul E.; Pampori, Nisar; Shattil, Sanford J.; Saven, Alan; Mueller, Barbara M.

    2001-02-01

    Metastasis is the primary cause of death in human breast cancer. Metastasis to bone, lungs, liver, and brain involves dissemination of breast cancer cells via the bloodstream and requires adhesion within the vasculature. Blood cell adhesion within the vasculature depends on integrins, a family of transmembrane adhesion receptors, and is regulated by integrin activation. Here we show that integrin v3 supports breast cancer cell attachment under blood flow conditions in an activation-dependent manner. Integrin v3 was found in two distinct functional states in human breast cancer cells. The activated, but not the nonactivated, state supported tumor cell arrest during blood flow through interaction with platelets. Importantly, activated αvβ3 was expressed by freshly isolated metastatic human breast cancer cells and variants of the MDA-MB 435 human breast cancer cell line, derived from mammary fat pad tumors or distant metastases in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Expression of constitutively activated mutant αvβ3D723R, but not αvβ3WT, in MDA-MB 435 cells strongly promoted metastasis in the mouse model. Thus breast cancer cells can exhibit a platelet-interactive and metastatic phenotype that is controlled by the activation of integrin αvβ3. Consequently, alterations within tumors that lead to the aberrant control of integrin activation are expected to adversely affect the course of human breast cancer.

  10. Polyphenolics from peach (Prunus persica var. Rich Lady) inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Noratto, Giuliana; Porter, Weston; Byrne, David; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2014-07-01

    The tumor growth inhibition and anti-metastatic effects of peach polyphenolics were investigated in vivo using a xenograft model and MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells. Results showed that tumor growth and lung metastasis were inhibited in vivo by peach polyphenolics in a dose range of 0.8-1.6 mg/day, and these effects were mediated by inhibition of metalloproteinases gene expression. Modulation of metalloproteinase-2, metalloproteinase-3 and metalloproteinase-13 gene expression may be some of the molecular targets for anti-metastatic activity of peach polyphenolics. Therefore, these compounds may constitute a novel chemopreventive tool to reduce the risk of metastasis in the combination therapy when primary cancer is diagnosed. Conversion to equivalent human intake for future clinical studies using the body surface area normalization method gave a dose of ~370.6 mg/day for a human adult of 60 kg, which can be supplied by consuming two to three peach fruit per day or alternatively using a dietary supplement peach polyphenol extract powder.

  11. Targeting type Iγ phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase inhibits breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Wang, X; Xiong, X; Liu, Q; Huang, Y; Xu, Q; Hu, J; Ge, G; Ling, K

    2015-08-27

    Most deaths from breast cancer are caused by metastasis, a complex behavior of cancer cells involving migration, invasion, survival and microenvironment manipulation. Type Iγ phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase (PIPKIγ) regulates focal adhesion assembly and its phosphorylation at Y639 is critical for cell migration induced by EGF. However, the role of this lipid kinase in tumor metastasis remains unclear. Here we report that PIPKIγ is vital for breast cancer metastasis. Y639 of PIPKIγ can be phosphorylated by stimulation of EGF and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), two promoting factors for breast cancer progression. Histological analysis revealed elevated Y639 phosphorylation of PIPKIγ in invasive ductal carcinoma lesions and suggested a positive correlation with tumor grade. Orthotopically transplanted PIPKIγ-depleted breast cancer cells showed substantially reduced growth and metastasis, as well as suppressed expression of multiple genes related to cell migration and microenvironment manipulation. Re-expression of wild-type PIPKIγ in PIPKIγ-depleted cells restored tumor growth and metastasis, reinforcing the importance of PIPKIγ in breast cancer progression. Y639-to-F or a kinase-dead mutant of PIPKIγ could not recover the diminished metastasis in PIPKIγ-depleted cancer cells, suggesting that Y639 phosphorylation and lipid kinase activity are both required for development of metastasis. Further analysis with in vitro assays indicated that depleting PIPKIγ inhibited cell proliferation, MMP9 secretion and cell migration and invasion, lending molecular mechanisms for the eliminated cancer progression. These results suggest that PIPKIγ, downstream of EGF and/or HGF receptor, participates in breast cancer progression from multiple aspects and deserves further studies to explore its potential as a therapeutic target.

  12. Hwanggeumchal sorghum Induces Cell Cycle Arrest, and Suppresses Tumor Growth and Metastasis through Jak2/STAT Pathways in Breast Cancer Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Eun Joung; Joung, Youn Hee; Hong, Dae Young; Park, Eui U.; Park, Seung Hwa; Choi, Soo Keun; Moon, Eon-Soo; Cho, Byung Wook; Park, Kyung Do; Lee, Hak Kyo; Kim, Myong-Jo; Park, Dong-Sik; Yang, Young Mok

    2012-01-01

    Background Cancer is one of the highly virulent diseases known to humankind with a high mortality rate. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Sorghum is a principal cereal food in many parts of the world, and is critical in folk medicine of Asia and Africa. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of HSE in metastatic breast cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings Preliminary studies conducted on MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7 xenograft models showed tumor growth suppression by HSE. Western blotting studies conducted both in vivo and in vitro to check the effect of HSE in Jak/STAT pathways. Anti-metastatic effects of HSE were confirmed using both MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7 metastatic animal models. These studies showed that HSE can modulate Jak/STAT pathways, and it hindered the STAT5b/IGF-1R and STAT3/VEGF pathways not only by down-regulating the expression of these signal molecules and but also by preventing their phosphorylation. The expression of angiogenic factors like VEGF, VEGF-R2 and cell cycle regulators like cyclin D, cyclin E, and pRb were found down-regulated by HSE. In addition, it also targets Brk, p53, and HIF-1α for anti-cancer effects. HSE induced G1 phase arrest and migration inhibition in MDA-MB 231 cells. The metastasis of breast cancer to the lungs also found blocked by HSE in the metastatic animal model. Conclusions/Significance Usage of HS as a dietary supplement is an inexpensive natural cancer therapy, without any side effects. We strongly recommend the use of HS as an edible therapeutic agent as it possesses tumor suppression, migration inhibition, and anti-metastatic effects on breast cancer. PMID:22792362

  13. Chitosan-based nanoparticles for survivin targeted siRNA delivery in breast tumor therapy and preventing its metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ping; Huang, Wei; Jin, Mingji; Wang, Qiming; Fan, Bo; Kang, Lin; Gao, Zhonggao

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery is a promising therapeutic strategy in various cancers. However, it is difficult to deliver degradative siRNA to tumor tissue, and thus a safe and efficient vector for siRNA delivery is essential for cancer therapy. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol)-modified chitosan (PEG-CS) was synthesized successfully for delivering nucleic acid drug. We deemed that PEGylated CS could improve its solubility by forming a stable siRNA loaded in nanoparticles, and enhancing transfection efficiency of siRNA-loaded CS nanoparticles in cancer cell line. The research results showed that siRNA loaded in PEGylated CS (PEG-CS/siRNA) nanoparticles with smaller particle size had superior structural stability in the physical environment compared to CS nanoparticles. The data of in vitro antitumor activity revealed that 4T1 tumor cell growth was significantly inhibited and cellular uptake of PEG-CS/siRNA nanoparticles in 4T1 cells was dramatically enhanced compared to naked siRNA groups. The results from flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that PEG-CS/siRNA nanoparticles were more easily taken up than naked siRNA. Importantly, PEG-CS/siRNA nanoparticles significantly reduced the growth of xenograft tumors of 4T1 cells in vivo. It has been demonstrated that the PEG-CS is a safe and efficient vector for siRNA delivery, and it can effectively reduce tumor growth and prevent metastasis. PMID:27729789

  14. Metastasis of breast cancer to renal cancer: report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Huo, Zhijun; Gao, Yongsheng; Yu, Zhiyong; Zuo, Wenshu; Zhang, Yanfang

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-to-tumor metastasis (TTM) is a rare phenomenon. We present a case of an invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast metastasizing to a clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Breast cancer (BC) metastasis to the RCC is rarely reported, especially in resected kidney tumor. In several cases reported, IDC was the exclusively histologic type of BC metastasized to RCC. It seems that the different molecular type of IDC doesn't affect the metastatic tendencies to RCC. TTM was an indicator of diffuse disease. For any patient with a history of breast cancer, especially with multi-organs metastasis, resection of kidney tumor should be carefully considered.

  15. Metastasis genetics, epigenetics, and the tumor microenvironment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    KISS1 is a member of a family of genes known as metastasis suppressors, defined by their ability to block metastasis without blocking primary tumor development and growth. KISS1 re-expression in multiple metastatic cell lines of diverse cellular origin suppresses metastasis; yet, still allows comple...

  16. Epigenetic regulator RBP2 is critical for breast cancer progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jian; Liu, Zongzhi; Cheung, William K.C.; Zhao, Minghui; Chen, Sophia Y.; Chan, Siew Wee; Booth, Carmen J.; Nguyen, Don X.; Yan, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Metastasis is a major clinical challenge for cancer treatment. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic aberrations contribute significantly to tumor formation and progression. However, the drivers and roles of such epigenetic changes in tumor metastasis are still poorly understood. Using bioinformatic analysis of human breast cancer gene expression datasets, we identified histone demethylase RBP2 as a putative mediator of metastatic progression. By using both human breast cancer cells and genetically engineered mice, we demonstrated that RBP2 is critical for breast cancer metastasis to the lung in multiple in vivo models. Mechanistically, RBP2 promotes metastasis as a pleiotropic positive regulator of many metastasis genes. In addition, RBP2 loss suppresses tumor formation in the MMTV-neu transgenic mice. These results suggest that therapeutically targeting RBP2 is a potential strategy to inhibit tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:24582965

  17. Implications of Hypoxia in Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone

    PubMed Central

    Gilkes, Daniele M.

    2016-01-01

    Most solid tumors contain regions of hypoxia in which increased cell proliferation promotes increased oxygen consumption and the condition is further exacerbated as cancer cells become localized far from a functional blood vessel, further decreasing the oxygen supply. An important mechanism that promotes cell adaptation to hypoxic conditions is the expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). Hypoxia-inducible factors transcriptionally regulate many genes involved in the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells. Patients, whose primary tumor biopsies show high HIF expression levels, have a greater risk of metastasis. The current review will highlight the potential role of hypoxia in breast cancer metastasis to the bone by considering the regulation of many steps in the metastatic process that include invasion, migration, margination and extravasation, as well as homing signals and regulation of the bone microenvironment. PMID:27706047

  18. AGPAT9 suppresses cell growth, invasion and metastasis by counteracting acidic tumor microenvironment through KLF4/LASS2/V-ATPase signaling pathway in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhi-yong; Zhang, Zi-feng; Lu, Jun; Li, Meng-qiu; Shan, Qun; Wu, Dong-mei; Sun, Chun-hui; Hu, Bin; Zheng, Yuan-lin

    2015-01-01

    Human 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 9 (AGPAT9) is the gene identified from adipose tissue in 2007. We found AGPAT9 expression was significantly higher in poorly invasive MCF7 human breast cancer cells than the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells. AGPAT9 significantly inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Live-cell imaging and transwell assays showed that AGPAT9 could significantly inhibit the migration and invasive capacities of breast cancer cells. The inhibitory effect of AGPAT9 on metastasis was also observed in vivo in lung metastasis model. AGPAT9 inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion through, at least in part, suppressing the V-ATPase activity. In addition, increased AGPAT9 expression in MCF-7/ADR cells could increase the chemosensitivity to doxorubicin (Dox). Our findings suggest that increasing AGPAT9 expression may be a new approach that can be used for breast cancer treatment. PMID:26110566

  19. Breast cancer metastasis: a microRNA story.

    PubMed

    Negrini, Massimo; Calin, George Adrian

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs with regulatory functions, which play an important role in breast cancer. Several studies have shown that miRNAs can act either as tumor suppressors or as oncogenes, and that measurement of miRNA expression in malignancies may have diagnostic and prognostic implications. This article highlights a series of three recent studies that prove the involvement of miRNAs in breast cancer metastases. The first proves that miR-10b indirectly activates the pro-metastatic gene RHOC by suppressing HOXD10, thus leading to tumor invasion and metastasis. The second proves that miR-373 and miR-520c can also promote tumor invasion and metastasis, at least in part by regulating the gene CD44. The third identifies miR-335, miR-206, and miR-126 as suppressors of breast cancer metastasis. Loss of miR-335 leads to the activation of SOX4 and TNC (encoding tenascin C), which are responsible for the acquisition of metastatic properties. Altogether, these remarkable findings are important for our understanding of malignant transformation in the breast and may have implications for the management of patients with advanced breast cancer. The use of miRNAs as anticancer therapeutic agents is promising, and such fine molecular studies certainly help in bringing miRNAs closer to clinical practice.

  20. EGFR and HER2 signaling in breast cancer brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Sirkisoon, Sherona R; Carpenter, Richard L; Rimkus, Tadas; Miller, Lance; Metheny-Barlow, Linda; Lo, Hui-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer occurs in approximately 1 in 8 women and 1 in 37 women with breast cancer succumbed to the disease. Over the past decades, new diagnostic tools and treatments have substantially improved the prognosis of women with local diseases. However, women with metastatic disease still have a dismal prognosis without effective treatments. Among different molecular subtypes of breast cancer, the HER2-enriched and basal-like subtypes typically have higher rates of metastasis to the brain. Basal-like metastatic breast tumors frequently express EGFR. Consequently, HER2- and EGFR-targeted therapies are being used in the clinic and/or evaluated in clinical trials for treating breast cancer patients with brain metastases. In this review, we will first provide an overview of the HER2 and EGFR signaling pathways. The roles that EGFR and HER2 play in breast cancer metastasis to the brain will then be discussed. Finally, we will summarize the preclinical and clinical effects of EGFR- and HER2-targeted therapies on breast cancer metastasis.

  1. Rad51 supports triple negative breast cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wiegmans, Adrian P; Al-Ejeh, Fares; Chee, Nicole; Yap, Pei-Yi; Gorski, Julia J; Silva, Leonard Da; Bolderson, Emma; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Anderson, Robin; Simpson, Peter T; Lakhani, Sunil R; Khanna, Kum Kum

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to extensive studies on familial breast cancer, it is currently unclear whether defects in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair genes play a role in sporadic breast cancer development and progression. We performed analysis of immunohistochemistry in an independent cohort of 235 were sporadic breast tumours. This analysis suggested that RAD51 expression is increased during breast cancer progression and metastasis and an oncogenic role for RAD51 when deregulated. Subsequent knockdown of RAD51 repressed cancer cell migration in vitro and reduced primary tumor growth in a syngeneic mouse model in vivo. Loss of RAD51 also inhibited associated metastasis not only in syngeneic mice but human xenografts and changed the metastatic gene expression profile of cancer cells, consistent with inhibition of distant metastasis. This demonstrates for the first time a new function of RAD51 that may underlie the proclivity of patients with RAD51 overexpression to develop distant metastasis. RAD51 is a potential biomarker and attractive drug target for metastatic triple negative breast cancer, with the capability to extend the survival of patients, which is less than 6 months. PMID:24811120

  2. Signaling pathways in breast cancer metastasis - novel insights from functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The advent of genomic profiling technology has brought about revolutionary changes in our understanding of breast cancer metastasis. Gene expression analyses of primary tumors have been used to predict metastatic propensity with high accuracy. Animal models of metastasis additionally offer a platform to experimentally dissect components of the metastasis genetic program. Recent integrated studies have synergized clinical bioinformatic analyses with advanced experimental methodology and begun to uncover the identities and dynamics of signaling programs driving breast cancer metastasis. Such functional genomics studies hold great promise for understanding the genetic basis of metastasis and improving therapeutics for advanced diseases. PMID:21457525

  3. miR-203 facilitates tumor growth and metastasis by targeting fibroblast growth factor 2 in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Shuqian; Zhang, Guihui; Dong, He; Ma, Maoqiang; Sun, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. Molecular therapy is needed to improve the outcome in patients with breast cancer. miR-203 participates in cancer cell proliferation, transformation, and apoptosis. This study showed that miR-203 was upregulated in breast cancer tissues and the MCF-7 cell line. miR-203 knockdown suppressed colony formation and transformation and also limited migration in MCF-7 cells. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) was confirmed as a novel target of miR-203, as miR-203 knockdown induced an enhanced expression of FGF2 in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, FGF2 can reverse transforming growth factor-β signal pathway to suppress breast cancer. These findings provide new insights with potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:27785068

  4. Primary pulmonary carcinoid tumor with metastasis to endometrial polyp

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Mazdak; Kolev, Valentin; Costin, Dan; Mizrachi, Howard H.; Chuang, Linus; Warner, Richard R.P.; Gretz, Herbert F.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION A carcinoid tumor occurring in the endometrium has been documented in the literature, but there is no report in regard to carcinoid tumor metastasis to endometrium. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a case of a malignant carcinoid metastasis to an endometrial polyp. Patient underwent hysteroscopy, and polypectomy. The pathology demonstrated an endometrial polyp containing a 4 mm x 5 mm nodule of metastatic carcinoid tumor, consistent with metastasis from patient's known pulmonary carcinoid. The tumor was morphologically similar to the tumors of the right lung, with similar immune-profile. DISCUSSION This patient presented with a suspicious pelvic ultrasound. Due to her age, the first priority was to exclude uterine cancer. The endometrial polyp, which was found, had a small focus of metastatic carcinoid tumor. To the best of our knowledge, this finding has not been previously recorded in the literature. Our patient also had a history of metastatic carcinoid tumor to breast. This finding is also very uncommon. CONCLUSION This is the first case in the literature described a malignant carcinoid metastasis to an endometrial polyp. PMID:23127865

  5. Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 coordinately regulates metastasis-associated microRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Mick D.; Hurst, Douglas R.; Vaidya, Kedar S.; Stafford, Lewis J.; Chen, Dongquan; Welch, Danny R.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) suppresses metastasis of multiple tumor types without blocking tumorigenesis. BRMS1 forms complexes with SIN3, histone deacetylases and selected transcription factors that modify metastasis-associated gene expression (e.g., EGFR, OPN, PI4P5K1A, PLAU). microRNA (miRNA) are a recently discovered class of regulatory, noncoding RNA, some of which are involved in neoplastic progression. Based on these data, we hypothesized that BRMS1 may also exert some of its antimetastatic effects by regulating miRNA expression. Micro-RNA arrays were done comparing small RNAs that were purified from metastatic MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 and their non-metastatic BRMS1-transfected counterparts. miRNA expression changed by BRMS1 were validated using SYBR Green RT-PCR. BRMS1 decreased metastasis-promoting (miR-10b, -373 and -520c) miRNA, with corresponding reduction of their downstream targets (e.g., RhoC which is downstream of miR-10b). Concurrently, BRMS1 increased expression of metastasis suppressing miRNA (miR-146a, -146b and -335). Collectively, these data show that BRMS1 coordinately regulates expression of multiple metastasis-associated miRNA and suggests that recruitment of BRMS1-containing SIN3:HDAC complexes to, as yet undefined, miRNA promoters might be involved in the regulation of cancer metastasis. PMID:19585508

  6. Integrated Genomic and Epigenomic Analysis of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Salhia, Bodour; Kiefer, Jeff; Ross, Julianna T. D.; Metapally, Raghu; Martinez, Rae Anne; Johnson, Kyle N.; DiPerna, Danielle M.; Paquette, Kimberly M.; Jung, Sungwon; Nasser, Sara; Wallstrom, Garrick; Tembe, Waibhav; Baker, Angela; Carpten, John; Resau, Jim; Ryken, Timothy; Sibenaller, Zita; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Liotta, Lance A.; Ramanathan, Ramesh K.; Berens, Michael E.; Tran, Nhan L.

    2014-01-01

    The brain is a common site of metastatic disease in patients with breast cancer, which has few therapeutic options and dismal outcomes. The purpose of our study was to identify common and rare events that underlie breast cancer brain metastasis. We performed deep genomic profiling, which integrated gene copy number, gene expression and DNA methylation datasets on a collection of breast brain metastases. We identified frequent large chromosomal gains in 1q, 5p, 8q, 11q, and 20q and frequent broad-level deletions involving 8p, 17p, 21p and Xq. Frequently amplified and overexpressed genes included ATAD2, BRAF, DERL1, DNMTRB and NEK2A. The ATM, CRYAB and HSPB2 genes were commonly deleted and underexpressed. Knowledge mining revealed enrichment in cell cycle and G2/M transition pathways, which contained AURKA, AURKB and FOXM1. Using the PAM50 breast cancer intrinsic classifier, Luminal B, Her2+/ER negative, and basal-like tumors were identified as the most commonly represented breast cancer subtypes in our brain metastasis cohort. While overall methylation levels were increased in breast cancer brain metastasis, basal-like brain metastases were associated with significantly lower levels of methylation. Integrating DNA methylation data with gene expression revealed defects in cell migration and adhesion due to hypermethylation and downregulation of PENK, EDN3, and ITGAM. Hypomethylation and upregulation of KRT8 likely affects adhesion and permeability. Genomic and epigenomic profiling of breast brain metastasis has provided insight into the somatic events underlying this disease, which have potential in forming the basis of future therapeutic strategies. PMID:24489661

  7. Breast cancer metastasis in a human bone NOD/SCID mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenyi; Lam, Pearl; Kitching, Richard; Kahn, Harriette J; Yee, Albert; Aubin, Jane E; Seth, Arun

    2007-08-01

    A major dilemma facing patients with breast cancer is how to decide between over treating indolent tumors and failing to adequately treat aggressive, potentially lethal cancers. Determination of the metastatic potential of a patient's breast cancer would clearly help guide those treatment decisions. Breast cancer commonly spreads to bone in 70% of women with advanced disease. However, the mechanism of bone metastasis is not well understood. One possibility is that the microenvironment within bone marrow, highly rich in growth factors and cytokines, is suitable for the proliferation of breast cancer cells. In this study, we developed a method for implanting human bone in NOD/SCID mice and show that the human bone implants are viable for more than 20 weeks. This human bone NOD/SCID mouse model provides an opportunity to functionally characterize human breast cancer cell behavior in an in vivo human microenvironment. Several breast tumor cell lines have been shown to grow in the human-bone-NOD/SCID model system, however each line has a different functional profile. Here we show that cotransplantation of GFP-MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with morcellized human bone allows for tissue specific metastasis to an initially tumor free bone implant. Furthermore, metastasis of breast tumor cells to implanted tumor-free human bone was seen when patient bone containing a metastatic breast tumor was implanted in the host mouse. With this model, we can distinguish between primary invasive breast tumors with and without bone metastatic potential. PMID:17704641

  8. Infrequent Loss of Luminal Differentiation in Ductal Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Julia; Sánchez-Cid, Lourdes; Muñoz, Montserrat; Lozano, Juan José; Thomson, Timothy M.; Fernández, Pedro L.

    2013-01-01

    Lymph node involvement is a major prognostic variable in breast cancer. Whether the molecular mechanisms that drive breast cancer cells to colonize lymph nodes are shared with their capacity to form distant metastases is yet to be established. In a transcriptomic survey aimed at identifying molecular factors associated with lymph node involvement of ductal breast cancer, we found that luminal differentiation, assessed by the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR) and GATA3, was only infrequently lost in node-positive primary tumors and in matched lymph node metastases. The transcription factor GATA3 critically determines luminal lineage specification of mammary epithelium and is widely considered a tumor and metastasis suppressor in breast cancer. Strong expression of GATA3 and ER in a majority of primary node-positive ductal breast cancer was corroborated by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in the initial sample set, and by immunohistochemistry in an additional set from 167 patients diagnosed of node-negative and –positive primary infiltrating ductal breast cancer, including 102 samples from loco-regional lymph node metastases matched to their primary tumors, as well as 37 distant metastases. These observations suggest that loss of luminal differentiation is not a major factor driving the ability of breast cancer cells to colonize regional lymph nodes. PMID:24205108

  9. Altered Tumor-Cell Glycosylation Promotes Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Häuselmann, Irina; Borsig, Lubor

    2014-01-01

    Malignant transformation of cells is associated with aberrant glycosylation presented on the cell-surface. Commonly observed changes in glycan structures during malignancy encompass aberrant expression and glycosylation of mucins; abnormal branching of N-glycans; and increased presence of sialic acid on proteins and glycolipids. Accumulating evidence supports the notion that the presence of certain glycan structures correlates with cancer progression by affecting tumor-cell invasiveness, ability to disseminate through the blood circulation and to metastasize in distant organs. During metastasis tumor-cell-derived glycans enable binding to cells in their microenvironment including endothelium and blood constituents through glycan-binding receptors – lectins. In this review, we will discuss current concepts how tumor-cell-derived glycans contribute to metastasis with the focus on three types of lectins: siglecs, galectins, and selectins. Siglecs are present on virtually all hematopoietic cells and usually negatively regulate immune responses. Galectins are mostly expressed by tumor cells and support tumor-cell survival. Selectins are vascular adhesion receptors that promote tumor-cell dissemination. All lectins facilitate interactions within the tumor microenvironment and thereby promote cancer progression. The identification of mechanisms how tumor glycans contribute to metastasis may help to improve diagnosis, prognosis, and aid to develop clinical strategies to prevent metastasis. PMID:24592356

  10. Gene Expression Profiling of Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Yun; Park, Kyunghee; Lee, Eunjin; Ahn, TaeJin; Jung, Hae Hyun; Lim, Sung Hee; Hong, Mineui; Do, In-Gu; Cho, Eun Yoon; Kim, Duk-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Jin Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Park, Yeon Hee

    2016-01-01

    The biology of breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM) is poorly understood. We aimed to explore genes that are implicated in the process of brain metastasis of primary breast cancer (BC). NanoString nCounter Analysis covering 252 target genes was used for comparison of gene expression levels between 20 primary BCs that relapsed to brain and 41 BCBM samples. PAM50-based intrinsic subtypes such as HER2-enriched and basal-like were clearly over-represented in BCBM. A panel of 22 genes was found to be significantly differentially expressed between primary BC and BCBM. Five of these genes, CXCL12, MMP2, MMP11, VCAM1, and MME, which have previously been associated with tumor progression, angiogenesis, and metastasis, clearly discriminated between primary BC and BCBM. Notably, the five genes were significantly upregulated in primary BC compared to BCBM. Conversely, SOX2 and OLIG2 genes were upregulated in BCBM. These genes may participate in metastatic colonization but not in primary tumor development. Among patient-matched paired samples (n = 17), a PAM50 molecular subtype conversion was observed in eight cases (47.1%), with a trend toward unfavorable subtypes in patients with the distinct gene expression. Our findings, although not conclusive, reveal differentially expressed genes that might mediate the brain metastasis process. PMID:27340107

  11. Differences in Metabolic Programming Define the Site of Breast Cancer Cell Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Döppler, Heike; Storz, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Although metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of oncogenic transformation and growth of primary tumor cells, little is known about how metabolic alterations impact metastasis. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Dupuy et al. (2015) show that primary breast cancer cells display metabolic heterogeneity, and that their distinct metabolic programs define their sites of metastasis.

  12. Psoralen inhibits bone metastasis of breast cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunyu; Sun, Zhenping; Ye, Yiyi; Han, Xianghui; Song, Xiaoyun; Liu, Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female malignancy and it frequently metastasizes to bone. Metastatic breast cancer continues to be the primary cause of death for women in East and Southeast Asia. Psoralen is a furocoumarin that can be isolated from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L. Psoralen exhibits a wide range of biological properties and has been demonstrated as an antioxidant, antidepressant, anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral agent. Additionally, it is involved in the formation and regulation of bone. This study investigated whether psoralen can inhibit metastasis of breast cancer to bone in vivo. Histological, molecular biological, and imaging analyses revealed that psoralen inhibits bone metastases in mice. Psoralen may function to inhibit breast cancer cell growth in the bone microenvironment and regulate the function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in tumor-bearing mice. The results of this study suggest that psoralen is a bone-modifying agent and a potential therapeutic to treat patients with bone metastases.

  13. Targeting tumor cell motility to prevent metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Trenis D.; Ashby, William J.; Lewis, John D.; Zijlstra, Andries

    2011-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity in patients with solid tumors invariably results from the disruption of normal biological function caused by disseminating tumor cells. Tumor cell migration is under intense investigation as the underlying cause of cancer metastasis. The need for tumor cell motility in the progression of metastasis has been established experimentally and is supported empirically by basic and clinical research implicating a large collection of migration-related genes. However, there are few clinical interventions designed to specifically target the motility of tumor cells and adjuvant therapy to specifically prevent cancer cell dissemination is severely limited. In an attempt to define motility targets suitable for treating metastasis, we have parsed the molecular determinants of tumor cell motility into five underlying principles including cell autonomous ability, soluble communication, cell-cell adhesion, cell-matrix adhesion, and integrating these determinants of migration on molecular scaffolds. The current challenge is to implement meaningful and sustainable inhibition of metastasis by developing clinically viable disruption of molecular targets that control these fundamental capabilities. PMID:21664937

  14. DLC1-dependent parathyroid hormone–like hormone inhibition suppresses breast cancer bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yufeng; Lei, Rong; Zhuang, Xueqian; Zhang, Ning; Pan, Hong; Li, Gang; Hu, Jing; Pan, Xiaoqi; Tao, Qian; Fu, Da; Xiao, Jianru; Chin, Y. Eugene; Kang, Yibin; Yang, Qifeng; Hu, Guohong

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a frequent complication of breast cancer that is often accelerated by TGF-β signaling; however, little is known about how the TGF-β pathway is regulated during bone metastasis. Here we report that deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) is an important regulator of TGF-β responses and osteolytic metastasis of breast cancer cells. In murine models, breast cancer cells lacking DLC1 expression exhibited enhanced capabilities of bone metastasis. Knockdown of DLC1 in cancer cells promoted bone metastasis, leading to manifested osteolysis and accelerated death in mice, while DLC1 overexpression suppressed bone metastasis. Activation of Rho-ROCK signaling in the absence of DLC1 mediated SMAD3 linker region phosphorylation and TGF-β–induced expression of parathyroid hormone–like hormone (PTHLH), leading to osteoclast maturation for osteolytic colonization. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of Rho-ROCK effectively reduced PTHLH production and breast cancer bone metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Evaluation of clinical breast tumor samples revealed that reduced DLC1 expression was linked to elevated PTHLH expression and organ-specific metastasis to bone. Overall, our findings define a stroma-dependent paradigm of Rho signaling in cancer and implicate Rho–TGF-β crosstalk in osteolytic bone metastasis. PMID:24590291

  15. Blockade of extracellular NM23 or its endothelial target slows breast cancer growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Yokdang, Nucharee; Nordmeier, Senny; Speirs, Katie; Burkin, Heather R.; Buxton, Iain L. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase (NDPK), described as NM23 a metastasis suppressor, is found in the culture medium of cancer cells lines suggesting that the kinase may have an extracellular role. We propose that extracellular NM23 released from breast cancers in vivo stimulates tumor cell migration, proliferation and endothelial cell angiogenesis in support of metastasis development. Methods NM23 in the bloodstream of immunocompromised mice carrying human triple-negative breast cancers or in breast cancer patients was measured by ELISA. Primary and metastatic tumor development, the impact of blockade of NM23 and/or its stimulation of nucleotide receptors were measured using in vivo imaging. NM23 expression data in the Curtis breast dataset was examined to test our hypothesis that NM23 may play a mechanistic role in breast cancer development. Results SCID mice carrying metastatic MDA-MB-231Luc+ triple-negative human breast tumor cells elaborate NM23 into the circulation correlated with primary tumor growth. Treatment of mice with the NM23 inhibitor ellagic acid (EA) or the purinergic receptor antagonist MRS2179 slowed primary tumor growth. At 16 weeks following implantation, lung metastases were reduced in mice treated with EA, MRS2179 or the combination. Expression of NM23 in the Curtis breast dataset confirmed a likely role for NM23 in tumor metastasis. Conclusions Extracellular NM23 may constitute both a biomarker and a therapeutic target in the management of breast cancer. PMID:26413311

  16. Intraorbital metastasis from solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mrinali M; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Zakka, Fouad R; Du, Rose; Annino, Donald J; Borboli-Gerogiannis, Sheila; Daniels, Anthony B

    2013-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell tumor of mesenchymal origin that usually arises from pleura or pericardium but can also arise from many extraserosal sites. Although more than 50 cases of primary SFT of the orbit have been reported, there are no reports to date of a malignant nonophthalmic SFT metastasizing in the orbital soft tissues (although sphenoid wing bony involvement has been reported). The authors report here the first case of a patient with intraorbital metastasis of a CD34-positive malignant SFT. The patient was a 57-year-old man with a history of malignant pleural SFT and a prior kidney metastasis. He presented with the rapid appearance of proptosis and massive conjunctival chemosis preventing eyelid closure, and he was found to have a well-circumscribed metastasis to his lateral rectus muscle. Surgical excision cured his ocular symptoms, although he died 3 months later from brain and widespread metastases.

  17. Microenvironmental regulation of tumor progression and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Quail, Daniela F; Joyce, Johanna A

    2013-11-01

    Cancers develop in complex tissue environments, which they depend on for sustained growth, invasion and metastasis. Unlike tumor cells, stromal cell types within the tumor microenvironment (TME) are genetically stable and thus represent an attractive therapeutic target with reduced risk of resistance and tumor recurrence. However, specifically disrupting the pro-tumorigenic TME is a challenging undertaking, as the TME has diverse capacities to induce both beneficial and adverse consequences for tumorigenesis. Furthermore, many studies have shown that the microenvironment is capable of normalizing tumor cells, suggesting that re-education of stromal cells, rather than targeted ablation per se, may be an effective strategy for treating cancer. Here we discuss the paradoxical roles of the TME during specific stages of cancer progression and metastasis, as well as recent therapeutic attempts to re-educate stromal cells within the TME to have anti-tumorigenic effects.

  18. MiRNA-101 inhibits breast cancer growth and metastasis by targeting CX chemokine receptor 7.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Tang; Jia, Lin-Tao; Liu, Ning-Ning; Zhu, Xiao-Shan; Liu, Qin-Qin; Wang, Xiu-Li; Yu, Feng; Liu, Yan-Li; Yang, An-Gang; Gao, Chun-Fang

    2015-10-13

    Whereas miR-101 is involved in the development and progression of breast cancer, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that miR-101 expression is inversely correlated with the clinical stage, lymph node metastasis and prognosis in breast cancers. Introduction of miR-101 inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and suppressed tumor growth and lung metastasis of in vivo. CX chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7) is a direct target of miR-101, positively correlating with the histological grade and the incidence of lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients. The effects of miR-101 were mimicked and counteracted by CXCR7 depletion and overexpression, respectively. STAT3 signaling downstream of CXCR7 is involved in miR-101 regulation of breast cancer cell behaviors. These findings have implications for the potential application of miR-101 in breast cancer treatment. PMID:26360780

  19. Primary infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the axillary breast with metastasis to the contralateral chest wall.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Min; Meng, Fan-Yun; Chang, Nai-Jen; Lu, Chiao-Yi; Lu, Tsung-Hsien; Liang, Ji-An; Chung, Li-Min

    2013-06-01

    Primary infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the axillary breast is rare and has a high frequency of lymph node (LN) involvement. We report a woman with primary infiltrating ductal carcinoma arising from the right axillary breast with metastasis to the contralateral chest wall. Excisional biopsy of the left chest wall nodule and the right axillary mass was carried out and both showed invasive ductal carcinomas histologically. The lesion of the right axillary mass arose from the breast tissue, rather than the LN. Further surgery proved the right axillary LN metastasis. After further review, a primary infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right axillary breast with metastasis to axillary LNs and contralateral chest wall was diagnosed. The patient also received chemotherapy and radiation and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence after treatment. The present report demonstrated a rare case with uncommon manifestation. Lesions of uncertain origin around the periphery of the breast should be suspected for breast carcinoma. PMID:23602213

  20. MiRNA-101 inhibits breast cancer growth and metastasis by targeting CX chemokine receptor 7

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Shan; Liu, Qin-Qin; Wang, Xiu-Li; Yu, Feng; Liu, Yan-Li; Yang, An-Gang; Gao, Chun-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Whereas miR-101 is involved in the development and progression of breast cancer, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that miR-101 expression is inversely correlated with the clinical stage, lymph node metastasis and prognosis in breast cancers. Introduction of miR-101 inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and suppressed tumor growth and lung metastasis of in vivo. CX chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7) is a direct target of miR-101, positively correlating with the histological grade and the incidence of lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients. The effects of miR-101 were mimicked and counteracted by CXCR7 depletion and overexpression, respectively. STAT3 signaling downstream of CXCR7 is involved in miR-101 regulation of breast cancer cell behaviors. These findings have implications for the potential application of miR-101 in breast cancer treatment. PMID:26360780

  1. The molecular signature of breast cancer metastasis to bone.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Tayyeb; Mokmeli, Sharareh; Hossieni, Hossien; Pourpaknia, Reza; Makani, Zahra; Salmaninejad, Arash; Estiar, Mehrdad A; Hossieni, Ali; Farshbaf, Alieh

    2016-10-01

    Distant metastasis during the advanced stage of malignant tumor progression can cause considerable morbidity in cancer patients. Bone is known to be one of the most common sites of distant metastasis in patients with breast cancer (BC). BC metastases in bone are associated with excessive skeletal complications. These complications can be fatal and reduce quality of life of patients. It is important to understand the metastatic process of BC to bone to improve quality of life and design new therapeutic methods. At present, the molecular mechanisms leading to the BC metastasis to bone are not fully understood. Studying the molecular basis of BC metastasis to bone might improve our insight into this complex process. In addition, it can provide novel approaches for designing advanced and effective targeted therapies. The present article aimed to review the published papers on the molecular basis of the metastatic process of BC to bone, focusing on involved genes and signaling networks. Furthermore, we propose potential therapeutic targets that may be more effective for the inhibition and treatment of BC metastasis to bone. PMID:27384592

  2. Specific expression of the human voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 in highly metastatic breast cancer cells, promotes tumor progression and metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yifan; Li, Shu Jie; Pan, Juncheng; Che, Yongzhe; Yin, Jian; Zhao, Qing

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Hv1 is specifically expressed in highly metastatic human breast tumor tissues. {yields} Hv1 regulates breast cancer cytosolic pH. {yields} Hv1 acidifies extracellular milieu. {yields} Hv1 exacerbates the migratory ability of metastatic cells. -- Abstract: The newly discovered human voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is essential for proton transfer, which contains a voltage sensor domain (VSD) without a pore domain. We report here for the first time that Hv1 is specifically expressed in the highly metastatic human breast tumor tissues, but not in poorly metastatic breast cancer tissues, detected by immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, real-time RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that the expression levels of Hv1 have significant differences among breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-453, T-47D and SK-BR-3, in which Hv1 is expressed at a high level in highly metastatic human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, but at a very low level in poorly metastatic human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Inhibition of Hv1 expression in the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly decreases the invasion and migration of the cells. The intracellular pH of MDA-MB-231 cells down-regulated Hv1 expression by siRNA is obviously decreased compared with MDA-MB-231 with the scrambled siRNA. The expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and gelatinase activity in MDA-MB-231 cells suppressed Hv1 by siRNA were reduced. Our results strongly suggest that Hv1 regulates breast cancer intracellular pH and exacerbates the migratory ability of metastatic cells.

  3. Metastasis and Circulating Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    van Dalum, Guus; Holland, Linda; Terstappen, Leon Wmm

    2012-10-01

    Cancer is a prominent cause of death worldwide. In most cases, it is not the primary tumor which causes death, but the metastases. Metastatic tumors are spread over the entire human body and are more difficult to remove or treat than the primary tumor. In a patient with metastatic disease, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be found in venous blood. These circulating tumor cells are part of the metastatic cascade. Clinical studies have shown that these cells can be used to predict treatment response and their presence is strongly associated with poor survival prospects. Enumeration and characterization of CTCs is important as this can help clinicians make more informed decisions when choosing or evaluating treatment. CTC counts are being included in an increasing number of studies and thus are becoming a bigger part of disease diagnosis and therapy management. We present an overview of the most prominent CTC enumeration and characterization methods and discuss the assumptions made about the CTC phenotype. Extensive CTC characterization of for example the DNA, RNA and antigen expression may lead to more understanding of the metastatic process.

  4. Metastasis and Circulating Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    van Dalum, Guus; Holland, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a prominent cause of death worldwide. In most cases, it is not the primary tumor which causes death, but the metastases. Metastatic tumors are spread over the entire human body and are more difficult to remove or treat than the primary tumor. In a patient with metastatic disease, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be found in venous blood. These circulating tumor cells are part of the metastatic cascade. Clinical studies have shown that these cells can be used to predict treatment response and their presence is strongly associated with poor survival prospects. Enumeration and characterization of CTCs is important as this can help clinicians make more informed decisions when choosing or evaluating treatment. CTC counts are being included in an increasing number of studies and thus are becoming a bigger part of disease diagnosis and therapy management. We present an overview of the most prominent CTC enumeration and characterization methods and discuss the assumptions made about the CTC phenotype. Extensive CTC characterization of for example the DNA, RNA and antigen expression may lead to more understanding of the metastatic process. PMID:27683421

  5. Metastasis and Circulating Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    van Dalum, Guus; Holland, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a prominent cause of death worldwide. In most cases, it is not the primary tumor which causes death, but the metastases. Metastatic tumors are spread over the entire human body and are more difficult to remove or treat than the primary tumor. In a patient with metastatic disease, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) can be found in venous blood. These circulating tumor cells are part of the metastatic cascade. Clinical studies have shown that these cells can be used to predict treatment response and their presence is strongly associated with poor survival prospects. Enumeration and characterization of CTCs is important as this can help clinicians make more informed decisions when choosing or evaluating treatment. CTC counts are being included in an increasing number of studies and thus are becoming a bigger part of disease diagnosis and therapy management. We present an overview of the most prominent CTC enumeration and characterization methods and discuss the assumptions made about the CTC phenotype. Extensive CTC characterization of for example the DNA, RNA and antigen expression may lead to more understanding of the metastatic process.

  6. Host Cxcr2-dependent regulation of mammary tumor growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bhawna; Nannuru, Kalyan C.; Varney, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Host-derived angiogenic and inflammatory tumor supportive microenvironment regulates progression and metastasis, but the molecular mechanism(s) underlying host-tumor interactions remains unclear. Tumor expression of CXCR2 and its ligands have been shown to regulate angiogenesis, invasion, tumor growth, and metastasis. In this report, we hypothesized that host-derived Cxcr2-dependent signaling plays an important role in breast cancer growth and metastasis. Two mammary tumor cell lines Cl66 and 4T1 cells were orthotopically implanted into the mammary fat pad of wild-type and Cxcr2−/− female BALB/c mice. Tumor growth and spontaneous lung metastasis were monitored. Immunohistochemical analyses of the tumor tissues were performed to analyze proliferation, angiogenesis, apoptosis and immune cell infiltration. Our results demonstrated that knock-down of host Cxcr2 decreases tumor growth and metastasis by reducing angiogenesis, proliferation and enhancing apoptosis. Host Cxcr2 plays an important role in governing the pro-inflammatory response in mammary tumors as evaluated by decreased Gr1+ tumor-associated granulocytes, F4/80+ tumor associated macrophages, and CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid derived suppressor cells in Cxcr2−/− mice as compared to control wild-type mice. Together, these results demonstrate that host Cxcr2-dependent signaling regulates mammary tumor growth and metastasis by promoting angiogenesis and pro-inflammatory responses. PMID:25511644

  7. Gain of glucose-independent growth upon metastasis of breast cancer cells to the brain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyu; Lee, Ho-Jeong; Wu, Xuefeng; Huo, Lei; Kim, Sun-Jin; Xu, Lei; Wang, Yan; He, Junqing; Bollu, Lakshmi R; Gao, Guang; Su, Fei; Briggs, James; Liu, Xiaojing; Melman, Tamar; Asara, John M; Fidler, Isaiah J; Cantley, Lewis C; Locasale, Jason W; Weihua, Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Breast cancer brain metastasis is resistant to therapy and a particularly poor prognostic feature in patient survival. Altered metabolism is a common feature of cancer cells, but little is known as to what metabolic changes benefit breast cancer brain metastases. We found that brain metastatic breast cancer cells evolved the ability to survive and proliferate independent of glucose due to enhanced gluconeogenesis and oxidations of glutamine and branched chain amino acids, which together sustain the nonoxidative pentose pathway for purine synthesis. Silencing expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBP) in brain metastatic cells reduced their viability and improved the survival of metastasis-bearing immunocompetent hosts. Clinically, we showed that brain metastases from human breast cancer patients expressed higher levels of FBP and glycogen than the corresponding primary tumors. Together, our findings identify a critical metabolic condition required to sustain brain metastasis and suggest that targeting gluconeogenesis may help eradicate this deadly feature in advanced breast cancer patients.

  8. Exercise, natural immunity, and tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hoffman-Goetz, L

    1994-02-01

    Exercise has been shown to reduce the growth of primary tumors and to enhance certain aspects of host natural immunity. The question of whether these are independent phenomena or are casually related has not been systematically evaluated. This paper presents information concerning the methodological difficulties in studying proposed relationships between exercise and cancer, focusing specifically on tumor metastasis, the process by which malignant cells disseminate to distant organs and establish new colonies. This paper also focuses on how natural immune processes and tumor cells exert bidirectional influences on each other. It is suggested that the direction of the impact of exercise on the control of metastatic spread of neoplastic cells will reflect, in part, the sensitivity of the specific tumor to cytolysis by natural immune mechanisms, the route of dissemination, the timing of exercise relative to tumor exposure, and whether exercise acts as a distress or eustress state.

  9. Osteocytic Connexin Hemichannels Suppress Breast Cancer Growth and Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jade Z.; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Gu, Sumin; Kar, Rekha; Gao, Xiaoli; Sun, LuZhe; Jiang, Jean X.

    2016-01-01

    Although the skeleton is one of predominant sites for breast cancer metastasis, why breast cancer cells often become dormant after homing to bone is not well understood. Here, we reported an intrinsic self-defense mechanism of bone cells against breast cancer cells: a critical role of connexin (Cx) 43 hemichannels in osteocytes in the suppression of breast cancer bone metastasis. Cx43 hemichannels allow passage of small molecules between the intracellular and extracellular environments. The treatment of bisphosphonate drugs, either alendronate (ALN) or zoledronic acid (ZOL), opened Cx43 hemichannels in osteocytes. Conditioned media (CM) collected from MLO-Y4 osteocyte cells treated with bisphosphonates inhibited the anchorage-independent growth, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and Py8119 mouse mammary carcinoma cells and this inhibitory effect was attenuated with Cx43(E2), a specific hemichannel blocking antibody. The opening of osteocytic Cx43 hemichannels by mechanical stimulation had similar inhibitory effects on breast cancer cells and this inhibition was attenuated by Cx43(E2) antibody as well. These inhibitory effects on cancer cells were mediated by ATP released from osteocyte Cx43 hemichannels. Furthermore, both Cx43 osteocyte-specific knockout mice and osteocyte-specific Δ130–136 transgenic mice with impaired Cx43 gap junctions and hemichannels showed significantly increased tumor growth and attenuated the inhibitory effect of ZOL. However, R76W transgenic mice with functional hemichannels but not gap junctions in osteocytes did not display a significant difference. Together, our studies establish the specific inhibitory role of osteocytic Cx43 hemichannels, and exploiting the activity of this channel could serve as a de novo therapeutic strategy. PMID:27041582

  10. AIP1 expression in tumor niche suppresses tumor progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Weidong; Li, Yonghao; He, Yun; Yin, Mingzhu; Zhou, Huanjiao Jenny; Boggon, Titus J.; Zhang, Haifeng; Min, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Studies from tumor cells suggest that tumor suppressor AIP1 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of AIP1 in the tumor microenvironment has not been examined. We show that a global or vascular endothelial cell (EC)-specific deletion of the AIP1 gene in mice augments tumor growth and metastasis in melanoma and breast cancer models. AIP1-deficient vascular environment not only enhances tumor neovascularization and increases pre-metastatic niche formation, but also secrets tumor EMT-promoting factors. These effects from AIP1 loss are associated with increased VEGFR2 signaling in the vascular EC and could be abrogated by systemic administration of VEGFR2 kinase inhibitors. Mechanistically, AIP1 blocks VEGFR2-dependent signaling by directly binding to the phosphotyrosine residues within the activation loop of VEGFR2. Our data reveal that AIP1, by inhibiting VEGFR2-dependent signaling in tumor niche, suppresses tumor EMT switch, tumor angiogenesis and tumor pre-metastatic niche formation to limit tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:26139244

  11. NSG Mice Provide a Better Spontaneous Model of Breast Cancer Metastasis than Athymic (Nude) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Puchalapalli, Madhavi; Zeng, Xianke; Mu, Liang; Anderson, Aubree; Hix Glickman, Laura; Zhang, Ming; Sayyad, Megan R.; Mosticone Wangensteen, Sierra; Clevenger, Charles V.; Koblinski, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the most common cause of mortality in breast cancer patients worldwide. To identify improved mouse models for breast cancer growth and spontaneous metastasis, we examined growth and metastasis of both estrogen receptor positive (T47D) and negative (MDA-MB-231, SUM1315, and CN34BrM) human breast cancer cells in nude and NSG mice. Both primary tumor growth and spontaneous metastases were increased in NSG mice compared to nude mice. In addition, a pattern of metastasis similar to that observed in human breast cancer patients (metastases to the lungs, liver, bones, brain, and lymph nodes) was found in NSG mice. Furthermore, there was an increase in the metastatic burden in NSG compared to nude mice that were injected with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in an intracardiac experimental metastasis model. This data demonstrates that NSG mice provide a better model for studying human breast cancer metastasis compared to the current nude mouse model. PMID:27662655

  12. Increased metastasis with loss of E2F2 in Myc-driven tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yuwanita, Inez; Barnes, Danielle; Monterey, Michael D.; O'Reilly, Sandra; Andrechek, Eran R.

    2015-01-01

    In human breast cancer, mortality is associated with metastasis to distant sites. Therefore, it is critical to elucidate the biological mechanisms that underlie tumor progression and metastasis. Using signaling pathway signatures we previously predicted a role for E2F transcription factors in Myc induced tumors. To test this role we interbred MMTV-Myc transgenic mice with E2F knockouts. Surprisingly, we observed that the loss of E2F2 sharply increased the percentage of lung metastasis in MMTV-Myc transgenic mice. Examining the gene expression profile from these tumors, we identified genetic components that were potentially involved in mediating metastasis. These genes were filtered to uncover the genes involved in metastasis that also impacted distant metastasis free survival in human breast cancer. In order to elucidate the mechanism by which E2F2 loss enhanced metastasis we generated knockdowns of E2F2 in MDA-MB-231 cells and observed increased migration in vitro and increased lung colonization in vivo. We then examined genes that were differentially regulated between tumors from MMTV-Myc, MMTV-Myc E2F2−/−, and lung metastases samples and identified PTPRD. To test the role of PTPRD in E2F2-mediated breast cancer metastasis, we generated a knockdown of PTPRD in MDA-MB-231 cells. We noted that decreased levels of PTPRD resulted in decreased migration in vitro and decreased lung colonization in vivo. Taken together, these data indicate that E2F2 loss results in increased metastasis in breast cancer, potentially functioning through a PTPRD dependent mechanism. PMID:26474282

  13. Increased metastasis with loss of E2F2 in Myc-driven tumors.

    PubMed

    Yuwanita, Inez; Barnes, Danielle; Monterey, Michael D; O'Reilly, Sandra; Andrechek, Eran R

    2015-11-10

    In human breast cancer, mortality is associated with metastasis to distant sites. Therefore, it is critical to elucidate the biological mechanisms that underlie tumor progression and metastasis. Using signaling pathway signatures we previously predicted a role for E2F transcription factors in Myc induced tumors. To test this role we interbred MMTV-Myc transgenic mice with E2F knockouts. Surprisingly, we observed that the loss of E2F2 sharply increased the percentage of lung metastasis in MMTV-Myc transgenic mice. Examining the gene expression profile from these tumors, we identified genetic components that were potentially involved in mediating metastasis. These genes were filtered to uncover the genes involved in metastasis that also impacted distant metastasis free survival in human breast cancer. In order to elucidate the mechanism by which E2F2 loss enhanced metastasis we generated knockdowns of E2F2 in MDA-MB-231 cells and observed increased migration in vitro and increased lung colonization in vivo. We then examined genes that were differentially regulated between tumors from MMTV-Myc, MMTV-Myc E2F2-/-, and lung metastases samples and identified PTPRD. To test the role of PTPRD in E2F2-mediated breast cancer metastasis, we generated a knockdown of PTPRD in MDA-MB-231 cells. We noted that decreased levels of PTPRD resulted in decreased migration in vitro and decreased lung colonization in vivo. Taken together, these data indicate that E2F2 loss results in increased metastasis in breast cancer, potentially functioning through a PTPRD dependent mechanism.

  14. Studying the Role of Alveolar Macrophages in Breast Cancer Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Vadrevu, Surya Kumari; Sharma, Sharad; Chintala, Navin; Patel, Jalpa; Karbowniczek, Magdalena; Markiewski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the syngeneic model of breast cancer (4T1) to the studies on a role of pulmonary alveolar macrophages in cancer metastasis. The 4T1 cells expressing GFP in combination with imaging and confocal microscopy are used to monitor tumor growth, track metastasizing tumor cells, and quantify the metastatic burden. These approaches are supplemented by digital histopathology that allows the automated and unbiased quantification of metastases. In this method the routinely prepared histological lung sections, which are stained with hematoxylin and eosin, are scanned and converted to the digital slides that are then analyzed by the self-trained pattern recognition software. In addition, we describe the flow cytometry approaches with the use of multiple cell surface markers to identify alveolar macrophages in the lungs. To determine impact of alveolar macrophages on metastases and antitumor immunity these cells are depleted with the clodronate-containing liposomes administrated intranasally to tumor-bearing mice. This approach leads to the specific and efficient depletion of this cell population as confirmed by flow cytometry. Tumor volumes and lung metastases are evaluated in mice depleted of alveolar macrophages, to determine the role of these cells in the metastatic progression of breast cancer. PMID:27403530

  15. RARRES3 suppresses breast cancer lung metastasis by regulating adhesion and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Morales, Mònica; Arenas, Enrique J; Urosevic, Jelena; Guiu, Marc; Fernández, Esther; Planet, Evarist; Fenwick, Robert Bryn; Fernández-Ruiz, Sonia; Salvatella, Xavier; Reverter, David; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Massagué, Joan; Gomis, Roger R

    2014-07-01

    In estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients, metastatic relapse usually occurs in the lung and is responsible for the fatal outcome of the disease. Thus, a better understanding of the biology of metastasis is needed. In particular, biomarkers to identify patients that are at risk of lung metastasis could open the avenue for new therapeutic opportunities. Here we characterize the biological activity of RARRES3, a new metastasis suppressor gene whose reduced expression in the primary breast tumors identifies a subgroup of patients more likely to develop lung metastasis. We show that RARRES3 downregulation engages metastasis-initiating capabilities by facilitating adhesion of the tumor cells to the lung parenchyma. In addition, impaired tumor cell differentiation due to the loss of RARRES3 phospholipase A1/A2 activity also contributes to lung metastasis. Our results establish RARRES3 downregulation as a potential biomarker to identify patients at high risk of lung metastasis who might benefit from a differentiation treatment in the adjuvant programme. PMID:24867881

  16. RARRES3 suppresses breast cancer lung metastasis by regulating adhesion and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Mònica; Arenas, Enrique J; Urosevic, Jelena; Guiu, Marc; Fernández, Esther; Planet, Evarist; Fenwick, Robert Bryn; Fernández-Ruiz, Sonia; Salvatella, Xavier; Reverter, David; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Massagué, Joan; Gomis, Roger R

    2014-01-01

    In estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients, metastatic relapse usually occurs in the lung and is responsible for the fatal outcome of the disease. Thus, a better understanding of the biology of metastasis is needed. In particular, biomarkers to identify patients that are at risk of lung metastasis could open the avenue for new therapeutic opportunities. Here we characterize the biological activity of RARRES3, a new metastasis suppressor gene whose reduced expression in the primary breast tumors identifies a subgroup of patients more likely to develop lung metastasis. We show that RARRES3 downregulation engages metastasis-initiating capabilities by facilitating adhesion of the tumor cells to the lung parenchyma. In addition, impaired tumor cell differentiation due to the loss of RARRES3 phospholipase A1/A2 activity also contributes to lung metastasis. Our results establish RARRES3 downregulation as a potential biomarker to identify patients at high risk of lung metastasis who might benefit from a differentiation treatment in the adjuvant programme. PMID:24867881

  17. RARRES3 suppresses breast cancer lung metastasis by regulating adhesion and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Morales, Mònica; Arenas, Enrique J; Urosevic, Jelena; Guiu, Marc; Fernández, Esther; Planet, Evarist; Fenwick, Robert Bryn; Fernández-Ruiz, Sonia; Salvatella, Xavier; Reverter, David; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Massagué, Joan; Gomis, Roger R

    2014-05-27

    In estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients, metastatic relapse usually occurs in the lung and is responsible for the fatal outcome of the disease. Thus, a better understanding of the biology of metastasis is needed. In particular, biomarkers to identify patients that are at risk of lung metastasis could open the avenue for new therapeutic opportunities. Here we characterize the biological activity of RARRES3, a new metastasis suppressor gene whose reduced expression in the primary breast tumors identifies a subgroup of patients more likely to develop lung metastasis. We show that RARRES3 downregulation engages metastasis-initiating capabilities by facilitating adhesion of the tumor cells to the lung parenchyma. In addition, impaired tumor cell differentiation due to the loss of RARRES3 phospholipase A1/A2 activity also contributes to lung metastasis. Our results establish RARRES3 downregulation as a potential biomarker to identify patients at high risk of lung metastasis who might benefit from a differentiation treatment in the adjuvant programme.

  18. Fes tyrosine kinase expression in the tumor niche correlates with enhanced tumor growth, angiogenesis, circulating tumor cells, metastasis, and infiltrating macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengnan; Chitu, Violeta; Stanley, E Richard; Elliott, Bruce E; Greer, Peter A

    2011-02-15

    Fes is a protein tyrosine kinase with cell autonomous oncogenic activities that are well established in cell culture and animal models, but its involvement in human cancer has been unclear. Abundant expression of Fes in vascular endothelial cells and myeloid cell lineages prompted us to explore roles for Fes in the tumor microenvironment. In an orthotopic mouse model of breast cancer, we found that loss of Fes in the host correlated with reductions in engrafted tumor growth rates, metastasis, and circulating tumor cells. The tumor microenvironment in Fes-deficient mice also showed reduced vascularity and fewer macrophages. In co-culture with tumor cells, Fes-deficient macrophages also poorly promoted tumor cell invasive behavior. Taken together, our observations argue that Fes inhibition might provide therapeutic benefits in breast cancer, in part by attenuating tumor-associated angiogenesis and the metastasis-promoting functions of tumor-associated macrophages.

  19. Lx2-32c–loaded polymeric micelles with small size for intravenous drug delivery and their inhibitory effect on tumor growth and metastasis in clinically associated 4T1 murine breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-qing; Huang, Wei; Gao, Zhong-gao; Fang, Wei-shuo; Jin, Ming-ji

    2016-01-01

    Lx2-32c is a novel taxane derivative with a strong antitumor activity. In this study, we developed Lx2-32c–loaded polymeric micelles (Lx2-32c-PMs) with small size and investigated their antitumor efficacy against tumor growth and metastasis on 4T1 murine breast cancer cell line with Cremophor EL–based Lx2-32c solution as the control. In this study, copolymer monomethoxy polyethylene glycol2000–polylactide1300 was used to prepare Lx2-32c-PMs by film hydration method, and their physicochemical properties were characterized as well, according to morphology, particle size, zeta potential, in vitro drug release, and reconstitution stability. Under confocal laser scanning microscopy, it was observed that Lx2-32c-PMs could be effectively taken up by 4T1 cells in a time-dependent manner. Cell Counting Kit-8 assay showed that the IC50 of Lx2-32c-PMs was 0.3827 nM. Meanwhile, Lx2-32c-PMs had better ability to promote apoptosis and induce G2/M cycle block and polyploidy formation, compared with Lx2-32c solution. More importantly, in vivo animal studies showed that compared to Lx2-32c solution, Lx2-32c-PMs possessed better ability not only to effectively inhibit the tumor growth, but also to significantly suppress spontaneous and postoperative metastasis to distant organs in 4T1 orthotopic tumor-bearing mice. Consequently, Lx2-32c-PMs have significantly prolonged the survival lifetime of tumor-bearing mice. Thus, our study reveals that Lx2-32c-PMs had favorable antitumor activity and exhibited a good prospect for application in the field of antitumor therapy. PMID:27799769

  20. Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Hall, Carolyn; Valad, Lily; Lucci, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women, resulting in an estimated 40,000 deaths in 2014.1 Metastasis, a complex, multi-step process, remains the primary cause of death for these patients. Although the mechanisms involved in metastasis have not been fully elucidated, considerable evidence suggests that metastatic spread is mediated by rare cells within the heterogeneous primary tumor that acquire the ability to invade into the bloodstream. In the bloodstream, they can travel to distant sites, sometimes remaining undetected and in a quiescent state for an extended period of time before they establish distant metastases in the bone, lung, liver, or brain. These occult micrometastatic cells (circulating tumor cells, CTCs) are rare, yet their prognostic significance has been demonstrated in both metastatic and non-metastatic breast cancer patients. Because repeated tumor tissue collection is typically not feasible and peripheral blood draws are minimally invasive, serial CTC enumeration might provide "real-time liquid biopsy" snapshots that could be used to identify early-stage breast cancer patients with micrometastatic disease who are at risk for disease progression and monitor treatment response in patients with advanced disease. In addition, characterizing CTCs might aid in the development of novel, personalized therapies aimed at eliminating micrometastases. This review describes current CTC isolation, detection, and characterization strategies in operable breast cancer. PMID:27481009

  1. KLF17 is a negative regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gumireddy, Kiranmai; Li, Anping; Gimotty, Phyllis A.; Klein-Szanto, Andres J.; Showe, Louise C.; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Coukos, George; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Qihong

    2009-01-01

    Metastasis is a complex multi-step process requiring the concerted action of many genes and is the primary cause of cancer deaths. Pathways that regulate metastasis enhancement and suppression both contribute to tumor dissemination process. In order to identify novel metastasis suppressors, we set up a forward genetic screen in a mouse model. We transduced a genome-wide RNAi library into the non-metastatic 168FARN breast cancer cell line, orthotopically transplanted the cells into mouse mammary fat pads, and then selected for cells that could metastasize to the lung and identified an RNAi for the KLF17 gene. Conversely, we demonstrate that ectopic expression of KLF17 in highly metastatic 4T1 breast cancer cell line inhibited their ability to metastasize from the mammary fat pad to the lung. We also show that suppression of KLF17 expression promotes breast cancer cell invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and that KLF17 functions by directly binding to the promoter of Id-1, a key metastasis regulator in breast cancer, to inhibit its transcription. Finally, we demonstrate that KLF17 expression is significantly down-regulated in primary human breast cancer samples and that the combined expression patterns of KLF17 and Id-1 can serve as a potential biomarker for lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. PMID:19801974

  2. Vascular targeting of a gold nanoparticle to breast cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, Pubudu M.; Deb, Partha; Doolittle, Elizabeth; Doron, Gilad; Goldberg, Amy; Govender, Priya; Shah, Shruti; Rao, Swetha; Carbone, Sarah; Cotey, Thomas; Sylvestre, Meilyn; Singh, Sohaj; Schiemann, William P.; Lee, Zhenghong; Karathanasis, Efstathios

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of breast cancer deaths are due to metastatic disease. While deep tissue targeting of nanoparticles is suitable for some primary tumors, vascular targeting may be a more attractive strategy for micrometastasis. This study combined a vascular targeting strategy with the enhanced targeting capabilities of a nanoparticle to evaluate the ability of a gold nanoparticle to specifically target the early spread of metastatic disease. As a ligand for the vascular targeting strategy, we utilized a peptide targeting alpha(v) beta(3) integrin, which is functionally linked to the development of micrometastases at a distal site. By employing a straightforward radiolabeling method to incorporate Technetium-99m into the gold nanoparticles, we used the high sensitivity of radionuclide imaging to monitor the longitudinal accumulation of the nanoparticles in metastatic sites. Animal and histological studies showed that vascular targeting of the nanoparticle facilitated highly accurate targeting of micrometastasis in the 4T1 mouse model of breast cancer metastasis using radionuclide imaging and a low dose of the nanoparticle. Due to the efficient targeting scheme, 14% of the injected AuNP deposited at metastatic sites in the lungs within 60 min after injection, indicating that the vascular bed of metastasis is a viable target site for nanoparticles. PMID:26036431

  3. SATB1 tethers multiple gene loci to reprogram expression profiledriving breast cancer metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Hye-Jung; Kohwi, Yoshinori; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi

    2006-07-13

    Global changes in gene expression occur during tumor progression, as indicated by expression profiling of metastatic tumors. How this occurs is poorly understood. SATB1 functions as a genome organizer by folding chromatin via tethering multiple genomic loci and recruiting chromatin remodeling enzymes to regulate chromatin structure and expression of a large number of genes. Here we show that SATB1 is expressed at high levels in aggressive breast cancer cells, and is undetectable in non-malignant breast epithelial cells. Importantly, RNAi-mediated removal of SATB1 from highly-aggressive MDA-MB-231 cells altered the expression levels of over 1200 genes, restored breast-like acinar polarity in three-dimensional cultures, and prevented the metastastic phenotype in vivo. Conversely, overexpression of SATB1 in the less-aggressive breast cancer cell line Hs578T altered the gene expression profile and increased metastasis dramatically in vivo. Thus, SATB1 is a global regulator of gene expression in breast cancer cells, directly regulating crucial metastasis-associated genes, including ERRB2 (HER2/NEU), TGF-{beta}1, matrix metalloproteinase 3, and metastasin. The identification of SATB1 as a protein that re-programs chromatin organization and transcription profiles to promote breast cancer metastasis suggests a new model for metastasis and may provide means of therapeutic intervention.

  4. The Collagen Receptor Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 Stabilizes Snail1 Protein to Facilitate Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Corsa, Callie A.; Ponik, Suzanne M.; Prior, Julie L.; Piwnica-Worms, David; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Keely, Patricia J.; Longmore, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Increased stromal collagen deposition in human breast tumours correlates with metastases. We show that activation of the collagen I receptor DDR2 regulates Snail1 protein stability by stimulating ERK2 activity, in a Src-dependent manner. Activated ERK2 directly phosphorylates Snail1, leading to Snail1 nuclear accumulation, reduced ubiquitination, and increased protein half-life. DDR2-mediated stabilization of Snail1 promotes breast cancer cell invasion and migration in vitro, and metastasis in vivo. DDR2 expression was observed in the majority of human invasive ductal breast carcinomas studied, and was associated with nuclear Snail1 and absence of E-cadherin expression. We propose that DDR2 maintains Snail1 protein level and activity in tumor cells that have undergone EMT, thereby facilitating continued tumor cell invasion through collagen I-rich ECM by sustaining the EMT phenotype. As such, DDR2 could be an RTK target for the treatment of breast cancer metastasis. PMID:23644467

  5. Inhibition of heregulin expression blocks tumorigenicity and metastasis of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Shamon-Taylor, Lisa A.; Mehmi, Inderjit; Tang, Careen K.; Cardillo, Marina; Lupu, Ruth

    2001-12-20

    The growth factor Heregulin (HRG) is expressed in 30% of breast cancer tumors. HRG induces tumorigenicity and metastasis of breast cancer cells. Our investigation into whether blockage of HRG reduces the aggressiveness of breast cancer cells demonstrated that transfection of MDA-MB-231 with an HRG antisense cDNA suppressed proliferation, tumorigenicity, and metastasis. Blockage of the aggressive phenotype is mediated possibly through inactivation of the erbB signaling pathways and a decrease in MMP-9 activity. Our study is the first to report that HRG is a key promoter of breast cancer progression and should be deemed as a potential target in developing therapies for the treatment of breast carcinomas.

  6. Latest research progress in the correlation between baicalein and breast cancer invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    YAN, WAN-JUN; MA, XING-CONG; GAO, XIAO-YAN; XUE, XING-HUAN; ZHANG, SHU-QUN

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most commonly occurring female malignant tumors. According to the 2012 GLOBOCAN statistics, produced by the International Agency for Research On Cancer (‘IARC’), nearly 1.7 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer, with 522,000 related deaths: An increase in the incidence of breast cancer and associated mortality by nearly 18% from 2008. Metastasis is the final step in breast cancer progression, and represents the most common cause of mortality in patients with breast cancer. Therefore, a search for low-toxicity, safe and effective anti-breast cancer drugs in the form of natural compounds has become an intense focus of research. Baicalein, a widely used Chinese herbal medicine, has extensive antitumor activity. The present review briefly describes the research that has been performed on the association between baicalein and breast cancer metastasis, and further illustrates the influence of baicalein on the underlying mechanisms of breast cancer metastasis, adding a novel theory basis for baicalein antitumor research. In conclusion, baicalein may represent a promising target for the prevention and therapy of breast cancer. PMID:27073644

  7. Metastasis of two malignant tumors of different genesis in axillary lymph node (a case report).

    PubMed

    Rusin, A V; Petrosov, O V; Chumak, A I; Kushnir, V M

    2016-09-01

    This case report describes a rare clinical condition: metastasis of synchronous multiple primary tumors - skin melanoma and breast cancer in one axillary lymph node, confirmed with the results of clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical study of surgical material from 40 year-old woman. PMID:27685530

  8. RKIP regulates CCL5 expression to inhibit breast cancer invasion and metastasis by controlling macrophage infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Datar, Ila; Qiu, Xiaoliang; Ma, Hong Zhi; Yeung, Miranda; Aras, Shweta; de la Serna, Ivana; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Thiery, Jean Paul; Trumbly, Robert; Fan, Xuan; Cui, Hongjuan; Yeung, Kam C.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that presence of macrophages in the tumor microenvironment add to the invasive and tumor-promoting hallmarks of cancer cells by secreting angiogenic and growth factors. RKIP is a known metastasis suppressor and interferes with several steps of metastasis. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of its function as a broad metastasis suppressor remain poorly understood. Here, we establish a novel pathway for RKIP regulation of metastasis inhibition through the negative regulation of RANTES/CCL5 thereby limiting tumor macrophage infiltration and inhibition of angiogenesis. Using a combination of loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we show that RKIP hinders breast cancer cell invasion by inhibiting expression of the CC chemokine CCL5 in vitro. We also show that the expression levels of RKIP and CCL5 are inversely correlated among clinical human breast cancer samples. Using a mouse allograft breast cancer transplantation model, we highlight that ectopic expression of RKIP significantly decreases tumor vasculature, macrophage infiltration and lung metastases. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the inhibition of the CCL5 expression is the cause of the observed effects resulting from RKIP expression. Taken together, our results underscore the significance of RKIP as important negative regulator of tumor microenvironment. PMID:26375811

  9. An Unusual Case of Gastric Cancer Presenting with Breast Metastasis with Pleomorphic Microcalcifications

    PubMed Central

    Ka, Solomon Yig Joon; Lo, Sherwin Shing Wai; Chu, Chi Yeung; Ma, Ming Wai

    2012-01-01

    Breast metastasis from gastric carcinoma is rare. We present a case of right breast mass with microcalcification in which the diagnosis of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma from the stomach was made after a biopsy. Pleomorphic microcalcification was noted in the ill-defined breast mass, which is a rare feature in breast metastasis. Since breast metastasis usually signifies advanced metastatic disease, differentiating primary breast cancer from metastasis is important for appropriate treatment. PMID:23091550

  10. Down-Regulation of WAVE3, a Metastasis Promoter Gene, Inhibits Invasion and Metastasis of Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sossey-Alaoui, Khalid; Safina, Alfiya; Li, Xiurong; Vaughan, Mary M.; Hicks, David G.; Bakin, Andrei V.; Cowell, John K.

    2007-01-01

    The expression of WAVE3, an actin-cytoskeleton and reorganization protein, is elevated in malignant human breast cancer, yet the role of WAVE3 in promoting tumor progression remains undefined. We have recently shown that knockdown of WAVE3 expression in human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells using small interfering RNA resulted in a significant reduction of cell motility, migration, and invasion, which correlated with a reduction in the levels of active p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Here, we investigated the effect of stable suppression of WAVE3 by short hairpin RNA on tumor growth and metastasis in xenograft models. Breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells expressing short hairpin RNA to WAVE3 (shWAVE3) showed a significant reduction in Matrigel invasion and formation of lung colonies after tail-vein injection in SCID mice. In the orthotopic model, we observed a reduction in growth rate of the primary tumors, as well as in the metastases to the lungs. We also show that suppression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity by dominant-negative p38 results in comparable phenotypes to the knockdown of WAVE3. These studies provide direct evidence that the WAVE3-p38 pathway contributes to breast cancer progression and metastasis. PMID:17525277

  11. Muscleblind-like 1 suppresses breast cancer metastatic colonization and stabilizes metastasis suppressor transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Lisa; Pencheva, Nora; Goodarzi, Hani; Tran, Hien; Yoshida, Mitsukuni; Tavazoie, Sohail F.

    2016-01-01

    Post-transcriptional deregulation is a defining feature of metastatic cancer. While many microRNAs have been implicated as regulators of metastatic progression, less is known about the roles and mechanisms of RNA-binding proteins in this process. We identified muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1), a gene implicated in myotonic dystrophy, as a robust suppressor of multiorgan breast cancer metastasis. MBNL1 binds the 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of DBNL (drebrin-like protein) and TACC1 (transforming acidic coiled-coil containing protein 1)—two genes that we implicate as metastasis suppressors. By enhancing the stability of these genes’ transcripts, MBNL1 suppresses cell invasiveness. Consistent with these findings, elevated MBNL1 expression in human breast tumors is associated with reduced metastatic relapse likelihood. Our findings delineate a post-transcriptional network that governs breast cancer metastasis through RNA-binding protein-mediated transcript stabilization. PMID:26883358

  12. Muscleblind-like 1 suppresses breast cancer metastatic colonization and stabilizes metastasis suppressor transcripts.

    PubMed

    Fish, Lisa; Pencheva, Nora; Goodarzi, Hani; Tran, Hien; Yoshida, Mitsukuni; Tavazoie, Sohail F

    2016-02-15

    Post-transcriptional deregulation is a defining feature of metastatic cancer. While many microRNAs have been implicated as regulators of metastatic progression, less is known about the roles and mechanisms of RNA-binding proteins in this process. We identified muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1), a gene implicated in myotonic dystrophy, as a robust suppressor of multiorgan breast cancer metastasis. MBNL1 binds the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of DBNL (drebrin-like protein) and TACC1 (transforming acidic coiled-coil containing protein 1)-two genes that we implicate as metastasis suppressors. By enhancing the stability of these genes' transcripts, MBNL1 suppresses cell invasiveness. Consistent with these findings, elevated MBNL1 expression in human breast tumors is associated with reduced metastatic relapse likelihood. Our findings delineate a post-transcriptional network that governs breast cancer metastasis through RNA-binding protein-mediated transcript stabilization.

  13. TGF-β upregulates miR-181a expression to promote breast cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Molly A.; Sossey-Alaoui, Khalid; Thompson, Cheryl L.; Danielpour, David; Schiemann, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Late-stage breast cancer metastasis is driven by dysregulated TGF-β signaling, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We attempted to recapitulate tumor and metastatic microenvironments via the use of biomechanically compliant or rigid 3D organotypic cultures and combined them with global microRNA (miR) profiling analyses to identify miRs that were upregulated in metastatic breast cancer cells by TGF-β. Here we establish miR-181a as a TGF-β–regulated “metastamir” that enhanced the metastatic potential of breast cancers by promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migratory, and invasive phenotypes. Mechanistically, inactivation of miR-181a elevated the expression of the proapoptotic molecule Bim, which sensitized metastatic cells to anoikis. Along these lines, miR-181a expression was essential in driving pulmonary micrometastatic outgrowth and enhancing the lethality of late-stage mammary tumors in mice. Finally, miR-181a expression was dramatically and selectively upregulated in metastatic breast tumors, particularly triple-negative breast cancers, and was highly predictive for decreased overall survival in human breast cancer patients. Collectively, our findings strongly implicate miR-181a as a predictive biomarker for breast cancer metastasis and patient survival, and consequently, as a potential therapeutic target in metastatic breast cancer. PMID:23241956

  14. Huge malignant phyllodes breast tumor: a real entity in a new era of early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Testori, Alberto; Meroni, Stefano; Errico, Valentina; Travaglini, Roberto; Voulaz, Emanuele; Alloisio, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor is an extremely rare tumor of the breast. It occurs in females in the third and fourth decades. The difficulty in distinguishing between phyllodes tumors and benign fibroadenoma may lead to misdiagnosis. Lymph node involvement is rarely described in phyllodes tumors; for this reason, sentinel node biopsy may be warranted. We present a case of a 33-year-old woman affected by huge tumor of the right breast with ulceration in the skin with a rapid tumor growth and with omolateral axillary metastasis. PMID:25880837

  15. Comparison of Monofractal, Multifractal and gray level Co-occurrence matrix algorithms in analysis of Breast tumor microscopic images for prognosis of distant metastasis risk.

    PubMed

    Rajković, Nemanja; Kolarević, Daniela; Kanjer, Ksenija; Milošević, Nebojša T; Nikolić-Vukosavljević, Dragica; Radulovic, Marko

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer prognosis is a subject undergoing intense study due to its high clinical relevance for effective therapeutic management and a great patient interest in disease progression. Prognostic value of fractal and gray level co-occurrence matrix texture analysis algorithms has been previously established on tumour histology images, but without any direct performance comparison. Therefore, this study was designed to compare the prognostic power of the monofractal, multifractal and co-occurrence algorithms on the same set of images. The investigation was retrospective, with 51 patients selected on account of non-metastatic IBC diagnosis, stage IIIB. Image analysis was performed on digital images of primary tumour tissue sections stained with haematoxylin/eosin. Bootstrap-corrected Cox proportional hazards regression P-values indicated a significant association with metastasis outcome of at least one of the features within each group. AUC values were far better for co-occurrence (0.66-0.77) then for fractal features (0.60-0.64). Correction by the split-sample cross-validation likewise indicated the generalizability only for the co-occurrence features, with their classification accuracies ranging between 67 and 72 %, while accuracies of monofractal and multifractal features were reduced to nearly random 52-55 %. These findings indicate for the first time that the prognostic value of texture analysis of tumour histology is less dependent on the morphological complexity of the image as measured by fractal analysis, but predominantly on the spatial distribution of the gray pixel intensities as calculated by the co-occurrence features. PMID:27549346

  16. Comparison of Monofractal, Multifractal and gray level Co-occurrence matrix algorithms in analysis of Breast tumor microscopic images for prognosis of distant metastasis risk.

    PubMed

    Rajković, Nemanja; Kolarević, Daniela; Kanjer, Ksenija; Milošević, Nebojša T; Nikolić-Vukosavljević, Dragica; Radulovic, Marko

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer prognosis is a subject undergoing intense study due to its high clinical relevance for effective therapeutic management and a great patient interest in disease progression. Prognostic value of fractal and gray level co-occurrence matrix texture analysis algorithms has been previously established on tumour histology images, but without any direct performance comparison. Therefore, this study was designed to compare the prognostic power of the monofractal, multifractal and co-occurrence algorithms on the same set of images. The investigation was retrospective, with 51 patients selected on account of non-metastatic IBC diagnosis, stage IIIB. Image analysis was performed on digital images of primary tumour tissue sections stained with haematoxylin/eosin. Bootstrap-corrected Cox proportional hazards regression P-values indicated a significant association with metastasis outcome of at least one of the features within each group. AUC values were far better for co-occurrence (0.66-0.77) then for fractal features (0.60-0.64). Correction by the split-sample cross-validation likewise indicated the generalizability only for the co-occurrence features, with their classification accuracies ranging between 67 and 72 %, while accuracies of monofractal and multifractal features were reduced to nearly random 52-55 %. These findings indicate for the first time that the prognostic value of texture analysis of tumour histology is less dependent on the morphological complexity of the image as measured by fractal analysis, but predominantly on the spatial distribution of the gray pixel intensities as calculated by the co-occurrence features.

  17. Ketone body utilization drives tumor growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Lin, Zhao; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously proposed that catabolic fibroblasts generate mitochondrial fuels (such as ketone bodies) to promote the anabolic growth of human cancer cells and their metastasic dissemination. We have termed this new paradigm “two-compartment tumor metabolism.” Here, we further tested this hypothesis by using a genetic approach. For this purpose, we generated hTERT-immortalized fibroblasts overexpressing the rate-limiting enzymes that promote ketone body production, namely BDH1 and HMGCS2. Similarly, we generated MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells overexpressing the key enzyme(s) that allow ketone body re-utilization, OXCT1/2 and ACAT1/2. Interestingly, our results directly show that ketogenic fibroblasts are catabolic and undergo autophagy, with a loss of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) protein expression. Moreover, ketogenic fibroblasts increase the mitochondrial mass and growth of adjacent breast cancer cells. However, most importantly, ketogenic fibroblasts also effectively promote tumor growth, without a significant increase in tumor angiogenesis. Finally, MDA-MB-231 cells overexpressing the enzyme(s) required for ketone re-utilization show dramatic increases in tumor growth and metastatic capacity. Our data provide the necessary genetic evidence that ketone body production and re-utilization drive tumor progression and metastasis. As such, ketone inhibitors should be designed as novel therapeutics to effectively treat advanced cancer patients, with tumor recurrence and metastatic disease. In summary, ketone bodies behave as onco-metabolites, and we directly show that the enzymes HMGCS2, ACAT1/2 and OXCT1/2 are bona fide metabolic oncogenes. PMID:23082722

  18. Ketone body utilization drives tumor growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Lin, Zhao; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2012-11-01

    We have previously proposed that catabolic fibroblasts generate mitochondrial fuels (such as ketone bodies) to promote the anabolic growth of human cancer cells and their metastasic dissemination. We have termed this new paradigm "two-compartment tumor metabolism." Here, we further tested this hypothesis by using a genetic approach. For this purpose, we generated hTERT-immortalized fibroblasts overexpressing the rate-limiting enzymes that promote ketone body production, namely BDH1 and HMGCS2. Similarly, we generated MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells overexpressing the key enzyme(s) that allow ketone body re-utilization, OXCT1/2 and ACAT1/2. Interestingly, our results directly show that ketogenic fibroblasts are catabolic and undergo autophagy, with a loss of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) protein expression. Moreover, ketogenic fibroblasts increase the mitochondrial mass and growth of adjacent breast cancer cells. However, most importantly, ketogenic fibroblasts also effectively promote tumor growth, without a significant increase in tumor angiogenesis. Finally, MDA-MB-231 cells overexpressing the enzyme(s) required for ketone re-utilization show dramatic increases in tumor growth and metastatic capacity. Our data provide the necessary genetic evidence that ketone body production and re-utilization drive tumor progression and metastasis. As such, ketone inhibitors should be designed as novel therapeutics to effectively treat advanced cancer patients, with tumor recurrence and metastatic disease. In summary, ketone bodies behave as onco-metabolites, and we directly show that the enzymes HMGCS2, ACAT1/2 and OXCT1/2 are bona fide metabolic oncogenes. PMID:23082722

  19. [Two cases of esophageal variceal rupture associated with chemotherapy for liver metastasis of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mizuyama, Yoko; Shinto, Osamu; Matsutani, Sinji; Arimoto, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Hiroji; Ohno, Yoshioki; Takashima, Tsutomu

    2014-11-01

    A morphological change resembling liver cirrhosis called pseudocirrhosis may be observed following chemotherapy for liver metastasis of breast cancer. Pseudocirrhosis is hypothesized to be caused by retraction of the hepatic capsule along with tumor shrinkage and subsequent scar formation around the metastatic lesion, as a response to the infiltrating tumor or chemotherapy-induced hepatic injury. The progression of cirrhotic changes may result in portal hypertension and esophageal varices. We managed two cases of esophageal variceal rupture during chemotherapy for breast cancer with liver metastasis. Hemostasis was successfully achieved by the endoscopic variceal ligation technique in both cases. We conclude that clinicians should be aware of the risk of pseudocirrhosis during chemotherapy for liver metastasis, and a periodic endoscopic follow-up is recommended along with appropriate management of esophageal varices.

  20. Synergistic inhibition of breast cancer metastasis by silibinin-loaded lipid nanoparticles containing TPGS.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengfei; Yin, Qi; Shen, Jianan; Chen, Lingli; Yu, Haijun; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Yaping

    2013-09-15

    Tumor metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-related mortality and remains to be the principal obstacle for the successful chemotherapy of breast cancer. To block metastasis of breast cancer, silibinin-loaded lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) containing TPGS and phosphatidylcholine were designed and prepared by a thin-film hydration method. The optimized SLNs were approximately 45 nm in particle size with high stability in serum, which were further demonstrated to be efficiently uptaken by MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Importantly, the SLNs could accumulate within tumor tissues with high efficiency and amounts. Compared with free silibinin, SLNs exhibited much stronger inhibitory effects on the invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells through the downregulation of MMP-9 and Snail. More importantly, systematic in vivo evaluations demonstrated that SLNs treatment group resulted in 67% and 39% less pulmonary metastases formation than saline treatment group in the spontaneous and blood vessel metastasis models, respectively. Interestingly, the blank lipid nanoparticles without silibinin were also found, for the first time, to possess the efficient anti-metastatic capabilities to some extent. The biocompatibility assay reveals that SLNs treatment did not exhibit obvious systemic toxicity in two mouse models. Therefore, SLNs are the promising delivery systems against metastasis of breast cancer cells.

  1. TrkB Promotes Breast Cancer Metastasis via Suppression of Runx3 and Keap1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Won Sung; Jin, Wook

    2016-03-01

    In metastatic breast cancer, the acquisition of malignant traits has been associated with the increased rate of cell growth and division, mobility, resistance to chemotherapy, and invasiveness. While screening for the key regulators of cancer metastasis, we observed that neurotrophin receptor TrkB is frequently overexpressed in breast cancer patients and breast cancer cell lines. Additionally, we demonstrate that TrkB expression and clinical breast tumor pathological phenotypes show significant correlation. Moreover, TrkB expression was significantly upregulated in basal-like, claudin-low, and metaplastic breast cancers from a published microarray database and in patients with triple-negative breast cancer, which is associated with a higher risk of invasive recurrence. Interestingly, we identified a new TrkB-regulated functional network that is important for the tumorigenicity and metastasis of breast cancer. We demonstrated that TrkB plays a key role in regulation of the tumor suppressors Runx3 and Keap1. A markedly increased expression of Runx3 and Keap1 was observed upon knockdown of TrkB, treatment with a TrkB inhibitor, and in TrkB kinase dead mutants. Additionally, the inhibition of PI3K/AKT activation significantly induced Runx3 and Keap1 expression. Furthermore, we showed that TrkB enhances metastatic potential and induces proliferation. These observations suggest that TrkB plays a key role in tumorigenicity and metastasis of breast cancer cells through suppression of Runx3 or Keap1 and that it is a promising target for future intervention strategies for preventing tumor metastasis and cancer chemoprevention. PMID:26657794

  2. Breast cancer lung metastasis requires expression of chemokine receptor CCR4 and regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Olkhanud, Purevdorj B; Baatar, Dolgor; Bodogai, Monica; Hakim, Fran; Gress, Ronald; Anderson, Robin L; Deng, Jie; Xu, Mai; Briest, Susanne; Biragyn, Arya

    2009-07-15

    Cancer metastasis is a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. More needs to be learned about mechanisms that control this process. In particular, the role of chemokine receptors in metastasis remains controversial. Here, using a highly metastatic breast cancer (4T1) model, we show that lung metastasis is a feature of only a proportion of the tumor cells that express CCR4. Moreover, the primary tumor growing in mammary pads activates remotely the expression of TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 in the lungs. These chemokines acting through CCR4 attract both tumor and immune cells. However, CCR4-mediated chemotaxis was not sufficient to produce metastasis, as tumor cells in the lung were efficiently eliminated by natural killer (NK) cells. Lung metastasis required CCR4(+) regulatory T cells (Treg), which directly killed NK cells using beta-galactoside-binding protein. Thus, strategies that abrogate any part of this process should improve the outcome through activation of effector cells and prevention of tumor cell migration. We confirm this prediction by killing CCR4(+) cells through delivery of TARC-fused toxins or depleting Tregs and preventing lung metastasis. PMID:19567680

  3. Monitoring Metastasis and Cachexia in a Patient with Breast Cancer: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Consul, Nikita; Guo, Xiaotao; Coker, Courtney; Lopez-Pintado, Sara; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Zhao, Binsheng; Kalinsky, Kevin; Acharyya, Swarnali

    2016-01-01

    Cachexia, a wasting syndrome associated with advanced cancer and metastasis, is rarely documented in breast cancer patients. However, the incidence of cachexia in breast cancer is now thought to be largely underestimated. In our case report of a breast cancer patient with bone metastasis monitored during the course of her treatment, we document the development of cachexia by image analysis in relation to her metastatic burden. Elucidation of the link between metastatic burden and cachexia could unveil a highly specific screening process for metastasis, by assessing true muscle mass loss. Our patient was a 49-year-old premenopausal woman, with metastatic invasive ductal breast carcinoma in the vertebral and iliac bones on presentation, which progressed with new metastases to her hips, thigh bones, and vertebrae. In the two-year period, that is between her diagnosis and death, she lost >10% of her baseline weight. During these two years, we retrospectively identified a decrease in paraspinal muscle (PM) at the third lumbar vertebra followed by a sharp decline in weight. The increased tumor burden over time in metastatic sites was accompanied by a decrease in abdominal muscle and visceral and subcutaneous fat and was followed by the patient's demise. The increasing tumor burden in the patient was correlated with the mass of other tissues to determine the tissue that could best serve as a surrogate marker to cachexia and tumor burden. We noted a strong negative correlation between PM area and metastatic tumor area at the third lumbar vertebral level, with PM loss correlating to increasing tumor burden. The monitoring of PM wasting may serve as a marker, and therefore a prognostic factor, for both cachexia and extent of metastatic disease, especially in breast cancer, where metastasis to bone is frequent. Based on our data and review of the literature in this case study, longitudinal monitoring of cachexia in the selected muscle groups can give clinicians early

  4. Monitoring Metastasis and Cachexia in a Patient with Breast Cancer: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Consul, Nikita; Guo, Xiaotao; Coker, Courtney; Lopez-Pintado, Sara; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Zhao, Binsheng; Kalinsky, Kevin; Acharyya, Swarnali

    2016-01-01

    Cachexia, a wasting syndrome associated with advanced cancer and metastasis, is rarely documented in breast cancer patients. However, the incidence of cachexia in breast cancer is now thought to be largely underestimated. In our case report of a breast cancer patient with bone metastasis monitored during the course of her treatment, we document the development of cachexia by image analysis in relation to her metastatic burden. Elucidation of the link between metastatic burden and cachexia could unveil a highly specific screening process for metastasis, by assessing true muscle mass loss. Our patient was a 49-year-old premenopausal woman, with metastatic invasive ductal breast carcinoma in the vertebral and iliac bones on presentation, which progressed with new metastases to her hips, thigh bones, and vertebrae. In the two-year period, that is between her diagnosis and death, she lost >10% of her baseline weight. During these two years, we retrospectively identified a decrease in paraspinal muscle (PM) at the third lumbar vertebra followed by a sharp decline in weight. The increased tumor burden over time in metastatic sites was accompanied by a decrease in abdominal muscle and visceral and subcutaneous fat and was followed by the patient’s demise. The increasing tumor burden in the patient was correlated with the mass of other tissues to determine the tissue that could best serve as a surrogate marker to cachexia and tumor burden. We noted a strong negative correlation between PM area and metastatic tumor area at the third lumbar vertebral level, with PM loss correlating to increasing tumor burden. The monitoring of PM wasting may serve as a marker, and therefore a prognostic factor, for both cachexia and extent of metastatic disease, especially in breast cancer, where metastasis to bone is frequent. Based on our data and review of the literature in this case study, longitudinal monitoring of cachexia in the selected muscle groups can give clinicians early

  5. Monitoring Metastasis and Cachexia in a Patient with Breast Cancer: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Consul, Nikita; Guo, Xiaotao; Coker, Courtney; Lopez-Pintado, Sara; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Zhao, Binsheng; Kalinsky, Kevin; Acharyya, Swarnali

    2016-01-01

    Cachexia, a wasting syndrome associated with advanced cancer and metastasis, is rarely documented in breast cancer patients. However, the incidence of cachexia in breast cancer is now thought to be largely underestimated. In our case report of a breast cancer patient with bone metastasis monitored during the course of her treatment, we document the development of cachexia by image analysis in relation to her metastatic burden. Elucidation of the link between metastatic burden and cachexia could unveil a highly specific screening process for metastasis, by assessing true muscle mass loss. Our patient was a 49-year-old premenopausal woman, with metastatic invasive ductal breast carcinoma in the vertebral and iliac bones on presentation, which progressed with new metastases to her hips, thigh bones, and vertebrae. In the two-year period, that is between her diagnosis and death, she lost >10% of her baseline weight. During these two years, we retrospectively identified a decrease in paraspinal muscle (PM) at the third lumbar vertebra followed by a sharp decline in weight. The increased tumor burden over time in metastatic sites was accompanied by a decrease in abdominal muscle and visceral and subcutaneous fat and was followed by the patient’s demise. The increasing tumor burden in the patient was correlated with the mass of other tissues to determine the tissue that could best serve as a surrogate marker to cachexia and tumor burden. We noted a strong negative correlation between PM area and metastatic tumor area at the third lumbar vertebral level, with PM loss correlating to increasing tumor burden. The monitoring of PM wasting may serve as a marker, and therefore a prognostic factor, for both cachexia and extent of metastatic disease, especially in breast cancer, where metastasis to bone is frequent. Based on our data and review of the literature in this case study, longitudinal monitoring of cachexia in the selected muscle groups can give clinicians early

  6. [Breast metastasis of a squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. A case report].

    PubMed

    Yordanov, Y; Dimitrova, P

    2015-01-01

    The breast is an extremely rare target organ for metastasis of extramammary neoplasms. The occurence varies between 1.7% to 6.6% in autopsies; between 1.2% and 2% in clinical cases; and around 2.7% in sputum series. In accordance with the primary tumor localization, it is more common to find metastases of lymphoma, melanoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, tumors of the lung and ovarian tumors. Breast metastasis of the uterine cervix is a very seldomly found. According to the published literature so far there have been around 30 documented cases with such pathology. This study presents the case of a 48-year-old female with a squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, which was histologically verified in 2010. Three years after the initial tumor diagnosis, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the patient was found to have a cystic tumor formation in one of her breasts. The formation was painful to pressure. Quadrantectomy with an open bisopsy was performed to the patient. Histological and immunohistochemical diagnosis rejected primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. The differential diagnosis of metastatic lesions in the breast is problematic and requires careful clinical history, immunohistochemical study and multidisciplinary approach in the management. Mammary metastases are a bad predictor and they serve as an indicator of generalized dissemination of the primary tumor process.

  7. The Impact of Immune System in Regulating Bone Metastasis Formation by Osteotropic Tumors.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Lucia; Roato, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Bone metastases are frequent and debilitating consequence for many tumors, such as breast, lung, prostate, and kidney cancer. Many studies report the importance of the immune system in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis. Indeed, bone and immune system are strictly linked to each other because bone regulates the hematopoietic stem cells from which all cells of the immune system derive, and many immunoregulatory cytokines influence the fate of bone cells. Furthermore, both cytokines and factors produced by immune and bone cells promote the growth of tumor cells in bone, contributing to supporting the vicious cycle of bone metastasis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the interactions among bone, immune, and tumor cells aiming to provide an overview of the osteoimmunology field in bone metastasis from solid tumors.

  8. Mammary tumor growth and metastasis are reduced in c-Kit mutant Sash mice.

    PubMed

    He, Licai; Zhu, Zhenfeng; Chen, Shang; Wang, Yongping; Gu, Haihua

    2016-06-01

    Besides its well-known function in allergic response, mast cell, one of the key immune cells present in tumor microenvironment, plays important roles in cancer progression. However, the functional role of mast cells in breast cancer development and metastasis is not well understood. To test the involvement of mast cells in breast cancer, we examined the effects of loss of mast cells on mammary tumor development by crossing the well-known mast cell deficient mouse strain sash (Kit(W-sh/W-sh) ) with the mammary tumor transgenic mouse strain MMTV-Polyoma Middle T antigen (PyMT). Although mammary tumor onset was not affected in the absence of mast cells, mammary growth and metastasis were reduced in PyMT/Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice compared with PyMT/wild-type mice (WT). Histological and immunofluorescent analyses showed that tumors from PyMT/Kit(W-sh/W-sh) mice showed largely differentiated morphology with reduced angiogenesis compared with MMTV-PyMT/WT mice. Our results suggest that mast cells may promote breast cancer growth and metastasis. Agents that can block mast cells growth are potential new therapies to treat metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26992445

  9. Pulmonary metastasis of giant cell tumor of bones.

    PubMed

    Muheremu, Aikeremujiang; Niu, Xiaohui

    2014-08-20

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) accounts for 5% of primary skeletal tumors. Although it is considered to be a benign lesion, there are still incidences of pulmonary metastasis. Pulmonary metastasis of GCTB may be affected by tumor grading and localization as well as the age, gender and overall health status of the patient. Patients with local recurrence are more likely to develop pulmonary metastasis of GCTB. High expression of some genes, cytokines and chemokines may also be closely related to the metastatic potential and prognosis of GCTB. The treatment of the primary GCTB is key to the final outcome of the disease, as intralesional curettage has a significantly higher local recurrence and pulmonary metastasis rate than wide resection. However, even patients with pulmonary metastasis seem to have a good prognosis after timely and appropriate surgical resection. It is hoped that with the development of novel surgical methods and drugs, pulmonary metastasis of GCTB can be prevented and treated more effectively.

  10. Primary breast cancer induces pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability and promotes metastasis via the VEGF-PKC pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Man; Qin, Chengyong; Han, Mingyong

    2016-06-01

    The lung is one of the most frequent target organs for breast cancer metastasis. When breast cancer cells from a primary tumor do not colonize the lung, which we named the premetastatic phase, the microenvironment of the lung has already been influenced by the primary tumor. However, little is known about the exact premetastatic alteration and regulatory mechanisms of the lung. Here, we used 4T1 cells (a mouse breast cancer cell line which can specifically metastasize to the lung) to build a mouse breast cancer model. We found that primary breast tumor induced increased pulmonary vascular permeability in the premetastatic phase, which facilitated the leakage of rhodamine-dextran and the extravasation of intravenous therapy injected cancer cells. Furthermore, tight junctions (TJs) were disrupted, and the expression of zonula occludens-1(ZO-1), one of the most important components of tight junctions, was decreased in the premetastatic lung. In addition, elevated serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was involved in the destabilization of tight junctions and the VEGF antagonist bevacizumab reversed the primary tumor-induced vascular hyperpermeability. Moreover, activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway disrupted the integrity of TJs and accordingly, the disruption could be alleviated by blocking VEGF. Taken together, these data demonstrate that primary breast cancer may induce tight junction disruptions in the premetastatic lung via the VEGF-PKC pathway and promote pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability before metastasis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26152457

  11. Immunosuppressive cells in tumor immune escape and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-05-01

    Tumor immune escape and the initiation of metastasis are critical steps in malignant progression of tumors and have been implicated in the failure of some clinical cancer immunotherapy. Tumors develop numerous strategies to escape immune surveillance or metastasize: Tumors not only modulate the recruitment and expansion of immunosuppressive cell populations to develop the tumor microenvironment or pre-metastatic niche but also switch the phenotype and function of normal immune cells from a potentially tumor-reactive state to a tumor-promoting state. Immunosuppressive cells facilitate tumor immune escape by inhibiting antitumor immune responses and furthermore promote tumor metastasis by inducing immunosuppression, promoting tumor cell invasion and intravasation, establishing a pre-metastatic niche, facilitating epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and inducing angiogenesis at primary tumor or metastatic sites. Numerous translational studies indicate that it is possible to inhibit tumor immune escape and prevent tumor metastasis by blocking immunosuppressive cells and eliminating immunosuppressive mechanisms that are induced by either immunosuppressive cells or tumor cells. Furthermore, many clinical trials targeting immunosuppressive cells have also achieved good outcome. In this review, we focus on the underlying mechanisms of immunosuppressive cells in promoting tumor immune escape and metastasis, discuss our current understanding of the interactions between immunosuppressive cells and tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment, and suggest future research directions as well as potential clinical strategies in cancer immunotherapy.

  12. THE MRI FINDINGS OF IRIS METASTASIS IN PATIENTS WITH BREAST CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Hasan; Akça, Zeki; Büyükçelik, Abdullah; Öztürk, Mustafa; Taşdemir, Mustafa; Kubilay Yazıcıoğlu, Alper; Kaplan, Bünyamin; Uçar, Kadir

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer and lung cancer are the most common tumors that metastasize to iris. The metastasis of iris was generally diagnosed on ophthalmologic examination. In this case, we reported iris metastasis of patients with adenocarcinoma of breast cancer and MRI findings. We report a case of a 51-year-old. She was diagnosed breast cancer two years ago. After adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy and trastuzumab, she was admitted to hospital with the complaints of headache on February 2012. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ) revealed multiple brain metastasis. Whole brain radiotherapy and palliative chemotherapy were applied to the patients. In follow-up, on ophthalmological examination, there was a solid lesion on iris. The orbital MRI was performed and it revealed the thickness on iris of left eye. After diagnostic procedure final pathological rewiev reported that invasive ductal carcinom metastasis. Iris metastasis may be considered by MRI findings following: The thickness on iris and contrast enhanced lesion. This reason may be resulted that the fine niddle aspiration biopsy for diagnosis of iris metastasis is not need. PMID:23378695

  13. Hydrogen-bonded and reduction-responsive micelles loading atorvastatin for therapy of breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengfei; Yu, Haijun; Zhang, Zhiwen; Meng, Qingshuo; Sun, Huiping; Chen, Xianzhi; Yin, Qi; Li, Yaping

    2014-08-01

    Metastasis is one of the major obstacles for the successful therapy of breast cancer. Although increased candidate drugs targeting cancer metastasis are tested, their clinical translation is limited by either serve toxicity or low efficacy. In present work, a nano-drug delivery system loading atorvastatin calcium (Ator) was developed for the efficient suppression of the metastasis of breast cancer. The nano-drug delivery system was constructed by a amphiphilic copolymer of methoxy polyethylene glycol-s-s-vitamin E succinate (mPEG-s-s-VES, PSV), which was consisted of a hydrophilic mPEG1k segment and a hydrophobic VES head, which were conjugated with a linker bearing amide and disulfide groups simultaneously. Self-assembly of PSV and Ator formed Ator-loaded PSV micelles (ASM) with good colloidal stability, high drug loading content (up to 50%) and great encapsulation efficiency (99.09 ± 0.28%). In cellular level, it was found that the ASM could efficiently release the Ator payload into cytosol due to detachment of PEG shell at high intracellular glutathione condition. ASM could significantly inhibit the migration and invasion of 4T1 breast cancer cells with inhibitory rates of 79.2% and 88.5%, respectively. In a 4T1 orthotropic mammary tumor metastatic cancer model, it was demonstrated that ASM could completely blocked the lung and liver metastasis of breast cancer with minimal toxicity owing to enhanced Ator accumulation in tumor and lung as compared with that of free Ator. The down-regulations of metastasis-promoting MMP-9, Twist and uPA proteins were demonstrated as the main underlying mechanism. As a result, ASM could be a promising drug delivery system for the efficient therapy of breast cancer metastasis.

  14. Diet modulation is an effective complementary agent in preventing and treating breast cancer lung metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangmin; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Wang, Dezhi; Siegal, Gene P; Hardy, Robert W

    2014-08-01

    A significant percentage of breast cancer victims will suffer from metastases indicating that new approaches to preventing breast cancer metastasis are thus needed. Dietary stearate (ST) and chemotherapy have been shown to reduce breast cancer metastasis. We tested the complementary use of dietary ST with a taxol-based chemotherapy which work through separate mechanisms to reduce breast cancer metastasis. We therefore carried out a prevention study in which diets were initiated prior to human MDA-MB-435 cancer cells being injected into the host and a treatment study in which diets were combined with paclitaxel (PTX). Using an orthotopic athymic nude mouse model and three diets [corn oil (CO) control diet, low fat (LF) or ST] the prevention study demonstrated that the ST diet decreased the incidence of lung metastasis by 50 % compared to both the LF and CO diets. The ST diet also reduced the number and size of metastatic lung nodules compared to the LF diet. Results of the treatment study indicated that both the CO and ST diets decreased the number of mice with lung metastasis compared to the LF diet. Both CO and ST also decreased the number of lung metastases per mouse compared to the LF diet however only the ST diet cohort was significant. Histomorphometric analysis of the lung tumor tissue indicated that the ST diet plus PTX decreased angiogenesis compared to the LF diet plus PTX. In conclusion these results support combining diet with chemotherapy in both treatment and prevention settings.

  15. The role of fibroblast Tiam1 in tumor cell invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kun; Rajagopal, Soumitra; Klebba, Ina; Dong, Shumin; Ji, Yuxin; Liu, Jiewei; Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Garlick, Jonathan A.; Naber, Stephen P.; Buchsbaum, Rachel J.

    2010-01-01

    The co-evolution of tumors and their microenvironment involves bidirectional communication between tumor cells and tumor-associated stroma. Various cell types are present in tumor-associated stroma, of which fibroblasts are the most abundant. The Rac exchange factor Tiam1 is implicated in multiple signaling pathways in epithelial tumor cells and lack of Tiam1 in tumor cells retards tumor growth in Tiam1 knock-out mouse models. Conversely, tumors arising in Tiam1 knock-out mice have increased invasiveness. We have investigated the role of Tiam1 in tumor-associated fibroblasts as a modulator of tumor cell invasion and metastasis, using retroviral delivery of short hairpin RNA to suppress Tiam1 levels in three different experimental models. In spheroid co-culture of mammary epithelial cells and fibroblasts, Tiam1 silencing in fibroblasts led to increased epithelial cell outgrowth into matrix. In tissue-engineered human skin, Tiam1 silencing in dermal fibroblasts led to increased invasiveness of epidermal keratinocytes with premalignant features. In a model of human breast cancer in mice, co-implantation of mammary fibroblasts inhibited tumor invasion and metastasis, which was reversed by Tiam1 silencing in co-injected fibroblasts. These results suggest that stromal Tiam1 may play a role in modulating the effects of the tumor microenvironment on malignant cell invasion and metastasis. This suggests a set of pathways for further investigation, with implications for future therapeutic targets. PMID:20802514

  16. Host b7x promotes pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Yael M; Jeon, Hyungjun; Ohaegbulam, Kim C; Scandiuzzi, Lisa; Ghosh, Kaya; Hofmeyer, Kimberly A; Lee, Jun Sik; Ray, Anjana; Gravekamp, Claudia; Zang, Xingxing

    2013-04-01

    B7x (B7-H4 or B7S1) is an inhibitory member of the B7 family of T cell costimulation. It is expressed in low levels in healthy peripheral tissues, such as the lung epithelium, but is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers with negative clinical associations, including metastasis. However, the function of B7x in the context of cancer, whether expressed on cancer cells or on surrounding "host" tissues, has not been elucidated in vivo. We used the 4T1 metastatic breast cancer model and B7x knockout (B7x (-/-)) mice to investigate the effect of host tissue-expressed B7x on cancer. We found that 4T1 cells were B7x negative in vitro and in vivo, and B7x(-/-) mice had significantly fewer lung 4T1 tumor nodules than did wild-type mice. Furthermore, B7x(-/-) mice showed significantly enhanced survival and a memory response to tumor rechallenge. Mechanistic studies revealed that the presence of B7x correlated with reduced general and tumor-specific T cell cytokine responses, as well as with an increased infiltration of immunosuppressive cells, including tumor-associated neutrophils, macrophages, and regulatory T cells, into tumor-bearing lungs. Importantly, tumor-associated neutrophils strongly bound B7x protein and inhibited the proliferation of both CD4 and CD8 T cells. These results suggest that host B7x may enable metastasizing cancer cells to escape local antitumor immune responses through interactions with the innate and adaptive immune systems. Thus, targeting the B7x pathway holds much promise for improving the efficacy of immunotherapy for metastatic cancer. PMID:23455497

  17. cAMP-response-element-binding protein positively regulates breast cancer metastasis and subsequent bone destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Jieun; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Ha-Neui; Ha, Hyunil Lee, Zang Hee

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} CREB is highly expressed in advanced breast cancer cells. {yields} Tumor-related factors such as TGF-{beta} further elevate CREB expression. {yields} CREB upregulation stimulates metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. {yields} CREB signaling is required for breast cancer-induced bone destruction. -- Abstract: cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) signaling has been reported to be associated with cancer development and poor clinical outcome in various types of cancer. However, it remains to be elucidated whether CREB is involved in breast cancer development and osteotropism. Here, we found that metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exhibited higher CREB expression than did non-metastatic MCF-7 cells and that CREB expression was further increased by several soluble factors linked to cancer progression, such as IL-1, IGF-1, and TGF-{beta}. Using wild-type CREB and a dominant-negative form (K-CREB), we found that CREB signaling positively regulated the proliferation, migration, and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, K-CREB prevented MDA-MB-231 cell-induced osteolytic lesions in a mouse model of cancer metastasis. Furthermore, CREB signaling in cancer cells regulated the gene expression of PTHrP, MMPs, and OPG, which are closely involved in cancer metastasis and bone destruction. These results indicate that breast cancer cells acquire CREB overexpression during their development and that this CREB upregulation plays an important role in multiple steps of breast cancer bone metastasis.

  18. Protocadherin-7 induces bone metastasis of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ai-Min; Tian, Ai-Xian; Zhang, Rui-Xue; Ge, Jie; Sun, Xuan; Cao, Xu-Chen

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •PCDH7 is overexpression in high bone metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. •PCDH7 is up-regulation in bone metastatic breast cancer tissues. •Suppression of PCDH7 inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. •PCDH7 induces breast cancer bone metastasis in vivo. -- Abstract: Breast cancer had a propensity to metastasize to bone, resulting in serious skeletal complications associated with poor outcome. Previous study showed that Protocadherin-7 (PCDH7) play an important role in brain metastatic breast cancer, however, the role of PCDH7 in bone metastatic breast cancer has never been explored. In the present study, we found that PCDH7 expression was up-regulation in bone metastatic breast cancer tissues by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry assays. Furthermore, suppression of PCDH7 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro by MTT, scratch, and transwell assays. Most importantly, overexpression of PCDH7 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, and formation of bone metastasis in vivo. These data provide an important insight into the role of PCDH7 in bone metastasis of breast cancer.

  19. CCL2-induced chemokine cascade promotes breast cancer metastasis by enhancing retention of metastasis-associated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Takanori; Qian, Bin-Zhi; Soong, Daniel; Cassetta, Luca; Noy, Roy; Sugano, Gaël; Kato, Yu; Li, Jiufeng

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer cells is promoted by a distinct population of macrophages, metastasis-associated macrophages (MAMs), which originate from inflammatory monocytes (IMs) recruited by the CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). We demonstrate here that, through activation of the CCL2 receptor CCR2, the recruited MAMs secrete another chemokine ligand CCL3. Genetic deletion of CCL3 or its receptor CCR1 in macrophages reduces the number of lung metastasis foci, as well as the number of MAMs accumulated in tumor-challenged lung in mice. Adoptive transfer of WT IMs increases the reduced number of lung metastasis foci in Ccl3 deficient mice. Mechanistically, Ccr1 deficiency prevents MAM retention in the lung by reducing MAM–cancer cell interactions. These findings collectively indicate that the CCL2-triggered chemokine cascade in macrophages promotes metastatic seeding of breast cancer cells thereby amplifying the pathology already extant in the system. These data suggest that inhibition of CCR1, the distal part of this signaling relay, may have a therapeutic impact in metastatic disease with lower toxicity than blocking upstream targets. PMID:26056232

  20. Multi-targeted inhibition of tumor growth and lung metastasis by redox-sensitive shell crosslinked micelles loading disulfiram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaopin; Xiao, Jisheng; Yin, Qi; Zhang, Zhiwen; Yu, Haijun; Mao, Shirui; Li, Yaping

    2014-03-01

    Metastasis, the main cause of cancer related deaths, remains the greatest challenge in cancer treatment. Disulfiram (DSF), which has multi-targeted anti-tumor activity, was encapsulated into redox-sensitive shell crosslinked micelles to achieve intracellular targeted delivery and finally inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. The crosslinked micelles demonstrated good stability in circulation and specifically released DSF under a reductive environment that mimicked the intracellular conditions of tumor cells. As a result, the DSF-loaded redox-sensitive shell crosslinked micelles (DCMs) dramatically inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis and suppressed cell invasion, as well as impairing tube formation of HMEC-1 cells. In addition, the DCMs could accumulate in tumor tissue and stay there for a long time, thereby causing significant inhibition of 4T1 tumor growth and marked prevention in lung metastasis of 4T1 tumors. These results suggested that DCMs could be a promising delivery system in inhibiting the growth and metastasis of breast cancer.

  1. Roles of the cyclooxygenase 2 matrix metalloproteinase 1 pathway in brain metastasis of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kerui; Fukuda, Koji; Xing, Fei; Zhang, Yingyu; Sharma, Sambad; Liu, Yin; Chan, Michael D; Zhou, Xiaobo; Qasem, Shadi A; Pochampally, Radhika; Mo, Yin-Yuan; Watabe, Kounosuke

    2015-04-10

    Brain is one of the major sites of metastasis in breast cancer; however, the pathological mechanism of brain metastasis is poorly understood. One of the critical rate-limiting steps of brain metastasis is the breaching of blood-brain barrier, which acts as a selective interface between the circulation and the central nervous system, and this process is considered to involve tumor-secreted proteinases. We analyzed clinical significance of 21 matrix metalloproteinases on brain metastasis-free survival of breast cancer followed by verification in brain metastatic cell lines and found that only matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) is significantly correlated with brain metastasis. We have shown that MMP1 is highly expressed in brain metastatic cells and is capable of degrading Claudin and Occludin but not Zo-1, which are key components of blood-brain barrier. Knockdown of MMP1 in brain metastatic cells significantly suppressed their ability of brain metastasis in vivo, whereas ectopic expression of MMP1 significantly increased the brain metastatic ability of the cells that are not brain metastatic. We also found that COX2 was highly up-regulated in brain metastatic cells and that COX2-induced prostaglandins were directly able to promote the expression of MMP1 followed by augmenting brain metastasis. Furthermore, we found that COX2 and prostaglandin were able to activate astrocytes to release chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7), which in turn promoted self-renewal of tumor-initiating cells in the brain and that knockdown of COX2 significantly reduced the brain metastatic ability of tumor cells. Our results suggest the COX2-MMP1/CCL7 axis as a novel therapeutic target for brain metastasis.

  2. Single Jejunum Metastasis from Breast Cancer Arising Twelve Years after the Initial Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Cláudia; Garcia, José; Araújo, Alexandra; Araújo, António

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic involvement of gastrointestinal tract from breast cancer is a rare event. We report the case of a 61-year-old woman presenting with bowel obstruction, related to metastasis of a primary breast cancer she had 12 years earlier (a triple-negative invasive ductal carcinoma treated with surgery and chemotherapy). Bowel obstruction was caused by a 20-centimeter tumor in the jejunum, involving also the transverse colon. The patient underwent en bloc resection of tumor with jejunum and transverse bowel segment and received adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Twenty months later, she was alive without disease recurrence. PMID:27781130

  3. The application of surgical navigation system using optical molecular imaging technology in orthotopic breast cancer and metastasis studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Chongwei; Zhang, Qian; Kou, Deqiang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Qiu, Jingdan; Wang, Jiandong; Yang, Xin; Du, Yang; Tian, Jie

    2014-02-01

    Currently, it has been an international focus on intraoperative precise positioning and accurate resection of tumor and metastases. The methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have played an important role in preoperative accurate diagnosis. However, most of them are inapplicable for intraoperative surgery. We have proposed a surgical navigation system based on optical molecular imaging technology for intraoperative detection of tumors and metastasis. This system collects images from two CCD cameras for real-time fluorescent and color imaging. For image processing, the template matching algorithm is used for multispectral image fusion. For the application of tumor detection, the mouse breast cancer cell line 4T1-luc, which shows highly metastasis, was used for tumor model establishment and a model of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expressing breast cancer. The tumor-bearing nude mice were given tail vein injection of MMP 750FAST (PerkinElmer, Inc. USA) probe and imaged with both bioluminescence and fluorescence to assess in vivo binding of the probe to the tumor and metastases sites. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed to confirm the presence of tumor and metastasis. As a result, one tumor can be observed visually in vivo. However liver metastasis has been detected under surgical navigation system and all were confirmed by histology. This approach helps surgeons to find orthotopic tumors and metastasis during intraoperative resection and visualize tumor borders for precise positioning. Further investigation is needed for future application in clinics.

  4. The Role of Glycosylation in Breast Cancer Metastasis and Cancer Control

    PubMed Central

    Kölbl, Alexandra C.; Andergassen, Ulrich; Jeschke, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylation and its correlation to the formation of remote metastasis in breast cancer had been an important scientific topic in the last 25 years. With the development of new analytical techniques, new insights were gained on the mechanisms underlying metastasis formation and the role of aberrant glycosylation within. Mucin-1 and Galectin were recognized as key players in glycosylation. Interestingly, aberrant carbohydrate structures seem to support the development of brain metastasis in breast cancer patients, as changes in glycosylation structures facilitate an overcoming of blood–brain barrier. Changes in the gene expression of glycosyltransferases are the leading cause for a modification of carbohydrate chains, so that also altered gene expression plays a role for glycosylation. In consequence, glycosylation and changes within can be useful for cancer diagnosis, determination of tumor stage, and prognosis, but can as well be targets for therapeutic strategies. Thus, further research on this topic would worthwhile for cancer combating. PMID:26528431

  5. Chemotherapy-induced uridine diphosphate release promotes breast cancer metastasis through P2Y6 activation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaobin; Pan, Xinhua; Wei, Yinglei; Tan, Binhe; Yang, Linli; Ren, Hua; Qian, Min; Du, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Although purinergic signaling is important in regulation of immune responses, the therapeutic potential of it in the tumor microenvironment is little defined. In this study, we demonstrate that UDP/P2Y6 signaling facilitates breast cancer metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. We found that P2Y6 is not only aberrantly expressed and mutated in most tumor types, but also highly correlated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Furthermore, the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells was obviously increased by UDP and blocked by P2Y6 specific inhibitor MRS2578 and P2Y6 shRNA. Similar results was also found in breast cancer cell metastasis mouse model. Interestingly, the endogenous agonist UDP was released significantly by doxorubicin treated cells. In addition, the expression and enzyme activity of MMP-9 were both promoted by UDP and inhibited by MRS2578 or P2Y6 shRNA. Furthermore, UDP-induced cell invasion was blocked by an MMP-9 inhibitor. Mechanistically, the MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways, known to be involved in regulation of MMP-9 expression, were both activated by UDP. Taken together, our study reveals a relationship between extracellular danger signals and breast cancer metastasis, which suggests the potential therapeutic significance of UDP/P2Y6 signaling in cancer therapy. PMID:27074554

  6. Shrapnel nanoparticles loading docetaxel inhibit metastasis and growth of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengfei; Meng, Qingshuo; Sun, Huiping; Yin, Qi; Yu, Haijun; Zhang, Zhiwen; Cao, Mi; Zhang, Yingyi; Li, Yaping

    2015-09-01

    Metastasis is one of the major obstacles for the successful therapy of breast cancer. To inhibit the metastasis and growth of breast cancer simultaneously, a new docetaxel (DTX) loaded shrapnel nano delivery system with the reduction- and enzyme-sensitive properties was designed and developed. Firstly, methoxy polyethylene glycol-peptide-vitamin E succinate (PPV), a matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-sensitive copolymer, was synthesized by conjugating mPEG and vitamin E succinate (VES) using an enzyme-sensitive peptide. Then, DTX loaded methoxy polyethylene glycol-s-s-vitamin E succinate (PSV) micelles (DPM) @ PPV-based liposomes (DPM@PL) were prepared by the incorporation of DPM into the PPV-based liposomes. DPM@PL showed a shrapnel structure with average particle size 113.3 ± 2.7 nm. The drug loading and encapsulation efficiency of DPM@PL were 1.93% and 99.02%, respectively. An obvious burst release (>90%) of drug was observed in the simulated tumor microenvironment with MMPs and reductive glutathione. The cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of DPM@PL in 4T1 cells were significantly enhanced after the pre-treatment of activated MMP-9. Compared with Taxotere(®), DPM@PL remarkably increased the distribution of DTX in lung and tumor of 4T1 tumor-bearing mice, and inhibited the in situ tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis formation effectively through the enhanced DTX-induced apoptosis and the reduced metastasis-promoting proteins expression. Compared with saline group, the inhibitory rates of DPM@PL against tumor volume and lung metastasis were about 81% and 92%, respectively, and it didn't produce the significant systemic toxicity. As a result, DPM@PL could be a promising nano delivery system for the successful therapy of breast cancer. PMID:26106797

  7. ["Clown nose"--skin metastasis of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Soyer, H P; Cerroni, L; Smolle, J; Kerl, H

    1990-10-01

    We report on a 74-year-old woman showing a reddish infiltration of the tip of the nose, which had appeared 3 months ago. Clinically, we considered the following differential diagnoses: sarcoidosis, rosacea, pseudolymphoma, and metastasis. Histological and immunohistological investigation proved a cutaneous metastasis of carcinoma of the breast. Our case report gives evidence of the fact that cutaneous metastases of systemic malignancies are frequently located in acral regions of the skin. PMID:2291293

  8. ["Clown nose"--skin metastasis of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Soyer, H P; Cerroni, L; Smolle, J; Kerl, H

    1990-10-01

    We report on a 74-year-old woman showing a reddish infiltration of the tip of the nose, which had appeared 3 months ago. Clinically, we considered the following differential diagnoses: sarcoidosis, rosacea, pseudolymphoma, and metastasis. Histological and immunohistological investigation proved a cutaneous metastasis of carcinoma of the breast. Our case report gives evidence of the fact that cutaneous metastases of systemic malignancies are frequently located in acral regions of the skin.

  9. The cofilin pathway in breast cancer invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weigang; Eddy, Robert; Condeelis, John

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that metastatic capacity is an inherent feature of breast tumours and not a rare, late acquired event. This has led to new models of metastasis. The interpretation of expression-profiling data in the context of these new models has identified the cofilin pathway as a major determinant of metastasis. Recent studies indicate that the overall activity of the cofilin pathway, and not that of any single gene within the pathway, determines the invasive and metastatic phenotype of tumour cells. These results predict that inhibitors directed at the output of the cofilin pathway will have therapeutic benefit in combating metastasis. PMID:17522712

  10. CRP2, a new invadopodia actin bundling factor critically promotes breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Dieterle, Monika; Moreau, Flora; Al Absi, Antoun; Steinmetz, André; Oudin, Anaïs; Berchem, Guy; Janji, Bassam; Thomas, Clément

    2016-01-01

    A critical process underlying cancer metastasis is the acquisition by tumor cells of an invasive phenotype. At the subcellular level, invasion is facilitated by actin-rich protrusions termed invadopodia, which direct extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Here, we report the identification of a new cytoskeletal component of breast cancer cell invadopodia, namely cysteine-rich protein 2 (CRP2). We found that CRP2 was not or only weakly expressed in epithelial breast cancer cells whereas it was up-regulated in mesenchymal/invasive breast cancer cells. In addition, high expression of the CRP2 encoding gene CSRP2 was associated with significantly increased risk of metastasis in basal-like breast cancer patients. CRP2 knockdown significantly reduced the invasive potential of aggressive breast cancer cells, whereas it did not impair 2D cell migration. In keeping with this, CRP2-depleted breast cancer cells exhibited a reduced capacity to promote ECM degradation, and to secrete and express MMP-9, a matrix metalloproteinase repeatedly associated with cancer progression and metastasis. In turn, ectopic expression of CRP2 in weakly invasive cells was sufficient to stimulate cell invasion. Both GFP-fused and endogenous CRP2 localized to the extended actin core of invadopodia, a structure primarily made of actin bundles. Purified recombinant CRP2 autonomously crosslinked actin filaments into thick bundles, suggesting that CRP2 contributes to the formation/maintenance of the actin core. Finally, CRP2 depletion significantly reduced the incidence of lung metastatic lesions in two xenograft mouse models of breast cancer. Collectively, our data identify CRP2 as a new cytoskeletal component of invadopodia that critically promotes breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis. PMID:26883198

  11. NRF2 activation by antioxidant antidiabetic agents accelerates tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Xiufei; Long, Min; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Linlin; Zhang, Rui; Zheng, Yi; Liao, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yuren; Liao, Qian; Li, Wenjie; Tang, Zili; Tong, Qiang; Wang, Xiaocui; Fang, Fang; Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Ouyang, Qin; Zhang, Donna D; Yu, Shicang; Zheng, Hongting

    2016-04-13

    Cancer is a common comorbidity of diabetic patients; however, little is known about the effects that antidiabetic drugs have on tumors. We discovered that common classes of drugs used in type 2 diabetes mellitus, the hypoglycemic dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) saxagliptin and sitagliptin, as well as the antineuropathic α-lipoic acid (ALA), do not increase tumor incidence but increase the risk of metastasis of existing tumors. Specifically, these drugs induce prolonged activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated antioxidant response through inhibition of KEAP1-C151-dependent ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of NRF2, resulting in up-regulated expression of metastasis-associated proteins, increased cancer cell migration, and promotion of metastasis in xenograft mouse models. Accordingly, knockdown of NRF2 attenuated naturally occurring and DPP-4i-induced tumor metastasis, whereas NRF2 activation accelerated metastasis. Furthermore, in human liver cancer tissue samples, increased NRF2 expression correlated with metastasis. Our findings suggest that antioxidants that activate NRF2 signaling may need to be administered with caution in cancer patients, such as diabetic patients with cancer. Moreover, NRF2 may be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for tumor metastasis. PMID:27075625

  12. Modeling Breast Tumor Development with a Humanized Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in breast cancer growth and progression to metastasis. Here, we describe a method to examine stromal-epithelial interactions during tumor formation and progression utilizing human-derived mammary epithelial cells and breast stromal cells. This method outlines the isolation of each cell type from reduction mammoplasty tissue, the culture and genetic modification of both epithelial and stromal cells using lentiviral technology, and the method of humanizing and implantation of transformed epithelial cells into the cleared mammary fat pads of immunocompromised mice. This model system may be a useful tool to dissect signaling interactions that contribute to invasive tumor behavior and therapeutic resistance. PMID:27581027

  13. Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Anja; Homey, Bernhard; Soto, Hortensia; Ge, Nianfeng; Catron, Daniel; Buchanan, Matthew E.; McClanahan, Terri; Murphy, Erin; Yuan, Wei; Wagner, Stephan N.; Barrera, Jose Luis; Mohar, Alejandro; Verástegui, Emma; Zlotnik, Albert

    2001-03-01

    Breast cancer is characterized by a distinct metastatic pattern involving the regional lymph nodes, bone marrow, lung and liver. Tumour cell migration and metastasis share many similarities with leukocyte trafficking, which is critically regulated by chemokines and their receptors. Here we report that the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 are highly expressed in human breast cancer cells, malignant breast tumours and metastases. Their respective ligands CXCL12/SDF-1α and CCL21/6Ckine exhibit peak levels of expression in organs representing the first destinations of breast cancer metastasis. In breast cancer cells, signalling through CXCR4 or CCR7 mediates actin polymerization and pseudopodia formation, and subsequently induces chemotactic and invasive responses. In vivo, neutralizing the interactions of CXCL12/CXCR4 significantly impairs metastasis of breast cancer cells to regional lymph nodes and lung. Malignant melanoma, which has a similar metastatic pattern as breast cancer but also a high incidence of skin metastases, shows high expression levels of CCR10 in addition to CXCR4 and CCR7. Our findings indicate that chemokines and their receptors have a critical role in determining the metastatic destination of tumour cells.

  14. An Integrated Genome-Wide Systems Genetics Screen for Breast Cancer Metastasis Susceptibility Genes.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ling; Yang, Howard H; Hu, Ying; Shukla, Anjali; Ha, Ngoc-Han; Doran, Anthony; Faraji, Farhoud; Goldberger, Natalie; Lee, Maxwell P; Keane, Thomas; Hunter, Kent W

    2016-04-01

    Metastasis remains the primary cause of patient morbidity and mortality in solid tumors and is due to the action of a large number of tumor-autonomous and non-autonomous factors. Here we report the results of a genome-wide integrated strategy to identify novel metastasis susceptibility candidate genes and molecular pathways in breast cancer metastasis. This analysis implicates a number of transcriptional regulators and suggests cell-mediated immunity is an important determinant. Moreover, the analysis identified novel or FDA-approved drugs as potentially useful for anti-metastatic therapy. Further explorations implementing this strategy may therefore provide a variety of information for clinical applications in the control and treatment of advanced neoplastic disease. PMID:27074153

  15. The Role of Breast Cancer Stem Cells in Metastasis and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Velasco-Velázquez, Marco A.; Popov, Vladimir M.; Lisanti, Michael P.; Pestell, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) possess the capacity to self-renew and to generate heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise tumors. A substantial body of evidence supports a model in which CSCs play a major role in the initiation, maintenance, and clinical outcome of cancers. In contrast, analysis of the role of CSCs in metastasis has been mainly conceptual and speculative. This review summarizes recent data that support the theory of CSCs as the source of metastatic lesions in breast cancer, with a focus on the key role of the microenvironment in the stemness-metastasis link. PMID:21640330

  16. Gasdermin-B Promotes Invasion and Metastasis in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hergueta-Redondo, Marta; Sarrió, David; Molina-Crespo, Ángela; Megias, Diego; Mota, Alba; Rojo-Sebastian, Alejandro; García-Sanz, Pablo; Morales, Saleta; Abril, Sandra; Cano, Amparo; Peinado, Héctor; Moreno-Bueno, Gema

    2014-01-01

    Gasdermin B (GSDMB) belongs to the Gasdermin protein family that comprises four members (GSDMA-D). Gasdermin B expression has been detected in some tumor types such as hepatocarcinomas, gastric and cervix cancers; and its over-expression has been related to tumor progression. At least four splicing isoforms of GSDMB have been identified, which may play differential roles in cancer. However, the implication of GSDMB in carcinogenesis and tumor progression is not well understood. Here, we uncover for the first time the functional implication of GSDMB in breast cancer. Our data shows that high levels of GSDMB expression is correlated with reduced survival and increased metastasis in breast cancer patients included in an expression dataset (>1,000 cases). We demonstrate that GSDMB is upregulated in breast carcinomas compared to normal breast tissue, being the isoform 2 (GSDMB-2) the most differentially expressed. In order to evaluate the functional role of GSDMB in breast cancer two GSDMB isoforms were studied (GSDMB-1 and GSDMB-2). The overexpression of both isoforms in the MCF7 breast carcinoma cell line promotes cell motility and invasion, while its silencing in HCC1954 breast carcinoma cells decreases the migratory and invasive phenotype. Importantly, we demonstrate that both isoforms have a differential role on the activation of Rac-1 and Cdc-42 Rho-GTPases. Moreover, our data support that GSMDB-2 induces a pro-tumorigenic and pro-metastatic behavior in mouse xenograft models as compared to GSDMB-1. Finally, we observed that although both GSDMB isoforms interact in vitro with the chaperone Hsp90, only the GSDMB-2 isoform relies on this chaperone for its stability. Taken together, our results provide for the first time evidences that GSDMB-2 induces invasion, tumor progression and metastasis in MCF7 cells and that GSDMB can be considered as a new potential prognostic marker in breast cancer. PMID:24675552

  17. LCP nanoparticle for tumor and lymph node metastasis imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-Cheng

    A lipid/calcium/phosphate (LCP) nanoparticle formulation (particle diameter ˜25 nm) has previously been developed to delivery siRNA with superior efficiency. In this work, 111In was formulated into LCP nanoparticles to form 111In-LCP for SPECT/CT imaging. With necessary modifications and improvements of the LCP core-washing and surface-coating methods, 111In-LCP grafted with polyethylene glycol exhibited reduced uptake by the mononuclear phagocytic system. SPECT/CT imaging supported performed biodistribution studies, showing clear tumor images with accumulation of 8% or higher injected dose per gram tissue (ID/g) in subcutaneous, human-H460, lung-cancer xenograft and mouse-4T1, breast cancer metastasis models. Both the liver and the spleen accumulated ˜20% ID/g. Accumulation in the tumor was limited by the enhanced permeation and retention effect and was independent of the presence of a targeting ligand. A surprisingly high accumulation in the lymph nodes (˜70% ID/g) was observed. In the 4T1 lymph node metastasis model, the capability of intravenously injected 111In-LCP to visualize the size-enlarged and tumor-loaded sentinel lymph node was demonstrated. By analyzing the SPECT/CT images taken at different time points, the PK profiles of 111In-LCP in the blood and major organs were determined. The results indicated that the decrement of 111In-LCP blood concentration was not due to excretion, but to tissue penetration, leading to lymphatic accumulation. Larger LCP (diameter ˜65 nm) nanoparticles were also prepared for the purpose of comparison. Results indicated that larger LCP achieved slightly lower accumulation in the tumor and lymph nodes, but much higher accumulation in the liver and spleen; thus, larger nanoparticles might not be favorable for imaging purposes. We also demonstrated that LCP with a diameter of ˜25 nm were better able to penetrate into tissues, travel in the lymphatic system and preferentially accumulate in the lymph nodes due to 1) small

  18. EGFR-Mutated Breast Metastasis of Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dansin, Eric; Carnot, Aurélien; Servent, Véronique; Daussay, Dorothée; Robin, Yves-Marie; Surmei-Pintilie, Ecaterina; Lauridant, Géraldine; Descarpentries, Clothilde; Révillion, Françoise; Delattre, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Breast metastasis from other primary carcinoma is very rare and could be difficult to identify despite immunohistochemistry analysis. Breast metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma can mimic triple-negative breast cancer. Given the prognosis and therapeutic challenges, a correct diagnosis appears essential, and molecular biomarkers could be useful. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with a breast mass initially diagnosed as primary breast cancer and secondarily attached to breast metastasis from an EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma. The same activating EGFR mutations were identified in both the primary lung carcinoma and the breast metastasis.

  19. EGFR-Mutated Breast Metastasis of Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dansin, Eric; Carnot, Aurélien; Servent, Véronique; Daussay, Dorothée; Robin, Yves-Marie; Surmei-Pintilie, Ecaterina; Lauridant, Géraldine; Descarpentries, Clothilde; Révillion, Françoise; Delattre, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Breast metastasis from other primary carcinoma is very rare and could be difficult to identify despite immunohistochemistry analysis. Breast metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma can mimic triple-negative breast cancer. Given the prognosis and therapeutic challenges, a correct diagnosis appears essential, and molecular biomarkers could be useful. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with a breast mass initially diagnosed as primary breast cancer and secondarily attached to breast metastasis from an EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma. The same activating EGFR mutations were identified in both the primary lung carcinoma and the breast metastasis. PMID:25873885

  20. Emodin suppresses pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer accompanied with decreased macrophage recruitment and M2 polarization in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xuemei; Yu, Fang; Wang, Junfeng; Iwanowycz, Stephen; Saaoud, Fatma; Wang, Yuzhen; Hu, Jun; Wang, Qian; Fan, Daping

    2014-11-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of death in female cancer patients due to the lack of effective treatment for metastasis. Macrophages are the most abundant immune cells in the primary and metastatic tumors, and contribute to tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. Emodin has been found to exert anti-tumor effects through promoting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and inhibiting angiogenesis, but its effects on tumor-associated macrophages during cancer metastasis have not been investigated. Mice inoculated with 4T1 or EO771 breast cancer cells orthotopically were treated with Emodin after the primary tumors reached 200 mm3 in size. Primary tumor growth, lung metastasis, and macrophage infiltration in the lungs were analyzed. In vitro experiments were performed to examine the effects of Emodin on macrophage migration and M2 polarization, and the underlying mechanisms. Emodin significantly suppressed breast cancer lung metastasis in both orthotopic mouse models without apparent effects on primary tumors. Reduced infiltration of F4/80+ macrophages and Ym1+ M2 macrophages in lungs was observed in Emodin-treated mice. In vitro experiments demonstrated that Emodin decreased the migration of macrophages toward tumor cell-conditioned medium (TCM) and inhibited macrophage M2 polarization induced by TCM. Mechanistically, Emodin suppressed STAT6 phosphorylation and C/EBPβ expression, two crucial signaling events in macrophage M2 polarization, in macrophages treated with IL-4 or TCM. Taken together, our study, for the first time, demonstrated that Emodin suppressed pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer probably through inhibiting macrophage recruitment and M2 polarization in the lungs by reducing STAT6 phosphorylation and C/EBPβ expression.

  1. Low Expression of Slit2 and Robo1 is Associated with Poor Prognosis and Brain-specific Metastasis of Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fengxia; Zhang, Huikun; Ma, Li; Liu, Xiaoli; Dai, Kun; Li, Wenliang; Gu, Feng; Fu, Li; Ma, Yongjie

    2015-09-24

    Brain metastasis is a significant unmet clinical problem in breast cancer treatment. It is always associated with poor prognosis and high morbidity. Recently, Slit2/Robo1 pathway has been demonstrated to be involved in the progression of breast carcinoma. However, until present, there are no convincing reports that suggest whether the Slit2/Robo1 axis has any role in brain metastasis of breast cancer. In this study, we investigated the correlation between Slit2/Robo1 signaling and breast cancer brain metastasis for the first time. Our results demonstrated that (1) Invasive ductal carcinoma patients with low expression of Slit2 or Robo1 exhibited worse prognosis and brain-specific metastasis, but not liver, bone or lung. (2) Lower expression of Slit2 and Robo1 were observed in patients with brain metastasis, especially in their brain metastasis tumors, compared with patients without brain metastasis. (3) The interval from diagnosis of breast cancer to brain metastasis and brain metastasis to death were both much shorter in patients with low expression of Slit2 or Robo1 compared with the high expression group. Overall, our findings indicated that Slit2/Robo1 axis possibly be regarded as a significant clinical parameter for predicting brain metastasis in breast cancer patients.

  2. Contralateral axillary node metastasis from recurrence after conservative breast cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Satoko; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Junko; Koyama, Masamichi

    2014-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node detection (SLND) with radiocolloid has become widely used for evaluation of nodal metastasis in primary breast cancer. However, the procedure for recurrent breast cancer is not well established. Contralateral axillary node metastasis is uncommon. We report 2 cases of contralateral axillary node metastasis with recurrent breast cancer. In the first case, contralateral node metastasis was found by SLND. In the other case without SLND, contralateral node metastasis developed after resection of local recurrence. FDG-avid contralateral node was pathologically diagnosed as metastasis. The SLND might be useful in patients with local recurrence after conservative breast cancer surgery. PMID:24368539

  3. Gain of glucose-independent growth upon metastasis of breast cancer cells to the brain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinyu; Lee, Ho-Jeong; Wu, Xuefeng; Huo, Lei; Kim, Sun-Jin; Xu, Lei; Wang, Yan; He, Junqing; Bollu, Lakshmi Reddy; Gao, Guang; Su, Fei; Briggs, James; Liu, Xiaojing; Melman, Tamar; Asara, John M.; Fidler, Isaiah J.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Locasale, Jason W.; Weihua, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer brain metastasis is resistant to therapy and a particularly poor prognostic feature in patient survival. Altered metabolism is a common feature of cancer cells but little is known as to what metabolic changes benefit breast cancer brain metastases. We found that brain-metastatic breast cancer cells evolved the ability to survive and proliferate independent of glucose due to enhanced gluconeogenesis and oxidations of glutamine and branched chain amino acids, which together sustain the non-oxidative pentose pathway for purine synthesis. Silencing expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBPs) in brain metastatic cells reduced their viability and improved the survival of metastasis-bearing immunocompetent hosts. Clinically, we showed that brain metastases from human breast cancer patients expressed higher levels of FBP and glycogen than the corresponding primary tumors. Together, our findings identify a critical metabolic condition required to sustain brain metastasis, and suggest that targeting gluconeogenesis may help eradicate this deadly feature in advanced breast cancer patients. PMID:25511375

  4. Effects of vascular targeting photodynamic therapy on lymphatic tumor metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fateye, B.; He, C.; Chen, B.

    2009-06-01

    Vascular targeting photodynamic therapy (vPDT) is currently in clinical trial for prostate cancer (PCa) treatment. In order to study the effect of vPDT on tumor metastasis, GFP-PC3 or PC-3 xenografts were treated with verteporfin (BPD) PDT. Vascular function was assessed by ultrasound imaging; lymph node and lung metastasis were assessed by fluorescence imaging. vPDT significantly reduced tumor blood flow within 30minutes to 2 hours of treatment. Sub-curative treatment resulted in re-perfusion within 2 weeks of treatment and increased lymph node metastasis. With curative doses, no metastasis was observed. In order to identify cellular or matrix factors and cytokines implicated, conditioned medium from BPD PDTtreated endothelial cells was incubated with PC3 cells in vitro. Tumor cell proliferation and migration was assessed. By immunoblotting, we evaluated the change in mediators of intracellular signaling or that may determine changes in tumor phenotype. Low sub-curative dose (200ng/ml BPD) of endothelial cells was associated with ~15% greater migration in PC3 cells when compared with control. This dose was also associated with sustained activation of Akt at Ser 473, an upstream effector in the Akt/ mTOR pathway that has been correlated with Gleason scores in PCa and with survival and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, the study implicates efficacy of PDT of endothelial cells as an important determinant of its consequences on adjacent tumor proliferation and metastasis.

  5. An additional case of breast tumor resembling the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Colella, Renato; Guerriero, Angela; Giansanti, Michele; Sidoni, Angelo; Bellezza, Guido

    2015-05-01

    A type of breast tumor histopathologically similar to the papillary thyroid carcinoma has been described and named "Breast tumor resembling the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma." Because breast is not an uncommon site for metastasis and about 5% of all such cases are of the thyroid origin, it is important to be aware of the existence of mammary tumors that can closely mimic a thyroid tumor representing a dangerous diagnostic pitfall that can also lead to unnecessary clinical investigations. Here, we describe a singular case of "Breast tumor resembling the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma" showing an amazing macroscopic and microscopic resemblance with thyroid tissue harboring a papillary carcinoma.

  6. A New Paradigm for Mechanobiological Mechanisms in Tumor Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Torzilli, Peter A.; Bourne, Jonathan W.; Cigler, Tessa; Vincent, C.Theresa

    2012-01-01

    Tumor metastases and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) involve tumor cell invasion and migration through the dense collagen-rich extracellular matrix surrounding the tumor. Little is known about the mechanobiological mechanisms involved in this process, nor the role of the mechanical forces generated by the cells in their effort to invade and migrate through the stroma. In this paper we propose a new fundamental mechanobiological mechanism involved in cancer growth and metastasis, which can be both protective or destructive depending on the magnitude of the forces generated by the cells. This new mechanobiological mechanism directly challenges current paradigms that are focused mainly on biological and biochemical mechanisms associated with tumor metastasis. Our new mechanobiological mechanism describes how tumor expansion generates mechanical forces within the stroma to not only resist tumor expansion but also inhibit or enhance tumor invasion by, respectively, inhibiting or enhancing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) degradation of the tensed interstitial collagen. While this mechanobiological mechanism has not been previously applied to the study of tumor metastasis and EMT, it may have the potential to broaden our understanding of the tumor invasive process and assist in developing new strategies for preventing or treating cancer metastasis. PMID:22613484

  7. Breast cancer cells condition lymphatic endothelial cells within pre-metastatic niches to promote metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Esak; Fertig, Elana J.; Jin, Kideok; Sukumar, Saraswati; Pandey, Niranjan B.; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer metastasis involves lymphatic dissemination in addition to hematogenous spreading. Although stromal lymphatic vessels (LVs) serve as initial metastatic routes, roles of organ-residing LVs are under-investigated. Here we show that lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), a component of LVs within pre-metastatic niches, are conditioned by triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells to accelerate metastasis. LECs within the lungs and lymph nodes, conditioned by tumor-secreted factors express CCL5 that is not expressed either in normal LECs or cancer cells, and direct tumor dissemination into these tissues. Moreover, tumor-conditioned LECs promote angiogenesis in these organs, allowing tumor extravasation and colonization. Mechanistically, tumor cell-secreted IL6 causes Stat3 phosphorylation in LECs. This pStat3 induces HIF-1α and VEGF, and a pStat3-pc-Jun-pATF-2 ternary complex induces CCL5 expression in LECs. This study demonstrates anti-metastatic activities of multiple repurposed drugs, blocking a self-reinforcing paracrine loop between breast cancer cells and LECs. PMID:25178650

  8. [Metastasis and progression mechanisms of soft tissue tumors].

    PubMed

    Steinestel, K; Wardelmann, E

    2015-11-01

    Invasion and metastatic dissemination of tumor cells defines prognosis not only in patients with epithelial, but also mesenchymal neoplasms. Early and clinically inapparent micrometastases occur in many patients, and the risk for metastasis correlates with the tumor subtype and histologic tumor grade. In recent years and analogous to the situation in epithelial tumors, mechanisms of tumor cell dissemination in soft tissue tumors have been increasingly understood, and it has been shown that reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton plays a key role in these processes. This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms of progression and metastasis of soft tissue tumors and points out possible targets for novel anti-invasive and anti-metastatic therapies. PMID:26324521

  9. Semaphorin 4D Promotes Skeletal Metastasis in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying-Hua; Buhamrah, Asma; Schneider, Abraham; Lin, Yi-Ling; Zhou, Hua; Bugshan, Amr; Basile, John R

    2016-01-01

    Bone density is controlled by interactions between osteoclasts, which resorb bone, and osteoblasts, which deposit it. The semaphorins and their receptors, the plexins, originally shown to function in the immune system and to provide chemotactic cues for axon guidance, are now known to play a role in this process as well. Emerging data have identified Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) as a product of osteoclasts acting through its receptor Plexin-B1 on osteoblasts to inhibit their function, tipping the balance of bone homeostasis in favor of resorption. Breast cancers and other epithelial malignancies overexpress Sema4D, so we theorized that tumor cells could be exploiting this pathway to establish lytic skeletal metastases. Here, we use measurements of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function in vitro and a mouse model of skeletal metastasis to demonstrate that both soluble Sema4D and protein produced by the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 inhibits differentiation of MC3T3 cells, an osteoblast cell line, and their ability to form mineralized tissues, while Sema4D-mediated induction of IL-8 and LIX/CXCL5, the murine homologue of IL-8, increases osteoclast numbers and activity. We also observe a decrease in the number of bone metastases in mice injected with MDA-MB-231 cells when Sema4D is silenced by RNA interference. These results are significant because treatments directed at suppression of skeletal metastases in bone-homing malignancies usually work by arresting bone remodeling, potentially leading to skeletal fragility, a significant problem in patient management. Targeting Sema4D in these cancers would not affect bone remodeling and therefore could elicit an improved therapeutic result without the debilitating side effects.

  10. Semaphorin 4D Promotes Skeletal Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying-Hua; Buhamrah, Asma; Schneider, Abraham; Lin, Yi-Ling; Zhou, Hua; Bugshan, Amr; Basile, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Bone density is controlled by interactions between osteoclasts, which resorb bone, and osteoblasts, which deposit it. The semaphorins and their receptors, the plexins, originally shown to function in the immune system and to provide chemotactic cues for axon guidance, are now known to play a role in this process as well. Emerging data have identified Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) as a product of osteoclasts acting through its receptor Plexin-B1 on osteoblasts to inhibit their function, tipping the balance of bone homeostasis in favor of resorption. Breast cancers and other epithelial malignancies overexpress Sema4D, so we theorized that tumor cells could be exploiting this pathway to establish lytic skeletal metastases. Here, we use measurements of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function in vitro and a mouse model of skeletal metastasis to demonstrate that both soluble Sema4D and protein produced by the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 inhibits differentiation of MC3T3 cells, an osteoblast cell line, and their ability to form mineralized tissues, while Sema4D-mediated induction of IL-8 and LIX/CXCL5, the murine homologue of IL-8, increases osteoclast numbers and activity. We also observe a decrease in the number of bone metastases in mice injected with MDA-MB-231 cells when Sema4D is silenced by RNA interference. These results are significant because treatments directed at suppression of skeletal metastases in bone-homing malignancies usually work by arresting bone remodeling, potentially leading to skeletal fragility, a significant problem in patient management. Targeting Sema4D in these cancers would not affect bone remodeling and therefore could elicit an improved therapeutic result without the debilitating side effects. PMID:26910109

  11. Rectal metastasis from Breast cancer: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Cho Ee; Wright, Lucie; Pieri, Andrew; Belhasan, Anas; Fasih, Tarannum

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer metastases occurs in around 50% of all presentation. It is the second most common type of cancer to metastasise to the GI tract but this only occurs in less than 1% of cases. Presentation of case We report a case that underwent treatment for invasive lobular cancer (ILC) of the breast and 5 years later was found to have rectal and peritoneal metastasis. She is currently receiving palliative management including chemotherapy in the form of weekly Paclitaxel (Taxol®) and stenting to relieve obstruction. Conclusion There should be high clinical suspicion of bowel metastasis in patients presenting with positive faecal occult blood with or without bowel symptoms even if the incidence is less <1% of metastases, particularly in cases where the initial breast tumour was large, with positive axillary nodes. PMID:26188979

  12. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor promotes tumor growth and metastasis by inducing Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Kendra D.; Templeton, Dennis J.; Cross, Janet V.

    2012-01-01

    The Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine, is overexpressed in many solid tumors and is associated with poor prognosis. We previously identified inhibitors of MIF within a class of natural products with demonstrated anti-cancer activities. We therefore sought to determine how MIF contributes to tumor growth and progression. We show here that, in murine tumors including the 4T1 model of aggressive, spontaneously metastatic breast cancer in immunologically intact mice, tumor-derived MIF promotes tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis through control of inflammatory cells within the tumor. Specifically, MIF increases the prevalence of a highly immune suppressive subpopulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) within the tumor. In vitro, MIF promotes differentiation of myeloid cells into the same population of MDSCs. Pharmacologic inhibition of MIF reduces MDSC accumulation in the tumor similar to MIF depletion, and blocks the MIF-dependent in vitro differentiation of MDSCs. Our results demonstrate that MIF is a therapeutically targetable mechanism for control of tumor growth and metastasis through regulation of the host immune response, and support the potential utility of MIF inhibitors, either alone or in combination with standard tumor-targeting therapeutic or immunotherapy approaches. PMID:23125418

  13. Relationship between the inflammatory molecular profile of breast carcinomas and distant metastasis development.

    PubMed

    Eiró, Noemí; González, Lucía; González, Luis O; Fernandez-Garcia, Belen; Lamelas, Maria Luz; Marín, Laura; González-Reyes, Salomé; del Casar, José Manuel; Vizoso, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory conditions may promote tumor progression and aggressiveness. In previous reports, we found a group of breast cancer tumors characterized by metalloprotease-11 (MMP-11) expression by intratumoral mononuclear inflammatory cells (MICs), which was associated with distant metastasis development. Thus, in the present study we evaluated the relationship between MMP-11 expression by MICs, distant metastasis development, and a wide panel of inflammatory factors in breast carcinoma. In an initial approach, we analyzed 65 factors associated with tumor progression and inflammation, in a tumor population classified in good or bad prognosis, based on MMP-11 expression by intratumoral MICs. The most differentially expressed factors were then analyzed in a wider tumor population classified according to MMP-11 expression by MICs and also according to metastasis development. These analyses were carried out by Real-time PCR. The results showed that of the 65 starting factors analyzed, those related with MMP-11 expression by MICs were: IL-1, -5, -6, -8, -17, -18, MMP-1, TIMP-1, ADAM-8, -10, -15, -23, ADAMTS-1, -2, -15, Annexin A2, IFNβ, Claudin-3, CCL-3, MyD88, IRAK-4 and NFκB. Of them, factors more differentially expressed between both groups of tumors were IL-1, IL-5, IL-6, IL-17, IFNβ and NFκB. Thereafter, we confirmed in the wider tumor population, that there is a higher expression of those factors in tumors infiltrated by MMP-11 positive MICs. Altogether these results indicate that tumors developing worse prognosis and identified by MMP-11 expression by intratumoral MICs, shows an up-regulation of inflammatory-related genes. PMID:23145063

  14. 3D printed nanocomposite matrix for the study of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Holmes, Benjamin; Glazer, Robert I; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-01-01

    Bone is one of the most common metastatic sites of breast cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, in part due to an absence of advanced platforms for cancer culture and study that mimic the bone microenvironment. In the present study, we integrated a novel stereolithography-based 3D printer and a unique 3D printed nano-ink consisting of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles suspended in hydrogel to create a biomimetic bone-specific environment for evaluating breast cancer bone invasion. Breast cancer cells cultured in a geometrically optimized matrix exhibited spheroid morphology and migratory characteristics. Co-culture of tumor cells with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells increased the formation of spheroid clusters. The 3D matrix also allowed for higher drug resistance of breast cancer cells than 2D culture. These results validate that our 3D bone matrix can mimic tumor bone microenvironments, suggesting that it can serve as a tool for studying metastasis and assessing drug sensitivity. From the Clinical Editor: Cancer remains a major cause of mortality for patients in the clinical setting. For breast cancer, bone is one of the most common metastatic sites. In this intriguing article, the authors developed a bone-like environment using 3D printing technology to investigate the underlying biology of bone metastasis. Their results would also allow a new model for other researchers who work on cancer to use.

  15. Anti-transforming growth factor ß antibody treatment rescues bone loss and prevents breast cancer metastasis to bone.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Swati; Nyman, Jeffry S; Alvarez, JoAnn; Chakrabarti, Anwesa; Ayres, Austin; Sterling, Julie; Edwards, James; Rana, Tapasi; Johnson, Rachelle; Perrien, Daniel S; Lonning, Scott; Shyr, Yu; Matrisian, Lynn M; Mundy, Gregory R

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer often metastasizes to bone causing osteolytic bone resorption which releases active TGFβ. Because TGFβ favors progression of breast cancer metastasis to bone, we hypothesized that treatment using anti-TGFβ antibody may reduce tumor burden and rescue tumor-associated bone loss in metastatic breast cancer. In this study we have tested the efficacy of an anti-TGFβ antibody 1D11 preventing breast cancer bone metastasis. We have used two preclinical breast cancer bone metastasis models, in which either human breast cancer cells or murine mammary tumor cells were injected in host mice via left cardiac ventricle. Using several in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo assays, we have demonstrated that anti-TGFβ antibody treatment have significantly reduced tumor burden in the bone along with a statistically significant threefold reduction in osteolytic lesion number and tenfold reduction in osteolytic lesion area. A decrease in osteoclast numbers (p = 0.027) in vivo and osteoclastogenesis ex vivo were also observed. Most importantly, in tumor-bearing mice, anti-TGFβ treatment resulted in a twofold increase in bone volume (p<0.01). In addition, treatment with anti-TGFβ antibody increased the mineral-to-collagen ratio in vivo, a reflection of improved tissue level properties. Moreover, anti-TGFβ antibody directly increased mineralized matrix formation in calverial osteoblast (p = 0.005), suggesting a direct beneficial role of anti-TGFβ antibody treatment on osteoblasts. Data presented here demonstrate that anti-TGFβ treatment may offer a novel therapeutic option for tumor-induced bone disease and has the dual potential for simultaneously decreasing tumor burden and rescue bone loss in breast cancer to bone metastases. This approach of intervention has the potential to reduce skeletal related events (SREs) in breast cancer survivors.

  16. Phyllodes tumor of the breast metastasizing to the vulva.

    PubMed

    Ajenifuja, Olusegun Kayode; Kolomeyevskaya, Nonna; Habib, Fadi; Odunsi, Adekunle; Lele, Shashikant

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare breast tumors that resemble fibroadenoma. They are composed of two types of tissues: stromal and glandular tissues. Unlike fibroadenoma, they are commonly found in the third decade of life and they tend to grow more rapidly. Depending on the relative components of the cells and mitotic activity, they are classified into benign, borderline, and malignant. They are usually present as a lump in the breast. Phyllodes tumors are usually managed by wide excision. The excision should be wide enough to ensure a tumor-free margin. Recurrence rate is very high and most recurrences are usually local. Metastasis to the vulva has not been reported. PMID:25960902

  17. Micromanaging of tumor metastasis by extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Naoomi; Katsuda, Takeshi; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2015-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanometer-sized membranous vesicles that are released by a variety of cell types into the extracellular space. In the past two decades, EVs have emerged as novel mediators of cancer biology. Many reports have demonstrated the contribution of EVs to cancer metastasis. Metastasis is a multistep process that is responsible for the majority of deaths in cancer patients. This process includes proliferation, angiogenesis, immune modulation, extravasation, intravasation, and colonization. EVs from cancer cells impact these steps through modulation of the host immune system, angiogenesis, and pre-/pro-metastatic niche formation. In this review, we summarize the function of EVs in cancer metastasis. In addition, we also discuss the hurdles to be overcome for further developing this research field. PMID:25746922

  18. Dietary linoleate-enhanced metastasis of 4526 murine mammary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, N.E.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of quantitative differences in dietary linoleic acid (18:2) and of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (IM), on the metastasis of line 4526 mammary tumors was investigated. All mice were fed high fat (20%, w/w), semipurified diets that were prepared using different mixtures of coconut (primarily saturated) and safflower (mostly 18:2) oil and thus contained either 1, 2, 4, 8, or 12% 18:2 (w/w). The spontaneous metastasis of 4526 tumor cells from primary sites, was increased 2-4 fold in mice that were fed diets containing higher levels of 18:2 (8 and 12%). Chronic treatment of mice with a relatively low dosage of IM reduced the growth rate of primary 4526 tumors, slightly reduced metastasis in mice fed 1 and 4% 18:2, and completely inhibited the increased metastasis observed in mice fed 12% 18:2. Treatment with a higher dosage of IM reduced metastasis even further compared to controls, but did not decrease growth rate compared to the low dosage of IM. The level of 18:2 in the diet did not appear to affect the incorporation of {sup 3}H-thymidine into tumor cells of metastatic lung nodules. The effect of 18:2 may be through a modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism. This modulation, in turn, may affect particular steps in the metastatic cascade such as lodgement and survival of tumor cells.

  19. Photothermal ablation of bone metastasis of breast cancer using PEGylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhen; Liu, Yi; Ma, Xueming; Hu, Shaoyu; Zhang, Jiawei; Wu, Qian; Ye, Wenbin; Zhu, Siyuan; Yang, Dehong; Qu, Dongbin; Jiang, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates therapeutic efficacy of photothermal therapy (PTT) in an orthotropic xenograft model of bone metastasis of breast cancer. The near-infrared (NIR) irradiation on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWNTs) resulted in a rapid heat generation which increased with the MWNTs concentration up to 100 μg/ml. MWNTs alone exhibited no toxicity, but inclusion of MWNTs dramatically decreased cell viability when combined with laser irradiation. Thermographic observation revealed that treatment with 10 μg MWNTs followed by NIR laser irradiation resulted in a rapid increase in temperature up to 73.4±11.98 °C in an intraosseous model of bone metastasis of breast cancer. In addition, MWNTs plus NIR laser irradiation caused a remarkably greater suppression of tumor growth compared with treatment with either MWNTs injection or NIR irradiation alone, significantly reducing the amount of tumor-induced bone destruction. All these demonstrate the efficacy of PTT with MWNTs for bone metastasis of breast cancer. PMID:26122018

  20. Curative-intent stereotactic body radiation therapy for residual breast cancer liver metastasis after systemic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kagara, Naofumi; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Ami; Inatome, Junichi; Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Kim, Chiwan; Danno, Katsuki; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Kanoh, Toshiyuki; Kimura, Yutaka; Ohnishi, Tadashi; Tono, Takeshi; Monden, Takushi; Imaoka, Shingi; Kagawa, Kazufumi

    2014-11-01

    Liver metastases from breast cancer are generally treated with systemic therapy such as chemotherapy or hormonotherapy. However, local treatment options such as resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and radiotherapy can also be considered to treat oligometastases. We report the case of a 45-year-old female treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) after chemotherapy against a solitary liver metastasis from primary breast cancer. A liver metastasis with diameter of 35 mm developed 3.5 years after surgery for primary breast cancer in 2004. Fourteen courses of triweekly docetaxel treatments considerably decreased the metastatic lesion, but there still remained a tiny lesion radiographically. Chemotherapy was stopped because of the side-effects of docetaxel, and then SBRT was selected for additional treatment, aiming at complete cure of metastasis. X-ray irradiation (52.8 Gy/4 fractions) was applied to the remaining metastatic lesion, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no evidence of residual tumor 4 months after irradiation. Neither regrowth nor recurrences have been found until now, 24 months after SBRT. SBRT for oligometastases of breast cancer may be one of the possible curative-intent options, being less invasive than surgical resection or RFA.

  1. ERα Mediates Estrogen-Induced Expression of the Breast Cancer Metastasis Suppressor Gene BRMS1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hongtao; Gollahon, Lauren S.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, estrogen has been reported as putatively inhibiting cancer cell invasion and motility. This information is in direct contrast to the paradigm of estrogen as a tumor promoter. However, data suggests that the effects of estrogen are modulated by the receptor isoform with which it interacts. In order to gain a clearer understanding of the role of estrogen in potentially suppressing breast cancer metastasis, we investigated the regulation of estrogen and its receptor on the downstream target gene, breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) in MCF-7, SKBR3, TTU-1 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Our results showed that estrogen increased the transcription and expression of BRMS1 in the ERα positive breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Additionally, the ERα specific agonist PPT also induced the transcription and expression of BRMS1. However, the two remaining estrogen receptor (ER) subtype agonists had no effect on BRMS1 expression. In order to further examine the influence of ERα on BRMS1 expression, ERα expression was knocked down using siRNA (siERα). Western blot analysis showed that siERα reduced estrogen-induced and PPT-induced BRMS1 expression. In summary, this study demonstrates estrogen, via its α receptor, positively regulates the expression of BRMS1, providing new insight into a potential inhibitory effect of estrogen on metastasis suppression. PMID:26821020

  2. Phyllodes tumor of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Herazo, Fernando; Gil, Monica; Echeverri, Carolina; Ángel, Gonzalo; Borrero, Mauricio; Madrid, Jorge; Jaramillo, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Breast Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors present in less than 1% of new cases of breast cancer, usually occurring among middle-aged women (40-50 yrs). Objective: This study shows diagnostic experience, surgical management and follows up of patients with this disease during a period of ten years in a oncology referral center. Methods: Retrospectively, breast cancer registries at the institution were reviewed, identifying 77 patients with Phyllodes tumors between 2002 and 2012, who had been operated on at the Instituto de Cancerología - Clínica Las Américas, in Medellín (Colombia). Clinical and histopathological data belonging to these cases was captured and analyzed and descriptive statistics were used. Results: The follow up median was 22.5 months (IQR: 10.5-60.0), average age was 47.2 yrs (SD: 12.4), mean tumor size was 3.6 cm (SD: 4.6), 88.3% of the patients (68 cases) presented negative margins and none of them received adjuvant chemotherapy. Of the patients with Phyllodes tumors; 33.8% had benign, 31.2% had borderline and 35.0% had malignant tumor. Disease-free survival was 85.8% and overall survival was 94.5%. Discussion: Reported data in this article is in accordance with what has been reported in worldwide literature. In our cohort even the high mean size of the tumors, the risk of local relapse and metastatic disease is low than previously reported in literature. Trials with longer follow up and molecular trials in Phyllodes tumors are necessary to understand the behavior of these tumors in Hispanics population. PMID:26600624

  3. The perivascular niche regulates breast tumor dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Peinado, Héctor; Mori, Hidetoshi; Matei, Irina R.; Evason, Kimberley J.; Brazier, Hélène; Almeida, Dena; Koller, Antonius; Hajjar, Katherine A.; Stainier, Didier Y.R.; Chen, Emily I.; Lyden, David

    2013-01-01

    In a significant fraction of breast cancer patients, distant metastases emerge after years or even decades of latency. How disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) are kept dormant, and what ‘wakes them up’, are fundamental problems in tumor biology. To address these questions, we utilized metastasis assays in mice to show that dormant DTCs reside upon microvasculature of lung, bone marrow and brain. We then engineered organotypic microvascular niches to determine whether endothelial cells directly influence breast cancer cell (BCC) growth. These models demonstrated that endothelial-derived thrombospondin-1 induces sustained BCC quiescence. This suppressive cue was lost in sprouting neovasculature; time-lapse analysis showed that sprouting vessels not only permit, but accelerate BCC outgrowth. We confirmed this surprising result in dormancy models and in zebrafish, and identified active TGF-β1 and periostin as tumor-promoting, endothelial tip cell-derived factors. Our work reveals that stable microvasculature constitutes a ‘dormant niche,’ whereas sprouting neovasculature sparks micrometastatic outgrowth. PMID:23728425

  4. Nerve Fibers in Breast Cancer Tissues Indicate Aggressive Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Di; Su, Shicheng; Cui, Xiuying; Shen, Ximing; Zeng, Yunjie; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jianing; Chen, Fei; He, Chonghua; Liu, Jiang; Huang, Wei; Liu, Qiang; Su, Fengxi; Song, Erwei; Ouyang, Nengtai

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Emerging evidence has indicated nerve fibers as a marker in the progression of various types of cancers, such as pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer. However, whether nerve fibers are associated with breast cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the presence of nerve fibers in 352 breast cancer specimens and 83 benign breast tissue specimens including 43 cases of cystic fibrosis and 40 cases of fibroadenoma from 2 independent breast tumor center using immunohistochemical staining for specific peripheral nerve fiber markers. In all, nerve fibers were present in 130 out of 352 breast cancer tissue specimens, while none were detected in normal breast tissue specimens. Among 352 cases, we defined 239 cases from Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, China, as the training set, and 113 cases from the First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University, Guangdong, China, as the validation set. The thickness of tumor-involving nerve fibers is significantly correlated with poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, high clinical staging, and triple negative subtype in breast cancer. More importantly, Cox multifactor analysis indicates that the thickness of tumor-involving nerve fibers is a previously unappreciated independent prognostic factors associated with shorter disease-free survival of breast cancer patients. Our findings are further validated by online Oncomine database. In conclusion, our results show that nerve fiber involvement in breast cancer is associated with progression of the malignancy and warrant further studies in the future. PMID:25501061

  5. Powering Tumor Metastasis with Recycled Fuel.

    PubMed

    Hung, Mien-Chie; Yang, Riyao; Sun, Yutong

    2016-09-12

    Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) recycling is of critical importance for RTK signaling and cancer, yet the process is poorly understood. In this issue, Ye et al. identify GOLM1 as a cargo adaptor that drives hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis by promoting EGFR recycling and provide insights into how this process is regulated. PMID:27622330

  6. Efficacy of a cathepsin K inhibitor in a preclinical model for prevention and treatment of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Duong, Le T; Wesolowski, Gregg A; Leung, Patrick; Oballa, Renata; Pickarski, Maureen

    2014-12-01

    Cathepsin K (CatK) is essential for osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. CatK expression is also detected in breast cancer cells that metastasize to bone. Here, the CatK inhibitor L-235 dosed in prevention (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d.) or treatment regimen (30 mg/kg) was compared with the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZOL, 7.5 μg/kg/wk, s.c.) in the intratibial injection model of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma in nude rats. Progression of osteolysis, skeletal tumor burden, and local metastasis was evaluated by radiography through 42 days and ex vivo μCT and histology. IHC and RT-PCR confirmed the increases in CatK protein and mRNA levels in human breast cancer primary and metastatic tumors. In the experimental model of breast cancer bone metastasis, L-235 dosed in preventive mode resulted in a dose-related reduction of osteolysis of 72%, 75%, and 87% respectively, compared with ZOL by 86% versus intact. Similarly, L-235 significantly reduced intratibial tumor volume by 29%, 40%, and 63%, respectively, compared with 56% by ZOL versus vehicle. Efficacy of L-235 and ZOL on reduction of osteolytic lesions and tumor burden was comparable in treatment versus preventive regimens. All L-235 doses inhibited cortical disruption and extraskeletal tumor growth to a level comparable with ZOL. Assessment of local metastasis demonstrated that treatment with the CatK inhibitor was more effective than ZOL in reducing breast cancer invasion. These data support the role of CatK in breast cancer skeletal growth and metastasis and CatK inhibitors may represent a novel oral therapy for treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

  7. Lymphatic endothelial cells support tumor growth in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Esak; Pandey, Niranjan B.; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor lymphatic vessels (LV) serve as a conduit of tumor cell dissemination, due to their leaky nature and secretion of tumor-recruiting factors. Though lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) lining the LV express distinct factors (also called lymphangiocrine factors), these factors and their roles in the tumor microenvironment are not well understood. Here we employ LEC, microvascular endothelial cells (MEC), and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cultured in triple-negative MDA-MB-231 tumor-conditioned media (TCM) to determine the factors that may be secreted by various EC in the MDA-MB-231 breast tumor. These factors will serve as endothelium derived signaling molecules in the tumor microenvironment. We co-injected these EC with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells into animals and showed that LEC support tumor growth, HUVEC have no significant effect on tumor growth, whereas MEC suppress it. Focusing on LEC-mediated tumor growth, we discovered that TCM-treated LEC (‘tumor-educated LEC') secrete high amounts of EGF and PDGF-BB, compared to normal LEC. LEC-secreted EGF promotes tumor cell proliferation. LEC-secreted PDGF-BB induces pericyte infiltration and angiogenesis. These lymphangiocrine factors may support tumor growth in the tumor microenvironment. This study shows that LV serve a novel role in the tumor microenvironment apart from their classical role as conduits of metastasis. PMID:25068296

  8. Clinical utility of certain biomarkers as predictors of breast cancer with or without metastasis among Egyptian females.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Samia A; Hamed, Manal A; Omar, Omar S

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to explore and correlate the value of certain biomarkers in breast cancer (BC) females with and without metastasis after undergoing the surgical treatment protocol in the National Cancer Institute in Egypt. Thirty females (33-69 years), diagnosed as early breast cancer patients with or without metastasis, and 20 healthy individuals were selected for this study. The biomarkers under investigation were vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-8 (IL-8). The correlation between these markers and the tumor grade was also evaluated. The results revealed a significant increase (p < 0.0001) in VEGF, CRP, IL-6, and IL-8 in breast cancer patients with or without metastasis as compared to the healthy group. Surgical treatment of metastatic BC females showed a significant reduction of those parameters by variable degrees, whereas BC females without metastasis recorded the most inhibition levels. Also, there was positive correlation (p < 0.0001) between those biomarkers and the tumor grades. We also noticed an association between VEGF and IL-8 as well as CRP and IL-6. In conclusion, the selected biomarkers may be beneficial for the prognosis of breast cancer and seem to be a diagnostic tool to differentiate between BC with or without metastasis. The descried surgical treatment protocol succeeded to attenuate the elevated biomarker levels and improve patient survival which deserves more extensive studies.

  9. Autocrine HBEGF expression promotes breast cancer intravasation, metastasis and macrophage-independent invasion in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Z. N.; Sharma, V. P.; Beaty, B. T.; Roh-Johnson, M.; Peterson, E. A.; Van Rooijen, N.; Kenny, P. A.; Wiley, H. S.; Condeelis, J. S.; Segall, J. E.

    2014-10-13

    Increased expression of HBEGF in estrogen receptor-negative breast tumors is correlated with enhanced metastasis to distant organ sites and more rapid disease recurrence upon removal of the primary tumor. Our previous work has demonstrated a paracrine loop between breast cancer cells and macrophages in which the tumor cells are capable of stimulating macrophages through the secretion of colony-stimulating factor-1 while the tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), in turn, aid in tumor cell invasion by secreting epidermal growth factor. To determine how the autocrine expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands by carcinoma cells would affect this paracrine loop mechanism, and in particular whether tumor cell invasion depends on spatial ligand gradients generated by TAMs, we generated cell lines with increased HBEGF expression. We found that autocrine HBEGF expression enhanced in vivo intravasation and metastasis and resulted in a novel phenomenon in which macrophages were no longer required for in vivo invasion of breast cancer cells. In vitro studies revealed that expression of HBEGF enhanced invadopodium formation, thus providing a mechanism for cell autonomous invasion. The increased invadopodium formation was directly dependent on EGFR signaling, as demonstrated by a rapid decrease in invadopodia upon inhibition of autocrine HBEGF/EGFR signaling as well as inhibition of signaling downstream of EGFR activation. HBEGF expression also resulted in enhanced invadopodium function via upregulation of matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 expression levels. We conclude that high levels of HBEGF expression can short-circuit the tumor cell/macrophage paracrine invasion loop, resulting in enhanced tumor invasion that is independent of macrophage signaling.

  10. TWIST1 expression in breast cancer cells facilitates bone metastasis formation.

    PubMed

    Croset, Martine; Goehrig, Delphine; Frackowiak, Agnieszka; Bonnelye, Edith; Ansieau, Stéphane; Puisieux, Alain; Clézardin, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The transcription factor TWIST1 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and/or escape to the oncogenic-induced failsafe program, facilitating the intravasation of breast cancer cells in the systemic circulation and their dissemination to the lungs. Its involvement in breast cancer bone metastasis is unknown. To address this question, human osteotropic MDA-MB-231/B02 breast cancer cells were stably transfected with a Tet-inducible vector encoding for TWIST1, whose expression was specifically repressed in the presence of doxycycline (dox). The intra-arterial inoculation of transfectants expressing TWIST1 in immunodeficient mice substantially increased the extent of osteolytic lesions in these animals, being 50% larger than that of animals bearing mock-transfected tumors, as determined by radiography. This difference was accompanied by a sharp reduction of the bone volume (indicating a higher bone destruction) and a twofold increase in the tumor volume compared with mice bearing mock-transfected tumors, as determined by histomorphometry. Importantly, the suppression of TWIST1 expression in MDA-MB-231/B02 cells in the presence of dox abolished the stimulatory effect of TWIST1 on bone metastasis formation in vivo. Additionally, examination of the bone marrow from untreated and dox-treated animals on day 7 after tumor cell inoculation, at which time there was no evidence of radiographic osteolytic lesions, revealed that the number of tumor cell colonies that were recovered from the bone marrow of untreated mice was dramatically increased compared with that of dox-fed animals. In vitro, TWIST1 expression promoted tumor cell invasion and enhanced microRNA 10b (miR-10b) expression, a proinvasive factor, but was dispensable for growth of tumor cells. In vivo, the repression of miR-10b substantially decreased the presence of TWIST1-expressing breast cancer cells in the bone marrow. Overall, these results establish that TWIST1 facilitates breast cancer bone metastasis

  11. Phase transitions in tumor growth: III vascular and metastasis behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llanos-Pérez, J. A.; Betancourt-Mar, J. A.; Cocho, G.; Mansilla, R.; Nieto-Villar, José Manuel

    2016-11-01

    We propose a mechanism for avascular, vascular and metastasis tumor growth based on a chemical network model. Vascular growth and metastasis, appear as a hard phase transition type, as "first order", through a supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation, emergence of limit cycle and then through a cascade of bifurcations type saddle-foci Shilnikov's bifurcation. Finally, the thermodynamics framework developed shows that the entropy production rate, as a Lyapunov function, indicates the directional character and stability of the dynamical behavior of tumor growth according to this model.

  12. Liver Metastasis of Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Kashkooe, Ali; Malekhosseini, Seyed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs) are potentially malignant tumors, and their most common location of metastasis is the liver. Objectives In this report, we will describe our experience with some clinical and pathologic findings of hepatic metastasis in a group of cases of GI-NETs at the largest referral center of GI and liver diseases in south Iran. Materials and Methods In this four-year study (2011 - 2014), all GI and liver NETs were extracted from the pathology files of hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. After classification based on the world health organization guidelines, the patients were evaluated according to their location, sex, age, and proliferative index. After studying the imaging and clinical charts of liver-NET cases with an unknown primary location, a complete panel of immunohistochemical markers (TTF-1, CDX-2, CK-7, CK-2, etc.) was used to find the primary GI location. Carcinoid tumors from other sites, such as the lung, were omitted from this study. Results The most common primary site of metastatic GI-NET to the liver in our center was the small intestine, which was also the most frequent location of GI-NET without liver metastasis. No cases of appendiceal-NET were found with liver metastasis. In 8 cases (11.6%) with liver-NETs, no primary location was identified. GI-NETs with liver metastasis had a significantly higher grade and proliferative index compared with NETs without liver metastasis. Conclusions Liver metastasis of neuroendocrine tumors in Iran presents in a very similar manner as that seen in western countries. In about 89% of cases with liver-NET, complete imaging, clinical, and pathological studies can help to identify the primary origin of the liver-NET, which is very important in the patient’s management. PMID:27330538

  13. Metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Distant metastasis of primary neoplasms is the main factor that limits the success of antineoplastic therapy. It can be regarded as an early or late event in the neoplastic process, and varies considerably with tumor type. The metastatic potential of a given tumor greatly influences prognosis. Tumor metastasis is not a single neoplastic event, rather, it involves several major steps: invasion of cells from the primary tumor into tissue, and penetration of blood and lymph vessels; release of tumor cell emboli into the circulation; arrest of the emboli in capillary beds of distant organs; invasion of the wall of the arresting vessel, infiltration into adjacent tissue, and multiplication; and growth of vascularized stroma into the new tumor as proliferating tumor cells invade the distant organ. Lodgement and invasion are complex events that are not fully defined. Arrest and lodgement appears to require a thromboembolic event in which the metastatic embolis (1 cell) contacts vascular endothelium and adheres to the wall with thrombis formation following aggregation of platelets and fibrin to the tumor cell(s). Invasion may involve: formation of collagenases by tumor cells; mechanical disruption; chemotactic factors. Metastatic patterns depend on the route of metastasis, tumor type, and target organ (favored soil). In general, carcinomas metastasize via lymphatics and sarcomas via hematogenous routes. Others, melanoma, mast cell tumors, etc., show mixed patterns. This knowledge is important when one is attempting to prognostically stage a tumor, especially when thoracic radiographs are negative. The question of enlarged regional lymph nodes will be discussed in lecture relative to specific tumor types. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Bilateral desmoid tumor of the breast: case seriesand literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wongmaneerung, Phanchaporn; Somwangprasert, Areewan; Watcharachan, Kirati; Ditsatham, Chagkrit

    2016-01-01

    Background Desmoid tumor of the breast is very rare and locally aggressive but has no distant metastasis. Bilateral lesions are extremely rare, found in only 4% of patients. Two cases of bilateral desmoid tumor of the breast are reported. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, imaging, treatment, and follow-up outcomes of recurrence as well as a brief literature review are provided. Case reports Case 1 is a 31-year-old woman who presented with nipple retraction. An ultrasound revealed BIRAD V in both breasts. She underwent a bilateral excisional biopsy under ultrasound mark with the pathology result of extra-abdominal desmoid tumor in both breasts. The patient had a bilateral mastectomy with silicone implantation due to the involved margins by excision. She remained tumor free after 7-year follow-up. Case 2 is a 28-year-old woman who presented with a lump on her right breast that she had discovered ~2 months earlier. An ultrasound showed a spiculated mass in the right breast and some circumscribed hypoechoic masses in both breasts. A bilateral breast excision was done. The pathology result was an extra-abdominal desmoid tumor. She had recurrence on both sides and underwent a mastectomy and silicone implantation. The tumor has not recurred after 1-year follow-up. Conclusion Imaging cannot distinguish between benign breast lesions and malignancy. Pathology results are helpful in making a definitive diagnosis. Given that the desmoid tumor is locally aggressive, a local excision with clear margins is recommended. Chemotherapy and hormonal treatment are controversial. PMID:27578999

  15. Tumor-associated macrophages: unwitting accomplices in breast cancer malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Carly Bess; Yeh, Elizabeth S; Soloff, Adam C

    2016-01-01

    Deleterious inflammation is a primary feature of breast cancer. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that macrophages, the most abundant leukocyte population in mammary tumors, have a critical role at each stage of cancer progression. Such tumor-associated macrophages facilitate neoplastic transformation, tumor immune evasion and the subsequent metastatic cascade. Herein, we discuss the dynamic process whereby molecular and cellular features of the tumor microenvironment act to license tissue-repair mechanisms of macrophages, fostering angiogenesis, metastasis and the support of cancer stem cells. We illustrate how tumors induce, then exploit trophic macrophages to subvert innate and adaptive immune responses capable of destroying malignant cells. Finally, we discuss compelling evidence from murine models of cancer and early clinical trials in support of macrophage-targeted intervention strategies with the potential to dramatically reduce breast cancer morbidity and mortality. PMID:26998515

  16. Clonal expansion and linear genome evolution through breast cancer progression from pre-invasive stages to asynchronous metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Knoop, Ann S.; Jensen, Jeanette D.; Bak, Martin; Mollenhauer, Jan; Kruse, Torben A.; Thomassen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of the breast cancer genome from pre-invasive stages to asynchronous metastasis is complex and mostly unexplored, but highly demanded as it may provide novel markers for and mechanistic insights in cancer progression. The increasing use of personalized therapy of breast cancer necessitates knowledge of the degree of genomic concordance between different steps of malignant progression as primary tumors often are used as surrogates of systemic disease. Based on exome sequencing we performed copy number profiling and point mutation detection on successive steps of breast cancer progression from one breast cancer patient, including two different regions of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS), primary tumor and an asynchronous metastasis. We identify a remarkable landscape of somatic mutations, retained throughout breast cancer progression and with new mutational events emerging at each step. Our data, contrary to the proposed model of early dissemination of metastatic cells and parallel progression of primary tumors and metastases, provide evidence of linear progression of breast cancer with relatively late dissemination from the primary tumor. The genomic discordance between the different stages of tumor evolution in this patient emphasizes the importance of molecular profiling of metastatic tissue directing molecularly targeted therapy at recurrence. PMID:25730902

  17. Nomogram including the total tumoral load in the sentinel nodes assessed by one-step nucleic acid amplification as a new factor for predicting nonsentinel lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Isabel T; Espinosa-Bravo, Martin; Rodrigo, Maxi; Amparo Viguri Diaz, Maria; Hardisson, David; Sagasta, Amaia; Dueñas, Basilio; Peg, Vicente

    2014-09-01

    Several models have been developed to predict non-sentinel nodes (NSLN) metastasis in patients with a positive sentinel node (SLN) that incorporates a standard pathology examination of the SLN. It has been reported that total tumoral load (TTL) in the SLNs assessed by one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) is a predictive factor for additional NSLN metastasis in the axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). The objective was to develop a nomogram that predicts patient´s risk of additional NSLN metastasis incorporating TTL in the SLNs assessed by OSNA. Six hundred and ninety-seven consecutive patients with positive SLN evaluation by OSNA and a completion ALND were recruited. Pathologic features of the primary tumor and SLN metastases, including TTL were collected. Multivariate logistic regression identified factors predictive of non-SLN metastasis. A nomogram was developed with these variables and validated in an external cohort. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, tumor size, number of affected SLN, Her2 overexpression, lymphovascular invasion, and TTL were each associated with the likelihood of additional NSLN metastasis (p < 0.05). The overall predictive accuracy of the nomogram, as measured by the AUC was 0.7552 (95 %CI 0.7159-0.7945). When applied to the external cohort the nomogram was accurate with an AUC = 0.678 (95 %CI 0.621-0.736). This novel nomogram that incorporates TTL assessed by OSNA performs well and may help clinicians to make decisions about ALND for individual patients. Moreover, the standardization of pathologic assessment by OSNA may help to achieve interinstitutional reproducibility among nomograms. PMID:25164972

  18. DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Genes and Oxidative Damage in Brain Metastasis of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Lynda; Duchnowska, Renata; Reed, L. Tiffany; Palmieri, Diane; Qian, Yongzhen; Badve, Sunil; Sledge, George; Gril, Brunilde; Aladjem, Mirit I.; Fu, Haiqing; Flores, Natasha M.; Gökmen-Polar, Yesim; Biernat, Wojciech; Szutowicz-Zielińska, Ewa; Mandat, Tomasz; Trojanowski, Tomasz; Och, Waldemar; Czartoryska-Arlukowicz, Bogumiła; Jassem, Jacek; Mitchell, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the brain, colonizing a neuro-inflammatory microenvironment. The molecular pathways facilitating this colonization remain poorly understood. Methods Expression profiling of 23 matched sets of human resected brain metastases and primary breast tumors by two-sided paired t test was performed to identify brain metastasis–specific genes. The implicated DNA repair genes BARD1 and RAD51 were modulated in human (MDA-MB-231-BR) and murine (4T1-BR) brain-tropic breast cancer cell lines by lentiviral transduction of cDNA or short hairpin RNA (shRNA) coding sequences. Their functional contribution to brain metastasis development was evaluated in mouse xenograft models (n = 10 mice per group). Results Human brain metastases overexpressed BARD1 and RAD51 compared with either matched primary tumors (1.74-fold, P < .001; 1.46-fold, P < .001, respectively) or unlinked systemic metastases (1.49-fold, P = .01; 1.44-fold, P = .008, respectively). Overexpression of either gene in MDA-MB-231-BR cells increased brain metastases by threefold to fourfold after intracardiac injections, but not lung metastases upon tail-vein injections. In 4T1-BR cells, shRNA-mediated RAD51 knockdown reduced brain metastases by 2.5-fold without affecting lung metastasis development. In vitro, BARD1- and RAD51-overexpressing cells showed reduced genomic instability but only exhibited growth and colonization phenotypes upon DNA damage induction. Reactive oxygen species were present in tumor cells and elevated in the metastatic neuro-inflammatory microenvironment and could provide an endogenous source of genotoxic stress. Tempol, a brain-permeable oxygen radical scavenger suppressed brain metastasis promotion induced by BARD1 and RAD51 overexpression. Conclusions BARD1 and RAD51 are frequently overexpressed in brain metastases from breast cancer and may constitute a mechanism to overcome reactive oxygen species–mediated genotoxic stress in the metastatic

  19. Ginsenoside Rd attenuates breast cancer metastasis implicating derepressing microRNA-18a-regulated Smad2 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peiwei; Du, Xiaoye; Xiong, Minqi; Cui, Jingang; Yang, Qinbo; Wang, Wenjian; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Teng

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis remains a major cause of mortality and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Anti-metastatic therapies are in great need to achieve optimal clinical outcome in breast cancer patients. Panax Notoginseng Saponins (PNS) has previously been shown to inhibit breast cancer metastasis in mouse. Here the potential anti-metastatic effect of one of the chemical compounds of PNS, ginsenoside Rd (Rd), was further evaluated in mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells. The results revealed that Rd treatment dose-dependently suppressed cell migration and invasion in cultured 4T1 cells. In 4T1 cell-inoculated mice, Rd treatment led to decreased number of tumor lesions in lungs in both spontaneous and experimental metastasis models. Rd treatment resulted in increased expression of Smad2 in cultured 4T1 cells and in tumors grown from inoculated 4T1 cells. Rd treatment decreased the expression of microRNA (miR)-18a in cultured 4T1 cells and in tumors derived from inoculated 4T1 cells. Smad2 was further verified to be a direct target of miR-18a in 4T1 cells. The significant impact of Rd on counteracting miR-18a-medidated downregulation of Smad2 expression was also demonstrated. Together, the current work shows for the first time that Rd treatment attenuates breast cancer metastasis in part through derepressing miR-18a-mediated Smad2 expression regulation. PMID:27641158

  20. Ginsenoside Rd attenuates breast cancer metastasis implicating derepressing microRNA-18a-regulated Smad2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peiwei; Du, Xiaoye; Xiong, Minqi; Cui, Jingang; Yang, Qinbo; Wang, Wenjian; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Teng

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis remains a major cause of mortality and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Anti-metastatic therapies are in great need to achieve optimal clinical outcome in breast cancer patients. Panax Notoginseng Saponins (PNS) has previously been shown to inhibit breast cancer metastasis in mouse. Here the potential anti-metastatic effect of one of the chemical compounds of PNS, ginsenoside Rd (Rd), was further evaluated in mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells. The results revealed that Rd treatment dose-dependently suppressed cell migration and invasion in cultured 4T1 cells. In 4T1 cell-inoculated mice, Rd treatment led to decreased number of tumor lesions in lungs in both spontaneous and experimental metastasis models. Rd treatment resulted in increased expression of Smad2 in cultured 4T1 cells and in tumors grown from inoculated 4T1 cells. Rd treatment decreased the expression of microRNA (miR)-18a in cultured 4T1 cells and in tumors derived from inoculated 4T1 cells. Smad2 was further verified to be a direct target of miR-18a in 4T1 cells. The significant impact of Rd on counteracting miR-18a-medidated downregulation of Smad2 expression was also demonstrated. Together, the current work shows for the first time that Rd treatment attenuates breast cancer metastasis in part through derepressing miR-18a-mediated Smad2 expression regulation. PMID:27641158

  1. Giant breast tumors: Surgical management of phyllodes tumors, potential for reconstructive surgery and a review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Margaret I; Ramaswamy, Bhuvaneswari; Patterson, Cynthia C; McKelvey, Michael T; Gordillo, Gayle; Nuovo, Gerard J; Carson, William E

    2008-01-01

    Background Phyllodes tumors are biphasic fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast. While the surgical management of these relatively uncommon tumors has been addressed in the literature, few reports have commented on the surgical approach to tumors greater than ten centimeters in diameter – the giant phyllodes tumor. Case presentation We report two cases of giant breast tumors and discuss the techniques utilized for pre-operative diagnosis, tumor removal, and breast reconstruction. A review of the literature on the surgical management of phyllodes tumors was performed. Conclusion Management of the giant phyllodes tumor presents the surgeon with unique challenges. The majority of these tumors can be managed by simple mastectomy. Axillary lymph node metastasis is rare, and dissection should be limited to patients with pathologic evidence of tumor in the lymph nodes. PMID:19014438

  2. NBAT1 suppresses breast cancer metastasis by regulating DKK1 via PRC2

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanqing; Sun, Lijuan; Lv, Xiaobin; Zhu, Yinghua; Li, Jingjing; Guo, Qiannan; Gong, Chang; Liu, Bodu; Su, Shicheng

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNA NBAT1 (neuroblastoma associated transcript 1) regulates cell proliferation and invasion by interacting with PRC2 (polycomb repressive complex 2) member EZH2 (enhancer of zeste 2). Decreased expression of NBAT1 is associated with poor clinical outcome in neuroblastomas. However, the roles of NBAT1 in other cancers remain unknown. Here, we report that NBAT1 is down-regulated in various types of cancer. Particularly, reduced NBAT1 in breast cancer is associated with tumor metastasis and poor patient prognosis. In vitro, ectopic NBAT1 inhibits migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Mechanistic study shows that NBAT1 is associated with PRC2 member EZH2 and regulates global gene expression profile. Among them, DKK1 (dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 1) is found to be regulated by NBAT1 in a PRC2 dependent manner, and is responsible for NBAT1's effects in inhibiting migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Taken together, our study demonstrates that long noncoding RNA NBAT1 is a potential breast cancer prognostic marker, as well as a potential therapeutic target to inhibit breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26378045

  3. αB-crystallin Expression in Breast Cancer is Associated with Brain Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Voduc, K. David; Nielsen, Torsten O.; Perou, Charles M.; Harrell, J. Chuck.; Fan, Cheng; Kennecke, Hagen; Minn, Andy J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives The molecular chaperone αB-crystallin is expressed in estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 “triple-negative” breast carcinomas and promotes brain and lung metastasis. We examined αB-crystallin expression in primary breast carcinomas with metastatic data to evaluate its association with prognosis and site-specific metastases. Methods αB-crystallin gene (CRYAB) expression was examined using publically available global-gene expression data (n=855 breast tumors) with first site of distant metastasis information (“855Met”). αB-crystallin protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry using the clinically annotated tissue microarray (n=3987 breast tumors) from British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA). Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate the prognostic value of αB-crystallin. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate risks of αB-crystallin and other markers for site of metastasis. Results In the 855Met dataset, αB-crystallin gene (CRYAB) expression was an independent predictor of brain as the first distant site of relapse (HR = 1.2, (95% CI 1.0-1.4), P = 0.021). In the BCCA series, αB-crystallin protein expression was an independent prognostic marker of poor breast cancer specific survival (HR = 1.3, (95% CI 1.1-1.6), P = 0.014). Among patients with metastases, αB-crystallin was the strongest independent predictor of brain metastasis (OR = 2.99 (95% CI 1.83-4.89), P < 0.0001) and the only independent predictor of brain as the first site of distant metastasis (OR = 3.15 (95% CI1.43-6.95), P = 0.005). αB-crystallin was also associated with worse survival (3.0 versus 4.7 months, P = 0.007). Conclusions αB-crystallin is a promising biomarker to identify breast cancer patients at high risk for early relapse in the brain, independent of ER and HER2 status.

  4. Heparanase-neutralizing antibodies attenuate lymphoma tumor growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Weissmann, Marina; Arvatz, Gil; Horowitz, Netanel; Feld, Sari; Naroditsky, Inna; Zhang, Yi; Ng, Mary; Hammond, Edward; Nevo, Eviatar; Vlodavsky, Israel; Ilan, Neta

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains of proteoglycans, resulting in disassembly of the extracellular matrix underlying endothelial and epithelial cells and associating with enhanced cell invasion and metastasis. Heparanase expression is induced in carcinomas and sarcomas, often associating with enhanced tumor metastasis and poor prognosis. In contrast, the function of heparanase in hematological malignancies (except myeloma) was not investigated in depth. Here, we provide evidence that heparanase is expressed by human follicular and diffused non-Hodgkin's B-lymphomas, and that heparanase inhibitors restrain the growth of tumor xenografts produced by lymphoma cell lines. Furthermore, we describe, for the first time to our knowledge, the development and characterization of heparanase-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that inhibit cell invasion and tumor metastasis, the hallmark of heparanase activity. Using luciferase-labeled Raji lymphoma cells, we show that the heparanase-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies profoundly inhibit tumor load in the mouse bones, associating with reduced cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Notably, we found that Raji cells lack intrinsic heparanase activity, but tumor xenografts produced by this cell line exhibit typical heparanase activity, likely contributed by host cells composing the tumor microenvironment. Thus, the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies attenuate lymphoma growth by targeting heparanase in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26729870

  5. Distant metastasis from benign solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kurihara, Tsuyoshi; Katsuoka, Yuichi; Nakano, Toru; Yoshioka, Maki; Miyano, Satetsu; Sato, Yuichi; Uejima, Iwao; Hoshikawa, Masahiro; Takagi, Masayuki; Chikaraishi, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) rarely occurs in the kidneys, and only one reported case of renal SFT has shown distant metastasis. We report the second case of renal SFT exhibiting distant metastasis. A 48-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of a right renal mass. An abdominal CT scan detected a large renal tumor, which was suspected to be a renal cell carcinoma. Right radical nephrectomy was performed, and the tumor was found to measure 28 × 18 × 10 cm. The pathological diagnosis was benign solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney. Eight years after the operation, lung and liver metastases developed. Pulmonary segmentectomy and partial hepatectomy were performed. The pathological diagnoses of these resected tissue specimens were compatible with benign SFT.

  6. Inflammatory metastatic breast cancer with gallbladder metastasis: an incidental finding.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Hassan; Graham, David; Rice, David; Ribadeneyra, Michael; Thorner, Kim; Shipley, William; Wehmueller, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women, with an estimated 231,840 new cases representing 14.0% of all new cancer cases in the United States in 2015. Early screening and modern techniques of imaging and diagnosis have led to a significant improvement in detecting early-stage breast cancers and to a decrease in the incidence of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). About 20%-30% of patients who are initially diagnosed with an early-stage, nonmetastatic breast cancer will subsequently develop a distant metastatic disease. Between 6%-10% of the new breast cancer cases present initially as stage IV, referred to as de novo MBC. The most common sites of breast cancer metastases are lymph nodes, chest wall, skeleton, lung, skin, and the central nervous system (CNS). Lobular carcinoma, in particular, may metastasize to the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, and retroperitoneum. Gallbladder metastasis from breast cancer is very rare, and only 15-20 cases have been reported in the literature. Most of those cases have been associated particularly with a lobular histology. We report an additional rare case of MBC to the gallbladder, but with a ductal histology. PMID:26270542

  7. Sustained conditional knockdown reveals intracellular bone sialoprotein as essential for breast cancer skeletal metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kovacheva, Marineta; Zepp, Michael; Berger, Stefan M; Berger, Martin R

    2014-07-30

    Increased bone sialoprotein (BSP) serum levels are related to breast cancer skeletal metastasis, but their relevance is unknown. We elucidated novel intracellular BSP functions by a conditional knockdown of BSP. Conditional MDA-MB-231 subclones were equipped with a novel gene expression cassette containing a tet-reg-ulated miRNA providing knockdown of BSP production. These clones were used to assess the effect of BSP on morphology, proliferation, migration, colony formation and gene expression in vitro, and on soft tissue and osteolytic le-sions in a xenograft model by three imaging methods. BSP knockdown caused significant anti-proliferative, anti-migratory and anti-clonogenic effects in vitro (p<0.001). In vivo, significant de-creases of soft tissue and osteolytic lesions (p<0.03) were recorded after 3 weeks of miRNA treatment, leading to complete remission within 6 weeks. Microarray data revealed that 0.3% of genes were modulated in response to BSP knockdown. Upregulated genes included the endoplasmic reticulum stress genes ATF3 and DDIT3, the tumor suppressor gene EGR1, ID2 (related to breast epithelial differentiation), c-FOS and SERPINB2, whereas the metastasis associated genes CD44 and IL11 were downregulated. Also, activation of apoptotic pathways was demonstrated. These results implicate that intracellular BSP is essential for breast cancer skeletal metastasis and a target for treating these lesions.

  8. Melatonin decreases breast cancer metastasis by modulating Rho-associated kinase protein-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Borin, Thaiz Ferraz; Arbab, Ali Syed; Gelaleti, Gabriela Bottaro; Ferreira, Lívia Carvalho; Moschetta, Marina Gobbe; Jardim-Perassi, Bruna Victorasso; Iskander, ASM; Varma, Nadimpalli Ravi S.; Shankar, Adarsh; Coimbra, Verena Benedick; Fabri, Vanessa Alves; de Oliveira, Juliana Garcia; de Campos Zuccari, Debora Aparecida Pires

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of metastasis, an important breast cancer prognostic factor, depends on cell migration/invasion mechanisms, which can be controlled by regulatory and effector molecules such as Rho-associated kinase protein (ROCK-1). Increased expression of this protein promotes tumor growth and metastasis, which can be restricted by ROCK-1 inhibitors. Melatonin has shown oncostatic, antimetastatic, and anti-angiogenic effects and can modulate ROCK-1 expression. Metastatic and nonmetastatic breast cancer cell lines were treated with melatonin as well as with specific ROCK-1 inhibitor (Y27632). Cell viability, cell migration/invasion, and ROCK-1 gene expression and protein expression were determined in vitro. In vivo lung metastasis study was performed using female athymic nude mice treated with either melatonin or Y27832 for 2 and 5 wk. The metastases were evaluated by X-ray computed tomography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and by immunohistochemistry for ROCK-1 and cytokeratin proteins. Melatonin and Y27632 treatments reduced cell viability and invasion/migration of both cell lines and decreased ROCK-1 gene expression in metastatic cells and protein expression in nonmetastatic cell line. The numbers of ‘hot’ spots (lung metastasis) identified by SPECT images were significantly lower in treated groups. ROCK-1 protein expression also was decreased in metastatic foci of treated groups. Melatonin has shown to be effective in controlling metastatic breast cancer in vitro and in vivo, not only via inhibition of the proliferation of tumor cells but also through direct antagonism of metastatic mechanism of cells rendered by ROCK-1 inhibition. When Y27632 was used, the effects were similar to those found with melatonin treatment. PMID:26292662

  9. Melatonin decreases breast cancer metastasis by modulating Rho-associated kinase protein-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Borin, Thaiz Ferraz; Arbab, Ali Syed; Gelaleti, Gabriela Bottaro; Ferreira, Lívia Carvalho; Moschetta, Marina Gobbe; Jardim-Perassi, Bruna Victorasso; Iskander, A S M; Varma, Nadimpalli Ravi S; Shankar, Adarsh; Coimbra, Verena Benedick; Fabri, Vanessa Alves; de Oliveira, Juliana Garcia; Zuccari, Debora Aparecida Pires de Campos

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of metastasis, an important breast cancer prognostic factor, depends on cell migration/invasion mechanisms, which can be controlled by regulatory and effector molecules such as Rho-associated kinase protein (ROCK-1). Increased expression of this protein promotes tumor growth and metastasis, which can be restricted by ROCK-1 inhibitors. Melatonin has shown oncostatic, antimetastatic, and anti-angiogenic effects and can modulate ROCK-1 expression. Metastatic and nonmetastatic breast cancer cell lines were treated with melatonin as well as with specific ROCK-1 inhibitor (Y27632). Cell viability, cell migration/invasion, and ROCK-1 gene expression and protein expression were determined in vitro. In vivo lung metastasis study was performed using female athymic nude mice treated with either melatonin or Y27832 for 2 and 5 wk. The metastases were evaluated by X-ray computed tomography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and by immunohistochemistry for ROCK-1 and cytokeratin proteins. Melatonin and Y27632 treatments reduced cell viability and invasion/migration of both cell lines and decreased ROCK-1 gene expression in metastatic cells and protein expression in nonmetastatic cell line. The numbers of 'hot' spots (lung metastasis) identified by SPECT images were significantly lower in treated groups. ROCK-1 protein expression also was decreased in metastatic foci of treated groups. Melatonin has shown to be effective in controlling metastatic breast cancer in vitro and in vivo, not only via inhibition of the proliferation of tumor cells but also through direct antagonism of metastatic mechanism of cells rendered by ROCK-1 inhibition. When Y27632 was used, the effects were similar to those found with melatonin treatment. PMID:26292662

  10. [Treatment of liver metastasis of endocrine tumors of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Orozco Zepeda, H

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to analyze the diagnostic approach, presentation and therapeutic modalities in patients with liver metastasis from endocrine tumors. The paper shows the "state of the art" of therapeutic approaches with emphasis on the roll of different surgery, radio and chemotherapy, arterial embolization and other palliative procedures. The overall results of each of this modalities are also shown.

  11. Breast cancer-specific mortality in small-sized tumor with node-positive breast cancer: a nation-wide study in Korean breast cancer society.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jai Min; Lee, Hyouk Jin; Yoon, Tae In; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Soo Jung; Jung, Jin Hyang; Chae, Byung Joo; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Lee, Se Kyung; Bae, Soo Youn; Yu, Jonghan; Kim, Seok Won

    2016-10-01

    Tumor size and number of lymph node (LN) metastases are well known as the most important prognostic factors of breast cancer. We hypothesized that very small breast cancers with LN metastasis represent a progressive biologic behavior and evaluated tumor size stratified by LN metastasis. Data between 1990 and 2010 were obtained retrospectively from the Korean Breast Cancer Society Registry with inclusion criteria of female, non-metastatic, unilateral, and T1/2 breast cancer. We collected the following variables: age at surgery, tumor size, number of LN metastases, nuclear grade (NG), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, and epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status. Patient characteristics were compared by means of independent t-tests for continuous variables and the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Kaplan-Meier curves, with corresponding results of log-rank tests, were constructed for breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). Five- and eight-year breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) was obtained in groups of 300 patients, followed by smoothing according to the confidence interval using the lowess method. We identified 39,826 breast cancer patients who met the inclusion criteria. Among them, 1433 (3.6 %) patients died due to breast cancer. The median follow-up duration was 63.4 (3-255) months. In the multivariate analysis, age at surgery, NG, LVI, subtype, and tumor size-nodal interactions were independently associated with BCSM. The N1 group had lower BCSS for T1a than T1b. The N2+ group also had lower BCSS for T1b than T1c or T2. In the N1 group of tumors smaller than 10 mm, 5- and 8-year BCSM decreased with larger tumor size. Patients with very small tumors with LN metastasis have decreased BCSM according to increase tumor size. Small tumors with LN metastasis could have aggressive biological behavior. PMID:27590199

  12. The synergistic effects of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with glycated chitosan for inhibiting the metastasis of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Hsin-Yu; Leu, Jyh-Der; Chen, Wei R.; Lee, Yi-Jang

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is increasing with years in Taiwan because of dietary style, life behavior and several social-physiological factors. According to the record of Bureau of Health Promotion in Taiwan, the incidence of breast cancer is top one, and the mortality of that is top one cancer type in women. Compared with USA, most of breast cancer cases found in Taiwanese women have reached to stage 2 or 3. Current therapeutic strategies for breast cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy and targeted therapy. However, these methods used for curing the late-stage breast cancer remains rare. Because the metastasis is the major problem of late-stage breast cancer, it is of interest to investigate whether a systemic therapy can reduce the symptoms of cancer. The immunotherapy, particularly an induction of autoimmune system, is probably important for the treatment of late-stage breast cancer. Glycated chitosan (GC) is derived from chitosan, a linear polysaccharide composed of D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine through β-(1-4) linkage. Several lines of evidence have shown that GC is an immunoadjuvant that can target on primary and metastatic tumors formed in animal and human patients. In our previous data, GC was demonstrated to decrease the motility and invasion of mammalian breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is dependent on a small generator that delivers high frequency alternating electric current directly to burn a tumor lesion. Therefore, the temperature may reach up to above 60 °C. In this study, we used 4T1 mouse breast cancer cell that is the approximately equal to stage 4 of human breast cancer. And triple modality reporter gene (3R) was delivered into the cells using transfected piggyBac, a transposable element for observation of tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Data showed that growth and metastasis of tumors smaller than 500mm3 were entirely suppressed by RFA-GC combination treatment

  13. Dysregulated JAK2 expression by TrkC promotes metastasis potential, and EMT program of metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Soo; Jeong, Joon; Seo, Jeongbeob; Kim, Hae-Suk; Kim, Seong-Jin; Jin, Wook

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancers are aggressive tumors associated with high levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, activation of IL6/JAK2/STAT3 and PI3K/AKT pathways for cell growth, mobility, invasion, metastasis, and CSC status. We identified a new molecular and functional network present in metastasis that regulates and coordinates with TrkC. Inhibition of SOCS3-mediated JAK2 degradation by TrkC increases total JAK2/STAT3 expression, and then leads to upregulation of Twist-1 through activation of JAK2/STAT3 cascade. Also, TrkC increases secretion and expression of IL-6, suggesting that this autocrine loop generated by TrkC maintains the mesenchymal state by continued activation of the JAK2/STAT3 cascade and upregulation of Twist expression. Moreover, TrkC interacts with the c-Src/Jak2 complex, which increases Twist-1 and Twist-2 levels via regulation of JAK2/STAT3 activation and JAK2/STAT3 expression. Furthermore, TrkC enhances metastatic potential of breast cancer via induction of EMT by upregulating Twist-1 and Twist-2. Additionally, TrkC significantly enhances the ability of breast cancer cells to form pulmonary metastases and primary tumor formation. Unexpectedly, we found that TrkC expression and clinical breast tumor pathological phenotypes show significant correlation. These findings suggest that TrkC plays a central role in tumorigenicity, metastasis, and self-renewal traits of metastatic breast cancer. PMID:27654855

  14. Breast metastasis from signet ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, YAOMIN; WEI, HAIYAN; LI, JUN; LIU, XIAOJIAO; FU, PEIFEN

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma of the bladder metastatic to the breast is only sporadically reported in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first described case of signet ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder metastasizing to the breast. The patient was a 43-year-old woman who underwent transurethral partial cystectomy for signet ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and adjuvant chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine. At 7 months postcystectomy, the patient presented with a solitary nodule in the right breast. Following transdermic core needle puncture biopsy of the lesion and histological examination, the tumor was found to be composed of signet ring cells, which were similar to the cells in the original cystectomy specimen. The patient underwent mastectomy without further chemotherapy and has remained free from metastasis to other organs during 1 year follow-up. PMID:27330778

  15. Genomic copy number imbalances associated with bone and non-bone metastasis of early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhong; Zhou, Renke; Baumbusch, Lars O; Tsavachidis, Spyros; Brewster, Abenaa M; Do, Kim-Anh; Sahin, Aysegul; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Taube, Joseph H; Mani, Sendurai A; Aarøe, Jørgen; Wärnberg, Fredrik; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Mills, Gordon B; Thompson, Patricia A; Bondy, Melissa L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and validate copy number aberrations in early-stage primary breast tumors associated with bone or non-bone metastasis. Whole-genome molecular inversion probe arrays were used to evaluate copy number imbalances (CNIs) in breast tumors from 960 early-stage patients with information about site of metastasis. The CoxBoost algorithm was used to select metastasis site-related CNIs and to fit a Cox proportional hazards model. Gains at 1q41 and 1q42.12 and losses at 1p13.3, 8p22, and Xp11.3 were significantly associated with bone metastasis. Gains at 2p11.2, 3q21.3-22.2, 3q27.1, 10q23.1, and 14q13.2-3 and loss at 7q21.11 were associated with non-bone metastasis. To examine the joint effect of CNIs and clinical predictors, patients were stratified into three risk groups (low, intermediate, and high) based on the sum of predicted linear hazard ratios. For bone metastasis, the hazard (95 % confidence interval) for the low-risk group was 0.32 (0.11-0.92) compared to the intermediate-risk group and 2.99 (1.74-5.11) for the high-risk group. For non-bone metastasis, the hazard for the low-risk group was 0.34 (0.17-0.66) and 2.33 (1.59-3.43) for the high-risk group. The prognostic value of loss at 8p22 for bone metastasis and gains at 10q23.1 for non-bone metastasis, and gain at 11q13.5 for both bone and non-bone metastases were externally validated in 335 breast tumors pooled from four independent cohorts. Distinct CNIs are independently associated with bone and non-bone metastasis for early-stage breast cancer patients across cohorts. These data warrant consideration for tailoring surveillance and management of metastasis risk.

  16. IL-13Rα2 mediates PNR-induced migration and metastasis in ERα-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Z; Wang, L; Xu, W

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence has linked photoreceptor cell-specific nuclear receptor (PNR/NR2E3), an orphan nuclear hormone receptor, to human breast cancer. PNR was shown to be a transcriptional activator of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in ERα-positive breast cancer cell lines and high-level expression of PNR correlates with favorable response of ERα-positive breast cancer patients to tamoxifen. Interestingly, gene expression microarray study shows that PNR regulates distinct genes from those regulated by ERα, suggesting that PNR could have ERα-independent functions. Herein, we investigated the function of PNR in ERα-negative breast cancer cells. Our results showed that PNR-induced cell migration and metastasis of ERα-negative breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, and the effect was attributed to the upregulation of interleukin (IL)-13Rα2, a high-affinity receptor for IL-13 that regulates tumor growth, invasion and metastasis of various human cancers. Mechanistically, PNR activated transcription of IL-13Rα2 through direct recruitment to IL-13Rα2 promoter. Upon stimulation with IL-13, IL-13Rα2 increased the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 phosphorylation, which led to breast cancer migration and metastasis. The IL-13 triggered signal cascade was specific to IL-13Rα2, as the closely related IL-13Rα1 was not regulated by PNR. IL-13Rα2 is a novel tumor antigen that is overexpressed in a variety of solid tumor types. This study presents the first evidence that PNR could promote ERα-negative breast cancer metastasis through activation of IL-13Rα2-mediated signaling pathway. PMID:24747967

  17. Ipsilateral breast metastasis from a pulmonary adenocarcinoma: a case report and a focused review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yan-Wei; Sui, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Man; Lv, Meng; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Pei-Jun; Yang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Metastases to the breast from extramammary malignancies are extremely rare. Ruling out the diagnosis of primary breast tumor is important in order to decide on clinical management and predict prognosis. We report a case of metastasis to the breast from a pulmonary adenocarcinoma, with extensive micropapillary component, diagnosed concomitantly with the primary tumor. A 52 year-old female patient presented with mammary gland tingling and dyspnea accompanied with fatigued of 4 months duration and a nodular shadows in the front of the upper lobe was found on a chest computed tomography (CT) scan. The original clinical diagnosis was right breast cancer with lung and bone metastasis, or breast and lung double primary cancers. In addition,on physical examination a poorly defined mass was noted in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast. The patient underwent thoracocentesis and breast biopsy. By imageology, cytology, histology and immunohistochemistry, we diagnosed primary lung cancer with metastases to the right breast and bone. The metastatic anatomic sites demonstrated histologically extensive micropapillary component, which is recently recognized as an important prognostic factor. The patient was administered 4 cycles of cisplatin and docetaxel, although no clinical response was seen, the patient is still alive 9 months after diagnosis. The result of immunohistochemistry is a useful supplement in differential diagnosis. PMID:26464732

  18. Molecular Markers for Breast Cancer: Prediction on Tumor Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Banin Hirata, Bruna Karina; Oda, Julie Massayo Maeda; Losi Guembarovski, Roberta; Ariza, Carolina Batista; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Coral; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers with greater than 1,300,000 cases and 450,000 deaths each year worldwide. The development of breast cancer involves a progression through intermediate stages until the invasive carcinoma and finally into metastatic disease. Given the variability in clinical progression, the identification of markers that could predict the tumor behavior is particularly important in breast cancer. The determination of tumor markers is a useful tool for clinical management in cancer patients, assisting in diagnostic, staging, evaluation of therapeutic response, detection of recurrence and metastasis, and development of new treatment modalities. In this context, this review aims to discuss the main tumor markers in breast carcinogenesis. The most well-established breast molecular markers with prognostic and/or therapeutic value like hormone receptors, HER-2 oncogene, Ki-67, and p53 proteins, and the genes for hereditary breast cancer will be presented. Furthermore, this review shows the new molecular targets in breast cancer: CXCR4, caveolin, miRNA, and FOXP3, as promising candidates for future development of effective and targeted therapies, also with lower toxicity. PMID:24591761

  19. Prognostic relevance of Ki-67 in the primary tumor for survival after a diagnosis of distant metastasis.

    PubMed

    Loehberg, Christian R; Almstedt, Katrin; Jud, Sebastian M; Haeberle, Lothar; Fasching, Peter A; Hack, Carolin C; Lux, Michael P; Thiel, Falk C; Schrauder, Michael G; Brunner, Michaela; Bayer, Christian M; Hein, Alexander; Heusinger, Katharina; Heimrich, Jutta; Bani, Mayada R; Renner, Stefan P; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W; Wachter, David L

    2013-04-01

    Prediction of the prognosis for metastatic breast cancer patients depends on molecular subtypes similar to those found in patients with primary breast cancer. Several studies have shown that estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status determine the course of the disease and the prognosis. As Ki-67 helps to differentiate molecular subtypes in patients with primary breast cancer, the aim of this study was to assess the prognostic relevance of Ki-67 in the primary tumor in relation to its prognostic relevance for patients with metastatic breast cancer. A total of 467 patients with invasive breast cancer were identified in the database of a single breast cancer center, in whom Ki-67 had been assessed in tumor material from the breast at the time of the primary diagnosis and who had developed a metastasis at any time during the subsequent course. For these patients, tumor and patient characteristics were used to determine prognostic factors relative to overall survival after the diagnosis of distant metastases. Ki-67 was added to this model to investigate whether this might improve the prediction of overall survival. In the multivariate Cox model, age at diagnosis, body mass index, nodal status, tumor size, ER and PR status, and time from diagnosis to metastasis were identified as relevant prognostic factors. Adding Ki-67 to the model improved the prediction of overall survival. There was also a significant and relevant interaction with the PR status. In patients with a low-proliferation primary tumor, a high level of PR expression would indicate an extraordinarily good prognosis (HR 0.39; 95 % CI, 0.23-0.66). In patients with higher-proliferation primary tumors, PR status was not capable of differentiating prognostic groups. Ki-67 is useful in addition to known prognostic factors for breast cancer. It is able to indicate a group of women with a poorer prognosis, specifically in the group of patients with PR-positive breast cancer.

  20. GD3 Synthase regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Tapasree Roy; Battula, Venkata L; Werden, Steven J; Vijay, Geraldine V; Ramirez-Peña, Esmeralda Q; Taube, Joseph H; Chang, Jeffrey T; Miura, Naoyuki; Porter, Weston; Sphyris, Nathalie; Andreeff, Michael; Mani, Sendurai A

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) bestows cancer cells with increased stem cell properties and metastatic potential. To date, multiple extracellular stimuli and transcription factors have been shown to regulate EMT. Many of them are not druggable and therefore it is necessary to identify targets, which can be inhibited using small molecules to prevent metastasis. Recently, we identified the ganglioside GD2 as a novel breast cancer stem cell marker. Moreover, we found that GD3 synthase (GD3S)—an enzyme involved in GD2 biosynthesis—is critical for GD2 production and could serve as a potential druggable target for inhibiting tumor initiation and metastasis. Indeed, there is a small-molecule known as triptolide that has been shown to inhibit GD3S function. Accordingly, in this manuscript, we demonstrate that the inhibition of GD3S using shRNA or triptolide compromises the initiation and maintenance of EMT instigated by various signaling pathways, including Snail, Twist and TGF-β1 as well as the mesenchymal characteristics of claudin-low breast cancer cell lines (SUM159 and MDA-MB-231). Moreover, GD3S is necessary for wound healing, migration, invasion and stem cell properties in vitro. Most importantly, inhibition of GD3S in vivo prevents metastasis in experimental as well as in spontaneous syngeneic wild-type mouse models. We also demonstrate that the transcription factor FOXC2, a central downstream mediator/effector of several EMT pathways, directly regulates GD3S expression by binding to its promoter. In clinical specimens, the expression of GD3S correlates with poor prognosis in triple negative human breast tumors. Moreover, GD3S expression correlates with activation of the c-Met signaling pathway leading to increased stem cell properties and metastatic competence. Collectively, these findings suggest that the GD3S-c-Met axis could serve as an effective target for the treatment of metastatic breast cancers. PMID:25109336

  1. Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells Promoting Tumor Invasion and Metastasis: Existing Theories

    PubMed Central

    Man, Yan-gao; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Mason, Jeffrey; Avital, Itzhak; Bilchik, Anton; Bruecher, Bjoern; Protic, Mladjan; Nissan, Aviram; Izadjoo, Mina; Zhang, Xichen; Jewett, Anahid

    2013-01-01

    It is a commonly held belief that infiltration of immune cells into tumor tissues and direct physical contact between tumor cells and infiltrated immune cells is associated with physical destructions of the tumor cells, reduction of the tumor burden, and improved clinical prognosis. An increasing number of studies, however, have suggested that aberrant infiltration of immune cells into tumor or normal tissues may promote tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Neither the primary reason for these contradictory observations, nor the mechanism for the reported diverse impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been elucidated, making it difficult to judge the clinical implications of infiltration of immune cells within tumor tissues. This mini-review presents several existing hypotheses and models that favor the promoting impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumor invasion and metastasis, and also analyzes their strength and weakness. PMID:23386907

  2. Hypoxia promotes Rab5 activation, leading to tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patricio; Mendoza, Pablo; Rivas, Solange; Díaz, Jorge; Moraga, Carolina; Quest, Andrew F G; Torres, Vicente A

    2016-05-17

    Hypoxia, a common condition of the tumor microenvironment, is associated with poor patient prognosis, tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Recent evidence suggests that hypoxia alters endosome dynamics in tumor cells, leading to augmented cell proliferation and migration and this is particularly relevant, because endosomal components have been shown to be deregulated in cancer. The early endosome protein Rab5 is a small GTPase that promotes integrin trafficking, focal adhesion turnover, Rac1 activation, tumor cell migration and invasion. However, the role of Rab5 and downstream events in hypoxia remain unknown. Here, we identify Rab5 as a critical player in hypoxia-driven tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Exposure of A549 human lung carcinoma, ZR-75, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer and B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells to hypoxia increased Rab5 activation, followed by its re-localization to the leading edge and association with focal adhesions. Importantly, Rab5 was required for hypoxia-driven cell migration, FAK phosphorylation and Rac1 activation, as shown by shRNA-targeting and transfection assays with Rab5 mutants. Intriguingly, the effect of hypoxia on both Rab5 activity and migration was substantially higher in metastatic B16-F10 cells than in poorly invasive B16-F0 cells. Furthermore, exogenous expression of Rab5 in B16-F0 cells predisposed to hypoxia-induced migration, whereas expression of the inactive mutant Rab5/S34N prevented the migration of B16-F10 cells induced by hypoxia. Finally, using an in vivo syngenic C57BL/6 mouse model, Rab5 expression was shown to be required for hypoxia-induced metastasis. In summary, these findings identify Rab5 as a key mediator of hypoxia-induced tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis.

  3. Hypoxia promotes Rab5 activation, leading to tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Patricio; Mendoza, Pablo; Rivas, Solange; Díaz, Jorge; Moraga, Carolina; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Torres, Vicente A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia, a common condition of the tumor microenvironment, is associated with poor patient prognosis, tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Recent evidence suggests that hypoxia alters endosome dynamics in tumor cells, leading to augmented cell proliferation and migration and this is particularly relevant, because endosomal components have been shown to be deregulated in cancer. The early endosome protein Rab5 is a small GTPase that promotes integrin trafficking, focal adhesion turnover, Rac1 activation, tumor cell migration and invasion. However, the role of Rab5 and downstream events in hypoxia remain unknown. Here, we identify Rab5 as a critical player in hypoxia-driven tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Exposure of A549 human lung carcinoma, ZR-75, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer and B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells to hypoxia increased Rab5 activation, followed by its re-localization to the leading edge and association with focal adhesions. Importantly, Rab5 was required for hypoxia-driven cell migration, FAK phosphorylation and Rac1 activation, as shown by shRNA-targeting and transfection assays with Rab5 mutants. Intriguingly, the effect of hypoxia on both Rab5 activity and migration was substantially higher in metastatic B16-F10 cells than in poorly invasive B16-F0 cells. Furthermore, exogenous expression of Rab5 in B16-F0 cells predisposed to hypoxia-induced migration, whereas expression of the inactive mutant Rab5/S34N prevented the migration of B16-F10 cells induced by hypoxia. Finally, using an in vivo syngenic C57BL/6 mouse model, Rab5 expression was shown to be required for hypoxia-induced metastasis. In summary, these findings identify Rab5 as a key mediator of hypoxia-induced tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. PMID:27121131

  4. Hypoxia promotes Rab5 activation, leading to tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patricio; Mendoza, Pablo; Rivas, Solange; Díaz, Jorge; Moraga, Carolina; Quest, Andrew F G; Torres, Vicente A

    2016-05-17

    Hypoxia, a common condition of the tumor microenvironment, is associated with poor patient prognosis, tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Recent evidence suggests that hypoxia alters endosome dynamics in tumor cells, leading to augmented cell proliferation and migration and this is particularly relevant, because endosomal components have been shown to be deregulated in cancer. The early endosome protein Rab5 is a small GTPase that promotes integrin trafficking, focal adhesion turnover, Rac1 activation, tumor cell migration and invasion. However, the role of Rab5 and downstream events in hypoxia remain unknown. Here, we identify Rab5 as a critical player in hypoxia-driven tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Exposure of A549 human lung carcinoma, ZR-75, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer and B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells to hypoxia increased Rab5 activation, followed by its re-localization to the leading edge and association with focal adhesions. Importantly, Rab5 was required for hypoxia-driven cell migration, FAK phosphorylation and Rac1 activation, as shown by shRNA-targeting and transfection assays with Rab5 mutants. Intriguingly, the effect of hypoxia on both Rab5 activity and migration was substantially higher in metastatic B16-F10 cells than in poorly invasive B16-F0 cells. Furthermore, exogenous expression of Rab5 in B16-F0 cells predisposed to hypoxia-induced migration, whereas expression of the inactive mutant Rab5/S34N prevented the migration of B16-F10 cells induced by hypoxia. Finally, using an in vivo syngenic C57BL/6 mouse model, Rab5 expression was shown to be required for hypoxia-induced metastasis. In summary, these findings identify Rab5 as a key mediator of hypoxia-induced tumor cell migration, invasion and metastasis. PMID:27121131

  5. Action of hexachlorobenzene on tumor growth and metastasis in different experimental models

    SciTech Connect

    Pontillo, Carolina Andrea; Rojas, Paola; Chiappini, Florencia; Sequeira, Gonzalo; Cocca, Claudia; Crocci, Máximo; Colombo, Lucas; Lanari, Claudia; and others

    2013-05-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a widespread organochlorine pesticide, considered a possible human carcinogen. It is a dioxin-like compound and a weak ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We have found that HCB activates c-Src/HER1/STAT5b and HER1/ERK1/2 signaling pathways and cell migration, in an AhR-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the effect of HCB (0.005, 0.05, 0.5, 5 μM) on cell invasion and metalloproteases (MMPs) 2 and 9 activation in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, we examined in vivo the effect of HCB (0.3, 3, 30 mg/kg b.w.) on tumor growth, MMP2 and MMP9 expression, and metastasis using MDA-MB-231 xenografts and two syngeneic mouse breast cancer models (spontaneous metastasis using C4-HI and lung experimental metastasis using LM3). Our results show that HCB (5 μM) enhances MMP2 expression, as well as cell invasion, through AhR, c-Src/HER1 pathway and MMPs. Moreover, HCB increases MMP9 expression, secretion and activity through a HER1 and AhR-dependent mechanism, in MDA-MB-231 cells. HCB (0.3 and 3 mg/kg b.w.) enhances subcutaneous tumor growth in MDA-MB-231 and C4-HI in vivo models. In vivo, using MDA-MB-231 model, the pesticide (0.3, 3 and 30 mg/kg b.w.) activated c-Src, HER1, STAT5b, and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and increased MMP2 and MMP9 protein levels. Furthermore, we observed that HCB stimulated lung metastasis regardless the tumor hormone-receptor status. Our findings suggest that HCB may be a risk factor for human breast cancer progression. - Highlights: ► HCB enhances MMP2 and MMP9 expression and cell invasion in MDA-MB-231, in vitro. ► HCB-effects are mediated through AhR, HER1 and/or c-Src. ► HCB increases subcutaneous tumor growth in MDA-MB-231 and C4-HI in vivo models. ► HCB activates c-Src/HER1 pathway and increases MMPs levels in MDA-MB-231 tumors. ► HCB stimulates lung metastasis in C4-HI and LM3 in vivo models.

  6. Lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 expression in cancer cells attenuates tumor growth and metastasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoyun; Benesch, Matthew G K; Dewald, Jay; Zhao, Yuan Y; Patwardhan, Neeraj; Santos, Webster L; Curtis, Jonathan M; McMullen, Todd P W; Brindley, David N

    2014-11-01

    Lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP1) degrades lysophosphatidate (LPA) and attenuates receptor-mediated signaling. LPP1 expression is low in many cancer cells and tumors compared with normal tissues. It was hypothesized from studies with cultured cells that increasing LPP1 activity would decrease tumor growth and metastasis. This hypothesis has never been tested in vivo. To do this, we inducibly expressed LPP1 or a catalytically inactive mutant in cancer cells. Expressing active LPP1 increased extracellular LPA degradation by 5-fold. It also decreased the stimulation of Ca(2+) transients by LPA, a nondephosphorylatable LPA1/2 receptor agonist and a protease-activated receptor-1 peptide. The latter results demonstrate that LPP1 has effects downstream of receptor activation. Decreased Ca(2+) mobilization and Rho activation contributed to the effects of LPP1 in attenuating the LPA-induced migration of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and their growth in 3D culture. Increasing LPP1 expression in breast and thyroid cancer cells decreased tumor growth and the metastasis by up to 80% compared with expression of inactive LPP1 or green fluorescent protein in syngeneic and xenograft mouse models. The present work demonstrates for the first time that increasing the LPP1 activity in three lines of aggressive cancer cells decreases their abilities to produce tumors and metastases in mice. PMID:25210149

  7. Tumor heterogeneity and the biology of cancer invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Fidler, I J

    1978-09-01

    The development of a metastasis is dependent on an interplay between host factors and intrinsic characteristics of malignant tumor cells. The process of metastasis is highly selective, and the metastatic lesion represents the end point of many destructive events that only a few cells can survive. Neoplasms, which are predominantly heterogeneous, contain a variety of subpopulations of cells with differing metastatic potential. Furthermore, metastatic cell variants have been shown to preexist in murine neoplasms of old and recent origin. The possible existence of highly metastatic variant cells within a primary tumor suggests that we no longer should consider a neoplasm to be a uniform entity. Efforts to design effective therapeutic agents and procedures against malignant tumors should be directed toward the few but fatal metastatic subpopulations of cells.

  8. The LPA1/ZEB1/miR-21-activation pathway regulates metastasis in basal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Debashish; Leblanc, Raphael; Grunewald, Thomas G. P.; Ambatipudi, Srikant; Ribeiro, Johnny; Clézardin, Philippe; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid promoting cancer metastasis. LPA activates a series of six G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6). While blockage of LPA1 in vivo inhibits breast carcinoma metastasis, down-stream genes mediating LPA-induced metastasis have not been yet identified. Herein we showed by analyzing publicly available expression data from 1488 human primary breast tumors that the gene encoding the transcription factor ZEB1 was the most correlated with LPAR1 encoding LPA1. This correlation was most prominent in basal primary breast carcinomas and restricted to cell lines of basal subtypes. Functional experiments in three different basal cell lines revealed that LPA-induced ZEB1 expression was regulated by the LPA1/Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase (Pi3K) axis. DNA microarray and real-time PCR analyses further demonstrated that LPA up-regulated the oncomiR miR-21 through an LPA1/Pi3K/ZEB1-dependent mechanism. Strikingly, treatment with a mirVana miR-21 inhibitor, or silencing LPA1 or ZEB1 completely blocked LPA-induced cell migration in vitro, invasion and tumor cell bone colonization in vivo, which can be restored with a mirVana miR-21 mimic. Finally, high LPAR1 expression in basal breast tumors predicted worse lung-metastasis-free survival. Collectively, our results elucidate a new molecular pathway driving LPA-induced metastasis, thus underscoring the therapeutic potential of targeting LPA1 in patients with basal breast carcinomas. PMID:26098771

  9. The LPA1/ZEB1/miR-21-activation pathway regulates metastasis in basal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Debashish; Leblanc, Raphael; Grunewald, Thomas G P; Ambatipudi, Srikant; Ribeiro, Johnny; Clézardin, Philippe; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2015-08-21

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid promoting cancer metastasis. LPA activates a series of six G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6). While blockage of LPA1in vivo inhibits breast carcinoma metastasis, down-stream genes mediating LPA-induced metastasis have not been yet identified. Herein we showed by analyzing publicly available expression data from 1488 human primary breast tumors that the gene encoding the transcription factor ZEB1 was the most correlated with LPAR1 encoding LPA1. This correlation was most prominent in basal primary breast carcinomas and restricted to cell lines of basal subtypes. Functional experiments in three different basal cell lines revealed that LPA-induced ZEB1 expression was regulated by the LPA1/Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase (Pi3K) axis. DNA microarray and real-time PCR analyses further demonstrated that LPA up-regulated the oncomiR miR-21 through an LPA1/Pi3K/ZEB1-dependent mechanism. Strikingly, treatment with a mirVana miR-21 inhibitor, or silencing LPA1 or ZEB1 completely blocked LPA-induced cell migration in vitro, invasion and tumor cell bone colonization in vivo, which can be restored with a mirVana miR-21 mimic. Finally, high LPAR1 expression in basal breast tumors predicted worse lung-metastasis-free survival. Collectively, our results elucidate a new molecular pathway driving LPA-induced metastasis, thus underscoring the therapeutic potential of targeting LPA1 in patients with basal breast carcinomas. PMID:26098771

  10. Targeted delivery of cisplatin by LHRH-peptide conjugated dextran nanoparticles suppresses breast cancer growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingqiang; Tang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Yu; Lv, Shixian; Li, Quanshun; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-05-01

    The metastasis of breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women. In this work, an attempt to simultaneously inhibit the primary tumor growth and organ-specific metastasis by the cisplatin-loaded LHRH-modified dextran nanoparticles (Dex-SA-CDDP-LHRH) was performed in the 4T1 orthotopic mammary tumor metastasis model. With the rationally designed conjugation site of the LHRH ligand, the Dex-SA-CDDP-LHRH nanoparticles maintained the targeting function of LHRH and specifically bound to the LHRH-receptors overexpressed on the surface of 4T1 breast cancer cells. Therefore, the Dex-SA-CDDP-LHRH nanoparticles exhibited improved cellular uptake and promoted cytotoxicity, when compared with the non-targeted Dex-SA-CDDP nanoparticles. Moreover, both the non-targeted and targeted nanoparticles significantly decreased the systemic toxicity of CDDP and increased the maximum tolerated dose of CDDP from 4 to 30mgkg(-1). Importantly, Dex-SA-CDDP-LHRH markedly enhanced the accumulation of CDDP in the injected primary tumor and metastasis-containing organs, and meanwhile significantly reduced the nephrotoxicity of CDDP. Dose-dependent therapeutic effects further demonstrated that the CDDP-loaded LHRH-decorated polysaccharide nanoparticles significantly enhanced the antitumor and antimetastasis efficacy, as compared to the non-targeted nanoparticles. These results suggest that Dex-SA-CDDP-LHRH nanoparticles show great potential for targeted chemotherapy of metastatic breast cancer. PMID:25735801

  11. Raddeanoside R13 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yingchun; Xu, Xiaojie; Yu, Haiming; Li, Ling; Hong, Tian; Ji, Quanbo; Feng, Yulin; Jin, Shuai; Song, Yeqiong; Guo, Jing; Zheng, Zhibing; Ye, Qinong; Yang, Shilin

    2016-07-01

    Pulsatilla chinensis is one of the 50 famous fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine. Saponins are the main components of P. chinensis. Although the anti-proliferative function of saponins has been established in plenty types of cancer, the role of saponins on tumor invasion and metastasis has not been reported, and the mechanisms of how saponins exert the anti-tumor functions are still poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that, in breast cancer (BC) cells, raddeanoside R13, a component of saponins extracted from P. chinensis, exhibits strong anti-proliferative and anti-metastasis ability, accompanied by cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, autophagy, and reversion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Raddeanoside R13 (R13) inhibits BC cell proliferation via the activation of G1/S checkpoint transitions, concomitant with a marked decrease of the positive cell cycle regulators, including cyclin D1, cyclin A, and cyclin B1. R13 induces BC cell apoptosis accompanied by the increased levels of cleaved PARP and caspase-3. R13 inhibits BC cell migration and invasion and regulates the expression of the markers of EMT, which plays a critical role in cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, R13 suppresses BC tumor growth and metastasis in nude mice. These data highlight the important role of R13 in BC cell proliferation and progression and suggest that R13 may be a useful drug for BC therapy.

  12. Raddeanoside R13 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yingchun; Xu, Xiaojie; Yu, Haiming; Li, Ling; Hong, Tian; Ji, Quanbo; Feng, Yulin; Jin, Shuai; Song, Yeqiong; Guo, Jing; Zheng, Zhibing; Ye, Qinong; Yang, Shilin

    2016-07-01

    Pulsatilla chinensis is one of the 50 famous fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine. Saponins are the main components of P. chinensis. Although the anti-proliferative function of saponins has been established in plenty types of cancer, the role of saponins on tumor invasion and metastasis has not been reported, and the mechanisms of how saponins exert the anti-tumor functions are still poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that, in breast cancer (BC) cells, raddeanoside R13, a component of saponins extracted from P. chinensis, exhibits strong anti-proliferative and anti-metastasis ability, accompanied by cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, autophagy, and reversion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Raddeanoside R13 (R13) inhibits BC cell proliferation via the activation of G1/S checkpoint transitions, concomitant with a marked decrease of the positive cell cycle regulators, including cyclin D1, cyclin A, and cyclin B1. R13 induces BC cell apoptosis accompanied by the increased levels of cleaved PARP and caspase-3. R13 inhibits BC cell migration and invasion and regulates the expression of the markers of EMT, which plays a critical role in cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, R13 suppresses BC tumor growth and metastasis in nude mice. These data highlight the important role of R13 in BC cell proliferation and progression and suggest that R13 may be a useful drug for BC therapy. PMID:26810189

  13. Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast

    SciTech Connect

    Belkacemi, Yazid Bousquet, Guilhem; Marsiglia, Hugo; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Magne, Nicolas; Malard, Yann; Lacroix, Magalie; Gutierrez, Cristina; Senkus, Elzbieta; Christie, David; Drumea, Karen; Lagneau, Edouard; Kadish, Sidney P.; Scandolaro, Luciano; Azria, David; Ozsahin, Mahmut

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To better identify prognostic factors for local control and survival, as well as the role of different therapeutic options, for phyllodes tumors, a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm of the breast. Methods and Materials: Data from 443 women treated between 1971 and 2003 were collected from the Rare Cancer Network. The median age was 40 years (range, 12-87 years). Tumors were benign in 284 cases (64%), borderline in 80 cases (18%), and malignant in 79 cases (18%). Surgery consisted of breast-conserving surgery (BCS) in 377 cases (85%) and total mastectomy (TM) in 66 cases (15%). Thirty-nine patients (9%) received adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Results: After a median follow-up of 106 months, local recurrence (LR) and distant metastases rates were 19% and 3.4%, respectively. In the malignant and borderline group (n = 159), RT significantly decreased LR (p = 0.02), and TM had better results than BCS (p = 0.0019). Multivariate analysis revealed benign histology, negative margins, and no residual disease (no RD) after initial treatment and RT delivery as independent favorable prognostic factors for local control; benign histology and low number of mitosis for disease-free survival; and pathologic tumor size tumor necrosis for overall survival. In the malignant and borderline subgroup multivariate analysis TM was the only favorable independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival. Conclusions: This study showed that phyllodes tumor patients with no RD after treatment have better local control. Benign tumors have a good prognosis after surgery alone. In borderline and malignant tumors, TM had better results than BCS. Thus, in these forms adjuvant RT should be considered according to histologic criteria.

  14. Motif mimetic of epsin perturbs tumor growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yunzhou; Wu, Hao; Rahman, H.N. Ashiqur; Liu, Yanjun; Pasula, Satish; Tessneer, Kandice L.; Cai, Xiaofeng; Liu, Xiaolei; Chang, Baojun; McManus, John; Hahn, Scott; Dong, Jiali; Brophy, Megan L.; Yu, Lili; Song, Kai; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Saunders, Debra; Njoku, Charity; Song, Hoogeun; Mehta-D’Souza, Padmaja; Towner, Rheal; Lupu, Florea; McEver, Rodger P.; Xia, Lijun; Boerboom, Derek; Srinivasan, R. Sathish; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is critical for cancer progression. In multiple murine models, endothelium-specific epsin deficiency abrogates tumor progression by shifting the balance of VEGFR2 signaling toward uncontrolled tumor angiogenesis, resulting in dysfunctional tumor vasculature. Here, we designed a tumor endothelium–targeting chimeric peptide (UPI) for the purpose of inhibiting endogenous tumor endothelial epsins by competitively binding activated VEGFR2. We determined that the UPI peptide specifically targets tumor endothelial VEGFR2 through an unconventional binding mechanism that is driven by unique residues present only in the epsin ubiquitin–interacting motif (UIM) and the VEGFR2 kinase domain. In murine models of neoangiogenesis, UPI peptide increased VEGF-driven angiogenesis and neovascularization but spared quiescent vascular beds. Further, in tumor-bearing mice, UPI peptide markedly impaired functional tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis, resulting in a notable increase in survival. Coadministration of UPI peptide with cytotoxic chemotherapeutics further sustained tumor inhibition. Equipped with localized tumor endothelium–specific targeting, our UPI peptide provides potential for an effective and alternative cancer therapy. PMID:26571402

  15. Exosomes in development, metastasis and drug resistance of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dan-dan; Wu, Ying; Shen, Hong-yu; Lv, Meng-meng; Chen, Wei-xian; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Zhong, Shan-liang; Tang, Jin-hai; Zhao, Jian-hua

    2015-08-01

    Transport through the cell membrane can be divided into active, passive and vesicular types (exosomes). Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles released by a variety of cells. Emerging evidence shows that exosomes play a critical role in cancers. Exosomes mediate communication between stroma and cancer cells through the transfer of nucleic acid and proteins. It is demonstrated that the contents and the quantity of exosomes will change after occurrence of cancers. Over the last decade, growing attention has been paid to the role of exosomes in the development of breast cancer, the most life-threatening cancer in women. Breast cancer could induce salivary glands to secret specific exosomes, which could be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis of early breast cancer. Exosome-delivered nucleic acid and proteins partly facilitate the tumorigenesis, metastasis and resistance of breast cancer. Exosomes could also transmit anti-cancer drugs outside breast cancer cells, therefore leading to drug resistance. However, exosomes are effective tools for transportation of anti-cancer drugs with lower immunogenicity and toxicity. This is a promising way to establish a drug delivery system. PMID:26052865

  16. Exosomes in development, metastasis and drug resistance of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dan-dan; Wu, Ying; Shen, Hong-yu; Lv, Meng-meng; Chen, Wei-xian; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Zhong, Shan-liang; Tang, Jin-hai; Zhao, Jian-hua

    2015-08-01

    Transport through the cell membrane can be divided into active, passive and vesicular types (exosomes). Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles released by a variety of cells. Emerging evidence shows that exosomes play a critical role in cancers. Exosomes mediate communication between stroma and cancer cells through the transfer of nucleic acid and proteins. It is demonstrated that the contents and the quantity of exosomes will change after occurrence of cancers. Over the last decade, growing attention has been paid to the role of exosomes in the development of breast cancer, the most life-threatening cancer in women. Breast cancer could induce salivary glands to secret specific exosomes, which could be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis of early breast cancer. Exosome-delivered nucleic acid and proteins partly facilitate the tumorigenesis, metastasis and resistance of breast cancer. Exosomes could also transmit anti-cancer drugs outside breast cancer cells, therefore leading to drug resistance. However, exosomes are effective tools for transportation of anti-cancer drugs with lower immunogenicity and toxicity. This is a promising way to establish a drug delivery system.

  17. Exosomes in development, metastasis and drug resistance of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dan-dan; Wu, Ying; Shen, Hong-yu; Lv, Meng-meng; Chen, Wei-xian; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Zhong, Shan-liang; Tang, Jin-hai; Zhao, Jian-hua

    2015-01-01

    Transport through the cell membrane can be divided into active, passive and vesicular types (exosomes). Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles released by a variety of cells. Emerging evidence shows that exosomes play a critical role in cancers. Exosomes mediate communication between stroma and cancer cells through the transfer of nucleic acid and proteins. It is demonstrated that the contents and the quantity of exosomes will change after occurrence of cancers. Over the last decade, growing attention has been paid to the role of exosomes in the development of breast cancer, the most life-threatening cancer in women. Breast cancer could induce salivary glands to secret specific exosomes, which could be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis of early breast cancer. Exosome-delivered nucleic acid and proteins partly facilitate the tumorigenesis, metastasis and resistance of breast cancer. Exosomes could also transmit anti-cancer drugs outside breast cancer cells, therefore leading to drug resistance. However, exosomes are effective tools for transportation of anti-cancer drugs with lower immunogenicity and toxicity. This is a promising way to establish a drug delivery system. PMID:26052865

  18. Appendicitis caused by the metastasis of HER2-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mori, Ryutaro; Futamura, Manabu; Morimitsu, Kasumi; Yoshida, Kazuhiro

    2016-12-01

    The appropriate therapy for metastatic breast cancer must be selected based on the immunohistochemical phenotype of the cancer. However, biopsy for metastatic lesions is difficult. We herein report a patient with incidental appendicitis caused by a metastatic breast cancer which was successfully treated with effective therapy chosen based on the pathological diagnosis obtained on resection. The patient was a 56-year-old female with right breast cancer and an immunohistochemical status of estrogen receptor (ER) (+), progesterone receptor (PgR) (+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) (3+), and Ki67 40 %. She received epirubicin and cyclophosphamide therapy followed by docetaxel and trastuzumab, and total mastectomy with axillary dissection was performed. Thereafter, she received postmastectomy radiation, adjuvant trastuzumab, and adjuvant hormone therapy with letrozole. One year and 8 months after the operation, she developed right hydronephrosis and swollen para-aortic lymph nodes and her hormone therapy was changed to fulvestrant therapy. However, she additionally developed left hydronephrosis and multiple bone metastases, and pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel therapy was started. After six cycles, her disease became well-controlled, and maintenance with pertuzumab and trastuzumab was introduced. However, after another 7 months, she developed new vertebral metastasis and acute appendicitis and laparoscopic appendectomy was performed. A pathological investigation of the resected appendix revealed some clusters of atypical cells in the subserosa and muscle layer, which showed an immunohistochemical status of ER (+), PgR (-), HER2 (3+), and E-cadherin (-). These findings led to the diagnosis as appendiceal metastasis of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) from the breast. Thereafter, she received trastuzumab-DM1 and her disease was well-controlled again. Appendicitis caused by breast cancer is very rare. However, ILC sometimes develops metastases in

  19. TFF3 is a normal breast epithelial protein and is associated with differentiated phenotype in early breast cancer but predisposes to invasion and metastasis in advanced disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ahmed R H; Griffiths, Andrew B; Tilby, Michael T; Westley, Bruce R; May, Felicity E B

    2012-03-01

    The trefoil protein TFF3 stimulates invasion and angiogenesis in vitro. To determine whether it has a role in breast tumor metastasis and angiogenesis, its levels were measured by immunohistochemistry in breast tissue with a specific monoclonal antibody raised against human TFF3. TFF3 is expressed in normal breast lobules and ducts, at higher levels in areas of fibrocystic change and papillomas, in all benign breast disease lesions, and in 89% of in situ and in 83% of invasive carcinomas. In well-differentiated tumor cells, TFF3 is concentrated at the luminal edge, whereas in poorly differentiated cells polarity is inverted and expression is directed toward the stroma. Expression was high in well-differentiated tumors and was associated significantly with low histological grade and with estrogen and progesterone receptor expression, accordant with induction of TFF3 mRNA by estrogen in breast cancer cells. Paradoxically, TFF3 expression was associated with muscle, neural, and lymphovascular invasion and the presence and number of involved lymph nodes, and it was an independent predictive marker of lymphovascular invasion and lymph node involvement. Consistent with an angiogenic function, TFF3 expression correlated strongly with microvessel density evaluated with CD31 and CD34. In conclusion, TFF3 is expressed in both the normal and diseased breast. Although associated with features of good prognosis, its profile of expression in invasive cancer is consistent with a role in breast tumor progression and tumor cell dissemination.

  20. Breast Tumor Heterogeneity: Source of Fitness, Hurdle for Therapy.

    PubMed

    Koren, Shany; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed

    2015-11-19

    Tumor heterogeneity impinges on prognosis, response to therapy, and metastasis. As such, heterogeneity is one of the most important and clinically relevant areas of cancer research. Breast cancer displays frequent intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity as the result of genetic and non-genetic alterations that often enhance the vigor of cancer cells. In-depth characterization and understanding of the origin of this phenotypic and molecular diversity is paramount to improving diagnosis, the definition of prognostic and predictive biomarkers, and the design of therapeutic strategies. Here, we summarize current knowledge about sources of breast cancer heterogeneity, its consequences, and possible counter-measures. We discuss especially the impact on tumor heterogeneity of the differentiation state of the cell-of-origin, cancer cell plasticity, the microenvironment, and genetic evolution. Factors that enhance cancer cell vigor are clearly detrimental for patients. PMID:26590713

  1. Extremely rare presentation of soft tissue metastasis from carcinoma breast as a massive swelling of upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Purkayastha, Abhishek; Sharma, Neelam

    2016-04-01

    Soft tissue metastasis from any primary malignancy is considered very rare and a breast carcinoma metastasizing to soft tissue is still rarer. To the best of our knowledge, carcinoma breast with soft tissue metastasis to upper extremity is very uncommon with only six cases been reported in world literature till date and our case is the seventh such case in an 80-year-old female, previously treated for carcinoma right breast 15 years ago. The patient presented with progressive painful massive swelling of right upper arm measuring 21 cm × 17 cm, of 2 months duration. Histopathological examination of the swelling showed metastatic deposits from a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Further immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis revealed tumor cells staining positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors while negative for HER 2-Nu, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen, CK7 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), suggestive of metastasis from a primary breast carcinoma. Only few case series and isolated cases reports have been published regarding any primary malignancy or breast carcinoma metastasizing to soft tissues. A thorough review of literature also reveals that our case is the largest soft tissue metastatic swelling from breast carcinoma ever reported. We hereby present this case with review of literature to highlight its extreme rarity, unusual presentation, clinicopathological characteristics and its overall prognosis.

  2. Conus medullaris metastasis in breast cancer: report of a case and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kao-Chih; Li, Tsung-Ying; Chu, Heng-Yi; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Chang, Shin-Tsu; Wu, Yung-Tsan

    2013-08-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord metastasis is quite rare. This report presents the case of a female patient with metastasis of the conus medullaris from breast cancer, presenting with paraplegia and sphincter dysfunction. Bladder dysfunction improved after removal of the conus mass. This report is the seventh case of conus medullaris metastasis from breast cancer and the first review of clinical outcome, survival time and other data of all these 7 cases. This study also reviewed cases of intramedullary spinal cord metastasis arising from breast cancer in regions other than the conus medullaris in the literature. Longer survival time resulted from surgery in contrast to those without surgery in the latter group.

  3. Oridonin Inhibits Tumor Growth and Metastasis through Anti-Angiogenesis by Blocking the Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjie; Deng, Huayun; Song, Yajuan; Zhai, Dong; Peng, Yi; Lu, Xiaoling; Liu, Mingyao; Zhao, Yongxiang; Yi, Zhengfang

    2014-01-01

    While significant progress has been made in understanding the anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects of the natural diterpenoid component Oridonin on tumor cells, little is known about its effect on tumor angiogenesis or metastasis and on the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, Oridonin significantly suppressed human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) proliferation, migration, and apillary-like structure formation in vitro. Using aortic ring assay and mouse corneal angiogenesis model, we found that Oridonin inhibited angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo. In our animal experiments, Oridonin impeded tumor growth and metastasis. Immunohistochemistry analysis further revealed that the expression of CD31 and vWF protein in xenografts was remarkably decreased by the Oridonin. Furthermore, Oridonin reinforced endothelial cell-cell junction and impaired breast cancer cell transendothelial migration. Mechanistically, Oridonin not only down-regulated Jagged2 expression and Notch1 activity but also decreased the expression of their target genes. In conclusion, our results demonstrated an original role of Oridonin in inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and propose a mechanism. This study also provides new evidence supporting the central role of Notch in tumor angiogenesis and suggests that Oridonin could be a potential drug candidate for angiogenesis related diseases. PMID:25485753

  4. Tetrandrine Suppresses Cancer Angiogenesis and Metastasis in 4T1 Tumor Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jian-Li; He, Tong-Chuan; He, Kai; Chen, Su-Hong; Lv, Gui-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis remains the most deadly aspect of cancer and still evades direct treatment. Thus, there is a great need to develop new treatment regimens to suppress tumor cells that have escaped surgical removal or that may have already disseminated. We have found that tetrandrine (TET) exhibits anticolon cancer activity. Here, we investigate the inhibition effect of TET to breast cancer metastasis, angiogenesis and its molecular basis underlying TET's anticancer activity. We compare TET with chemotherapy drug doxorubicin in 4T1 tumor bearing BALB/c mice model and find that TET exhibits an anticancer metastatic and antiangiogenic activities better than those of doxorubicin. The lung metastatic sites were decreased by TET, which is confirmed by bioluminescence imaging in vivo. On the other hand, laser doppler perfusion imaging (LDI) was used for measuring the blood flow of tumor in 4T1-tumor bearing mice. As a result, the local blood perfusion of tumor was markedly decreased by TET after 3 weeks. Mechanistically, TET treatment leads to a decrease in p-ERK level and an increase in NF-κB levels in HUVECs. TET also regulated metastatic and angiogenic related proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, integrin β5, endothelial cell specific molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in vivo. PMID:23762115

  5. The Clinical Significance and Molecular Features of the Spatial Tumor Shapes in Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seongmun; Lee, Minju; Moon, HyunHye; Kim, Jongjin; Yoo, Tae-Kyung; Lee, Han-Byoel; Kim, Jisun; Noh, Dong-Young; Han, Wonshik

    2015-01-01

    Each breast cancer has its unique spatial shape, but the clinical importance and the underlying mechanism for the three-dimensional tumor shapes are mostly unknown. We collected the data on the three-dimensional tumor size and tumor volume data of invasive breast cancers from 2,250 patients who underwent surgery between Jan 2000 and Jul 2007. The degree of tumor eccentricity was estimated by using the difference between the spheroid tumor volume and ellipsoid tumor volume (spheroid-ellipsoid discrepancy, SED). In 41 patients, transcriptome and exome sequencing data obtained. Estimation of more accurate tumor burden by calculating ellipsoid tumor volumes did not improve the outcome prediction when compared to the traditional longest diameter measurement. However, the spatial tumor eccentricity, which was measured by SED, showed significant variation between the molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Additionally, the degree of tumor eccentricity was associated with well-known prognostic factors of breast cancer such as tumor size and lymph node metastasis. Transcriptome data from 41 patients showed significant association between MMP13 and spatial tumor shapes. Network analysis and analysis of TCGA gene expression data suggest that MMP13 is regulated by ERBB2 and S100A7A. The present study validates the usefulness of the current tumor size method in determining tumor stages. Furthermore, we show that the tumors with high eccentricity are more likely to have aggressive tumor characteristics. Genes involved in the extracellular matrix remodeling can be candidate regulators of the spatial tumor shapes in breast cancer. PMID:26669540

  6. [A case of solitary adrenal metastasis from breast cancer successfully resected by laparoscopy].

    PubMed

    Mizuyama, Yoko; Shinto, Osamu; Tamura, Tatsuro; Nakagawa, Hiroji; Ohno, Yoshioki; Takashima, Tsutomu; Ishikawa, Tetsuro

    2013-11-01

    A 47-year-old woman had undergone breast-conserving treatment for right breast cancer (T3, N1, M0, Stage IIIA, human epidermal growth factor receptor[ HER]-2 enriched subtype) after primary systemic chemotherapy with trastuzumab. Pathological examination revealed a quasi-pathological complete response( CR) in the breast tumor and no axillary nodal involvement. The patient then received conventional breast irradiation and adjuvant trastuzumab therapy. However, adjuvant anti- HER2 therapy was discontinued in the 19th week because of a decreased left ventricular ejection fraction( approximately 50%). A left adrenal tumor was detected by abdominal computed tomography (CT) 2 years after surgery. Positron emission tomography( PET) scans showed strong accumulation in the left adrenal gland and in the lymph node near the adrenal tumor. No other obvious lesion was detected on meticulous examination. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed for diagnosis and treatment. Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed that the tumor was a metastatic adenocarcinoma with overexpression of the HER2 protein but without expression of hormonal receptors. The patient received 12 cycles of chemotherapy with paclitaxel and trastuzumab, which was followed by trastuzumab monotherapy. However, trastuzumab monotherapy could not be continued because the left ventricular ejection fraction decreased to 50% at 24 weeks after initiation of chemotherapy. The patient has been observed since the cessation of trastuzumab, without the administration of anticancer therapy, and she continues to have a good performance status without relapse. Herein, we report a case of solitary adrenal metastasis from breast cancer, an extremely rare condition, and review the relevant literature.

  7. Advances in the biology of bone metastasis: how the skeleton affects tumor behavior.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Julie A; Edwards, James R; Martin, T John; Mundy, Gregory R

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly evident that the microenvironment of bone can influence the cancer phenotype in many ways that favor growth in bone. The ability of cancer cells to adhere to bone matrix and to promote osteoclast formation are key requirements for the establishment and growth of bone metastases. Several cytokine products of breast cancers (e.g. PTHrP, IL-11, IL-8) have been shown to act upon host cells of the bone microenvironment to promote osteoclast formation, allowing for excessive bone resorption. The increased release of matrix-derived growth factors, especially TGF-β, acts back upon the tumor to facilitate further tumor expansion and enhance cytokine production, and also upon osteoblasts to suppress bone formation. This provides a self-perpetuating cycle of bone loss and tumor growth within the skeleton. Other contributing factors favoring tumor metastasis and colonization in bone include the unique structure and stiffness of skeletal tissue, along with the diverse cellular composition of the marrow environment (e.g. bone cells, stromal fibroblasts, immune cells), any of which can contribute to the phenotypic changes that can take place in metastatic deposits that favor their survival. Additionally, it is also apparent that breast cancer cells begin to express different bone specific proteins as well as proteins important for normal breast development and lactation that allow them to grow in bone and stimulate bone destruction. Taken together, these continually emerging areas of study suggest new potential pathways important in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis and potential areas for targeting therapeutics.

  8. Diagnostic dilemma involving a mass in the parapharyngeal space: A metastatic breast carcinoma masquerading as a malignant salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    Murhekar, Kanchan; Majhi, Urmila; Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumors are rare and account for about 0.5% of all head and neck neoplasms. Most PPS tumors are benign (up to 80%) while the remaining 20% are malignant. These tumors are either primaries; most commonly arising from salivary glands or metastatic tumors or due to direct extension of tumors from the adjacent sites. Distant metastasis from breast cancers more commonly involves the lungs, bones, brain and liver. Metastasis to the PPS from a primary breast carcinoma is rare, with only one case reported in literature. We, to the best of our knowledge report the second case of a carcinoma breast metastasizing to the PPS and further discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges involved in its management. A fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan apart from explicitly defining the extent of the PPS tumor, majorly influenced the therapeutic decision making process by ruling out other sites of metastasis.

  9. Frondoside A inhibits breast cancer metastasis and antagonizes prostaglandin E receptors EP4 and EP2

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xinrong; Kundu, Namita; Collin, Peter D; Goloubeva, Olga; Fulton, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Frondoside A, derived from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa has demonstrable anticancer activity in several models, however, the ability of Frondoside A to affect tumor metastasis has not been reported. Using a syngeneic murine model of metastatic breast cancer, we now show that Frondoside A has potent antimetastatic activity. Frondoside A given i.p. to mice bearing mammary gland implanted mammary tumors, inhibits spontaneous tumor metastasis to the lungs. The elevated Cyclooxygenase -2 activity in many malignancies promotes tumor growth and metastasis by producing high levels of PGE2 which acts on the prostaglandin E receptors, chiefly EP4 and EP2. We examined the ability of Frondoside A to modulate the functions of these EP receptors. We now show that Frondoside A antagonizes the prostaglandin E receptors EP2 and EP4. 3H-PGE2 binding to recombinant EP2 or EP4-expressing cells was inhibited by Frondoside A at low μM concentrations. Likewise, EP4 or EP2-linked activation of intracellular cAMP as well as EP4-mediated ERK1/2 activation were also inhibited by Frondoside A. Consistent with the antimetastatic activity observed in vivo, migration of tumor cells in vitro in response to EP4 or EP2 agonists was also inhibited by Frondoside A. These studies identify a new function for an agent with known antitumor activity, and show that the antimetastatic activity may be due in part to a novel mechanism of action. These studies add to the growing body of evidence that Frondoside A may be a promising new agent with potential to treat cancer and may also represent a potential new modality to antagonize EP4. PMID:21761157

  10. Lung Cancer with Skin and Breast Metastasis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Marie Frances; Ghosh, Meenakshi; Sinha Ray, Abhisekh; Manhas, Saveena; Oke, Vikram; Agu, Chidozie Charles; Basunia, Md. Rawshan; Enriquez, Danilo; Quist, Joseph; Bianchi, Catherine; Hans, Ravi; Kandel, Saroj

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in America. Frequent sites of metastasis include the Hilar lymph nodes, adrenal glands, liver, brain, and bone. The following case report is of a primary lung cancer with metastases to the breast and skin. Case. A 48-year-old African American male with a past medical history of poorly differentiated left breast cancer status after modified radical mastectomy (MRM), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and smoking (20 pack-years) presents to the ER with progressive shortness of breath on exertion, upper back pain, and weight loss for 2 months in duration. On physical examination he is found to have a MRM scar on his left breast and a left periumbilical cutaneous mass. Chest X-ray and chest CT reveal a right upper lobe mass and biopsies from the breast, lung, and the periumbilical mass indicate a poorly differentiated carcinoma of unclear etiology; all tumor markers are negative. The patient is male and a chronic smoker; therefore the diagnosis is made as lung carcinoma with metastases to the breast and skin. Conclusion. A high index of suspicion for cutaneous metastases should be cast when investigating cutaneous pathologies in patients at risk for primary lung malignancy. PMID:25861506

  11. Nifuroxazide induces apoptosis and impairs pulmonary metastasis in breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Hu, M; Lei, Q; Xia, Y; Zhu, Y; Song, X; Li, Y; Jie, H; Liu, C; Xiong, Y; Zuo, Z; Zeng, A; Li, Y; Yu, L; Shen, G; Wang, D; Xie, Y; Ye, T; Wei, Y

    2015-01-01

    Breast carcinoma is the most common female cancer with considerable metastatic potential. Signal transducers and activators of the transcription 3 (Stat3) signaling pathway is constitutively activated in many cancers including breast cancer and has been validated as a novel potential anticancer target. Here, we reported our finding with nifuroxazide, an antidiarrheal agent identified as a potent inhibitor of Stat3. The potency of nifuroxazide on breast cancer was assessed in vitro and in vivo. In this investigation, we found that nifuroxazide decreased the viability of three breast cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, western blot analysis demonstrated that the occurrence of its apoptosis was associated with activation of cleaved caspases-3 and Bax, downregulation of Bcl-2. Moreover, nifuroxazide markedly blocked cancer cell migration and invasion, and the reduction of phosphorylated-Stat3(Tyr705), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression were also observed. Furthermore, in our animal experiments, intraperitoneal administration of 50 mg/kg/day nifuroxazide suppressed 4T1 tumor growth and blocked formation of pulmonary metastases without detectable toxicity. Meanwhile, histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed a decrease in Ki-67-positive cells, MMP-9-positive cells and an increase in cleaved caspase-3-positive cells upon nifuroxazide. Notably, nifuroxazide reduced the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cell in the lung. Our data indicated that nifuroxazide may potentially be a therapeutic agent for growth and metastasis of breast cancer. PMID:25811798

  12. Nifuroxazide induces apoptosis and impairs pulmonary metastasis in breast cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Yang, F; Hu, M; Lei, Q; Xia, Y; Zhu, Y; Song, X; Li, Y; Jie, H; Liu, C; Xiong, Y; Zuo, Z; Zeng, A; Li, Y; Yu, L; Shen, G; Wang, D; Xie, Y; Ye, T; Wei, Y

    2015-01-01

    Breast carcinoma is the most common female cancer with considerable metastatic potential. Signal transducers and activators of the transcription 3 (Stat3) signaling pathway is constitutively activated in many cancers including breast cancer and has been validated as a novel potential anticancer target. Here, we reported our finding with nifuroxazide, an antidiarrheal agent identified as a potent inhibitor of Stat3. The potency of nifuroxazide on breast cancer was assessed in vitro and in vivo. In this investigation, we found that nifuroxazide decreased the viability of three breast cancer cell lines and induced apoptosis of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, western blot analysis demonstrated that the occurrence of its apoptosis was associated with activation of cleaved caspases-3 and Bax, downregulation of Bcl-2. Moreover, nifuroxazide markedly blocked cancer cell migration and invasion, and the reduction of phosphorylated-Stat3Tyr705, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression were also observed. Furthermore, in our animal experiments, intraperitoneal administration of 50 mg/kg/day nifuroxazide suppressed 4T1 tumor growth and blocked formation of pulmonary metastases without detectable toxicity. Meanwhile, histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed a decrease in Ki-67-positive cells, MMP-9-positive cells and an increase in cleaved caspase-3-positive cells upon nifuroxazide. Notably, nifuroxazide reduced the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cell in the lung. Our data indicated that nifuroxazide may potentially be a therapeutic agent for growth and metastasis of breast cancer. PMID:25811798

  13. Breast tumor angiogenesis analysis using 3D power Doppler ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ruey-Feng; Huang, Sheng-Fang; Lee, Yu-Hau; Chen, Dar-Ren; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2006-03-01

    Angiogenesis is the process that correlates to tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Breast cancer angiogenesis has been the most extensively studied and now serves as a paradigm for understanding the biology of angiogenesis and its effects on tumor outcome and patient prognosis. Most studies on characterization of angiogenesis focus on pixel/voxel counts more than morphological analysis. Nevertheless, in cancer, the blood flow is greatly affected by the morphological changes, such as the number of vessels, branching pattern, length, and diameter. This paper presents a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system that can quantify vascular morphology using 3-D power Doppler ultrasound (US) on breast tumors. We propose a scheme to extract the morphological information from angiography and to relate them to tumor diagnosis outcome. At first, a 3-D thinning algorithm helps narrow down the vessels into their skeletons. The measurements of vascular morphology significantly rely on the traversing of the vascular trees produced from skeletons. Our study of 3-D assessment of vascular morphological features regards vessel count, length, bifurcation, and diameter of vessels. Investigations into 221 solid breast tumors including 110 benign and 111 malignant cases, the p values using the Student's t-test for all features are less than 0.05 indicating that the proposed features are deemed statistically significant. Our scheme focuses on the vascular architecture without involving the technique of tumor segmentation. The results show that the proposed method is feasible, and have a good agreement with the diagnosis of the pathologists.

  14. Talin regulates moesin–NHE-1 recruitment to invadopodia and promotes mammary tumor metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yarong; Bravo-Cordero, Jose Javier; Sharma, Ved P.; Miskolci, Veronika; Hodgson, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Invadopodia are actin-rich protrusions that degrade the extracellular matrix and are required for stromal invasion, intravasation, and metastasis. The role of the focal adhesion protein talin in regulating these structures is not known. Here, we demonstrate that talin is required for invadopodial matrix degradation and three-dimensional extracellular matrix invasion in metastatic breast cancer cells. The sodium/hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE-1) is linked to the cytoskeleton by ezrin/radixin/moesin family proteins and is known to regulate invadopodium-mediated matrix degradation. We show that the talin C terminus binds directly to the moesin band 4.1 ERM (FERM) domain to recruit a moesin–NHE-1 complex to invadopodia. Silencing talin resulted in a decrease in cytosolic pH at invadopodia and blocked cofilin-dependent actin polymerization, leading to impaired invadopodium stability and matrix degradation. Furthermore, talin is required for mammary tumor cell motility, intravasation, and spontaneous lung metastasis in vivo. Thus, our findings provide a novel understanding of how intracellular pH is regulated and a molecular mechanism by which talin enhances tumor cell invasion and metastasis. PMID:24891603

  15. Deptor enhances triple-negative breast cancer metastasis and chemoresistance through coupling to survivin expression.

    PubMed

    Parvani, Jenny G; Davuluri, Gangarao; Wendt, Michael K; Espinosa, Christine; Tian, Maozhen; Danielpour, David; Sossey-Alaoui, Khalid; Schiemann, William P

    2015-03-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) functions to suppress tumorigenesis in normal mammary tissues and early-stage breast cancers and, paradoxically, acts to promote the metastasis and chemoresistance in late-stage breast cancers, particularly triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs). Precisely how TGF-β acquires oncogenic characteristics in late-stage breast cancers remains unknown, as does the role of the endogenous mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, Dep domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein (Deptor), in coupling TGF-β to TNBC development and metastatic progression. Here we demonstrate that Deptor expression was downregulated in basal-like/TNBCs relative to their luminal counterparts. Additionally, Deptor expression was 1) inversely correlated with the metastatic ability of human (MCF10A) and mouse (4T1) TNBC progression series and 2) robustly repressed by several inducers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition programs. Functional disruption of Deptor expression in 4T07 cells significantly inhibited their proliferation and organoid growth in vitro, as well as prevented their colonization and tumor formation in the lungs of mice. In stark contrast, elevated Deptor expression was significantly associated with poorer overall survival of patients harboring estrogen receptor α-negative breast cancers. Accordingly, enforced Deptor expression in MDA-MB-231 cells dramatically enhanced their 1) organoid growth in vitro, 2) pulmonary outgrowth in mice, and 3) resistance to chemotherapies, an event dependent on the coupling of Deptor to survivin expression. Collectively, our findings highlight the dichotomous functions of Deptor in modulating the proliferation and survival of TNBCs during metastasis; they also implicate Deptor and its stimulation of survivin as essential components of TNBC resistance to chemotherapies and apoptotic stimuli.

  16. Chromodomain Helicase/ATPase DNA-Binding Protein 1-Like Gene (CHD1L) Expression and Implications for Invasion and Metastasis of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Qing-Jie; Li, Hong-Li; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Shi-Chao; Yin, Chong-Gao; Ma, Xue-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Background Chromodomain helicase/ATPase DNA-binding protein 1-like gene (CHD1L), also known as ALC1 (amplified in liver cancer 1 gene), is a new oncogene amplified in many solid tumors. Whether this gene plays a role in invasion and metastasis of breast cancer is unknown. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of CHD1L in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma and normal mammary glands. Chemotaxis, wound healing, and Transwell invasion assays were also performed to examine cell migration and invasion. Western blot analysis was conducted to detect the expression of CHD1L, MMP-2, MMP-9, pAkt/Akt, pARK5/ARK5, and pmTOR/mTOR. Moreover, ELISA was carried out to detect the expression levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Nude mice xenograft model was used to detect the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cell lines. Results CHD1L overexpression was observed in 112 of 268 patients (41.8%). This overexpression was associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.008), tumor differentiation (P = 0.020), distant metastasis (P = 0.026), MMP-2 (P = 0.035), and MMP-9 expression (P = 0.022). In the cell experiment, reduction of CHD1L inhibited the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells by mediating MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. CHD1L knockdown via siRNA suppressed EGF-induced pAkt, pARK5, and pmTOR. This knockdown inhibited the metastasis of breast cancer cells into the lungs of SCID mice. Conclusions CHD1L promoted the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells via the PI3K/Akt/ARK5/mTOR/MMP signaling pathway. This study identified CHD1L as a potential anti-metastasis target for therapeutic intervention in breast cancer. PMID:26599012

  17. Autoregulatory loop of nuclear corepressor 1 expression controls invasion, tumor growth, and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Iglesias, Olaia A.; Alonso-Merino, Elvira; Gómez-Rey, Sara; Velasco-Martín, Juan Pedro; Martín Orozco, Rosa; Luengo, Enrique; García Martín, Rosa; Ibáñez de Cáceres, Inmaculada; Fernández, Agustín F.; Fraga, Mario F.; González-Peramato, Pilar; Varona, Constantino; Palacios, José; Regadera, Javier; Aranda, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear corepressor 1 (NCoR) associates with nuclear receptors and other transcription factors leading to transcriptional repression. We show here that NCoR depletion enhances cancer cell invasion and increases tumor growth and metastatic potential in nude mice. These changes are related to repressed transcription of genes associated with increased metastasis and poor prognosis in patients. Strikingly, transient NCoR silencing leads to heterochromatinization and stable silencing of the NCoR gene, suggesting that NCoR loss can be propagated, contributing to tumor progression even in the absence of NCoR gene mutations. Down-regulation of the thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ) appears to be associated with cancer onset and progression. We found that expression of TRβ increases NCoR levels and that this induction is essential in mediating inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis by this receptor. Moreover, NCoR is down-regulated in human hepatocarcinomas and in the more aggressive breast cancer tumors, and its expression correlates positively with that of TRβ. These data provide a molecular basis for the anticancer actions of this corepressor and identify NCoR as a potential molecular target for development of novel cancer therapies. PMID:26729869

  18. Autoregulatory loop of nuclear corepressor 1 expression controls invasion, tumor growth, and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Iglesias, Olaia A; Alonso-Merino, Elvira; Gómez-Rey, Sara; Velasco-Martín, Juan Pedro; Martín Orozco, Rosa; Luengo, Enrique; García Martín, Rosa; Ibáñez de Cáceres, Inmaculada; Fernández, Agustín F; Fraga, Mario F; González-Peramato, Pilar; Varona, Constantino; Palacios, José; Regadera, Javier; Aranda, Ana

    2016-01-19

    Nuclear corepressor 1 (NCoR) associates with nuclear receptors and other transcription factors leading to transcriptional repression. We show here that NCoR depletion enhances cancer cell invasion and increases tumor growth and metastatic potential in nude mice. These changes are related to repressed transcription of genes associated with increased metastasis and poor prognosis in patients. Strikingly, transient NCoR silencing leads to heterochromatinization and stable silencing of the NCoR gene, suggesting that NCoR loss can be propagated, contributing to tumor progression even in the absence of NCoR gene mutations. Down-regulation of the thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ) appears to be associated with cancer onset and progression. We found that expression of TRβ increases NCoR levels and that this induction is essential in mediating inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis by this receptor. Moreover, NCoR is down-regulated in human hepatocarcinomas and in the more aggressive breast cancer tumors, and its expression correlates positively with that of TRβ. These data provide a molecular basis for the anticancer actions of this corepressor and identify NCoR as a potential molecular target for development of novel cancer therapies. PMID:26729869

  19. Differentiation of mammary tumors and reduction in metastasis upon Malat1 lncRNA loss.

    PubMed

    Arun, Gayatri; Diermeier, Sarah; Akerman, Martin; Chang, Kung-Chi; Wilkinson, J Erby; Hearn, Stephen; Kim, Youngsoo; MacLeod, A Robert; Krainer, Adrian R; Norton, Larry; Brogi, Edi; Egeblad, Mikala; Spector, David L

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide analyses have identified thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Malat1 (metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1) is among the most abundant lncRNAs whose expression is altered in numerous cancers. Here we report that genetic loss or systemic knockdown of Malat1 using antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) in the MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus)-PyMT mouse mammary carcinoma model results in slower tumor growth accompanied by significant differentiation into cystic tumors and a reduction in metastasis. Furthermore, Malat1 loss results in a reduction of branching morphogenesis in MMTV-PyMT- and Her2/neu-amplified tumor organoids, increased cell adhesion, and loss of migration. At the molecular level, Malat1 knockdown results in alterations in gene expression and changes in splicing patterns of genes involved in differentiation and protumorigenic signaling pathways. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time a functional role of Malat1 in regulating critical processes in mammary cancer pathogenesis. Thus, Malat1 represents an exciting therapeutic target, and Malat1 ASOs represent a potential therapy for inhibiting breast cancer progression.

  20. Differentiation of mammary tumors and reduction in metastasis upon Malat1 lncRNA loss

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Gayatri; Diermeier, Sarah; Akerman, Martin; Chang, Kung-Chi; Wilkinson, J. Erby; Hearn, Stephen; Kim, Youngsoo; MacLeod, A. Robert; Krainer, Adrian R.; Norton, Larry; Brogi, Edi; Egeblad, Mikala; Spector, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide analyses have identified thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Malat1 (metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1) is among the most abundant lncRNAs whose expression is altered in numerous cancers. Here we report that genetic loss or systemic knockdown of Malat1 using antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) in the MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus)-PyMT mouse mammary carcinoma model results in slower tumor growth accompanied by significant differentiation into cystic tumors and a reduction in metastasis. Furthermore, Malat1 loss results in a reduction of branching morphogenesis in MMTV-PyMT- and Her2/neu-amplified tumor organoids, increased cell adhesion, and loss of migration. At the molecular level, Malat1 knockdown results in alterations in gene expression and changes in splicing patterns of genes involved in differentiation and protumorigenic signaling pathways. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time a functional role of Malat1 in regulating critical processes in mammary cancer pathogenesis. Thus, Malat1 represents an exciting therapeutic target, and Malat1 ASOs represent a potential therapy for inhibiting breast cancer progression. PMID:26701265

  1. Differentiation of mammary tumors and reduction in metastasis upon Malat1 lncRNA loss.

    PubMed

    Arun, Gayatri; Diermeier, Sarah; Akerman, Martin; Chang, Kung-Chi; Wilkinson, J Erby; Hearn, Stephen; Kim, Youngsoo; MacLeod, A Robert; Krainer, Adrian R; Norton, Larry; Brogi, Edi; Egeblad, Mikala; Spector, David L

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide analyses have identified thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Malat1 (metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1) is among the most abundant lncRNAs whose expression is altered in numerous cancers. Here we report that genetic loss or systemic knockdown of Malat1 using antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) in the MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus)-PyMT mouse mammary carcinoma model results in slower tumor growth accompanied by significant differentiation into cystic tumors and a reduction in metastasis. Furthermore, Malat1 loss results in a reduction of branching morphogenesis in MMTV-PyMT- and Her2/neu-amplified tumor organoids, increased cell adhesion, and loss of migration. At the molecular level, Malat1 knockdown results in alterations in gene expression and changes in splicing patterns of genes involved in differentiation and protumorigenic signaling pathways. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time a functional role of Malat1 in regulating critical processes in mammary cancer pathogenesis. Thus, Malat1 represents an exciting therapeutic target, and Malat1 ASOs represent a potential therapy for inhibiting breast cancer progression. PMID:26701265

  2. Autoregulatory loop of nuclear corepressor 1 expression controls invasion, tumor growth, and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Iglesias, Olaia A; Alonso-Merino, Elvira; Gómez-Rey, Sara; Velasco-Martín, Juan Pedro; Martín Orozco, Rosa; Luengo, Enrique; García Martín, Rosa; Ibáñez de Cáceres, Inmaculada; Fernández, Agustín F; Fraga, Mario F; González-Peramato, Pilar; Varona, Constantino; Palacios, José; Regadera, Javier; Aranda, Ana

    2016-01-19

    Nuclear corepressor 1 (NCoR) associates with nuclear receptors and other transcription factors leading to transcriptional repression. We show here that NCoR depletion enhances cancer cell invasion and increases tumor growth and metastatic potential in nude mice. These changes are related to repressed transcription of genes associated with increased metastasis and poor prognosis in patients. Strikingly, transient NCoR silencing leads to heterochromatinization and stable silencing of the NCoR gene, suggesting that NCoR loss can be propagated, contributing to tumor progression even in the absence of NCoR gene mutations. Down-regulation of the thyroid hormone receptor β1 (TRβ) appears to be associated with cancer onset and progression. We found that expression of TRβ increases NCoR levels and that this induction is essential in mediating inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis by this receptor. Moreover, NCoR is down-regulated in human hepatocarcinomas and in the more aggressive breast cancer tumors, and its expression correlates positively with that of TRβ. These data provide a molecular basis for the anticancer actions of this corepressor and identify NCoR as a potential molecular target for development of novel cancer therapies.

  3. miR-509 suppresses brain metastasis of breast cancer cells by modulating RhoC and TNF-α.

    PubMed

    Xing, F; Sharma, S; Liu, Y; Mo, Y-Y; Wu, K; Zhang, Y-Y; Pochampally, R; Martinez, L A; Lo, H-W; Watabe, K

    2015-09-10

    The median survival time of breast cancer patients with brain metastasis is less than 6 months, and even a small metastatic lesion often causes severe neurological disabilities. Because of the location of metastatic lesions, a surgical approach is limited and most chemotherapeutic drugs are ineffective owing to the blood brain barrier (BBB). Despite this clinical importance, the molecular basis of the brain metastasis is poorly understood. In this study, we have isolated RNA from samples obtained from primary breast tumors and also from brain metastatic lesions followed by microRNA profiling analysis. Our results revealed that the miR-509 is highly expressed in the primary tumors, whereas the expression of this microRNA is significantly decreased in the brain metastatic lesions. MicroRNA target prediction and the analysis of cytokine array for the cells ectopically expressed with miR-509 demonstrated that this microRNA was capable of modulating the two genes essential for brain invasion, RhoC and TNF-α that affect the invasion of cancer cells and permeability of BBB, respectively. Importantly, high levels of TNF-α and RhoC-induced MMP9 were significantly correlated with brain metastasis-free survival of breast cancer patients. Furthermore, the results of our in vivo experiments indicate that miR-509 significantly suppressed the ability of cancer cells to metastasize to the brain. These findings suggest that miR-509 has a critical role in brain metastasis of breast cancer by modulating the RhoC-TNF-α network and that this miR-509 axis may represent a potential therapeutic target or serve as a prognostic tool for brain metastasis.

  4. The PDZ protein TIP-1 facilitates cell migration and pulmonary metastasis of human invasive breast cancer cells in athymic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Miaojun; Wang, Hailun; Zhang, Hua-Tang; Han, Zhaozhong

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study has revealed novel oncogenic functions of TIP-1 in human invasive breast cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated TIP-1 expression levels in human breast cancers correlate to the disease prognosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TIP-1 knockdown suppressed the cell migration and pulmonary metastasis of human breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TIP-1 knockdown suppressed the expression and functionality of motility-related genes. -- Abstract: Tax-interacting protein 1 (TIP-1, also known as Tax1bp3) inhibited proliferation of colon cancer cells through antagonizing the transcriptional activity of beta-catenin. However, in this study, elevated TIP-1 expression levels were detected in human invasive breast cancers. Studies with two human invasive breast cancer cell lines indicated that RNAi-mediated TIP-1 knockdown suppressed the cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro, and inhibited tumor growth in mammary fat pads and pulmonary metastasis in athymic mice. Biochemical studies showed that TIP-1 knockdown had moderate and differential effects on the beta-catenin-regulated gene expression, but remarkably down regulated the genes for cell adhesion and motility in breast cancer cells. The decreased expression of integrins and paxillin was accompanied with reduced cell adhesion and focal adhesion formation on fibronectin-coated surface. In conclusion, this study revealed a novel oncogenic function of TIP-1 suggesting that TIP-1 holds potential as a prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target in the treatment of human invasive breast cancers.

  5. Tumor vascularity and hematogenous metastasis in experimental murine intraocular melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, H E

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that primary tumor vascularity in a murine model of intraocular melanoma positively correlates with the development and hematogenous spread of metastasis. METHODS: Forty 12-week-old C57BL6 mice were inoculated in either the anterior chamber (AC) or posterior compartment (PC) of 1 eye with 5 x 10(5) cells/microL of Queens tissue culture melanoma cells. The inoculated eye was enucleated at 2 weeks; the mice were sacrificed at 4 weeks postinoculation, and necropsies were performed. The enucleated eyes were examined for histologic and ultrastructural features, including relationship of tumor cells to tumor vascular channels, vascular pattern, and mean vascular density. RESULTS: Melanoma grew and was confined to the eye in 12 of 20 AC eyes and 10 of 20 PC eyes. Histologic and electron microscopic examination showed tumor invasion into vascular channels. Five of 12 AC tumors (42%) and 8 of 10 PC tumors (80%) metastasized. All of the AC tumors, but none of the PC tumors, that distantly metastasized also metastasized to ipsilateral cervical lymph nodes (P = .00535). There was no statistically significant difference of vascular pattern between the melanomas that did and did not metastasize to lungs in the PC group (P = .24), although there was a significant difference in the AC group (P = .02). Tumors with high-grade vascular patterns were more likely to metastasize than tumors with low-grade vascular patterns in the AC group. The mean vascular density positively correlated with the presence and number of metastases in both groups (P = .0000 and P < .001, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference of vascular pattern and mean vascular density for AC versus PC melanoma (P = .97). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of metastasis in this murine intraocular melanoma model positively correlates with primary tumor vascularity. The melanoma metastasizes via invasion of tumor vascular channels. AC melanoma also

  6. Transcriptional network analysis identifies BACH1 as a master regulator of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yajun; Wu, Heng; Lei, Rong; Chong, Robert A; Wei, Yong; Lu, Xin; Tagkopoulos, Ilias; Kung, Sun-Yuan; Yang, Qifeng; Hu, Guohong; Kang, Yibin

    2012-09-28

    The application of functional genomic analysis of breast cancer metastasis has led to the identification of a growing number of organ-specific metastasis genes, which often function in concert to facilitate different steps of the metastatic cascade. However, the gene regulatory network that controls the expression of these metastasis genes remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate a computational approach for the deconvolution of transcriptional networks to discover master regulators of breast cancer bone metastasis. Several known regulators of breast cancer bone metastasis such as Smad4 and HIF1 were identified in our analysis. Experimental validation of the networks revealed BACH1, a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, as the common regulator of several functional metastasis genes, including MMP1 and CXCR4. Ectopic expression of BACH1 enhanced the malignance of breast cancer cells, and conversely, BACH1 knockdown significantly reduced bone metastasis. The expression of BACH1 and its target genes was linked to the higher risk of breast cancer recurrence in patients. This study established BACH1 as the master regulator of breast cancer bone metastasis and provided a paradigm to identify molecular determinants in complex pathological processes.

  7. Bone Targeted Therapies for Bone Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Razaq, Wajeeha

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis to the bone develops commonly in patients with various malignancies, and is a major cause of morbidity and diminished quality of life in many affected patients. Emerging treatments for metastatic bone disease have arisen from advances in our understanding of the unique cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the bone metastasis. The tendency of cancer cells to metastasize to bone is probably the end result of many factors including vascular pathways, the highly vascular nature of the bone marrow (which increases the probability that cancer cells will be deposited in bone marrow capillaries), and molecular characteristics of the cancer cells that allow them to adapt to the bone marrow microenvironment. The goals of treating osseous metastases are manifold. Proper treatment can lead to significant improvements in pain control and function, and maintain skeletal integrity. The treatment plan requires a multidisciplinary approach. Widespread metastatic disease necessitates systemic therapy, while a localized problem is best managed with surgery, external beam radiotherapy, or both. Patients with bone metastasis can have prolonged survival, and proper management can have a significant impact on their quality of life. We will review the factors in this article that are promising molecular bone-targeted therapies or will be likely targets for future therapeutic intervention to restore bone remodeling and suppress tumor growth. PMID:26237142

  8. Non-migratory tumorigenic intrinsic cancer stem cells ensure breast cancer metastasis by generation of CXCR4(+) migrating cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, S; Manna, A; Bhattacharjee, P; Mazumdar, M; Saha, S; Chakraborty, S; Guha, D; Adhikary, A; Jana, D; Gorain, M; Mukherjee, S A; Kundu, G C; Sarkar, D K; Das, T

    2016-09-15

    Although the role of metastatic cancer stem cells (mCSCs) in tumor progression has been well documented, our study reveals a hitherto unidentified role of tumorigenic intrinsic CSCs (iCSCs) in breast cancer metastasis. We show that unlike highly migratory mCSCs residing in the breast tumor disseminating/peripheral regions, iCSCs populate the inner mass of the tumor and are non-migratory. However iCSCs, via paracrine signaling, induce conversion of non-stem cancer cells to CSCs that (i) are identical to the previously reported mCSCs, and (ii) in contrast to iCSCs, express chemokine receptor, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4), which is crucial for their metastatic potential. These mCSCs also demonstrate high in vivo tumorigenicity. Physical non-participation of iCSCs in metastasis is further validated in vivo, where only mCSCs are found to exist in the metastatic sites, lymph nodes and bone marrow, whereas the primary tumor retains both iCSCs and mCSCs. However, iCSCs ensure metastasis since their presence is crucial for deliverance of highly metastatic CXCR4(+) mCSCs to the migrating fraction of cells. Cumulatively, these results unveil a novel role of iCSCs in breast cancer metastasis as parental regulators of CXCR4(+) mCSCs, and highlight the therapeutic requisite of targeting iCSCs, but not CXCR4(+) mCSCs, to restrain breast cancer metastasis from the root by inhibiting the generation of mCSCs from iCSCs. Considering the pivotal role of iCSCs in tumor metastasis, the possibility of metastasis to be a 'stem cell phenomena' is suggested. PMID:26923331

  9. Non-migratory tumorigenic intrinsic cancer stem cells ensure breast cancer metastasis by generation of CXCR4(+) migrating cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, S; Manna, A; Bhattacharjee, P; Mazumdar, M; Saha, S; Chakraborty, S; Guha, D; Adhikary, A; Jana, D; Gorain, M; Mukherjee, S A; Kundu, G C; Sarkar, D K; Das, T

    2016-09-15

    Although the role of metastatic cancer stem cells (mCSCs) in tumor progression has been well documented, our study reveals a hitherto unidentified role of tumorigenic intrinsic CSCs (iCSCs) in breast cancer metastasis. We show that unlike highly migratory mCSCs residing in the breast tumor disseminating/peripheral regions, iCSCs populate the inner mass of the tumor and are non-migratory. However iCSCs, via paracrine signaling, induce conversion of non-stem cancer cells to CSCs that (i) are identical to the previously reported mCSCs, and (ii) in contrast to iCSCs, express chemokine receptor, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4), which is crucial for their metastatic potential. These mCSCs also demonstrate high in vivo tumorigenicity. Physical non-participation of iCSCs in metastasis is further validated in vivo, where only mCSCs are found to exist in the metastatic sites, lymph nodes and bone marrow, whereas the primary tumor retains both iCSCs and mCSCs. However, iCSCs ensure metastasis since their presence is crucial for deliverance of highly metastatic CXCR4(+) mCSCs to the migrating fraction of cells. Cumulatively, these results unveil a novel role of iCSCs in breast cancer metastasis as parental regulators of CXCR4(+) mCSCs, and highlight the therapeutic requisite of targeting iCSCs, but not CXCR4(+) mCSCs, to restrain breast cancer metastasis from the root by inhibiting the generation of mCSCs from iCSCs. Considering the pivotal role of iCSCs in tumor metastasis, the possibility of metastasis to be a 'stem cell phenomena' is suggested.

  10. Metastasis-Inducing S100A4 and RANTES Cooperate in Promoting Tumor Progression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Forst, Birgitte; Hansen, Matilde Thye; Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Møller, Henrik Devitt; Nielsen, Gitte Helle; Grum-Schwensen, Birgitte; Ambartsumian, Noona; Lukanidin, Eugene; Grigorian, Mariam

    2010-01-01

    Background The tumor microenvironment has been described as a critical milieu determining tumor growth and metastases. A pivotal role of metastasis-inducing S100A4 in the development of tumor stroma has been proven in animal models and verified in human breast cancer biopsies. Expression and release of S100A4 has been shown in various types of stroma composing cells, including fibroblasts and immune cells. However, the events implicated in upstream and downstream pathways regulating the activity of the extracellular S100A4 protein in the tumor milieu remain unsolved. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the interplay between the tumor cell-derived cytokine regulated-upon-activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES; CCL5) and S100A4 which were shown to be critical factors in tumor progression. We found that RANTES stimulates the externalization of S100A4 via microparticle shedding from the plasma membrane of tumor and stroma cells. Conversely, the released S100A4 protein induces the upregulation of fibronectin (FN) in fibroblasts and a number of cytokines, including RANTES in tumor cells as well as stimulates cell motility in a wound healing assay. Importantly, using wild type and S100A4-deficient mouse models, we demonstrated a substantial influence of tumor cell-derived RANTES on S100A4 release into blood circulation which ultimately increases the metastatic burden in mice. Conclusions/Significance Altogether, the data presented strongly validate the pro-metastatic function of S100A4 in the tumor microenvironment and define how the tumor cell-derived cytokine RANTES acts as a critical regulator of S100A4-dependent tumor cell dissemination. Additionally, for the first time we demonstrated the mechanism of S100A4 release associated with plasma membrane microparticle shedding from various cells types. PMID:20442771

  11. LincRNA-ROR induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and contributes to breast cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hou, P; Zhao, Y; Li, Z; Yao, R; Ma, M; Gao, Y; Zhao, L; Zhang, Y; Huang, B; Lu, J

    2014-01-01

    LncRNAs have critical roles in various biological processes ranging from embryonic development to human diseases, including cancer progression, although their detailed mechanistic functions remain illusive. The lncRNA linc-ROR has been shown to contribute to the maintenance of induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells. In this study, we discovered that linc-ROR was upregulated in breast tumor samples, and ectopic overexpression of linc-ROR in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells induced an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program. Moreover, we showed that linc-ROR enhanced breast cancer cell migration and invasion, which was accompanied by generation of stem cell properties. Contrarily, silencing of linc-ROR repressed breast tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, our data revealed that linc-ROR was associated with miRNPs and functioned as a competing endogenous RNA to mi-205. Specifically, linc-ROR prevented the degradation of mir-205 target genes, including the EMT inducer ZEB2. Thus our results indicate that linc-ROR functions as an important regulator of EMT and can promote breast cancer progression and metastasis through regulation of miRNAs. Potentially, the findings of this study implicate the relevance of linc-ROR as a possible therapeutic target for aggressive and metastatic breast cancers.

  12. MSC-regulated microRNAs converge on the transcription factor FOXP2 and promote breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Cuiffo, Benjamin G; Campagne, Antoine; Bell, George W; Lembo, Antonio; Orso, Francesca; Lien, Evan C; Bhasin, Manoj K; Raimo, Monica; Hanson, Summer E; Marusyk, Andriy; El-Ashry, Dorraya; Hematti, Peiman; Polyak, Kornelia; Mechta-Grigoriou, Fatima; Mariani, Odette; Volinia, Stefano; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Taverna, Daniela; Karnoub, Antoine E

    2014-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are progenitor cells shown to participate in breast tumor stroma formation and to promote metastasis. Despite expanding knowledge of their contributions to breast malignancy, the underlying molecular responses of breast cancer cells (BCCs) to MSC influences remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that MSCs cause aberrant expression of microRNAs, which, led by microRNA-199a, provide BCCs with enhanced cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. We demonstrate that such MSC-deregulated microRNAs constitute a network that converges on and represses the expression of FOXP2, a forkhead transcription factor tightly associated with speech and language development. FOXP2 knockdown in BCCs was sufficient in promoting CSC propagation, tumor initiation, and metastasis. Importantly, elevated microRNA-199a and depressed FOXP2 expression levels are prominent features of malignant clinical breast cancer and are associated significantly with poor survival. Our results identify molecular determinants of cancer progression of potential utility in the prognosis and therapy of breast cancer.

  13. Role of c-Src and focal adhesion kinase in progression and metastasis of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Planas-Silva, Maricarmen D. . E-mail: mcplanas@psu.edu; Bruggeman, Richard D.; Grenko, Ronald T.; Stanley Smith, J.

    2006-03-03

    The non-receptor tyrosine kinases c-Src and focal adhesion kinase (Fak) mediate signal transduction pathways that regulate cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis. Here, we investigated whether c-Src and Fak are activated during progression of hormone-dependent breast cancer. Maximally active c-Src was overexpressed in a subset of tamoxifen-resistant variants and in metastases of recurrent hormone-treated breast cancer. Active Fak was also frequently observed in these tumors. We also show that estrogen receptor (ER) can bind to Fak and that estrogen can modulate Fak autophosphorylation supporting a cross-talk between these two pathways. Inhibition of c-Src activity blocked proliferation of all tamoxifen-resistant variants, suggesting that inhibitors of c-Src-Fak activity may delay or prevent progression and metastasis of ER-positive tumors. These studies also raise the possibility that fully active forms of c-Src and Fak in breast tumors may be biomarkers to predict tamoxifen resistance and/or risk of recurrence in ER-positive breast cancer.

  14. Metabolic Plasticity as a Determinant of Tumor Growth and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Lehuédé, Camille; Dupuy, Fanny; Rabinovitch, Rebecca; Jones, Russell G; Siegel, Peter M

    2016-09-15

    Cancer cells must adapt their metabolism to meet the energetic and biosynthetic demands that accompany rapid growth of the primary tumor and colonization of distinct metastatic sites. Different stages of the metastatic cascade can also present distinct metabolic challenges to disseminating cancer cells. However, little is known regarding how changes in cellular metabolism, both within the cancer cell and the metastatic microenvironment, alter the ability of tumor cells to colonize and grow in distinct secondary sites. This review examines the concept of metabolic heterogeneity within the primary tumor, and how cancer cells are metabolically coupled with other cancer cells that comprise the tumor and cells within the tumor stroma. We examine how metabolic strategies, which are engaged by cancer cells in the primary site, change during the metastatic process. Finally, we discuss the metabolic adaptations that occur as cancer cells colonize foreign metastatic microenvironments and how cancer cells influence the metabolism of stromal cells at sites of metastasis. Through a discussion of these topics, it is clear that plasticity in tumor metabolic programs, which allows cancer cells to adapt and grow in hostile microenvironments, is emerging as an important variable that may change clinical approaches to managing metastatic disease. Cancer Res; 76(18); 5201-8. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27587539

  15. Metabolic Plasticity as a Determinant of Tumor Growth and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Lehuédé, Camille; Dupuy, Fanny; Rabinovitch, Rebecca; Jones, Russell G; Siegel, Peter M

    2016-09-15

    Cancer cells must adapt their metabolism to meet the energetic and biosynthetic demands that accompany rapid growth of the primary tumor and colonization of distinct metastatic sites. Different stages of the metastatic cascade can also present distinct metabolic challenges to disseminating cancer cells. However, little is known regarding how changes in cellular metabolism, both within the cancer cell and the metastatic microenvironment, alter the ability of tumor cells to colonize and grow in distinct secondary sites. This review examines the concept of metabolic heterogeneity within the primary tumor, and how cancer cells are metabolically coupled with other cancer cells that comprise the tumor and cells within the tumor stroma. We examine how metabolic strategies, which are engaged by cancer cells in the primary site, change during the metastatic process. Finally, we discuss the metabolic adaptations that occur as cancer cells colonize foreign metastatic microenvironments and how cancer cells influence the metabolism of stromal cells at sites of metastasis. Through a discussion of these topics, it is clear that plasticity in tumor metabolic programs, which allows cancer cells to adapt and grow in hostile microenvironments, is emerging as an important variable that may change clinical approaches to managing metastatic disease. Cancer Res; 76(18); 5201-8. ©2016 AACR.

  16. Delayed liver metastasis of a meningeal solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Buccauw, Kurt; Sciot, Raf; Wolter, Pascal; Aerts, Raymond; Claus, Filip

    2011-12-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFT's) are rare soft tissue neoplasms of mesenchymal origin, most commonly reported in the thoracic cavity. They exhibit an aggressive and infiltrative nature and have a tendency to recur either locally or distantly, the latter typically being a late event. Primary therapy consists of complete excision and prognosis is poor in case of recurrence. In this manuscript, we discuss the imaging features and treatment options for a patient presenting with delayed liver metastasis ten years after treatment for a meningeal SFT.

  17. Inflammation Mediated Metastasis: Immune Induced Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition in Inflammatory Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Evan N.; Gao, Hui; Anfossi, Simone; Mego, Michal; Reddy, Neelima G.; Debeb, Bisrat; Giordano, Antonio; Tin, Sanda; Wu, Qiong; Garza, Raul J.; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Mani, Sendurai A.; Croix, Denise A.; Ueno, Naoto T.; Woodward, Wendy A.; Luthra, Raja; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Reuben, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most insidious form of locally advanced breast cancer; about a third of patients have distant metastasis at initial staging. Emerging evidence suggests that host factors in the tumor microenvironment may interact with underlying IBC cells to make them aggressive. It is unknown whether immune cells associated to the IBC microenvironment play a role in this scenario to transiently promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in these cells. We hypothesized that soluble factors secreted by activated immune cells can induce an EMT in IBC and thus promote metastasis. In a pilot study of 16 breast cancer patients, TNF-α production by peripheral blood T cells was correlated with the detection of circulating tumor cells expressing EMT markers. In a variety of IBC model cell lines, soluble factors from activated T cells induced expression of EMT-related genes, including FN1, VIM, TGM2, ZEB1. Interestingly, although IBC cells exhibited increased invasion and migration following exposure to immune factors, the expression of E-cadherin (CDH1), a cell adhesion molecule, increased uniquely in IBC cell lines but not in non-IBC cell lines. A combination of TNF-α, IL-6, and TGF-β was able to recapitulate EMT induction in IBC, and conditioned media preloaded with neutralizing antibodies against these factors exhibited decreased EMT. These data suggest that release of cytokines by activated immune cells may contribute to the aggressiveness of IBC and highlight these factors as potential target mediators of immune-IBC interaction. PMID:26207636

  18. Pharmacologic inhibition of MLK3 kinase activity blocks the in vitro migratory capacity of breast cancer cells but has no effect on breast cancer brain metastasis in a mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Rhoo, Kun Hyoe; Granger, Megan; Sur, Joynita; Feng, Changyong; Gelbard, Harris A; Dewhurst, Stephen; Polesskaya, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    Brain metastasis of breast cancer is an important clinical problem, with few therapeutic options and a poor prognosis. Recent data have implicated mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) in controlling the in vitro migratory capacity of breast cancer cells, as well as the metastasis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells from the mammary fat pad to distant lymph nodes in a mouse xenograft model. We therefore set out to test whether MLK3 plays a role in brain metastasis of breast cancer cells. To address this question, we used a novel, brain penetrant, MLK3 inhibitor, URMC099. URMC099 efficiently inhibited the migration of breast cancer cells in an in vitro cell monolayer wounding assay, and an in vitro transwell migration assay, but had no effect on in vitro cell growth. We also tested the effect of URMC099 on tumor formation in a mouse xenograft model of breast cancer brain metastasis. This analysis showed that URMC099 had no effect on the either the frequency or size of breast cancer brain metastases. We conclude that pharmacologic inhibition of MLK3 by URMC099 can reduce the in vitro migratory capacity of breast cancer cells, but that it has no effect on either the frequency or size of breast cancer brain metastases, in a mouse xenograft model.

  19. Tie2 Regulates Tumor Metastasis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Daisuke; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Nakashima, Dai; Miyamoto, Isao; Kimura, Yasushi; Saito, Tomoaki; Suzuki, Takane; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial-specific receptor, tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like loops and epidermal growth factor homology domains-2 (Tie2) is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and is ubiquitous in normal tissues; however, little is known about the mechanisms and roles of Tie2 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). In the current study, we investigated the expression status of Tie2 in OSCCs by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry and the functional mechanisms of Tie2 using its overexpressed OSCC (oeTie2) cells and Tie2 blocking by its antibody. We found that Tie2 expression was down-regulated significantly (p < 0.05) in OSCCs compared with normal counterparts in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, oeTie2 cells showed higher cellular adhesion (p < 0.05) and lower cellular invasion (p < 0.05) compared with control cells; whereas there was similar cellular proliferation in both transfectants. Furthermore, cellular adhesion was inhibited and invasion was activated by Tie2 function-blocking antibody (p < 0.05), indicating that Tie2 directly regulates cellular adhesion and invasion. As expected, among the clinical variables analyzed, Tie2-positivity in patients with OSCC was correlated closely with negative lymph node metastasis. These results suggested for the first time that Tie2 plays an important role in tumor metastasis and may be a potential biomarker for OSCC metastasis. PMID:27053959

  20. SHIP represses lung inflammation and inhibits mammary tumor metastasis in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Melisa J.; Halvorsen, Elizabeth C.; LePard, Nancy E.; Bosiljcic, Momir; Ho, Victor W.; Lam, Vivian; Banáth, Judit

    2016-01-01

    SH2-containing-inositol-5′-phosphatase (SHIP) is a negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway in hematopoietic cells and limits the development of leukemias and lymphomas. The potential role of SHIP in solid tumor development and metastasis remains unknown. While SHIP restricts the aberrant development of myeloid cells in C57BL/6 mice, there are conflicting reports regarding the effect of SHIP deletion in BALB/c mice with important consequences for determining the influence of SHIP in different model tumor systems. We generated SHIP−/− BALB/c mice and challenged them with syngeneic non-metastatic 67NR or metastatic 4T1 mammary tumors. We demonstrate that SHIP restricts the development, alternative-activation, and immunosuppressive function of myeloid cells in tumor-free and tumor-bearing BALB/c mice. Tumor-free SHIP−/− BALB/c mice exhibited pulmonary inflammation, myeloid hyperplasia, and M2-polarized macrophages and this phenotype was greatly exacerbated by 4T1, but not 67NR, tumors. 4T1-bearing SHIP−/− mice rapidly lost weight and died from necrohemorrhagic inflammatory pulmonary disease, characterized by massive infiltration of pulmonary macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells that were more M2-polarized and immunosuppressive than wild-type cells. Importantly, while SHIP loss did not affect primary tumor growth, 4T1-bearing SHIP−/− mice had 7.5-fold more metastatic tumor cells in their lungs than wild-type mice, consistent with the influence of immunosuppressive myeloid cells on metastatic growth. Our findings identify the hematopoietic cell-restricted protein SHIP as an intriguing target to influence the development of solid tumor metastases, and support development of SHIP agonists to prevent the accumulation of immunosuppressive myeloid cells and tumor metastases in the lungs to improve treatment of metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26683227

  1. SHIP represses lung inflammation and inhibits mammary tumor metastasis in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Melisa J; Halvorsen, Elizabeth C; LePard, Nancy E; Bosiljcic, Momir; Ho, Victor W; Lam, Vivian; Banáth, Judit; Bennewith, Kevin L; Krystal, Gerald

    2016-01-26

    SH2-containing-inositol-5'-phosphatase (SHIP) is a negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway in hematopoietic cells and limits the development of leukemias and lymphomas. The potential role of SHIP in solid tumor development and metastasis remains unknown. While SHIP restricts the aberrant development of myeloid cells in C57BL/6 mice, there are conflicting reports regarding the effect of SHIP deletion in BALB/c mice with important consequences for determining the influence of SHIP in different model tumor systems. We generated SHIP-/- BALB/c mice and challenged them with syngeneic non-metastatic 67NR or metastatic 4T1 mammary tumors. We demonstrate that SHIP restricts the development, alternative-activation, and immunosuppressive function of myeloid cells in tumor-free and tumor-bearing BALB/c mice. Tumor-free SHIP-/- BALB/c mice exhibited pulmonary inflammation, myeloid hyperplasia, and M2-polarized macrophages and this phenotype was greatly exacerbated by 4T1, but not 67NR, tumors. 4T1-bearing SHIP-/- mice rapidly lost weight and died from necrohemorrhagic inflammatory pulmonary disease, characterized by massive infiltration of pulmonary macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells that were more M2-polarized and immunosuppressive than wild-type cells. Importantly, while SHIP loss did not affect primary tumor growth, 4T1-bearing SHIP-/- mice had 7.5-fold more metastatic tumor cells in their lungs than wild-type mice, consistent with the influence of immunosuppressive myeloid cells on metastatic growth. Our findings identify the hematopoietic cell-restricted protein SHIP as an intriguing target to influence the development of solid tumor metastases, and support development of SHIP agonists to prevent the accumulation of immunosuppressive myeloid cells and tumor metastases in the lungs to improve treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

  2. Cucurbitacin B inhibits breast cancer metastasis and angiogenesis through VEGF-mediated suppression of FAK/MMP-9 signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sonam; Khan, Sajid; Shukla, Samriddhi; Lakra, Amar Deep; Kumar, Sudhir; Das, Gunjan; Maurya, Rakesh; Meeran, Syed Musthapa

    2016-08-01

    Available breast cancer therapeutic strategies largely target the primary tumor but are ineffective against tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. In our current study, we determined the effect of Cucurbitacin B (CuB), a plant triterpenoid, on the metastatic and angiogenic potential of breast cancer cells. CuB was found to inhibit cellular proliferation and induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Further, CuB-treatment significantly inhibited the migratory and invasive potential of highly metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and 4T1 cells at sub-IC50 concentrations, where no significant apoptosis was observed. CuB was also found to inhibit migratory, invasive and tube-forming capacities of HUVECs in vitro. In addition, inhibition of pre-existing vasculature in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane ex vivo further supports the anti-angiogenic effect of CuB. CuB-mediated anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects were associated with the downregulation of VEGF/FAK/MMP-9 signaling, which has been validated by using FAK-inhibitor (FI-14). CuB-treatment resulted in a significant inhibition of VEGF-induced phosphorylation of FAK and MMP-9 expressions similar to the action of FI-14. CuB was also found to decrease the micro-vessel density as evidenced by the decreased expression of CD31, a marker for neovasculature. Further, CuB-treatment inhibited tumor growth, lung metastasis and angiogenesis in a highly metastatic 4T1-syngeneic mouse mammary cancer. Collectively, our findings suggest that CuB inhibited breast cancer metastasis and angiogenesis, at least in part, through the downregulation of VEGF/FAK/MMP-9 signaling. PMID:27210504

  3. Differential secretome analysis reveals CST6 as a suppressor of breast cancer bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Li, Hui; Yao, Ling; Fu, Da; Yao, Xuebiao; Xu, Lisa X; Hu, Xiaofang; Hu, Guohong

    2012-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a frequent complication of breast cancer and a common cause of morbidity and mortality from the disease. During metastasis secreted proteins play crucial roles in the interactions between cancer cells and host stroma. To characterize the secreted proteins that are associated with breast cancer bone metastasis, we preformed a label-free proteomic analysis to compare the secretomes of four MDA-MB-231 (MDA231) derivative cell lines with varied capacities of bone metastasis. A total of 128 proteins were found to be consistently up-/down-regulated in the conditioned medium of bone-tropic cancer cells. The enriched molecular functions of the altered proteins included receptor binding and peptidase inhibition. Through additional transcriptomic analyses of breast cancer cells, we selected cystatin E/M (CST6), a cysteine protease inhibitor down-regulated in bone-metastatic cells, for further functional studies. Our results showed that CST6 suppressed the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. The suppressive function against cancer cell motility was carried out by cancer cell-derived soluble CST6. More importantly, ectopic expression of CST6 in cancer cells rescued mice from overt osteolytic metastasis and deaths in the animal study, while CST6 knockdown markedly enhanced cancer cell bone metastasis and shortened animal survival. Overall, our study provided a systemic secretome analysis of breast cancer bone tropism and established secreted CST6 as a bona fide suppressor of breast cancer osteolytic metastasis. PMID:22688893

  4. Development of Patient Derived Xenograft Models of Overt Spontaneous Breast Cancer Metastasis: A Cautionary Note

    PubMed Central

    Paez-Ribes, Marta; Man, Shan; Xu, Ping; Kerbel, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Several approaches are being evaluated to improve the historically limited value of studying transplanted primary tumors derived by injection of cells from established cell lines for predicting subsequent cancer therapy outcomes in patients and clinical trials. These approaches include use of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of spontaneous tumors, or patient tumor tissue derived xenografts (PDXs). Almost all such therapy studies utilizing such models involve treatment of established primary tumors. An alternative approach we have developed involves transplanted human tumor xenografts derived from established cell lines to treat mice with overt visceral metastases after primary tumor resection. The rationale is to mimic the more challenging circumstance of treating patients with late stage metastatic disease. These metastatic models entail prior in vivo selection of heritable, phenotypically stable variants with increased aggressiveness for spontaneous metastasis; they were derived by orthotopic injection of tumor cells followed by primary tumor resection and serial selection of distant spontaneous metastases, from which variant cell lines having a more aggressive heritable metastatic phenotype were established. We attempted to adopt this strategy for breast cancer PDXs. We studied five breast cancer PDXs, with the emphasis on two, called HCI-001 and HCI-002, both derived from triple negative breast cancer patients. However significant technical obstacles were encountered. These include the inherent slow growth rates of PDXs, the rarity of overt spontaneous metastases (detected in only 3 of 144 mice), very high rates of tumor regrowths at the primary tumor resection site, the failure of the few human PDX metastases isolated to manifest a more aggressive metastatic phenotype upon re-transplantation into new hosts, and the formation of metastases which were derived from de novo mouse thymomas arising in aged SCID mice that we used for the experiments. We

  5. Assessment of Ultrasound Features Predicting Axillary Nodal Metastasis in Breast Cancer: The Impact of Cortical Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Stachs, A.; Thi, A. Tra-Ha; Dieterich, M.; Stubert, J.; Hartmann, S.; Glass, Ä.; Reimer, T.; Gerber, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of axillary ultrasound (AUS) in detecting nodal metastasis in patients with early-stage breast cancer and to identify AUS features with high predictive power. Materials and Methods: Prospective single-center preliminary study in 105 patients with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer and clinically negative axilla. AUS was performed using a 12 MHz linear-array transducer before ultrasound-guided needle biopsy. Nodal characteristics (shape, longitudinal-transverse [LT] axis ratio, margins, cortical thickness, hyperechoic hilum) were correlated with histopathological nodal status after SLNB or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Results: Nodal metastases were present in 42/105 patients (40.0%). Univariate analyses showed that absence of hyperechoic hilum, round shape, LT axis ratio<2, sharp margins and cortical thickness>3 mm were associated with lymph node metastasis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed cortical thickness > 3 mm as an independent predictive parameter for nodal involvement. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 66.7, 74.6, 63.6, 77.0% and 71.4% respectively when cortical thickness > 3 mm was applied as the criterion for AUS positivity. Axillary tumor volume was low in patients with pT1/2 tumors and negative AUS, since only 3.2% of patients had > 2 metastatic lymph nodes. Conclusion: Cortical thickness>3 mm is a reliable predictor of nodal metastatic involvement. Negative AUS does not exclude lymph node metastases, but extensive axillary tumor volume is rare.

  6. Gene signatures of breast cancer progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. Patient outcome varies significantly, depending on prognostic features of patients and their tumors, including patient age, menopausal status, tumor size and histology, nodal status, and so on. Response to treatment also depends on a series of predictive factors, such as hormone receptor and HER2 status. Current treatment guidelines use these features to determine treatment. However, these guidelines are imperfect, and do not always predict response to treatment or survival. Evolving technologies are permitting increasingly large amounts of molecular data to be obtained from tumors, which may enable more personalized treatment decisions to be made. The challenge is to learn what information leads to improved prognostic accuracy and treatment outcome for individual patients. PMID:21345283

  7. Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal/Stem Cells Promote Migration and Early Metastasis of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Brian G.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Sheng, Mei; Anbalagan, Muralidharan; Jones, Ryan K.; Frazier, Trivia P.; Asher, Majdouline; Lacayo, Eduardo A.; Friedlander, Paul L.; Kutner, Robert; Chiu, Ernest S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fat grafting is used to restore breast defects after surgical resection of breast tumors. Supplementing fat grafts with adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) is proposed to improve the regenerative/restorative ability of the graft and retention. However, long term safety for ASC grafting in proximity of residual breast cancer cells is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of human ASCs derived from abdominal lipoaspirates of three donors, on a human breast cancer model that exhibits early metastasis. Methodology/Principal Findings Human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells represents “triple negative” breast cancer that exhibits early micrometastasis to multiple mouse organs [1]. Human ASCs were derived from abdominal adipose tissue from three healthy female donors. Indirect co-culture of MDA-MB-231 cells with ASCs, as well as direct co-culture demonstrated that ASCs had no effect on MDA-MB-231 growth. Indirect co-culture, and ASC conditioned medium (CM) stimulated migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. ASC/RFP cells from two donors co-injected with MDA-MB-231/GFP cells exhibited a donor effect for stimulation of primary tumor xenografts. Both ASC donors stimulated metastasis. ASC/RFP cells were viable, and integrated with MDA-MB-231/GFP cells in the tumor. Tumors from the co-injection group of one ASC donor exhibited elevated vimentin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), IL-8, VEGF and microvessel density. The co-injection group exhibited visible metastases to the lung/liver and enlarged spleen not evident in mice injected with MDA-MB-231/GFP alone. Quantitation of the total area of GFP fluorescence and human chromosome 17 DNA in mouse organs, H&E stained paraffin sections and fluorescent microscopy confirmed multi-focal metastases to lung/liver/spleen in the co-injection group without evidence of ASC/RFP cells. Conclusions Human ASCs derived from abdominal lipoaspirates of two donors stimulated metastasis of MDA-MB-231

  8. Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 modulates SIRT1-dependent p53 deacetylation through interacting with DBC1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueni; Ehmed, Elphire; Li, Boyao; Dou, Jianming; Qiao, Xiaojing; Jiang, Wenyong; Yang, Xi; Qiao, Shouyi; Wu, Yanhua

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) is a specific tumor metastasis suppressor implicated in the regulation of chromatin modification and gene transcription. However, the molecular mechanism of BRMS1 remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that DBC1 (deleted in breast cancer 1), is a novel interacting protein of BRMS1. The imperfect leucine zipper motifs of BRMS1 and the N-terminal domain of DBC1 are required for the interaction. DBC1 is identified as an important negative regulator of SIRT1's activity and genotoxic stress response. We demonstrated that BRMS1 is able to interrupt endogenous DBC1-SIRT1 association. Consistently, SIRT1-dependent p53 acetylation under genotoxic stress is also affected by BRMS1. Overall, our results identify BRMS1 as a novel regulator of DBC1-SIRT1 complex and SIRT1-dependent p53 deacetylation. PMID:27429856

  9. Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 modulates SIRT1-dependent p53 deacetylation through interacting with DBC1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xueni; Ehmed, Elphire; Li, Boyao; Dou, Jianming; Qiao, Xiaojing; Jiang, Wenyong; Yang, Xi; Qiao, Shouyi; Wu, Yanhua

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) is a specific tumor metastasis suppressor implicated in the regulation of chromatin modification and gene transcription. However, the molecular mechanism of BRMS1 remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that DBC1 (deleted in breast cancer 1), is a novel interacting protein of BRMS1. The imperfect leucine zipper motifs of BRMS1 and the N-terminal domain of DBC1 are required for the interaction. DBC1 is identified as an important negative regulator of SIRT1’s activity and genotoxic stress response. We demonstrated that BRMS1 is able to interrupt endogenous DBC1-SIRT1 association. Consistently, SIRT1-dependent p53 acetylation under genotoxic stress is also affected by BRMS1. Overall, our results identify BRMS1 as a novel regulator of DBC1-SIRT1 complex and SIRT1-dependent p53 deacetylation. PMID:27429856

  10. Biodegradable polymeric micelle-encapsulated doxorubicin suppresses tumor metastasis by killing circulating tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Senyi; Wu, Qinjie; Zhao, Yuwei; Zheng, Xin; Wu, Ni; Pang, Jing; Li, Xuejing; Bi, Cheng; Liu, Xinyu; Yang, Li; Liu, Lei; Su, Weijun; Wei, Yuquan; Gong, Changyang

    2015-03-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play a crucial role in tumor metastasis, but it is rare for any chemotherapy regimen to focus on killing CTCs. Herein, we describe doxorubicin (Dox) micelles that showed anti-metastatic activity by killing CTCs. Dox micelles with a small particle size and high encapsulation efficiency were obtained using a pH-induced self-assembly method. Compared with free Dox, Dox micelles exhibited improved cytotoxicity, apoptosis induction, and cellular uptake. In addition, Dox micelles showed a sustained release behavior in vitro, and in a transgenic zebrafish model, Dox micelles exhibited a longer circulation time and lower extravasation from blood vessels into surrounding tissues. Anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities of Dox micelles were investigated in transgenic zebrafish and mouse models. In transgenic zebrafish, Dox micelles inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing zebrafish. Furthermore, Dox micelles suppressed tumor metastasis by killing CTCs. In addition, improved anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities were also confirmed in mouse tumor models, where immunofluorescent staining of tumors indicated that Dox micelles induced more apoptosis and showed fewer proliferation-positive cells. There were decreased side effects in transgenic zebrafish and mice after administration of Dox micelles. In conclusion, Dox micelles showed stronger anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities and decreased side effects both in vitro and in vivo, which may have potential applications in cancer therapy.

  11. Microfluidic Device for Studying Tumor Cell Extravasation in Cancer Metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Henry K; Thundat, Thomas George; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen; Datar, Ram H; Reese, Benjamin E; Zheng, Siyang

    2010-01-01

    Metastasis is the process by which cancer spreads to form secondary tumors at downstream locations throughout the body. This uncontrolled spreading is the leading cause of death in patients with epithelial cancers and is the main reason that suppressing and targeting cancer has proven to be so challenging. Tumor cell extravasation is one of the key steps in cancer s progression towards a metastatic state. This occurs when circulating tumor cells found within the blood stream are able to transmigrate through the endothelium lining and basement membrane of the vasculature to form metastatic tumors at secondary sites within the body. Predicting the likelihood of this occurrence in patients, or being able to determine specific markers involved in this process could lead to preventative measures targeting these types of cancer; moreover, this may lead to the discovery of novel anti-metastatic drugs. We have developed a microfluidic device that has shown the extravasation of fluorescently labeled tumor cells across an endothelial cell lined membrane coated with matrigel followed by the formation of colonies. This device provides the advantages of combining a controlled environment, mimicking that found within the body, with real-time monitoring capabilities allowing for the study of these biomarkers and cellular interactions along with other potential mechanisms involved in the process of extravasation.

  12. Plumbagin Inhibits Osteoclastogenesis and Reduces Human Breast Cancer-induced Osteolytic Bone Metastasis in Mice through Suppression of RANKL Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Bokyung; Oyajobi, Babatunde O.; Aggarwal, Bharat B.

    2011-01-01

    Bone loss is one of the major complications of advanced cancers such as breast cancer, prostate cancer and multiple myeloma; agents that can suppress this bone loss have therapeutic potential. Extensive research within the last decade has revealed that RANKL, a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, plays a major role in cancer-associated bone resorption, and thus is a therapeutic target. We investigated the potential of vitamin K3 analogue plumbagin (derived from Chitrak, an Ayurvedic medicinal plant), to modulate RANKL signaling, osteoclastogenesis and breast cancer–induced osteolysis. Plumbagin suppressed RANKL-induced NF-κB activation in mouse monocytes, an osteoclast precursor cell, through sequential inhibition of activation of IκBα kinase, IκBα phosphorylation and IκBα degradation. Plumbagin also suppressed differentiation of these cells into osteoclasts induced either by RANKL or by human breast cancer or human multiple myeloma cells. When examined for its ability to prevent human breast cancer–induced bone loss in animals, plumbagin (2 mg/kg body weight), when administered via the intraperitoneal route, significantly decreased osteolytic lesions resulting in preservation of bone volume in nude mice bearing human breast tumors. Overall, our results indicate that plumbagin, a vitamin K analogue, is a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis induced by tumor cells and of breast cancer–induced osteolytic metastasis through suppression of RANKL signaling. PMID:22090419

  13. Blocking the Adhesion Cascade at the Premetastatic Niche for Prevention of Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Shin-Ae; Hasan, Nafis; Mann, Aman P; Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Lichao; Morris, Lynsie; Zhu, Weizhu; Zhao, Yan D; Suh, K Stephen; Dooley, William C; Volk, David; Gorenstein, David G; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Rui, Hallgeir; Tanaka, Takemi

    2015-01-01

    Shear-resistant adhesion and extravasation of disseminated cancer cells at the target organ is a crucial step in hematogenous metastasis. We found that the vascular adhesion molecule E-selectin preferentially promoted the shear-resistant adhesion and transendothelial migration of the estrogen receptor (ER)–/CD44+ hormone-independent breast cancer cells, but not of the ER+/CD44-/low hormone-dependent breast cancer cells. Coincidentally, CD44+ breast cancer cells were abundant in metastatic lung and brain lesions in ER– breast cancer, suggesting that E-selectin supports hematogenous metastasis of ER–/CD44+ breast cancer. In an attempt to prevent hematogenous metastasis through the inhibition of a shear-resistant adhesion of CD44+ cancer cells to E-selectin-expressing blood vessels on the premetastatic niche, an E-selectin targeted aptamer (ESTA) was developed. We demonstrated that a single intravenous injection of ESTA reduced metastases to a baseline level in both syngeneic and xenogeneic forced breast cancer metastasis models without relocating the site of metastasis. The effect of ESTA was absent in E-selectin knockout mice, suggesting that E-selectin is a molecular target of ESTA. Our data highlight the potential application of an E-selectin antagonist for the prevention of hematogenous metastasis of ER–/CD44+ breast cancer. PMID:25815697

  14. Studying tumor metastasis by in vivo imaging and flow cytometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xunbin; Guo, Jin; Liu, Guangda; Li, Yan; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Li; Tan, Yuan; Chen, Tong; Gu, Zhenqin; Wang, Chen

    2009-02-01

    Liver cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world, with approximately 1,000,000 cases reported every year. This ranges from 15,000 cases in the United States to more than a 250,000 in China. About 80% of people with primary liver cancer are male. Although two-thirds of people have advanced liver disease when they seek medical help, one third of the patients have cancer that has not progressed beyond the liver. Primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, or HCC) is associated with liver cirrhosis 60-80% of the time. HCC may metastasize to the lung, bones, kidney, and many other organs. Surgical resection, liver transplantation, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the foundation of current HCC therapies. However the outcomes are poor-the survival rate is almost zero for metastatic HCC patients. Molecular mechanisms of HCC metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed to selectively target to unique characteristics of HCC cell growth and metastasis. We have developed the "in vivo microscopy" to study the mechanisms that govern liver tumor cell spread through the microenvironment in vivo in real-time confocal near-infrared fluorescence imaging. A recently developed "in vivo flow cytometer" and optical imaging are used to assess liver tumor cell spreading and the circulation kinetics of liver tumor cells. A real-time quantitative monitoring of circulating liver tumor cells by the in vivo flow cytometer will be useful to assess the effectiveness of the potential therapeutic interventions.

  15. Monitoring tumor metastasis by in vivo imaging and flow cytometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zhenqin; Guo, Jin; Liu, Guangda; Li, Yan; Chen, Yun; Chen, Tong; Wang, Chen; Wei, Xunbin

    2009-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in American men and the second leading cause of deaths from cancer, after lung cancer. The tumor usually grows slowly and remains confined to the gland for many years. During this time, the tumor produces little or no symptoms or outward signs. As the cancer advances, however, it can metastasize throughout other areas of the body, such as the bones, lungs, and liver. Surgical resection, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the foundation of current prostate cancer therapies. Treatments for prostate cause both short- and long-term side effects that may be difficult to accept. Molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed to selectively target to unique characteristics of cancer cell growth and metastasis. We have developed the "in vivo microscopy" to study the mechanisms that govern prostate cancer cell spread through the microenvironment in vivo in real-time confocal nearinfrared fluorescence imaging. A recently developed "in vivo flow cytometer" and optical imaging are used to assess prostate cancer cell spreading and the circulation kinetics of prostate cancer cells. A real- time quantitative monitoring of circulating prostate cancer cells by the in vivo flow cytometer will be useful to assess the effectiveness of the potential therapeutic interventions.

  16. AIF inhibits tumor metastasis by protecting PTEN from oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shao-Ming; Guo, Meng; Xiong, Zhong; Yu, Yun; Zhao, Xu-Yun; Zhang, Fei-Fei; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) exerts dual roles on cell death and survival, but its substrates as a putative oxidoreductase and roles in tumorigenesis remain elusive. Here, we report that AIF physically interacts with and inhibits the oxidation of phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN), a tumor suppressor susceptible for oxidation-mediated inactivation. More intriguingly, we also identify PTEN as a mitochondrial protein and the ectopic expression of mitochondrial targeting sequence-carrying PTEN almost completely inhibits Akt phosphorylation in PTEN-deficient cells. AIF knockdown causes oxidation-mediated inactivation of the lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN, with ensuing activation of Akt kinase, phosphorylation of the Akt substrate GSK-3β, and activation of β-catenin signaling in cancer cells. Through its effect on β-catenin signaling, AIF inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis of cancer cells in vitro and in orthotopically implanted xenografts. Accordingly, the expression of AIF is correlated with the survival of human patients with cancers of multiple origins. These results identify PTEN as the substrate of AIF oxidoreductase and reveal a novel function for AIF in controlling tumor metastasis.

  17. Pathogenesis of Breast Cancer Metastasis to Brain: a Comprehensive Approach to the Signaling Network.

    PubMed

    Tayyeb, Bahrami; Parvin, Mehdipour

    2016-01-01

    There is a general consensus that breast cancer is a rising trend disease in the world. It is one of the most common cancer types and is the leading cause of death among women's cancers. There are several reasons for this high rate of mortality including metastasis which is responsible for about 90 % of cancer-related mortality. Therefore, recognition and understanding of metastatic process is important, and by considering the key role of pathophysiological route in metastasis as a multistep cascade of "invasion-metastasis," it might modify and improve our insight toward this complex phenomenon. Moreover, it can provide novel approaches for designing advanced targeted therapies. The present work aimed to review the published papers regarding molecular basis of metastatic process of breast cancer to brain metastasis, especially related genes and signaling network. Furthermore, the use of molecular aspects of metastatic breast cancer to brain was discussed in horizon of future treatment of breast cancer.

  18. ‘The charmingest place’: non-coding RNA, lineage tracing, tumor heterogeneity, metastasis and metabolism - new methods in mammary gland development and cancer: the fifth ENBDC Workshop

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The European Network for Breast Development and Cancer (ENBDC) Workshop on ‘Methods in Mammary Gland Development and Cancer’ has grown into the essential, international technical discussion forum for scientists with interests in the normal and neoplastic breast. The fifth ENBDC meeting was held in Weggis, Switzerland in April, 2013, and focussed on emerging, state-of-the-art techniques for the study of non-coding RNA, lineage tracing, tumor heterogeneity, metastasis and metabolism. PMID:24103450

  19. Breast metastasis from recurrent gallbladder adenocarcinoma: a case report with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Amarti, Lamiae El; Faouzi, Houssin; Salmi, Nariman; Ettahri, Hamza; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; Mrabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-08-01

    Gallbladder adenocarcinoma has a poor prognostic. The leading modes of dissemination in gallbladder cancer (GBC) are lymphatic, vascular, neural, intraperitoneal, and intraductal. The most common site of dissemination is liver. Breast metastasis in GBC is an unusual site of dissemination. Only few cases have been reported in the literature. We report a rare case of solitary breast metastasis from recurrent gallbladder carcinoma in light of existing literature. PMID:27512606

  20. Breast metastasis from recurrent gallbladder adenocarcinoma: a case report with review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Faouzi, Houssin; Salmi, Nariman; Ettahri, Hamza; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; Mrabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder adenocarcinoma has a poor prognostic. The leading modes of dissemination in gallbladder cancer (GBC) are lymphatic, vascular, neural, intraperitoneal, and intraductal. The most common site of dissemination is liver. Breast metastasis in GBC is an unusual site of dissemination. Only few cases have been reported in the literature. We report a rare case of solitary breast metastasis from recurrent gallbladder carcinoma in light of existing literature. PMID:27512606

  1. Context-dependent differences in miR-10b breast oncogenesis can be targeted for the prevention and arrest of lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Yigit, MV; Ghosh, SK; Kumar, M; Petkova, V; Kavishwar, A; Moore, A; Medarova, Z

    2013-01-01

    Metastases, and not the primary tumor from which they originate, are the main reason for mortality from carcinoma. Although the molecular mechanisms behind metastasis are poorly understood, it is clear that epigenetic dysregulation at the level of microRNA expression is a key characteristic of the metastatic process that can be exploited for therapy. Here, we describe an miRNA-targeted therapeutic approach for the prevention and arrest of lymph node metastasis. Therapy relies on the inhibition of the pro-metastatic microRNA-10b. It is delivered to primary and lymph node metastatic tumor cells using an imaging-capable nanodrug that is designed to specifically home to these tissues. Treatment of invasive human breast tumor cells (MDA-MB-231) with the nanodrug in vitro downregulates miR-10b and abolishes the invasion and migration of the tumor cells. After intravenous delivery to mice bearing orthotopic MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2LN tumors, the nanodrug accumulates in the primary tumor and lymph nodes. When treatment is initiated before metastasis to lymph nodes, metastasis is prevented. Treatment after the formation of lymph node metastases arrests the metastatic process without a concomitant effect on primary tumor growth raising the possibility of a context-dependent variation in miR-10b breast oncogenesis. PMID:22580603

  2. An N-terminal truncated carboxypeptidase E splice isoform induces tumor growth and is a biomarker for predicting future metastasis in human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Terence K.; Murthy, Saravana R.K.; Cawley, Niamh X.; Dhanvantari, Savita; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Lou, Hong; Lau, Tracy; Ma, Stephanie; Huynh, Thanh; Wesley, Robert A.; Ng, Irene O.; Pacak, Karel; Poon, Ronnie T.; Loh, Y. Peng

    2011-01-01

    Metastasis is a major cause of mortality in cancer patients. However, the mechanisms governing the metastatic process remain elusive, and few accurate biomarkers exist for predicting whether metastasis will occur, something that would be invaluable for guiding therapy. We report here that the carboxypeptidase E gene (CPE) is alternatively spliced in human tumors to yield an N-terminal truncated protein (CPE-ΔN) that drives metastasis. mRNA encoding CPE-ΔN was found to be elevated in human metastatic colon, breast, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. In HCC cells, cytosolic CPE-ΔN was translocated to the nucleus and interacted with histone deacetylase 1/2 to upregulate expression of the gene encoding neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated gene 9 (Nedd9) — which has been shown to promote melanoma metastasis. Nedd9 upregulation resulted in enhanced in vitro proliferation and invasion. Quantification of mRNA encoding CPE-ΔN in HCC patient samples predicted intrahepatic metastasis with high sensitivity and specificity, independent of cancer stage. Similarly, high CPE-ΔN mRNA copy numbers in resected pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PHEOs/PGLs), rare neuroendocrine tumors, accurately predicted future metastasis or recurrence. Thus, CPE-ΔN induces tumor metastasis and should be investigated as a potentially powerful biomarker for predicting future metastasis and recurrence in HCC and PHEO/PGL patients. PMID:21285511

  3. Blockade of Wnt/β-catenin signaling suppresses breast cancer metastasis by inhibiting CSC-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Jang, Gyu-Beom; Kim, Ji-Young; Cho, Sung-Dae; Park, Ki-Soo; Jung, Ji-Youn; Lee, Hwa-Yong; Hong, In-Sun; Nam, Jeong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    The identification of cancer stem cells (CSCs) represents an important milestone in the understanding of chemodrug resistance and cancer recurrence. More specifically, some studies have suggested that potential metastasis-initiating cells (MICs) might be present within small CSC populations. The targeting and eradication of these cells represents a potential strategy for significantly improving clinical outcomes. A number of studies have suggested that dysregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling occurs in human breast cancer. Consistent with these findings, our previous data have shown that the relative level of Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity in breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) is significantly higher than that in bulk cancer cells. These results suggest that BCSCs could be sensitive to therapeutic approaches targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In this context, abnormal Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity may be an important clinical feature of breast cancer and a predictor of poor survival. We therefore hypothesized that Wnt/β-catenin signaling might regulate self-renewal and CSC migration, thereby enabling metastasis and systemic tumor dissemination in breast cancer. Here, we investigated the effects of inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling on cancer cell migratory potential by examining the expression of CSC-related genes, and we examined how this pathway links metastatic potential with tumor formation in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26202299

  4. Exogenous expression of N-cadherin in breast cancer cells induces cell migration, invasion, and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hazan, R B; Phillips, G R; Qiao, R F; Norton, L; Aaronson, S A

    2000-02-21

    E- and N-cadherin are calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules that mediate cell-cell adhesion and also modulate cell migration and tumor invasiveness. The loss of E-cadherin-mediated adhesion has been shown to play an important role in the transition of epithelial tumors from a benign to an invasive state. However, recent evidence indicates that another member of the cadherin family, N-cadherin, is expressed in highly invasive tumor cell lines that lacked E-cadherin expression. These findings have raised the possibility that N-cadherin contributes to the invasive phenotype. To determine whether N-cadherin promotes invasion and metastasis, we transfected a weakly metastatic and E-cadherin-expressing breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, with N-cadherin and analyzed the effects on cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Transfected cells expressed both E- and N-cadherin and exhibited homotypic cell adhesion from both molecules. In vitro, N-cadherin-expressing cells migrated more efficiently, showed an increased invasion of Matrigel, and adhered more efficiently to monolayers of endothelial cells. All cells produced low levels of the matrix metalloproteinase MMP-9, which was dramatically upregulated by treatment with FGF-2 only in N-cadherin-expressing cells. Migration and invasion of Matrigel were also greatly enhanced by this treatment. When injected into the mammary fat pad of nude mice, N-cadherin-expressing cells, but not control MCF-7 cells, metastasized widely to the liver, pancreas, salivary gland, omentum, lung, lymph nodes, and lumbar spinal muscle. The expression of both E- and N-cadherin was maintained both in the primary tumors and metastatic lesions. These results demonstrate that N-cadherin promotes motility, invasion, and metastasis even in the presence of the normally suppressive E-cadherin. The increase in MMP-9 production by N-cadherin-expressing cells in response to a growth factor may endow them with a greater ability to penetrate matrix protein

  5. Quantitative protein profiling of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis biomarkers in mouse and human models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tumor and stromal cells secrete a variety of proteins acting as extracellular signals and creating a supportive microenvironment for tumor development, angiogenesis, and metastasis. We used the Luminex immunoassay platform (including MILLIPLEX® MAP cytokine/chemokine, bone metabolism, adipocyte, M...

  6. Decreased NK-cell tumour immunosurveillance consequent to JAK inhibition enhances metastasis in breast cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Bottos, Alessia; Gotthardt, Dagmar; Gill, Jason W.; Gattelli, Albana; Frei, Anna; Tzankov, Alexandar; Sexl, Veronika; Wodnar-Filipowicz, Aleksandra; Hynes, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    The JAK/STAT pathway is an attractive target for breast cancer therapy due to its frequent activation, and clinical trials evaluating JAK inhibitors (JAKi) in advanced breast cancer are ongoing. Using patient biopsies and preclinical models of breast cancer, we demonstrate that the JAK/STAT pathway is active in metastasis. Unexpectedly, blocking the pathway with JAKi enhances the metastatic burden in experimental and orthotopic models of breast cancer metastasis. We demonstrate that this prometastatic effect is due to the immunosuppressive activity of JAKi with ensuing impairment of NK-cell-mediated anti-tumour immunity. Furthermore, we show that immunostimulation with IL-15 overcomes the enhancing effect of JAKi on metastasis formation. Our findings highlight the importance of evaluating the effect of targeted therapy on the tumour environment. The impact of JAKi on NK cells and the potential value of immunostimulators to overcome the weakened tumour immunosurveillance, are worthwhile considering in the clinical setting of breast cancer. PMID:27406745

  7. A Giant Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Schillebeeckx, Charlotte; Verbeeck, Guy; Daenen, Geert; Servaes, Dirk; Bronckaers, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare, accounting for less than 1% of the breast tumors. They are mostly seen in women between 45 and 49 years old. These are fast growing tumors with a large spectrum of behavior (from benign to metastatic) and can resemble fibroadenomas. Correct diagnosis mostly through core needle biopsy is important to decide whether a surgical excision has to be done. Here we report a case of a 57-year-old woman with a fast growing, ulcerated tumor in the left breast. Core needle biopsy suggested a malignant phyllodes tumor with heterologous liposarcomatous differentiation. Treatment with total mastectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy followed. Primary treatment is always surgery, whether radiotherapy or chemotherapy has to follow remains uncertain. There is a high-recurrence rate, especially when the surgical margins are narrow. PMID:27746880

  8. A New Herbal Formula, KSG-002, Suppresses Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis by Targeting NF-κB-Dependent TNFα Production in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Sang-Mi; Choi, Youn Kyung; Cho, Sung-Gook; Park, Sunju; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in tumor microenvironment regulate cancer progression and metastases. In breast cancer, macrophage infiltration is correlated with a poor prognosis. While metastatic breast cancer is poor prognostic with a severe mortality, therapeutic options are still limited. In this study, we demonstrate that KSG-002, a new herbal composition of radices Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica gigas, suppresses breast cancer via inhibiting TAM recruitment. KSG-002, an extract of radices Astragalus membranaceus and Angelica gigas at 3 : 1 ratio, respectively, inhibited MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis in nude mice, while KSG-001, another composition (1 : 1 ratio, w/w), enhanced tumor growth, angiogenesis, and pulmonary metastasis, in vivo. KSG-002 further decreased the infiltrated macrophage numbers in xenograft tumor cohorts. In Raw264.7 cells, KSG-002 but not KSG-001 inhibited cell proliferation and migration and reduced TNF-alpha (TNFα) production by inhibiting NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, a combinatorial treatment of KSG-002 with TNFα inhibited a proliferation and migration of both MDA-MB-231 and Raw264.7 cells. Taken together, we conclude that KSG-002 suppresses breast cancer growth and metastasis through targeting NF-κB-mediated TNFα production in macrophages. PMID:23818931

  9. Tumor-Associated Endothelial Cells Promote Tumor Metastasis by Chaperoning Circulating Tumor Cells and Protecting Them from Anoikis.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Arti; Kumar, Bhavna; Yu, Jun-Ge; Old, Matthew; Teknos, Theodoros N; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is a highly inefficient biological process as millions of tumor cells are released in circulation each day and only a few of them are able to successfully form distal metastatic nodules. This could be due to the fact that most of the epithelial origin cancer cells are anchorage-dependent and undergo rapid anoikis in harsh circulating conditions. A number of studies have shown that in addition to tumor cells, activated endothelial cells are also released into the blood circulation from the primary tumors. However, the precise role of these activated circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in tumor metastasis process is not known. Therefore, we performed a series of experiments to examine if CECs promoted tumor metastasis by chaperoning the tumor cells to distal sites. Our results demonstrate that blood samples from head and neck cancer patients contain significantly higher Bcl-2-positive CECs as compared to healthy volunteers. Technically, it is challenging to know the origin of CECs in patient blood samples, therefore we used an orthotopic SCID mouse model and co-implanted GFP-labeled endothelial cells along with tumor cells. Our results suggest that activated CECs (Bcl-2-positive) were released from primary tumors and they co-migrated with tumor cells to distal sites. Bcl-2 overexpression in endothelial cells (EC-Bcl-2) significantly enhanced adhesion molecule expression and tumor cell binding that was predominantly mediated by E-selectin. In addition, tumor cells bound to EC-Bcl-2 showed a significantly higher anoikis resistance via the activation of Src-FAK pathway. In our in vivo experiments, we observed significantly higher lung metastasis when tumor cells were co-injected with EC-Bcl-2 as compared to EC-VC. E-selectin knockdown in EC-Bcl-2 cells or FAK/FUT3 knockdown in tumor cells significantly reversed EC-Bcl-2-mediated tumor metastasis. Taken together, our results suggest a novel role for CECs in protecting the tumor cells in circulation and

  10. Tumor-Associated Endothelial Cells Promote Tumor Metastasis by Chaperoning Circulating Tumor Cells and Protecting Them from Anoikis.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Arti; Kumar, Bhavna; Yu, Jun-Ge; Old, Matthew; Teknos, Theodoros N; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is a highly inefficient biological process as millions of tumor cells are released in circulation each day and only a few of them are able to successfully form distal metastatic nodules. This could be due to the fact that most of the epithelial origin cancer cells are anchorage-dependent and undergo rapid anoikis in harsh circulating conditions. A number of studies have shown that in addition to tumor cells, activated endothelial cells are also released into the blood circulation from the primary tumors. However, the precise role of these activated circulating endothelial cells (CECs) in tumor metastasis process is not known. Therefore, we performed a series of experiments to examine if CECs promoted tumor metastasis by chaperoning the tumor cells to distal sites. Our results demonstrate that blood samples from head and neck cancer patients contain significantly higher Bcl-2-positive CECs as compared to healthy volunteers. Technically, it is challenging to know the origin of CECs in patient blood samples, therefore we used an orthotopic SCID mouse model and co-implanted GFP-labeled endothelial cells along with tumor cells. Our results suggest that activated CECs (Bcl-2-positive) were released from primary tumors and they co-migrated with tumor cells to distal sites. Bcl-2 overexpression in endothelial cells (EC-Bcl-2) significantly enhanced adhesion molecule expression and tumor cell binding that was predominantly mediated by E-selectin. In addition, tumor cells bound to EC-Bcl-2 showed a significantly higher anoikis resistance via the activation of Src-FAK pathway. In our in vivo experiments, we observed significantly higher lung metastasis when tumor cells were co-injected with EC-Bcl-2 as compared to EC-VC. E-selectin knockdown in EC-Bcl-2 cells or FAK/FUT3 knockdown in tumor cells significantly reversed EC-Bcl-2-mediated tumor metastasis. Taken together, our results suggest a novel role for CECs in protecting the tumor cells in circulation and

  11. Metastasis signatures: genes regulating tumor-microenvironment interactions predict metastatic behavior.

    PubMed

    Albini, Adriana; Mirisola, Valentina; Pfeffer, Ulrich

    2008-03-01

    The possibility of predicting clinical outcome of cancer patients through the analysis of gene expression profiles in the primary tumor is a kind of ideological revolution as the multistep carcinogenesis model postulates that the proportion of cells within the primary tumor that actually acquire metastasis driving mutation(s) is small; too small to leave its imprint on the gene expression profile. The data collected to date have brought a new paradigm to reality in the metastasis field: metastasis must at least in part rely on mutations and/or gene regulation events present in the majority of cells which constitute the primary tumor mass. By analyses of differential expression of primary tumors versus metastases or by functional analyses of putative metastasis genes in experimental metastasis, many metastasis-associated gene expression events have been identified that correlate with the development of metastases. Among genes "favoring" metastasis, we find many molecules that are expressed not by the tumor cell itself but by the cells of the microenvironment, as well as genes over-expressed in the primary tumor that have a principle role in mediating tumor-host interactions. Here we review these concepts and advance hypotheses on how gene expression of the primary tumor and the microenvironment can favor the spread of the metastasis seeds and how this knowledge can provide tools to secondary prevention.

  12. The Circadian Rhythm Gene Arntl2 Is a Metastasis Susceptibility Gene for Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ngoc-Han; Long, Jirong; Cai, Qiuyin; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality is primarily due to metastasis rather than primary tumors, yet relatively little is understood regarding the etiology of metastatic breast cancer. Previously, using a mouse genetics approach, we demonstrated that inherited germline polymorphisms contribute to metastatic disease, and that these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be used to predict outcome in breast cancer patients. In this study, a backcross between a highly metastatic (FVB/NJ) and low metastatic (MOLF/EiJ) mouse strain identified Arntl2, a gene encoding a circadian rhythm transcription factor, as a metastasis susceptibility gene associated with progression, specifically in estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer patients. Integrated whole genome sequence analysis with DNase hypersensitivity sites reveals SNPs in the predicted promoter of Arntl2. Using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated substitution of the MOLF promoter, we demonstrate that the SNPs regulate Arntl2 transcription and affect metastatic burden. Finally, analysis of SNPs associated with ARNTL2 expression in human breast cancer patients revealed reproducible associations of ARNTL2 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) SNPs with disease-free survival, consistent with the mouse studies. PMID:27656887

  13. Genomic landscapes of breast fibroepithelial tumors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jing; Ong, Choon Kiat; Lim, Weng Khong; Ng, Cedric Chuan Young; Thike, Aye Aye; Ng, Ley Moy; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Myint, Swe Swe; Nagarajan, Sanjanaa; Thangaraju, Saranya; Dey, Sucharita; Nasir, Nur Diyana Md; Wijaya, Giovani Claresta; Lim, Jing Quan; Huang, Dachuan; Li, Zhimei; Wong, Bernice Huimin; Chan, Jason Yong Sheng; McPherson, John R; Cutcutache, Ioana; Poore, Gregory; Tay, Su Ting; Tan, Wai Jin; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Ahmad, Buhari Shaik; Iau, Philip; Chan, Ching Wan; Tang, Anthony P H; Yong, Wei Sean; Madhukumar, Preetha; Ho, Gay Hui; Tan, Veronique Kiak Mien; Wong, Chow Yin; Hartman, Mikael; Ong, Kong Wee; Tan, Benita K T; Rozen, Steven G; Tan, Patrick; Tan, Puay Hoon; Teh, Bin Tean

    2015-11-01

    Breast fibroepithelial tumors comprise a heterogeneous spectrum of pathological entities, from benign fibroadenomas to malignant phyllodes tumors. Although MED12 mutations have been frequently found in fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors, the landscapes of genetic alterations across the fibroepithelial tumor spectrum remain unclear. Here, by performing exome sequencing of 22 phyllodes tumors followed by targeted sequencing of 100 breast fibroepithelial tumors, we observed three distinct somatic mutation patterns. First, we frequently observed MED12 and RARA mutations in both fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors, emphasizing the importance of these mutations in fibroepithelial tumorigenesis. Second, phyllodes tumors exhibited mutations in FLNA, SETD2 and KMT2D, suggesting a role in driving phyllodes tumor development. Third, borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors harbored additional mutations in cancer-associated genes. RARA mutations exhibited clustering in the portion of the gene encoding the ligand-binding domain, functionally suppressed RARA-mediated transcriptional activation and enhanced RARA interactions with transcriptional co-repressors. This study provides insights into the molecular pathogenesis of breast fibroepithelial tumors, with potential clinical implications. PMID:26437033

  14. Breast metastasis from lung cancer: a report of two cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Wang, Shu-Ling; Shen, Hong-Hong; Niu, Feng-Ting; Niu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Breast metastasis from extra-mammary malignancy is rare. An incidence of 0.4% to 1.3% has been reported in literature. The primary malignancies that most commonly metastasize to the breast are leukemia, lymphoma, and malignant melanoma. In this report, two cases of pulmonary metastasis to the breast were presented. A 40-year-old female manifested a right breast mass of 2-month duration. After physical examination was performed, a poorly defined mass was noted in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast. Another 49-year-old female manifested right breast mass of 5-day duration. A poorly defined mass was noted in the lower inner quadrant of the right breast. Mammography results also revealed breast cancer. The patients underwent local excision. After histological and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted, a primary lung carcinoma that metastasized to the breast was diagnosed. An accurate differentiation of metastasis to the breast from primary breast cancer is very important because the treatment and prognosis of the two differ significantly. PMID:25364582

  15. Polyclonal breast cancer metastases arise from collective dissemination of keratin 14-expressing tumor cell clusters

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Kevin J.; Padmanaban, Veena; Silvestri, Vanesa; Schipper, Koen; Cohen, Joshua D.; Fairchild, Amanda N.; Gorin, Michael A.; Verdone, James E.; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Bader, Joel S.; Ewald, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent genomic studies challenge the conventional model that each metastasis must arise from a single tumor cell and instead reveal that metastases can be composed of multiple genetically distinct clones. These intriguing observations raise the question: How do polyclonal metastases emerge from the primary tumor? In this study, we used multicolor lineage tracing to demonstrate that polyclonal seeding by cell clusters is a frequent mechanism in a common mouse model of breast cancer, accounting for >90% of metastases. We directly observed multicolored tumor cell clusters across major stages of metastasis, including collective invasion, local dissemination, intravascular emboli, circulating tumor cell clusters, and micrometastases. Experimentally aggregating tumor cells into clusters induced a >15-fold increase in colony formation ex vivo and a >100-fold increase in metastasis formation in vivo. Intriguingly, locally disseminated clusters, circulating tumor cell clusters, and lung micrometastases frequently expressed the epithelial cytoskeletal protein, keratin 14 (K14). RNA-seq analysis revealed that K14+ cells were enriched for desmosome and hemidesmosome adhesion complex genes, and were depleted for MHC class II genes. Depletion of K14 expression abrogated distant metastases and disrupted expression of multiple metastasis effectors, including Tenascin C (Tnc), Jagged1 (Jag1), and Epiregulin (Ereg). Taken together, our findings reveal K14 as a key regulator of metastasis and establish the concept that K14+ epithelial tumor cell clusters disseminate collectively to colonize distant organs. PMID:26831077

  16. Global Gene Expression Analysis of the Interaction between Cancer Cells and Osteoblasts to Predict Bone Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rajski, Michal; Vogel, Brigitte; Baty, Florent; Rochlitz, Christoph; Buess, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background Bone metastasis is a main cause of morbidity in breast cancer. Since breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, the interactions of cancer cells with the skeletal host cells might also be diverse. We hypothesized that gene expression signatures induced by heterotypic interaction of breast cancer cells and osteoblasts might be of clinical relevance. Methodology/Principal Findings We established an ex vivo co-culture model using benign breast epithelial cells or a panel of 5 malignant breast epithelial cells in combination with primary human osteoblasts and determined associated gene expression changes with HEEBO microarrays. Pretreatment gene expression profiles of 295 early stage breast cancers published from the Netherlands Cancer Institute with a median follow up of 12.6 years allowed evaluating in vitro effects in the in vivo situation.The effects of the interaction between osteoblasts and breast cancer cell lines of different origin were very heterogeneous. Hs578T cells started to proliferate in co-culture with osteoblasts, SKBR-3 induced a TGF-β response and MDA-MB231 cells showed two distinct sets of up-regulated genes: A set of interferon response genes associated with an up-regulation of STAT1 was in vivo remarkably coherent providing a basis for segregation of tumors into two groups. In a uni-variate analysis, early stage tumors with high expression levels (n = 136) of this gene set had a significantly lower overall survival rate (p = 0.005) (63% at 10 years) than tumors with low expression levels (n = 159) (overall survival: 77% at 10 years). The second gene set was associated with IL-6 and did not significantly change the overall survival rate (p = 0.165), but was significantly associated with a shorter time to bone metastasis (p = 0.049; 74% vs. 83% at 10 years). Conclusion/Significance An IL-6 gene expression pattern induced by heterotypic interaction of breast cancer cells with osteoblasts in vitro is associated with a

  17. Metformin may protect nondiabetic breast cancer women from metastasis.

    PubMed

    El-Haggar, Sahar Mohammed; El-Shitany, Nagla A; Mostafa, Mohamed Farouk; El-Bassiouny, Noha Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Metformin, a widely prescribed oral hypoglycemic agent, has recently received a big interest because of its potential antitumorigenic effects in different cancer types. The present study investigated the impact of adding metformin to breast cancer adjuvant therapy in nondiabetic women on, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), insulin, fasting blood glucose (FBG), the molar ratio of IGF-1 to IGFBP-3, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and metastasis. 102 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer were divided into 2 main groups, a control group and a metformin group. All women were treated with adjuvant therapy, according to the protocols of Ministry of Health and Population and National Cancer Institute, Egypt. Moreover, the women in the metformin group received 850 mg of metformin twice daily. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after chemotherapy (CT), after 6 months of hormonal therapy (6-HT) and 12 months of hormonal therapy (12-HT) for analysis of serum IGF-1, IGFBP-3, insulin, FBG and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3). Metformin resulted in a significant reduction of IGF-1, IGF-1: IGFBP-3 molar ratio, insulin, FBG and HOMA-IR. On the other hand, metformin caused a significant increase of IGFBP-3. Moreover, metformin significantly decreased the numbers of metastatic cases after 6-HT. Metformin may have potential antitumor and antimetastatic effects that need further clinical investigations. This may be attributed to either the significant increase of the apoptotic inducer IGFBP-3 or/and the significant reduction of mitogenic insulin, IGF-1, free bioactive IGF-1, FBG and HOMA-IR. PMID:26902691

  18. Metformin may protect nondiabetic breast cancer women from metastasis.

    PubMed

    El-Haggar, Sahar Mohammed; El-Shitany, Nagla A; Mostafa, Mohamed Farouk; El-Bassiouny, Noha Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Metformin, a widely prescribed oral hypoglycemic agent, has recently received a big interest because of its potential antitumorigenic effects in different cancer types. The present study investigated the impact of adding metformin to breast cancer adjuvant therapy in nondiabetic women on, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), insulin, fasting blood glucose (FBG), the molar ratio of IGF-1 to IGFBP-3, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and metastasis. 102 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer were divided into 2 main groups, a control group and a metformin group. All women were treated with adjuvant therapy, according to the protocols of Ministry of Health and Population and National Cancer Institute, Egypt. Moreover, the women in the metformin group received 850 mg of metformin twice daily. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after chemotherapy (CT), after 6 months of hormonal therapy (6-HT) and 12 months of hormonal therapy (12-HT) for analysis of serum IGF-1, IGFBP-3, insulin, FBG and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3). Metformin resulted in a significant reduction of IGF-1, IGF-1: IGFBP-3 molar ratio, insulin, FBG and HOMA-IR. On the other hand, metformin caused a significant increase of IGFBP-3. Moreover, metformin significantly decreased the numbers of metastatic cases after 6-HT. Metformin may have potential antitumor and antimetastatic effects that need further clinical investigations. This may be attributed to either the significant increase of the apoptotic inducer IGFBP-3 or/and the significant reduction of mitogenic insulin, IGF-1, free bioactive IGF-1, FBG and HOMA-IR.

  19. Bevacizumab Inhibits Breast Cancer-Induced Osteolysis, Surrounding Soft Tissue Metastasis, and Angiogenesis in Rats as Visualized by VCT and MRI1

    PubMed Central

    Bäuerle, Tobias; Hilbig, Heidegard; Bartling, Sönke; Kiessling, Fabian; Kersten, Astrid; Schmitt-Gräff, Annette; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Delorme, Stefan; Berger, Martin R

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an antiangiogenic treatment with the vascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab in an experimental model of breast cancer bone metastasis and to monitor osteolysis, soft tissue tumor, and angiogenesis in bone metastasis noninvasively by volumetric computed tomography (VCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After inoculation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells into nude rats, bone metastasis was monitored with contrast-enhanced VCT and MRI from day 30 to day 70 after tumor cell inoculation, respectively. Thereby, animals of the treatment group (10 mg/kg bevacizumab IV weekly, n = 15) were compared with sham-treated animals (n = 17). Treatment with bevacizumab resulted in a significant difference versus control in osteolytic as well as soft tissue lesion sizes (days 50 to 70 and 40 to 70 after tumor cell inoculation, respectively; P < .05). This observation was paralleled with significantly reduced vascularization in the treatment group as shown by reduced increase in relative signal intensity in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI from days 40 to 70 (P < .05). Contrast-enhanced VCT and histology confirmed decreased angiogenesis as well as new bone formation after application of bevacizumab. In conclusion, bevacizumab significantly inhibited osteolysis, surrounding soft tissue tumor growth, and angiogenesis in an experimental model of breast cancer bone metastasis as visualized by VCT and MRI. PMID:18472968

  20. An novel inhibitor of TGF-β type I receptor, IN-1130, blocks breast cancer lung metastasis through inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Yong; Min, Kyung Nan; Son, Jee-Yeon; Park, So-Yeon; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Kim, Dae-Kee; Sheen, Yhun Yhong

    2014-08-28

    TGF-β signaling plays an important role in breast cancer progression and metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important step in the progression of solid tumors to metastatic disease. We previously reported that IN-1130, a novel transforming growth factor-β type I receptor kinase (ALK5) inhibitor, suppressed renal fibrosis in obstructive nephropathy (Moon et al., 2006). Here, we show that IN-1130 suppressed EMT and the lung metastasis of mammary tumors in mouse models. Treating human and mouse cell lines with IN-1130 inhibited TGF-β-mediated transcriptional activation, the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad2, and TGF-β-induced-EMT, which induces morphological changes in epithelial cells. Additionally, we demonstrated that IN-1130 blocked TGF-β-induced 4T1 mammary cancer cell migration and invasion. The TGF-β-mediated increase in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expression was restored by IN-1130 co-treatment with TGF-β in human epithelial cells and in 4T1 cells. Furthermore, we found that lung metastasis from primary breast cancer was inhibited by IN-1130 in both 4T1-xenografted BALB/c mice and MMTV/c-Neu transgenic mice without any change in primary tumor volume. IN-1130 prolonged the life span of tumor-bearing mice. In summary, this study indicated that IN-1130 has therapeutic potential for preventing breast cancer metastasis to the lung.

  1. Pancreatic metastasis from mycosis fungoides mimicking primary pancreatic tumor.

    PubMed

    Ceriolo, Paola; Fausti, Valentina; Cinotti, Elisa; Bonadio, Silvia; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Bianchi, Giovanna; Orcioni, Giulio Fraternali; Fiocca, Roberto; Rongioletti, Franco; Pistoia, Vito; Borgonovo, Giacomo

    2016-03-28

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that can undergo local progression with possible systemic dissemination. We report a case of a patient affected by MF with a pancreatic mass that was a diagnostic challenge between primitive tumor and pancreatic metastasis from MF. Clinical setting findings and imaging studies raised the suspicion of a pancreatic primary neoplasm. A diagnostic clue was provided by the combined histomorphologic/immunohistochemical study of pancreatic and cutaneous biopsies, which revealed a pancreatic localization of MF. Considering the rarity of metastatic localization of MF to the pancreas, we next investigated whether chemokine-chemokine receptor interactions could be involved in the phenomenon to provide new insight into the possible mechanisms underlying metastatic localization of MF to the pancreas. Histological analyses of archival pancreatic tissue demonstrated that glucagon-secreting cells of the pancreatic islets expressed the CCL27 chemokine, which may have attracted in our case metastatic MF cells expressing the complementary receptor CCR10.

  2. Meningeal Solitary Fibrous Tumors with Delayed Extracranial Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Nayoung; Kim, Hannah; Min, Soo Kee; Paek, Sun-Ha; Park, Chul-Kee; Choi, Seung-Hong; Chae, U-Ri; Park, Sung-Hye

    2016-01-01

    Background: The term solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is preferred over meningeal hemangiopericytoma (HPC), because NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion has been observed in both intracranial and extracranial HPCs. HPCs are now considered cellular variants of SFTs. Methods: This study analyzes 19 patients with STAT6-confirmed SFTs, who were followed for over 11 years in a single institution. Ten patients (10/19, 56.2%) had extracranial metastases (metastatic group), while the remainder (9/19) did not (non-metastatic group). These two groups were compared clinicopathologically. Results: In the metastatic group, the primary metastatic sites were the lungs (n = 6), bone (n = 4), and liver (n = 3). There was a mean lag time of 14.2 years between the diagnosis of the initial meningeal tumor to that of systemic metastasis. The median age at initial tumor onset was 37.1 years in the metastatic group and 52.5 in the non-metastatic group. The 10-year survival rates of the metastatic- and non-metastatic groups were 100% and 33%, respectively. The significant prognostic factors for poor outcomes on univariate analysis included advanced age (≥45 years) and large initial tumor size (≥5 cm). In contrast, the patients with higher tumor grade, high mitotic rate (≥5/10 high-power fields), high Ki-67 index (≥5%), and the presence of necrosis or CD34 positivity showed tendency of poor prognosis but these parameters were not statistically significant poor prognostic markers. Conclusions: Among patients with SFTs, younger patients (<45 years) experienced longer survival times and paradoxically had more frequent extracranial metastases after long latent periods than did older patients. Therefore, young patients with SFTs require careful surveillance and follow-up for early detection of systemic metastases. PMID:26657311

  3. CD47 Promotes Tumor Invasion and Metastasis in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hui; Wang, Jianxin; Kong, Xiaodan; Li, Encheng; Liu, Yuanbin; Du, Xiaohui; Kang, Zhijie; Tang, Ying; Kuang, Yanbin; Yang, Zhihui; Zhou, Youwen; Wang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    CD47 is overexpressed in many human cancers, its level positively correlates with tumor invasion and metastasis. However, it is largely unknown whether CD47 overexpression drives metastasis and how CD47 lead to tumor metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we analyzed NSCLC specimens and cell lines, and revealed that CD47 is expressed at a higher level than in tumor-free control samples. Furthermore, increased CD47 expression correlated with clinical staging, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. In order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying CD47 functions, we applied both gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches in cell lines. The siRNA-mediated downregulation of CD47 inhibited cell invasion and metastasis in vitro, while the overexpression of CD47 by plasmid transfection generated opposite effects. In vivo, CD47-specific shRNA significantly reduced tumor growth and metastasis. On the molecular level, the expression of CD47 correlated with that of Cdc42, both in cell lines and NSCLC specimens. The inhibition of Cdc42 attenuates the invasion and metastasis of CD47-overexpressing cells. These results indicate that Cdc42 is a downstream mediator of CD47-promoted metastasis. Our findings provide first evidence that CD47 is an adverse prognostic factor for disease progression and metastasis, and a promising therapeutic target for NSCLC. PMID:27411490

  4. Astrocyte Elevated Gene (AEG)-1: recent insights into a novel gene involved in tumor progression, metastasis and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Emdad, Luni; Sarkar, Devanand; Su, Zao-Zhong; Lee, Seok-Geun; Kang, Dong-chul; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Volsky, David J.; Fisher, Paul B.

    2007-01-01

    Tumor progression and metastasis are complex processes involving intricate interplay among multiple gene products. Astrocyte Elevated Gene (AEG)-1 was cloned as an HIV-1- and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)-inducible transcript in primary human fetal astrocytes by a rapid subtraction hybridization approach. AEG-1 downregulates the expression of the glutamate transporter EAAT2, thus it is implicated in glutamate-induced excitotoxic damage to neurons as evident in HIV-associated neurodegeneration. Interestingly, AEG-1 expression is elevated in subsets of breast cancer, glioblastoma multiforme and melanoma cells and AEG-1 cooperates with Ha-ras to augment the transformed phenotype of normal immortal cells. Moreover, AEG-1 is overexpressed in >95% of human malignant glioma samples when compared with normal human brain. Overexpression of AEG-1 increases and siRNA inhibition of AEG-1 decreases migration and invasion of human glioma cells, respectively. AEG-1 contains a lung-homing domain facilitating breast tumor metastasis to lungs. These findings indicate that AEG-1 might play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis, progression and metastasis of diverse cancers. Our recent observations indicate that AEG-1 exerts its effects by activating the NF-κB pathway and AEG-1 is a downstream target of Ha-ras and plays an important role in Ha-ras-mediated tumorigenesis. These provocative findings are intensifying interest in AEG-1 as a crucial regulator of tumor progression and metastasis and as a potential mediator of neurodegeneration. In this review, we discuss the cloning, structure and function(s) of AEG-1 and provide recent insights into the diverse actions and intriguing properties of this molecule. PMID:17397930

  5. The Metastasis-Promoting Roles of Tumor-Associated Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Heath A.; Kang, Yibin

    2013-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is driven not only by the accumulation of intrinsic alterations in malignant cells, but also by the interactions of cancer cells with various stromal cell components of the tumor microenvironment. In particular, inflammation and infiltration of the tumor tissue by host immune cells, such as tumor-associated macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and regulatory T cells have been shown to support tumor growth in addition to invasion and metastasis. Each step of tumor development, from initiation through metastatic spread, is promoted by communication between tumor and immune cells via the secretion of cytokines, growth factors and proteases that remodel the tumor microenvironment. Invasion and metastasis requires neovascularization, breakdown of the basement membrane, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix for tumor cell invasion and extravasation into the blood and lymphatic vessels. The subsequent dissemination of tumor cells to distant organ sites necessitates a treacherous journey through the vasculature, which is fostered by close association with platelets and macrophages. Additionally, the establishment of the pre-metastatic niche and specific metastasis organ tropism is fostered by neutrophils and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic immune progenitor cells and other inflammatory cytokines derived from tumor and immune cells, which alter the local environment of the tissue to promote adhesion of circulating tumor cells. This review focuses on the interactions between tumor cells and immune cells recruited to the tumor microenvironment, and examines the factors allowing these cells to promote each stage of metastasis. PMID:23515621

  6. Nav1.5 regulates breast tumor growth and metastatic dissemination in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michaela; Yang, Ming; Millican-Slater, Rebecca; Brackenbury, William J

    2015-10-20

    Voltage-gated Na+ channels (VGSCs) mediate action potential firing and regulate adhesion and migration in excitable cells. VGSCs are also expressed in cancer cells. In metastatic breast cancer (BCa) cells, the Nav1.5 α subunit potentiates migration and invasion. In addition, the VGSC-inhibiting antiepileptic drug phenytoin inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. However, the functional activity of Nav1.5 and its specific contribution to tumor progression in vivo has not been delineated. Here, we found that Nav1.5 is up-regulated at the protein level in BCa compared with matched normal breast tissue. Na+ current, reversibly blocked by tetrodotoxin, was retained in cancer cells in tumor tissue slices, thus directly confirming functional VGSC activity in vivo. Stable down-regulation of Nav1.5 expression significantly reduced tumor growth, local invasion into surrounding tissue, and metastasis to liver, lungs and spleen in an orthotopic BCa model. Nav1.5 down-regulation had no effect on cell proliferation or angiogenesis within the in tumors, but increased apoptosis. In vitro, Nav1.5 down-regulation altered cell morphology and reduced CD44 expression, suggesting that VGSC activity may regulate cellular invasion via the CD44-src-cortactin signaling axis. We conclude that Nav1.5 is functionally active in cancer cells in breast tumors, enhancing growth and metastatic dissemination. These findings support the notion that compounds targeting Nav1.5 may be useful for reducing metastasis. PMID:26452220

  7. Cancer stem cells from human breast tumors are involved in spontaneous metastases in orthotopic mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiping; Patel, Manishkumar R.; Prescher, Jennifer A.; Patsialou, Antonia; Qian, Dalong; Lin, Jiahui; Wen, Susanna; Chang, Ya-Fang; Bachmann, Michael H.; Shimono, Yohei; Dalerba, Piero; Adorno, Maddalena; Lobo, Neethan; Bueno, Janet; Dirbas, Frederick M.; Goswami, Sumanta; Somlo, George; Condeelis, John; Contag, Christopher H.; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Clarke, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the role of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) in metastasis, we generated human-in-mouse breast cancer orthotopic models using patient tumor specimens, labeled with optical reporter fusion genes. These models recapitulate human cancer features not captured with previous models, including spontaneous metastasis in particular, and provide a useful platform for studies of breast tumor initiation and progression. With noninvasive imaging approaches, as few as 10 cells of stably labeled BCSCs could be tracked in vivo, enabling studies of early tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis. These advances in BCSC imaging revealed that CD44+ cells from both primary tumors and lung metastases are highly enriched for tumor-initiating cells. Our metastatic cancer models, combined with noninvasive imaging techniques, constitute an integrated approach that could be applied to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying the dissemination of metastatic CSCs (MCSCs) and to explore therapeutic strategies targeting MCSCs in general or to evaluate individual patient tumor cells and predict response to therapy. PMID:20921380

  8. Tumor cell-activated CARD9 signaling contributes to metastasis-associated macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Yang, M; Shao, J-H; Miao, Y-J; Cui, W; Qi, Y-F; Han, J-H; Lin, X; Du, J

    2014-08-01

    Macrophages are critical immune effector cells of the tumor microenvironment that promote seeding, extravasation and persistent growth of tumor cells in primary tumors and metastatic sites. Tumor progression and metastasis are affected by dynamic changes in the specific phenotypes of macrophage subpopulations; however, the mechanisms by which tumor cells modulate macrophage polarization remain incompletely understood. Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) is a central adaptor protein of innate immune responses to extracellular pathogens. We report that increased CARD9 expression is primarily localized in infiltrated macrophages and significantly associated with advanced histopathologic stage and the presence of metastasis. Using CARD9-deficient (CARD9(-/-)) mice, we show that bone marrow-derived CARD9 promotes liver metastasis of colon carcinoma cells. Mechanistic studies reveal that CARD9 contributes to tumor metastasis by promoting metastasis-associated macrophage polarization through activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway. We further demonstrate that tumor cell-secreted vascular endothelial growth factor facilitates spleen tyrosine kinase activation in macrophages, which is necessary for formation of the CARD9-B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 complex. Taken together, our results indicating that CARD9 is a regulator of metastasis-associated macrophages will lead to new insights into evolution of the microenvironments supporting tumor metastasis, thereby providing targets for anticancer therapies.

  9. Identification of VEGF-regulated genes associated with increased lung metastatic potential: functional involvement of tenascin-C in tumor growth and lung metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, A; Catena, R; Noble, MS; Carbott, D; Gil-Bazo, I; Gonzalez-Moreno, O; Huh, J-I; Sharp, R; Qiu, T-H; Anver, MR; Merlino, G; Dickson, RB; Johnson, MD; Green, JE

    2009-01-01

    Metastasis is the primary cause of death in patients with breast cancer. Overexpression of c-myc in humans correlates with metastases, but transgenic mice only show low rates of micrometastases. We have generated transgenic mice that overexpress both c-myc and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (Myc/VEGF) in the mammary gland, which develop high rates of pulmonary macrometastases. Gene expression profiling revealed a set of deregulated genes in Myc/VEGF tumors compared to Myc tumors associated with the increased metastatic phenotype. Cross-comparisons between this set of genes with a human breast cancer lung metastasis gene signature identified five common targets: tenascin-C (TNC), matrix metalloprotease-2, collagen-6-A1, mannosidase-α-1A and HLA-DPA1. Signaling blockade or knockdown of TNC in MDA-MB-435 cells resulted in a significant impairment of cell migration and anchorage-independent cell proliferation. Mice injected with clonal MDA-MB-435 cells with reduced expression of TNC demonstrated a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in (1) primary tumor growth; (2) tumor relapse after surgical removal of the primary tumor and (3) incidence of lung metastasis. Our results demonstrate that VEGF induces complex alterations in tissue architecture and gene expression. The TNC signaling pathway plays an important role in mammary tumor growth and metastases, suggesting that TNC may be a relevant target for therapy against metastatic breast cancer. PMID:18504437

  10. Endobronchial metastasis of mixed germ cell tumors: two cases.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Ayperi; Aktaş, Zafer; Yılmaz, Aydın

    2016-06-01

    Lung metastases from extrapulmonary malignancies are common however endobronchial metastases (EBM) from nonpulmonary neoplasms are rare. A variety of extrathoracic tumors have a tendency to EBM especially breast, colon, and renal carcinomas are most frequent reported tumors however EBM of germ cell tumors are extremely rare. A 39-year-old and a 27-year-old male patient were admitted to our hospital with hemoptysis and dyspnea at different times. Both of them had a history of left orchiectomy due to mixed germ cell tumor two years and one year ago, respectively. On chest X-Ray and thorax computed tomography, first had a right upper lobe atelectasis and second had right total atelectasis. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) performed and a vascularized endobronchial lesion (EBL) which tended to bleed was seen in the orifis of right upper lobe in the first case and right main bronchus was totally obstructed by EBL also in the second. Interventional bronchoscopy was performed via rigid bronchoscopy for biopsy and palliative treatment (argon plasma coagulation and debulking) in both two patients because of tendency to bleeding. A partial aperture was achieved at right upper lobe bronchus in the first case and total atelectasis resolved in the second case. Immunohistochemically, histopathological examinations of both patients biopsies confirmed EBM of mixed germ cell tumors. In conclusion, EBM of the germ cell tumors especially with total or partial atelectasis are extremely rare. We want to present these cases to emphasize the importance of distinguishing EBM from primary lung carcinoma which treatment and survival could be different. PMID:27481085

  11. Engagement of I-branching {beta}-1, 6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 in breast cancer metastasis and TGF-{beta} signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijun; Meng, Fanyan; Wu, Sherwin; Kreike, Bas; Sethi, Seema; Chen, Wei; Miller, Fred R; Wu, Guojun

    2011-07-15

    In this study, we have showed that GCNT2, a gene-encoding glucosaminyl (N-acetyl) transferase 2, I-branching enzyme, is overexpressed in highly metastatic breast cancer cell lines of human and mouse origin and basal-like breast tumor samples. GCNT2 expression is also significantly correlated to the metastatic phenotype in breast tumor samples. Functional studies showed that ectopic expression of GCNT2 enhances cell detachment, adhesion to endothelial cells, cell migration and invasion in vitro, and lung metastasis of breast cancer cells in vivo. Knockdown of GCNT2 expression decreases cell migration and invasion in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. We have further shown the involvement of GCNT2 in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Specifically, the expression of E-cadherin is significantly changed upon GCNT2 expression at the protein level but not at the RNA level. Moreover, we have shown that GCNT2 is a direct target of the TGF-β-smad pathway and that change in GCNT2 expression modulates EMT induced by TGF-β1 treatment. Finally, we have shown that diminution of the glycosyltransferase activity of I-branching β-1, 6-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase 2 (GCNT2) abrogates its cell migration and invasion-promoting function and synergistic effect with TGF-β to induce EMT. Our study for the first time showed that GCNT2 is a novel gene contributing to breast cancer metastasis with preferential expression in basal-like breast cancer. Moreover, we discovered that involvement of GCNT2 in EMT and TGF-β signaling, and further glycosylation modification of E-cadherin by GCNT2, are the underlying integrative mechanisms for breast cancer metastasis, implying that blocking TGF-β/GCNT2 signaling is a promising approach for targeting metastatic breast cancer. PMID:21750175

  12. The Metastasis-Associated Anterior Gradient 2 Protein Is Correlated with Poor Survival of Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, Dong L.; Platt-Higgins, Angela; de Silva Rudland, Suzete; Barraclough, Roger; Winstanley, John; West, Christopher R.; Rudland, Philip S.

    2009-01-01

    The secreted metastasis-inducing protein, human anterior gradient 2 (AGR2), has been independently reported to be associated with either a reduced or an increased survival of different groups of patients with breast cancer. We now aim to analyze the expression of AGR2 in a third completely independent group of patients using a specific AGR2 monoclonal antibody (mAb). Primary tumors from a group of 315 patients suffering from operable (stage I and II) breast cancer with 20-years follow-up were immunocytochemically stained with a specific mAb to AGR2 and associations with prognostic factors and patient survival were analyzed. The mAb specifically recognized AGR2 in Western blots, and positive staining for AGR2 was significantly associated with involved lymph nodes and staining for estrogen receptor α, progesterone receptor, and the metastasis-inducing proteins osteopontin, S100P, and S100A4. After 20 years of follow-up, only 26% of patients with AGR2-positive carcinomas survived compared with 96% of those with AGR2 negative carcinomas, with the highly significant difference in median survival times of 68 and >216 months, respectively (P < 0.0001). Cox’s multivariate regression analysis showed that staining for AGR2 was one of the most significant independent prognostic indicators, with a corrected relative risk of 9.4. The presence of AGR2 in the primary tumor is therefore a possible prognostic indicator of poor patient outcome in breast cancer. PMID:19834055

  13. Lyn modulates Claudin-2 expression and is a therapeutic target for breast cancer liver metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Tabariès, Sébastien; Annis, Matthew G.; Hsu, Brian E.; Tam, Christine E.; Savage, Paul; Park, Morag; Siegel, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Claudin-2 enhances breast cancer liver metastasis and promotes the development of colorectal cancers. The objective of our current study is to define the regulatory mechanisms controlling Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We evaluated the effect of several Src Family Kinase (SFK) inhibitors or knockdown of individual SFK members on Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We also assessed the potential effects of pan-SFK and SFK-selective inhibitors on the formation of breast cancer liver metastases. This study reveals that pan inhibition of SFK signaling pathways significantly elevated Claudin-2 expression levels in breast cancer cells. In addition, our data demonstrate that pan-SFK inhibitors can enhance breast cancer metastasis to the liver. Knockdown of individual SFK members reveals that loss of Yes or Fyn induces Claudin-2 expression; whereas, diminished Lyn levels impairs Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. The Lyn-selective kinase inhibitor, Bafetinib (INNO-406), acts to reduce Claudin-2 expression and suppress breast cancer liver metastasis. Our findings may have major clinical implications and advise against the treatment of breast cancer patients with broad-acting SFK inhibitors and support the use of Lyn-specific inhibitors. PMID:25823815

  14. Lyn modulates Claudin-2 expression and is a therapeutic target for breast cancer liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Tabariès, Sébastien; Annis, Matthew G; Hsu, Brian E; Tam, Christine E; Savage, Paul; Park, Morag; Siegel, Peter M

    2015-04-20

    Claudin-2 enhances breast cancer liver metastasis and promotes the development of colorectal cancers. The objective of our current study is to define the regulatory mechanisms controlling Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We evaluated the effect of several Src Family Kinase (SFK) inhibitors or knockdown of individual SFK members on Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We also assessed the potential effects of pan-SFK and SFK-selective inhibitors on the formation of breast cancer liver metastases. This study reveals that pan inhibition of SFK signaling pathways significantly elevated Claudin-2 expression levels in breast cancer cells. In addition, our data demonstrate that pan-SFK inhibitors can enhance breast cancer metastasis to the liver. Knockdown of individual SFK members reveals that loss of Yes or Fyn induces Claudin-2 expression; whereas, diminished Lyn levels impairs Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. The Lyn-selective kinase inhibitor, Bafetinib (INNO-406), acts to reduce Claudin-2 expression and suppress breast cancer liver metastasis. Our findings may have major clinical implications and advise against the treatment of breast cancer patients with broad-acting SFK inhibitors and support the use of Lyn-specific inhibitors.

  15. The combined use of Camellia sinensis and metronomic zoledronate in 4T1 mouse carcinoma against tumor growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ke-Wang; Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Ko, Chun-Hay; Gao, Si; Lee, Julia Kin-Ming; Li, Gang; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2015-07-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated that the green tea Camellia sinensis (CS) water extract had potent antitumor and antimetastatic effects on 4T1 breast cancer. The metronomic regimen (0.0125 mg/kg twice a week for 4 weeks) of zoledronate (ZOL) was found to be effective in decreasing tumor burden and metastasis as compared with conventional regimen. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antitumor, antimetastatic and anti-osteolytic effects of the combined use of CS water extract and metronomic ZOL against 4T1 breast carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. The results demonstrated that the combination of CS+ZOL exerted a more potent effect on lung and liver by decreasing tumor burden and metastasis, when compared to CS or metronomic ZOL as monotherapies. The combination of CS+ZOL demonstrated optimal bone protection against breast cancer-induced osteolysis for the three groups of CS, ZOL and CS+ZOL. The in vitro results further demonstrated that ZOL enhanced CS-induced apoptosis in 4T1 cells as assessed by the Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and caspase-3 activity assays. In addition, the combined use of CS+ZOL significantly inhibited 4T1 cell migration. Mechanistic studies showed that the enzyme levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were suppressed significantly by CS+ZOL. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the novel combined application of herbal extract CS and chemotherapy ZOL in 4T1 breast cancer. The combination of CS plus metronomic ZOL demonstrated significant antitumor, antimetastatic and anti-osteolytic effects against breast cancer, and suggested potential clinical application for breast cancer patients.

  16. Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Robert J.; Palmieri, Diane C.; Bronder, Julie L.; Stark, Andreas M.; Steeg, Patricia S.

    2005-01-01

    Clinically symptomatic metastases to the central nervous system (CNS) occur in ∼10 to 15% of patients with metastatic beast cancer. CNS metastases are traditionally viewed as a late complication of systemic disease, for which few effective treatment options exist. Recently, patients with Her-2-positive breast tumors who were treated with trastuzumab have been reported to develop CNS metastases at higher rates, often while responding favorably to treatment. The blood:brain barrier and the unique brain microenvironment are hypothesized to promote distinct molecular features in CNS metastases that may require tailored therapeutic approaches. New research approaches using cell lines that reliably and preferentially metastasize in vivo to the brain have been reported. Using such model systems, as well as in vitro analogs of blood-brain barrier penetration and tissue-based studies, new molecular leads into this disease are unfolding. PMID:16192626

  17. Breast cancer metastasis to the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Weil, Robert J; Palmieri, Diane C; Bronder, Julie L; Stark, Andreas M; Steeg, Patricia S

    2005-10-01

    Clinically symptomatic metastases to the central nervous system (CNS) occur in approximately 10 to 15% of patients with metastatic beast cancer. CNS metastases are traditionally viewed as a late complication of systemic disease, for which few effective treatment options exist. Recently, patients with Her-2-positive breast tumors who were treated with trastuzumab have been reported to develop CNS metastases at higher rates, often while responding favorably to treatment. The blood:brain barrier and the unique brain microenvironment are hypothesized to promote distinct molecular features in CNS metastases that may require tailored therapeutic approaches. New research approaches using cell lines that reliably and preferentially metastasize in vivo to the brain have been reported. Using such model systems, as well as in vitro analogs of blood-brain barrier penetration and tissue-based studies, new molecular leads into this disease are unfolding. PMID:16192626

  18. Invasiveness and metastasis of retinoblastoma in an orthotopic zebrafish tumor model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoyun; Wang, Jian; Cao, Ziquan; Hosaka, Kayoko; Jensen, Lasse; Yang, Huasheng; Sun, Yuping; Zhuang, Rujie; Liu, Yizhi; Cao, Yihai

    2015-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a highly invasive malignant tumor that often invades the brain and metastasizes to distal organs through the blood stream. Invasiveness and metastasis of retinoblastoma can occur at the early stage of tumor development. However, an optimal preclinical model to study retinoblastoma invasiveness and metastasis in relation to drug treatment has not been developed. Here, we developed an orthotopic zebrafish model in which retinoblastoma invasion and metastasis can be monitored at a single cell level. We took the advantages of immune privilege and transparent nature of developing zebrafish embryos. Intravitreal implantation of color-coded retinoblastoma cells allowed us to kinetically monitor tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Further, interactions between retinoblastoma cells and surrounding microvasculatures were studied using a transgenic zebrafish that exhibited green fluorescent signals in blood vessels. We discovered that tumor cells invaded neighboring tissues and blood stream when primary tumors were at the microscopic sizes. These findings demonstrate that retinoblastoma metastasis occurs at the early stage and antiangiogenic drugs such as Vegf morpholino and sunitinib could potentially interfere with tumor invasiveness and metastasis. Thus, this orthotopic retinoblastoma model offers a new and unique opportunity to study the early events of tumor invasion, metastasis and drug responses. PMID:26169357

  19. Phyllodes Tumor in a Lactating Breast.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Sudha S; Raju, K V V N; Nair, Haripreetha G

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor is attributed to a small fraction of primary tumors of the breast. Such tumors occur rarely in pregnancy and lactation. We report a case of a 25-year-old lactating mother presenting with a lump in the left breast. Core needle biopsy was opined as phyllodes tumor with lactational changes, and subsequent wide local excision confirmed the diagnosis of benign phyllodes tumor with lactational changes. The characteristic gross and microscopic findings of a well-circumscribed lesion with leaf-like fibroepithelial growth pattern and typical nonuniform or diffuse stromal proliferation with periductal accentuation even in the absence of mitotic figures can help clinch the diagnosis. Benign phyllodes is known for its recurrence and requires wide excision and close follow-up. It is vital to identify these lesions even on limited biopsies as therapeutic options differ. This case is presented for its rarity and the diagnostic challenge it poses in limited biopsy. PMID:27081326

  20. Phyllodes Tumor in a Lactating Breast

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Sudha S.; Raju, K. V. V. N.; Nair, Haripreetha G.

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor is attributed to a small fraction of primary tumors of the breast. Such tumors occur rarely in pregnancy and lactation. We report a case of a 25-year-old lactating mother presenting with a lump in the left breast. Core needle biopsy was opined as phyllodes tumor with lactational changes, and subsequent wide local excision confirmed the diagnosis of benign phyllodes tumor with lactational changes. The characteristic gross and microscopic findings of a well-circumscribed lesion with leaf-like fibroepithelial growth pattern and typical nonuniform or diffuse stromal proliferation with periductal accentuation even in the absence of mitotic figures can help clinch the diagnosis. Benign phyllodes is known for its recurrence and requires wide excision and close follow-up. It is vital to identify these lesions even on limited biopsies as therapeutic options differ. This case is presented for its rarity and the diagnostic challenge it poses in limited biopsy. PMID:27081326

  1. Computer assisted biopsy of breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Arambula Cosio, Fernando; Lira Berra, Eric; Hevia Montiel, Nidiyare; Garcia Segundo, Cresencio; Garduno, Edgar; Alvarado Gonzalez, Montserrat; Quispe Siccha, Rosa Ma; Reyes Ramirez, Bartolome; Hazan Lasri, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report our preliminary results of the development of a computer assisted system for breast biopsy. The system is based on tracked ultrasound images of the breast. A three dimensional ultrasound volume is constructed from a set of tracked B-scan images acquired with a calibrated probe. The system has been designed to assist a radiologist during breast biopsy, and also as a training system for radiology residents. A semiautomatic classification algorithm was implemented to assist the user with the annotation of the tumor on an ultrasound volume. We report the development of the system prototype, tested on a physical phantom of a breast with a tumor, made of polivinil alcohol. PMID:21097108

  2. Heparanase: a new metastasis-associated antigen recognized in breast cancer patients by spontaneously induced memory T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Sommerfeldt, Nora; Beckhove, Philipp; Ge, Yingzi; Schütz, Florian; Choi, Carmen; Bucur, Mariana; Domschke, Christoph; Sohn, Christof; Schneeweis, Andreas; Rom, Joachim; Pollmann, Dirk; Leucht, Dagmar; Vlodavsky, Israel; Schirrmacher, Volker

    2006-08-01

    Increased expression and secretion of heparanase (Hpa) by tumor cells promotes tumor invasion through extracellular matrices, tissue destruction, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Here, we show the existence in breast cancer patients of Hpa-specific T lymphocytes by fluorescence-activated cell sorting flow cytometry using Hpa peptide-MHC class I tetramers. We furthermore show memory T-cell responses in a high proportion of breast cancer patients to Hpa-derived HLA-A2-restricted peptides, leading to production of IFN-gamma and to generation of antitumor CTLs lysing breast cancer cells. Such CTLs recognized endogenously processed respective Hpa peptides on Hpa-transfected and Hpa-expressing untransfected breast carcinoma cells. According to these results and to the fact that such cells were not found in healthy people, Hpa seems to be an attractive new tumor-associated antigen and its HLA-A2-restricted peptides ought to be good candidates for peptide vaccination to reactivate memory immune responses to invasive and metastatic cancer cells. PMID:16885374

  3. ELF5 Drives Lung Metastasis in Luminal Breast Cancer through Recruitment of Gr1+ CD11b+ Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Ortega, David; Ledger, Anita; Roden, Daniel L; Law, Andrew M K; Magenau, Astrid; Kikhtyak, Zoya; Cho, Christina; Allerdice, Stephanie L; Lee, Heather J; Valdes-Mora, Fatima; Herrmann, David; Salomon, Robert; Young, Adelaide I J; Lee, Brian Y; Sergio, C Marcelo; Kaplan, Warren; Piggin, Catherine; Conway, James R W; Rabinovich, Brian; Millar, Ewan K A; Oakes, Samantha R; Chtanova, Tatyana; Swarbrick, Alexander; Naylor, Matthew J; O'Toole, Sandra; Green, Andrew R; Timpson, Paul; Gee, Julia M W; Ellis, Ian O; Clark, Susan J; Ormandy, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    During pregnancy, the ETS transcription factor ELF5 establishes the milk-secreting alveolar cell lineage by driving a cell fate decision of the mammary luminal progenitor cell. In breast cancer, ELF5 is a key transcriptional determinant of tumor subtype and has been implicated in the development of insensitivity to anti-estrogen therapy. In the mouse mammary tumor virus-Polyoma Middle T (MMTV-PyMT) model of luminal breast cancer, induction of ELF5 levels increased leukocyte infiltration, angiogenesis, and blood vessel permeability in primary tumors and greatly increased the size and number of lung metastasis. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells, a group of immature neutrophils recently identified as mediators of vasculogenesis and metastasis, were recruited to the tumor in response to ELF5. Depletion of these cells using specific Ly6G antibodies prevented ELF5 from driving vasculogenesis and metastasis. Expression signatures in luminal A breast cancers indicated that increased myeloid cell invasion and inflammation were correlated with ELF5 expression, and increased ELF5 immunohistochemical staining predicted much shorter metastasis-free and overall survival of luminal A patients, defining a group who experienced unexpectedly early disease progression. Thus, in the MMTV-PyMT mouse mammary model, increased ELF5 levels drive metastasis by co-opting the innate immune system. As ELF5 has been previously implicated in the development of antiestrogen resistance, this finding implicates ELF5 as a defining factor in the acquisition of the key aspects of the lethal phenotype in luminal A breast cancer.

  4. SURVIVIN as a marker for quiescent-breast cancer stem cells-An intermediate, adherent, pre-requisite phase of breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Siddharth, Sumit; Das, Sarita; Nayak, Anmada; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

    2016-10-01

    Cancer stem cells drive the metastatic cascade by undergoing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and again mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET). Using multiple breast cancer cell lines including cigarette smoke induced breast cancer cells and tumor derived primary cells from patient sample; we developed a breast cancer metastasis model and reported the existence of an adherent, distinct pre-metastatic phase, quiescent-breast cancer stem cells (Q-BCSCs) prior to attaining an EMT. SURVIVIN was found to be expressed in Q-BCSCs. Time dependant biphasic expression of SURVIVIN in Q-BCSCs reveals that Q-BCSCs is a pre-metastatic phase distinct from both epithelial and mesenchymal counterparts. SURVIVIN favours metastasis and up-regulates WNT/β-CATENIN pathway in a PI3 K/AKT-dependant manner for self-renewal. Knockdown of SURVIVIN in Q-BCSCs lost the metastatic property of cells by inhibiting invasion, EMT-MET, PI3 K/AKT/WNT cascade, and induced apoptosis. Thus, our data suggest the existence of a novel pre-metastatic phase (Q-BCSCs) before EMT and SURVIVIN acts as a marker for Quiescent-BCSCs. PMID:27411340

  5. SURVIVIN as a marker for quiescent-breast cancer stem cells-An intermediate, adherent, pre-requisite phase of breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Siddharth, Sumit; Das, Sarita; Nayak, Anmada; Kundu, Chanakya Nath

    2016-10-01

    Cancer stem cells drive the metastatic cascade by undergoing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and again mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET). Using multiple breast cancer cell lines including cigarette smoke induced breast cancer cells and tumor derived primary cells from patient sample; we developed a breast cancer metastasis model and reported the existence of an adherent, distinct pre-metastatic phase, quiescent-breast cancer stem cells (Q-BCSCs) prior to attaining an EMT. SURVIVIN was found to be expressed in Q-BCSCs. Time dependant biphasic expression of SURVIVIN in Q-BCSCs reveals that Q-BCSCs is a pre-metastatic phase distinct from both epithelial and mesenchymal counterparts. SURVIVIN favours metastasis and up-regulates WNT/β-CATENIN pathway in a PI3 K/AKT-dependant manner for self-renewal. Knockdown of SURVIVIN in Q-BCSCs lost the metastatic property of cells by inhibiting invasion, EMT-MET, PI3 K/AKT/WNT cascade, and induced apoptosis. Thus, our data suggest the existence of a novel pre-metastatic phase (Q-BCSCs) before EMT and SURVIVIN acts as a marker for Quiescent-BCSCs.

  6. LIMT is a novel metastasis inhibiting lncRNA suppressed by EGF and downregulated in aggressive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sas-Chen, Aldema; Aure, Miriam R; Leibovich, Limor; Carvalho, Silvia; Enuka, Yehoshua; Körner, Cindy; Polycarpou-Schwarz, Maria; Lavi, Sara; Nevo, Nava; Kuznetsov, Yuri; Yuan, Justin; Azuaje, Francisco; Ulitsky, Igor; Diederichs, Sven; Wiemann, Stefan; Yakhini, Zohar; Kristensen, Vessela N; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Yarden, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as regulators of gene expression in pathogenesis, including cancer. Recently, lncRNAs have been implicated in progression of specific subtypes of breast cancer. One aggressive, basal-like subtype associates with increased EGFR signaling, while another, the HER2-enriched subtype, engages a kin of EGFR Based on the premise that EGFR-regulated lncRNAs might control the aggressiveness of basal-like tumors, we identified multiple EGFR-inducible lncRNAs in basal-like normal cells and overlaid them with the transcriptomes of over 3,000 breast cancer patients. This led to the identification of 11 prognostic lncRNAs. Functional analyses of this group uncovered LINC01089 (here renamed LncRNA Inhibiting Metastasis; LIMT), a highly conserved lncRNA, which is depleted in basal-like and in HER2-positive tumors, and the low expression of which predicts poor patient prognosis. Interestingly, EGF rapidly downregulates LIMT expression by enhancing histone deacetylation at the respective promoter. We also find that LIMT inhibits extracellular matrix invasion of mammary cells in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo In conclusion, lncRNAs dynamically regulated by growth factors might act as novel drivers of cancer progression and serve as prognostic biomarkers. PMID:27485121

  7. Breast Cancer Metastasis Suppressor 1 (BRMS1): Robust Biological and Pathological Data, But Still Enigmatic Mechanism of Action.

    PubMed

    Welch, D R; Manton, C A; Hurst, D R

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis requires coordinated expression of multiple genetic cassettes, often via epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. BRMS1 blocks metastasis, but not orthotopic tumor growth in multiple tumor types, presumably via SIN3 chromatin remodeling complexes. Although there is an abundance of strong data supporting BRMS1 as a metastasis suppressor, the mechanistic data directly connecting molecular pathways with inhibition of particular steps in metastasis are not well defined. In this review, the data for BRMS1-mediated metastasis suppression in multiple tumor types are discussed along with the steps in metastasis that are inhibited. PMID:27613131

  8. Core Needle Biopsy of Breast Cancer Tumors Increases Distant Metastases in a Mouse Model12

    PubMed Central

    Mathenge, Edward Gitau; Dean, Cheryl Ann; Clements, Derek; Vaghar-Kashani, Ahmad; Photopoulos, Steffany; Coyle, Krysta Mila; Giacomantonio, Michael; Malueth, Benjamin; Nunokawa, Anna; Jordan, Julie; Lewis, John D.; Gujar, Shashi Ashok; Marcato, Paola; Lee, Patrick W.K.; Giacomantonio, Carman Anthony

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Incisional biopsies, including the diagnostic core needle biopsy (CNB), routinely performed before surgical excision of breast cancer tumors are hypothesized to increase the risk of metastatic disease. In this study, we experimentally determined whether CNB of breast cancer tumors results in increased distant metastases and examine important resultant changes in the primary tumor and tumor microenvironment associated with this outcome. METHOD: To evaluate the effect of CNB on metastasis development, we implanted murine mammary 4T1 tumor cells in BALB/c mice and performed CNB on palpable tumors in half the mice. Subsequently, emulating the human scenario, all mice underwent complete tumor excision and were allowed to recover, with attendant metastasis development. Tumor growth, lung metastasis, circulating tumor cell (CTC) levels, variation in gene expression, composition of the tumor microenvironment, and changes in immunologic markers were compared in biopsied and non-biopsied mice. RESULTS: Mice with biopsied tumors developed significantly more lung metastases compared to non-biopsied mice. Tumors from biopsied mice contained a higher frequency of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accompanied by reduced CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, and macrophages, suggesting biopsy-mediated development of an increasingly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We also observed a CNB-dependent up-regulation in the expression of SOX4, Ezh2, and other key epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) genes, as well as increased CTC levels among the biopsy group. CONCLUSION: CNB creates an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, increases EMT, and facilitates release of CTCs, all of which likely contribute to the observed increase in development of distant metastases. PMID:25425969

  9. Expression of high affinity folate receptor in breast cancer brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Leone, José Pablo; Bhargava, Rohit; Theisen, Brian K; Hamilton, Ronald L; Lee, Adrian V; Brufsky, Adam M

    2015-10-01

    High affinity folate receptor (HFR) can be overexpressed in breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis, however the expression in breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) is unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the rate of HFR expression in BCBM and its role in the prognosis of this high-risk cohort. We analyzed 19 brain metastasis (BM) and 13 primary tumors (PT) from a total of 25 patients. HFR status was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Median follow-up was 4.2 years (range 0.6-18.5). HFR was positive in 4/19 BM (21.1%) and in 1/13 PT (7.7%). Positive samples had low H-scores (range 1-50). 56% of patients had apocrine differentiation. OS was similar between patients with positive HFR (median OS 48 months) and negative HFR (median OS 69 months) (P = 0.25); and between patients with apocrine differentiation (median OS 63 months) and those without apocrine differentiation (median OS 69 months) (P = 0.49). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first analysis of HFR expression in BCBM. While previous studies associated the presence of HFR with worse prognosis; in our cohort HFR was positive in only 21.1% of BM with low levels of positivity. Neither HFR nor apocrine features had impact in OS.

  10. MiR-148a functions to suppress metastasis and serves as a prognostic indicator in triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Zhang, Yun; Jasper, Jeff; Lykken, Erik; Alexander, Peter B.; Markowitz, Geoffrey J.; McDonnell, Donald P.; Li, Qi-Jing; Wang, Xiao-Fan

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) presents a major challenge in the clinic due to its lack of reliable prognostic markers and targeted therapies. Accumulating evidence strongly supports the notion that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in tumorigenesis and could serve as biomarkers for diagnostic purposes. To identify miRNAs that functionally suppress metastasis of TNBC, we employed a concerted approach with selecting miRNAs that display differential expression profiles from bioinformatic analyses of breast cancer patient databases and validating top candidates with functional assays using breast cancer cell lines and mouse models. We have found that miR-148a exhibits properties as a tumor suppressor as its expression is inversely correlated with the ability of both human and mouse breast cancer cells to colonize the lung in mouse xenograft tumor models. Mechanistically, miR-148a appears to suppress the extravasation process of cancer cells, likely by targeting two genes WNT1 and NRP1 in a cell non-autonomous manner. Importantly, lower expression of miR-148a is detected in higher-grade tumor samples and correlated with increased likelihood to develop metastases and poor prognosis in subsets of breast cancer patients, particularly those with TNBC. Thus, miR-148a is functionally defined as a suppressor of breast cancer metastasis and may serve as a prognostic biomarker for this disease. PMID:26967387

  11. MiR-148a functions to suppress metastasis and serves as a prognostic indicator in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Zhang, Yun; Jasper, Jeff; Lykken, Erik; Alexander, Peter B; Markowitz, Geoffrey J; McDonnell, Donald P; Li, Qi-Jing; Wang, Xiao-Fan

    2016-04-12

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) presents a major challenge in the clinic due to its lack of reliable prognostic markers and targeted therapies. Accumulating evidence strongly supports the notion that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in tumorigenesis and could serve as biomarkers for diagnostic purposes. To identify miRNAs that functionally suppress metastasis of TNBC, we employed a concerted approach with selecting miRNAs that display differential expression profiles from bioinformatic analyses of breast cancer patient databases and validating top candidates with functional assays using breast cancer cell lines and mouse models. We have found that miR-148a exhibits properties as a tumor suppressor as its expression is inversely correlated with the ability of both human and mouse breast cancer cells to colonize the lung in mouse xenograft tumor models. Mechanistically, miR-148a appears to suppress the extravasation process of cancer cells, likely by targeting two genes WNT1 and NRP1 in a cell non-autonomous manner. Importantly, lower expression of miR-148a is detected in higher-grade tumor samples and correlated with increased likelihood to develop metastases and poor prognosis in subsets of breast cancer patients, particularly those with TNBC. Thus, miR-148a is functionally defined as a suppressor of breast cancer metastasis and may serve as a prognostic biomarker for this disease. PMID:26967387

  12. Mutational profiling of brain metastasis from breast cancer: matched pair analysis of targeted sequencing between brain metastasis and primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yun; Park, Kyunghee; Lim, Sung Hee; Kim, Hae Su; Yoo, Kwai Han; Jung, Ki Sun; Song, Haa-Na; Hong, Mineui; Do, In-Gu; Ahn, TaeJin; Lee, Se Kyung; Bae, Soo Youn; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Kim, Duk-Hwan; Jung, Hae Hyun; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Jin Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Park, Yeon Hee

    2015-12-22

    Although breast cancer is the second most common cause of brain metastasis with a notable increase of incidence, genes that mediate breast cancer brain metastasis (BCBM) are not fully understood. To study the molecular nature of brain metastasis, we performed gene expression profiling of brain metastasis and matched primary breast cancer (BC). We used the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Panel v2 covering 2,855 mutations from 50 cancer genes to analyze 18 primary BC and 42 BCBM including 15 matched pairs. The most common BCBM subtypes were triple-negative (42.9%) and basal-like (36.6%). In a total of 42 BCBM samples, 32 (76.2%) harbored at least one mutation (median 1, range 0-7 mutations). Frequently detected somatic mutations included TP53 (59.5%), MLH1 (14.3%), PIK3CA (14.3%), and KIT (7.1%). We compared BCBM with patient-matched primary BC specimens. There were no significant differences in mutation profiles between the two groups. Notably, gene expression in BCBM such as TP53, PIK3CA, KIT, MLH1, and RB1 also seemed to be present in primary breast cancers. The TP53 mutation frequency was higher in BCBM than in primary BC (59.5% vs 38.9%, respectively). In conclusion, we found actionable gene alterations in BCBM that were maintained in primary BC. Further studies with functional testing and a delineation of the role of these genes in specific steps of the metastatic process should lead to a better understanding of the biology of metastasis and its susceptibility to treatment.

  13. Galectin-3 Cleavage Alters Bone Remodeling: Different Outcomes in Breast and Prostate Cancer Skeletal Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kosei; Kho, Dhong Hyo; Yanagawa, Takashi; Harazono, Yosuke; Hogan, Victor; Chen, Wei; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Mehra, Rohit; Raz, Avraham

    2016-03-15

    Management of bone metastasis remains clinically challenging and requires the identification of new molecular target(s) that can be therapeutically exploited to improve patient outcome. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) has been implicated as a secreted factor that alters the bone microenvironment. Proteolytic cleavage of Gal-3 may also contribute to malignant cellular behaviors, but has not been addressed in cancer metastasis. Here, we report that Gal-3 modulates the osteolytic bone tumor microenvironment in the presence of RANKL. Gal-3 was localized on the osteoclast cell surface, and its suppression by RNAi or a specific antagonist markedly inhibited osteoclast differentiation markers, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and reduced the number of mature osteoclasts. Structurally, the 158-175 amino acid sequence in the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of Gal-3 was responsible for augmented osteoclastogenesis. During osteoclast maturation, Gal-3 interacted and colocalized with myosin-2A along the surface of cell-cell fusion. Pathologically, bone metastatic cancers expressed and released an intact form of Gal-3, mainly detected in breast cancer bone metastases, as well as a cleaved form, more abundant in prostate cancer bone metastases. Secreted intact Gal-3 interacted with myosin-2A, leading to osteoclastogenesis, whereas a shift to cleaved Gal-3 attenuated the enhancement in osteoclast differentiation. Thus, our studies demonstrate that Gal-3 shapes the bone tumor microenvironment through distinct roles contingent on its cleavage status, and highlight Gal-3 targeting through the CRD as a potential therapeutic strategy for mitigating osteolytic bone remodeling in the metastatic niche.

  14. Analysis of radiation therapy in a model of triple-negative breast cancer brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Smart, DeeDee; Garcia-Glaessner, Alejandra; Palmieri, Diane; Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J; Kramp, Tamalee; Gril, Brunilde; Shukla, Sudhanshu; Lyle, Tiffany; Hua, Emily; Cameron, Heather A; Camphausen, Kevin; Steeg, Patricia S

    2015-10-01

    Most cancer patients with brain metastases are treated with radiation therapy, yet this modality has not yet been meaningfully incorporated into preclinical experimental brain metastasis models. We applied two forms of whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) to the brain-tropic 231-BR experimental brain metastasis model of triple-negative breast cancer. When compared to sham controls, WBRT as 3 Gy × 10 fractions (3 × 10) reduced the number of micrometastases and large metastases by 87.7 and 54.5 %, respectively (both p < 0.01); whereas a single radiation dose of 15 Gy × 1 (15 × 1) was less effective, reducing metastases by 58.4 % (p < 0.01) and 47.1 % (p = 0.41), respectively. Neuroinflammation in the adjacent brain parenchyma was due solely to a reaction from metastases, and not radiotherapy, while adult neurogenesis in brains was adversely affected following both radiation regimens. The nature of radiation resistance was investigated by ex vivo culture of tumor cells that survived initial WBRT ("Surviving" cultures). The Surviving cultures surprisingly demonstrated increased radiosensitivity ex vivo. In contrast, re-injection of Surviving cultures and re-treatment with a 3 × 10 WBRT regimen significantly reduced the number of large and micrometastases that developed in vivo, suggesting a role for the microenvironment. Micrometastases derived from tumor cells surviving initial 3 × 10 WBRT demonstrated a trend toward radioresistance upon repeat treatment (p = 0.09). The data confirm the potency of a fractionated 3 × 10 WBRT regimen and identify the brain microenvironment as a potential determinant of radiation efficacy. The data also nominate the Surviving cultures as a potential new translational model for radiotherapy.

  15. Targeted inactivation of β1 integrin induces β3 integrin switching, which drives breast cancer metastasis by TGF-β

    PubMed Central

    Parvani, Jenny G.; Galliher-Beckley, Amy J.; Schiemann, Barbara J.; Schiemann, William P.

    2013-01-01

    Mammary tumorigenesis and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) programs cooperate in converting transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) from a suppressor to a promoter of breast cancer metastasis. Although previous reports associated β1 and β3 integrins with TGF-β stimulation of EMT and metastasis, the functional interplay and plasticity exhibited by these adhesion molecules in shaping the oncogenic activities of TGF-β remain unknown. We demonstrate that inactivation of β1 integrin impairs TGF-β from stimulating the motility of normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells (MECs) and elicits robust compensatory expression of β3 integrin solely in malignant MECs, but not in their normal counterparts. Compensatory β3 integrin expression also 1) enhances the growth of malignant MECs in rigid and compliant three-dimensional organotypic cultures and 2) restores the induction of the EMT phenotypes by TGF-β. Of importance, compensatory expression of β3 integrin rescues the growth and pulmonary metastasis of β1 integrin–deficient 4T1 tumors in mice, a process that is prevented by genetic depletion or functional inactivation of β3 integrin. Collectively our findings demonstrate that inactivation of β1 integrin elicits metastatic progression via a β3 integrin–specific mechanism, indicating that dual β1 and β3 integrin targeting is necessary to alleviate metastatic disease in breast cancer patients. PMID:24006485

  16. Cyclin-dependent kinase-mediated phosphorylation of breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) affects cell migration.

    PubMed

    Roesley, Siti Nur Ain; Suryadinata, Randy; Morrish, Emma; Tan, Anthonius Ricardo; Issa, Samah M A; Oakhill, Jonathan S; Bernard, Ora; Welch, Danny R; Šarčević, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Expression of Breast Cancer Metastasis Suppressor 1 (BRMS1) reduces the incidence of metastasis in many human cancers, without affecting tumorigenesis. BRMS1 carries out this function through several mechanisms, including regulation of gene expression by binding to the mSin3/histone deacetylase (HDAC) transcriptional repressor complex. In the present study, we show that BRMS1 is a novel substrate of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 (CDK2) that is phosphorylated on serine 237 (S237). Although CDKs are known to regulate cell cycle progression, the mutation of BRMS1 on serine 237 did not affect cell cycle progression and proliferation of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; however, their migration was affected. Phosphorylation of BRMS1 does not affect its association with the mSin3/HDAC transcriptional repressor complex or its transcriptional repressor activity. The serine 237 phosphorylation site is immediately proximal to a C-terminal nuclear localization sequence that plays an important role in BRMS1-mediated metastasis suppression but phosphorylation does not control BRMS1 subcellular localization. Our studies demonstrate that CDK-mediated phosphorylation of BRMS1 regulates the migration of tumor cells.

  17. Liposomes Coated with Isolated Macrophage Membrane Can Target Lung Metastasis of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haiqiang; Dan, Zhaoling; He, Xinyu; Zhang, Zhiwen; Yu, Haijun; Yin, Qi; Li, Yaping

    2016-08-23

    Cancer metastasis leads to high mortality of breast cancer and is difficult to treat because of the poor delivery efficiency of drugs. Herein, we report the wrapping of a drug-carrying liposome with an isolated macrophage membrane to improve delivery to metastatic sites. The macrophage membrane decoration increased cellular uptake of the emtansine liposome in metastatic 4T1 breast cancer cells and had inhibitory effects on cell viability. In vivo, the macrophage membrane enabled the liposome to target metastatic cells and produced a notable inhibitory effect on lung metastasis of breast cancer. Our results provide a biomimetic strategy via the biological properties of macrophages to enhance the medical performance of a nanoparticle in vivo for treating cancer metastasis. PMID:27454827

  18. Pertuzumab, trastuzumab and docetaxel reduced the recurrence of brain metastasis from breast cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Senda, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Ayane; Nishimura, Hideaki; Shiozaki, Toshiki; Tsuyuki, Shigeru

    2016-03-01

    The CLEOPATRA trial reported the survival benefit of pertuzumab with trastuzumab plus docetaxel in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients. However, there are a few case reports concerning the effects of a pertuzumab-containing regimen on brain metastases. A 55-year-old woman, who underwent curative surgery for breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy 5 years previously, developed repeated solitary brain metastasis in her right occipital lobe. Whole brain radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery and 3 times of surgical resection were performed. Lapatinib and capecitabine plus tamoxifen were administered. The metastasis recurred in the stump of the previous surgery. Pertuzumab with trastuzumab plus docetaxel was initiated as second-line chemotherapy. A complete response of the brain metastasis was achieved, which persisted for 5 months. Pertuzumab with trastuzumab plus docetaxel was effective in reducing the brain metastases from breast cancer. Further studies are warranted to confirm the effect of this regimen on brain metastases.

  19. Pancreatic metastasis from mycosis fungoides mimicking primary pancreatic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Ceriolo, Paola; Fausti, Valentina; Cinotti, Elisa; Bonadio, Silvia; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Bianchi, Giovanna; Orcioni, Giulio Fraternali; Fiocca, Roberto; Rongioletti, Franco; Pistoia, Vito; Borgonovo, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma that can undergo local progression with possible systemic dissemination. We report a case of a patient affected by MF with a pancreatic mass that was a diagnostic challenge between primitive tumor and pancreatic metastasis from MF. Clinical setting findings and imaging studies raised the suspicion of a pancreatic primary neoplasm. A diagnostic clue was provided by the combined histomorphologic/immunohistochemical study of pancreatic and cutaneous biopsies, which revealed a pancreatic localization of MF. Considering the rarity of metastatic localization of MF to the pancreas, we next investigated whether chemokine-chemokine receptor interactions could be involved in the phenomenon to provide new insight into the possible mechanisms underlying metastatic localization of MF to the pancreas. Histological analyses of archival pancreatic tissue demonstrated that glucagon-secreting cells of the pancreatic islets expressed the CCL27 chemokine, which may have attracted in our case metastatic MF cells expressing the complementary receptor CCR10. PMID:27022231

  20. Effects of PEGylated paclitaxel nanocrystals on breast cancer and its lung metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Hu, Hongxiang; Zhang, Haoran; Dai, Wenbing; Wang, Xinglin; Wang, Xueqing; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    As an attractive strategy developed rapidly in recent years, nanocrystals are used to deliver insoluble drugs. PEGylation may further prolong the circulation time of nanoparticles and improve the therapeutic outcome of drugs. In this study, paclitaxel (PTX) nanocrystals (PTX-NCs) and PEGylated PTX nanocrystals (PEG-PTX-NCs) were prepared using antisolvent precipitation augmented by probe sonication. The characteristics and antitumor efficacy of nanocrystals were investigated. The results indicated that the nanocrystals showed rod-like morphology, and the average particle size was 240 nm and 330 nm for PTX-NCs and PEG-PTX-NCs, respectively. The PEG molecules covered the surface of nanocrystals with an 11.54 nm fixed aqueous layer thickness (FALT), much higher than that of PTX-NCs (0.2 nm). PEG-PTX-NCs showed higher stability than PTX-NCs under both storage and physiological conditions. In breast cancer xenografted mice, PEG-PTX-NCs showed significantly better tumor inhibition compared to saline (p < 0.001) and PTX-NC groups (p < 0.05) after intravenous administration. In a model of lung tumor metastasis quantified by the luciferase activity, the PEG-PTX-NCs group showed higher anticancer efficacy not only than saline and PTX-NCs groups, but also than Taxol®, achieving an 82% reduction at the end of the experiment. These studies suggested the potential advantages of PEGylated PTX nanocrystals as alternative drug delivery systems for anticancer therapy.

  1. Platelets alter tumor cell attributes to propel metastasis: programming in transit.

    PubMed

    Gay, Laurie J; Felding-Habermann, Brunhilde

    2011-11-15

    Metastasis of epithelial tumors critically depends on acquisition of a disseminating phenotype that allows tumor cells to colonize distant organs. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Labelle et al. demonstrate that an epithelial-mesenchymal-like transition can be induced by interaction between platelets and tumor cells.

  2. Genetic ablation of SOX18 function suppresses tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis of melanoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Duong, Tam; Proulx, Steven T; Luciani, Paola; Leroux, Jean-Christophe; Detmar, Michael; Koopman, Peter; Francois, Mathias

    2012-06-15

    The lymphatic vasculature provides a major route for tumor metastasis and inhibiting neolymphangiogenesis induced by tumors can reduce metastasis in animal models. Developmental biology studies have identified the transcription factor SOX18 as a critical switch for lymphangiogenesis in the mouse embryo. Here, we show that SOX18 is also critical for tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis, and we show that suppressing SOX18 function is sufficient to impede tumor metastasis. Immunofluorescence analysis of murine tumor xenografts showed that SOX18 is reexpressed during tumor-induced neolymphangiogenesis. Tumors generated by implantation of firefly luciferase-expressing B16-F10 melanoma cells exhibited a reduced rate of metastasis to the regional draining lymph node in Sox18-deficient mice, as assessed by live bioluminescence imaging. Lower metastatic rates correlated with reduced tumoral lymphatic vessel density and diameter and with impaired drainage of peritumoral injected liposomes specific for lymph vessels from the sentinel lymph nodes. Overall, our findings suggested that SOX18 induction is a key step in mediating tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis, and they identify SOX18 as a potential therapeutic target for metastatic blockade. PMID:22523034

  3. Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary We analyzed primary breast cancers by genomic DNA copy number arrays, DNA methylation, exome sequencing, mRNA arrays, microRNA sequencing and reverse phase protein arrays. Our ability to integrate information across platforms provided key insights into previously-defined gene expression subtypes and demonstrated the existence of four main breast cancer classes when combining data from five platforms, each of which shows significant molecular heterogeneity. Somatic mutations in only three genes (TP53, PIK3CA and GATA3) occurred at > 10% incidence across all breast cancers; however, there were numerous subtype-associated and novel gene mutations including the enrichment of specific mutations in GATA3, PIK3CA and MAP3K1 with the Luminal A subtype. We identified two novel protein expression-defined subgroups, possibly contributed by stromal/microenvironmental elements, and integrated analyses identified specific signaling pathways dominant in each molecular subtype including a HER2/p-HER2/HER1/p-HER1 signature within the HER2-Enriched expression subtype. Comparison of Basal-like breast tumors with high-grade Serous Ovarian tumors showed many molecular commonalities, suggesting a related etiology and similar therapeutic opportunities. The biologic finding of the four main breast cancer subtypes caused by different subsets of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities raises the hypothesis that much of the clinically observable plasticity and heterogeneity occurs within, and not across, these major biologic subtypes of breast cancer. PMID:23000897

  4. Metastasis-associated Protein 1 Drives Tumor Cell Migration and Invasion through Transcriptional Repression of RING Finger Protein 144A*

    PubMed Central

    Marzook, Hezlin; Li, Da-Qiang; Nair, Vasudha S.; Mudvari, Prakriti; Reddy, Sirigiri Divijendra Natha; Pakala, Suresh B.; Santhoshkumar, T. R.; Pillai, M. Radhakrishna; Kumar, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), a component of the nucleosome-remodeling and histone deacetylase complex, is widely up-regulated in human cancers and significantly correlated with tumor invasion and metastasis, but the mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Here, we report that MTA1 transcriptionally represses the expression of RING finger protein 144A (RNF144A), an uncharacterized gene whose protein product possesses potential E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, by recruiting the histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (c/EBPα) co-repressor complex onto human RNF144A promoter. Furthermore, an inverse correlation between the expression levels of MTA1 and RNF144A was demonstrated in publicly available breast cancer microarray datasets and the MCF10 breast cancer progression model system. To address functional aspects of MTA1 regulation of RNF144A, we demonstrate that RNF144A is a novel suppressor of cancer migration and invasion, two requisite steps of metastasis in vivo, and knockdown of endogenous RNF144A by small interfering RNAs accelerates the migration and invasion of MTA1-overexpressing cells. These results suggest that RNF144A is partially responsible for MTA1-mediated migration and invasion and that MTA1 overexpression in highly metastatic cancer cells drives cell migration and invasion by, at least in part, interfering with the suppressive function of RNF144A through transcriptional repression of RNF144A expression. Together, these findings provide novel mechanistic insights into regulation of tumor progression and metastasis by MTA1 and highlight a previously unrecognized role of RNF144A in MTA1-driven cancer cell migration and invasion. PMID:22184113

  5. Inhibition of metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liquid

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Advanced cancer is a multifactorial disease that demands treatments targeting multiple cellular pathways. Chinese herbal cocktail which contains various phytochemicals may target multiple dys-regulated pathways in cancer cells and thus may provide an alternative/complementary way to treat cancers. Previously we reported that the Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liguid (THL) can specifically induce apoptosis in various cancer cells and have immuno-modulating activity. In this study, we further evaluated the anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of THL with a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods The migration and invasion of cancer cells and endothelial cells was determined by Boyden chamber transwell assays. The effect of THL on pulmonary metastasis was done by injecting CT-26 colon cancer cells intravenously to syngenic mice. The in vitro and in vivo microvessel formation was determined by the tube formation assay and the Matrigel plug assay, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of THL was determined by a human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. The expression of metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) was measured by gelatin zymography. The expression of HIF-1α and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were determined by Western blot. Results THL inhibited the migration and invasion ability of various cancer cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA and the activity of ERK1/2 in cancer cells, and suppressed pulmonary metastasis of CT-26 cancer cells in syngenic mice. Moreover, THL inhibited the migration, invasion, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2 and uPA in endothelial cells, and suppressed neovascularization in Matrigel plugs in mice. Besides its inhibitory effect on endothelial cells, THL inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in cancer cells. Finally

  6. JG6, a novel marine-derived oligosaccharide, suppresses breast cancer metastasis via binding to cofilin

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qiuming; Wen, Weiwei; Chen, Yi; Xin, Xianliang; Huang, Min; Ding, Jian; Geng, Meiyu

    2014-01-01

    Cofilin, an actin-binding protein which disassembles actin filaments, plays an important role in invasion and metastasis. Here, we discover that JG6, an oligomannurarate sulfate, binds to cofilin, suppresses the migration of human breast cancer cells and cancer metastasis in breast cancer xenograft model. Mechanistically, JG6 occupies actin-binding sites of cofilin, thereby disrupting cofilin modulated actin turnover. Our results highlight the significance of cofilin in cancer and suggest JG6, a cofilin inhibitor, to treat metastatic cancer. PMID:25003327

  7. SDPR functions as a metastasis suppressor in breast cancer by promoting apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Sait; Papageorgis, Panagiotis; Wong, Chen Khuan; Lambert, Arthur W.; Abdolmaleky, Hamid M.; Thiagalingam, Arunthathi; Cohen, Herbert T.; Thiagalingam, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic dissemination of breast cancer cells represents a significant clinical obstacle to curative therapy. The loss of function of metastasis suppressor genes is a major rate-limiting step in breast cancer progression that prevents the formation of new colonies at distal sites. However, the discovery of new metastasis suppressor genes in breast cancer using genomic efforts has been slow, potentially due to their primary regulation by epigenetic mechanisms. Here, we report the use of model cell lines with the same genetic lineage for the identification of a novel metastasis suppressor gene, serum deprivation response (SDPR), localized to 2q32-33, a region reported to be associated with significant loss of heterozygosity in breast cancer. In silico metaanalysis of publicly available gene expression datasets suggests that the loss of expression of SDPR correlates with significantly reduced distant-metastasis–free and relapse-free survival of breast cancer patients who underwent therapy. Furthermore, we found that stable SDPR overexpression in highly metastatic breast cancer model cell lines inhibited prosurvival pathways, shifted the balance of Bcl-2 family proteins in favor of apoptosis, and decreased migration and intravasation/extravasation potential, with a corresponding drastic suppression of metastatic nodule formation in the lungs of NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, SDPR expression is silenced by promoter DNA methylation, and as such it exemplifies epigenetic regulation of metastatic breast cancer progression. These observations highlight SDPR as a potential prognostic biomarker and a target for future therapeutic applications. PMID:26739564

  8. Breast cancer metastasis to bone: it is not all about PTHrP.

    PubMed

    Bendre, Manali; Gaddy, Dana; Nicholas, Richard W; Suva, Larry J

    2003-10-01

    Breast cancer shows a predilection for metastasis to bone. Interestingly, approximately 80% of patients with breast cancer also have bone metastases develop at some point during the course of their disease. Osteolytic breast cancer induces bonedestruction via the stimulation of osteoclasts. Breast cancer cells produce many known stimulators of bone resorption with significant research effort focused on the role of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). However, a recent prospective clinical trial has questioned the primary role of PTHrP in this process. The overexpression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in metastatic breast cancer cells prompted additional investigation of the role of IL-8 in osteolysis. Recombinant IL-8 induces the expression of RANKL mRNA and protein in osteoblastic cells and stimulates formation of bone resorbing osteoclasts, even in the absence of RANKL. The ability of IL-8 to directly stimulate osteoclastogenesis via RANKL dependent and independent mechanisms suggests it may play an important role in the process of osteoclast formation and function. Therefore, we propose that cytokines such as IL-8 are involved in the early stages of breast cancer metastasis and initiate the process of osteoclastic bone resorption. In this modified model of breast cancer metastasis to bone, PTHrP expression is induced later to stimulate the vicious cycle of bone destruction.

  9. Hybrid Method for Prediction of Metastasis in Breast Cancer Patients Using Gene Expression Signals

    PubMed Central

    Dehnavi, Alireza Mehri; Sehhati, Mohammad Reza; Rabbani, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Using primary tumor gene expression has been shown to have the ability of finding metastasis-driving gene markers for prediction of breast cancer recurrence (BCR). However, there are some difficulties associated with analysis of microarray data, which led to poor predictive power and inconsistency of previously introduced gene signatures. In this study, a hybrid method was proposed for identifying more predictive gene signatures from microarray datasets. Initially, the parameters of a Rough-Set (RS) theory based feature selection method were tuned to construct a customized gene extraction algorithm. Afterward, using RS gene selection method the most informative genes selected from six independent breast cancer datasets. Then, combined set of these six signature sets, containing 114 genes, was evaluated for prediction of BCR. In final, a meta-signature, containing 18 genes, selected from the combination of datasets and its prediction accuracy compared to the combined signature. The results of 10-fold cross-validation test showed acceptable misclassification error rate (MCR) over 1338 cases of breast cancer patients. In comparison to a recent similar work, our approach reached more than 5% reduction in MCR using a fewer number of genes for prediction. The results also demonstrated 7% improvement in average accuracy in six utilized datasets, using the combined set of 114 genes in comparison with 18-genes meta-signature. In this study, a more informative gene signature was selected for prediction of BCR using a RS based gene extraction algorithm. To conclude, combining different signatures demonstrated more stable prediction over independent datasets. PMID:24098861

  10. [Role of HIF-induced EMT in invasion and
metastasis of tumor].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Shi, Yan; Dai, Guanghai

    2016-08-01

    Hypoxia plays a vital role in tumor metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis via hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial process to metastasis, which could be triggered by hypoxia. EMT could be regulated by HIF via multiple pathways including TGF-β, Notch, and Wnt/β-catenin. It has been shown that anti-HIF drugs combined with anti-EMT therapies could be a promising strategy for tumor therapy. PMID:27600018

  11. Radiation-induced lung damage promotes breast cancer lung-metastasis through CXCR4 signaling.

    PubMed

    Feys, Lynn; Descamps, Benedicte; Vanhove, Christian; Vral, Anne; Veldeman, Liv; Vermeulen, Stefan; De Wagter, Carlos; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-09-29

    Radiotherapy is a mainstay in the postoperative treatment of breast cancer as it reduces the risks of local recurrence and mortality after both conservative surgery and mastectomy. Despite recent efforts to decrease irradiation volumes through accelerated partial irradiation techniques, late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity still occurs after breast irradiation. The importance of this pulmonary injury towards lung metastasis is unclear. Preirradiation of lung epithelial cells induces DNA damage, p53 activation and a secretome enriched in the chemokines SDF-1/CXCL12 and MIF. Irradiated lung epithelial cells stimulate adhesion, spreading, growth, and (transendothelial) migration of human MDA-MB-231 and murine 4T1 breast cancer cells. These metastasis-associated cellular activities were largely mimicked by recombinant CXCL12 and MIF. Moreover, an allosteric inhibitor of the CXCR4 receptor prevented the metastasis-associated cellular activities stimulated by the secretome of irradiated lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, partial (10%) irradiation of the right lung significantly stimulated breast cancer lung-specific metastasis in the syngeneic, orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer model.Our results warrant further investigation of the potential pro-metastatic effects of radiation and indicate the need to develop efficient drugs that will be successful in combination with radiotherapy to prevent therapy-induced spread of cancer cells.

  12. Radiation-induced lung damage promotes breast cancer lung-metastasis through CXCR4 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Feys, Lynn; Descamps, Benedicte; Vanhove, Christian; Vral, Anne; Veldeman, Liv; Vermeulen, Stefan; De Wagter, Carlos; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a mainstay in the postoperative treatment of breast cancer as it reduces the risks of local recurrence and mortality after both conservative surgery and mastectomy. Despite recent efforts to decrease irradiation volumes through accelerated partial irradiation techniques, late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity still occurs after breast irradiation. The importance of this pulmonary injury towards lung metastasis is unclear. Preirradiation of lung epithelial cells induces DNA damage, p53 activation and a secretome enriched in the chemokines SDF-1/CXCL12 and MIF. Irradiated lung epithelial cells stimulate adhesion, spreading, growth, and (transendothelial) migration of human MDA-MB-231 and murine 4T1 breast cancer cells. These metastasis-associated cellular activities were largely mimicked by recombinant CXCL12 and MIF. Moreover, an allosteric inhibitor of the CXCR4 receptor prevented the metastasis-associated cellular activities stimulated by the secretome of irradiated lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, partial (10%) irradiation of the right lung significantly stimulated breast cancer lung-specific metastasis in the syngeneic, orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer model. Our results warrant further investigation of the potential pro-metastatic effects of radiation and indicate the need to develop efficient drugs that will be successful in combination with radiotherapy to prevent therapy-induced spread of cancer cells. PMID:26396176

  13. Breast malignant phyllodes tumor with rare pelvic metastases and long-term overall survival

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Jinlan; Zhang, Shizhen; Wang, Zhen; Fu, Yanbiao; Li, Ling; Wang, Xiaochen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Malignant phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare fibro epithelial neoplasm of the breast, which is poor prognosis due to high risk of recurrence and distant metastasis. Methods: We report a case of malignant PT. It had recurred locally five times, and the sixth relapse was occurred 54 months after first diagnosis, presenting a huge pelvic mass (14 cm × 11 cm) by CT scan. Histopathological examination has demonstrated a metastatic phyllodes tumor. After postoperative chemotherapy treatment, a longer survival has been achieved, which is more than 72 months. Results: Our case report describes a breast PT with several local recurrences and a rare metastasis (pelvic cavity), but long-term overall survival was achieved after surgery and chemotherapy. Conclusion: We conclude that trustworthy prognosticators that identify patients with excessive potential of aggressive clinical course should be explored. Moreover, proper treatment could prolong overall survival of metastatic PT patients. PMID:27661051

  14. Integrins and bone metastasis: integrating tumor cell and stromal cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jochen G; Amend, Sarah R; Weilbaecher, Katherine N

    2011-01-01

    Integrins on both tumor cells and the supporting host stromal cells in bone (osteoclasts, new blood vessels, inflammatory cells, platelets and bone marrow stromal cells) play key roles in enhancing bone metastasis. Tumor cells localize to specific tissues through integrin-mediated contacts with extracellular matrix and stromal cells. Integrin expression and signaling are perturbed in cancer cells, allowing them to "escape" from cell-cell and cell-matrix tethers, invade, migrate and colonize within new tissues and matrices. Integrin signaling through αvβ3 and VLA-4 on tumor cells can promote tumor metastasis to and proliferation in the bone microenvironment. Osteoclast (OC) mediated bone resorption is a critical component of bone metastasis and can promote tumor growth in bone and αvβ3 integrins are critical to OC function and development. Tumors in the bone microenvironment can recruit new blood vessel formation, platelets, pro-tumor immune cells and bone marrow stromal cells that promote tumor growth and invasion in bone. Integrins and their ligands play critical roles in platelet aggregation (αvβ3 and αIIbβ3), hematopoietic cell mobilization (VLA-4 and osteopontin), neoangiogenesis (αvβ3, αvβ5, α6β4, and β1 integrin) and stromal function (osteopontin and VLA-4). Integrins are involved in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis at many levels and further study to define integrin dysregulation by cancer will yield new therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of bone metastasis.

  15. Development of a Biomimetic Chondroitin Sulfate-modified Hydrogel to Enhance the Metastasis of Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Shujun; Sun, Dongsheng; Liu, Yongdong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yang; Liu, Chang; Wu, Hao; Lv, Yan; Ren, Ying; Guo, Xin; Sun, Guangwei; Ma, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Tumor metastasis with resistance to anticancer therapies is the main cause of death in cancer patients. It is necessary to develop reliable tumor metastasis models that can closely recapitulate the pathophysiological features of the native tumor tissue. In this study, chondroitin sulfate (CS)-modified alginate hydrogel beads (ALG-CS) are developed to mimic the in vivo tumor microenvironment with an abnormally increased expression of CS for the promotion of tumor cell metastasis. The modification mechanism of CS on alginate hydrogel is due to the cross-linking between CS and alginate molecules via coordination of calcium ions, which enables ALG-CS to possess significantly different physical characteristics than the traditional alginate beads (ALG). And quantum chemistry calculations show that in addition to the traditional egg-box structure, novel asymmetric egg-box-like structures based on the interaction between these two kinds of polymers are also formed within ALG-CS. Moreover, tumor cell metastasis is significantly enhanced in ALG-CS compared with that in ALG, as confirmed by the increased expression of MMP genes and proteins and greater in vitro invasion ability. Therefore, ALG-CS could be a convenient and effective 3D biomimetic scaffold that would be used to construct standardized tumor metastasis models for tumor research and anticancer drug screening. PMID:27432752

  16. The Effect of Electroacupuncture on Osteosarcoma Tumor Growth and Metastasis: Analysis of Different Treatment Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Smeester, Branden A.; O'Brien, Elaine E.; Ericson, Marna E.; Triemstra, Jennifer L.; Beitz, Alvin J.

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor found in children and adolescents and is associated with many complications including cancer pain and metastasis. While cancer patients often seek complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches to treat cancer pain and fatigue or the side effects of chemotherapy and treatment, there is little known about the effect of acupuncture treatment on tumor growth and metastasis. Here we evaluate the effects of six different electroacupuncture (EA) regimens on osteosarcoma tumor growth and metastasis in both male and female mice. The most significant positive effects were observed when EA was applied to the ST-36 acupoint twice weekly (EA-2X/3) beginning at postimplantation day 3 (PID 3). Twice weekly treatment produced robust reductions in tumor growth. Conversely, when EA was applied twice weekly (EA-2X/7), starting at PID 7, there was a significant increase in tumor growth. We further demonstrate that EA-2X/3 treatment elicits significant reductions in tumor lymphatics, vasculature, and innervation. Lastly, EA-2X/3 treatment produced a marked reduction in pulmonary metastasis, thus providing evidence for EA's potential antimetastatic capabilities. Collectively, EA-2X/3 treatment was found to reduce both bone tumor growth and lung metastasis, which may be mediated in part through reductions in tumor-associated vasculature, lymphatics, and innervation. PMID:24228059

  17. STARD13-correlated ceRNA network inhibits EMT and metastasis of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Hu, Jinhang; Chou, Jinjiang; Liu, Yu; Xing, Yingying; Xi, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) network has been correlated with the initiation and development of cancer. Here, we identify CDH5, HOXD1, and HOXD10 as putative STARD13 ceRNAs and they display concordant patterns with STARD13 in different metastatic potential breast cancer cell lines and tissues. Notably, 3’UTRs of these genes suppress breast cancer metastasis via inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro and in vivo, which are activated through the crosstalk between STARD13 and its ceRNAs in 3’UTR- and miRNA-dependent manners. In addition, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis reveals that mRNA level of STARD13 and its ceRNAs is remarkably associated with survival of breast cancer patients. These results suggest that 3’UTRs of CDH5, HOXD1, and HOXD10 inhibit breast cancer metastasis via serving as STARD13 ceRNAs. PMID:26985770

  18. ELF5 Drives Lung Metastasis in Luminal Breast Cancer through Recruitment of Gr1+ CD11b+ Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-Ortega, David; Ledger, Anita; Roden, Daniel L.; Law, Andrew M. K.; Magenau, Astrid; Kikhtyak, Zoya; Cho, Christina; Allerdice, Stephanie L.; Lee, Heather J.; Valdes-Mora, Fatima; Herrmann, David; Salomon, Robert; Young, Adelaide I. J.; Lee, Brian Y.; Sergio, C. Marcelo; Kaplan, Warren; Piggin, Catherine; Conway, James R. W.; Rabinovich, Brian; Millar, Ewan K. A.; Oakes, Samantha R.; Chtanova, Tatyana; Swarbrick, Alexander; Naylor, Matthew J.; O’Toole, Sandra; Green, Andrew R.; Timpson, Paul; Gee, Julia M. W.; Ellis, Ian O.; Clark, Susan J.; Ormandy, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, the ETS transcription factor ELF5 establishes the milk-secreting alveolar cell lineage by driving a cell fate decision of the mammary luminal progenitor cell. In breast cancer, ELF5 is a key transcriptional determinant of tumor subtype and has been implicated in the development of insensitivity to anti-estrogen therapy. In the mouse mammary tumor virus-Polyoma Middle T (MMTV-PyMT) model of luminal breast cancer, induction of ELF5 levels increased leukocyte infiltration, angiogenesis, and blood vessel permeability in primary tumors and greatly increased the size and number of lung metastasis. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells, a group of immature neutrophils recently identified as mediators of vasculogenesis and metastasis, were recruited to the tumor in response to ELF5. Depletion of these cells using specific Ly6G antibodies prevented ELF5 from driving vasculogenesis and metastasis. Expression signatures in luminal A breast cancers indicated that increased myeloid cell invasion and inflammation were correlated with ELF5 expression, and increased ELF5 immunohistochemical staining predicted much shorter metastasis–free and overall survival of luminal A patients, defining a group who experienced unexpectedly early disease progression. Thus, in the MMTV-PyMT mouse mammary model, increased ELF5 levels drive metastasis by co-opting the innate immune system. As ELF5 has been previously implicated in the development of antiestrogen resistance, this finding implicates ELF5 as a defining factor in the acquisition of the key aspects of the lethal phenotype in luminal A breast cancer. PMID:26717410

  19. Thyroid metastasis from breast cancer presenting with diffuse microcalcifications on sonography: a case report.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Pei; Tiu, Chui-Mei; Chou, Yi-Hong; Hsu, Chih-Yi; King, Kuang-Liang; Lai, Yi-Chen; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Chang, Cheng-Yen

    2014-09-01

    Microcalcifications are frequently associated with papillary thyroid cancers. Metastatic nodules from extrathyroid malignancies may mimic primary thyroid neoplasm on sonography, but do not present with microcalcifications. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with a history of invasive ductal carcinomas of bilateral breasts, status post surgery and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Four years after surgery, thyroid sonography revealed diffuse microcalcifications without nodular component. Core needle biopsy confirmed thyroid metastasis from primary breast cancer. PMID:24752943

  20. Stromal matrix metalloprotease-13 knockout alters Collagen I structure at the tumor-host interface and increases lung metastasis of C57BL/6 syngeneic E0771 mammary tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteases and collagen are key participants in breast cancer, but their precise roles in cancer etiology and progression remain unclear. MMP13 helps regulate collagen structure and has been ascribed largely harmful roles in cancer, but some studies demonstrate that MMP13 may also protect against tumor pathology. Other studies indicate that collagen’s organizational patterns at the breast tumor-host interface influence metastatic potential. Therefore we investigated how MMP13 modulates collagen I, a principal collagen subtype in breast tissue, and affects tumor pathology and metastasis in a mouse model of breast cancer. Methods Tumors were implanted into murine mammary tissues, and their growth analyzed in Wildtype and MMP13 KO mice. Following extraction, tumors were analyzed for collagen I levels and collagen I macro- and micro-structural properties at the tumor-host boundary using immunocytochemistry and two-photon and second harmonic generation microscopy. Lungs were analyzed for metastases counts, to correlate collagen I changes with a clinically significant functional parameter. Statistical analyses were performed by t-test, analysis of variance, or Wilcoxon-Mann–Whitney tests as appropriate. Results We found that genetic ablation of host stromal MMP13 led to: 1. Increased mammary tumor collagen I content, 2. Marked changes in collagen I spatial organization, and 3. Altered collagen I microstructure at the tumor-host boundary, as well as 4. Increased metastasis from the primary mammary tumor to lungs. Conclusions These results implicate host MMP13 as a key regulator of collagen I structure and metastasis in mammary tumors, thus making it an attractive potential therapeutic target by which we might alter metastatic potential, one of the chief determinants of clinical outcome in breast cancer. In addition to identifying stromal MMP13 is an important regulator of the tumor microenvironment and metastasis, these results also suggest

  1. A Case of Giant Borderline Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast Associated with Hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Inomoto, Chie; Kumaki, Nobue; Yokoyama, Kozue; Ogiya, Rin; Oshitanai, Risa; Terao, Mayako; Tsuda, Banri; Morioka, Tooru; Niikura, Naoki; Okamura, Takuho; Masuda, Shinobu; Tokuda, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with a giant phyllodes tumor of the right breast associated with a hypoglycemic attack. A 48-year-old woman experienced a loss of consciousness and was transferred via ambulance to our hospital emergency department. Upon arrival, her blood glucose level was 26 mg/dl, and a giant tumor (>20 cm in diameter) with skin ulceration was observed on the right breast. Core needle biopsy led to a histological diagnosis of a phyllodes tumor of the breast. Ultrasonography and computed tomography detected neither distant metastasis nor a pancreatic endocrine tumor. Her preoperative serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II and insulin levels were 1,330 ng/ml (normal range, 519-1067 ng/ml) and <1.0 µU/ml, respectively. Following a simple mastectomy, the 24-h postoperative serum IGF-II and insulin levels were 496 ng/ml and 10.0 µU/ml, respectively. The IGF-II levels detected in the phyllodes tumor and normal breast tissue were 10,600 ng/Wg (wet weight in grams) and 855 ng/Wg. We conclude from these findings that the hypoglycemic attack was related to the elevated IGF-II level in the giant phyllodes tumor of the breast. PMID:27628602

  2. Recent advances in lymphatic targeted drug delivery system for tumor metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Lu, Wei-Yue

    2014-01-01

    The lymphatic system has an important defensive role in the human body. The metastasis of most tumors initially spreads through the surrounding lymphatic tissue and eventually forms lymphatic metastatic tumors; the tumor cells may even transfer to other organs to form other types of tumors. Clinically, lymphatic metastatic tumors develop rapidly. Given the limitations of surgical resection and the low effectiveness of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the treatment of lymphatic metastatic tumors remains a great challenge. Lymph node metastasis may lead to the further spread of tumors and may be predictive of the endpoint event. Under these circumstances, novel and effective lymphatic targeted drug delivery systems have been explored to improve the specificity of anticancer drugs to tumor cells in lymph nodes. In this review, we summarize the principles of lymphatic targeted drug delivery and discuss recent advances in the development of lymphatic targeted carriers. PMID:25610710

  3. MiR-485-3p and miR-485-5p suppress breast cancer cell metastasis by inhibiting PGC-1α expression

    PubMed Central

    Lou, C; Xiao, M; Cheng, S; Lu, X; Jia, S; Ren, Y; Li, Z

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the worldwide leading cause of cancer mortality in women. The majority of deaths from breast cancer arise from metastasis of local tumors. Cancer cells support their rapid proliferation by diverting metabolites into anabolic pathways, but during cancer metastasis, the proliferative program of invasive cancer cells is suspended for a migratory phenotype. In this study, we demonstrated that both mature forms of miRNA-485, miR-485-3p and miR-485-5p were involved in regulating mitochondrial respiration, cell migration and cell invasion in breast cancer cells by directly targeting and inhibiting the expression of PGC-1α. Specifically, the expression levels of both miR-485-3p and miR-485-5p were decreased in breast cancer tissues. Overexpression of miR-485-3p and miR-485-5p suppressed mitochondrial respiration and potential for cell migration and invasion in vitro, and also inhibited spontaneous metastasis of breast cancer cells in vivo. The suppression of mitochondrial respiration and cell invasion could be partially relieved by restoration of PGC-1α expression. PMID:27010860

  4. Epithelial derived CTGF promotes breast tumor progression via inducing EMT and collagen I fibers deposition

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhen; Sheng, Jianting; Wang, Jiang; Liu, Jiyong; Cui, Kemi; Chang, Jenny; Zhao, Hong; Wong, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Interactions among tumor cells, stromal cells, and extracellular matrix compositions are mediated through cytokines during tumor progression. Our analysis of 132 known cytokines and growth factors in published clinical breast cohorts and our 84 patient-derived xenograft models revealed that the elevated connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in tumor epithelial cells significantly correlated with poor clinical prognosis and outcomes. CTGF was able to induce tumor cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and promote stroma deposition of collagen I fibers to stimulate tumor growth and metastasis. This process was mediated through CTGF-tumor necrosis factor receptor I (TNFR1)-IκB autocrine signaling. Drug treatments targeting CTGF, TNFR1, and IκB signaling each prohibited the EMT and tumor progression. PMID:26318291

  5. Use of CEA and CA15-3 to Predict Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, San-Gang; He, Zhen-Yu; Ren, Hong-Yue; Yang, Li-Chao; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Guo, Ling; Lin, Huan-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The clinical significance of preoperative serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) in breast cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical value of preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA 15-3 on the risk of axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) in patients with breast cancer. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed 1148 breast cancer patients whose preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were measured. The association of these tumor markers and clinicopathologic parameters with ALNM was determined by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: A median of 15 lymph nodes were removed. Seven hundred seventy-eight (67.8%) patients had node-negative disease and 370 (32.2%) had ALNM. Univariate analysis showed that tumor location (P = 0.024), stage (P = 0.001), grade (P < 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (P < 0.001), CEA level (P < 0.001), CA15-3 level (P < 0.001), and breast cancer subtype (BCS) (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with ALNM. ALNM was present in 4.5% of patients with normal CEA and 11.6% of patients with elevated CEA. ALNM was present in 8.0% of patients with normal CA15-3 and 17.0% of patients with high CA15-3. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that tumor location, stage, grade, LVI, CEA, CA15-3, and BCS were significantly and independently associated with ALNM (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusion: The probability of ALNM was greater in patients with elevated preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3. CEA and CA15-3 appear to be independent predictors of ALNM in breast cancer. PMID:26722358

  6. A novel gene expression signature for bone metastasis in breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Savci-Heijink, C Dilara; Halfwerk, Hans; Koster, Jan; van de Vijver, Marc J

    2016-04-01

    Metastatic cancer remains the leading cause of death for patients with breast cancer. To understand the mechanisms underlying the development of distant metastases to specific sites is therefore important and of potential clinical value. From 157 primary breast tumours of the patients with known metastatic disease, gene expression profiling data were generated and correlated to metastatic behaviour including site-specific metastasis, metastasis pattern and survival outcomes. We analysed gene expression signatures specifically associated with the development of bone metastases. As a validation cohort, we used a published dataset of 376 breast carcinomas for which gene expression data and site-specific metastasis information were available. 80.5 % of luminal-type tumours developed bone metastasis as opposed to 41.7 % of basal and 55.6 % of HER2-like tumours. A novel 15-gene signature identified 82.4 % of the tumours with bone metastasis, 85.2 % of the tumours which had bone metastasis as first site of metastasis and 100 % of the ones with bone metastasis only (p 9.99e-09), in the training set. In the independent dataset, 81.2 % of the positive tested tumours had known metastatic disease to the bone (p 4.28e-10). This 15-gene signature showed much better correlation with the development of bone metastases than previously identified signatures and was predictive in both ER-positive as well as in ER-negative tumours. Multivariate analyses revealed that together with the molecular subtype, our 15-gene expression signature was significantly correlated to bone metastasis status (p <0.001, 95 % CI 3.86-48.02 in the training set; p 0.001, 95 % CI 1.54-5.00 in the independent set). The 15 genes, APOPEC3B, ATL2, BBS1, C6orf61, C6orf167, MMS22L, KCNS1, MFAP3L, NIP7, NUP155, PALM2, PH-4, PGD5, SFT2D2 and STEAP3, encoded mainly membrane-bound molecules with molecular function of protein binding. The expression levels of the up-regulated genes (NAT1, BBS1 and PH-4) were

  7. The relevance of EMT in breast cancer metastasis: Correlation or causality?

    PubMed

    Bill, Ruben; Christofori, Gerhard

    2015-06-22

    Although major progress has been achieved in treating breast cancer patients, metastatic breast cancer still remains a deadly disease. A full understanding of the process of systemic cancer cell dissemination is therefore critical to develop next generation therapies. A plethora of experimental data points toward a central role of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the multistep cascade of metastasis formation. However, in patients the data are based on correlative studies which often, but not always, tie the expression of EMT markers to cancer invasion, metastasis and poor clinical outcome. Moreover, the notion that cancer cells are able to switch between different modes of migration asks for a thorough review of the actual relevance of EMT in cancer metastasis.

  8. Mining metastasis related genes by primary-secondary tumor comparisons from large-scale databases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwoo; Lee, Doheon

    2009-01-01

    Background Metastasis is the most dangerous step in cancer progression and causes more than 90% of cancer death. Although many researchers have been working on biological features and characteristics of metastasis, most of its genetic level processes remain uncertain. Some studies succeeded in elucidating metastasis related genes and pathways, followed by predicting prognosis of cancer patients, but there still is a question whether the result genes or pathways contain enough information and noise features have been controlled appropriately. Methods We set four tumor type classes composed of various tumor characteristics such as tissue origin, cellular environment, and metastatic ability. We conducted a set of comparisons among the four tumor classes followed by searching for genes that are consistently up or down regulated through the whole comparisons. Results We identified four sets of genes that are consistently differently expressed in the comparisons, each of which denotes one of four cellular characteristics respectively – liver tissue, colon tissue, liver viability and metastasis characteristics. We found that our candidate genes for tissue specificity are consistent with the TiGER database. And we also found that the metastasis candidate genes from our method were more consistent with the known biological background and independent from other noise features. Conclusion We suggested a new method for identifying metastasis related genes from a large-scale database. The proposed method attempts to minimize the influences from other factors except metastatic ability including tissue originality and tissue viability by confining the result of metastasis unrelated test combinations. PMID:19344478

  9. Decreased expression of SOX17 is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fu, De-Yuan; Tan, Hao-Sheng; Wei, Jin-Li; Zhu, Chang-Ren; Jiang, Ji-Xin; Zhu, Yu-Xiang; Cai, Feng-Lin; Chong, Mei-Hong; Ren, Chuan-Li

    2015-09-01

    The SOX17 (SRY-related HMG-box) transcription factor is involved in a variety of biological processes and is related to the tumorigenesis and progression of multiple tumors. However, the clinical application of SOX17 for breast cancer prognosis is currently limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of SOX17 expression in human breast cancer. qPCR and western blot assays were performed to measure the expression of SOX17 in breast cancer cell lines and 30 matched pairs of breast cancer and corresponding noncancerous tissues. A SOX17 overexpression cell model was used to examine changes in cell growth in vitro. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed to retrospectively examine the prognostic impact of SOX17 expression in 187 additional breast cancer patients. Our results showed that SOX17 expression was decreased at both the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in the breast cancer cell lines and tissues, and that SOX17 overexpression could strongly suppress cell growth in vitro. Furthermore, the lack of SOX17 protein expression was strongly correlated with higher tumor grade (P = 0.002), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage (P = 0.001) and had poorer disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) compared to normal SOX17 expression (P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that lower SOX17 expression was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (P = 0.007; HR = 2.854; 95 % CI 1.326-6.147) and OS (P = 0.005; HR = 5.035; 95 % CI 1.648-15.385) for breast cancer. Our findings indicate that SOX17 expression is a useful prognostic biomarker for breast cancer.

  10. A Nomogram for Predicting the Pathological Response of Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xi; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Chen, Sheng; Shao, Zhi-Ming; Di, Gen-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The value of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) patients is still controversial. We aimed to identify predictors and construct a nomogram for predicting the pathologically complete response (pCR) of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) after NCT in node positive breast cancer patients. In total, 426 patients with pathologically proven ALN metastasis before NCT were enrolled, randomized 1:1 and divided into a training set and a validation set. We developed a nomogram based on independent predictors for ALN pCR identified by multivariate logistic regression as well as clinical significant predictors. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that hormone receptor (HR) status, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) status and Ki67 index were independent predictors. The nomogram was thereby constructed by those independent predictors as well as tumor size and NCT regimens. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the training set and the validation set were 0.804 and 0.749, respectively. We constructed a nomogram for predicting ALN pCR in patients who received NCT. Our nomogram can improve risk stratification, accurately predict post-NCT ALN status and avoid unnecessary ALN dissection. PMID:27576704

  11. A Nomogram for Predicting the Pathological Response of Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xi; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Chen, Sheng; Shao, Zhi-Ming; Di, Gen-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The value of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) patients is still controversial. We aimed to identify predictors and construct a nomogram for predicting the pathologically complete response (pCR) of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) after NCT in node positive breast cancer patients. In total, 426 patients with pathologically proven ALN metastasis before NCT were enrolled, randomized 1:1 and divided into a training set and a validation set. We developed a nomogram based on independent predictors for ALN pCR identified by multivariate logistic regression as well as clinical significant predictors. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that hormone receptor (HR) status, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) status and Ki67 index were independent predictors. The nomogram was thereby constructed by those independent predictors as well as tumor size and NCT regimens. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the training set and the validation set were 0.804 and 0.749, respectively. We constructed a nomogram for predicting ALN pCR in patients who received NCT. Our nomogram can improve risk stratification, accurately predict post-NCT ALN status and avoid unnecessary ALN dissection. PMID:27576704

  12. Sentinel lymph node metastasis after neoadjuvant treatment in breast cancer: Any size matters?

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Isabel T

    2015-01-01

    One of the advantages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) treatments is its ability to convert patients who need a mastectomy in breast conservative surgery. NAC has also increased the conversion of node positive patients into node negative in around 40% allowing the use of sentinel node biopsy (SLN) in this setting. Timing of SLN biopsy after NAC has been a subject of debate. In patients with clinically node negative before NAC, rates of success and false negative rates of SLN after NAC are similar to those in the adjuvant setting, so SLN after NAC in previous negative axilla has been incorporated in the staging of the axilla. More controversial is its use in patients with positive axillary nodes before NAC who convert to node negative after NAC. Several randomized studies have reported the identification rates and the false negative rates of the SLN after NAC, concordant in the importance of surgical technique. As there is an agreement in the abandon of the immunohistochemistry (IHC) for SLN in the adjuvant setting as SLN IHC detected metastasis appear to have no impact on overall survival, in patients with SLN after NAC the inclusion of isolated tumor cell (ITC) as positive nodes lowers the false negative rates of the technique, suggesting the importance of assessing the SLN by IHC after NAC and considering it as residual disease. Longer follow up is needed to determine the prognostic implications of ITC in the SLN after NAC. PMID:26677431

  13. Asymmetric Cancer Hallmarks in Breast Tumors on Different Sides of the Body

    PubMed Central

    Campoy, Emanuel M.; Laurito, Sergio R.; Branham, María T.; Urrutia, Guillermo; Mathison, Angela; Gago, Francisco; Orozco, Javier; Urrutia, Raul; Mayorga, Luis S.; Roqué, María

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades it has been established that breast cancer arises through the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in different cancer related genes. These alterations confer the tumor oncogenic abilities, which can be resumed as cancer hallmarks (CH). The purpose of this study was to establish the methylation profile of CpG sites located in cancer genes in breast tumors so as to infer their potential impact on 6 CH: i.e. sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, induction of angiogenesis, genome instability and invasion and metastasis. For 51 breast carcinomas, MS-MLPA derived-methylation profiles of 81 CpG sites were converted into 6 CH profiles. CH profiles distribution was tested by different statistical methods and correlated with clinical-pathological data. Unsupervised Hierarchical Cluster Analysis revealed that CH profiles segregate in two main groups (bootstrapping 90–100%), which correlate with breast laterality (p = 0.05). For validating these observations, gene expression data was obtained by RealTime-PCR in a different cohort of 25 tumors and converted into CH profiles. This analyses confirmed the same clustering and a tendency of association with breast laterality (p = 0.15). In silico analyses on gene expression data from TCGA Breast dataset from left and right breast tumors showed that they differed significantly when data was previously converted into CH profiles (p = 0.033). We show here for the first time, that breast carcinomas arising on different sides of the body present differential cancer traits inferred from methylation and expression profiles. Our results indicate that by converting methylation or expression profiles in terms of Cancer Hallmarks, it would allow to uncover veiled associations with clinical features. These results contribute with a new finding to the better understanding of breast tumor behavior, and can moreover serve as proof of principle for other

  14. Chloride channel-3 promotes tumor metastasis by regulating membrane ruffling and is associated with poor survival

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qin; Deng, Lulu; Wu, Hui; Lin, Guixian; Chen, Lixin; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Chunmei; Wang, Liwei; Zhu, Jiayong; Wang, Weizhang; Chu, Fujiang; Shen, Juan; Li, Hongzhi; Mao, Jianwen

    2015-01-01

    The chloride channel-3 (ClC-3) protein is known to be a component of Cl− channels involved in cell volume regulation or acidification of intracellular vesicles. Here, we report that ClC-3 was highly expressed in the cytoplasm of metastatic carcinomatous cells and accelerated cell migration in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo. High-grade expression of cytoplasmic ClC-3 predicted poor survival in cancer patients. We found that independent of its volume-activated Cl− channel properties, ClC-3 was able to promote cell membrane ruffling, required for tumor metastasis. ClC-3 mediated membrane ruffling by regulating keratin 18 phosphorylation to control β1 Integrin recycling. Therefore, cytoplasmic ClC-3 plays an active and key role in tumor metastasis and may be a valuable prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target to prevent tumor spread. PMID:25537517

  15. Direct endothelial junction restoration results in significant tumor vascular normalization and metastasis inhibition in mice

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vijayendra; Maharjan, Sony; Kim, Kyeojin; Kim, Nam-Jung; Son, Jimin; Lee, Keunho; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Rho, Seung-Sik; Ahn, Sunjoo; Won, Moo-Ho; Ha, Sang-Jun; Koh, Gou Young; Kim, Young-Myeong; Suh, Young-Ger; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2014-01-01

    Tumor blood vessels are leaky and immature, which causes inadequate blood supply to tumor tissues resulting in hypoxic microenvironment and promotes metastasis. Here we have explored tumor vessel modulating activity of Sac-1004, a recently developed molecule in our lab, which directly potentiates VE-cadherin-mediated endothelial cell junction. Sac-1004 could enhance vascular junction integrity in tumor vessels and thereby inhibit vascular leakage and enhance vascular perfusion. Improved perfusion enabled Sac-1004 to have synergistic anti-tumor effect on cisplatin-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells. Interestingly, characteristics of normalized blood vessels namely reduced hypoxia, improved pericyte coverage and decreased basement membrane thickness were readily observed in tumors treated with Sac-1004. Remarkably, Sac-1004 was also able to inhibit lung and lymph node metastasis in MMTV and B16BL6 tumor models. This was in correlation with a reduction in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells with considerable diminution in expression of related transcription factors. Moreover, cancer stem cell population dropped substantially in Sac-1004 treated tumor tissues. Taken together, our results showed that direct restoration of vascular junction could be a significant strategy to induce normalization of tumor blood vessels and reduce metastasis. PMID:24811731

  16. Direct endothelial junction restoration results in significant tumor vascular normalization and metastasis inhibition in mice.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Vijayendra; Maharjan, Sony; Kim, Kyeojin; Kim, Nam-Jung; Son, Jimin; Lee, Keunho; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Rho, Seung-Sik; Ahn, Sunjoo; Won, Moo-Ho; Ha, Sang-Jun; Koh, Gou Young; Kim, Young-Myeong; Suh, Young-Ger; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2014-05-15

    Tumor blood vessels are leaky and immature, which causes inadequate blood supply to tumor tissues resulting in hypoxic microenvironment and promotes metastasis. Here we have explored tumor vessel modulating activity of Sac-1004, a recently developed molecule in our lab, which directly potentiates VE-cadherin-mediated endothelial cell junction. Sac-1004 could enhance vascular junction integrity in tumor vessels and thereby inhibit vascular leakage and enhance vascular perfusion. Improved perfusion enabled Sac-1004 to have synergistic anti-tumor effect on cisplatin-mediated apoptosis of tumor cells. Interestingly, characteristics of normalized blood vessels namely reduced hypoxia, improved pericyte coverage and decreased basement membrane thickness were readily observed in tumors treated with Sac-1004. Remarkably, Sac-1004 was also able to inhibit lung and lymph node metastasis in MMTV and B16BL6 tumor models. This was in correlation with a reduction in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells with considerable diminution in expression of related transcription factors. Moreover, cancer stem cell population dropped substantially in Sac-1004 treated tumor tissues. Taken together, our results showed that direct restoration of vascular junction could be a significant strategy to induce normalization of tumor blood vessels and reduce metastasis. PMID:24811731

  17. Differential expression of osteopontin and bone sialoprotein in bone metastasis of breast and prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Carlinfante, Gabriele; Vassiliou, Daphne; Svensson, Olle; Wendel, Mikael; Heinegård, Dick; Andersson, Göran

    2003-01-01

    Breast and prostate cancer often metastasise to the skeleton. Interestingly, the histopathological characteristics of the bone lesions that arise from these two cancer types differ. Breast tumours give rise to metastases in the skeleton with a mixed lytic/sclerotic pattern, whereas a predominantly sclerotic pattern is seen in metastases from prostate tumours. Osteopontin (OPN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) are bone matrix proteins that have been implicated in the selective affinity of cancer cells for bone. In the present study, 21 patient cases with skeletal metastasis and their respective primary tumours (12 with breast cancer, 9 with prostate cancer) were investigated by immunohistochemistry in order to assess the level of OPN and BSP. Moderate to strong OPN expression was found in 42% of all breast tumours and in 56% of all prostate tumours. Significantly more breast cancer bone metastases exhibited high OPN expression, 83%, as compared with prostate tumour bone metastases, 11% (P = 0.0019). In contrast, moderate to strong BSP expression was found in 33% of breast tumours and in 89% of prostate tumours. In the bone lesions, only 33% of breast tumour metastases showed moderate/strong BSP expression compared to 100% of prostate tumour metastases (P = 0.0046). This divergent pattern of OPN/BSP expression could be an important determinant for the different characteristics of these two types of bone metastasis, i.e., lytic vs. sclerotic, consistent with the proposed role of OPN in differentiation and activation of osteoclasts and of BSP as a stimulator of bone mineralisation.

  18. Tripartite motif containing 28 (TRIM28) promotes breast cancer metastasis by stabilizing TWIST1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chunli; Cheng, Jingliang; Zhou, Boxv; Zhu, Li; Khan, Md. Asaduzzaman; He, Tao; Zhou, Sufang; He, Jian; Lu, Xiaoling; Chen, Hanchun; Zhang, Dianzheng; Zhao, Yongxiang; Fu, Junjiang

    2016-01-01

    TRIM28 regulates its target genes at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Here we report that a TRIM28-TWIST1-EMT axis exists in breast cancer cells and TRIM28 promotes breast cancer metastasis by stabilizing TWIST1 and subsequently enhancing EMT. We find that TRIM28 is highly expressed in both cancer cell lines and advanced breast cancer tissues, and the levels of TRIM28 and TWIST1 are positively correlated with the aggressiveness of breast carcinomas. Overexpression and depletion of TRIM28 up- and down-regulates the protein, but not the mRNA levels of TWIST1, respectively, suggesting that TRIM28 upregulates TWIST1 post-transcriptionally. Overexpression of TRIM28 in breast cancer cell line promotes cell migration and invasion. Knockdown of TRIM28 reduces the protein level of TWIST1 with concurrent upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin and consequently inhibits cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, Immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays demonstrated that TRIM28 interacts with TWIST1 directly and this interaction is presumed to protect TWIST1 from degradation. Our study revealed a novel mechanism in breast cancer cells that TRIM28 enhances metastasis by stabilizing TWIST1, suggesting that targeting TRIM28 could be an efficacious strategy in breast cancer treatment. PMID:27412325

  19. Punctate LC3B expression is a common feature of solid tumors and associated with proliferation, metastasis and poor outcome

    PubMed Central

    Lazova, Rossitza; Camp, Robert L.; Klump, Vincent; Siddiqui, Summar F.; Amaravadi, Ravi K.; Pawelek, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Measurement of autophagy in cancer and correlation with histopathologic grading or clinical outcomes has been limited. Accordingly, we investigated LC3B as an autophagosome marker by analyzing nearly 1400 tumors from 20 types of cancer, focussing on correlations with clinical outcomes in melanoma and breast cancer. Experimental Design Staining protocols were developed for automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) using antibodies vs LC3 isoform B (LC3B) and Ki-67. Clinically annotated breast and melanoma TMA’s and a multitumor array were employed. An AQUA program was developed to quantitate LC3B distribution in punctate and diffuse compartments of the cell. Results LC3B staining was moderate to high in the large majority of tumors. The % area occupied by punctate LC3B was elevated 3–5 fold at high LC3B intensities. In breast cancer and melanoma TMAs, LC3B and Ki-67 showed strong correlations (p < 0.0001) and in multitumor TMAs mitotic figures were most often seen in tumors with highest LC3B expression (p < 0.002). In breast cancer, LC3B expression was elevated in node-positive vs node-negative primaries and associated with increased nuclear grade and shortened survival. In a melanoma TMA with no survival data, LC3B levels were highest in nodal, visceral and cutaneous metastases. Conclusions The results reveal a common expression of LC3B in malignancy and support emerging evidence that autophagy plays a significant role in cancer progression. High LC3B was associated proliferation, invasion and metastasis, high nuclear grade and worse outcome. Thus autophagy presents a key target of therapeutic vulnerability in solid tumors. PMID:22080440

  20. RhoC induces differential expression of genes involved in invasion and metastasis in MCF10A breast cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mei; Wu, Zhi-Fen; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Chinnaiyan, Arul; Merajver, Sofia D

    2004-03-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most deadly form of breast cancer in humans presumably due to its ability to metastasize from its inception. In our laboratory, overexpression of RhoC GTPase was observed to be specific for IBC tumors, but not for stage-matched, non-IBC tumors. RhoC is known to contribute to an IBC-like phenotype in HPV-E6E7 immortalized breast cells. To further study the effect of RhoC overexpression on IBC metastasis, we generated stable transfectants of spontaneous immortalized mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) overexpressing wild-type RhoC or a constitutively active RhoC mutant (G14V). Both the RhoC wild type and the G14V transfectants were highly invasive and proliferated more rapidly compared to vector-only control clones. Overexpression of RhoC led to an increase in actin stress fiber and focal adhesion contact formation. Comparative microarray analysis of these clones further revealed that RhoC overexpression upregulated 108 genes whereas seven genes were down-regulated. We have further verified by quantitative RT-PCR that genes involved in cell proliferation, invasion/adhesion, and angiogenesis were modulated by RhoC. This work suggests strong candidates for the downstream oncogenic functions of RhoC.

  1. Gene expression profiling of circulating tumor cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Hensler, Michal; Vančurová, Irena; Becht, Etienne; Palata, Ondřej; Strnad, Pavel; Tesařová, Petra; Čabiňaková, Michaela; Švec, David; Kubista, Mikael; Bartůňková, Jiřina; Špíšek, Radek; Sojka, Luděk

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cancer cells that are released from a tumor into the bloodstream. The presence of CTCs in peripheral blood has been associated with metastasis formation in patients with breast cancer. Therefore, the molecular characterization of CTCs may improve diagnostics and support treatment decisions. We performed gene expression profiling to evaluate the enriched CTCs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of breast cancer patients using an expression panel of 55 breast cancer-associated genes. The study revealed several significantly differentially expressed genes in the CTC-positive samples, including a few that were exclusively expressed in these cells. However, the expression of these genes was barely detectable in the PBMC samples. Some genes were differentially expressed in PBMCs, and the expression of these genes was correlated with tumor grade and the formation of metastasis. In this study, we have shown that the enriched CTCs of breast cancer patients overexpress genes involved in proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) as well as genes that play important roles in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process that may occur in these cells. PMID:27141386

  2. [Salivary gland-like tumors of the breast].

    PubMed

    Otterbach, F; Schmid, K W

    2006-09-01

    A subset of rare benign and malignant breast tumors with and without myoepithelial differentiation are morphologically and histogenetically similar to salivary gland tumors, but may differ in incidence and clinical behavior. The clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and prognostic features of ten salivary gland-like tumor entities of the breast are discussed and compared with their respective counterparts in the salivary glands.

  3. Dosing of zoledronic acid with its anti-tumor effects in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xinmin; Hu, Xichun

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonates have played an important role in the treatment of breast cancer, mainly in patients with bone metastasis, by reducing the risk of fracture, spinal cord compression, and hypercalcemia. Zoledronic acid, the most frequently used intravenous agent, has been traditionally administered on a monthly dosing schedule. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that zoledronic acid can inhibit angiogenesis, invasion, and adhesion of tumor cells. Several clinical studies of different timings and schedules of zoledronic acid therapy have demonstrated its anti-tumor effects, as well as its protective effect on bone health, in postmenopausal women during adjuvant breast cancer therapy. In general, early initiation of zoledronic acid, concomitantly with adjuvant therapy, has been found to be most beneficial. However, questions remain over the most effective schedule of treatment and relative potency of zoledronic acid. Therefore, we review the existing clinical studies to examine the influence of dosing of zoledronic acid therapy on clinical outcomes in patients with breast cancer. PMID:26587376

  4. Mass spectrometry images acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelin in MDA-MB-231 breast tumor models.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Kamila; Jiang, Lu; Greenwood, Tiffany R; Glunde, Kristine; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-02-01

    The lipid compositions of different breast tumor microenvironments are largely unknown due to limitations in lipid imaging techniques. Imaging lipid distributions would enhance our understanding of processes occurring inside growing tumors, such as cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Recent developments in MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enable rapid and specific detection of lipids directly from thin tissue sections. In this study, we performed multimodal imaging of acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines (PC), a lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and a sphingomyelin (SM) from different microenvironments of breast tumor xenograft models, which carried tdTomato red fluorescent protein as a hypoxia-response element-driven reporter gene. The MSI molecular lipid images revealed spatially heterogeneous lipid distributions within tumor tissue. Four of the most-abundant lipid species, namely PC(16:0/16:0), PC(16:0/18:1), PC(18:1/18:1), and PC(18:0/18:1), were localized in viable tumor regions, whereas LPC(16:0/0:0) was detected in necrotic tumor regions. We identified a heterogeneous distribution of palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine, PC(16:0/22:1), and SM(d18:1/16:0) sodium adduct, which colocalized primarily with hypoxic tumor regions. For the first time, we have applied a multimodal imaging approach that has combined optical imaging and MALDI-MSI with ion mobility separation to spatially localize and structurally identify acylcarnitines and a variety of lipid species present in breast tumor xenograft models. PMID:22930811

  5. Medical treatment of breast cancer bone metastasis: from bisphosphonates to targeted drugs.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Bulent; Cicin, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer bone metastasis causing severe morbidity is commonly encountered in daily clinical practice. It causes pain, pathologic fractures, spinal cord and other nerve compression syndromes and life threatening hypercalcemia. Breast cancer metastasizes to bone through complicated steps in which numerous molecules play roles. Metastatic cells disrupt normal bone turnover and create a vicious cycle to which treatment efforts should be directed. Bisphosphonates have been used safely for more than two decades. As a group they delay time to first skeletal related event and reduce pain, but do not prevent development of bone metastasis in patients with no bone metastasis, and also do not prolong survival. The receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand inhibitor denosumab delays time to first skeletal related event and reduces the skeletal morbidity rate. Radionuclides are another treatment option for bone pain. New targeted therapies and radionuclides are still under investigation. In this review we will focus on mechanisms of bone metastasis and its medical treatment in breast cancer patients.

  6. Comparative genomic analysis of primary tumors and metastases in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bertucci, François; Carbuccia, Nadine; Monneur, Audrey; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Goncalves, Anthony; Viens, Patrice; Birnbaum, Daniel; Chaffanet, Max

    2016-01-01

    Personalized medicine uses genomic information for selecting therapy in patients with metastatic cancer. An issue is the optimal tissue source (primary tumor or metastasis) for testing. We compared the DNA copy number and mutational profiles of primary breast cancers and paired metastases from 23 patients using whole-genome array-comparative genomic hybridization and next-generation sequencing of 365 “cancer-associated” genes. Primary tumors and metastases harbored copy number alterations (CNAs) and mutations common in breast cancer and showed concordant profiles. The global concordance regarding CNAs was shown by clustering and correlation matrix, which showed that each metastasis correlated more strongly with its paired tumor than with other samples. Genes with recurrent amplifications in breast cancer showed 100% (ERBB2, FGFR1), 96% (CCND1), and 88% (MYC) concordance for the amplified/non-amplified status. Among all samples, 499 mutations were identified, including 39 recurrent (AKT1, ERBB2, PIK3CA, TP53) and 460 non-recurrent variants. The tumors/metastases concordance of variants was 75%, higher for recurrent (92%) than for non-recurrent (73%) variants. Further mutational discordance came from very different variant allele frequencies for some variants. We showed that the chosen targeted therapy in two clinical trials of personalized medicine would be concordant in all but one patient (96%) when based on the molecular profiling of tumor and paired metastasis. Our results suggest that the genotyping of primary tumor may be acceptable to guide systemic treatment if the metastatic sample is not obtainable. However, given the rare but potentially relevant divergences for some actionable driver genes, the profiling of metastatic sample is recommended. PMID:27028851

  7. Identification of genomic signatures in circulating tumor cells from breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, Nisha; Hu, Pingzhao; Bedard, Philippe; Clemons, Mark; McCready, David; Done, Susan J

    2015-07-15

    Levels of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood have prognostic value in early and metastatic breast cancer. CTCs also show varying degrees of concordance with molecular markers of primary tumors they originate from. It is expected that individual cells reflect the heterogeneity and evolution of tumor cells as they acquire new functions and differential responses to chemotherapy. However, a degree of commonality is also plausible, highlighting alterations that allow tumor cells to perform CTC-defining activities such as invasion and intravasation. Using a matched tumor-normal approach, we performed high-resolution copy number profiling of CTCs from breast cancer to identify occult changes occurring during progression to metastasis. We identified a signature of recurrent gain in CTCs, consisting of 90 minimal common regions (MCRs) of copy number gain. These were predominantly found across chromosome 19 and were identified at low frequencies (3-4%) in 787 primary breast carcinomas examined. CTC genomic signatures clustered into two groups independent of subtype: a dormancy-related signature with 16 MCRs (AKT2, PTEN, CADM2); and a tumor-aggressiveness related signature with 358 MCRs (ANGPTL4, BSG, MIR-373). There were two MCRs in common between the groups on 19q13 and 21q21, containing genes involved in resistance to anoikis, TGFβ-signaling and metastasis (TFF3, LTBP4, NUMBL). Furthermore, a region harboring the ERBB2 gene was gained in a majority of patients. Regions 20q13 and 15q24 were associated with distant metastasis. The distinctiveness of CTC signatures highlights cell populations with different functional or metastatic potential. Such novel targets could help to specifically identify and block dissemination.

  8. Carcinomatous change in the cranial metastasis from a metastasizing mixed tumor of the salivary gland--case report.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, M; Sugawara, T; Seki, H; Otawara, Y; Sakuma, T; Nakano, Y; Yoshimoto, T

    1997-07-01

    A 57-year-old female who had had a mixed tumor of the submandibular gland for 30 years presented with a cranial metastasis in the ipsilateral occipital region. Detailed histological examinations of the primary tumor failed to detect any carcinomatous component. In contrast, the metastasis contained a carcinomatous component. This histological discrepancy was confirmed by assessment of the expression of Ki-67 antigen in these tumor specimens and comparison with five typical benign mixed tumors. Cranial metastasis of a histologically benign mixed tumor is extremely rare, and a carcinomatous change in the metastatic tumor is apparently unique.

  9. Malignant mixed salivary tumor presenting as a mandibular metastasis.

    PubMed

    Mellor, T K; Scott, J

    1985-11-01

    A rare case of a central mandibular metastatic mixed salivary gland tumor is reported which presented following a 45-year history of recurrent benign mixed salivary gland tumor of the parotid gland on the same side. The mandibular tumor included a predominantly benign mixed salivary gland component as well as frankly invasive adenocarcinoma. The clinicopathologic features of the mandibular and residual parotid tumors suggested that the metastatic event may have occurred prior to the development of frank carcinoma in the parotid tumor.

  10. AC1MMYR2 impairs high dose paclitaxel-induced tumor metastasis by targeting miR-21/CDK5 axis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yu; Zhou, Xuan; Yang, Juan-Juan; Liu, Xia; Zhao, Xiao-hui; Wang, Qi-xue; Han, Lei; Song, Xin; Zhu, Zhi-yan; Tian, Wei-ping; Zhang, Lun; Mei, Mei; Kang, Chun-sheng

    2015-07-01

    Paclitaxel (taxol) is a widely used chemo-drug for many solid tumors, while continual taxol treatment is revealed to stimulate tumor dissemination. We previously found that a small molecule inhibitor of miR-21, termed AC1MMYR2, had the potential to impair tumorigenesis and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether combining AC1MMYR2 with taxol could be explored as a means to limit tumor metastasis. Here we showed that abnormal activation of miR-21/CDK5 axis was associated with breast cancer lymph node metastasis, which was also contribute to high dose taxol-induced invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and glioblastoma cell line U87VIII. AC1MMYR2 attenuated CDK5 activity by functional targeting CDK5RAP1, CDK5 activator p39 and target p-FAK(ser732). A series of in vitro assays indicated that treatment of AC1MMYR2 combined with taxol suppressed tumor migration and invasion ability in both MDA-MB-231 and U87VIII cell. More importantly, combination therapy impaired high-dose taxol induced invadopodia, and EMT markers including β-catenin, E-cadherin and vimentin. Strikingly, a significant reduction of lung metastasis in mice was observed in the AC1MMYR2 plus taxol treatment. Taken together, our work demonstrated that AC1MMYR2 appeared to be a promising strategy in combating taxol induced cancer metastasis by targeting miR-21/CDK5 axis, which highlighted the potential for development of therapeutic modalities for better clinic taxol application.

  11. AC1MMYR2 impairs high dose paclitaxel-induced tumor metastasis by targeting miR-21/CDK5 axis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yu; Zhou, Xuan; Yang, Juan-Juan; Liu, Xia; Zhao, Xiao-hui; Wang, Qi-xue; Han, Lei; Song, Xin; Zhu, Zhi-yan; Tian, Wei-ping; Zhang, Lun; Mei, Mei; Kang, Chun-sheng

    2015-07-01

    Paclitaxel (taxol) is a widely used chemo-drug for many solid tumors, while continual taxol treatment is revealed to stimulate tumor dissemination. We previously found that a small molecule inhibitor of miR-21, termed AC1MMYR2, had the potential to impair tumorigenesis and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether combining AC1MMYR2 with taxol could be explored as a means to limit tumor metastasis. Here we showed that abnormal activation of miR-21/CDK5 axis was associated with breast cancer lymph node metastasis, which was also contribute to high dose taxol-induced invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and glioblastoma cell line U87VIII. AC1MMYR2 attenuated CDK5 activity by functional targeting CDK5RAP1, CDK5 activator p39 and target p-FAK(ser732). A series of in vitro assays indicated that treatment of AC1MMYR2 combined with taxol suppressed tumor migration and invasion ability in both MDA-MB-231 and U87VIII cell. More importantly, combination therapy impaired high-dose taxol induced invadopodia, and EMT markers including β-catenin, E-cadherin and vimentin. Strikingly, a significant reduction of lung metastasis in mice was observed in the AC1MMYR2 plus taxol treatment. Taken together, our work demonstrated that AC1MMYR2 appeared to be a promising strategy in combating taxol induced cancer metastasis by targeting miR-21/CDK5 axis, which highlighted the potential for development of therapeutic modalities for better clinic taxol application. PMID:25827073

  12. ABCB1 and ABCC2 and the risk of distant metastasis in Thai breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen

    PubMed Central

    Sensorn, Insee; Sukasem, Chonlaphat; Sirachainan, Ekaphop; Chamnanphon, Montri; Pasomsub, Ekawat; Trachu, Narumol; Supavilai, Porntip; Pinthong, Darawan; Wongwaisayawan, Sansanee

    2016-01-01

    Background Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters have been extensively studied with regard to tamoxifen treatment outcomes. However, the results are inconclusive. Analysis of organ-specific metastasis may reveal the association of these pharmacogenetic factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of CYP3A5, CYP2D6, ABCB1, and ABCC2 polymorphisms on the risk of all distant and organ-specific metastases in Thai patients who received tamoxifen adjuvant therapy. Methods Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of 73 patients with breast cancer who received tamoxifen adjuvant therapy. CYP3A5 (6986A>G), CYP2D6 (100C>T), ABCB1 (3435C>T), and ABCC2 (−24C>T) were genotyped using allelic discrimination real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. The impacts of prognostic clinical factors and genetic variants on disease-free survival were analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression analysis. Results In the univariate analysis, primary tumor size >5 cm was significantly associated with increased risk of distant metastasis (P=0.004; hazard ratio [HR] =3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44–6.47). In the multivariate analysis, tumor size >5 cm remained predictive of distant metastasis (P<0.001; HR=5.49; 95% CI, 2.30–13.10). ABCC2 −24CC were shown to be associated with increased risk of distant metastasis (P=0.040; adjusted HR=2.34; 95% CI, 1.04–5.27). The combined genotype of ABCC2 −24CC − ABCB1 3435 CT+TT was associated with increased risk of distant and bone metastasis (P=0.020; adjusted HR=2.46; 95% CI, 1.15–5.26 and P=0.040; adjusted HR=3.70; 95% CI, 1.06–12.89, respectively). Conclusion This study indicates that polymorphisms of ABCC2 and ABCB1 are independently associated with bone metastasis. Further prospective studies with larger sample sizes are needed to verify this finding. PMID:27110128

  13. Overexpression of histone demethylase JMJD5 promotes metastasis and indicates a poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhihua; Sun, Chuntao; Li, Fengqi; Han, Jiankui; Li, Xanjun; Song, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we showed the expression of JMJD5 was increased in breast cancer tissues and breast adenocarcinoma cell lines MCF-7 as well as triple negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 compared with paired adjacent normal mammary tissues and normal mammary epithelial cell lines MCF-10A. The higher expression of JMJD5 was significantly corresponded with clinical stage, histological grade and lymph node metastasis. Overexpression of JMJD5 promoted cell invasion and induce EMT, while JMJD5 siRNA inhibits MDA-MB-231 cells invasion in vitro. Moreover, qChIP analysis revealed the Snail family proteins Snai1 was the direct target of JMJD5 in breast cancer cells. Luciferase reporter assays suggested that the overexpression of JMJD5 resulted in the activation of Snail1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter. The changes in the level of RNA and protein implied that the activation of Snail was the important mechanisms by which JMJD5 triggers metastasis. We also detected the higher expression of JMJD5 protein was an independent unfavorable biomarker for worse overall survival in breast cancer patients. Therefore, our results identified an important role for JMJD5 in breast cancer through the regulation of snail1.

  14. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Plasticity of Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Implications for Metastasis and Therapeutic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ming; Brooke, Michael; Wicha, Max S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades the traditional view of cancer being a homogeneous mass of rapid proliferating malignant cells is being replaced by a model of ever increasing complexity, which points out that cancers are complex tissues composed of multiple cell types. A large variety of immune and other host cells constitute the tumor microenvironment, which supports the growth and progression of the tumor where individual cancer cells evolve with increasing phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Furthermore, it has also become clear that, in addition to this cellular and genetic heterogeneity, most tumors exhibit a hierarchical organization composed of tumor cells displaying divergent lineage markers and at the apex of this hierarchy are cells capable of self-renewal. These “cancer stem cells” not only drive tumor growth, but also mediate metastasis and contribute to treatment resistance. Besides displaying remarkable genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, cancer stem cells maintain plasticity to transition between mesenchymal-like (EMT) and epithelial-like (MET) states in a process regulated by the tumor microenvironment. These stem cell state transitions may play a fundamental role in the process of tumor metastasis. In this review, we will discuss emerging knowledge regarding the plasticity of cancer stem cells and the role that this plasticity plays in tumor metastasis. We also discuss the implications of these findings for the development of cancer stem cell targeted therapeutics. PMID:25506895

  15. MicroRNA-30a increases tight junction protein expression to suppress the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis by targeting Slug in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Wei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Yao, Chung-Chin; Chao, Jui-I; Chen, Po-Ming; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yen; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Chu, Hou-Wei; Shen, Chen-Yang; Cheng, Chun-Wen

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) transition is a prerequisite for conferring metastatic potential during tumor progression. microRNA-30a (miR-30a) expression was significantly lower in aggressive breast cancer cell lines compared with non-invasive breast cancer and non-malignant mammary epithelial cell lines. In contrast, miR-30a overexpression reversed the mesenchymal appearance of cancer cells to result in a cobblestone-like epithelial phenotype. We identified Slug, one of the master regulators of EMT, as a target of miR-30a using in silico prediction. Reporter assays indicated that miR-30a could bind to the 3′-untranslted region of Slug mRNA. Furthermore, we linked miR-30a to increased expression of claudins, a family of tight junction transmembrane proteins. An interaction between Slug and E-box in the claudin promoter sequences was reduced upon miR-30a overexpression, further leading to reduction of filopodia formation and decreased invasiveness/metastasis capabilities of breast cancer cells. Consistently, delivery of miR-30a in xenografted mice decreased tumor invasion and migration. In patients with breast cancer, a significantly elevated risk of the miR-30alow/CLDN2low/FSCNhigh genotype was observed, linking to a phenotypic manifestation of larger tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and advanced tumor stage among patients. In conclusion, the miR-30a/Slug axis inhibits mesenchymal tumor development by interfering with metastatic cancer cell programming and may be a potential target for therapy in breast cancer. PMID:26918943

  16. The value of the immunohistochemistry in a case of gastric neuroendocrine tumor and thyroid metastasis.

    PubMed

    Poiană, Cătălina; Carşote, Mara; Ardeleanu, Carmen; Terzea, Dana; Avramescu, Elena Taina; Neamţu, M C; Miulescu, Rucsandra Dănciulescu

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid metastasis is atypical. We present a 70-year-old female case that was first diagnosed as gastric cancer after surgical approach. Two years later a thyroidectomy was performed and the immunohistochemistry (IHC) profile revealed a neuroendocrine tumor (NET): poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (with small cells), with positive reaction for SYN, CROMO, negative for calcitonin, TTF1 and thyreoglobulin. The Ki-67 index was 25%. Considering the unusual metastasis, the IHC exam of the stomach tumor was performed pointing the same features as the thyroid findings. This proved that the thyroid tumor was a metastasis from a primary gastric neoplasia. This is an unusual case of NET because of the thyroid involvement. Nevertheless, the IHC exam played the major role in elucidating the diagnosis and the prognosis of the case. PMID:21424054

  17. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells targeting HERV-K inhibit breast cancer and its metastasis through downregulation of Ras

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fuling; Krishnamurthy, Janani; Wei, Yongchang; Li, Ming; Hunt, Kelly; Johanning, Gary L; Cooper, Laurence JN; Wang-Johanning, Feng

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K) envelope (env) protein is a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) for cancer vaccines, and that its antibodies (mAbs) possess antitumor activity against cancer. In this study, a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for HERV-K env protein (K-CAR) was generated using anti-HERV-K mAb. K-CAR T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 9 breast cancer (BC) patients and 12 normal donors were able to inhibit growth of, and to exhibit significant cytotoxicity toward, BC cells but not MCF-10A normal breast cells. The antitumor effects in cancer cells were significantly reduced when control T cells were used, or the expression of HERV-K was knocked down by an shRNA. Secretion of multiple cytokines, including IFNγ, TNF-α, and IL-2, was significantly enhanced in culture media of BC cells treated with K-CARs. Significantly reduced tumor growth and