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Sample records for breath samples collected

  1. Methodological Issues of Sample Collection and Analysis of Exhaled Breath

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recommended standardized procedures have been developed for measurement of exhaled lower respiratory nitric oxide (NO) and nasal NO. It would be desirable to develop similar guidelines for the sampling of exhaled breath related to other compounds. For such systemic volatile o...

  2. Self-collected breath sampling for monitoring low-level benzene exposures among automobile mechanics.

    PubMed

    Egeghy, Peter P; Nylander-French, Leena; Gwin, Kristin K; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Rappaport, Stephen M

    2002-07-01

    Automobile mechanics are exposed to benzene through their contact with gasoline vapor and engine exhaust. This study investigated the benzene uptake associated with these exposures. We first evaluated the reliability of self-collected breath samples among a subset of subjects and found good agreement between these samples and those collected under expert supervision (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.79, n = 69). We then used self-monitoring together with a longitudinal sampling design (with up to three measurements per worker) to measure benzene in air and benzene in end-exhaled breath among 81 workers from 12 automobile repair garages in North Carolina. A statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney rank sum test) was observed between non-smokers and smokers for post-exposure benzene concentration in breath (median values of 18.9 and 39.1 micro g/m(3), respectively). Comparing pre- and post-exposure breath concentrations within these two groups, the difference was significant among non-smokers (P < 0.0001) but not significant among smokers (P > 0.05). Mixed effects regression analysis using backwards elimination yielded five significant predictors of benzene concentration in breath, namely benzene exposure (P < 0.0001), pre-exposure benzene concentration in breath (P = 0.021), smoking status (P < 0.0001), fuel system work (P = 0.0043) and carburetor cleaner use (P < 0.0001). The between-person variance component comprised only 28% of the total variance in benzene levels in breath, indicating that differences among individuals related to physiological and metabolic characteristics had little influence on benzene uptake among these workers.

  3. Reproducibility of expired breath hydrogen levels in the neonate: a comparison of two methods for sample collection.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, R; Robb, T A; Davidson, G P

    1983-02-07

    We have compared a nasopharyngeal catheter method for breath sampling and a valved collection device. Sample quality was assessed by simultaneous oxygen measurement and reproducibility was checked by the analysis of 50 pairs of samples from four premature neonates. Both collection methods produced samples of highly variable quality suggesting a variable mixture of alveolar and non-alveolar air as well as differences in expired oxygen levels between babies. The mean oxygen levels were similar for both sampling techniques. Linear regression analysis of paired hydrogen results showed a highly significant correlation coefficient r = 0.73. This was improved markedly to r = 0.94 by normalization of hydrogen values based on observed oxygen levels, and so supports the earlier article by Robb and Davidson [1]. All breath hydrogen analyses require a measure of sample quality. Reproducible results and meaningful changes in hydrogen concentration in breath samples can only be achieved by correction according to sample quality. Correction to a common oxygen value should allow quantitative comparisons between patients. Samples were best collected from neonates by the nasopharyngeal catheter method, which least disturbed the patient, allowed multiple sample collection and gave lower oxygen and higher hydrogen values where large differences between pairs occurred.

  4. Collection of breath for hydrogen estimation.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, A J; Tarlow, M J; Sutherland, I T; Sammons, H G

    1981-02-01

    The breath hydrogen test is used in gastroenterological investigation, particularly for sugar malabsorption, transit time, and the investigation of small-bowel bacterial overgrowth. Several methods of collecting breath from infants and children for hydrogen assay have been described. Four such techniques (postnasal catheter, nasal prong, Rahn-Otis end-tidal sampler, and modification of a party toy--the 'Wiggins's blowout') were compared with breath collection using the Haldane-Priestley tube. Multiple sampling of breath from 3 adults was performed after initial lactulose loads to increase breath hydrogen excretion. The variability between the different assay techniques was less than the inherent variability of repeated breath hydrogen assays using the same technique. Each technique is therefore adequate for breath hydrogen collection; we recommend the Rahn-Otis end-tidal sampler in young infants and children, and the Haldane-Priestley tube in older children, since these were most acceptable to the children and their parents.

  5. Extending the Collection Duration of Breath Samples for Enteric Methane Emission Estimation Using the SF6 Tracer Technique

    PubMed Central

    Pinares-Patiño, César; Gere, José; Williams, Karen; Gratton, Roberto; Juliarena, Paula; Molano, German; MacLean, Sarah; Sandoval, Edgar; Taylor, Grant; Koolaard, John

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Extended sample collection for the SF6 tracer technique is desirable for extensive grazing systems. Breath samples from eight cows were collected while lucerne silage was fed to achieve fixed intakes among the cows. Samples were collected over a 10-day period, using either apparatuses used in New Zealand (NZL) or Argentina (ARG), and either daily, over two consecutive 5-day periods or over a 10-day period (in duplicate). The NZL system had a greater sampling success and more consistent CH4 emission estimates than the ARG system, with no differences in mean emissions among sample collection periods. This study showed that extended sample collection is feasible, but definitive evaluation under grazing situation is required before a decision on recommendation can be made. Abstract The daily sample collection protocol of the sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique for the estimation of methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants may not be practical under extensive grazing systems. Here, under controlled conditions, we evaluated extended periods of sampling as an alternative to daily sample collections. Eight rumen-fistulated cows were housed and fed lucerne silage to achieve common daily feed intakes of 6.4 kg dry matter per cow. Following SF6 permeation tube dosing, eight sampling lines were fitted to the breath collection harness, so that a common gas mix was available to each line. Half of the lines collected samples into PVC yokes using a modified capillary system as commonly used in New Zealand (NZL), and half collected samples into stainless steel cylinders using a ball-bearing flow restrictor as used in Argentina (ARG), all within a 10-day time frame, either daily, across two consecutive 5-day periods or across one 10-day period (in duplicate). The NZL system had greater sampling success (97.3 vs. 79.5%) and yielded more consistent CH4 emission estimates than the ARG system. Emission estimates from NZL daily, NZL 5-day and NZL 10-day samplings

  6. Extending the Collection Duration of Breath Samples for Enteric Methane Emission Estimation Using the SF₆ Tracer Technique.

    PubMed

    Pinares-Patiño, César; Gere, José; Williams, Karen; Gratton, Roberto; Juliarena, Paula; Molano, German; MacLean, Sarah; Sandoval, Edgar; Taylor, Grant; Koolaard, John

    2012-06-08

    The daily sample collection protocol of the sulphur hexafluoride (SF₆) tracer technique for the estimation of methane (CH₄) emissions from ruminants may not be practical under extensive grazing systems. Here, under controlled conditions, we evaluated extended periods of sampling as an alternative to daily sample collections. Eight rumen-fistulated cows were housed and fed lucerne silage to achieve common daily feed intakes of 6.4 kg dry matter per cow. Following SF₆ permeation tube dosing, eight sampling lines were fitted to the breath collection harness, so that a common gas mix was available to each line. Half of the lines collected samples into PVC yokes using a modified capillary system as commonly used in New Zealand (NZL), and half collected samples into stainless steel cylinders using a ball-bearing flow restrictor as used in Argentina (ARG), all within a 10-day time frame, either daily, across two consecutive 5-day periods or across one 10-day period (in duplicate). The NZL system had greater sampling success (97.3 vs. 79.5%) and yielded more consistent CH₄ emission estimates than the ARG system. Emission estimates from NZL daily, NZL 5-day and NZL 10-day samplings were 114, 110 and 111 g d(-1), respectively. Extended sample collection protocol may be feasible, but definitive evaluation of this alternative as well as sample collection systems is required under grazing situations before a decision on recommendation can be made.

  7. ALVEOLAR BREATH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined an alveolar breath collection ...

  8. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  9. Feasibility of a new method to collect exhaled breath condensate in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Rosias, Philippe P R; Robroeks, Charlotte M; van de Kant, Kim D; Rijkers, Ger T; Zimmermann, Luc J; van Schayck, Constant P; Heynens, Jan W; Jöbsis, Quirijn; Dompeling, Edward

    2010-02-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a promising non-invasive method to assess respiratory inflammation in adults and children with lung disease. Especially in pre-school children, condensate collection is hampered by long sampling times because of open-ended collection systems. We aimed to assess the feasibility of condensate collection in pre-school children using a closed glass condenser with breath recirculation system, which also collects the residual non-condensed exhaled breath, and subsequently recirculates it back into the condenser. Condensate was collected before and after breath recirculation in 70 non-sedated pre-school children with and without recurrent wheeze. Cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α) were measured in 50 μl samples using ultrasensitive multiplexed liquid bead array. The success rate of condensate collection increased from 64% (without recirculation) to 83% (after breath recirculation), and mean condensate volume from 214 to 465 μl respectively. Detection of cytokines was successful in 95-100% of samples. Cytokine concentrations before and after breath recirculation were not different (p > 0.232). In asthmatic children, only TNF-α concentrations were significantly decreased, compared to non-asthmatics. In pre-school children, the collection of EBC is feasible using a new closed glass condenser with breath recirculation system. This new method may help to assess - non-invasively - cytokine profiles in asthmatic and non-asthmatic pre-school children.

  10. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    PubMed Central

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado; D’Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath. PMID:26559776

  11. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs.

    PubMed

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-12

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  12. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  13. Detection of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in exhaled breath collected from cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Sandqvist, Sören; Dubbelboer, Ilse; Franck, Johan

    2011-10-01

    Exhaled breath has recently been proposed as a new possible matrix for drugs of abuse testing. A key drug is cannabis, and the present study was aimed at investigating the possibility of detecting tetrahydrocannabinol and tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid in exhaled breath after cannabis smoking. Exhaled breath was sampled from 10 regular cannabis users and 8 controls by directing the exhaled breath by suction through an Empore C(18) disk. The disk was extracted with hexane/ethyl acetate, and the resulting extract was evaporated to dryness and redissolved in 100 μL hexane/ethyl acetate. A 3-μL aliquot was injected onto the LC-MS-MS system and analyzed using positive electrospray ionization and selected reaction monitoring. In samples collected 1-12 h after cannabis smoking, tetrahydrocannabinol was detected in all 10 subjects. The rate of excretion was between 9.0 and 77.3 pg/min. Identification of tetrahydrocannabinol was based on correct retention time relative to tetrahydrocannabinol-d(3) and correct product ion ratio. In three samples, peaks were observed for tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid, but these did not fulfill identification criteria. Neither tetrahydrocannabinol or tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid was detected in the controls. These results confirm older reports that tetrahydrocannabinol is present in exhaled breath following cannabis smoking and extend the detection time from minutes to hours. The results further support the idea that exhaled breath is a promising matrix for drugs-of-abuse testing.

  14. Measurement of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath as collected in evacuated electropolished canisters.

    PubMed

    Pleil, J D; Lindstrom, A B

    1995-03-24

    A set of three complementary analytical methods were developed specifically for exhaled breath as collected in evacuated stainless steel canisters using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric detection. The first is a screening method to quantify the carbon dioxide component (generally at 4-5% concentration), the second method measures the very volatile high-level endogenous compounds [e.g. acetone and isoprene at 500-1000 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), methanol, ethanol, dimethylsulfide at 2-10 ppbv], and the third method is designed to measure trace-level environmental contaminants and other endogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (sub-ppbv) in breath. The canister-based sample format allows all three methods to be applied to each individual sample for complete constituent characterization. Application of these methods is shown to be useful in the following ways: analysis of CO2 levels indicates the approximate quantity of alveolar breath collected (as opposed to whole breath) in a sample; levels of major endogenous compounds are shown to be influenced by physical activities and subsequent recovery periods; and environmental exposures to xenobiotic VOCs can be characterized by assessment of post-exposure breath elimination curves. The instrumentation and methodology are described and example chromatograms and quantitative data plots demonstrating the utility of the methods are presented.

  15. Collecting Protein Biomarkers in Breath Using Electret Filters: A Preliminary Method on New Technical Model and Human Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wang; Pi, Xitian; Qiao, Panpan; Liu, Hongying

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers in exhaled breath are useful for respiratory disease diagnosis in human volunteers. Conventional methods that collect non-volatile biomarkers, however, necessitate an extensive dilution and sanitation processes that lowers collection efficiencies and convenience of use. Electret filter emerged in recent decade to collect virus biomarkers in exhaled breath given its simplicity and effectiveness. To investigate the capability of electret filters to collect protein biomarkers, a model that consists of an atomizer that produces protein aerosol and an electret filter that collects albumin and carcinoembryonic antigen-a typical biomarker in lung cancer development- from the atomizer is developed. A device using electret filter as the collecting medium is designed to collect human albumin from exhaled breath of 6 volunteers. Comparison of the collecting ability between the electret filter method and other 2 reported methods is finally performed based on the amounts of albumin collected from human exhaled breath. In conclusion, a decreasing collection efficiency ranging from 17.6% to 2.3% for atomized albumin aerosol and 42% to 12.5% for atomized carcinoembryonic antigen particles is found; moreover, an optimum volume of sampling human exhaled breath ranging from 100 L to 200 L is also observed; finally, the self-designed collecting device shows a significantly better performance in collecting albumin from human exhaled breath than the exhaled breath condensate method (p<0.05) but is not significantly more effective than reported 3-stage impactor method (p>0.05). In summary, electret filters are potential in collecting non-volatile biomarkers in human exhaled breath not only because it was simpler, cheaper and easier to use than traditional methods but also for its better collecting performance.

  16. Collecting Protein Biomarkers in Breath Using Electret Filters: A Preliminary Method on New Technical Model and Human Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wang; Pi, Xitian; Qiao, Panpan; Liu, Hongying

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers in exhaled breath are useful for respiratory disease diagnosis in human volunteers. Conventional methods that collect non-volatile biomarkers, however, necessitate an extensive dilution and sanitation processes that lowers collection efficiencies and convenience of use. Electret filter emerged in recent decade to collect virus biomarkers in exhaled breath given its simplicity and effectiveness. To investigate the capability of electret filters to collect protein biomarkers, a model that consists of an atomizer that produces protein aerosol and an electret filter that collects albumin and carcinoembryonic antigen-a typical biomarker in lung cancer development- from the atomizer is developed. A device using electret filter as the collecting medium is designed to collect human albumin from exhaled breath of 6 volunteers. Comparison of the collecting ability between the electret filter method and other 2 reported methods is finally performed based on the amounts of albumin collected from human exhaled breath. In conclusion, a decreasing collection efficiency ranging from 17.6% to 2.3% for atomized albumin aerosol and 42% to 12.5% for atomized carcinoembryonic antigen particles is found; moreover, an optimum volume of sampling human exhaled breath ranging from 100 L to 200 L is also observed; finally, the self-designed collecting device shows a significantly better performance in collecting albumin from human exhaled breath than the exhaled breath condensate method (p<0.05) but is not significantly more effective than reported 3-stage impactor method (p>0.05). In summary, electret filters are potential in collecting non-volatile biomarkers in human exhaled breath not only because it was simpler, cheaper and easier to use than traditional methods but also for its better collecting performance. PMID:26934615

  17. A dual mode breath sampler for the collection of the end-tidal and dead space fractions.

    PubMed

    Salvo, P; Ferrari, C; Persia, R; Ghimenti, S; Lomonaco, T; Bellagambi, F; Di Francesco, F

    2015-06-01

    This work presents a breath sampler prototype automatically collecting end-tidal (single and multiple breaths) or dead space air fractions (multiple breaths). This result is achieved by real time measurements of the CO2 partial pressure and airflow during the expiratory and inspiratory phases. Suitable algorithms, used to control a solenoid valve, guarantee that a Nalophan(®) bag is filled with the selected breath fraction even if the subject under test hyperventilates. The breath sampler has low pressure drop (<0.5 kPa) and uses inert or disposable components to avoid bacteriological risk for the patients and contamination of the breath samples. A fully customisable software interface allows a real time control of the hardware and software status. The performances of the breath sampler were evaluated by comparing (a) the CO2 partial pressure calculated during the sampling with the CO2 pressure measured off-line within the Nalophan(®) bag; (b) the concentrations of four selected volatile organic compounds in dead space, end-tidal and mixed breath fractions. Results showed negligible deviations between calculated and off-line CO2 pressure values and the distributions of the selected compounds into dead space, end-tidal and mixed breath fractions were in agreement with their chemical-physical properties.

  18. Modular Sampling and Analysis Techniques for the Real-Time Analysis of Human Breath

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M; Farquar, G; Adams, K; Bogan, M; Martin, A; Benner, H; Spadaccini, C; Steele, P; Davis, C; Loyola, B; Morgan, J; Sankaran, S

    2007-07-09

    At LLNL and UC Davis, we are developing several techniques for the real-time sampling and analysis of trace gases, aerosols and exhaled breath that could be useful for a modular, integrated system for breath analysis. Those techniques include single-particle bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) for the analysis of exhaled aerosol particles or droplets as well as breath samplers integrated with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or MEMS-based differential mobility spectrometry (DMS). We describe these techniques and present recent data obtained from human breath or breath condensate, in particular, addressing the question of how environmental exposure influences the composition of breath.

  19. Temperature changes in exhaled breath condensate collection devices affect observed acetone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Loyola, Bryan R; Bhushan, Abhinav; Schivo, Michael; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Davis, Cristina E

    2008-09-01

    Chemical analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is an emerging method to non-invasively identify and measure potential biomarkers of disease. Various EBC collection methods have been proposed, each with strengths and weaknesses. Recent evidence in the literature suggests that sample collection methodologies could introduce potential artifacts in biomarker measurements. In this study, we tested the effect of thermal changes during condensate collection on measured EBC chemical concentrations. Using both actively-cooled and passively-cooled devices, we measured distinct differences in the amount of condensate that can be collected over discrete time periods. We also found that concentrations of acetone varied with the thermal profile changes in the collection devices, in apparently identical EBC samples. Together, this evidence suggests that great care should be taken to standardize EBC collection methods, and that small deviations in the thermal properties of the collection devices could contribute to confounding EBC measurement artifacts. This has implications for the design and development of future portable breath analysis systems, especially miniature hand-held devices.

  20. Evaluation of methodological and biological influences on the collection and composition of exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, P; Jaeger, J; Schroeder, C

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this inter-species comparison (calves and pigs) was to identify methodological and biological influences on the collection and composition of exhaled breath condensate (EBC). A total of 352 EBC samples were collected, whilst variables of ventilation were registered in parallel. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and pH were analysed in non-degassed EBC samples. The concentration of total protein in EBC was measured colorimetrically. In both species, lung function was evaluated before and after EBC collection. Statistical analyses were performed to study the effect of EBC collection on lung function and to identify the influence of ventilatory variables on the collection and composition of EBC. Collection of EBC did not affect lung function. Despite the volume of EBC collected per unit time being primarily dependent on ventilation per unit time, species-specific conditions during the EBC collection process resulted in different dependences of EBC collection from other variables of ventilation (i.e. maximal airflow during expiration or expired tidal volume kg-1 body weight). The concentration of protein ml(-1) EBC increased with the expired volume per min and with peak expiratory flow. Although the pCO2 in fresh EBC was significantly negatively dependent on the duration of collection, comparable pHs (5.6 - 6.2) were measured in EBC of both calves and pigs. The obtained data may help one standardize EBC collection in different species.

  1. Volatile Biomarkers in Breath Associated With Liver Cirrhosis — Comparisons of Pre- and Post-liver Transplant Breath Samples

    PubMed Central

    Fernández del Río, R.; O'Hara, M.E.; Holt, A.; Pemberton, P.; Shah, T.; Whitehouse, T.; Mayhew, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of liver disease in the UK has risen dramatically and there is a need for improved diagnostics. Aims To determine which breath volatiles are associated with the cirrhotic liver and hence diagnostically useful. Methods A two-stage biomarker discovery procedure was used. Alveolar breath samples of 31 patients with cirrhosis and 30 healthy controls were mass spectrometrically analysed and compared (stage 1). 12 of these patients had their breath analysed after liver transplant (stage 2). Five patients were followed longitudinally as in-patients in the post-transplant period. Results Seven volatiles were elevated in the breath of patients versus controls. Of these, five showed statistically significant decrease post-transplant: limonene, methanol, 2-pentanone, 2-butanone and carbon disulfide. On an individual basis limonene has the best diagnostic capability (the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) is 0.91), but this is improved by combining methanol, 2-pentanone and limonene (AUROC curve 0.95). Following transplant, limonene shows wash-out characteristics. Conclusions Limonene, methanol and 2-pentanone are breath markers for a cirrhotic liver. This study raises the potential to investigate these volatiles as markers for early-stage liver disease. By monitoring the wash-out of limonene following transplant, graft liver function can be non-invasively assessed. PMID:26501124

  2. Subsurface Samples: Collection and Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Philip E.; Griffin, W. Timothy; Phelps, Tommy J.

    2002-12-01

    Microbiological data, interpretation, and conclusions from subsurface samples ultimately depend on the quality and representative character of the samples. Subsurface samples for environmental microbiology ideally contain only the microbial community and geochemical properties that are representative of the subsurface environment from which the sample was taken. To that end, sample contamination by exogenous microorganisms or chemical constituents must be eliminated or minimized, and sample analyses need to begin before changes in the microbial community or geochemical characteristics occur. This article presents sampling methods and sample processing techniques for collecting representative samples from a range of subsurface environments. Factors that should be considered when developing a subsurface sampling program are discussed, including potential benefits, costs, and limitations enabling researchers to evaluate the techniques that are presented and match them to their project requirements. Methods and protocols to address coring, sampling, processing and quality assessment issues are presented.

  3. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  4. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    SciTech Connect

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  5. Sample collection, biobanking, and analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahsman, Maurice J; Tibboel, Dick; Mathot, Ron A A; de Wildt, Saskia N

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric pharmacokinetic studies require sampling of biofluids from neonates and children. Limitations on sampling frequency and sample volume complicate the design of these studies. In addition, strict guidelines, designed to guarantee patient safety, are in place. This chapter describes the practical implications of sample collection and their storage, with special focus on the selection of the appropriate type of biofluid and withdrawal technique. In addition, we describe appropriate measures for storage of these specimens, for example, in the context of biobanking, and the requirements on drug assay methods that they pose. Pharmacokinetic studies in children are possible, but they require careful selection of an appropriate sampling method, specimen volume, and assay method. The checklist provided could help prospective researchers with the design of an appropriate study protocol and infrastructure.

  6. Molecular and Microscopic Analysis of Bacteria and Viruses in Exhaled Breath Collected Using a Simple Impaction and Condensing Method

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Shen, Fangxia; Li, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yan; Chen, Qi; Jie, Xu; Yao, Maosheng

    2012-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is increasingly being used as a non-invasive method for disease diagnosis and environmental exposure assessment. By using hydrophobic surface, ice, and droplet scavenging, a simple impaction and condensing based collection method is reported here. Human subjects were recruited to exhale toward the device for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min. The exhaled breath quickly formed into tiny droplets on the hydrophobic surface, which were subsequently scavenged into a 10 µL rolling deionized water droplet. The collected EBC was further analyzed using culturing, DNA stain, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and colorimetry (VITEK 2) for bacteria and viruses. Experimental data revealed that bacteria and viruses in EBC can be rapidly collected using the method developed here, with an observed efficiency of 100 µL EBC within 1 min. Culturing, DNA stain, SEM, and qPCR methods all detected high bacterial concentrations up to 7000 CFU/m3 in exhaled breath, including both viable and dead cells of various types. Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Kocuria variants were found dominant in EBC samples using VITEK 2 system. SEM images revealed that most bacteria in exhaled breath are detected in the size range of 0.5–1.0 µm, which is able to enable them to remain airborne for a longer time, thus presenting a risk for airborne transmission of potential diseases. Using qPCR, influenza A H3N2 viruses were also detected in one EBC sample. Different from other devices restricted solely to condensation, the developed method can be easily achieved both by impaction and condensation in a laboratory and could impact current practice of EBC collection. Nonetheless, the reported work is a proof-of-concept demonstration, and its performance in non-invasive disease diagnosis such as bacterimia and virus infections needs to be further validated including effects of its influencing matrix. PMID:22848436

  7. Analysis of human breath samples with a multi-bed sorption trap and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC).

    PubMed

    Libardoni, Mark; Stevens, P T; Waite, J Hunter; Sacks, Richard

    2006-09-14

    A multi-bed sorption trap designed to quantitatively collect volatile organic compounds from large-volume vapor samples and inject them into a gas chromatograph is combined with a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatograph (GCxGC) for the analysis of organic compounds in human breath samples. The first-column effluent of the GCxGC is modulated by a single-stage, resistively-heated and air-cooled segment of 0.18-mm i.d. stainless steel column using the same stationary phase as the first column. Cooling gas is provided by a two-stage conventional refrigeration system, and thus no consumables other than carrier gas and electric power are required. The sorption trap uses four discreet beds, three containing different grades of graphitized carbon and one containing a carbon molecular sieve. The ordering of the beds in the trap tube is from the weakest to strongest adsorbent during sample collection. Breath samples are collected in gas sampling bags, and samples are passed through the trap at a flow rate of about 50 cm3/min. After sample collection, hydrogen carrier gas flow is initiated in the direction opposite to the sample collection flow, and the metal trap tube is resistively heated to inject a sample plug into the GCxGC. Performance data for the combined GCxGC/sorption-trap instrument is described, and human breath-sample chromatograms are presented.

  8. The classification of the patients with pulmonary diseases using breath air samples spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenev, Yury V.; Borisov, Alexey V.; Kuzmin, Dmitry A.; Bulanova, Anna A.

    2016-08-01

    Technique of exhaled breath sampling is discussed. The procedure of wavelength auto-calibration is proposed and tested. Comparison of the experimental data with the model absorption spectra of 5% CO2 is conducted. The classification results of three study groups obtained by using support vector machine and principal component analysis methods are presented.

  9. Interval sampling of breath hydrogen (H2) as an index of lactose malabsorption in lactase-deficient subjects.

    PubMed

    Welsh, J D; Payne, D L; Manion, C; Morrison, R D; Nichols, M A

    1981-08-01

    Interval sampling of breath hydrogen content was used in lactose malabsorbers: (1) to compare hydrogen responses following increasing oral doses of lactose in milk and aqueous solutions; (2) to determine the reproducibility of interval breath sampling, and (3) to compare carbohydrate malabsorption following ingestion of either regular milk or milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus. Significant differences in breath hydrogen responses due to increasing amounts of lactose in milk and aqueous solutions were observed. The individual breath hydrogen responses were reproducible using the same lactose dose on different days. There was no significant difference in breath hydrogen responses or symptoms following administration of either regular milk or milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus. Breath hydrogen sampling at intervals, as performed in these studies, provides a sensitive and reproducible index of lactose malabsorption.

  10. Snoring and breathing pauses during sleep: telephone interview survey of a United Kingdom population sample.

    PubMed Central

    Ohayon, M. M.; Guilleminault, C.; Priest, R. G.; Caulet, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of snoring, breathing pauses during sleep, and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and determine the relation between these events and sociodemographic variables, other health problems, driving accidents, and consumption of healthcare resources. DESIGN: Telephone interview survey directed by a previously validated computerised system (Sleep-Eval). SETTING: United Kingdom. SUBJECTS: 2894 women and 2078 men aged 15-100 years who formed a representative sample of the non-institutionalised population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Interview responses. RESULTS: Forty per cent of the population reported snoring regularly and 3.8% reported breathing pauses during sleep. Regular snoring was significantly associated with male sex, age 25 or more, obesity, daytime sleepiness or naps, night time awakenings, consuming large amounts of caffeine, and smoking. Breathing pauses during sleep were significantly associated with obstructive airways or thyroid disease, male sex, age 35-44 years, consumption of anxiety reducing drugs, complaints of non-restorative sleep, and consultation with a doctor in the past year. The two breathing symptoms were also significantly associated with drowsiness while driving. Based on minimal criteria of the International classification of Sleep Disorders (1990), 1.9% of the sample had obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. In the 35-64 year age group 1.5% of women (95% confidence interval 0.8% to 2.2%) and 3.5% of men (2.4% to 4.6%) had obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Disordered breathing during sleep is widely underdiagnosed in the United Kingdom. The condition is linked to increased use of medical resources and a greater risk of daytime sleepiness, which augments the risk of accidents. Doctors should ask patients and bed partners regularly about snoring and breathing pauses during sleep. PMID:9093095

  11. Effect of release rate of the SF(6) tracer on methane emission estimates based on ruminal and breath gas samples.

    PubMed

    Martin, C; Koolaard, J; Rochette, Y; Clark, H; Jouany, J P; Pinares-Patiño, C S

    2012-03-01

    The release rate (RR) of sulphur hexafluoride (SF(6)) gas from permeation tube in the rumen appears to be positively related with methane (CH(4)) emissions calculated using the SF(6) tracer technique. Gas samples of breath and ruminal headspace were collected simultaneously in order to evaluate the hypothesis that transactions of SF(6) in the rumen are the source for this relationship. Six non-lactating dairy cows fitted with rumen cannulae were subdivided into two groups and randomly assigned to a two-period crossover design to permeation tubes with low RR (LRR = 1.577 mg/day) or two-times higher RR (HRR = 3.147 mg/day) RR. The cows were fed limited amounts of maize silage (80% ad libitum) split into two meals (40% at 0800 h and 60% at 1600 h). Each period consisted of 3-day gas sampling. Immediately before the morning feed and then each hour over 8 h, ruminal gas samples (50 ml) were withdrawn through the cannula fitted with stoppers to prevent opening. Simultaneously, 8-h integrated breath gas samples were collected over the same period. Ratios of concentration of CH(4)/SF(6), CO(2)/SF(6) and CO(2)/CH(4) and emission estimates of CH(4) and CO(2) were calculated for each sample source using the SF(6) tracer technique principles. The LRR treatment yielded higher (P < 0.001) ruminal CH(4)/SF(6) (by 1.79 times) and CO(2)/SF(6) (by 1.90 times) ratios than the HRR treatment; however, these differences were lower than the 2.0 times difference expected from the RR between the LRR and HRR. Consequently, the LRR treatment was associated with lower (P < 0.01) ruminal emissions of CH(4) over the 8-h collection period than with the HRR treatment (+11%), a difference also confirmed by the breath samples (+11%). RR treatments did not differ (P = 0.53) in ruminal or breath CO(2) emissions; however, our results confirm that the SF(6) tracer seems inappropriate for CO(2) emissions estimation in ruminants. Irrespective of the RR treatment, breath samples yielded 8% to 9% higher CH

  12. A study to investigate the ability of subjects with chronic lung diseases to provide evidential breath samples using the Lion Intoxilyzer 6000 UK breath alcohol testing device.

    PubMed

    Honeybourne, D; Moore, A J; Butterfield, A K; Azzan, L

    2000-07-01

    The Lion Intoximeter 3000 has been used for evidential breath testing in the U.K. for some years. Some individuals with lung diseases have difficulty in providing evidential breath samples using the device. This study describes an investigation that we have carried out on a newer instrument--the Lion Intoxilyzer 6000UK--which is now in use in the U.K. The study was designed to investigate the ability of subjects with a variety of lung diseases to provide evidential breath samples using this device. The 40 adult subjects investigated comprized 10 normal controls, 10 with asthma, 10 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 10 with restrictive lung disease. After baseline spirometry, subjects were given alcohol to drink, the quantity based upon body weight. After a gap of at least 20 min, subjects were asked to provide evidential breath samples in accordance with.the test procedure built into the Lion Intoxilyzer 6000UK. The results showed that two asthmatic subjects, four with COPD and three with restrictive lung disease failed to provide evidential breath samples even after four attempts. Despite the device requiring a minimum sample volume of 1.2 l, eight of the nine subjects who failed had a forced vital capacity (FVC) of more than 1.5 l. Seven of these nine subjects had a forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) of less than 1.0 l. In conclusion, this study has shown that some subjects with lung diseases may have difficulty in providing evidential breath samples using the Lion Intoxilyzer 6000 UK.

  13. Fluid sample collection and storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, D.; Stone, S. E.

    1969-01-01

    Fluid sampling device collects a sample from a low-pressure fluid system and stores it for an indefinite period, with little risk of contamination of either the sample or the surrounding environment. The collector /a plastic bladder/ is separated from the sampler after a sample is collected.

  14. Stability of selected volatile breath constituents in Tedlar, Kynar and Flexfilm sampling bags

    PubMed Central

    Mochalski, Paweł; King, Julian; Unterkofler, Karl; Amann, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The stability of 41 selected breath constituents in three types of polymer sampling bags, Tedlar, Kynar, and Flexfilm, was investigated using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The tested molecular species belong to different chemical classes (hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, aromatics, sulphurs, esters, terpenes, etc.) and exhibit close-to-breath low ppb levels (3–12 ppb) with the exception of isoprene, acetone and acetonitrile (106 ppb, 760 ppb, 42 ppb respectively). Stability tests comprised the background emission of contaminants, recovery from dry samples, recovery from humid samples (RH 80% at 37 °C), influence of the bag’s filling degree, and reusability. Findings yield evidence of the superiority of Tedlar bags over remaining polymers in terms of background emission, species stability (up to 7 days for dry samples), and reusability. Recoveries of species under study suffered from the presence of high amounts of water (losses up to 10%). However, only heavier volatiles, with molecular masses higher than 90, exhibited more pronounced losses (20–40%). The sample size (the degree of bag filling) was found to be one of the most important factors affecting the sample integrity. To sum up, it is recommended to store breath samples in pre-conditioned Tedlar bags up to 6 hours at the maximum possible filling volume. Among the remaining films, Kynar can be considered as an alternative to Tedlar; however, higher losses of compounds should be expected even within the first hours of storage. Due to the high background emission Flexfilm is not suitable for sampling and storage of samples for analyses aiming at volatiles at a low ppb level. PMID:23323261

  15. Sampling and mass spectrometry approaches for the detection of drugs and foreign contaminants in breath for homeland security applications

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Audrey Noreen

    2009-01-01

    phase microextraction (SPME) and identified using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Modifications to the sampling apparatus allowed for increased VOC collection efficiency, and reduced the time of sampling and analysis by over 25%. The VOCs are present in breath due to either endogenous production, or exposure to an external source through absorption, inhalation, or ingestion. Detection of these exogenous chemicals can provide information on the prior location and activities of the subject. Breath samples collected before and after exposure in a hardware store and nail salon were analyzed to investigate the prior location of a subject; breath samples collected before and after oral exposure to terpenes and terpenoid compounds, pseudoephedrine, and inhalation exposure to hexamine and other explosive related compounds were analyzed to investigate the prior activity of a subject. The elimination of such compounds from the body was also monitored. In application, this technique may provide an early warning system to identify persons of interest in the prevention and preemption stages of homeland security.

  16. SAM Companion Documents and Sample Collection Procedures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAM Companion Documents and Sample Collection Procedures provide information intended to complement the analytical methods listed in Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM).

  17. Dynamic Method for Identifying Collected Sample Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John

    2008-01-01

    G-Sample is designed for sample collection missions to identify the presence and quantity of sample material gathered by spacecraft equipped with end effectors. The software method uses a maximum-likelihood estimator to identify the collected sample's mass based on onboard force-sensor measurements, thruster firings, and a dynamics model of the spacecraft. This makes sample mass identification a computation rather than a process requiring additional hardware. Simulation examples of G-Sample are provided for spacecraft model configurations with a sample collection device mounted on the end of an extended boom. In the absence of thrust knowledge errors, the results indicate that G-Sample can identify the amount of collected sample mass to within 10 grams (with 95-percent confidence) by using a force sensor with a noise and quantization floor of 50 micrometers. These results hold even in the presence of realistic parametric uncertainty in actual spacecraft inertia, center-of-mass offset, and first flexibility modes. Thrust profile knowledge is shown to be a dominant sensitivity for G-Sample, entering in a nearly one-to-one relationship with the final mass estimation error. This means thrust profiles should be well characterized with onboard accelerometers prior to sample collection. An overall sample-mass estimation error budget has been developed to approximate the effect of model uncertainty, sensor noise, data rate, and thrust profile error on the expected estimate of collected sample mass.

  18. Investigation of charcoal cloth as a sorbent for integrated sampling of solvent vapors in mixed-expired breath using a new stainless steel sampler.

    PubMed

    Glaser, R A; Arnold, J E

    1989-02-01

    A stainless steel device for integrated sampling of solvents present in mixed-expired breath is described. During sampling, the subject inhales breathing air through commercial charcoal inhalation canisters. Exhaled breath is sampled from the mainstream using 45-mm wafers of charcoal cloth or from the sidestream on other sorbents. The device concentrates trace contaminants present in large volumes of breath. The charcoal cloth sorbent was evaluated for sampling and analysis of m-xylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane under simulated physiological conditions. These samples were collected from atmospheres of either analyte generated at 35 degrees-40 degrees C and 80%-90% relative humidity to simulate an exhaled breath sample matrix. Concentrations sampled ranged from 2.2 to 190 mg/m3 for 1,1,1-trichloroethane and from 0.44 to 35.6 mg/m3 for m-xylene. Volumes sampled ranged from 10 to 50 L. The m-xylene samples were collected using a 3-wafer front and a 2-wafer backup bed of charcoal cloth; 1,1,1-trichloroethane samples were collected using a 10-wafer front and a 1-wafer backup bed. All samples were desorbed in carbon disulfide and analyzed via gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector. The volume of desorption solvent ranged from 1.7 to 2.5 mL per wafer of cloth. The quantitation limit is estimated to be 2.0 micrograms/L for 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 0.4 micrograms/L m-xylene for a 50-L sample. At least 80% recovery was obtained for m-xylene or 1,1,1-trichloroethane samples stored from 1 to 14 days after collection, if the samples were refrigerated at 0 degrees C after an initial 7-day storage period at room temperature. The recovery of hexane, 1-hexene, ethyl acetate, isopropanol, methylene chloride, and methyl isobutyl ketone from the charcoal cloth also has been investigated and is reported. With the exception of isopropanol, all analytes were recovered quantitatively from the charcoal cloth by desorption with carbon disulfide following storage for 1 to 17

  19. Optimising sample collection for placental research.

    PubMed

    Burton, G J; Sebire, N J; Myatt, L; Tannetta, D; Wang, Y-L; Sadovsky, Y; Staff, A C; Redman, C W

    2014-01-01

    Biobanks provide an important repository of samples for research purposes. However, for those samples to reflect the in vivo state, and for experimental reliability and reproducibility, careful attention to collection, processing and storage is essential. This is particularly true for the placenta, which is potentially subjected to stressful conditions during delivery, and sample collection may be delayed owing to routine postpartum inspection by clinical staff. In addition, standardisation of the collection procedure enables samples to be shared among research groups, allowing larger datasets to be established. Here, we provide an evidence-based and experts' review of the factors surrounding collection that may influence data obtained from the human placenta. We outline particular requirements for specific techniques, and propose a protocol for optimal sample collection. We recognise that the relevance of these factors, and of the sample types collected to a particular study will depend on the research questions being addressed. We therefore anticipate that researchers will select from the protocol to meet their needs and resources available. Wherever possible, we encourage researchers to extend their collection to include additional samples that can be shared on an international collaborative basis, with appropriate informed consent, to raise the quality, as well as quantity, of placental research.

  20. No Relationship between Neurocognitive Functioning and Mild Sleep Disordered Breathing in a Community Sample of Children

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Susan D.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Shifflett, Laura J.; Bixler, Edward O.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Our objective was to examine the relationship between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and neurocognitive functioning in a large general-population sample of children who underwent a full-night polysomnogram and comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Methods: A population-based study of 571 school-aged children (6-12 years) underwent a 9-hour polysomnogram and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Results: No significant relationship was found between children with a mild apnea-hypopnea index (1 ≤ apnea-hypopnea index < 5) and any measure of neuropsychological functioning (intelligence, verbal and nonverbal reasoning ability, attention, executive functioning, memory, processing speed, and visual-motor skill). Partial correlations between apnea-hypopnea index and neuropsychological test scores and polynominal trend analysis were all nonsignificant. Conclusions: Children with mild SDB showed no significant neuropsychological impairment compared to children without SDB. This study suggests that children with mild SDB are not at risk for neuropsychological impairment and that the coexistence of mild SDB with any neuropsychological impairment should be considered comorbid and not causal. However, the association between neurobehavioral issues and children with mild SDB remains uncertain. Citation: Calhoun SL; Mayes SD; Vgontzas AN; Tsaoussoglou M; Shifflett LJ; Bixler EO. No relationship between neurocognitive functioning and mild sleep disordered breathing in a community sample of children. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):228-234. PMID:19960643

  1. Chapter A4. Collection of Water Samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilde, Franceska D.

    1999-01-01

    The National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (National Field Manual) describes protocols and provides guidelines for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel who collect data that are used to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. This chapter addresses preparations and appropriate methods for the collection of surface-water, groundwater, and associated quality-control samples. Among the topics covered are considerations and procedures to prevent sample contamination; establishing site files; instructions for collecting depth-integrated isokinetic and nonisokinetic samples at flowing- and still-water sites; and guidelines for collecting formation water from wells having various types of construction and hydraulic and aquifer characteristics.

  2. Sample collection system for gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares, Jose A.; Stark, Peter C.; Dunbar, John M.; Hill, Karen K.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Roybal, Gustavo

    2004-09-21

    An automatic sample collection system for use with an electrophoretic slab gel system is presented. The collection system can be used with a slab gel have one or more lanes. A detector is used to detect particle bands on the slab gel within a detection zone. Such detectors may use a laser to excite fluorescently labeled particles. The fluorescent light emitted from the excited particles is transmitted to low-level light detection electronics. Upon the detection of a particle of interest within the detection zone, a syringe pump is activated, sending a stream of buffer solution across the lane of the slab gel. The buffer solution collects the sample of interest and carries it through a collection port into a sample collection vial.

  3. Asteroid Redirect Mission: EVA and Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Stich, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Overview (1) Notional Development Schedule, (2) ARV Crewed Mission Accommodations; Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) Mission Summary; ARCM Accomplishments; Sample collection/curation plan (1) CAPTEM Requirements; SBAG Engagement Plan

  4. Pseudothrombocytopenia with multiple anticoagulant sample collection tubes

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Ferenc; Varga, Marina; Pataki, Zsolt; Rigo, Erzsebet

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of pseudothrombocytopenia (PTCP) is important for the accuracy of a clinical assessment and for avoiding unnecessary treatment. An elderly patient was hospitalized with left lung pneumonia. Severe thrombocytopenia [platelet (PLT) number: 18 × 109/L] without any clinical bleeding was found in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood collection tube. PLT measurement was repeated in various anticoagulant [sodium citrate, lithium heparin, disodium oxalate, hirudin, and magnesium sulfate (Mg-sulfate)] sample collection tubes and all of them showed thrombocytopenia except with Mg-sulfate. To the best of our knowledge, PTCP with five anticoagulant sample collection tubes has not been reported earlier. PMID:28180009

  5. Final Report BW Sample Collection& Preparation Device

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, R P; Belgrader, P; Meyer, G; Benett, W J; Richards, J B; Hadley, D R; Stratton, P L; Milanovich, F P

    2002-01-31

    The objective of this project was to develop the technique needed to prepare a field collected sample for laboratory analysis and build a portable integrated biological detection instrument with new miniaturized and automated sample purification capabilities. The device will prepare bacterial spores, bacterial vegetative cells, and viral particles for PCR amplification.

  6. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS{reg_sign}) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Profiles developed for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills.

  7. 75 FR 43989 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection Plan for Dogs Treated With SLENTROL AGENCY: Food and Drug... response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on the sample collection plan for dogs treated with... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Sample Collection Plan for Dogs Treated With...

  8. Automated Sample collection and Analysis unit

    SciTech Connect

    Latner, Norman; Sanderson, Colin G.; Negro, Vincent C.

    1999-03-31

    Autoramp is an atmospheric radionuclide collection and analysis unit designed for unattended operation. A large volume of air passes through one of 31 filter cartridges which is then moved from a sampling chamber and past a bar code reader, to a shielded enclosure. The collected dust-borne radionuclides are counted with a high resolution germanium gamma-ray detector. An analysis is made and the results are transmitted to a central station that can also remotely control the unit.

  9. Biopolymers for sample collection, protection, and preservation.

    PubMed

    Sorokulova, Iryna; Olsen, Eric; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2015-07-01

    One of the principal challenges in the collection of biological samples from air, water, and soil matrices is that the target agents are not stable enough to be transferred from the collection point to the laboratory of choice without experiencing significant degradation and loss of viability. At present, there is no method to transport biological samples over considerable distances safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively without the use of ice or refrigeration. Current techniques of protection and preservation of biological materials have serious drawbacks. Many known techniques of preservation cause structural damages, so that biological materials lose their structural integrity and viability. We review applications of a novel bacterial preservation process, which is nontoxic and water soluble and allows for the storage of samples without refrigeration. The method is capable of protecting the biological sample from the effects of environment for extended periods of time and then allows for the easy release of these collected biological materials from the protective medium without structural or DNA damage. Strategies for sample collection, preservation, and shipment of bacterial, viral samples are described. The water-soluble polymer is used to immobilize the biological material by replacing the water molecules within the sample with molecules of the biopolymer. The cured polymer results in a solid protective film that is stable to many organic solvents, but quickly removed by the application of the water-based solution. The process of immobilization does not require the use of any additives, accelerators, or plastifiers and does not involve high temperature or radiation to promote polymerization.

  10. Gender differences in sleep disordered breathing in a community-based sample.

    PubMed

    Redline, S; Kump, K; Tishler, P V; Browner, I; Ferrette, V

    1994-03-01

    Gender differences in the relative frequency of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) have been observed in surveys of patient groups referred for clinical evaluation compared with population surveys. In this study, we assessed the associations of gender, SDB, and symptoms of SDB in 389 participants (16 to 84 yr of age) in an ongoing genetic-epidemiologic study of sleep apnea. Subjects included index probands with laboratory-confirmed obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (laboratory sample, n = 36) and their family members and neighbors (the community sample). SDB was assessed with overnight in-home monitoring of airflow, oximetry, heart rate, and chest wall impedance, and symptoms were assessed with standardized questionnaires. In the entire sample, SDB, defined as a respiratory disturbance index [RDI] > or = 15, was more prevalent among males (38%) than among females (15%) (p < 0.05). Males predominated by a ratio of 8:1 in the laboratory sample (31 males, five females). In contrast, the proportion of males to females with SDB was only 2:1 in the community sample, in which an RDI > or = 15 was observed among 26% of males and 13% of females. In the laboratory sample, females tended to be younger and were significantly heavier than males. However, in the community sample, females with SDB were older than male apneic subjects (63.4 +/- 13.9 versus 47.2 +/- 15.6 years, mean +/- SD; p < 0.01), and included a majority of postmenopausal women (75%). No differences in body mass index were noted between males and females with SDB recruited from the community.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Automated collection and processing of environmental samples

    DOEpatents

    Troyer, Gary L.; McNeece, Susan G.; Brayton, Darryl D.; Panesar, Amardip K.

    1997-01-01

    For monitoring an environmental parameter such as the level of nuclear radiation, at distributed sites, bar coded sample collectors are deployed and their codes are read using a portable data entry unit that also records the time of deployment. The time and collector identity are cross referenced in memory in the portable unit. Similarly, when later recovering the collector for testing, the code is again read and the time of collection is stored as indexed to the sample collector, or to a further bar code, for example as provided on a container for the sample. The identity of the operator can also be encoded and stored. After deploying and/or recovering the sample collectors, the data is transmitted to a base processor. The samples are tested, preferably using a test unit coupled to the base processor, and again the time is recorded. The base processor computes the level of radiation at the site during exposure of the sample collector, using the detected radiation level of the sample, the delay between recovery and testing, the duration of exposure and the half life of the isotopes collected. In one embodiment, an identity code and a site code are optically read by an image grabber coupled to the portable data entry unit.

  12. Effect of transportation and storage using sorbent tubes of exhaled breath samples on diagnostic accuracy of electronic nose analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Schee, M P; Fens, N; Brinkman, P; Bos, L D J; Angelo, M D; Nijsen, T M E; Raabe, R; Knobel, H H; Vink, T J; Sterk, P J

    2013-03-01

    Many (multi-centre) breath-analysis studies require transport and storage of samples. We aimed to test the effect of transportation and storage using sorbent tubes of exhaled breath samples for diagnostic accuracy of eNose and GC-MS analysis. As a reference standard for diagnostic accuracy, breath samples of asthmatic patients and healthy controls were analysed by three eNose devices. Samples were analysed by GC-MS and eNose after 1, 7 and 14 days of transportation and storage using sorbent tubes. The diagnostic accuracy for eNose and GC-MS after storage was compared to the reference standard. As a validation, the stability was assessed of 15 compounds known to be related to asthma, abundant in breath or related to sampling and analysis. The reference test discriminated asthma and healthy controls with a median AUC (range) of 0.77 (0.72-0.76). Similar accuracies were achieved at t1 (AUC eNose 0.78; GC-MS 0.84), t7 (AUC eNose 0.76; GC-MS 0.79) and t14 (AUC eNose 0.83; GC-MS 0.84). The GC-MS analysis of compounds showed an adequate stability for all 15 compounds during the 14 day period. Short-term transportation and storage using sorbent tubes of breath samples does not influence the diagnostic accuracy for discrimination between asthma and health by eNose and GC-MS.

  13. Astronaut John Young photographed collecting lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples near North Ray crater during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Young is using the lunar surface rake and a set of tongs. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked in the field of large boulders in the background.

  14. Shortness of breath as a predictor of depressive symptoms in a community sample of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Blazer, Dan G.; Hybels, Celia F.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Physical symptoms are known to be associated with late life depression both cross-sectionally and over time. We attempted to determine if self-reported shortness of breath (SoB) is associated with depressive symptoms at long-term (3-year) follow-up in a community sample of older (65+) adults. Methods A sample of 2926 elderly subjects from the Duke Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) were evaluated at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a modified version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression Scale (CES-D) and SoB was assessed by a three-item scale administered at baseline. The analyses were controlled for factors known to be associated with depressive symptoms and SoB. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results Eighty-three percent of subjects who experienced SoB survived for three years. Within the analysis sample of those participating at follow-up, 36 percent experienced SoB at baseline. In biavriate analyses, SoB, older age, female sex, history of a heart attack, higher body mass index (BMI), depressive symptoms at baseline, cognitive impairment, and functional impairment were associated with follow-up depressive symptoms. When controlled variables were included in a linear regression model, SoB was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms at follow-up (p <0.0001) as well as baseline depressive symptoms, sex, BMI, and functional status. No two-way interaction terms with SoB were significant. Conclusions SoB is a significant predictor of depressive symptoms at 3-year follow-up. Given that SoB is a symptom that is responsive to therapeutic intervention, active intervention to relieve the symptom when identified could reduce the incidence of depressive symptoms. PMID:20872930

  15. Importance of sampling frequency when collecting diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Sun, Xiuming; Qu, Yueming; Wang, Chao; Ivetic, Snjezana; Riis, Tenna; Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in diatom-based bio-assessment but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how to capture diatoms’ temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency (ASF). To cover this research gap, we collected and analyzed daily riverine diatom samples over a 1-year period (25 April 2013–30 April 2014) at the outlet of a German lowland river. The samples were classified into five clusters (1–5) by a Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method based on similarity between species compositions over time. ASFs were determined to be 25 days at Cluster 2 (June-July 2013) and 13 days at Cluster 5 (February-April 2014), whereas no specific ASFs were found at Cluster 1 (April-May 2013), 3 (August-November 2013) (>30 days) and Cluster 4 (December 2013 - January 2014) (<1 day). ASFs showed dramatic seasonality and were negatively related to hydrological wetness conditions, suggesting that sampling interval should be reduced with increasing catchment wetness. A key implication of our findings for freshwater management is that long-term bio-monitoring protocols should be developed with the knowledge of tracking algal temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency. PMID:27841310

  16. Importance of sampling frequency when collecting diatoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Sun, Xiuming; Qu, Yueming; Wang, Chao; Ivetic, Snjezana; Riis, Tenna; Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-11-01

    There has been increasing interest in diatom-based bio-assessment but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how to capture diatoms’ temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency (ASF). To cover this research gap, we collected and analyzed daily riverine diatom samples over a 1-year period (25 April 2013–30 April 2014) at the outlet of a German lowland river. The samples were classified into five clusters (1–5) by a Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method based on similarity between species compositions over time. ASFs were determined to be 25 days at Cluster 2 (June-July 2013) and 13 days at Cluster 5 (February-April 2014), whereas no specific ASFs were found at Cluster 1 (April-May 2013), 3 (August-November 2013) (>30 days) and Cluster 4 (December 2013 - January 2014) (<1 day). ASFs showed dramatic seasonality and were negatively related to hydrological wetness conditions, suggesting that sampling interval should be reduced with increasing catchment wetness. A key implication of our findings for freshwater management is that long-term bio-monitoring protocols should be developed with the knowledge of tracking algal temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency.

  17. Four-sample lactose hydrogen breath test for diagnosis of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Feng; Fox, Mark; Chu, Hua; Zheng, Xia; Long, Yan-Qin; Pohl, Daniel; Fried, Michael; Dai, Ning

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To validate 4-sample lactose hydrogen breath testing (4SLHBT) compared to standard 13-sample LHBT in the clinical setting. METHODS: Irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea (IBS-D) and healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled and received a 10 g, 20 g, or 40 g dose lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The lactase gene promoter region was sequenced. Breath samples and symptoms were acquired at baseline and every 15 min for 3 h (13 measurements). The detection rates of lactose malabsorption (LM) and lactose intolerance (LI) for a 4SLHBT that acquired four measurements at 0, 90, 120, and 180 min from the same data set were compared with the results of standard LHBT. RESULTS: Sixty IBS-D patients and 60 HVs were studied. The genotype in all participants was C/C-13910. LM and LI detection rates increased with lactose dose from 10 g, 20 g to 40 g in both groups (P < 0.001). 4SLHBT showed excellent diagnostic concordance with standard LHBT (97%-100%, Kappa​​ 0.815-0.942) with high sensitivity (90%-100%) and specificity (100%) at all three lactose doses in both groups. CONCLUSION: Reducing the number of measurements from 13 to 4 samples did not significantly impact on the accuracy of LHBT in health and IBS-D. 4SLHBT is a valid test for assessment of LM and LI in clinical practice. PMID:26140004

  18. The Relationship between Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Hypertension in a Nationally Representative Sample

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Sarah Dee; Shankar, Anoop

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), characterized by abnormal respiratory patterns or inadequate quantity of ventilation, is common in adults. A positive association between SDB and hypertension has been established, in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. One void in the literature concerns the role of race/ethnicity in the association between SDB and hypertension. In this context, a cross-sectional study was performed on 6,783 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008. Participants were ≥age 20 and free from cardiovascular disease. The outcome of interest was hypertension, defined as ≥140 mmHg systolic blood pressure (BP), and/or ≥90 mmHg diastolic BP or antihypertensive medication use. Self-reported SDB was positively associated with hypertension, independent of confounders such as depression, diabetes, cholesterol levels, and body mass index, among others. The association persisted in subgroup analyses by gender, with a stronger association among males than females, as well as by race/ethnicity, with non-Hispanic blacks displaying the strongest association. In the multivariable-adjusted model, compared to a sleep summary score of zero (referent), the OR (95% CI) of hypertension for non-Hispanic blacks was 1.34 (0.98–1.83) for a sleep summary score of 1, 1.44 (1.06–1.97) for a score of 2 and 3.72 (1.98–7.00) for a score of >3; p-trend < 0.0001. SDB was positively associated with hypertension in a large, nationally representative sample of US adults. Along with being prevalent, SDB is also treatable. Therefore, our results are important for minority race/ethnic groups who typically experience a higher baseline for negative health outcomes. PMID:26064690

  19. NEW METHODOLOGY FOR IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL HUMAN BIOMARKERS BY COLLECTION AND CONCENTRATION OF EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In many studies of human exposure, the measurement of pollutant chemicals in the environment (air, water, food, soil, etc.) is being supplemented by their additional measurement in biological media such as human breath, blood, and urine. This allows an unambiguous confirmation...

  20. Development of a miniaturized diffusive sampler for true breathing-zone sampling and thermal desorption gas chromatographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Roger; Levin, Jan-Olof; Sundgren, Margit

    2009-07-01

    Exposure measurements should be performed as close as possible to the nose and mouth for a more correct assessment of exposure. User-friendly sampling equipment, with a minimum of handling before, during and after measurement, should not affect ordinary work. In diffusive (passive) sampling, no extra equipment as sampling pumps is needed, making the measurements more acceptable to the user. The diffusive samplers are normally attached on a shoulder, on a breast-pocket or on the lapel. There are, however, difficulties if true breathing-zone sampling is to be performed, since available diffusive samplers normally cannot be arranged close to the nose/mouth. The purpose of this work was to study the performance of a miniaturized tube type diffusive sampler attached to a headset for true breathing-zone sampling. The basis for this miniaturization was the Perkin Elmer ATD tube. Both the size of the tube and the amount of adsorbent was decreased for the miniaturized sampler. A special tube holder to be used with a headset was designed for the mini tube. The mini tube is thermally desorbed inside a standard PE tube. The new sampler was evaluated for the determination of styrene, both in laboratory experiments and in field measurements. As reference method, diffusive sampling with standard Perkin Elmer tubes, thermal desorption and gas chromatographic (GC) analysis was used. The sampling rate was determined to 0.356 mL min(-1) (CV 9.6%) and was not significantly affected by concentration, sampling time or relative humidity.

  1. Sample Acquisition and Analytical Chemistry Challenges to Verifying Compliance to Aviators Breathing Oxygen (ABO) Purity Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been developing and testing two different types of oxygen separation systems. One type of oxygen separation system uses pressure swing technology, the other type uses a solid electrolyte electrochemical oxygen separation cell. Both development systems have been subjected to long term testing, and performance testing under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. Testing these two systems revealed that measuring the product purity of oxygen, and determining if an oxygen separation device meets Aviator's Breathing Oxygen (ABO) specifications is a subtle and sometimes difficult analytical chemistry job. Verifying product purity of cryogenically produced oxygen presents a different set of analytical chemistry challenges. This presentation will describe some of the sample acquisition and analytical chemistry challenges presented by verifying oxygen produced by an oxygen separator - and verifying oxygen produced by cryogenic separation processes. The primary contaminant that causes gas samples to fail to meet ABO requirements is water. The maximum amount of water vapor allowed is 7 ppmv. The principal challenge of verifying oxygen produced by an oxygen separator is that it is produced relatively slowly, and at comparatively low temperatures. A short term failure that occurs for just a few minutes in the course of a 1 week run could cause an entire tank to be rejected. Continuous monitoring of oxygen purity and water vapor could identify problems as soon as they occur. Long term oxygen separator tests were instrumented with an oxygen analyzer and with an hygrometer: a GE Moisture Monitor Series 35. This hygrometer uses an aluminum oxide sensor. The user's manual does not report this, but long term exposure to pure oxygen causes the aluminum oxide sensor head to bias dry. Oxygen product that exceeded the 7 ppm specification was improperly accepted, because the sensor had biased. The bias is permanent - exposure to air does not cause the sensor to

  2. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing § 28.12 Collection of DNA samples. (a) The Bureau of Prisons shall collect a...

  3. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing § 28.12 Collection of DNA samples. (a) The Bureau of Prisons shall collect a...

  4. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing § 28.12 Collection of DNA samples. (a) The Bureau of Prisons shall collect a...

  5. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing § 28.12 Collection of DNA samples. (a) The Bureau of Prisons shall collect a...

  6. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection, Analysis, and Indexing § 28.12 Collection of DNA samples. (a) The Bureau of Prisons shall collect a...

  7. Study of exhaled breath condensate sample preparation for metabolomics analysis by LC-MS/MS in high resolution mode.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Peralbo, M A; Calderón Santiago, M; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2015-11-01

    Metabolomic analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) requires an unavoidable sample preparation step because of the low concentration of its components, and potential cleanup for possible interferents. Sample preparation based on protein precipitation (PP), solid-phase extraction (SPE) by hydrophilic and lipophilic sorbents or lyophilization has demonstrated that the analytical sample from the last is largely the best because lyophilization allows reconstitution in a volume as small as required (preconcentration factors up to 80-times with respect to the original sample), thus doubling the number of detected compounds as compared with the other alternatives (47 versus 25). In addition, PP and/or SPE cleanup are unnecessary as no effect from the EBC components removed by these steps appears in the chromatograms. The total 49 EBC compounds tentatively identified and confirmed by MS/MS in this research include amino acids, fatty acids, fatty amides, fatty aldehydes, sphingoid bases, oxoanionic compounds, imidazoles, hydroxy acids and aliphatic acyclic acids.

  8. Total airborne mold particle sampling: evaluation of sample collection, preparation and counting procedures, and collection devices.

    PubMed

    Godish, Diana; Godish, Thad

    2008-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate (i) procedures used to collect, prepare, and count total airborne mold spore/particle concentrations, and (ii) the relative field performance of three commercially available total airborne mold spore/particle sampling devices. Differences between factory and laboratory airflow calibration values of axial fan-driven sampling instruments (used in the study) indicated a need for laboratory calibration using a mass flow meter to ensure that sample results were accurately calculated. An aniline blue-amended Calberla's solution adjusted to a pH of 4.2-4.4 provided good sample mounting/counting results using Dow Corning high vacuum grease, Dow Corning 280A adhesive, and Dow Corning 316 silicone release spray for samples collected using mini-Burkard and Allergenco samplers. Count variability among analysts was most pronounced in 5% counts of relatively low mold particle deposition density samples and trended downward with increased count percentage and particle deposition density. No significant differences were observed among means of 5, 10, and 20% counts and among analysts; a significant interaction effect was observed between analysts' counts and particle deposition densities. Significantly higher mini-Burkard and Air-O-Cell total mold spore/particle counts for 600x vs. 400x (1.9 and 2.3 x higher, respectively), 1000x vs. 600x (1.9 and 2.2 x higher, respectively) and 1000x vs. 400x (3.6 and 4.6 x higher, respectively) comparisons indicated that 1000x magnification counts best quantified total airborne mold spore/particles using light microscopy, and that lower magnification counts may result in unacceptable underreporting of airborne mold spore/particle concentrations. Modest but significantly higher (1.2x) total mold spore concentrations were observed with Allergenco vs. mini-Burkard samples collected in co-located, concurrently operated sampler studies; moderate but significantly higher mini-Burkard count values (1.4x) were

  9. Analysis of the research sample collections of Uppsala biobank.

    PubMed

    Engelmark, Malin T; Beskow, Anna H

    2014-10-01

    Uppsala Biobank is the joint and only biobank organization of the two principals, Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital. Biobanks are required to have updated registries on sample collection composition and management in order to fulfill legal regulations. We report here the results from the first comprehensive and overall analysis of the 131 research sample collections organized in the biobank. The results show that the median of the number of samples in the collections was 700 and that the number of samples varied from less than 500 to over one million. Blood samples, such as whole blood, serum, and plasma, were included in the vast majority, 84.0%, of the research sample collections. Also, as much as 95.5% of the newly collected samples within healthcare included blood samples, which further supports the concept that blood samples have fundamental importance for medical research. Tissue samples were also commonly used and occurred in 39.7% of the research sample collections, often combined with other types of samples. In total, 96.9% of the 131 sample collections included samples collected for healthcare, showing the importance of healthcare as a research infrastructure. Of the collections that had accessed existing samples from healthcare, as much as 96.3% included tissue samples from the Department of Pathology, which shows the importance of pathology samples as a resource for medical research. Analysis of different research areas shows that the most common of known public health diseases are covered. Collections that had generated the most publications, up to over 300, contained a large number of samples collected systematically and repeatedly over many years. More knowledge about existing biobank materials, together with public registries on sample collections, will support research collaborations, improve transparency, and bring us closer to the goals of biobanks, which is to save and prolong human lives and improve health and quality of life.

  10. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples.

  11. Issues in Collecting and Transcribing Speech Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louko, Linda J.; Edwards, Mary Louise

    2001-01-01

    This article identifies issues in phonetic transcription of speech samples for speech language pathologists. Important terms and concepts from articulatory/clinical phonetics are reviewed and guidelines are provided for streamlining the process of whole-word live transcriptions and for refining transcriptions by incorporating features from…

  12. The analysis of linear and monomethylalkanes in exhaled breath samples by GC×GC-FID and GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hengerics Szabó, Alexandra; Podolec, Peter; Ferenczy, Viktória; Kubinec, Róbert; Blaško, Jaroslav; Soják, Ladislav; Górová, Renáta; Addová, Gabriela; Ostrovský, Ivan; Višňovský, Jozef; Bierhanzl, Václav; Čabala, Radomír; Amann, Anton

    2015-01-26

    A new arrangement of the INCAT (inside needle capillary adsorption trap) device with Carbopack X and Carboxen 1000 as sorbent materials was applied for sampling, preconcentration and injection of C6C19n-alkanes and their monomethyl analogs in exhaled breath samples. For the analysis both GC-MS/MS and GC×GC-FID techniques were used. Identification of the analytes was based on standards, measured retention indices and selective SRM transitions of the individual isomers. The GC-MS/MS detection limits were in the range from 2.1 pg for n-tetradecane to 86 pg for 5-methyloctadecane. The GC×GC-FID detection limits ranged from 19 pg for n-dodecane to 110 pg for 3-methyloctane.

  13. Drinking influences exhaled breath condensate acidity.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Tamás; Barta, Imre; Antus, Balázs; Horváth, Ildikó

    2008-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate analysis is a developing method for investigating airway pathology. Impact of food and drink on breath condensate composition has not been systematically addressed. The aim of the study was to follow exhaled breath condensate pH after drinking an acidic and a neutral beverage. Breath condensate, capillary blood, and urine of 12 healthy volunteers were collected before and after drinking either 1 l of coke or 1 l of mineral water. The pH of each sample was determined with a blood gas analyzer. The mean difference between the pH of two breath condensate samples collected within 15 min before drinking was 0.13+/-0.03. Condensate pH decreased significantly from 6.29+/-0.02 to 6.24+/-0.02 (p<0.03) after drinking coke and from 6.37+/-0.03 to 6.22+/-0.04 (p<0.003) after drinking water. Drinking coke induced significant changes in blood and urine pH as well. Drinking influences exhaled breath condensate composition and may contribute to the variability of exhaled breath condensate pH.

  14. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling To Verify Completion of Self-Implementing Cleanup and...) § 761.286 Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample. At each selected sampling location for...

  15. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Bad Breath KidsHealth > For Kids > Bad Breath A A ... visit your dentist or doctor . continue What Causes Bad Breath? Here are three common causes of bad ...

  16. Snow White Trench Prepared for Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The informally named 'Snow White' trench is the source for the next sample to be acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander for analysis by the wet chemistry lab.

    The Surface Stereo Imager on Phoenix took this shadow-enhanced image of the trench, on the eastern end of Phoenix's work area, on Sol 103, or the 103rd day of the mission, Sept. 8, 2008. The trench is about 23 centimeters (9 inches) wide.

    The wet chemistry lab is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. USE OF EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE IN A HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive, repeatable collection technique to sample biomarkers of lung inflammation, oxidative stress, and environmental exposure. It is unclear whether EBC is an effective tool in human environmental exposure studies with multi-day samplin...

  18. USEPA/USGS Sample Collection Protocol for Bacterial ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report/SOP This Sample Collection Procedure (SCP) describes the activities and considerations for the collection of bacterial pathogens from representative surface soil samples (0-5 cm). This sampling depth can be reached without the use of a drill rig, direct-push technology, or other mechanized equipment. Analizing soil samples for biothreat agents may, for instance, define the extent of contamination or determine whether the concentrations of contaminants present a risk to public health, welfare, or the environment.

  19. The development of a Martian atmospheric Sample collection canister

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulczycki, E.; Galey, C.; Kennedy, B.; Budney, C.; Bame, D.; Van Schilfgaarde, R.; Aisen, N.; Townsend, J.; Younse, P.; Piacentine, J.

    The collection of an atmospheric sample from Mars would provide significant insight to the understanding of the elemental composition and sub-surface out-gassing rates of noble gases. A team of engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology have developed an atmospheric sample collection canister for Martian application. The engineering strategy has two basic elements: first, to collect two separately sealed 50 cubic centimeter unpressurized atmospheric samples with minimal sensing and actuation in a self contained pressure vessel; and second, to package this atmospheric sample canister in such a way that it can be easily integrated into the orbiting sample capsule for collection and return to Earth. Sample collection and integrity are demonstrated by emulating the atmospheric collection portion of the Mars Sample Return mission on a compressed timeline. The test results achieved by varying the pressure inside of a thermal vacuum chamber while opening and closing the valve on the sample canister at Mars ambient pressure. A commercial off-the-shelf medical grade micro-valve is utilized in the first iteration of this design to enable rapid testing of the system. The valve has been independently leak tested at JPL to quantify and separate the leak rates associated with the canister. The results are factored in to an overall system design that quantifies mass, power, and sensing requirements for a Martian atmospheric Sample Collection (MASC) canister as outlined in the Mars Sample Return mission profile. Qualitative results include the selection of materials to minimize sample contamination, preliminary science requirements, priorities in sample composition, flight valve selection criteria, a storyboard from sample collection to loading in the orbiting sample capsule, and contributions to maintaining “ Earth” clean exterior surfaces on the orbiting sample capsule.

  20. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  1. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  2. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  3. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  4. 7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide...

  5. Avian influenza virus sample types, collection, and handling.

    PubMed

    Killian, Mary Lea

    2014-01-01

    Successful detection of avian influenza (AI) virus, viral antigen, nucleic acid, or antibody is dependent upon the collection of the appropriate sample type, the quality of the sample, and the proper storage and handling of the sample. The diagnostic tests to be performed should be considered prior to sample collection. Sera are acceptable samples for ELISA or agar gel precipitin tests, but not for real-time RT-PCR. Likewise, swabs and/or tissues are acceptable for real-time RT-PCR and virus isolation. The sample type will also depend on the type of birds that are being tested; although it is optimal to collect both oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs should be collected from gallinaceous poultry and cloacal swabs should be collected from waterfowl. In addition to collecting the appropriate sample for the tests to be performed, selecting the right materials for sample collection (i.e., type of swab) is very important. This chapter outlines the collection of different specimen types and procedures for proper specimen handling.

  6. Breathing difficulty

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficulty in which you make a high-pitched sound when you breathe out. Causes Shortness of breath has many different causes. For ... episode have a similar pattern? Does breathing difficulty cause you to wake up at ... or wheezing sounds while breathing? Tests that may be ordered include: ...

  7. Scientific guidelines for preservation of samples collected from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooding, James L. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The maximum scientific value of Martian geologic and atmospheric samples is retained when the samples are preserved in the conditions that applied prior to their collection. Any sample degradation equates to loss of information. Based on detailed review of pertinent scientific literature, and advice from experts in planetary sample analysis, number values are recommended for key parameters in the environmental control of collected samples with respect to material contamination, temperature, head-space gas pressure, ionizing radiation, magnetic fields, and acceleration/shock. Parametric values recommended for the most sensitive geologic samples should also be adequate to preserve any biogenic compounds or exobiological relics.

  8. Breath hydrogen excretion in infants with colic.

    PubMed

    Miller, J J; McVeagh, P; Fleet, G H; Petocz, P; Brand, J C

    1989-05-01

    Breath hydrogen excretion as an index of incomplete lactose absorption was measured in 118 healthy infants who were either breast fed or given a formula feed containing lactose, some of whom had colic. Infants with colic (n = 65) were selected on the basis of the mother's report of a history of inconsolable crying lasting several hours each day. Infants in the control group (n = 53) were not reported to cry excessively by their mothers. Breath samples were collected using a face mask sampling device preprandially, and 90 and 150 minutes after the start of a feed. Normalised breath hydrogen concentrations were higher in the group with colic than in the control group at each time point. The median maximum breath hydrogen concentration in the colic group was 29 ppm, and in the control group 11 ppm. The percentage of infants with incomplete lactose absorption (breath hydrogen concentration more than 20 ppm) in the colic group was 62% compared with 32% in the control group. The clinical importance of the observed association between increased breath hydrogen excretion and infantile colic remains to be determined. Increased breath hydrogen excretion indicative of incomplete lactose absorption may be either a cause or an effect of colic in infants.

  9. Deconvolving an Estimate of Breath Measured Blood Alcohol Concentration from Biosensor Collected Transdermal Ethanol Data£

    PubMed Central

    Dumett, M; Rosen, G; Sabat, J; Shaman, A; Tempelman, L; Wang, C; Swift, RM

    2008-01-01

    Biosensor measurement of transdermal alcohol oncentration in perspiration exhibits significant variance from subject to subject and device to device. Short duration data collected in a controlled clinical setting is used to calibrate a forward model for ethanol transport from the blood to the sensor. The calibrated model is then used to invert transdermal signals collected in the field (short or long duration) to obtain an estimate for breath measured blood alcohol concentration. A distributed parameter model for the forward transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin and its processing by the sensor is developed. Model calibration is formulated as a nonlinear least squares fit to data. The fit model is then used as part of a spline based scheme in the form of a regularized, non-negatively constrained linear deconvolution. Fully discrete, steepest descent based schemes for solving the resulting optimization problems are developed. The adjoint method is used to accurately and efficiently compute requisite gradients. Efficacy is demonstrated on subject field data. PMID:19255617

  10. Application of cabin atmosphere monitors to rapid screening of breath samples for the early detection of disease states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, J. L.; Bryant, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of human breath is a nonintrusive method to monitor both endogenous and exogenous chemicals found in the body. Several technologies were investigated and developed which are applicable to monitoring some organic molecules important in both physiological and pathological states. Two methods were developed for enriching the organic molecules exhaled in the breath of humans. One device is based on a respiratory face mask fitted with a polyethylene foam wafer; while the other device is a cryogenic trap utilizing an organic solvent. Using laboratory workers as controls, two organic molecules which occurred in the enriched breath of all subjects were tentatively identified as lactic acid and contisol. Both of these substances occurred in breath in sufficient amounts that the conventional method of gas-liquid chromatography was adequate for detection and quantification. To detect and quantitate trace amounts of chemicals in breath, another type of technology was developed in which analysis was conducted using high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, A.; Duncan, A.

    2010-01-28

    During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11/16/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved to initiate the historical database of properties of emplaced Saltstone and to demonstrate the correlation between field collected and laboratory prepared samples. Three samples were collected from three different locations. Samples were collected using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit. In April 2009, the core samples were removed from the evacuated sample container, inspected, transferred to PVC containers, and backfilled with nitrogen. Samples furthest from the wall were the most intact cylindrically shaped cored samples. The shade of the core samples darkened as the depth of coring increased. Based on the visual inspection, sample 3-3 was selected for all subsequent analysis. The density and porosity of the Vault 4 core sample, 1.90 g/cm{sup 3} and 59.90% respectively, were comparable to values achieved for laboratory prepared samples. X-ray diffraction analysis identified phases consistent with the expectations for hydrated Saltstone. Microscopic analysis revealed morphology features characteristic of cementitious materials with fly ash and calcium silicate hydrate gel. When taken together, the results of the density, porosity, x-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic analysis support the conclusion that the Vault 4, Cell E core sample is representative of the expected waste form.

  12. Matrix isolation apparatus with extended sample collection capability

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Gerald T.

    1987-01-01

    A gas-sample collection device provides for the matrix isolation of increased amounts of a sample material for spectrographic analysis from a gas chromatographic separation. The device includes an evacuated sample collection chamber containing a disc-like specular carousel having a generally circular lateral surface upon which the sample is deposited in an inert gas matrix for infrared (IR) spectral analysis. The evacuated sample chamber is mounted in a fixed manner and is coupled to and supports a rotating cryostatic coupler which, in turn, supports the specular carousel within the collection chamber. A rotational drive system connected to the cryostatic coupler provides for its rotational displacement as well as that of the sample collecting carousel. In addition, rotation of the cryostatic coupler effects vertical displacement of the carousel to permit the collection of an extended sample band in a helical configuration on the entire lateral surface of the carousel. The various components of the carousel's angular/linear displacement drive system are located exterior to the cryostatic coupler for easy access and improved operation. The cryostatic coupler includes a 360.degree. rotary union assembly for permitting the delivery of a high pressure working fluid to the cryostatic coupler in a continuous flow manner for maintaining the specular carousel at a low temperature, e.g., 10.degree.-20.degree. K., for improved uninterrupted gas sample collection and analysis.

  13. A perception and manipulation system for collecting rock samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, T.; Delingette, H.; Deluise, M.; Hsin, Y.; Hebert, M.; Ikeuchi, Katsushi

    1991-01-01

    An important part of a planetary exploration mission is to collect and analyze surface samples. As part of the Carnegie Mellon University Ambler Project, researchers are investigating techniques for collecting samples using a robot arm and a range sensor. The aim of this work is to make the sample collection operation fully autonomous. Described here are the components of the experimental system, including a perception module that extracts objects of interest from range images and produces models of their shapes, and a manipulation module that enables the system to pick up the objects identified by the perception module. The system was tested on a small testbed using natural terrain.

  14. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

  15. SAMPLE COLLECTION AND HANDLING FOR MICROBIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this presentation is to discuss sample collection and handling methods currently in use for detection and enumeration of microorganisms in biosolids and municipal wastewater sludges. Untreated sludges and biosolids are rarely homogeneous and present a challenge ...

  16. Hydrodynamic effects in buccal cell DNA sample collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidun, C. K.; Sozer, A. C.

    2003-11-01

    Many different methods can be used for collection of biological samples from individuals for DNA profiling purposes. However, blood and buccal cells are the two most popular sources of DNA. In situations where large numbers of samples have to be collected, buccal cell collection methods are the preferred choice because of minimized health risks and ease of collection, transportation, and storage. The normal practice in buccal cell collection is to rub a cotton swab or a piece of paper through the inner check of the subject in order to release the cells and to attach and collect the cells on the cotton or paper fibers. The problem with the current forms of sample collection and storage is that in some cases up to 20% of the samples collected do not result in a DNA profile of adequate quality to be reported by the laboratory without repeated testing. In this study, we consider the mechanics of a small sheet of paper being rubbed on the surface of the inner check. The process is not too different from coating a paper substrate with highly deformable material. The shear field developed between the paper and the fluid adjacent to the cells are estimated based on the available data. The action of the cell release and the cell adherence to the surface will be outlined.

  17. Breath Analysis in Disease Diagnosis: Methodological Considerations and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Célia; Turner, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Breath analysis is a promising field with great potential for non-invasive diagnosis of a number of disease states. Analysis of the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath with an acceptable accuracy are assessed by means of using analytical techniques with high sensitivity, accuracy, precision, low response time, and low detection limit, which are desirable characteristics for the detection of VOCs in human breath. “Breath fingerprinting”, indicative of a specific clinical status, relies on the use of multivariate statistics methods with powerful in-built algorithms. The need for standardisation of sample collection and analysis is the main issue concerning breath analysis, blocking the introduction of breath tests into clinical practice. This review describes recent scientific developments in basic research and clinical applications, namely issues concerning sampling and biochemistry, highlighting the diagnostic potential of breath analysis for disease diagnosis. Several considerations that need to be taken into account in breath analysis are documented here, including the growing need for metabolomics to deal with breath profiles. PMID:24957037

  18. Breathing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... getting enough air. Sometimes you can have mild breathing problems because of a stuffy nose or intense ... panic attacks Allergies If you often have trouble breathing, it is important to find out the cause.

  19. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... breath? Maybe you shouldn't have put extra onions on your hamburger at lunch. What's a kid ... bad breath: foods and drinks, such as garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene ( ...

  20. Application of solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to the determination of volatile organic compounds in end-exhaled breath samples.

    PubMed

    Prado, C; Marín, P; Periago, J F

    2003-09-05

    Analysis of exhaled air is of particular interest as an indicator of health as well as a tool for the diagnosis of diseases. It is also a very attractive procedure for the biological control of the exposition to hazardous solvents. This kind of analysis presents numerous advantages over other methods, the most important being that it is not an invasive procedure and, therefore, it is well accepted and can be applied to a wide range of compounds. Furthermore, the analysis is simplified since the matrix is less complex that in the case of blood or urine. In spite of these obvious advantages and the good results obtained, analysis of exhaled air is not in daily use, probably due to the fact that there are no normalized systems of sampling, thus making the interpretation of the results difficult. In this paper, a method for the determination of tetrachloroethylene in exhaled air using solid-phase microextraction is presented. This method, which can be applied to other volatile organic compounds, was developed with special emphasis of end-exhaled breath sampling. The sample is collected in a glass tube whose ends are closed once the exhalation is finished. The tube has an orifice sealed with a septum through which the fiber is inserted. Then, the fiber is desorbed in the injector of a gas chromatograph and the analysis is accomplished using mass spectrometry for the identification and quantification of the components. The proposed system avoids the need of complex sampling equipment and allows analysis of the alveolar fraction. Additionally, the system is economical and easy to handle, thus facilitating the development of normalized methods and its routine use in field studies.

  1. A direct method for e-cigarette aerosol sample collection.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Pablo; Navas-Acien, Ana; Hess, Catherine; Jarmul, Stephanie; Rule, Ana

    2016-08-01

    E-cigarette use is increasing in populations around the world. Recent evidence has shown that the aerosol produced by e-cigarettes can contain a variety of toxicants. Published studies characterizing toxicants in e-cigarette aerosol have relied on filters, impingers or sorbent tubes, which are methods that require diluting or extracting the sample in a solution during collection. We have developed a collection system that directly condenses e-cigarette aerosol samples for chemical and toxicological analyses. The collection system consists of several cut pipette tips connected with short pieces of tubing. The pipette tip-based collection system can be connected to a peristaltic pump, a vacuum pump, or directly to an e-cigarette user for the e-cigarette aerosol to flow through the system. The pipette tip-based system condenses the aerosol produced by the e-cigarette and collects a liquid sample that is ready for analysis without the need of intermediate extraction solutions. We tested a total of 20 e-cigarettes from 5 different brands commercially available in Maryland. The pipette tip-based collection system condensed between 0.23 and 0.53mL of post-vaped e-liquid after 150 puffs. The proposed method is highly adaptable, can be used during field work and in experimental settings, and allows collecting aerosol samples from a wide variety of e-cigarette devices, yielding a condensate of the likely exact substance that is being delivered to the lungs.

  2. Collection requirements for trace-element analyses of extraterrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George J.; Sutton, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Trace-element abundances have proven important in understanding the evolution of and interrelationships between different meteorites. Preliminary investigations of the trace-element contents of interplanetary dust particles indicate that trace-element abundances will prove equally important in distinguishing between micrometeorites of different types, comparing the interplanetary dust to the meteorites, and assessing the degree of thermal alteration experienced either on the parent body or during the collection process. Sample collection, delivery, and curation must be accomplished in a manner to avoid contamination with even trace amounts of the elements to be analyzed. The present SXRF sensitivity for micrometeorite analysis is of order 1 femtogram, but anticipated improvements in sensitivity will require sample contamination substantially below this level. Sample collection and handling equipment should be constructed from materials selected for ultrahigh purity, and serious consideration should be given in selecting the particular set of elements from which the collection apparatus is composed so as not to compromise useful information.

  3. A low cost multi-level sampling device for synchronous aseptic collection of environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Michael L; Banishki, Nikola; Powell, Sarah; Rumack, Amy; Garrett, Jinnie M

    2014-10-01

    We describe a simple device for the aseptic collection of environmental water samples at high spatial resolution to depths of 50m. To demonstrate the utility of this technique we present geochemical and archaeal community data from samples collected throughout the water column of a stratified lake.

  4. Aerosol Sampling System for Collection of Capstone Depleted Uranium Particles in a High-Energy Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Thomas D.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Hoover, Mark D.

    2009-03-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a kinetic-energy cartridge with a large-caliber depleted uranium (DU) penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post-impact, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the vehicle commander, loader, gunner, and driver. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for depleted uranium concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol.

  5. Aerosol sampling system for collection of Capstone depleted uranium particles in a high-energy environment.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Thomas D; Guilmette, Raymond A; Cheng, Yung Sung; Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Hoover, Mark D

    2009-03-01

    The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study was undertaken to obtain aerosol samples resulting from a large-caliber DU penetrator striking an Abrams or Bradley test vehicle. The sampling strategy was designed to (1) optimize the performance of the samplers and maintain their integrity in the extreme environment created during perforation of an armored vehicle by a DU penetrator, (2) collect aerosols as a function of time post perforation, and (3) obtain size-classified samples for analysis of chemical composition, particle morphology, and solubility in lung fluid. This paper describes the experimental setup and sampling methodologies used to achieve these objectives. Custom-designed arrays of sampling heads were secured to the inside of the target in locations approximating the breathing zones of the crew locations in the test vehicles. Each array was designed to support nine filter cassettes and nine cascade impactors mounted with quick-disconnect fittings. Shielding and sampler placement strategies were used to minimize sampler loss caused by the penetrator impact and the resulting fragments of eroded penetrator and perforated armor. A cyclone train was used to collect larger quantities of DU aerosol for measurement of chemical composition and solubility. A moving filter sample was used to obtain semicontinuous samples for DU concentration determination. Control for the air samplers was provided by five remotely located valve control and pressure monitoring units located inside and around the test vehicle. These units were connected to a computer interface chassis and controlled using a customized LabVIEW engineering computer control program. The aerosol sampling arrays and control systems for the Capstone study provided the needed aerosol samples for physicochemical analysis, and the resultant data were used for risk assessment of exposure to DU aerosol.

  6. Methods for collection and analysis of water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rainwater, Frank Hays; Thatcher, Leland Lincoln

    1960-01-01

    This manual contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze water samples. Throughout, the emphasis is on obtaining analytical results that accurately describe the chemical composition of the water in situ. Among the topics discussed are selection of sampling sites, frequency of sampling, field equipment, preservatives and fixatives, analytical techniques of water analysis, and instruments. Seventy-seven laboratory and field procedures are given for determining fifty-three water properties.

  7. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. Methods A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. Results The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. Conclusions The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem. PMID:24406140

  8. Rapid Remote Sample Collection Mechanism for Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nygren, W. D.

    2000-01-01

    The Rapid Remote Sample Collection (RRSC) system is an innovative approach to the collection of regolith samples from the surface of comets or asteroids without landing the main body of the spacecraft on the surface. The RRSC system rapidly captures and retrieves a sample while the spacecraft momentarily hovers or slowly descends and-or drifts approximately 5 m above the body's surface. In this way the surface is not disturbed by landing thrusters, and the mass, volume, and complexity associated with landing and landing legs is eliminated. The sample collecting mechanism consists of an auger driven by the energy stored in a flywheel and a torroidal sample collection chamber wrapped around and rotating with the auger. The sample collector is deployed and retrieved by a Storable Tubular Extendable Member or STEM manufactured by TRW Astro Aerospace. This mechanism is similar to a motorized carpenters tape measure. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Lamaze Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Lothian, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Lamaze breathing historically is considered the hallmark of Lamaze preparation for childbirth. This column discusses breathing in the larger context of contemporary Lamaze. Controlled breathing enhances relaxation and decreases perception of pain. It is one of many comfort strategies taught in Lamaze classes. In restricted birthing environments, breathing may be the only nonpharmacological comfort strategy available to women. Conscious breathing and relaxation, especially in combination with a wide variety of comfort strategies, can help women avoid unnecessary medical intervention and have a safe, healthy birth. PMID:22379360

  10. Development of a Sampling Collection Device with Diagnostic Procedures.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jhih-Yan; Feng, Mow-Jung; Wu, Chia-Chi; Wang, Jane; Chang, Ting-Chang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-08-02

    Cervicovaginal fluid plays an important role in the detection of many female genital diseases, but the lack of suitable collection devices in the market severely challenges test success rate. Appropriate clinical sampling devices for cervicovaginal fluid collection would help physicians detect diseases and disease states more rapidly, efficiently, and accurately. The objective of this study was to develop a readily usable sampling collection device that would eliminate macromolecular interference and accurately provide specimens for further studies. This study was designed to develop an effective device to collect cervicovaginal fluid from women with symptoms of endometrial lesions, women appearing in the clinic for a routine Papanicolaou smear, and/or women seeking a routine gynecologic checkup. Paper-based assay, ELISA, and qNano were used to provide accurate diagnoses. A total of 103 patients successfully used the developed device to collect cervicovaginal fluid. Some of the collected specimens were used to detect glycogen, lactate, and pH for determining pathogen infection. Other specimen samples were tested for the presence of female genital cancer by comparing interleukin 6 concentration and microvesicle concentration. We proposed a noninvasive screening test for the diagnosis of female genital diseases using a dual-material collection device. The outer, nonwoven fabric portion of this device was designed to filter macromolecules, and the inner cotton portion was designed to absorb cervicovaginal fluid.

  11. Curating NASA's Past, Present, and Future Astromaterial Sample Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Allton, J. H.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at NASA Johnson Space Center (hereafter JSC curation) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. JSC presently curates 9 different astromaterials collections in seven different clean-room suites: (1) Apollo Samples (ISO (International Standards Organization) class 6 + 7); (2) Antarctic Meteorites (ISO 6 + 7); (3) Cosmic Dust Particles (ISO 5); (4) Microparticle Impact Collection (ISO 7; formerly called Space-Exposed Hardware); (5) Genesis Solar Wind Atoms (ISO 4); (6) Stardust Comet Particles (ISO 5); (7) Stardust Interstellar Particles (ISO 5); (8) Hayabusa Asteroid Particles (ISO 5); (9) OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft Coupons and Witness Plates (ISO 7). Additional cleanrooms are currently being planned to house samples from two new collections, Hayabusa 2 (2021) and OSIRIS-REx (2023). In addition to the labs that house the samples, we maintain a wide variety of infra-structure facilities required to support the clean rooms: HEPA-filtered air-handling systems, ultrapure dry gaseous nitrogen systems, an ultrapure water system, and cleaning facilities to provide clean tools and equipment for the labs. We also have sample preparation facilities for making thin sections, microtome sections, and even focused ion-beam sections. We routinely monitor the cleanliness of our clean rooms and infrastructure systems, including measurements of inorganic or organic contamination, weekly airborne particle counts, compositional and isotopic monitoring of liquid N2 deliveries, and daily UPW system monitoring. In addition to the physical maintenance of the samples, we track within our databases the current and ever changing characteristics (weight, location, etc.) of more than 250,000 individually numbered samples across our various collections, as well as more than 100,000 images, and countless "analog" records that record the sample processing records of each individual sample. JSC Curation is co-located with JSC

  12. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt collects lunar rake samples during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt collects lunar rake samples at Station 1 during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture was taken by Astronatu Eugene Cernan, Apollo 17 commander. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot. The lunar rake, An Apollo lunar geology hand tool, is used to collect discrete samples of rocks and rock chips ranging in size from one-half inch (1.3 cm) to one inch (2.5 cm).

  13. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt collects lunar rake samples during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt collects lunar rake samples at Station 1 during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut Eugene Cernan, Apollo 17 commander. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot. The lunar rake, an Apollo lunar geology hand tool, is used to collect discrete samples of rocks and rock chips ranging in size from one-half inch (1.3 cm) to one inch (2.5 cm).

  14. Urine sampling and collection system optimization and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Geating, J. A.; Koesterer, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    A Urine Sampling and Collection System (USCS) engineering model was developed to provide for the automatic collection, volume sensing and sampling of urine from each micturition. The purpose of the engineering model was to demonstrate verification of the system concept. The objective of the optimization and testing program was to update the engineering model, to provide additional performance features and to conduct system testing to determine operational problems. Optimization tasks were defined as modifications to minimize system fluid residual and addition of thermoelectric cooling.

  15. Apparatus and process for collection of gas and vapor samples

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Peterson, Kurt D.; Riha, Brian D.

    2008-04-01

    A gas sampling apparatus and process is provided in which a standard crimping tool is modified by an attached collar. The collar permits operation of the crimping tool while also facilitating the introduction of a supply of gas to be introduced into a storage vial. The introduced gas supply is used to purge ambient air from a collection chamber and an interior of the sample vial. Upon completion of the purging operation, the vial is sealed using the crimping tool.

  16. Ethylene and ammonia traces measurements from the patients' breath with renal failure via LPAS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, C.; Dutu, D. C. A.; Cernat, R.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Banita, S.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2011-11-01

    The application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) for fast and precise measurements of breath biomarkers has opened up new promises for monitoring and diagnostics in recent years, especially because breath test is a non-invasive method, safe, rapid and acceptable to patients. Our study involved assessment of breath ethylene and breath ammonia levels in patients with renal failure receiving haemodialysis (HD) treatment. Breath samples from healthy subjects and from patients with renal failure were collected using chemically inert aluminized bags and were subsequently analyzed using the LPAS technique. We have found out that the composition of exhaled breath in patients with renal failure contains not only ethylene, but also ammonia and gives valuable information for determining efficacy and endpoint of HD. Analysis of ethylene and ammonia traces from the human breath may provide insight into severity of oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and may ensure optimal therapy and prevention of pathology at patients on continuous HD.

  17. Factors influencing breath ammonia determination.

    PubMed

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew; Spacek, Lisa A; Lewicki, Rafal; Tittel, Frank; Loccioni, Claudio; Russo, Adolfo; Risby, Terence H

    2013-09-01

    Amongst volatile compounds (VCs) present in exhaled breath, ammonia has held great promise and yet it has confounded researchers due to its inherent reactivity. Herein we have evaluated various factors in both breath instrumentation and the breath collection process in an effort to reduce variability. We found that the temperature of breath sampler and breath sensor, mouth rinse pH, and mode of breathing to be important factors. The influence of the rinses is heavily dependent upon the pH of the rinse. The basic rinse (pH 8.0) caused a mean increase of the ammonia concentration by 410 ± 221 ppb. The neutral rinse (pH 7.0), slightly acidic rinse (pH 5.8), and acidic rinse (pH 2.5) caused a mean decrease of the ammonia concentration by 498 ± 355 ppb, 527 ± 198 ppb, and 596 ± 385 ppb, respectively. Mode of breathing (mouth-open versus mouth-closed) demonstrated itself to have a large impact on the rate of recovery of breath ammonia after a water rinse. Within 30 min, breath ammonia returned to 98 ± 16% that of the baseline with mouth open breathing, while mouth closed breathing allowed breath ammonia to return to 53 ± 14% of baseline. These results contribute to a growing body of literature that will improve reproducibly in ammonia and other VCs.

  18. 7 CFR 160.22 - Collecting samples; issuing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collecting samples; issuing certificates. 160.22 Section 160.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL...

  19. 40 CFR 761.310 - Collecting the sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collecting the sample. 761.310 Section 761.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND...

  20. Evaluation of Vacuum-based Sampling Devices for Collection ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report The existing surface sampling strategy for a biological incident involving B. anthracis spores requires the use of various methods depending on the surface type. This project comparatively evaluated the vacuum sock and two additional vacuum-based collection devices (37 mm filter cassette and 3M™ Trace Evidence Filter) for their sampling efficacy. The 37 mm filter cassette was evaluated with mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filters or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters installed, each was considered a unique device. These data were generated so appropriate sampling devices could be selected following a B. anthracis incident. Bacillus atrophaeus was used a surrogate.

  1. Experimental Design for the INL Sample Collection Operational Test

    SciTech Connect

    Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Filliben, James J.; Jones, Barbara

    2007-12-13

    This document describes the test events and numbers of samples comprising the experimental design that was developed for the contamination, decontamination, and sampling of a building at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This study is referred to as the INL Sample Collection Operational Test. Specific objectives were developed to guide the construction of the experimental design. The main objective is to assess the relative abilities of judgmental and probabilistic sampling strategies to detect contamination in individual rooms or on a whole floor of the INL building. A second objective is to assess the use of probabilistic and Bayesian (judgmental + probabilistic) sampling strategies to make clearance statements of the form “X% confidence that at least Y% of a room (or floor of the building) is not contaminated. The experimental design described in this report includes five test events. The test events (i) vary the floor of the building on which the contaminant will be released, (ii) provide for varying or adjusting the concentration of contaminant released to obtain the ideal concentration gradient across a floor of the building, and (iii) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. The ideal contaminant gradient would have high concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations decreasing to zero in rooms at the opposite end of the building floor. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG, a stand-in for Bacillus anthracis. The BG contaminant will be disseminated from a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design for each test event. Then judgmental and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the pre-specified sampling plan. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples will be selected in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence

  2. Comparison of aquatic macroinvertebrate samples collected using different field methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lenz, Bernard N.; Miller, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Government agencies, academic institutions, and volunteer monitoring groups in the State of Wisconsin collect aquatic macroinvertebrate data to assess water quality. Sampling methods differ among agencies, reflecting the differences in the sampling objectives of each agency. Lack of infor- mation about data comparability impedes data shar- ing among agencies, which can result in duplicated sampling efforts or the underutilization of avail- able information. To address these concerns, com- parisons were made of macroinvertebrate samples collected from wadeable streams in Wisconsin by personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey- National Water Quality Assessment Program (USGS-NAWQA), the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR), the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Forest Service (USDA-FS), and volunteers from the Water Action Volunteer-Water Quality Monitoring Program (WAV). This project was part of the Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality (ITFM) Wisconsin Water Resources Coordination Project. The numbers, types, and environmental tolerances of the organ- isms collected were analyzed to determine if the four different field methods that were used by the different agencies and volunteer groups provide comparable results. Additionally, this study com- pared the results of samples taken from different locations and habitats within the same streams.

  3. Isotopic analysis of eggs: evaluating sample collection and preparation.

    PubMed

    Rock, Luc; Rowe, Sylwia; Czerwiec, Agnieszka; Richmond, Harold

    2013-02-15

    Egg traceability/authenticity is a worldwide concern. Stable isotope techniques have been suggested as a tool to address this issue. To further validate the use of these techniques, a research project was undertaken to evaluate what effect sample collection and preparation have on the measured isotopic composition of egg components. The timing of egg collection, the timing of egg preparation after collection, and the use of pasteurisation were investigated. The C, N, O, and S isotopic compositions of egg components from 7 different production systems were measured. Two sets of eggs were collected (4 months apart). It was found that the 'isotopic fingerprint' of a particular production system was maintained over time, and that it may be possible to trace liquid egg products based on isotopic data from fresh eggs. The findings from this study support the integration of stable isotope techniques in egg traceability/authenticity systems.

  4. Variability of collagen crosslinks: impact of sample collection period.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Dillon, E L; DeKerlegand, D E; Davis-Street, J E

    2004-04-01

    Because of the variability of collagen crosslinks, their use as markers for bone resorption is often criticized. We hypothesized that the variability could be reduced by collecting urine for 24 hours (or longer) instead of using single voids, and by not normalizing to creatinine. Urine samples were collected from 22 healthy subjects during two or more 24-hour periods. Each 24-hour pool and each 2nd void of the day were analyzed for N-telopeptide (NTX), pyridinium (PYD), and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks. Data were analyzed by using linear regression. For NTX, R2 for the two, 2nd-void samples (n = 38) was 0.55, whereas R2 for the two 24-hour pools was 0.51 or 0.52, expressed per day or per creatinine. For PYD and DPD, R2 for the 2nd-void samples was 0.26 and 0.18, R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per day was 0.58 and 0.74, and R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per creatinine was 0.65 and 0.76, respectively. Regression of the 2nd void and the corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per day, yielded R2 = 0.19, 0.19, and 0.08, for NTX, PYD, and DPD, respectively (n = 76 each). For the 2nd-void sample and its corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per creatinine, R2 = 0.24, 0.33, and 0.08, respectively. In a separate study, the coefficient of variation for NTX was reduced (P < 0.05) when data from more than one 24-hour collection were combined. Thus, the variability inherent in crosslink determinations can be reduced by collecting urine for longer periods. In research studies, the high variability of single-void collections, compounded by creatinine normalization, may alter or obscure findings.

  5. Variability of collagen crosslinks: impact of sample collection period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Dillon, E. L.; DeKerlegand, D. E.; Davis-Street, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    Because of the variability of collagen crosslinks, their use as markers for bone resorption is often criticized. We hypothesized that the variability could be reduced by collecting urine for 24 hours (or longer) instead of using single voids, and by not normalizing to creatinine. Urine samples were collected from 22 healthy subjects during two or more 24-hour periods. Each 24-hour pool and each 2nd void of the day were analyzed for N-telopeptide (NTX), pyridinium (PYD), and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks. Data were analyzed by using linear regression. For NTX, R2 for the two, 2nd-void samples (n = 38) was 0.55, whereas R2 for the two 24-hour pools was 0.51 or 0.52, expressed per day or per creatinine. For PYD and DPD, R2 for the 2nd-void samples was 0.26 and 0.18, R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per day was 0.58 and 0.74, and R2 for the 24-hour pools expressed per creatinine was 0.65 and 0.76, respectively. Regression of the 2nd void and the corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per day, yielded R2 = 0.19, 0.19, and 0.08, for NTX, PYD, and DPD, respectively (n = 76 each). For the 2nd-void sample and its corresponding 24-hour pool, expressed per creatinine, R2 = 0.24, 0.33, and 0.08, respectively. In a separate study, the coefficient of variation for NTX was reduced (P < 0.05) when data from more than one 24-hour collection were combined. Thus, the variability inherent in crosslink determinations can be reduced by collecting urine for longer periods. In research studies, the high variability of single-void collections, compounded by creatinine normalization, may alter or obscure findings.

  6. Collection of Stratospheric Samples using Balloon-Borne Payload System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant; Sreejith, A. G.; Kumble, Sheshashayi; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Kj, Nirmal; Suresh, Ambily; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-07-01

    Earth's atmosphere at stratospheric altitudes contains dust particles from soil lifted by weather, volcanic dust, man-made aerosols, IDP (Interplanetary Dust Particles) - remnants of comets and asteroids, and even interstellar dust. Satellite observations suggest that approximately 100--300 tons of cosmic dust enter Earth's atmosphere every day. However, very little is known about the microbial life in the upper atmosphere, where conditions are very much similar to that on Mars and possibly on some exoplanets. Stratosphere provides a good opportunity to study the existence or survival of biological life in these conditions. Despite the importance of this topic to astrobiology, stratospheric microbial diversity/survival remains largely unexplored, probably due to significant difficulties in the access and ensuring the absence of contamination of the samples. To conduct a detailed study into this, we are developing the balloon-borne payload system SAMPLE (Stratospheric Altitude Microbiology Probe for Life Existence) to collect dust samples from stratosphere and bring them in an hygienic and uncontaminated manner to a suitable laboratory environment, where further study will be conducted to establish the possibility of microbial life in the upper atmosphere. This balloon-borne payload system will rise through the atmosphere till it reaches an altitude of about 25-30 km above sea level. The payload consists of detachable pre-sterilized sampling chambers designed to collect and contain the dust samples and get them back to the surface without contamination during the flight, a microprocessor and a controller which will determine the altitude of the payload system to actively monitor the opening and closing of the sample collection chambers. For contamination control, we will have two extra chambers, one of which will fly but not open, and one will remain closed on the ground. Other onboard devices include environmental sensors, GPS tracking devices, cameras to monitor

  7. Fluid sample collection and distribution system. [qualitative analysis of aqueous samples from several points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, R. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A multipoint fluid sample collection and distribution system is provided wherein the sample inputs are made through one or more of a number of sampling valves to a progressive cavity pump which is not susceptible to damage by large unfiltered particles. The pump output is through a filter unit that can provide a filtered multipoint sample. An unfiltered multipoint sample is also provided. An effluent sample can be taken and applied to a second progressive cavity pump for pumping to a filter unit that can provide one or more filtered effluent samples. The second pump can also provide an unfiltered effluent sample. Means are provided to periodically back flush each filter unit without shutting off the whole system.

  8. Device for collecting and analyzing matrix-isolated samples

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Gerald T.

    1979-01-01

    A gas-sample collection device is disclosed for matrix isolation of individual gas bands from a gas chromatographic separation and for presenting these distinct samples for spectrometric examination. The device includes a vacuum chamber containing a rotatably supported, specular carrousel having a number of external, reflecting surfaces around its axis of rotation for holding samples. A gas inlet is provided for depositing sample and matrix material on the individual reflecting surfaces maintained at a sufficiently low temperature to cause solidification. Two optical windows or lenses are installed in the vacuum chamber walls for transmitting a beam of electromagnetic radiation, for instance infrared light, through a selected sample. Positioned within the chamber are two concave mirrors, the first aligned to receive the light beam from one of the lenses and focus it to the sample on one of the reflecting surfaces of the carrousel. The second mirror is aligned to receive reflected light from that carrousel surface and to focus it outwardly through the second lens. The light beam transmitted from the sample is received by a spectrometer for determining absorption spectra.

  9. Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-16

    This report describes the experimental and sampling design developed to assess sampling approaches and methods for detecting contamination in a building and clearing the building for use after decontamination. An Idaho National Laboratory (INL) building will be contaminated with BG (Bacillus globigii, renamed Bacillus atrophaeus), a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (BA). The contamination, sampling, decontamination, and re-sampling will occur per the experimental and sampling design. This INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test is being planned by the Validated Sampling Plan Working Group (VSPWG). The primary objectives are: 1) Evaluate judgmental and probabilistic sampling for characterization as well as probabilistic and combined (judgment and probabilistic) sampling approaches for clearance, 2) Conduct these evaluations for gradient contamination (from low or moderate down to absent or undetectable) for different initial concentrations of the contaminant, 3) Explore judgment composite sampling approaches to reduce sample numbers, 4) Collect baseline data to serve as an indication of the actual levels of contamination in the tests. A combined judgmental and random (CJR) approach uses Bayesian methodology to combine judgmental and probabilistic samples to make clearance statements of the form "X% confidence that at least Y% of an area does not contain detectable contamination” (X%/Y% clearance statements). The INL-2 experimental design has five test events, which 1) vary the floor of the INL building on which the contaminant will be released, 2) provide for varying the amount of contaminant released to obtain desired concentration gradients, and 3) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. Desirable contaminant gradients would have moderate to low concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations down to zero in other rooms. Such gradients would provide a range of contamination levels to challenge the sampling

  10. Apollo 17 Astronaut Harrison Schmitt Collects Lunar Rock Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt collects rock samples from a huge boulder near the Valley of Tourus-Littrow on the lunar surface. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Schmitt; Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  11. Plume Collection Strategies for Icy World Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neveu, M.; Glavin, D. P.; Tsou, P.; Anbar, A. D.; Williams, P.

    2015-01-01

    Three icy worlds in the solar system display evidence of pluming activity. Water vapor and ice particles emanate from cracks near the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus. The plume gas contains simple hydrocarbons that could be fragments of larger, more complex organics. More recently, observations using the Hubble and Herschel space telescopes have hinted at transient water vapor plumes at Jupiter's moon Europa and the dwarf planet Ceres. Plume materials may be ejected directly from possible sub-surface oceans, at least on Enceladus. In such oceans, liquid water, organics, and energy may co-exist, making these environments habitable. The venting of habitable ocean material into space provides a unique opportunity to capture this material during a relatively simple flyby mission and return it to Earth. Plume collection strategies should enable investigations of evidence for life in the returned samples via laboratory analyses of the structure, distribution, isotopic composition, and chirality of the chemical components (including biomolecules) of plume materials. Here, we discuss approaches for the collection of dust and volatiles during flybys through Enceladus' plume, based on Cassini results and lessons learned from the Stardust comet sample return mission. We also highlight areas where sample collector and containment technology development and testing may be needed for future plume sample return missions.

  12. A microfluidic cigarette smoke collecting platform for simultaneous sample extraction and multiplex analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shan-Wen; Xu, Bi-Yi; Qiao, Shu; Zhao, Ge; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan; Xie, Fu-Wei

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we report a novel microfluidic gas collecting platform aiming at simultaneous sample extraction and multiplex mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. An alveolar-mimicking elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) structures was designed to move dynamically driven by external pressure. The movement was well tuned both by its amplitude and rhythm following the natural process of human respiration. By integrating the alveolar units into arrays and assembling them to gas channels, a cyclic contraction/expansion system for gas inhale and exhale was successfully constructed. Upon equipping this system with a droplet array on the alveolar array surface, we were able to get information of inhaled smoke in a new strategy. Here, with cigarette smoke as an example, analysis of accumulation for target molecules during passive smoking is taken. Relationships between the breathing times, distances away from smokers and inhaled content of nicotine are clarified. Further, by applying different types of extraction solvent droplets on different locations of the droplet array, simultaneous extraction of nicotine, formaldehyde and caproic acid in sidestream smoke (SS) are realized. Since the extract droplets are spatially separated, they can be directly analyzed by MS which is fast and can rid us of all complex sample separation and purification steps. Combining all these merits, this small, cheap and portable platform might find wide application in inhaled air pollutant analysis both in and outdoors.

  13. Appendix C. Collection of Samples for Chemical Agent Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koester, C; Thompson, C; Doerr, T; Scripsick, R

    2005-09-23

    This chapter describes procedures for the collection and analysis of samples of various matrices for the purpose of determining the presence of chemical agents in a civilian setting. This appendix is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to make informed decisions about the sampling and analysis process and to suggest analytical strategies that might be implemented by the scientists performing sampling and analysis. This appendix is not intended to be used as a standard operating procedure to provide detailed instructions as to how trained scientists should handle samples. Chemical agents can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Table 1 lists the chemical agents considered by this report. In selecting sampling and analysis methods, we have considered procedures proposed by the Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and peer-reviewed scientific literature. EPA analytical methods are good resources describing issues of quality assurance with respect to chain-of-custody, sample handling, and quality control requirements.

  14. Lunar Samples: Apollo Collection Tools, Curation Handling, Surveyor III and Soviet Luna Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    The 6 Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface returned 2196 samples comprised of 382 kg. The 58 samples weighing 21.5 kg collected on Apollo 11 expanded to 741 samples weighing 110.5 kg by the time of Apollo 17. The main goal on Apollo 11 was to obtain some material and return it safely to Earth. As we gained experience, the sampling tools and a more specific sampling strategy evolved. A summary of the sample types returned is shown in Table 1. By year 1989, some statistics on allocation by sample type were compiled [2]. The "scientific interest index" is based on the assumption that the more allocations per gram of sample, the higher the scientific interest. It is basically a reflection of the amount of diversity within a given sample type. Samples were also set aside for biohazard testing. The samples set aside and used for biohazard testing were represen-tative, as opposed to diverse. They tended to be larger and be comprised of less scientifically valuable mate-rial, such as dust and debris in the bottom of sample containers.

  15. Solid-state gas sensors for breath analysis: a review.

    PubMed

    Di Natale, Corrado; Paolesse, Roberto; Martinelli, Eugenio; Capuano, Rosamaria

    2014-05-08

    The analysis of volatile compounds is an efficient method to appraise information about the chemical composition of liquids and solids. This principle is applied to several practical applications, such as food analysis where many important features (e.g. freshness) can be directly inferred from the analysis of volatile compounds. The same approach can also be applied to a human body where the volatile compounds, collected from the skin, the breath or in the headspace of fluids, might contain information that could be used to diagnose several kinds of diseases. In particular, breath is widely studied and many diseases can be potentially detected from breath analysis. The most fascinating property of breath analysis is the non-invasiveness of the sample collection. Solid-state sensors are considered the natural complement to breath analysis, matching the non-invasiveness with typical sensor features such as low-cost, easiness of use, portability, and the integration with the information networks. Sensors based breath analysis is then expected to dramatically extend the diagnostic capabilities enabling the screening of large populations for the early diagnosis of pathologies. In the last years there has been an increased attention to the development of sensors specifically aimed to this purpose. These investigations involve both specific sensors designed to detect individual compounds and non-specific sensors, operated in array configurations, aimed at clustering subjects according to their health conditions. In this paper, the recent significant applications of these sensors to breath analysis are reviewed and discussed.

  16. MEASUREMENTS OF AIR POLLUTANT BIOMARKERS WITH EXHALED BREATH TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has appeal as a noninvasive surrogate sample for lung-derived fluid. Additionally, EBC can be collected multiple times over the course of a study, unlike many other lung sampling techniques which can be performed fewer times. However validat...

  17. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... for lunch. But certain strong-smelling foods like onions and garlic can cause bad breath. So can ... leave behind strong smells, like cabbage, garlic, raw onions, and coffee. If you’re trying to lose ...

  18. Breath odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... drain their stomach. The breath may have an ammonia-like odor (also described as urine-like or " ... Is there a specific odor (such as fish, ammonia, fruit, feces, or alcohol)? Have you recently eaten ...

  19. Study of collective radial breathing-like modes in double-walled carbon nanotubes: combination of continuous two-dimensional membrane theory and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levshov, Dmitry I.; Avramenko, Marina V.; Than, Xuan-Tinh; Michel, Thierry; Arenal, Raul; Paillet, Matthieu; Rybkovskiy, Dmitry V.; Osadchy, Alexander V.; Rochal, Sergei B.; Yuzyuk, Yuri I.; Sauvajol, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Radial breathing modes (RBMs) are widely used for the atomic structure characterization and index assignment of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) from resonant Raman spectroscopy. However, for double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs), the use of conventional ωRBM(d) formulas is complicated due to the van der Waals interaction between the layers, which strongly affects the frequencies of radial modes and leads to new collective vibrations. This paper presents an alternative way to theoretically study the collective radial breathing-like modes (RBLMs) of DWNTs and to account for interlayer interaction, namely the continuous two-dimensional membrane theory. We obtain an analytical ωRBLM(do,di) relation, being the equivalent of the conventional ωRBM(d) expressions, established for SWNTs. We compare our theoretical predictions with Raman data, measured on individual index-identified suspended DWNTs, and find a good agreement between experiment and theory. Moreover, we show that the interlayer coupling in individual DWNTs strongly depends on the interlayer distance, which is manifested in the frequency shifts of the RBLMs with respect to the RBMs of the individual inner and outer tubes. In terms of characterization, this means that the combination of Raman spectroscopy data and predictions of continuous membrane theory may give additional criteria for the index identification of DWNTs, namely the interlayer distance.

  20. Exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing - evaluation in criminal justice settings.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled breath is being developed as a possible specimen for drug testing based on the collection of aerosol particles originating from the lung fluid. The present study was aimed to evaluate the applicability of exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing in criminal justice settings. Particles in exhaled breath were collected with a new device in parallel with routine urine testing in two Swedish prisons, comprising both genders. Urine screening was performed according to established routines either by dipstick or by immunochemical methods at the Forensic Chemistry Laboratory and confirmations were with mass spectrometry methods. A total of 247 parallel samples were studied. Analysis of exhaled breath samples was done with a sensitive mass spectrometric method and identifications were made according to forensic standards. In addition tested subjects and personnel were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning their views about drug testing. In 212 cases both the urine and breath testing were negative, and in 22 cases both urine and breath were positive. Out of 6 cases where breath was negative and urine positive 4 concerned THC. Out of 7 cases where, breath was positive and urine negative 6 concerned amphetamine. Detected substances in breath comprised: amphetamine, methamphetamine, THC, methylphenidate, buprenorphine, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, diazepam and tramadol. Both the prison inmates and staff members reported breath testing to be preferable due to practical considerations. The results of this study documented that drug testing using exhaled breath provided as many positives as urine testing despite an expected shorter detection window, and that the breath sampling procedure was well accepted and provided practical benefits reported both by the prison inmates and testing personnel.

  1. Influence of the oropharyngeal microflora on the measurement of exhaled breath hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D G; O'Brien, J D; Hardie, J M

    1986-10-01

    We investigated the possible contribution made by oropharyngeal microfloral fermentation of ingested carbohydrate to the generation of the early, transient exhaled breath hydrogen rise seen after carbohydrate ingestion. Ten subjects ate or were sham fed carbohydrate-containing meals with and without prior chlorhexidine mouthwash during serial collection of exhaled breath and mouth hydrogen samples. Meal ingestion and sham feeding both induced significant (p less than 0.01) elevations of breath and mouth hydrogen that were virtually abolished by prior chlorhexidine mouthwash. In 7 subjects, delivery of the meal directly into the stomach via an orogastric tube did not cause a breath or mouth hydrogen rise. Oral contents incubated anaerobically in vitro with carbohydrate generated hydrogen that was again inhibited by chlorhexidine. These studies indicate that fermentation of ingested carbohydrate by oropharyngeal bacteria can contribute significantly to measured breath hydrogen values soon after meal ingestion, and may introduce avoidable error into the interpretation of serial breath hydrogen data.

  2. Study of Cloud Water Samples Collected over Northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Polkowska, Ż; Błaś, M; Lech, D; Namieśnik, J

    2014-01-01

    The paper gives the results of the first studies on the chemistry of cloud water collected during 3 mo (Aug.-Oct. 2010) in the free atmosphere over the area to the south of the Tri-City (Gdansk-Sopot-Gdynia) conurbation on the Gulf of Gdansk, Poland. Taken from cumulus, stratus, and stratocumulus clouds by means of an aircraft-mounted collector, the water samples were analyzed for the following contaminants: anions (chlorides, fluorides, nitrates, sulfates, and phosphates), cations (lithium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, and magnesium), and trace metals. In addition, pH values were measured, and the type and composition of suspended particulate matter was determined. We discuss the relationship between the concentration of inorganic ions and the type of cloud from which water was sampled. The chemistry is also likely related to the circulation pattern and inflow of clean air masses from the Baltic Sea. Moreover, a relationship was found between the composition of the samples examined and the location of pollutant emission sources.

  3. Detection of cancer through exhaled breath: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Krilaviciute, Agne; Heiss, Jonathan Alexander; Leja, Marcis; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Haick, Hossam; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Background Timely diagnosis of cancer represents a challenging task; in particular, there is a need for reliable non-invasive screening tools that could achieve high levels of adherence at virtually no risk in population-based screening. In this review, we summarize the current evidence of exhaled breath analysis for cancer detection using standard analysis techniques and electronic nose. Methods Relevant studies were identified searching Pubmed and Web of Science databases until April 30, 2015. Information on breath test performance, such as sensitivity and specificity, was extracted together with volatile compounds that were used to discriminate cancer patients from controls. Performance of different breath analysis techniques is provided for various cancers together with information on methodological issues, such as breath sampling protocol and validation of the results. Results Overall, 73 studies were included, where two-thirds of the studies were conducted on lung cancer. Good discrimination usually required a combination of multiple biomarkers, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve or accuracy reached levels of 0.9 or higher in multiple studies. In 25% of the reported studies, classification models were built and validated on the same datasets. Huge variability was seen in different aspects among the studies. Conclusions Analyses of exhaled breath yielded promising results, although standardization of breath collection, sample storage and data handling remain critical issues. In order to foster breath analysis implementation into practice, larger studies should be implemented in true screening settings, paying particular attention to standardization in breath collection, consideration of covariates, and validation in independent population samples. PMID:26440312

  4. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    MedlinePlus

    Pursed lip breathing; COPD - pursed lip breathing; Emphysema - pursed lip breathing; Chronic bronchitis - pursed lip breathing; Pulmonary fibrosis - pursed lip breathing; Interstitial lung disease - pursed lip breathing; Hypoxia - pursed lip breathing; ...

  5. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoville, Zebulon; Sipila, Stephanie; Bowie, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is challenged with primary mission objectives of demonstrating deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools, and obtaining asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Although the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) is used for the EVAs, it has limited mobility which increases fatigue and decreases the crews' capability to perform EVA tasks. Furthermore, previous Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, some vehicle interfaces and tools can leverage heritage designs and experience. However, when the crew ventures onto an asteroid capture bag to explore the asteroid and collect rock samples, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as bunching of the fabric bag will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the MACES suit. The proposed concept utilizes expandable booms and integrated features of the asteroid capture bag to position and restrain the crew at the asteroid worksite. These methods enable the capability to perform both finesse, and high load tasks necessary to collect samples for scientific characterization of the asteroid. This paper will explore the design trade space and options that were examined for EVA, the

  6. Sulfate and nitrate collected by filter sampling near the tropopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humenik, F. M.; Lezberg, E. A.; Otterson, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Filter samples collected near the tropopause with an F-106 aircraft and two Boeing 747 aircraft were analyzed for sulfate and nitrate ion content. Within the range of routine commercial flight altitudes (at or below 12.5 km), stratospheric mass mixing ratios for the winter-spring group averaged 0.26 ppbm for sulfate and 0.35 ppbm for nitrate. For the summer-fall group, stratosphere mixing ratios averaged 0.13 ppbm and 0.25 ppbm for sulfate and nitrate, respectively. Winter-spring group tropospheric mass mixing ratios averaged 0.08 ppbm for sulfate and 0.10 ppbm for nitrate, while summer-fall group tropospheric mixing ratios averaged 0.05 ppbm for sulfate and 0.08 ppbm for nitrate. Correlations of the filter data with available ozone data suggest that the sulfate and nitrate are transported from the stratosphere to the troposphere.

  7. Miniature Blimps for Surveillance and Collection of Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Miniature blimps are under development as robots for use in exploring the thick, cold, nitrogen atmosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan. Similar blimps can also be used for surveillance and collection of biochemical samples in buildings, caves, subways, and other, similar structures on Earth. The widely perceived need for means to thwart attacks on buildings and to mitigate the effects of such attacks has prompted consideration of the use of robots. Relative to rover-type (wheeled) robots that have been considered for such uses, miniature blimps offer the advantage of ability to move through the air in any direction and, hence, to perform tasks that are difficult or impossible for wheeled robots, including climbing stairs and looking through windows. In addition, miniature blimps are expected to have greater range and to cost less, relative to wheeled robots.

  8. Collection, storage, and electrophoretic analysis of nanoliter microdialysis samples collected from awake animals in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Hershey, Neil D.; Mabrouk, Omar S.

    2011-01-01

    Microdialysis sampling is an important tool for chemical monitoring in living systems. Temporal resolution is an important figure of merit that is determined by sampling frequency, assay sensitivity, and dispersion of chemical zones during transport from sampling device to fraction collector or analytical system. Temporal resolution has recently been improved by segmenting flow into plugs, so that nanoliter fractions are collected at intervals of 0.1–2 s, thus eliminating temporal distortion associated with dispersion in continuous flow. Such systems, however, have yet to be used with behaving subjects. Furthermore, long-term storage of nanoliter samples created by segmented flow has not been reported. In this work, we have addressed these challenges. A microdialysis probe was integrated to a plug generator that could be stably mounted onto behaving animals. Long-term storage of dialysate plugs was achieved by collecting plugs into high-purity perfluoroalkoxy tubes, placing the tube into hexane and then freezing at −80°C. Slow warming with even temperatures prevented plug coalescence during sample thawing. As a demonstration of the system, plugs were collected from the striatum of behaving rats using a 0.5-mm-long microdialysis probe. Resulting plugs were analyzed 1–4 days later by chip-based electrophoresis. To improve throughput of plug analysis over previous work, the speed of electrophoretic separation was increased by using forced air cooling and 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate as a separation buffer additive, allowing resolution of six neuroactive amino acids in 30 s. Concentration changes induced by K+ microinjections were monitored with 10 s temporal resolution. The improvements reported in this work make it possible to apply segmented flow microdialysis to the study of behaving animals and enable experiments where the analytical system cannot be placed close to the animal. PMID:21465093

  9. Collection, chemical analysis, and evaluation of coal samples in 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Vernon Emanuel; Medlin, J.H.; Hatch, J.R.; Coleman, S.L.; Wood, G.H.; Woodruff, S.D.; Hildebrand, R.T.

    1976-01-01

    During 1975, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with other Federal and State agencies, university groups, and private companies, continued its program to augment and refine information on the composition of coal in the United States. This report includes all analytical data on 799 channel samples of coal beds from major operating mines and core holes in 28 States, collected mainly by State Geological Surveys under a cooperative program funded largely by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. For each sample, the U.S. Geological Survey has quantitatively determined the amounts of 24 major, minor, and trace elements (including AI, As, Cd, Cu, F, Hg, Mn, Na, Pb, Se, U, and Zn), and has semiquantitatively determined the concentrations of 15 to 20 additional trace elements (including B, Be, Cr, Ge, Mo, Ni, and V). In addition, the U.S. Bureau of Mines has provided proximate and ultimate analyses, and Btu and forms-of-sulfur determinations on 488 of the samples. Statistical summaries of the data are given for all coal samples in the United States, for coal divided by rank (53 anthracite, 509 bituminous coal, 183 subbituminous coal, and 54 lignite samples), and the arithmetic means, ranges, and geometric means and deviations are given for the coal in each of seven different major coal areas in the United States. For example, the average coal in the United States contains 11.3 percent ash, 10.0 percent moisture, 2.0 percent sulfur, and has 11,180 Btu per pound; of the 10 major oxides determined on the 525?C ash, the average SiO2 content is 38 percent, Al2O3 20 percent, and Na2O 0.67 percent; the average Cd content is 7.3 ppm, Pb 114 ppm, and Zn 151 ppm (range 1 ppm to 6.0 percent). As determined on the raw coal, the average Hg content is 0.18 ppm (range <0.01 to 63.0 ppm), the Se content 4.1 ppm (range <0.1 to 150 ppm), and the U content 1.8 ppm (range <0.2 to 42.9 ppm).

  10. Medical Issues: Breathing

    MedlinePlus

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > breathing Breathing Breathing problems are the most common cause of illness for children with SMA. Breathing Risks In healthy individuals, the muscles between the ...

  11. DS — Software for analyzing data collected using double sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan; Hartley, Dana

    2011-01-01

    DS analyzes count data to estimate density or relative density and population size when appropriate. The software is available at http://iwcbm.dev4.fsr.com/IWCBM/default.asp?PageID=126. The software was designed to analyze data collected using double sampling, but it also can be used to analyze index data. DS is not currently configured to apply distance methods or methods based on capture-recapture theory. Double sampling for the purpose of this report means surveying a sample of locations with a rapid method of unknown accuracy and surveying a subset of these locations using a more intensive method assumed to yield unbiased estimates. "Detection ratios" are calculated as the ratio of results from rapid surveys on intensive plots to the number actually present as determined from the intensive surveys. The detection ratios are used to adjust results from the rapid surveys. The formula for density is (results from rapid survey)/(estimated detection ratio from intensive surveys). Population sizes are estimated as (density)(area). Double sampling is well-established in the survey sampling literature—see Cochran (1977) for the basic theory, Smith (1995) for applications of double sampling in waterfowl surveys, Bart and Earnst (2002, 2005) for discussions of its use in wildlife studies, and Bart and others (in press) for a detailed account of how the method was used to survey shorebirds across the arctic region of North America. Indices are surveys that do not involve complete counts of well-defined plots or recording information to estimate detection rates (Thompson and others, 1998). In most cases, such data should not be used to estimate density or population size but, under some circumstances, may be used to compare two densities or estimate how density changes through time or across space (Williams and others, 2005). The Breeding Bird Survey (Sauer and others, 2008) provides a good example of an index survey. Surveyors record all birds detected but do not record

  12. Classification of Asthma Based on Nonlinear Analysis of Breathing Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Raoufy, Mohammad Reza; Ghafari, Tara; Darooei, Reza; Nazari, Milad; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Eslaminejad, Ali Reza; Almasnia, Mehdi; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Mani, Ali R.; Hajizadeh, Sohrab

    2016-01-01

    Normal human breathing exhibits complex variability in both respiratory rhythm and volume. Analyzing such nonlinear fluctuations may provide clinically relevant information in patients with complex illnesses such as asthma. We compared the cycle-by-cycle fluctuations of inter-breath interval (IBI) and lung volume (LV) among healthy volunteers and patients with various types of asthma. Continuous respiratory datasets were collected from forty age-matched men including 10 healthy volunteers, 10 patients with controlled atopic asthma, 10 patients with uncontrolled atopic asthma, and 10 patients with uncontrolled non-atopic asthma during 60 min spontaneous breathing. Complexity of breathing pattern was quantified by calculating detrended fluctuation analysis, largest Lyapunov exponents, sample entropy, and cross-sample entropy. The IBI as well as LV fluctuations showed decreased long-range correlation, increased regularity and reduced sensitivity to initial conditions in patients with asthma, particularly in uncontrolled state. Our results also showed a strong synchronization between the IBI and LV in patients with uncontrolled asthma. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that nonlinear analysis of breathing pattern has a diagnostic value in asthma and can be used in differentiating uncontrolled from controlled and non-atopic from atopic asthma. We suggest that complexity analysis of breathing dynamics may represent a novel physiologic marker to facilitate diagnosis and management of patients with asthma. However, future studies are needed to increase the validity of the study and to improve these novel methods for better patient management. PMID:26824900

  13. Free-breathing Sparse Sampling Cine MR Imaging with Iterative Reconstruction for the Assessment of Left Ventricular Function and Mass at 3.0 T.

    PubMed

    Sudarski, Sonja; Henzler, Thomas; Haubenreisser, Holger; Dösch, Christina; Zenge, Michael O; Schmidt, Michaela; Nadar, Mariappan S; Borggrefe, Martin; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Papavassiliu, Theano

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively evaluate the accuracy of left ventricle (LV) analysis with a two-dimensional real-time cine true fast imaging with steady-state precession (trueFISP) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence featuring sparse data sampling with iterative reconstruction (SSIR) performed with and without breath-hold (BH) commands at 3.0 T. Materials and Methods Ten control subjects (mean age, 35 years; range, 25-56 years) and 60 patients scheduled to undergo a routine cardiac examination that included LV analysis (mean age, 58 years; range, 20-86 years) underwent a fully sampled segmented multiple BH cine sequence (standard of reference) and a prototype undersampled SSIR sequence performed during a single BH and during free breathing (non-BH imaging). Quantitative analysis of LV function and mass was performed. Linear regression, Bland-Altman analysis, and paired t testing were performed. Results Similar to the results in control subjects, analysis of the 60 patients showed excellent correlation with the standard of reference for single-BH SSIR (r = 0.93-0.99) and non-BH SSIR (r = 0.92-0.98) for LV ejection fraction (EF), volume, and mass (P < .0001 for all). Irrespective of breath holding, LV end-diastolic mass was overestimated with SSIR (standard of reference: 163.9 g ± 58.9, single-BH SSIR: 178.5 g ± 62.0 [P < .0001], non-BH SSIR: 175.3 g ± 63.7 [P < .0001]); the other parameters were not significantly different (EF: 49.3% ± 11.9 with standard of reference, 48.8% ± 11.8 with single-BH SSIR, 48.8% ± 11 with non-BH SSIR; P = .03 and P = .12, respectively). Bland-Altman analysis showed similar measurement errors for single-BH SSIR and non-BH SSIR when compared with standard of reference measurements for EF, volume, and mass. Conclusion Assessment of LV function with SSIR at 3.0 T is noninferior to the standard of reference irrespective of BH commands. LV mass, however, is overestimated with SSIR. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available

  14. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF URINE SAMPLES (SOP-2.14)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting urine samples from the study participants (children and their primary caregivers). Urine samples will be approximate 48-hr collections, collected as spot urine samples accumulated over the 48-hr sampling period. If the household or da...

  15. Efficient storage system for breath hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Murray, R D; Kerzner, B; MacLean, W C; McClung, H J; Gilbert, M

    1985-10-01

    Recommended materials for breath hydrogen collection (plastic syringes with twist lock closure) are only adequate for relatively brief periods because of gradual hydrogen loss and considerable variability between duplicate samples. To document the most favorable storage conditions for breath hydrogen, we compared hydrogen retention in plastic syringes using a conventional twist-in-lock closure versus a simple, inexpensive syringe closure, a Critocap. Hydrogen retention was studied at 25, 5, and -20 degrees C in two different syringe brands over 72 h of storage. An analysis of variance confirms the superiority of Critocaps over twist-in-lock closures (p less than 0.001). Reliability was maximal when samples were placed in environments less than 5 degrees C. When storage time was extended to 7 days, mean hydrogen retention was 86 +/- 6% (means +/- SD).

  16. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofgren, G. E.; Todd, N. S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2011-03-01

    JSC curation is digitizing pictures of lunar samples taken during initial sample return and subsequent processing. These images will be available via a searchable database on the Curation website as they are produced; 69% are currently available.

  17. Abdominal 4D Flow MR Imaging in a Breath Hold: Combination of Spiral Sampling and Dynamic Compressed Sensing for Highly Accelerated Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Greenfield, Ashley; Jajamovich, Guido; Besa, Cecilia; Cui, Yong; Stalder, Aurélien; Markl, Michael; Taouli, Bachir

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop a highly accelerated phase-contrast cardiac-gated volume flow measurement (four-dimensional [4D] flow) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique based on spiral sampling and dynamic compressed sensing and to compare this technique with established phase-contrast imaging techniques for the quantification of blood flow in abdominal vessels. Materials and Methods This single-center prospective study was compliant with HIPAA and approved by the institutional review board. Ten subjects (nine men, one woman; mean age, 51 years; age range, 30–70 years) were enrolled. Seven patients had liver disease. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Two 4D flow acquisitions were performed in each subject, one with use of Cartesian sampling with respiratory tracking and the other with use of spiral sampling and a breath hold. Cartesian two-dimensional (2D) cine phase-contrast images were also acquired in the portal vein. Two observers independently assessed vessel conspicuity on phase-contrast three-dimensional angiograms. Quantitative flow parameters were measured by two independent observers in major abdominal vessels. Intertechnique concordance was quantified by using Bland-Altman and logistic regression analyses. Results There was moderate to substantial agreement in vessel conspicuity between 4D flow acquisitions in arteries and veins (κ = 0.71 and 0.61, respectively, for observer 1; κ = 0.71 and 0.44 for observer 2), whereas more artifacts were observed with spiral 4D flow (κ = 0.30 and 0.20). Quantitative measurements in abdominal vessels showed good equivalence between spiral and Cartesian 4D flow techniques (lower bound of the 95% confidence interval: 63%, 77%, 60%, and 64% for flow, area, average velocity, and peak velocity, respectively). For portal venous flow, spiral 4D flow was in better agreement with 2D cine phase-contrast flow (95% limits of agreement: −8.8 and 9.3 mL/sec, respectively) than was Cartesian 4D flow (95

  18. Capillary thermal desorption unit for near real-time analysis of VOCs at sub-trace levels. Application to the analysis of environmental air contamination and breath samples.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Mónica; Castellanos, Mar; Martín, José; Sanchez, Juan M

    2009-05-15

    A capillary microtrap thermal desorption module is developed for near real-time analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at sub-ppbv levels in air samples. The device allows the direct injection of the thermally desorbed VOCs into a chromatographic column. It does not use a second cryotrap to focalize the adsorbed compounds before entering the separation column so reducing the formation of artifacts. The connection of the microtrap to a GC-MS allows the quantitative determination of VOCs in less than 40 min with detection limits of between 5 and 10 pptv (25 degrees C and 760 mm Hg), which correspond to 19-43 ng m(-3), using sampling volumes of 775 cm(3). The microtrap is applied to the analysis of environmental air contamination in different laboratories of our faculty. The results obtained indicate that most volatile compounds are easily diffused through the air and that they also may contaminate the surrounding areas when the habitual safety precautions (e.g., working under fume hoods) are used during the manipulation of solvents. The application of the microtrap to the analysis of VOCs in breath samples suggest that 2,5-dimethylfuran may be a strong indicator of a person's smoking status.

  19. [From project-based sample collection to biobank].

    PubMed

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Mersich, Tamás; Dede, Kristóf; Besznyák, István; Zaránd, Attila; Teknos, Dániel; Nagy, Péter; Salamon, Ferenc; Nagy, Pál; Nagy, Zsolt; Kótai, Zsuzsanna; Szász, Marcell; Lukács, Lilla; Szállási, Zoltán; Jósa, Valéria; Jakab, Ferenc

    2011-04-10

    The research group takes samples for molecular genetical examinations from tumors removed during operations within ischemic time interval. Samples are stored in liquid nitrogen. Clinical data of these patients are recorded in an informatics system developed by the group. Patients are followed in an out-patient clinic set up for this purpose not financed by the National Health Insurance Fund. Tissue samples and follow up data are used to cooperate with molecular genetical laboratories.

  20. Breath hydrogen concentration and small intestinal malabsorption in calves.

    PubMed

    Holland, R E; Herdt, T H; Refsal, K R

    1986-09-01

    Breath hydrogen concentrations were measured to assess intestinal carbohydrate malabsorption in preruminating calves. Oral administration of 1.25 g of lactulose (a nonabsorbable carbohydrate)/kg to calves produced breath hydrogen concentrations significantly (P less than 0.001) higher than values determined after calves were fed milk and before the treatment was given. This indicates that, in the calf, fermentation of nonabsorbed carbohydrates results in increased breath hydrogen values. To induce small intestinal malabsorption, chloramphenicol was administered orally at 50 mg/kg, 2 times a day, to 5 calves for 3 days. Before therapy was started, each calf was fitted with a duodenal cannula to facilitate collection of intestinal mucosal biopsy samples during treatment. Chloramphenicol therapy significantly (P less than 0.001) increased breath hydrogen concentrations from those values measured after calves were fed milk alone. Concurrently, chloramphenicol administration significantly decreased intestinal villous length (P less than 0.001) and D-xylose absorption (P less than 0.05), compared with those values before treatment was given. These results demonstrate that decreased intestinal absorptive capacity is associated with an increase in breath hydrogen concentrations and that breath hydrogen may be useful in evaluating malabsorption in calves with naturally occurring enteric disease.

  1. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

  2. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

  3. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

  4. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

  5. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a...

  6. Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM): An Early Mars Sample Return Mission Through the Mars Scout Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leshin, L. A.; Yen, A.; Bomba, J.; Clark, B.; Epp, C.; Forney, L.; Gamber, T.; Graves, C.; Hupp, J.; Jones, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM) mission is designed to: (1) make a 40 km pass through the Martian atmosphere; (2) collect dust and atmospheric gas; and (3) return the samples to Earth for analysis. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  7. Design of a breath analysis system for diabetes screening and blood glucose level prediction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ke; Zhang, David; Wu, Darong; Wei, Hua; Lu, Guangming

    2014-11-01

    It has been reported that concentrations of several biomarkers in diabetics' breath show significant difference from those in healthy people's breath. Concentrations of some biomarkers are also correlated with the blood glucose levels (BGLs) of diabetics. Therefore, it is possible to screen for diabetes and predict BGLs by analyzing one's breath. In this paper, we describe the design of a novel breath analysis system for this purpose. The system uses carefully selected chemical sensors to detect biomarkers in breath. Common interferential factors, including humidity and the ratio of alveolar air in breath, are compensated or handled in the algorithm. Considering the intersubject variance of the components in breath, we build subject-specific prediction models to improve the accuracy of BGL prediction. A total of 295 breath samples from healthy subjects and 279 samples from diabetic subjects were collected to evaluate the performance of the system. The sensitivity and specificity of diabetes screening are 91.51% and 90.77%, respectively. The mean relative absolute error for BGL prediction is 21.7%. Experiments show that the system is effective and that the strategies adopted in the system can improve its accuracy. The system potentially provides a noninvasive and convenient method for diabetes screening and BGL monitoring as an adjunct to the standard criteria.

  8. Personal exposure to volatile organic compounds. I. Direct measurements in breathing-zone air, drinking water, food, and exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Wallace, L A; Pellizzari, E; Hartwell, T; Rosenzweig, M; Erickson, M; Sparacino, C; Zelon, H

    1984-10-01

    A pilot study to test methods of estimating personal exposures to toxic substances and corresponding body burdens was carried out between July and December 1980. Individual exposures to about a dozen volatile organic compounds in air and drinking water were measured for nine volunteers in Bayonne and Elizabeth, New Jersey, and for three volunteers in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina during three 3-day visits over the 6-month period. Breath samples were also collected from all subjects on each visit. Composite food samples were collected in each locality. Sampling and analytical methods for air, water, food, and breath were evaluated and found generally capable of detecting concentrations as low as 1 microgram/m3 in air and breath, and 1 ng/g in water and food. About 230 personal air samples, 170 drinking water samples, 66 breath samples, and 4 food samples (16 composites) were analyzed for the target chemicals. Ten compounds were present in air and eight were transmitted mainly through that medium. The two target trihalomethanes (chloroform and bromodichloromethane) were predominantly transmitted through water and beverages. Food appeared to be a minor route of exposure, except possibly for trichloroethylene in margarine. Seven compounds were present in more than half of the breath samples. Diurnal and seasonal variations were noted in air and water concentrations of some compounds, with summer levels generally higher. For some chemicals, weekday air exposures were significantly higher than weekend exposures. Some, but not all, of the potentially occupationally exposed individuals had significantly higher workplace exposures to several chemicals. Distributions of air exposures were closer to log normal than normal for most chemicals. Several chemicals were highly correlated with each other in personal air samples, indicating possible common sources of exposure.

  9. 7 CFR 160.22 - Collecting samples; issuing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 160.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) NAVAL STORES REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Methods of Analysis, Inspection, Sampling and Grading §...

  10. 40 CFR 761.310 - Collecting the sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Porous Surfaces for Measurement-Based Use, Reuse, and On-Site or Off-Site...

  11. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  12. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... established in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section by moving the origin one meter in the direction of magnetic north and one meter in the direction east of magnetic north. (2) Mark out a series of sampling points 1.5 meters apart oriented to the grid axes. The sampling points shall proceed in every direction...

  13. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... established in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section by moving the origin one meter in the direction of magnetic north and one meter in the direction east of magnetic north. (2) Mark out a series of sampling points 1.5 meters apart oriented to the grid axes. The sampling points shall proceed in every direction...

  14. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... established in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section by moving the origin one meter in the direction of magnetic north and one meter in the direction east of magnetic north. (2) Mark out a series of sampling points 1.5 meters apart oriented to the grid axes. The sampling points shall proceed in every direction...

  15. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... established in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section by moving the origin one meter in the direction of magnetic north and one meter in the direction east of magnetic north. (2) Mark out a series of sampling points 1.5 meters apart oriented to the grid axes. The sampling points shall proceed in every direction...

  16. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... established in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section by moving the origin one meter in the direction of magnetic north and one meter in the direction east of magnetic north. (2) Mark out a series of sampling points 1.5 meters apart oriented to the grid axes. The sampling points shall proceed in every direction...

  17. Curating NASA's Past, Present, and Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Allton, J. H.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "...curation of all extra-terrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "...documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the past, present, and future activities of the NASA Curation Office.

  18. Breathing and Relaxation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... level is often dependent on his or her breathing pattern. Therefore, people with chronic lung conditions may ...

  19. Deep breathing after surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000440.htm Deep breathing after surgery To use the sharing features on ... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated ...

  20. Rapid shallow breathing

    MedlinePlus

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  1. Combined sensing platform for advanced diagnostics in exhaled mouse breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, Paula R.; Wilk, Andreas; Seichter, Felicia; Cajlakovic, Merima; Koestler, Stefan; Ribitsch, Volker; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Carter, Chance; Raimundo, Ivo M.; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Breath analysis is an attractive non-invasive strategy for early disease recognition or diagnosis, and for therapeutic progression monitoring, as quantitative compositional analysis of breath can be related to biomarker panels provided by a specific physiological condition invoked by e.g., pulmonary diseases, lung cancer, breast cancer, and others. As exhaled breath contains comprehensive information on e.g., the metabolic state, and since in particular volatile organic constituents (VOCs) in exhaled breath may be indicative of certain disease states, analytical techniques for advanced breath diagnostics should be capable of sufficient molecular discrimination and quantification of constituents at ppm-ppb - or even lower - concentration levels. While individual analytical techniques such as e.g., mid-infrared spectroscopy may provide access to a range of relevant molecules, some IR-inactive constituents require the combination of IR sensing schemes with orthogonal analytical tools for extended molecular coverage. Combining mid-infrared hollow waveguides (HWGs) with luminescence sensors (LS) appears particularly attractive, as these complementary analytical techniques allow to simultaneously analyze total CO2 (via luminescence), the 12CO2/13CO2 tracer-to-tracee (TTR) ratio (via IR), selected VOCs (via IR) and O2 (via luminescence) in exhaled breath, yet, establishing a single diagnostic platform as both sensors simultaneously interact with the same breath sample volume. In the present study, we take advantage of a particularly compact (shoebox-size) FTIR spectrometer combined with novel substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) recently developed by our research team, and miniaturized fiberoptic luminescence sensors for establishing a multi-constituent breath analysis tool that is ideally compatible with mouse intensive care stations (MICU). Given the low tidal volume and flow of exhaled mouse breath, the TTR is usually determined after sample collection via gas

  2. Technical Evaluation of Sample-Processing, Collection, and Preservation Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    policy document entitled The National Strategy for Biosurveillance was released (White House, July 2012) as part of the National Security Strategy...concept of leveraging existing capabilities to “scan and discern the environment,” which implies the use of current technical biosurveillance ...testing of existing sample-processing technologies are expected to enable in silico evaluations of biosurveillance methodologies, equipment, and

  3. Breath acidification in adolescent runners exposed to atmospheric pollution: A prospective, repeated measures observational study

    PubMed Central

    Ferdinands, Jill M; Crawford, Carol A Gotway; Greenwald, Roby; Van Sickle, David; Hunter, Eric; Teague, W Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Background Vigorous outdoors exercise during an episode of air pollution might cause airway inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vigorous outdoor exercise during peak smog season on breath pH, a biomarker of airway inflammation, in adolescent athletes. Methods We measured breath pH both pre- and post-exercise on ten days during peak smog season in 16 high school athletes engaged in daily long-distance running in a downwind suburb of Atlanta. The association of post-exercise breath pH with ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations was tested with linear regression. Results We collected 144 pre-exercise and 146 post-exercise breath samples from 16 runners (mean age 14.9 years, 56% male). Median pre-exercise breath pH was 7.58 (interquartile range: 6.90 to 7.86) and did not change significantly after exercise. We observed no significant association between ambient ozone or particulate matter and post-exercise breath pH. However both pre- and post-exercise breath pH were strikingly low in these athletes when compared to a control sample of 14 relatively sedentary healthy adults and to published values of breath pH in healthy subjects. Conclusion Although we did not observe an acute effect of air pollution exposure during exercise on breath pH, breath pH was surprisingly low in this sample of otherwise healthy long-distance runners. We speculate that repetitive vigorous exercise may induce airway acidification. PMID:18328105

  4. Inherent variability in lead and copper collected during standardized sampling.

    PubMed

    Masters, Sheldon; Parks, Jeffrey; Atassi, Amrou; Edwards, Marc A

    2016-03-01

    Variability in the concentration of lead and copper sampled at consumers' taps poses challenges to assessing consumer health threats and the effectiveness of corrosion control. To examine the minimum variability that is practically achievable, standardized rigs with three lead and copper containing plumbing materials (leaded brass, copper tube with lead solder, and a lead copper connection) were deployed at five utilities and sampled with regimented protocols. Variability represented by relative standard deviation (RSD) in lead release was high in all cases. The brass had the lowest variability in lead release (RSD = 31 %) followed by copper-solder (RSD = 49%) and lead-copper (RSD = 80%). This high inherent variability is due to semi-random detachment of particulate lead to water, and represents a modern reality of water lead problems that should be explicitly acknowledged and considered in all aspects of exposure, public education, and monitoring.

  5. Markers of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Diabetes Mellitus in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Teppala, Srinivas; Shankar, Anoop

    2012-01-01

    We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and diabetes among 6,522 participants aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–08. SDB severity was defined based on an additive summary score including sleep duration, snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness. We found that the summary SDB score was significantly associated with diabetes after adjusting for potential confounders in the whole population. Compared to those without any sleep disturbance, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) of diabetes among those with ≥3 sleep disturbances was 2.04 (1.46–2.87). In sex-specific analyses, this association was significant only in women (OR (95% CI) = 3.68 (2.01–6.72)) but not in men (1.10 (0.59–2.04)), P-interaction = 0.01. However, there were no ethnic differences in this association, P-interaction = 0.7. In a nationally representative sample of US adults, SDB was independently associated with diabetes only in women, but not in men. PMID:22518133

  6. Extravehicular Activity Asteroid Exploration and Sample Collection Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipila, Stephanie A.; Scoville, Zebulon C.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Buffington, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenging primary objectives associated with NASA's Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) is to demonstrate deep space Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and tools and to obtain asteroid samples to return to Earth for further study. Prior Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) spacewalks have benefited from engineered EVA interfaces which have been designed and manufactured on Earth. Rigid structurally mounted handrails, and tools with customized interfaces and restraints optimize EVA performance. For ARCM, EVA complexity increases due to the uncertainty of the asteroid properties. The variability of rock size, shape and composition, as well as behavior of the asteroid capture mechanism will complicate EVA translation, tool restraint, and body stabilization. The unknown asteroid hardness and brittleness will complicate tool use. The rock surface will introduce added safety concerns for cut gloves and debris control. Feasible solutions to meet ARCM EVA objectives were identified using experience gained during Apollo, Shuttle, and ISS EVAs, terrestrial mountaineering practices, NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 16 mission, and during Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory testing in the Modified Advanced Crew Escape Suit (MACES) suit. This paper will summarize the overall operational concepts for conducting EVAs for the ARCM mission including translation paths and body restraint methods, potential tools used to extract the samples, design implications for the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) for EVA, and the results of early development testing of potential EVA tasks.

  7. Breathing zone air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, John

    1989-01-01

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  8. Breathing zone air sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J.

    1989-08-22

    A sampling apparatus is presented which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  9. Chemical Analysis of Whale Breath Volatiles: A Case Study for Non-Invasive Field Health Diagnostics of Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Cumeras, Raquel; Cheung, William H.K.; Gulland, Frances; Goley, Dawn; Davis, Cristina E.

    2014-01-01

    We explored the feasibility of collecting exhaled breath from a moribund gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) for potential non-invasive health monitoring of marine mammals. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) profiling is a relatively new field of research, in which the chemical composition of breath is used to non-invasively assess the health and physiological processes on-going within an animal or human. In this study, two telescopic sampling poles were designed and tested with the primary aim of collecting whale breath exhalations (WBEs). Once the WBEs were successfully collected, they were immediately transferred onto a stable matrix sorbent through a custom manifold system. A total of two large volume WBEs were successfully captured and pre-concentrated onto two Tenax®-TA traps (one exhalation per trap). The samples were then returned to the laboratory where they were analyzed using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 70 chemicals were identified (58 positively identified) in the whale breath samples. These chemicals were also matched against a database of VOCs found in humans, and 44% of chemicals found in the whale breath are also released by healthy humans. The exhaled gray whale breath showed a rich diversity of chemicals, indicating the analysis of whale breath exhalations is a promising new field of research. PMID:25222833

  10. Comparison of self-collected vaginal, vulvar and urine samples with physician-collected cervical samples for human papillomavirus testing to detect high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sellors, John W.; Lorincz, Attila T.; Mahony, James B.; Mielzynska, Iwona; Lytwyn, Alice; Roth, Paula; Howard, Michelle; Chong, Sylvia; Daya, Dean; Chapman, William; Chernesky, Max

    2000-01-01

    Background Certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples are strongly associated with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and invasive cervical carcinoma. We determined and compared the test characteristics of testing for HPV with samples obtained by patients and with samples obtained by their physicians. Methods In a consecutive series of women referred to a colposcopy clinic at a teaching hospital because of abnormalities on cervical cytologic screening, 200 agreed to collect vulvar, vaginal and urine samples for HPV testing. The physician then collected cervical samples for HPV testing, and colposcopy, with biopsy as indicated, was performed. Presence of HPV was evaluated using the hybrid capture II assay (Digene Corp., Silver Spring, Md.) with a probe cocktail for 13 carcinogenic types. Cervical specimens were also tested for HPV by polymerase chain reaction and hybridization with type-specific probes. Cervical smears for cytologic examination were obtained from all women. Results High-grade lesions (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [HSIL], equivalent to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] grade 2 or 3, and adenocarcinoma) were found in 58 (29.0%) of the 200 women. Carcinogenic types of HPV were detected in the self-collected vaginal samples of 50 (86.2%) of these 58 women, in the self-collected vulvar samples of 36 (62.1%) and in the self-collected urine samples of 26 (44.8%). Carcinogenic types of HPV were detected in the cervical samples collected by physicians for 57 (98.3%) of these 58 women. The remaining 142 women (71.0%) had normal findings or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, CIN grade 1). Test results were negative or noncarcinogenic types of HPV were detected in the self-collected vaginal samples of 76 (53.5%) of these 142 women, in the self-collected vulvar samples of 89 (62.7%) and in the self-collected urine samples of 99 (69.7%). The sensitivity for self-collected samples ranged from 44.8% to

  11. Perceptions of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels among a sample of bar patrons with BrAC values of 0.08% or higher.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ryan J; Chaney, Beth H; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

    2016-09-01

    Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) is a commonly used measure of alcohol intoxication. Because of the potential negative consequences of excessive alcohol consumption, it is important to examine how accurately intoxicated individuals can estimate their BrAC values, especially individuals over the legal BrAC driving threshold (i.e., 0.08%). To better understand perceptions of BrAC values among intoxicated individuals, this field study examined actual BrAC values and BrAC range estimates (0.08% and above, 0.02-0.07%, less than 0.02%) among a sample of bar patrons (N = 454) with BrAC levels at 0.08% or higher. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between actual BrAC values and perceived BrAC levels. We also examined whether the following demographic and drinking variables were associated with underestimating BrAC in this sample: gender, age, race, college student status, plans to get home, and hazardous drinking. Results indicated that the majority (60.4%) of participants underestimated their BrAC (i.e., less than 0.08%) and lower BrAC values correlated with underestimating BrAC ranges (p < .001, 95% CI[0.2, 0.6]). Further, females (p = .001, 95% CI[1.3, 3.3]) and participants under 21 (p = .039, 95% CI = 1.0, 2.6) were significantly more likely to estimate their BrAC to be less than 0.08%, which is concerning given that young (less than 21) intoxicated females are a group at high risk for sexual assault on college campuses. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Collection and analysis of NASA clean room air samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, L. S.; Keever, J.

    1985-01-01

    The environment of the HALOE assembly clean room at NASA Langley Research Center is analyzed to determine the background levels of airborne organic compounds. Sampling is accomplished by pumping the clean room air through absorbing cartridges. For volatile organics, cartridges are thermally desorbed and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, compounds are identified by searching the EPA/NIH data base using an interactive operator INCOS computer search algorithm. For semivolatile organics, cartridges are solvent entracted and concentrated extracts are analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection, compound identification is made by matching gas chromatogram retention times with known standards. The detection limits for the semivolatile organics are; 0.89 ng cu m for dioctylphlhalate (DOP) and 1.6 ng cu m for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The detection limit for volatile organics ranges from 1 to 50 parts per trillion. Only trace quantities of organics are detected, the DOP levels do not exceed 2.5 ng cu m and the PCB levels do not exceed 454 ng cu m.

  13. Time-course of cigarette smoke contamination of clinical hydrogen breath-analysis tests.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, A; Solomons, N W

    1983-11-01

    The time-course of the contamination of exogenous hydrogen from cigarette smoke on postprandial breath hydrogen concentration was evaluated in 10 subjects, six regular smokers and four occasional smokers. Breath hydrogen values were determined by gas chromatography 10 min, 5 min, and immediately prior to smoking a filter cigarette; during smoking from a sample of exhaled air containing smoke; and 5, 10, and 15 min after extinguishing the cigarette. A three- to 137-fold increase above basal hydrogen concentrations was produced by exhaled cigarette smoke, but most subjects had re-equilibrated to baseline values within 10 to 15 min after the cigarette. If subjects undergoing clinical hydrogen breath tests cannot refrain from smoking during the duration of the test, one should allow an interval of at least 15 min from the end of smoking to the collection of a breath sample.

  14. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling To Verify Completion of Self-Implementing Cleanup...

  15. Trichloroethene levels in human blood and exhaled breath from controlled inhalation exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Pleil, J D; Fisher, J W; Lindstrom, A B

    1998-01-01

    The organic constituents of exhaled human breath are representative of bloodborne concentrations through gas exchange in the blood/breath interface in the lungs. The presence of specific compounds can be an indicator of recent exposure or represent a biological response of the subject. For volatile organic compounds, sampling and analysis of breath is preferred to direct measurement from blood samples because breath collection is noninvasive, potentially infectious waste is avoided, the sample supply is essentially limitless, and the measurement of gas-phase analytes is much simpler in a gas matrix rather than in a complex biological tissue such as blood. However, to assess the distribution of a contaminant in the body requires a reasonable estimate of the blood level. We have investigated the use of noninvasive breath measurements as a surrogate for blood measurements for (high) occupational levels of trichloroethene in a controlled exposure experiment. Subjects were placed in an exposure chamber for 24 hr; they were exposed to 100 parts per million by volume trichloroethene for the initial 4 hr and to purified air for the remaining 20 hr. Matched breath and blood samples were collected periodically during the experiment. We modeled the resulting concentration data with respect to their time course and assessed the blood/breath relationship during the exposure (uptake) period and during the postexposure (elimination) period. Estimates for peak blood levels, compartmental distribution, and time constants were calculated from breath data and compared to direct blood measurements to assess the validity of the breath measurement methodology. Blood/breath partition coefficients were studied during both uptake and elimination. At equilibrium conditions at the end of the exposure, we could predict actual blood levels using breath elimination curve calculations and a literature value partition coefficient with a mean ratio of calculated:measured of 0.98 and standard error

  16. An adaptive breath sampler for use with human subjects with an impaired respiratory function.

    PubMed

    Basanta, M; Koimtzis, T; Singh, D; Wilson, I; Thomas, C L P

    2007-02-01

    An adaptive sampler for collecting 2.5 dm(3) samples of exhaled air from human subjects with an impaired respiratory function is described. Pressure in the upper respiratory tract is continuously monitored and the data used to control an automated system to collect select portions of the expired breathing cycle onto a mixed bed Tenax(trade mark) and Carbotrap(trade mark) adsorbent trap for analysis by GC-MS. The sampling approach is intended for use in metabolomic profiling of volatiles in human breath at concentrations greater than microg m(-3). The importance of experimental reproducibility in metabolomic data is emphasised and consequently a high purity air supply is used to maintain a stable exogenous volatile organic compound profile at concentrations in the range 5 to 30 microg m(-3). The results of a 90 day stability study showed that exogenous VOCs were maintained at significantly lower levels (40 times lower for isopropyl alcohol) and with significantly higher reproducibility (80 times lower standard deviation for isopropyl alcohol) than would have been be the case if ambient air had been used. The sampling system was evaluated with healthy controls alongside subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Subjects were able to breathe normally with control subjects observed to breathe at a rate of 9 to 17 breaths per minute, compared to 16 to 30 breaths per minute for subjects with COPD. This study presents, for the first time, observations and estimates of intra-subject breath sample reproducibility from human subjects. These reproducibility studies indicated that VOCs in exhaled breath exhibit a variety of dynamic behaviours, with some species recovered with a RSD <30%, while other species were observed to have significantly more variable concentrations, 30 to 130% RSD. The approach was also demonstrated to reliably differentiate the differences in the VOC profiles between alveolar and dead space air.

  17. Microbiota in Exhaled Breath Condensate and the Lung.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, Laura; Wright, Steven; Tennant, Peter; Gill, Andrew C; Collie, David; McLachlan, Gerry

    2017-04-07

    The lung microbiota is commonly sampled using relatively invasive bronchoscopic procedures. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection potentially offers a less invasive alternative for lung microbiota sampling. We compared lung microbiota samples retrieved by protected specimen brushings (PSB) and exhaled breath condensate collection. We also sought to assess whether aerosolised antibiotic treatment would influence the lung microbiota and whether EBC was sensitive enough to detect such changes.EBC was collected from 6 conscious sheep, and then from the same anaesthetised sheep during mechanical ventilation. Following the latter EBC collection, PSB samples were collected from separate sites within each sheep lung. On the subsequent day each sheep was then treated with nebulised colistimethate sodium. Two days after nebulisation, EBC and PSB samples were again collected. Bacterial DNA was quantified using 16S rRNA gene qPCR. The V2-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR and sequenced using an Illumina Miseq. Quality control and operational taxonomic unit (OTU) clustering were performed within mothur.EBC contained significantly less bacterial DNA than PSB samples. EBC samples from anaesthetised animals clustered separately by their bacterial community compositions in comparison to PSB samples and 37 bacterial OTUs were identified which were differentially abundant between the two sample types. Despite only low concentrations of colistin being detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, PSB samples were found to differ by their bacterial compositions pre and post colistimethate sodium treatment. Our findings indicate that microbiota in EBC samples and PSB samples are not equivalent.Importance Sampling of the lung microbiota usually necessitates performing bronchoscopic procedures which involve a hospital visit for human participants and the use of trained staff. The inconvenience and perceived discomfort of participating in this kind of research may deter

  18. EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

  19. Collecting cometary soil samples? Development of the ROSETTA sample acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coste, P. A.; Fenzi, M.; Eiden, Michael

    1993-01-01

    In the reference scenario of the ROSETTA CNRS mission, the Sample Acquisition System is mounted on the Comet Lander. Its tasks are to acquire three kinds of cometary samples and to transfer them to the Earth Return Capsule. Operations are to be performed in vacuum and microgravity, on a probably rough and dusty surface, in a largely unknown material, at temperatures in the order of 100 K. The concept and operation of the Sample Acquisition System are presented. The design of the prototype corer and surface sampling tool, and of the equipment for testing them at cryogenic temperatures in ambient conditions and in vacuum in various materials representing cometary soil, are described. Results of recent preliminary tests performed in low temperature thermal vacuum in a cometary analog ice-dust mixture are provided.

  20. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  1. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  2. 40 CFR 761.286 - Sample size and procedure for collecting a sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING... On-Site Disposal of Bulk PCB Remediation Waste and Porous Surfaces in Accordance With § 761.61(a)(6... PCB remediation waste or porous surfaces, collect at least 20 milliliters of waste, or a portion...

  3. The use of Vacutainer tubes for collection of soil samples for helium analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, Margaret E.; Kilburn, James E.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the helium concentration of soil samples collected and stored in Vacutainer-brand evacuated glass tubes show that Vacutainers are reliable containers for soil collection. Within the limits of reproducibility, helium content of soils appears to be independent of variations in soil temperature, barometric pressure, and quantity of soil moisture present in the sample.

  4. The GENESIS Solar-Wind Sample: Summary of In-Situ Spacecraft Measurements During the Sample Collection Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisenfeld, D. B.; Steinberg, J. T.; Wiens, R. C.; Barraclough, B. L.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2004-12-01

    The GENESIS mission returned samples of solar wind to earth on September 8. These samples were collected between 30-Nov-2001 and 01-Apr-2004 at the L1 point on ultrapure substrates that are being analyzed using various laboratory techniques. The primary purpose of the GENESIS mission is to determine to unprecedented accuracy (e.g., ±1%-0.1%, 2σ ) the isotopic composition of the solar wind, and by extension, of the Sun, particularly for oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and the noble gases. In addition to a continuously-collected sample, separate samples of the different regimes-coronal hole (CH), interstream (IS), and coronal mass ejection (CME)-were collected to help deconvolve any fine-scale isotopic fractionation associated with solar-wind ionization and acceleration. The four different samples (3 regimes plus one cumulative sample) are long-term averages over varying solar-wind conditions, and need to be understood within the context of other measurements besides those that can be made on the substrates themselves. These include charge state, v, T, density, and magnetic field data. Additionally, comparisons of in-situ elemental composition measurements with the measurements made on GENESIS samples will be useful in validating the different measurement techniques. For these reasons, we are compiling a database of conditions as measured by in-situ spacecraft instruments stationed at L1 over the time period of the GENESIS sample collection. Comparison with ACE/SWICS elemental and charge-state abundances confirmed early in the GENESIS mission that the GENESIS regime-selection algorithm was successfully isolating the CME material, protecting the CH and IS samples from CME contamination. The data also demonstrate the discrimination between IS and CH flow types based mostly on solar-wind speed, but allowing compensation for evolution effects due to the transit to 1 AU.

  5. Differentiation between genetic mutations of breast cancer by breath volatolomics

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Qing-Ling; Pan, Yue-Yin; Kayal, Haneen; Khoury, Kayan; Liu, Hu; Davies, Michael P.A.; Haick, Hossam

    2015-01-01

    Mapping molecular sub-types in breast cancer (BC) tumours is a rapidly evolving area due to growing interest in, for example, targeted therapy and screening high-risk populations for early diagnosis. We report a new concept for profiling BC molecular sub-types based on volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For this purpose, breath samples were collected from 276 female volunteers, including healthy, benign conditions, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and malignant lesions. Breath samples were analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and artificially intelligent nanoarray technology. Applying the non-parametric Wilcoxon/Kruskal-Wallis test, GC-MS analysis found 23 compounds that were significantly different (p < 0.05) in breath samples of BC patients with different molecular sub-types. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) of the nanoarray identified unique volatolomic signatures between cancer and non-cancer cases (83% accuracy in blind testing), and for the different molecular sub-types with accuracies ranging from 82 to 87%, sensitivities of 81 to 88% and specificities of 76 to 96% in leave-one-out cross-validation. These results demonstrate the presence of detectable breath VOC patterns for accurately profiling molecular sub-types in BC, either through specific compound identification by GC-MS or by volatolomic signatures obtained through statistical analysis of the artificially intelligent nanoarray responses. PMID:26540569

  6. Adaptive Sampling-Based Information Collection for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaobin; Zhao, Fang; Wang, Wendong; Tian, Hui

    2016-08-31

    To collect important health information, WBAN applications typically sense data at a high frequency. However, limited by the quality of wireless link, the uploading of sensed data has an upper frequency. To reduce upload frequency, most of the existing WBAN data collection approaches collect data with a tolerable error. These approaches can guarantee precision of the collected data, but they are not able to ensure that the upload frequency is within the upper frequency. Some traditional sampling based approaches can control upload frequency directly, however, they usually have a high loss of information. Since the core task of WBAN applications is to collect health information, this paper aims to collect optimized information under the limitation of upload frequency. The importance of sensed data is defined according to information theory for the first time. Information-aware adaptive sampling is proposed to collect uniformly distributed data. Then we propose Adaptive Sampling-based Information Collection (ASIC) which consists of two algorithms. An adaptive sampling probability algorithm is proposed to compute sampling probabilities of different sensed values. A multiple uniform sampling algorithm provides uniform samplings for values in different intervals. Experiments based on a real dataset show that the proposed approach has higher performance in terms of data coverage and information quantity. The parameter analysis shows the optimized parameter settings and the discussion shows the underlying reason of high performance in the proposed approach.

  7. Adaptive Sampling-Based Information Collection for Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaobin; Zhao, Fang; Wang, Wendong; Tian, Hui

    2016-01-01

    To collect important health information, WBAN applications typically sense data at a high frequency. However, limited by the quality of wireless link, the uploading of sensed data has an upper frequency. To reduce upload frequency, most of the existing WBAN data collection approaches collect data with a tolerable error. These approaches can guarantee precision of the collected data, but they are not able to ensure that the upload frequency is within the upper frequency. Some traditional sampling based approaches can control upload frequency directly, however, they usually have a high loss of information. Since the core task of WBAN applications is to collect health information, this paper aims to collect optimized information under the limitation of upload frequency. The importance of sensed data is defined according to information theory for the first time. Information-aware adaptive sampling is proposed to collect uniformly distributed data. Then we propose Adaptive Sampling-based Information Collection (ASIC) which consists of two algorithms. An adaptive sampling probability algorithm is proposed to compute sampling probabilities of different sensed values. A multiple uniform sampling algorithm provides uniform samplings for values in different intervals. Experiments based on a real dataset show that the proposed approach has higher performance in terms of data coverage and information quantity. The parameter analysis shows the optimized parameter settings and the discussion shows the underlying reason of high performance in the proposed approach. PMID:27589758

  8. Collecting Samples in Gale Crater, Mars; an Overview of the Mars Science Laboratory Sample Acquisition, Sample Processing and Handling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Jandura, L.; Okon, A. B.; Sunshine, D.; Roumeliotis, C.; Beegle, L. W.; Hurowitz, J.; Kennedy, B.; Limonadi, D.; McCloskey, S.; Robinson, M.; Seybold, C.; Brown, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mission (MSL), scheduled to land on Mars in the summer of 2012, consists of a rover and a scientific payload designed to identify and assess the habitability, geological, and environmental histories of Gale crater. Unraveling the geologic history of the region and providing an assessment of present and past habitability requires an evaluation of the physical and chemical characteristics of the landing site; this includes providing an in-depth examination of the chemical and physical properties of Martian regolith and rocks. The MSL Sample Acquisition, Processing, and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem will be the first in-situ system designed to acquire interior rock and soil samples from Martian surface materials. These samples are processed and separated into fine particles and distributed to two onboard analytical science instruments SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite) and CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) or to a sample analysis tray for visual inspection. The SA/SPaH subsystem is also responsible for the placement of the two contact instruments, Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS), and the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), on rock and soil targets. Finally, there is a Dust Removal Tool (DRT) to remove dust particles from rock surfaces for subsequent analysis by the contact and or mast mounted instruments (e.g. Mast Cameras (MastCam) and the Chemistry and Micro-Imaging instruments (ChemCam)).

  9. Application of LaserBreath-001 for breath acetone measurement in subjects with diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhennan; Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-11-01

    Breath acetone is a promising biomarker of diabetes mellitus. With an integrated standalone, on-site cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer, LaserBreath-001, we tested breath samples from 23 type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, 52 healthy subjects. In the cross-sectional studies, the obtained breath acetone concentrations were higher in the diabetic subjects compared with those in the control group. No correlation between breath acetone and simultaneous BG was observed in the T1D, T2D, and healthy subjects. A moderate positive correlation between the mean individual breath acetone concentrations and the mean individual BG levels was observed in the 20 T1D patients without ketoacidosis. In a longitudinal study, the breath acetone concentrations in a T1D patient with ketoacidosis decreased significantly and remained stable during the 5-day hospitalization. The results from a relatively large number of subjects tested indicate that an elevated mean breath acetone concentration exists in diabetic patients in general. Although many physiological parameters affect breath acetone concentrations, fast (<1 min) and on site breath acetone measurement can be used for diabetic screening and management under a specifically controlled condition.

  10. Prototype Device for Computerized Blood Sampling and Data Collection in Freely Moving Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collecting biofluid samples or physiological and behavioral data from animals presents challenges from excessive human intervention, and the stress of manual sampling. Our objective was to construct a device capable of protecting external leads and tubing used to facilitate automated sampling, dosin...

  11. A method to determine collection efficiency of particles by swipe sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkouteren, J. R.; Coleman, J. L.; Fletcher, R. A.; Smith, W. J.; Klouda, G. A.; Gillen, G.

    2008-11-01

    A methodology was developed to evaluate particle collection efficiencies from swipe sampling of trace residues. Swipe sampling is used for many applications where trace residues must be collected, including the evaluation of radioactive particle contamination and the analysis of explosives and contraband at screening checkpoints using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). Collection efficiencies were evaluated for micrometer-sized polystyrene latex (PSL) spheres with respect to the particle size and mode of deposition, collection trap, surface type and swiping force. Test surfaces containing particles were prepared under controlled conditions and swiped with a reproducible technique that allows for the evaluation of frictional forces. Collection efficiencies were determined by optical imaging and particle counting. Of the two IMS collection traps studied, the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) trap has significantly lower collection efficiencies. This is likely to be due to a combination of texture and composition. The larger (42 µm diameter) particles are collected more efficiently than the smaller (9 µm diameter) particles. Particles in a matrix similar to latent fingerprints are collected more efficiently than dry particles. Applying greater force during swiping does not greatly improve collection efficiencies. This fact, coupled with the observation that many particles are detached but not collected, implies that improvements in collection efficiency are dependent on improvements in adhesion of the particles to the collection surface, rather than larger forces to detach the particles.

  12. Pediatric blood sample collection from a pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheter.

    PubMed

    Braniff, Heather; DeCarlo, Ann; Haskamp, Amy Corey; Broome, Marion E

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to minimize pain in a hospitalized child, the purpose of this observational study was to describe characteristics of blood samples collected from pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters in pediatric patients. One hundred and fifty blood samples were reviewed for number of unusable samples requiring a specimen to be re-drawn. Success of the blood draw and prevalence of the loss of the PIV following blood collection was also measured. Findings included one clotted specimen, success rate of 91.3%, and 1.3% of PIVs becoming non-functional after collection. Obtaining blood specimens from a pre-existing PIV should be considered in a pediatric patient.

  13. Assembly for collecting samples for purposes of identification or analysis and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Cyril V [Knoxville, TN; Smith, Rob R [Knoxville, TN

    2010-02-02

    An assembly and an associated method for collecting a sample of material desired to be characterized with diagnostic equipment includes or utilizes an elongated member having a proximal end with which the assembly is manipulated by a user and a distal end. In addition, a collection tip which is capable of being placed into contact with the material to be characterized is supported upon the distal end. The collection tip includes a body of chemically-inert porous material for binding a sample of material when the tip is placed into contact with the material and thereby holds the sample of material for subsequent introduction to the diagnostic equipment.

  14. Personal exposure to volatile organic compounds. I. Direct measurements in breathing-zone air, drinking water, food, and exhaled breath

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, L.A.; Pellizzari, E.; Hartwell, T.; Rosenzweig, M.; Erickson, M.; Sparacino, C.; Zelon, H.

    1984-10-01

    A pilot study to test methods of estimating personal exposures to toxic substances and corresponding body burdens was carried out between July and December 1980. Individual exposures to about a dozen volatile organic compounds in air and drinking water were measured for volunteers in New Jersey and North Carolina. Breath samples were also collected from all subjects. About 230 personal air samples, 170 drinking water samples, 66 breath samples, and 4 food samples (16 composites) were analyzed for the target chemicals. Ten compounds were present in air and eight were transmitted mainly through that medium. Chloroform and bromodichloromethane were predominantly transmitted through water and beverages. Food appeared to be a miner route of exposure, except possibly for trichloroethylene in margarine. Seven compounds were present in more than half of the breath samples. Diurnal and seasonal variations were noted in air and water concentrations of some compounds. Some, but not all, of the potentially occupationally exposed individuals had significantly higher workplace exposures to several chemicals. Distributions of air exposures were closer to log normal than normal for most chemicals. Several chemicals were highly correlated with each other in personal air samples, indicating possible common sources of exposures. Compounds detected included benzene, chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, halogens and vinyl chloride.

  15. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... postures and exposure to environmental irritants. Pursed-Lip Breathing One focus of occupational therapy is to teach ... the accessory muscles and manage respiratory symptoms. Monitor Breathing During an activity, it is important to pause ...

  16. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    MedlinePlus

    Waking at night short of breath; Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Cor pulmonale Heart failure ... conditions that lead to it) Panic disorder Sleep apnea Snoring

  17. Mars Rover Sample Return: A sample collection and analysis strategy for exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, M. H.; Fischler, M.; Schwartz, D. E.; Rosenthal, Donald A.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Nedell, Susan S.; Gamble, E.; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1989-01-01

    For reasons defined elsewhere it is reasonable to search for biological signatures, both chemical and morphological, of extinct life on Mars. Life on Earth requries the presence of liquid water, therefore, it is important to explore sites on Mars where standing bodies of water may have once existed. Outcrops of layered deposits within the Valles Marineris appear to be ancient lake beds. Because the outcrops are well exposed, relatively shallow core samples would be very informative. The most important biological signature to detect would be organics, microfossils, or larger stromato-like structures, although the presence of cherts, carbonates, clays, and shales would be significant. In spite of the limitations of current robotics and pattern recognition, and the limitations of rover power, computation, Earth communication bandwidth, and time delays, a partial scenario was developed to implement such a scientific investigation. The rover instrumentation and the procedures and decisions and IR spectrometer are described in detail. Preliminary results from a collaborative effort are described, which indicate the rover will be able to autonomously detect stratification, and hence will ease the interpretation burden and lead to greater scientific productivity during the rover's lifetime.

  18. [Breath-analysis tests in gastroenetrological diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Caspary, W F

    1975-12-01

    The introduction of a simple method for analysis of 14CO2 in breath allowed a more widely application of breath-tests in the diagnosis of gastroenterological diseases. During a breath-test a 14C-labelled compound is administered orally and 14CO2 is subsequently measured in breath by discontinuous samplings of 14CO2 by virtue of a trapping solution (hyamine hydroxide). Most helpful tests in gastroenterology are the 14C-glycyl-cholate breath test for detecting increased deconjugation of bile acids due to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth or bile acid malabsorption in ileal resection or Crohn's disease of the ileum, the 14C-lactose breath test in lactase deficiency, whereas the 14C-tripalmitin test seems less helpful in the diagnosis of fat malabsorption. A 14C-aminopyrine breath test may turn out to be a simple and valuable liver function test. Oral loading tests with breath analysis of H2 have shown to be helpful in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, determination of intestinal transit time and intestinal gas production. Due to technical reasons (gas-chromatographie analysis) H2-breath analysis is still limited to research centers. Despite low radiation doses after oral administration of 14C-labelled compounds oral loading tests with H2- or 13C-analysis might be preferable in the future.

  19. The representativeness of pore water samples collected from the unsaturated zone using pressure-vacuum lysimeters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, C.A.; Healy, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Studies have indicated that the chemistry of water samples may be altered by the collection technique, creating concern about the representativeness of the pore water samples obtained. A study using soil water pressure-vacuum lysimeters in outwash sand and glacial till deposits demonstrates that for non-dilute-solution samples the effect of pH of sampling with lysimeters is minimal, and that measured major cation and anion concentrations are representative of the natural pore water; trace-metal concentrations can be significantly altered by collection procedures at low concentrations. -from Authors

  20. Vacuum hand pump apparatus for collecting water samples from a horizontal intragravel pipe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a lightweight, portable vacuum hand pump apparatus for use in collecting water samples from horizontal intragravel pipe samplers buried in the stream bottom. The apparatus is easily fabricated from relatively inexpensive materials available at many laboratory supply houses.

  1. 75 FR 79033 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records (Pertains to Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety...

  2. What Causes Bad Breath?

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? A A A en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  3. The Internet of Samples in the Earth Sciences: Providing Access to Uncurated Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, M. R.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    Vast amounts of physical samples have been collected in the Earth Sciences for studies that address a wide range of scientific questions. Only a fraction of these samples are well curated and preserved long-term in sample repositories and museums. Many samples and collections are stored in the offices and labs of investigators, or in basements and sheds of institutions and investigators' homes. These 'uncurated' collections often contain samples that have been well studied, or are unique and irreplaceable. They may also include samples that could reveal new insights if re-analyzed using new techniques, or specimens that could have unanticipated relevance to research being conducted in fields other than the one for which they were collected. Currently, these samples cannot be accessed or discovered online by the broader science community. Investigators and departments often lack the resources to properly catalog and curate the samples and respond to requests for splits. Long-term preservation of and access to these samples is usually not provided for. iSamplES, a recently-funded EarthCube Research Coordination Network (RCN), seeks to integrate scientific samples, including 'uncurated' samples, into digital data and information infrastructure in the Earth Sciences and to facilitate their curation, discovery, access, sharing, and analysis. The RCN seeks to develop and implement best practices that increase digital access to samples with the goal of establishing a comprehensive infrastructure not only for the digital, but also physical curation of samples. The RCN will engage a broad group of individuals from domain scientists to curators to publishers to computer scientists to define, articulate, and address the needs and challenges of digital sample management and recommend community-endorsed best practices and standards for registering, describing, identifying, and citing physical specimens, drawing upon other initiatives and existing or emerging software tools for

  4. Collecting Samples of Workplace Air. Module 8. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on collecting samples of workplace air. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) collecting information about…

  5. OSIRIS-REx Touch-and-Go (TAG) Mission Design for Asteroid Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Alexander; Sutter, Brian; Linn, Timothy; Bierhaus, Beau; Berry, Kevin; Mink, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in September 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid Bennu in October 2018. After several months of proximity operations to characterize the asteroid, OSIRIS-REx flies a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid's surface to collect at least 60 g of pristine regolith sample for Earth return. This paper provides mission and flight system overviews, with more details on the TAG mission design and key events that occur to safely and successfully collect the sample. An overview of the navigation performed relative to a chosen sample site, along with the maneuvers to reach the desired site is described. Safety monitoring during descent is performed with onboard sensors providing an option to abort, troubleshoot, and try again if necessary. Sample collection occurs using a collection device at the end of an articulating robotic arm during a brief five second contact period, while a constant force spring mechanism in the arm assists to rebound the spacecraft away from the surface. Finally, the sample is measured quantitatively utilizing the law of conservation of angular momentum, along with qualitative data from imagery of the sampling device. Upon sample mass verification, the arm places the sample into the Stardust-heritage Sample Return Capsule (SRC) for return to Earth in September 2023.

  6. Efficiency of Different Sampling Tools for Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Collections in Malaysian Streams

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Wan Mohd Hafezul Wan Abdul; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Hamid, Suhaila Abd; Al-Shami, Salman Abdo

    2016-01-01

    This study analyses the sampling performance of three benthic sampling tools commonly used to collect freshwater macroinvertebrates. Efficiency of qualitative D-frame and square aquatic nets were compared to a quantitative Surber sampler in tropical Malaysian streams. The abundance and diversity of macroinvertebrates collected using each tool evaluated along with their relative variations (RVs). Each tool was used to sample macroinvertebrates from three streams draining different areas: a vegetable farm, a tea plantation and a forest reserve. High macroinvertebrate diversities were recorded using the square net and Surber sampler at the forested stream site; however, very low species abundance was recorded by the Surber sampler. Relatively large variations in the Surber sampler collections (RVs of 36% and 28%) were observed for the vegetable farm and tea plantation streams, respectively. Of the three sampling methods, the square net was the most efficient, collecting a greater diversity of macroinvertebrate taxa and a greater number of specimens (i.e., abundance) overall, particularly from the vegetable farm and the tea plantation streams (RV<25%). Fewer square net sample passes (<8 samples) were sufficient to perform a biological assessment of water quality, but each sample required a slightly longer processing time (±20 min) compared with those gathered via the other samplers. In conclusion, all three apparatuses were suitable for macroinvertebrate collection in Malaysian streams and gathered assemblages that resulted in the determination of similar biological water quality classes using the Family Biotic Index (FBI) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). However, despite a slightly longer processing time, the square net was more efficient (lowest RV) at collecting samples and more suitable for the collection of macroinvertebrates from deep, fast flowing, wadeable streams with coarse substrates. PMID:27019685

  7. Adsorptive Films in Support of In-field UF6 Destructive Assay Sample Collection and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Christopher A.; Martinez, Alonzo; McNamara, Bruce K.; Cannon, Bret D.; Anheier, Norman C.

    2014-07-20

    International Atom Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguard verification measures in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) rely on environmental sampling, non-destructive assay (NDA), and destructive assay (DA) sampling and analysis to determine uranium enrichment. UF6 bias defect measurements are made by DA sampling and analysis to assure that enrichment is consistent with declarations. DA samples are collected from a limited number of cylinders for high precision, offsite mass spectrometer analysis. Samples are typically drawn from a sampling tap into a UF6 sample bottle, then packaged, sealed, and shipped under IAEA chain of custody to an offsite analytical laboratory. Future DA safeguard measures may require improvements in efficiency and effectiveness as GCEP capacities increase and UF6 shipping regulations become increasingly more restrictive. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) DA sampler concept and Laser Ablation Absorption Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) assay method are under development to potentially provide DA safeguard tools that increase inspection effectiveness and reduce sample shipping constraints. The PNNL DA sampler concept uses a handheld sampler to collect DA samples for either onsite LAARS assay or offsite laboratory analysis. The DA sampler design will use a small sampling planchet that is coated with an adsorptive film to collect controlled quantities of UF6 gas directly from a cylinder or process sampling tap. Development efforts are currently underway at PNNL to enhance LAARS assay performance to allow high-precision onsite bias defect measurements. In this paper, we report on the experimental investigation to develop adsorptive films for the PNNL DA sampler concept. These films are intended to efficiently capture UF6 and then stabilize the collected DA sample prior to onsite LAARS or offsite laboratory analysis. Several porous material composite films were investigated, including a film designed to maximize the chemical adsorption

  8. Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

    A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

  9. Collecting Comet Samples by ER-2 Aircraft: Cosmic Dust Collection During the Draconid Meteor Shower in October 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastien, Ron; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriquez, M.; Frank, D.; Gonzalez, C.; Robinson, G.-A.; Zolensky, M.; Brown, P.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Broce, S.; Kapitzke, M.; Moes, T.; Steel, D.; Williams, T.; Gearheart, D.

    2014-01-01

    Many tons of dust grains, including samples of asteroids and comets, fall from space into the Earth's atmosphere each day. NASA periodically collects some of these particles from the Earth's stratosphere using sticky collectors mounted on NASA's high-flying aircraft. Sometimes, especially when the Earth experiences a known meteor shower, a special opportunity is presented to associate cosmic dust particles with a known source. NASA JSC's Cosmic Dust Collection Program has made special attempts to collect dust from particular meteor showers and asteroid families when flights can be planned well in advance. However, it has rarely been possible to make collections on very short notice. In 2012, the Draconid meteor shower presented that opportunity. The Draconid meteor shower, originating from Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner, has produced both outbursts and storms several times during the last century, but the 2012 event was not predicted to be much of a show. Because of these predictions, the Cosmic Dust team had not targeted a stratospheric collection effort for the Draconids, despite the fact that they have one of the slowest atmospheric entry velocities (23 km/s) of any comet shower, and thus offer significant possibilities of successful dust capture. However, radar measurements obtained by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar during the 2012 Draconids shower indicated a meteor storm did occur October 8 with a peak at 16:38 (+/-5 min) UTC for a total duration of approximately 2 hours.

  10. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  11. Comparison of water-quality samples collected by siphon samplers and automatic samplers in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Steur, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    In small streams, flow and water-quality concentrations often change quickly in response to meteorological events. Hydrologists, field technicians, or locally hired stream ob- servers involved in water-data collection are often unable to reach streams quickly enough to observe or measure these rapid changes. Therefore, in hydrologic studies designed to describe changes in water quality, a combination of manual and automated sampling methods have commonly been used manual methods when flow is relatively stable and automated methods when flow is rapidly changing. Auto- mated sampling, which makes use of equipment programmed to collect samples in response to changes in stage and flow of a stream, has been shown to be an effective method of sampling to describe the rapid changes in water quality (Graczyk and others, 1993). Because of the high cost of automated sampling, however, especially for studies examining a large number of sites, alternative methods have been considered for collecting samples during rapidly changing stream conditions. One such method employs the siphon sampler (fig. 1). also referred to as the "single-stage sampler." Siphon samplers are inexpensive to build (about $25- $50 per sampler), operate, and maintain, so they are cost effective to use at a large number of sites. Their ability to collect samples representing the average quality of water passing though the entire cross section of a stream, however, has not been fully demonstrated for many types of stream sites.

  12. An instrument for collecting discrete large-volume water samples suitable for ecological studies of microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wommack, K. Eric; Williamson, Shannon J.; Sundbergh, Arthur; Helton, Rebekah R.; Glazer, Brian T.; Portune, Kevin; Craig Cary, S.

    2004-11-01

    Microbiological investigations utilizing molecular genetic approaches to characterize microbial communities can require large volume water samples, tens to hundreds of liters. The requirement for large volume samples can be especially challenging in deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments of the oceanic ridge system. By and large studies of these environments rely on deep submergence vehicles. However collection of large volume (>100 L) water samples adjacent to the benthos is not feasible due to weight considerations. To address the technical difficulty of collecting large volume water samples from hydrothermal diffuse flow environments, a semi-autonomous large-volume water sampler (LVWS) was designed. The LVWS is capable of reliably collecting and bringing to the surface 120 L water samples from diffuse flow environments. Microscopy, molecular genetic and chemical analyses of water samples taken from 9°N East Pacific Rise are shown to demonstrate the utility of the LVWS for studies of near-benthos environments. To our knowledge this is the first report of virioplankton abundance within diffuse-flow waters of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent environment. Because of its simple design and relatively low cost, the LVWS should be applicable to a variety of studies which require large-volume water samples collected immediately adjacent to the benthos.

  13. Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Stephen D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic algae (periphyton) and phytoplankton communities are characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. This multidisciplinary approach provides multiple lines of evidence for evaluating water-quality status and trends, and for refining an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. Water quality can be characterized by evaluating the results of qualitative and quantitative measurements of the algal community. Qualitative periphyton samples are collected to develop of list of taxa present in the sampling reach. Quantitative periphyton samples are collected to measure algal community structure within selected habitats. These samples of benthic algal communities are collected from natural substrates, using the sampling methods that are most appropriate for the habitat conditions. Phytoplankton samples may be collected in large nonwadeable streams and rivers to meet specific program objectives. Estimates of algal biomass (chlorophyll content and ash-free dry mass) also are optional measures that may be useful for interpreting water-quality conditions. A nationally consistent approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection, as well as information on methods and equipment for qualitative and quantitative sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data locally, regionally, and nationally.

  14. Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

  15. Episodic breathing in alligators: role of sensory feedback.

    PubMed

    Douse, M A; Mitchell, G S

    1992-01-01

    The episodic breathing pattern in many reptiles consists of two or more clustered breaths separated by variable non-ventilatory periods. This pattern is commonly postulated to result from oscillations in lung and/or blood PO2 or PCO2 via chemoreceptor feedback. We tested this hypothesis by monitoring breathing pattern in: (1) awake, undisturbed alligators and (2) sedated alligators (approx. 25 mg/kg pentobarbital, i.p.; 3 days prior to data collection). In sedated alligators, measurements were made: (1) before and after bilateral cervical vagotomy, a procedure that removes peripheral arterial chemoreceptors, CO2-sensitive intrapulmonary chemoreceptors and pulmonary stretch receptors (n = 6); and (2) during unidirectional ventilation (UDV) at high flow rates (greater than 2 L/min), thereby minimizing oscillations in lung and blood PO2 and PCO2 (n = 6). Measurements on sedated alligators were made at 30 and 20 degrees C in each of these conditions. In awake, undisturbed alligators, breathing was typically episodic with 2-7 breaths/cluster, although the pattern was easily altered (increased breaths/cluster) by even seemingly minor disturbances. In sedated alligators, episodic breathing was still evident after vagotomy, but only at increased inspired CO2; at 5% CO2 four of six alligators exhibited episodic breathing consisting of 2-3 breaths/cluster interspersed with occasional single breaths. An episodic breathing pattern was also evident during UDV; at low levels of CO2, 2-4 breaths/cluster interspersed with occasional single breaths were evident in four alligators, while two had 6-8 breaths/cluster. Increasing CO2 in the UDV gas stream generally increased the number of breaths/cluster. After vagotomy, all six alligators could manifest an episodic breathing pattern during UDV in at least one CO2 condition (greater than 2 breaths/cluster interspersed with occasional single breaths). The episodic breathing pattern was very labile, sometimes changing to single breaths

  16. Sample collection of virulent and non-virulent B. anthracis and Y. pestis for bioforensics analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hong-geller, Elizabeth; Valdez, Yolanda E; Shou, Yulin; Yoshida, Thomas M; Marrone, Babetta L; Dunbar, John

    2009-01-01

    Validated sample collection methods are needed for recovery of microbial evidence in the event of accidental or intentional release of biological agents into the environment. To address this need, we evaluated the sample recovery efficiencies of two collection methods -- swabs and wipes -- for both non-virulent and virulent strains of B. anthracis and Y. pestis from four types of non-porous surfaces: two hydrophilic surfaces, stainless steel and glass, and two hydrophobic surfaces, vinyl and plastic. Sample recovery was quantified using Real-time qPCR to assay for intact DNA signatures. We found no consistent difference in collection efficiency between swabs or wipes. Furthermore, collection efficiency was more surface-dependent for virulent strains than non-virulent strains. For the two non-virulent strains, B. anthracis Sterne and Y. pestis A1122, collection efficiency was approximately 100% and 1 %, respectively, from all four surfaces. In contrast, recovery of B. anthracis Ames spores and Y. pestis C092 from vinyl and plastic was generally lower compared to collection from glass or stainless steel, suggesting that surface hydrophobicity may playa role in the strength of pathogen adhesion. The surface-dependent collection efficiencies observed with the virulent strains may arise from strain-specific expression of capsular material or other cell surface receptors that alter cell adhesion to specific surfaces. These findings contribute to validation of standard bioforensics procedures and emphasize the importance of specific strain and surface interactions in pathogen detection.

  17. The Importance of Meteorite Collections to Sample Return Missions: Past, Present, and Future Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welzenbach, L. C.; McCoy, T. J.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Abell, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    While much of the scientific community s current attention is drawn to sample return missions, it is the existing meteorite and cosmic dust collections that both provide the paradigms to be tested by these missions and the context for interpreting the results. Recent sample returns from the Stardust and Hayabusa missions provided us with new materials and insights about our Solar System history and processes. As an example, Stardust sampled CAIs among the population of cometary grains, requiring extensive and unexpected radial mixing in the early solar nebula. This finding would not have been possible, however, without extensive studies of meteoritic CAIs that established their high-temperature, inner Solar System formation. Samples returned by Stardust also revealed the first evidence of a cometary amino acid, a discovery that would not have been possible with current in situ flight instrument technology. The Hayabusa mission provided the final evidence linking ordinary chondrites and S asteroids, a hypothesis that developed from centuries of collection and laboratory and ground-based telescopic studies. In addition to these scientific findings, studies of existing meteorite collections have defined and refined the analytical techniques essential to studying returned samples. As an example, the fortuitous fall of the Allende CV3 and Murchison CM2 chondrites within months before the return of Apollo samples allowed testing of new state-of-the-art analytical facilities. The results of those studies not only prepared us to better study lunar materials, but unanticipated discoveries changed many of our concepts about the earliest history and processes of the solar nebula. This synergy between existing collections and future space exploration is certainly not limited to sample return missions. Laboratory studies confirmed the existence of meteorites from Mars and raised the provocative possibility of preservation of ancient microbial life. The laboratory studies in

  18. Sample Collection of Ash and Burned Soils from the October 2007 Southern California Wildfires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Martin, Deborah A.; Rochester, Carlton; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Mendez, Greg; Reichard, Eric G.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2009-01-01

    Between November 2 through 9, 2007 scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected samples of ash and burned soils from 28 sites in six areas burned as a result of the Southern California wildfires of October 2007, including the Harris, Witch, Santiago, Ammo, Canyon, and Grass Valley Fires. The primary goal of this sampling and analysis effort was to understand how differences in ash and burned soil composition relate to vegetation type, underlying bedrock geology, burn intensity, and residential versus wildland. Sampling sites were chosen with the input of local experts from the USGS Water Resources and Biological Resources Disciplines to help understand possible effects of the fires on water supplies, ecosystems, and endangered species. The sampling was also carried out in conjunction with detailed field analysis of the spectral reflectance characteristics of the ash, so that chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the field samples could be used to help interpret data collected as part of an airborne, hyperspectral remote-sensing survey of several of the burned areas in mid-late November, 2007. This report presents an overview of the field sampling methodologies used to collect the samples, includes representative photos of the sites sampled, and summarizes important characteristics of each of the collection sites. In this report we use the term 'ash' to refer collectively to white mineral ash, which results from full combustion of vegetation and black charred organic matter from partial combustion of vegetation or other materials. These materials were found to be intermingled as a deposited residue on the soil surface following the Southern California fires of 2007.

  19. Macroinvertebrate community sample collection methods and data collected from Sand Creek and Medano Creek, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado, 2005–07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, Morgan A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Walters, David M.; Bruce, James F.

    2016-08-11

    This report provides a table of site descriptions, sample information, and semiquantitative aquatic macroinvertebrate data from 105 samples collected between 2005 and 2007 from 7 stream sites within the Sand Creek and Medano Creek watersheds in Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Saguache County, Colorado. Additionally, a short description of sample collection methods and laboratory sample processing procedures is presented. These data were collected in anticipation of assessing the potential effects of fish toxicants on macroinvertebrates.

  20. sup 14 C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S.J.; Tytgat, K.M.; Hollingsworth, J.; Jalali, S.; Rshid, F.A.; Bowen, B.M.; Goldie, J.; Goodacre, R.L.; Riddell, R.H.; Hunt, R.H. )

    1990-04-01

    The high urease activity of Helicobacter pylori can be used to detect this bacterium by noninvasive breath tests. We have developed a {sup 14}C-urea breath test which uses 5 microCi {sup 14}C with 50 mg nonradioactive urea. Breath samples are collected at baseline and every 30 min for 2 h. Our study compared the outcome of the breath test to the results of histology and culture of endoscopically obtained gastric biopsies in 84 patients. The breath test discriminated well between the 50 positive patients and the 34 patients negative for Helicobacter pylori: the calculated sensitivity was 100%, specificity 88%, positive predictive value 93%, and negative predictive value 100%. Treatment with bismuth subsalicylate and/or ampicillin resulted in lower counts of exhaled {sup 14}CO{sub 2} which correlated with histological improvement in gastritis. The {sup 14}C-urea breath test is a better gold standard for the detection of Helicobacter pylori than histology and/or culture.

  1. Extra intestinal influences on exhaled breath hydrogen measurements during the investigation of gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D G; Binfield, P; De Belder, A; O'Brien, J; Warren, S; Wilson, M

    1985-12-01

    During the clinical investigation of patients with gastrointestinal disease by exhaled breath hydrogen measurement, the occurrence of inexplicable variations in recorded hydrogen values led to a search for extra intestinal factors which were capable of adversely influencing breath hydrogen concentration and impairing the diagnostic accuracy of the test. Serial breath samples were collected from normal subjects under a variety of conditions which might occur during routine clinical study, including, hyperventilation, exercise, cigarette smoking, and carbohydrate ingestion. Breath hydrogen concentrations were consistently reduced by hyperventilation (p less than 0.01) and exercise (p less than 0.05). Cigarette smoking, in contrast, caused a marked rise in measured breath hydrogen (p less than 0.01), as did oral carbohydrate (p less than 0.05). Prior bactericidal mouthwash abolished this carbohydrate associated rise, suggesting that the hydrogen was the result of fermentation by oropharyngeal bacteria. Because, in all instances, the changes in breath hydrogen were of sufficient magnitude to interfere with data interpretation, it is recommended that these factors are eliminated, whenever possible, from conditions of study.

  2. New method for determination of trihalomethanes in exhaled breath: applications to swimming pool and bath environments.

    PubMed

    Lourencetti, Carolina; Ballester, Clara; Fernández, Pilar; Marco, Esther; Prado, Celia; Periago, Juan F; Grimalt, Joan O

    2010-03-03

    A method for the estimation of the human intake of trihalomethanes (THMs), namely chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform, during showering and bathing is reported. The method is based on the determination of these compounds in exhaled breath that is collected by solid adsorption on Tenax using a device specifically designed for this purpose. Instrumental measurements were performed by automatic thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detection. THMs in exhaled breath samples were determined during showering and swimming pool attendance. The levels of these compounds in indoor air and water were also determined as reference for interpretation of the exhaled breath results. The THM concentrations in exhaled breath of the volunteers measured before the exposure experiments showed a close correspondence with the THMs levels in indoor air where the sampler was located. Limits of detection in exhaled breath were dependent on THM analytes and experimental sites. They ranged between 170 and 710 ng m(-3) in the swimming pool studies and between 97 and 460 ng m(-3) in the showering studies. Application of this method to THMs determination during showering and swimming pool activities revealed statistically significant increases in THMs concentrations when comparing exhaled breath before and after exposure.

  3. Multi-element composition of historical lichen collections and bark samples, indicators of changing atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, O. W.; Chimonides, P. D. J.; Jeffries, T. E.; Jones, G. C.; Rusu, A.-M.; Read, H.

    Thirty six element signatures were compared in historical Parmelia sulcata samples from the Natural History Museum herbarium collected over the period 1797-1967 with those recorded in the same species and tree bark sampled in 2000 from Burnham Beeches, lying 40 km west of London. Nineteen elements reached highest concentrations in herbarium samples, consistent with a pollution legacy and dust contamination in the herbarium. Healthy Parmelia sampled east and down-wind of London at a farm during peak SO 2 emissions in 1967 contained highest V, Ni, Zn, Cd, Se, Ge contents, supporting derivation from fuel combustion; the same sample was previously determined as having a low δ34S and high S and N contents. Lowest V, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, Ba, Pb, Mo, Sb, Li, B, Cs, U, Th, Ga contents were recorded in a sample with a high δ34S and low S content collected in 1887 from a remote region from Ross-shire, Scotland. Se and Cd enrichment, never-the-less suggest a transboundary pollution influence. Lichen Pb concentrations from Burnham Beeches were amongst the lowest recorded in spite of lichens being collected close to roads. Herbarium samples help interpret changes in element deposition where few data exist, in spite of dust contamination.

  4. Water column and bed-sediment core samples collected from Brownlee Reservoir near Oxbow, Oregon, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fosness, Ryan L.; Naymik, Jesse; Hopkins, Candice B.; DeWild, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Idaho Power Company, collected water-column and bed-sediment core samples from eight sites in Brownlee Reservoir near Oxbow, Oregon, during May 5–7, 2012. Water-column and bed-sediment core samples were collected at each of the eight sites and analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury. Additional bed-sediment core samples, collected from three of the eight sites, were analyzed for pesticides and other organic compounds, trace metals, and physical characteristics, such as particle size. Total mercury and methylmercury were detected in each of the water column and bed-sediment core samples. Only 17 of the 417 unique pesticide and organic compounds were detected in bed-sediment core samples. Concentrations of most organic wastewater compounds detected in bed sediment were less than the reporting level. Trace metals detected were greater than the reporting level in all the bed-sediment core samples submitted for analysis. The particle size distribution of bed-sediment core samples was predominantly clay mixed with silt.

  5. Archival policies and collections database for the Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buczkowski, Brian J.; Kelsey, Sarah A.

    2007-01-01

    The Woods Hole Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for over 40 years. In that time there have been many projects that involved the collection of sediment samples conducted by USGS scientists and technicians for the research and study of seabed environments and processes. These samples were collected at sea or near shore and then brought back to the Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) for analysis. While at the center, samples are stored in ambient temperature, refrigerated and freezing conditions ranging from +2º Celsius to -18º Celsius, depending on the best mode of preparation for the study being conducted or the duration of storage planned for the samples. Recently, storage methods and available storage space have become a major concern at the WHSC. The core and sediment archive program described herein has been initiated to set standards for the management, methods, and duration of sample storage. A need has arisen to maintain organizational consistency and define storage protocol. This handbook serves as a reference and guide to all parties interested in using and accessing the WHSC's sample archive and also defines all the steps necessary to construct and maintain an organized collection of geological samples. It answers many questions as to the way in which the archive functions.

  6. Breathing metabolic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a breathing metabolic simulator (BMS) is reported. This BMS simulates all of the breathing and metabolic parameters required for complete evaluation and test of life support and resuscitation equipment. It is also useful for calibrating and validating mechanical and gaseous pulmonary function test procedures. Breathing rate, breathing depth, breath velocity contour, oxygen uptake, and carbon dioxide release are all variable over wide ranges simulating conditions from sleep to hard work with respiratory exchange ratios covering the range from hypoventilation. In addition, all of these parameters are remotely controllable to facilitate use of the device in hostile or remote environments. The exhaled breath is also maintained at body temperature and a high humidity. The simulation is accurate to the extent of having a variable functional residual capacity independent of other parameters.

  7. Investigation of reflectance sampling depth in biological tissues for various common illumination/collection configurations.

    PubMed

    Zonios, George

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of light penetration characteristics is very important in almost all studies in biomedical optics. In this work, the reflectance sampling depth in biological tissues was investigated using Monte Carlo simulations for various common illumination/collection configurations. The analysis shows that the average sampling depth can be described by two simple empirical analytical expressions over the entire typical ranges of absorption and scattering properties relevant to in vivo biological tissue, regardless of the specific illumination/collection configuration details. These results are promising and helpful for the quick, efficient, and accurate design of reflectance studies for various biological tissue applications.

  8. Satisfaction survey with DNA cards method to collect genetic samples for pharmacogenetics studies

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Taboada, Jose M; Cucala, Mercedes; Mas Herrero, Sergio; Lafuente, Amalia; Cobos, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetic studies are essential in understanding the interindividual variability of drug responses. DNA sample collection for genotyping is a critical step in genetic studies. A method using dried blood samples from finger-puncture, collected on DNA-cards, has been described as an alternative to the usual venepuncture technique. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the implementation of the DNA cards method in a multicentre clinical trial, and to assess the degree of investigators' satisfaction and the acceptance of the patients perceived by the investigators. Methods Blood samples were collected on DNA-cards. The quality and quantity of DNA recovered were analyzed. Investigators were questioned regarding their general interest, previous experience, safety issues, preferences and perceived patient satisfaction. Results 151 patients' blood samples were collected. Genotyping of GST polymorphisms was achieved in all samples (100%). 28 investigators completed the survey. Investigators perceived patient satisfaction as very good (60.7%) or good (39.3%), without reluctance to finger puncture. Investigators preferred this method, which was considered safer and better than the usual methods. All investigators would recommend using it in future genetic studies. Conclusion Within the clinical trial setting, the DNA-cards method was very well accepted by investigators and patients (in perception of investigators), and was preferred to conventional methods due to its ease of use and safety. PMID:16681846

  9. Carbon monoxide in breath in relation to smoking and carboxyhaemoglobin levels.

    PubMed

    Wald, N J; Idle, M; Boreham, J; Bailey, A

    1981-05-01

    Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels were studied in 11 249 men. The distribution among the 2613 men who smoked cigarettes was well separated from that in 6641 non-smokers (including ex-smokers). The distribution for 2005 cigar and pipe smokers was intermediate, though some of the highest COHb levels occurred in cigar smokers. Using a COHb cut-off level of 2%, 81% of cigarette smokers, 35% of cigar and pipe smokers, and 1.0% of non-smokers had raised COHb levels. In a subsidiary experiment alveolar air samples were collected from 162 smokers and 25 non-smokers using a simple breath sampling technique. Carbon monoxide concentrations in alveolar breath were highly correlated with COHb levels (r = 0.97) indicating that COHb levels can be estimated reliably by measuring the concentration of carbon monoxide in breath. Alveolar carbon monoxide measurement is thus a simple method of estimating whether a person is likely to be a smoker.

  10. Application of bar codes to the automation of analytical sample data collection

    SciTech Connect

    Jurgensen, H A

    1986-01-01

    The Health Protection Department at the Savannah River Plant collects 500 urine samples per day for tritium analyses. Prior to automation, all sample information was compiled manually. Bar code technology was chosen for automating this program because it provides a more accurate, efficient, and inexpensive method for data entry. The system has three major functions: sample labeling is accomplished at remote bar code label stations composed of an Intermec 8220 (Intermec Corp.) interfaced to an IBM-PC, data collection is done on a central VAX 11/730 (Digital Equipment Corp.). Bar code readers are used to log-in samples to be analyzed on liquid scintillation counters. The VAX 11/730 processes the data and generates reports, data storage is on the VAX 11/730 and backed up on the plant's central computer. A brief description of several other bar code applications at the Savannah River Plant is also presented.

  11. Collection of a Lifetime: A Practical Approach to Developing a Longitudinal Collection of Women’s Healthcare Biological Samples

    PubMed Central

    Santillan, Mark K.; Leslie, Kimberly K.; Hamilton, Wendy S.; Boese, Brenda J.; Ahuja, Monika; Hunter, Stephen K.; Santillan, Donna A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective is to develop a biorepository of samples that represent all stages of a women’s life. Importantly, our goal is to collect longitudinal physical specimens as well as the associated short and long-term clinical information. Study Design The Women’s Health Tissue Repository was established to encompass four tissue banks: Well Women Tissue Bank, Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility Tissue Bank, Maternal Fetal Tissue Bank, and the long-established Gynecologic Malignancies Tissue Bank. Based on their health status, women being seen in Women’s Health at the University of Iowa are recruited to contribute samples and grant access to their electronic medical record to the biorepository. Samples are coded, processed, and stored for use by investigators. Results The Maternal Fetal Tissue Bank was the first expansion of our department’s biobanking efforts. Approximately 75% of the women approached consent to participate in the Maternal Fetal Tissue Bank. Enrollment has steadily increased. Samples have been used for over 20 projects in the first 3 years and are critical to 7 funded grants and 3 patent applications. Conclusion Patient samples with corresponding clinical data are initially important to women’s health research. Our model demonstrates that many research projects by faculty, fellows, and residents have benefited from the existence of the Women’s Health Tissue Repository. While challenging to achieve, longitudinal sampling allows for the greatest opportunity to study normal and pathological changes throughout all phases of a women’s life, including pregnancy. This bank facilitates and accelerates the development of novel research, technologies, and possible therapeutic options in women’s health. The establishment of more longitudinal biorepositories based on our model would enhance women’s health research. PMID:24965987

  12. An unmanned mission to Mars with sample collection and in-situ resource utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    The design for the Mars Analysis and Return Vehicle with In-Situ Resource Utilization (MARVIN) project is outlined. The MARVIN mission is designed to collect samples of the Martian environment; to produce fuel from local Martian resources; and to use the fuel produced to return the samples to earth. It uses only existing technologies. Exploratory Technologies' mission-design efforts have focused on methods of orbit determination, sample collection, fuel production, power, communications, control, and structural design. Lambert Targeting provided Delta-V's, launch dates, and travel times. The landing site is the Tharsis Plateau, to the southeast of Olympus Mons, chosen for its substantial scientific value. Samples of soil, dust, and atmosphere are collected with lander-based collection devices: the soil sample, with a robotic arm similar to those used in the Viking missions; the atmospheric sample, from a bleed line to the compressor in the fuel-production facility; a dust sample, from the dust-collection container in the fuel-production facility; and a redundant dust sample, with a with a passive filter system, which relies upon neither a power source nor other collection methods. The sample-return capsule (SRC) houses these samples, which are triply contained to prevent contamination. Proven technology can be used to produce methane and oxygen for fuel with relative ease at the landing site: the Sabatier reactor produces methane and water by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen (brought from earth); the Reverse Water-Gas Shift unit combines carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form carbon monoxide and water; a water-electrolysis unit splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Mars-lander vehicle (MLV) transports the equipment from earth to Mars. The Mars-ascent vehicle (MAV) contains the SRC and the engine, which is the same for both the MLV and the MAV. All equipment that is unnecessary for the Mars-Earth trajectory remains on Mars. This report presents detailed

  13. An unmanned mission to Mars with sample collection and in-situ resource utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The design for the Mars Analysis and Return Vehicle with In-Situ Resource Utilization (MARVIN) project is outlined. The MARVIN mission is designed to collect samples of the Martian environment; to produce fuel from local Martian resources; and to use the fuel produced to return the samples to earth. It uses only existing technologies. Exploratory Technologies' mission-design efforts have focused on methods of orbit determination, sample collection, fuel production, power, communications, control, and structural design. Lambert Targeting provided Delta-V's, launch dates, and travel times. The landing site is the Tharsis Plateau, to the southeast of Olympus Mons, chosen for its substantial scientific value. Samples of soil, dust, and atmosphere are collected with lander-based collection devices: the soil sample, with a robotic arm similar to those used in the Viking missions; the atmospheric sample, from a bleed line to the compressor in the fuel-production facility; a dust sample, from the dust-collection container in the fuel-production facility; and a redundant dust sample, with a with a passive filter system, which relies upon neither a power source nor other collection methods. The sample-return capsule (SRC) houses these samples, which are triply contained to prevent contamination. Proven technology can be used to produce methane and oxygen for fuel with relative ease at the landing site: the Sabatier reactor produces methane and water by combining carbon dioxide and hydrogen (brought from earth); the Reverse Water-Gas Shift unit combines carbon dioxide and hydrogen to form carbon monoxide and water; a water-electrolysis unit splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Mars-lander vehicle (MLV) transports the equipment from earth to Mars. The Mars-ascent vehicle (MAV) contains the SRC and the engine, which is the same for both the MLV and the MAV. All equipment that is unnecessary for the Mars-Earth trajectory remains on Mars. This report presents detailed

  14. Contamination Knowledge Strategy for the Mars 2020 Sample-Collecting Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, K. A.; Williford, K.; Beaty, D W.; McSween, H. Y.; Czaja, A. D.; Goreva, Y. S.; Hausrath, E.; Herd, C. D. K.; Humayun, M.; McCubbin, F. M.; McLennan, S. M.; Pratt, L. M.; Sephton, M. A.; Steele, A.; Weiss, B. P.; Hays, L. E.

    2017-01-01

    The Mars 2020 rover will collect carefully selected samples of rock and regolith as it explores a potentially habitable ancient environment on Mars. Using the drill, rock cores and regolith will be collected directly into ultraclean sample tubes that are hermetically sealed and, later, deposited on the surface of Mars for potential return to Earth by a subsequent mission. Thorough characterization of any contamination of the samples at the time of their analysis will be essential for achieving the objectives of Mars returned sample science (RSS). We refer to this characterization as contamination knowledge (CK), which is distinct from contamination control (CC). CC is the set of activities that limits the input of contaminating species into a sample, and is specified by requirement thresholds. CK consists of identifying and characterizing both potential and realized contamination to better inform scientific investigations of the returned samples. Based on lessons learned by other sample return missions with contamination-sensitive scientific objectives, CC needs to be "owned" by engineering, but CK needs to be "owned" by science. Contamination present at the time of sample analysis will reflect the sum of contributions from all contamination vectors up to that point in time. For this reason, understanding the integrated history of contamination may be crucial for deciphering potentially confusing contaminant-sensitive observations. Thus, CK collected during the Mars sample return (MSR) campaign must cover the time period from the initiation of hardware construction through analysis of returned samples in labs on Earth. Because of the disciplinary breadth of the scientific objectives of MSR, CK must include a broad spectrum of contaminants covering inorganic (i.e., major, minor, and trace elements), organic, and biological molecules and materials.

  15. Sources of variability in collection and preparation of paint and lead-coating samples.

    PubMed

    Harper, S L; Gutknecht, W F

    2001-06-01

    Chronic exposure of children to lead (Pb) can result in permanent physiological impairment. Since surfaces coated with lead-containing paints and varnishes are potential sources of exposure, it is extremely important that reliable methods for sampling and analysis be available. The sources of variability in the collection and preparation of samples were investigated to improve the performance and comparability of methods and to ensure that data generated will be adequate for its intended use. Paint samples of varying sizes (areas and masses) were collected at different locations across a variety of surfaces including metal, plaster, concrete, and wood. A variety of grinding techniques were compared. Manual mortar and pestle grinding for at least 1.5 min and mechanized grinding techniques were found to generate similar homogenous particle size distributions required for aliquots as small as 0.10 g. When 342 samples were evaluated for sample weight loss during mortar and pestle grinding, 4% had 20% or greater loss with a high of 41%. Homogenization and sub-sampling steps were found to be the principal sources of variability related to the size of the sample collected. Analysis of samples from different locations on apparently identical surfaces were found to vary by more than a factor of two both in Pb concentration (mg cm-2 or %) and areal coating density (g cm-2). Analyses of substrates were performed to determine the Pb remaining after coating removal. Levels as high as 1% Pb were found in some substrate samples, corresponding to more than 35 mg cm-2 Pb. In conclusion, these sources of variability must be considered in development and/or application of any sampling and analysis methodologies.

  16. Sucrose malabsorption in children: noninvasive diagnosis by interval breath hydrogen determination.

    PubMed

    Perman, J A; Barr, R G; Watkins, J B

    1978-07-01

    To assess whether malabsorption of specific sugars is easily detected in a pediatric population by interval measurement of breath hydrogen excretion, hydrogen concentration was determined following administration of oral sucrose to six sucrose-intolerant children with congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency and in 16 sucrose-tolerant control subjects. Breath samples were collected by means of a newly devised nasal prong technique not requiring active patient cooperation and suitable for use in all age groups. Breath hydrogen concentrations obtained by samples collected by this method correlated highly (r = 0.94) with the previously validated modified Haldane-Priestley tube method for sampling alveolar air. Identification of sucrose-intolerant individuals was achieved on the basis of hydrogen excretion: peak values, expressed as parts per million above baseline (deltappm), equalled 114 +/- 63 (mean +/- SD) versus 2.4 +/- 3.6 deltappm in control subjects (P = 0.007). Best discrimination between the groups occurred at 90 minutes postingestion. The findings validate this simple method for collection of expired air and demonstrate that breath hydrogen determination permits the noninvasive detection of sucrose malabsorption in children.

  17. The Autism Simplex Collection: an international, expertly phenotyped autism sample for genetic and phenotypic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for expanding and enhancing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) samples, in order to better understand causes of ASD. Methods In a unique public-private partnership, 13 sites with extensive experience in both the assessment and diagnosis of ASD embarked on an ambitious, 2-year program to collect samples for genetic and phenotypic research and begin analyses on these samples. The program was called The Autism Simplex Collection (TASC). TASC sample collection began in 2008 and was completed in 2010, and included nine sites from North America and four sites from Western Europe, as well as a centralized Data Coordinating Center. Results Over 1,700 trios are part of this collection, with DNA from transformed cells now available through the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) measures are available for all probands, as are standardized IQ measures, Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales (VABS), the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and physical measures (height, weight, and head circumference). At almost every site, additional phenotypic measures were collected, including the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) and Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), as well as the non-word repetition scale, Communication Checklist (Children’s or Adult), and Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). Moreover, for nearly 1,000 trios, the Autism Genome Project Consortium (AGP) has carried out Illumina 1 M SNP genotyping and called copy number variation (CNV) in the samples, with data being made available through the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Whole exome sequencing (WES) has been carried out in over 500 probands, together with ancestry matched controls, and this data is also available through the NIH. Additional WES is being carried out by the Autism Sequencing Consortium (ASC), where the

  18. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. L.; Mavris, C.; Michalski, J. R.; Rumsey, M. S.; Russell, S. S.; Jones, C.; Schroeven-Deceuninck, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Natural History Museum is working closely with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency to develop a European collection of analogue materials with appropriate physical/mechanical and chemical (mineralogical) properties which can support the development and verification of both spacecraft and scientific systems for potential science and exploration missions to Phobos/Deimos, Mars, C-type asteroids and the Moon. As an ESA Collection it will be housed at the ESA Centre based at Harwell, UK. The "ESA Sample Analogues Collection" will be composed of both natural and artificial materials chosen to (as closely as possible) replicate the surfaces and near-surfaces of different Solar System target bodies of exploration interest. The analogue samples will be fully characterised in terms of both their physical/mechanical properties (compressive strength, bulk density, grain shape, grain size, cohesion and angle of internal friction) and their chemical/mineralogical properties (texture, modal mineralogy, bulk chemical composition - major, minor and trace elements and individual mineralogical compositions). The Collection will be fully curated to international standards including implementation of a user-friendly database and will be available for use by engineers and scientists across the UK and Europe. Enhancement of the initial Collection will be possible through collaborations with other ESA and UK Space Agency supported activities, such as the acquisition of new samples during field trials.

  19. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Sutcliffe, C. N.; Ballentine, C. J.; Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C. Y. M.; Magnabosco, C.; Slater, G.; Moser, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Natural History Museum is working closely with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency to develop a European collection of analogue materials with appropriate physical/mechanical and chemical (mineralogical) properties which can support the development and verification of both spacecraft and scientific systems for potential science and exploration missions to Phobos/Deimos, Mars, C-type asteroids and the Moon. As an ESA Collection it will be housed at the ESA Centre based at Harwell, UK. The "ESA Sample Analogues Collection" will be composed of both natural and artificial materials chosen to (as closely as possible) replicate the surfaces and near-surfaces of different Solar System target bodies of exploration interest. The analogue samples will be fully characterised in terms of both their physical/mechanical properties (compressive strength, bulk density, grain shape, grain size, cohesion and angle of internal friction) and their chemical/mineralogical properties (texture, modal mineralogy, bulk chemical composition - major, minor and trace elements and individual mineralogical compositions). The Collection will be fully curated to international standards including implementation of a user-friendly database and will be available for use by engineers and scientists across the UK and Europe. Enhancement of the initial Collection will be possible through collaborations with other ESA and UK Space Agency supported activities, such as the acquisition of new samples during field trials.

  20. College Students' Perceptions of Collective Efficacy: Results from a Nonurban Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domoff, Sarah E.; Hayman, Jennifer; Tompsett, Carolyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and collective efficacy is well established in urban populations with community samples, it is unclear if this relationship holds in rural areas. The current study fills this gap by assessing the perceptions of adolescents from nonurban areas to examine the relationships between…

  1. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN USING GAUZE FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to te...

  2. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN USING COTTON GAUZE FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure, urine samples are often needed to analyze pesticide metabolites. However, this is difficult for children wearing diapers because simple and feasible techniques suitable for field collection are not available. The objectives of this study were to t...

  3. The GENESIS Mission Solar Wind Samples: Collection Times, Estimated Fluences, and Solar-Wind Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisenfeld, D. B.; Wiens, R. C.; Barraclough, B. L.; Steinberg, J. E.; Dekoning, C.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2005-03-01

    We have correlated the GENESIS sample collection times for the different solar-wind regimes with compositional data from GENESIS/GIM and ACE/SWICS instruments. We discuss GENESIS regime selection and new results in solar-wind elemental fractionation.

  4. Astronauts Young and Duke collect rock samples along simulated lunar traverse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronauts John W. Young, left, prime crew commander for Apollo 16, and Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, collect rock samples along a simulated lunar traverse route in the Coso Hills, near Ridgecrest, California. Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, right background, prime crew commander for Apollo 17, looks on. The astronauts trained at the U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station.

  5. 77 FR 51818 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Application and Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ..., Office of Management and Budget. Comments should be addressed to the OMB Desk Officer for U.S. Customs... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities; Application and Approval To Manipulate, Examine, Sample, or Transfer Goods AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...

  6. Collecting Stream Samples for Water Quality. Module 16. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on collecting stream samples for water quality. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) using a job aid to…

  7. 21 CFR 111.80 - What representative samples must you collect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What representative samples must you collect? 111.80 Section 111.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN...

  8. Collective Socialization and Child Conduct Problems: A Multilevel Analysis with an African American Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Conger, Rand D.; Brody, Gene H.

    2004-01-01

    This article uses hierarchical linear modeling with a sample of African American children and their primary caregivers to examine the association between various community factors and child conduct problems. The analysis revealed a rather strong inverse association between level of collective socialization and conduct problems. This relationship…

  9. 78 FR 25308 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Safety and Health Administration Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Coal Mine Dust Sampling Devices...) determine the concentration of respirable dust in coal mines. CPDMs must be designed and constructed for coal miners to wear and operate without impeding their ability to perform their work safely...

  10. Use of aspiration method for collecting brain samples for rabies diagnosis in small wild animals.

    PubMed

    Iamamoto, K; Quadros, J; Queiroz, L H

    2011-02-01

    In developing countries such as Brazil, where canine rabies is still a considerable problem, samples from wildlife species are infrequently collected and submitted for screening for rabies. A collaborative study was established involving environmental biologists and veterinarians for rabies epidemiological research in a specific ecological area located at the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The wild animals' brains are required to be collected without skull damage because the skull's measurements are important in the identification of the captured animal species. For this purpose, samples from bats and small mammals were collected using an aspiration method by inserting a plastic pipette into the brain through the magnum foramen. While there is a progressive increase in the use of the plastic pipette technique in various studies undertaken, it is also appreciated that this method could foster collaborative research between wildlife scientists and rabies epidemiologists thus improving rabies surveillance.

  11. Prospective Collection of Tissue Samples at Autopsy in Children with Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Broniscer, Alberto; Baker, Justin N.; Baker, Suzanne J.; Chi, Susan N.; Geyer, J. Russell; Morris, E. Brannon; Gajjar, Amar

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brain tissue obtained at autopsy has been used in research for non-oncological disorders. However, this tool has never been systematically used in large investigational studies for cancer. We conducted a prospective, multicenter study to assess the feasibility of tissue collection at autopsy and its suitability for molecular analyses in children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. METHODS Tumor tissue was collected at diagnosis, if clinically indicated, or at autopsy. Normal brain tissue was also collected at autopsy. The integrity of DNA and RNA was evaluated in all samples. Logistical data about autopsies were recorded. The feasibility of tissue collection at autopsy was assessed for patients treated at a single institution over a 43-month period. RESULTS Tumor samples were collected at diagnosis (n=3) or at autopsy (n=38) at 29 centers across the US; samples were obtained at diagnosis and autopsy in two cases. The median interval from death to autopsy was 7.7 hours. DNA and RNA with minimal or partial degradation, which were suitable for genome-wide analysis, were obtained from 100% and 63% of tumor samples, respectively. At the coordinating institution, approximately 40% of parents consented to autopsy and 40% declined. During the study period, 12 autopsies were obtained from patients who did not receive therapy at the coordinating center. CONCLUSIONS Multicenter, biological studies based on tissue obtained at autopsy are feasible in children with brain cancer. Our experience established a new paradigm for brain tissue collection which may increase the potential for research studies in patients with cancer. PMID:20589749

  12. Salmonella Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Among Dairy Farm Environmental Samples Collected in Texas.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Rivera, Lorraine D; Cummings, Kevin J; Loneragan, Guy H; Rankin, Shelley C; Hanson, Devin L; Leone, William M; Edrington, Thomas S

    2016-04-01

    Dairy cattle are a reservoir of several Salmonella serovars that are leading causes of human salmonellosis. The objectives of this study were to estimate the environmental prevalence of Salmonella on dairy farms in Texas and to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. Eleven dairy farms throughout Texas were sampled from August through October 2013, using a cross-sectional approach. Samples were collected from four locations within each farm (hospital pen, maternity pen, cow housing area, and calf housing area), and feces were collected from cull cows as available. Environmental and fecal samples were processed for Salmonella, and isolates were tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial agents. Serovar characterization was performed on a subset of these isolates. Salmonella was isolated from 67.0% (236/352) of the environmental samples and 64.2% (43/67) of the cull cow fecal samples. Environmental samples from the maternity pen were significantly more likely to be Salmonella positive than samples from the cow and calf housing areas. Multidrug resistance was evident in 11.9% (27/226) of environmental isolates and 19.5% (8/41) of fecal isolates. Salmonella isolates from the calf housing area and maternity pen were significantly more likely to be multidrug resistant (MDR) than isolates from the cow housing area. The most common serovars found among the MDR isolates were Newport, Muenchen, and Typhimurium. These results help provide a focus for efforts to mitigate the burden of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella at the preharvest level.

  13. PIXE Analysis of Aerosol and Soil Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of aerosol and soil samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the aerosol samples near Piseco Lake and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The soil samples were also collected at Piseco Lake and pressed into cylindrical pellets for experimentation. PIXE analysis of the aerosol and soil samples were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. There are higher concentrations of sulfur at smaller particle sizes (0.25-1 μm), suggesting that it could be suspended in the air for days and originate from sources very far away. Other elements with significant concentrations peak at larger particle sizes (1-4 μm) and are found in the soil samples, suggesting that these elements could originate in the soil. The PIXE analysis will be described and the resulting data will be presented.

  14. Toward Lower Organic Environments in Astromaterial Sample Curation for Diverse Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.; Calaway, M. J.; Oehler, D. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Great interest was taken during the frenzied pace of the Apollo lunar sample return to achieve and monitor organic cleanliness. Yet, the first mission resulted in higher organic contamination to samples than desired. But improvements were accomplished by Apollo 12 [1]. Quarantine complicated the goal of achieving organic cleanliness by requiring negative pressure glovebox containment environments, proximity of animal, plant and microbial organic sources, and use of organic sterilants in protocols. A special low organic laboratory was set up at University of California Berkeley (UCB) to cleanly subdivide a subset of samples [2, 3, 4]. Nevertheless, the basic approach of handling rocks and regolith inside of a positive pressure stainless steel glovebox and restrict-ing the tool and container materials allowed in the gloveboxes was established by the last Apollo sample re-turn. In the last 40 years, the collections have grown to encompass Antarctic meteorites, Cosmic Dust, Genesis solar wind, Stardust comet grains and Hayabusa asteroid grains. Each of these collections have unique curation requirements for organic contamination monitor-ing and control. Here is described some changes allowed by improved technology or driven by changes in environmental regulations and economy, concluding with comments on organic witness wafers. Future sample return missions (OSIRIS-Rex; Mars; comets) will require extremely low levels of organic contamination in spacecraft collection and thus similarly low levels in curation. JSC Curation is undertaking a program to document organic baseline levels in current operations and devise ways to reduce those levels.

  15. TEAM (Total Exposure Assessment Methodology) Study: personal exposures to toxic substances in air, drinking water, and breath of 400 residents of New Jersey, North Carolina, and North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, L.A.; Pellizzari, E.D.; Hartwell, T.D.; Sparacino, C.; Whitmore, R.; Sheldon, L.; Zelon, H.; Perritt, R.

    1987-08-01

    EPA's TEAM Study has measured exposures to 20 volatile organic compounds in personal air, outdoor air, drinking water, and breath of approximately 400 residents of New Jersey, North Carolina, and North Dakota. All residents were selected by a probability sampling scheme to represent 128,000 inhabitants of Elizabeth and Bayonne, New Jersey, 131,000 residents of Greensboro, North Carolina, and 7000 residents of Devils Lake, North Dakota. Participants carried a personal monitor to collect two 12-hr air samples and gave a breath sample at the end of the day. Two consecutive 12-hr outdoor air samples were also collected on identical Tenax cartridges in the backyards of some of the participants. About 5000 samples were collected, of which 1500 were quality control samples. Ten compounds were often present in personal air and breath samples at all locations. Personal exposures were consistently higher than outdoor concentrations for these chemicals and were sometimes 10 times the outdoor concentrations. Indoor sources appeared to be responsible for much of the difference. Breath concentrations also often exceeded outdoor concentrations and correlated more strongly with personal exposures than with outdoor concentrations. Some activities (smoking, visiting dry cleaners or service stations) and occupations (chemical, paint, and plastics plants) were associated with significantly elevated exposures and breath levels for certain toxic chemicals. Homes with smokers had significantly increased benzene and styrene levels in indoor air. Residence near major point sources did not affect exposure.

  16. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  17. Improved explosive collection and detection with rationally assembled surface sampling materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Bays, J. Timothy; Gerasimenko, Aleksandr A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Addleman, R. Shane

    2016-01-01

    Sampling and detection of trace explosives is a key analytical process in modern transportation safety. In this work we have explored some of the fundamental analytical processes for collection and detection of trace level explosive on surfaces with the most widely utilized system, thermal desorption IMS. The performance of the standard muslin swipe material was compared with chemically modified fiberglass cloth. The fiberglass surface was modified to include phenyl functional groups. When compared to standard muslin, the phenyl functionalized fiberglass sampling material showed better analyte release from the sampling material as well as improved response and repeatability from multiple uses of the same swipe. The improved sample release of the functionalized fiberglass swipes resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity. Various physical and chemical properties were systematically explored to determine optimal performance. The results herein have relevance to improving the detection of other explosive compounds and potentially to a wide range of other chemical sampling and field detection challenges.

  18. Measured phenol concentrations in air and rain water samples collected near a wood preserving facility

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, S.K.; Allen, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    Phenol concentrations were determined in air and rain water samples collected downwind from a coal tar creosote wood preserving facility in Terre Haute, IN. Coal tar creosote is known to contain a large number of constituents and is composed chiefly of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), phenols, and N-, S-, and O-heterocycles. Phenol was chosen as a marker compound for coal tar creosote emissions because it is present at a large mole fraction in coal tar creosote. Phenol was determined by HPLC with UV-Visible detection. Phenol in collected rain water samples was determined directly by HPLC after acidification and filtration. Phenol concentrations in collected air samples ranged from 4.1 to 15.7 {micro}g/m3 while rain water concentrations ranged from 7.9 to 28.2 {micro}g/L. Using a value for the thermodynamic Henry`s law constant of K{sub H} = 4.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} L atm/mole at 20 C for phenol and measured gas-phase phenol concentrations, even higher rain water concentrations would be expected if equilibrium was established. This indicates that the amount of phenol present in the air parcels sampled exceeded the amount that could be scavenged by rain drops under the conditions prevailing at the time of sampling. The values for phenol concentrations reported here are roughly two orders of magnitude higher than results from previous studies where phenol concentrations in air and rain water samples collected in urban areas were reported. It is likely that other more toxic constituents of coal tar creosote are also present at high concentrations in air parcels that receive emissions from wood treatment facilities.

  19. From breathing to respiration.

    PubMed

    Fitting, Jean-William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs.

  20. Breathing-metabolic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Breathing-metabolic simulator was developed to be used for evaluation of life support equipment. Apparatus simulates human breathing rate and controls temperature and humidity of exhaled air as well as its chemical composition. All functions are designed to correspond to various degrees of human response.

  1. What Controls Your Breathing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Explore How the Lungs Work What Are... The Respiratory System What Happens When You Breathe What Controls Your Breathing Lung Diseases & Conditions Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Asthma Bronchitis COPD How the Heart Works Respiratory Failure Send a link to NHLBI to someone ...

  2. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Shortness of breath By Mayo Clinic Staff Few sensations are as frightening as not being able to get enough air. Shortness of breath — known medically as dyspnea — is often described as an intense tightening in the chest, air hunger or a ...

  3. Determination of multiple toxins in whelk and clam samples collected from the Chukchi and Bering seas.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifeng; Chen, Huidan; Qiu, Jiangbing; Lin, Heshan; Gu, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Buccinidae whelk Neptunea varicifera (Dall), Cardiidae clam Serripes laperousii (Deshayes), and two unknown species of whelk and clam were collected from the Arctic Chukchi Sea and sub-Arctic Bering Sea in July 2014. In this study, the mollusk samples were analyzed by different liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods for multiple shellfish toxins, including okadaic acid (OA), pectenotoxin (PTX), yessotoxin (YTX), azaspiracid (AZA), cyclic imines (CI), and saxitoxin (STX) groups. PTX2 (≈2.0 μg kg(-1) whole tissues) was detected exclusively in the clam S. laperousii collected from the Chukchi Sea. OA and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) were restricted to mollusk samples collected from the Bering Sea, and OA was the dominant component of the whelk N. varicifera (63 μg kg(-1) digestive gland) and an unknown species of whelk (6.8 μg kg(-1) digestive gland). Spirolide-1 (SPX1) was confirmed in most samples except for the whelk N. varicifera collected from the Bering Sea. The highest content of SPX1 (≈18.5 μg kg(-1) digestive gland) occurred in the whelk N. varicifera collected from the Chukchi Sea, along with the suspected presence of SPX-C, SPX-D and didesMe-SPX-C. YTX, as well as its derivatives 45-OH-YTX and 45,46,47-Trinor-YTX, were found in all samples, with the highest YTX content (66 μg kg(-1) digestive gland) present in the whelk N. varicifera collected from the Chukchi Sea. Interestingly, STX and dcSTX were measured only in the whelk N. varicifera and unknown species of clam collected from the Chukchi Sea. No AZA-group toxins, gymnodimine (GYM), or pinnatoxin G were found in any samples analyzed. Results demonstrated that the mollusk samples were contaminated by multiple shellfish toxins in the Chukchi and Bering seas. This study highlights the need to monitor potentially toxic microalgae in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions, as well as species of mollusk that may be included in future commercial or

  4. Voluntary control of breathing does not alter vagal modulation of heart rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patwardhan, A. R.; Evans, J. M.; Bruce, E. N.; Eckberg, D. L.; Knapp, C. F.

    1995-01-01

    Variations in respiratory pattern influence the heart rate spectrum. It has been suggested, hence, that metronomic respiration should be used to correctly assess vagal modulation of heart rate by using spectral analysis. On the other hand, breathing to a metronome has been reported to increase heart rate spectral power in the high- or respiratory frequency region; this finding has led to the suggestion that metronomic respiration enhances vagal tone or alters vagal modulation of heart rate. To investigate whether metronomic breathing complicates the interpretation of heart rate spectra by altering vagal modulation, we recorded the electrocardiogram and respiration from eight volunteers during three breathing trials of 10 min each: 1) spontaneous breathing (mean rate of 14.4 breaths/min); 2) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 15, 18, and 21 breaths/min for 2, 6, and 2 min, respectively; and 3) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 18 breaths/min for 10 min. Data were also collected from eight volunteers who breathed spontaneously for 20 min and breathed metronomically at each subject's mean spontaneous breathing frequency for 20 min. Results from the three 10-min breathing trials showed that heart rate power in the respiratory frequency region was smaller during metronomic breathing than during spontaneous breathing. This decrease could be explained fully by the higher breathing frequencies used during trials 2 and 3 of metronomic breathing. When the subjects breathed metronomically at each subject's mean breathing frequency, the heart rate powers during metronomic breathing were similar to those during spontaneous breathing. Our results suggest that vagal modulation of heart rate is not altered and vagal tone is not enhanced during metronomic breathing.

  5. Optimizing detection of noble gas emission at a former UNE site: sample strategy, collection, and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkham, R.; Olsen, K.; Hayes, J. C.; Emer, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    Underground nuclear tests may be first detected by seismic or air samplers operated by the CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization). After initial detection of a suspicious event, member nations may call for an On-Site Inspection (OSI) that in part, will sample for localized releases of radioactive noble gases and particles. Although much of the commercially available equipment and methods used for surface and subsurface environmental sampling of gases can be used for an OSI scenario, on-site sampling conditions, required sampling volumes and establishment of background concentrations of noble gases require development of specialized methodologies. To facilitate development of sampling equipment and methodologies that address OSI sampling volume and detection objectives, and to collect information required for model development, a field test site was created at a former underground nuclear explosion site located in welded volcanic tuff. A mixture of SF-6, Xe127 and Ar37 was metered into 4400 m3 of air as it was injected into the top region of the UNE cavity. These tracers were expected to move towards the surface primarily in response to barometric pumping or through delayed cavity pressurization (accelerated transport to minimize source decay time). Sampling approaches compared during the field exercise included sampling at the soil surface, inside surface fractures, and at soil vapor extraction points at depths down to 2 m. Effectiveness of various sampling approaches and the results of tracer gas measurements will be presented.

  6. Transient thermal envelope for rovers and sample collecting devices on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, P. B.; Parzinger, S.; Haarmann, R.; Walter, U.

    2015-03-01

    The requirements for the design of rovers and sample collecting devices for the Moon are driven by the harsh and diverse thermal lunar environment. Local lunar surface temperatures are governed by boulders and craters. The present work quantifies the changes in solar and infrared heat fluxes q˙Sol and q˙IR impinging on a rover or a sample collecting device, on the surface of the Moon, by combining lunar surface models, spacecraft and manipulator models, and transient thermal calculations. The interaction between a rover, boulders, and craters was simulated for three solar elevation angles (θ = 2°, 10°, and 90°), resembling lunar surface temperatures of Treg = 170, 248, and 392 K, respectively. Infrared and solar heat fluxes for paths in the vicinity of a single boulder, a field of five boulders, and a single crater were compared to a path on an unobstructed surface. The same heat fluxes were applied to closed and open sample collecting devices to investigate the temperature development of the transported regolith sample. The results show how total received infrared heat on a rover may increase by up to 331%, over the course of a transit in front of sunlit boulders compared to the same transit over an unobstructed plane. Temporary this leads to a 12-fold increased infrared heat flux at closest distance to the obstacle. A transit through a small bowl shaped crater on the other hand may decrease total received solar heat by as much as 86%. Relative as well as absolute influence of surface features on received heat fluxes increases significantly towards smaller solar elevation angles. The temperature of pristine samples, transported in closed or open sample collecting devices, increase from 120 to 150 K within 1 to 1.3 h if exposed to direct solar illumination and infrared heat. Protection from solar illumination yields in 8-fold and 5-fold increased transport times for closed and open sample devices, respectively. Closed sample transporters dampen short exposure

  7. Metabolite Content Profiling of Bottlenose Dolphin Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

  8. Personal exposures, indoor-outdoor relationships, and breath levels of toxic air pollutants measured for 355 persons in New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Lance A.; Pellizzari, Edo D.; Hartwell, Ty D.; Sparacino, Charles M.; Sheldon, Linda S.; Zelon, Harvey

    EPA's TEAM Study has measured exposures to 20 volatile organic compounds in personal air, outdoor air, drinking water and the breath of 355 persons in NJ, in the fall of 1981. The NJ residents were selected by a probability sampling scheme to represent 128,000 inhabitants of Elizabeth and Bayonne. Participants carried a personal monitor to collect two 12-h air samples and gave a breath sample at the end of the day. Two consecutive 12-h outdoor air samples were also collected on identical Tenax cartridges in the back yards of 90 of the participants. About 3000 samples were collected, of which 1000 were quality control samples. Eleven compounds were often present in air. Personal exposures were consistently higher than outdoor concentrations for these chemicals, and were sometimes ten times the outdoor concentrations. Indoor sources appeared responsible for much of the difference. Breath concentrations also usually exceed outdoor concentrations, and correlated more strongly with personal exposures than with outdoor concentrations. Some activities (smoking, driving, visiting dry cleaners or service stations) and occupations (chemical, paint and plastics plants) were associated with significantly elevated exposures and breath levels for certain toxic chemicals.

  9. Salivary cortisol results obtainable within minutes of sample collection correspond with traditional immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Shirtcliff, E.A.; Buck, R.L.; Laughlin, M.; Hart, T.; Cole, C.R.; Slowey, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cortisol is frequently assayed as a stress-responsive biomarker which changes over the course of minutes to meet the demands of an individual’s social context. Salivary cortisol is often utilized as a non-invasive sampling methodology which possesses important health implications. A critical barrier to psychobiological research involving salivary cortisol is a time-delay of days to months before cortisol results are obtained via immunoassay, long after the individual is no longer proximate to the social context in which they provided the sample. The current study was designed to address this critical barrier through creation of a lateral flow technology (LFT) cortisol device capable of measuring salivary cortisol within minutes of sample collection. LFT is frequently used within commercial point-of-care settings to obtain rapid answers to the presence/absence of a biomarker. The present study extends LFT into the research domain by presenting performance characteristics of a quantitative LFT which measures salivary cortisol within 20 minutes of sample collection. Methods Saliva samples on N=29 adults (15 males) were obtained in the morning and afternoon using Passive Drool and then the Super•SAL™ Extra Collection Device (hereafter Super•SAL™) and later assayed with LFT and a commercially available enzyme-immunoassay. Findings Results show LFT correlated well with these collection methods (R=.872 with Super•SAL™; R=.739 with Passive Drool, p-values<.0001) and at comparable levels to correspondence of Super•SAL™ with Passive Drool (R=.798, p<.0001) which were measured with the same assay. Implications These results open up an exciting new possibility to integrate this technological advance into stress research, including knowing and potentially changing the individual’s social context in a time-sensitive manner. Methodological improvements such as this have the possibility of refining conceptual models of stress reactivity and regulation

  10. Curating NASA's future extraterrestrial sample collections: How do we achieve maximum proficiency?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "…documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working to-wards a state of maximum proficiency. Founding Principle: Curatorial activities began at JSC (Manned Spacecraft Center before 1973) as soon as design and construction planning for the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) began in 1964 [1], not with the return of the Apollo samples in 1969, nor with the completion of the LRL in 1967. This practice has since proven that curation begins as soon as a sample return mission is conceived, and this founding principle continues to return dividends today [e.g., 2]. The Next Decade: Part of the curation process is planning for the future, and we refer to these planning efforts as "advanced curation" [3]. Advanced Curation is tasked with developing procedures, technology, and data sets necessary for curating new types of collections as envisioned by NASA exploration goals. We are (and have been) planning for future curation, including cold curation, extended curation of ices and volatiles, curation of samples with special chemical considerations such as perchlorate-rich samples, curation of organically- and biologically-sensitive samples, and the use of minimally invasive analytical techniques (e.g., micro-CT, [4]) to characterize samples. These efforts will be useful for Mars Sample Return

  11. The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS)—A master catalog and collections management plan for U.S. Geological Survey geologic samples and sample collections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The general consideration for implementation of the GCMS is that all active USGS geologic sample repositories will form the core of GCMS and that participating science centers will develop procedures based on proposed GCMS methodologies. The GCMS is a collective resource for the entire USGS community and the users who discover the geologic materials kept in these repositories and seek to access them.

  12. Multiple Approaches to Down Sizing of the Lunar Sample Return Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Horz, F.

    2010-01-01

    Future Lunar missions are planned for at least 7 days, significantly longer than the 3 days of the later Apollo missions. The last of those missions, A-17, returned 111 kg of samples plus another 20 kg of containers. The current Constellation program requirements for return weight for science is 100 kg with the hope of raising that limit to near 250 kg including containers and other non-geological materials. The estimated return weight for rock and soil samples will, at best, be about 175 kg. One method proposed to accomplish down-sizing of the collection is the use of a Geo-Lab in the lunar habitat to complete a preliminary examination of selected samples and facilitate prioritizing the return samples.

  13. Spectroscopic Characterization of Dust-Fall Samples Collected from Greater Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shaltout, Abdallah A; Allam, Mousa A; Mostafa, Nasser Y; Heiba, Zein K

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed to characterize dust-fall samples collected from street's trees in Greater Cairo (GC), Egypt, and its surroundings by different spectroscopic techniques, namely; X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total-reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), particle-size analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray measurements. Samples were collected from 19 different locations inside and outside of GC. Quantitative phase analysis of the dust-fall samples was performed using the Rietveld method. Results showed that the most frequently observed phases in the dust-fall samples were calcite (CaCO3), dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), and quartz (SiO2) with average concentrations of 39 ± 16, 8 ± 7, 22 ± 13, and 33 ± 14 wt%, respectively. The occurrence of these constituents referred to a combination of different anthropogenic and natural sources. The ATR-FTIR results are in good agreements with XRD data of the different observed phases. Based on the SEM and particle-size measurements, quantitative determination of the particle-size distribution was described. It was found that not only the large-sized particles are deposited but also the small-sized ones (PM10 and PM2.5). In addition, the particle size of the collected dust-fall samples varied from 0.1 to 200 µm with an average particle size of 17.36 µm; however, the particle size ranged from 2.5 to 40 µm predominated in all of the dust-fall samples.

  14. Characterization Data Package for Containerized Sludge Samples Collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Baldwin, David L.; Daniel, Richard C.; Bos, Stanley J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Carlson, Clark D.; Coffey, Deborah S.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Neiner, Doinita; Oliver, Brian M.; Pool, Karl N.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Urie, Michael W.

    2013-09-10

    This data package contains the K Basin sludge characterization results obtained by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory during processing and analysis of four sludge core samples collected from Engineered Container SCS-CON-210 in 2010 as requested by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company. Sample processing requirements, analytes of interest, detection limits, and quality control sample requirements are defined in the KBC-33786, Rev. 2. The core processing scope included reconstitution of a sludge core sample distributed among four to six 4-L polypropylene bottles into a single container. The reconstituted core sample was then mixed and subsampled to support a variety of characterization activities. Additional core sludge subsamples were combined to prepare a container composite. The container composite was fractionated by wet sieving through a 2,000 micron mesh and a 500-micron mesh sieve. Each sieve fraction was sampled to support a suite of analyses. The core composite analysis scope included density determination, radioisotope analysis, and metals analysis, including the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit metals (with the exception of mercury). The container composite analysis included most of the core composite analysis scope plus particle size distribution, particle density, rheology, and crystalline phase identification. A summary of the received samples, core sample reconstitution and subsampling activities, container composite preparation and subsampling activities, physical properties, and analytical results are presented. Supporting data and documentation are provided in the appendices. There were no cases of sample or data loss and all of the available samples and data are reported as required by the Quality Assurance Project Plan/Sampling and Analysis Plan.

  15. Efficient Genome-Wide Sequencing and Low-Coverage Pedigree Analysis from Noninvasively Collected Samples.

    PubMed

    Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Majoros, William H; Yuan, Michael L; Shaver, Amanda O; Gordon, Jacob B; Kopp, Gisela H; Schlebusch, Stephen A; Wall, Jeffrey D; Alberts, Susan C; Mukherjee, Sayan; Zhou, Xiang; Tung, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    Research on the genetics of natural populations was revolutionized in the 1990s by methods for genotyping noninvasively collected samples. However, these methods have remained largely unchanged for the past 20 years and lag far behind the genomics era. To close this gap, here we report an optimized laboratory protocol for genome-wide capture of endogenous DNA from noninvasively collected samples, coupled with a novel computational approach to reconstruct pedigree links from the resulting low-coverage data. We validated both methods using fecal samples from 62 wild baboons, including 48 from an independently constructed extended pedigree. We enriched fecal-derived DNA samples up to 40-fold for endogenous baboon DNA and reconstructed near-perfect pedigree relationships even with extremely low-coverage sequencing. We anticipate that these methods will be broadly applicable to the many research systems for which only noninvasive samples are available. The lab protocol and software ("WHODAD") are freely available at www.tung-lab.org/protocols-and-software.html and www.xzlab.org/software.html, respectively.

  16. Efficient Genome-Wide Sequencing and Low-Coverage Pedigree Analysis from Noninvasively Collected Samples

    PubMed Central

    Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Majoros, William H.; Yuan, Michael L.; Shaver, Amanda O.; Gordon, Jacob B.; Kopp, Gisela H.; Schlebusch, Stephen A.; Wall, Jeffrey D.; Alberts, Susan C.; Mukherjee, Sayan; Zhou, Xiang; Tung, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Research on the genetics of natural populations was revolutionized in the 1990s by methods for genotyping noninvasively collected samples. However, these methods have remained largely unchanged for the past 20 years and lag far behind the genomics era. To close this gap, here we report an optimized laboratory protocol for genome-wide capture of endogenous DNA from noninvasively collected samples, coupled with a novel computational approach to reconstruct pedigree links from the resulting low-coverage data. We validated both methods using fecal samples from 62 wild baboons, including 48 from an independently constructed extended pedigree. We enriched fecal-derived DNA samples up to 40-fold for endogenous baboon DNA and reconstructed near-perfect pedigree relationships even with extremely low-coverage sequencing. We anticipate that these methods will be broadly applicable to the many research systems for which only noninvasive samples are available. The lab protocol and software (“WHODAD”) are freely available at www.tung-lab.org/protocols-and-software.html and www.xzlab.org/software.html, respectively. PMID:27098910

  17. Development/verification of methods for measurement of exhaled breath and environmental e-vapor product aerosol.

    PubMed

    Oldham, Michael J; Wagner, Karl A; Gene Gilman, I; Beach, James B; Liu, Jianmin; Rostami, Ali A; Sarkar, Mohamadi A

    2017-04-01

    Concerns have been raised about the potential health effects of potential bystander exposure to exhaled aerosols from e-vapor products (EVPs). An exhaled breath collection system (EBS) was developed and analytical methods were verified for collection and analysis of exhaled breath from users of EVPs. Analytical methods were adapted and verified for collection of environmental air samples during EVP use in an exposure chamber. Analysis of constituents in exhaled breath focused on nicotine, propylene glycol, and glycerin (because these are reported as the major constituents in EVPs) and selected carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde, acrolein, and formaldehyde). Analysis of environmental samples included nicotine, propylene glycol, glycerin, 12 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 15 carbonyl compounds and 4 metals. The EBS and analytical methods used were found to be suitable for collection and analysis of the target constituents in exhaled breath. Environmental sampling for background levels of VOCs and carbonyl compounds found only acetone, acetaldehyde, benzene, ethylbenzene, formaldehyde, isoprene, methyl ethyl ketone, hexaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and toluene above the limit of quantification in some samples. None of the targeted metals were detected. Background levels of VOCs and carbonyl compounds were consistent with levels previously reported for ambient air.

  18. Potential contamination of forensic entomology samples collected in the mortuary: a case report.

    PubMed

    Archer, M S; Ranson, D L

    2005-01-01

    Carrion insects originating from infested bodies may establish small mortuary populations. Two Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine cases are presented to illustrate how these insects can potentially contaminate forensic entomology samples collected in the mortuary. The first case proves that bodies can be colonised in the mortuary: when a decomposed body in freezer storage was thawed for a procedure in the main mortuary, it was colonised within five minutes of exposure by the beetle Necrobia rufipes De Geer (Cleridae, Coleoptera). The second case illustrates that immobile juvenile insects can be transferred between bodies, and describes the transfer of an Eristalis sp. (Syrphidae, Diptera) pupa from a decomposed to a fresh body. While the contamination risk is slight, it can be further minimised by checking mortuary-collected samples against those taken from the body discovery site, by mortuary pest control, and by checking previous mortuary admittance records for possible contamination sources.

  19. Enhanced Conformational Sampling Using Replica Exchange with Collective-Variable Tempering

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The computational study of conformational transitions in RNA and proteins with atomistic molecular dynamics often requires suitable enhanced sampling techniques. We here introduce a novel method where concurrent metadynamics are integrated in a Hamiltonian replica-exchange scheme. The ladder of replicas is built with different strengths of the bias potential exploiting the tunability of well-tempered metadynamics. Using this method, free-energy barriers of individual collective variables are significantly reduced compared with simple force-field scaling. The introduced methodology is flexible and allows adaptive bias potentials to be self-consistently constructed for a large number of simple collective variables, such as distances and dihedral angles. The method is tested on alanine dipeptide and applied to the difficult problem of conformational sampling in a tetranucleotide. PMID:25838811

  20. Exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide as a marker of early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in children with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, John; Jones, Andrew M.; Smith, David; Smyth, Alan R.; Southern, Kevin W.; Španěl, Patrik; Webb, A. Kevin; Lenney, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide is readily detected in the headspace above Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures and in the breath of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic (P. aeruginosa) infection. We investigated if exhaled breath HCN is an early marker of P. aeruginosa infection. 233 children with CF who were free from P. aeruginosa infection were followed for 2 years. Their median (interquartile range) age was 8.0 (5.0–12.2) years. At each study visit, an exhaled breath sample was collected for hydrogen cyanide analysis. In total, 2055 breath samples were analysed. At the end of the study, the hydrogen cyanide concentrations were compared to the results of routine microbiology surveillance. P. aeruginosa was isolated from 71 children during the study with an incidence (95% CI) of 0.19 (0.15–0.23) cases per patient-year. Using a random-effects logistic model, the estimated odds ratio (95% CI) was 3.1 (2.6–3.6), which showed that for a 1- ppbv increase in exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide, we expected a 212% increase in the odds of P. aeruginosa infection. The sensitivity and specificity were estimated at 33% and 99%, respectively. Exhaled breath hydrogen cyanide is a specific biomarker of new P. aeruginosa infection in children with CF. Its low sensitivity means that at present, hydrogen cyanide cannot be used as a screening test for this infection. PMID:27730156

  1. STS-55 Payload Specialist Schlegel collects fungi sample at SL-D2 Rack 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, wearing lightweight headset, collects fungi sample while working at Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module Rack 1 Work Bench. Schlegel is conducting these procedures in conjunction with the 'Fruiting Body Development of Fungi' experiment. Pieces of the experiment casing freefloat in the workstation.Schlegel represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day spacelab mission.

  2. STS-55 Payload Specialist Schlegel collects fungi sample at SL-D2 Rack 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, wearing lightweight headset, collects fungi sample while working at Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module Rack 1 Work Bench. Schlegel is conducting these procedures in conjunction with the 'Fruiting Body Development of Fungi' experiment. Schlegel was one of two payload specialists representing the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day spacelab mission.

  3. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  4. Monitoring breath markers under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Righettoni, Marco; Ragnoni, Alessandro; Güntner, Andreas T; Loccioni, Claudio; Pratsinis, Sotiris E; Risby, Terence H

    2015-10-15

    Breath analysis has the potential to detect and monitor diseases as well as to reduce the corresponding medical costs while improving the quality of a patient's life. Herein, a portable prototype, consisting of a commercial breath sampler modified to work as a platform for solid-state gas sensors was developed. The sensor is placed close to the mouth (<10 cm) and minimizes the mouth-to-sensor path to avoid contamination and dilution of the target breath marker. Additionally with an appropriate cooling concept, even high sensor operating temperatures (e.g. 350 °C) could be used. Controlled sampling is crucial for accurate repeatable analysis of the human breath and these concerns have been addressed by this novel prototype. The device helps a subject control their exhaled flow rate which increases reproducibility of intra-subject breath samples. The operation of this flame-made selective chemo-resistive gas sensor is demonstrated by the detection of breath acetone.

  5. Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael; Rzeppa, Sebastian; Hemmersbach, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate urine concentrations of 8 mg oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes. Nine male endurance athletes with a VO2max of 70.2 ± 5.9 mL/min/kg (mean ± SD) took part in the study. Two hours after administration of 8 mg oral salbutamol, subjects performed submaximal exercise for 15 min followed by two, 2-min exercise bouts at an intensity corresponding to 110% of VO2max and a bout to exhaustion at same intensity. Urine samples were collected 4, 8, and 12 h following administration of salbutamol. Samples were analyzed by the Norwegian World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) laboratory. Adjustment of urine concentrations of salbutamol to a urine specific gravity (USG) of 1.020 g/mL was compared with no adjustment according to WADA's technical documents. We observed greater (P = 0.01) urine concentrations of salbutamol 4 h after administration when samples were adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment (3089 ± 911 vs. 1918 ± 1081 ng/mL). With the current urine decision limit of 1200 ng/mL for salbutamol on WADA's 2013 list of prohibited substances, fewer false negative urine samples were observed when adjusted to a USG of 1.020 g/mL compared with no adjustment. In conclusion, adjustment of urine samples to a USG of 1.020 g/mL decreases risk of false negative doping tests after administration of oral salbutamol. Adjusting urine samples for USG might be useful when evaluating urine concentrations of salbutamol in doping cases.

  6. Determination of trace elements in volcanic rock samples collected from cenozoic lava eruption sites using LIBS.

    PubMed

    Gondal, Mohammed A; Nasr, Mohamed M; Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Yamani, Zain H

    2009-04-01

    Trace elements of environmental significance present in the volcanic rock samples collected from sites of the Cenozoic era flood basalt flows and eruptions were detected using locally developed laser-induced breakdown spectrometer. For spectro-chemical analysis of these samples, the plasma was generated by focusing a pulsed Nd: YAG laser radiation at 1064 nm wavelength on the target rock samples. These samples were collected from four widely separated locations surrounding the volcanic eruption sites belonging to the Harrat Hutaymah volcanic field in the vicinity of Taba town, situated to the east of Hail city of northern Saudi Arabia. These samples represent the scoria basalt lava flows as well as a large tuff-ring crater and it contains xenoliths. These flows occur widespread over the Earth's surface in this region, and their contained xenoliths are brought up from depths of a few tens of kilometers. This volcanic field has received much less attention in the previous geological studies; and consequently, its effects on the environment are not well defined. The concentration of different elements of environmental significance like Cr, Pb, Mn, Cd, Sr and other trace metals like Cu, Al, Ca, Mg, Zn, Ti and Fe in these rock samples were determined by spectral analysis. Parametric dependence for improvement of LIBS sensitivity for detection of these elements was also carried out. The highest concentration detected of environmentally significant elements like Cr, Mn, Pb, Sr and Ni are 1910, 1399, 90.5, 12412 and 461.5 ppm, respectively in four different lava samples which are considered to be much higher than the safe permissible limits. The LIBS results were compared with the results obtained using other analytical techniques such as the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES).

  7. Breathing metabolic simulator.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a device for simulation of the human breathing and metabolic parameters required for the evaluation of respiratory diagnostic, monitoring, support and resuscitation equipment. The remotely controlled device allows wide variations in breathing rate and depth, breath velocity contour, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide release to simulate conditions from sleep to hard work, with respiration exchange ratios ranging from hypoventilation to hyperventilation. It also reduces the cost of prolonged testing when simulation chambers with human subjects require three shifts of crews and standby physicians. Several block diagrams of the device and subsystems are given.

  8. A 20-minute breath test for helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.J.; Plankey, M.W.; Hoffman, S.R.; Boyd, C.L.; Dye, K.R.; Frierson, H.F. Jr.; Guerrant, R.L.; McCallum, R.W. )

    1991-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated a simplified rapid {sup 14}C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Fasting patients undergoing initial assessment for H. pylori drank 5 microCi of {sup 14}C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath was collected at intervals for 30 min. Samples were counted in a beta-counter, and the results were expressed as counts per minute (cpm). In the same week, patients underwent endoscopy, and a blinded investigator examined biopsy samples of gastric mucosa by culture and histology for H. pylori. There were 49 H. pylori-negative (HP-) and 104 H. pylori-positive (HP+) patients in the study. HP+ patients expired a mean of 4398 cpm (SD 2468) per mmol CO{sub 2} in a sample taken 20 min after ingestion of the isotope. In contrast, HP--patients expired only 340 cpm (SD 196). If the mean +3 SD of HP- patients was used as a cutoff value, the 20-minute sample gave a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% for detecting H. pylori. The radiation exposure from this test is less than 1% of that received from an upper gastrointestinal series, and the short collection time makes it both convenient and cost effective.

  9. Concentrations of 20 volatile organic compounds in the air and drinking water of 350 residents of New Jersey compared with concentrations in their exhaled breath

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, L.; Pellizzari, E.; Hartwell, T.; Zelon, H.; Sparacino, C.; Perritt, R.; Whitmore, R.

    1986-08-01

    Twenty volatile organic compounds were measured in the personal air and drinking water of 350 New Jersey residents in the fall of 1981. Two consecutive 12-hour integrated personal air samples and two tap water samples were collected from each participant. At the end of the 24-hour monitoring period, each participant supplied a sample of exhaled breath. Simultaneous outdoor samples were collected in 100 residential locations in two cities. Eleven compounds were present much of the time in air, but only four (the trihalomethanes) in water; wide ranges of exposures (three to four orders of magnitude) were noted for most compounds. Ten of 11 compounds displayed significant correlations between air exposures and breath concentrations; the 11th (chloroform) was correlated with drinking water exposures. It was concluded that breath measurements are a feasible, cost-effective, and highly sensitive way to determine environmental and occupational exposures to volatile organic compounds.

  10. Concentrations of 20 volatile organic compounds in the air and drinking water of 350 residents of New Jersey compared with concentrations in their exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Wallace, L; Pellizzari, E; Hartwell, T; Zelon, H; Sparacino, C; Perritt, R; Whitmore, R

    1986-08-01

    Twenty volatile organic compounds were measured in the personal air and drinking water of 350 New Jersey residents in the fall of 1981. Two consecutive 12-hour integrated personal air samples and two tap water samples were collected from each participant. At the end of the 24-hour monitoring period, each participant supplied a sample of exhaled breath. Simultaneous outdoor samples were collected in 100 residential locations in two cities. Eleven compounds were present much of the time in air, but only four (the trihalomethanes) in water; wide ranges of exposures (three to four orders of magnitude) were noted for most compounds. Ten of 11 compounds displayed significant correlations between air exposures and breath concentrations; the 11th (chloroform) was correlated with drinking water exposures. It was concluded that breath measurements are a feasible, cost-effective, and highly sensitive way to determine environmental and occupational exposures to volatile organic compounds.

  11. Pesticide-sampling equipment, sample-collection and processing procedures, and water-quality data at Chicod Creek, North Carolina, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, T.K.; Smith, K.E.; Wood, C.D.; Williams, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from Chicod Creek in the Coastal Plain Province of North Carolina during the summer of 1992 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Chicod Creek is in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage area, one of four study units designated to test equipment and procedures for collecting and processing samples for the solid-phase extraction of selected pesticides, The equipment and procedures were used to isolate 47 pesticides, including organonitrogen, carbamate, organochlorine, organophosphate, and other compounds, targeted to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sample-collection and processing equipment equipment cleaning and set-up procedures, methods pertaining to collecting, splitting, and solid-phase extraction of samples, and water-quality data resulting from the field test are presented in this report Most problems encountered during this intensive sampling exercise were operational difficulties relating to equipment used to process samples.

  12. Sampling and Selection Factors that Enhance the Diversity of Microbial Collections: Application to Biopesticide Development

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun-Kyung; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Jang-Hoon; Han, Songhee; Kang, Hunseung; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Kim, Young Cheol; Gardener, Brian McSpadden

    2013-01-01

    Diverse bacteria are known to colonize plants. However, only a small fraction of that diversity has been evaluated for their biopesticide potential. To date, the criteria for sampling and selection in such bioprospecting endeavors have not been systematically evaluated in terms of the relative amount of diversity they provide for analysis. The present study aimed to enhance the success of bio-prospecting efforts by increasing the diversity while removing the genotypic redundancy often present in large collections of bacteria. We developed a multivariate sampling and marker-based selection strategy that significantly increase the diversity of bacteria recovered from plants. In doing so, we quantified the effects of varying sampling intensity, media composition, incubation conditions, plant species, and soil source on the diversity of recovered isolates. Subsequent sequencing and high-throughput phenotypic analyses of a small fraction of the collected isolates revealed that this approach led to the recovery of over a dozen rare and, to date, poorly characterized genera of plant-associated bacteria with significant biopesticide activities. Overall, the sampling and selection approach described led to an approximately 5-fold improvement in efficiency and the recovery of several novel strains of bacteria with significant biopesticide potential. PMID:25288941

  13. Optimized sample preparation of endoscopic collected pancreatic fluid for SDS-PAGE analysis.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Joao A; Lee, Linda S; Wu, Bechien; Repas, Kathryn; Banks, Peter A; Conwell, Darwin L; Steen, Hanno

    2010-07-01

    The standardization of methods for human body fluid protein isolation is a critical initial step for proteomic analyses aimed to discover clinically relevant biomarkers. Several caveats have hindered pancreatic fluid proteomics, including the heterogeneity of samples and protein degradation. We aim to optimize sample handling of pancreatic fluid that has been collected using a safe and effective endoscopic collection method (endoscopic pancreatic function test). Using SDS-PAGE protein profiling, we investigate (i) precipitation techniques to maximize protein extraction, (ii) auto-digestion of pancreatic fluid following prolonged exposure to a range of temperatures, (iii) effects of multiple freeze-thaw cycles on protein stability, and (iv) the utility of protease inhibitors. Our experiments revealed that TCA precipitation resulted in the most efficient extraction of protein from pancreatic fluid of the eight methods we investigated. In addition, our data reveal that although auto-digestion of proteins is prevalent at 23 and 37 degrees C, incubation on ice significantly slows such degradation. Similarly, when the sample is maintained on ice, proteolysis is minimal during multiple freeze-thaw cycles. We have also determined the addition of protease inhibitors to be assay-dependent. Our optimized sample preparation strategy can be applied to future proteomic analyses of pancreatic fluid.

  14. Respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow in children with asthma in relation to volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and ambient air.

    PubMed

    Delfino, Ralph J; Gong, Henry; Linn, William S; Hu, Ye; Pellizzari, Edo D

    2003-09-01

    Indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been associated with asthma, but there is little epidemiologic work on ambient exposures, and no data on relationships between respiratory health and exhaled breath VOCs, which is a biomarker of VOC exposure. We recruited 26 Hispanic children with mild asthma in a Los Angeles community with high VOC levels near major freeways and trucking routes. Two dropped out, three had invalid peak expiratory flow (PEF) or breath VOC data, leaving 21. Children filled out symptom diaries and performed PEF maneuvers daily, November 1999-January 2000. We aimed to collect breath VOC samples on asthma episode and baseline symptom-free days, but six subjects only gave samples on symptom-free days. We analyzed 106 breath samples by GC-MS. Eight VOCs were quantifiable in >75% of breath samples (benzene, methylene chloride, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, and p-dichlorobenzene). Generalized estimating equation and mixed linear regression models for VOC exposure-response relationships controlled for temperature and respiratory infections. We found marginally positive associations between bothersome or more severe asthma symptoms and same day breath concentrations of benzene [odds ratio (OR) 2.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80, 5.11] but not other breath VOCs. Ambient petroleum-related VOCs measured on the same person-days as breath VOCs showed notably stronger associations with symptoms, including toluene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, and benzene (OR 5.93, 95% CI 1.64, 21.4). On breath sample days, symptoms were also associated with 1-h ambient NO(2), OR 8.13 (1.52, 43.4), and SO(2), OR 2.36 (1.16, 4.81). Consistent inverse relationships were found between evening PEF and the same ambient VOCs, NO(2), and SO(2). There were no associations with O(3). Given the high traffic density of the region, stronger associations for ambient than for breath VOCs suggest that ambient VOC measurements were better markers for daily

  15. A remotely operated serial sampler for collecting gas-tight fluid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shi-jun; Yang, Can-jun; Ding, Kang; Tan, Chun-yang

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and preliminary test results for a gas-tight serial sampler intended to be deployed at seafloor for long-term operation to take time-series fluid samples from deep-sea environments such as cold seeps, water column and hydrothermal vents. The serial sampler is a modular system that is based on independent and identical sampling modules, which are designed to collect six 160 ml gas-tight fluid samples maintained at high pressure to a depth of 4000 meters. With two working modes, the sampler can be deployed either with seafloor cabled observatory for remote control or as a stand-alone device for autonomous operation. A prototype of the instrument has been constructed and tested on the MARS cabled observatory for two months. The laboratory and field tests proved the success of the design and construction of the serial sampler, and indicated the potential for future ocean sciences.

  16. Regression modeling of particle size distributions in urban storm water: advancements through improved sample collection methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fienen, Michael N.; Selbig, William R.

    2012-01-01

    A new sample collection system was developed to improve the representation of sediment entrained in urban storm water by integrating water quality samples from the entire water column. The depth-integrated sampler arm (DISA) was able to mitigate sediment stratification bias in storm water, thereby improving the characterization of suspended-sediment concentration and particle size distribution at three independent study locations. Use of the DISA decreased variability, which improved statistical regression to predict particle size distribution using surrogate environmental parameters, such as precipitation depth and intensity. The performance of this statistical modeling technique was compared to results using traditional fixed-point sampling methods and was found to perform better. When environmental parameters can be used to predict particle size distributions, environmental managers have more options when characterizing concentrations, loads, and particle size distributions in urban runoff.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Drug Deposition in Hair Samples Collected from Different Anatomical Body Sites.

    PubMed

    Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Kavvalakis, Matthaios P; Vakonaki, Elena; Stivaktakis, Polychronis D; Kanaki, Katerina; Vardavas, Alexander I; Barbounis, Emmanouil G; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2016-12-15

    In this study, we focused on the validation of a method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of cannabinoids, cocaine and opiates in hair as well as on the distribution of the drugs deposition in hair collected from different anatomical body sites. The proposed analytical procedure was validated for various parameters such as selectivity, linearity, limit of quantification, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and recovery. Four hundred and eighty-one samples were collected during 2010-2015 from 231 drug abusers. A 6-h ultrasonic-assisted methanolic extraction was applied for the isolation of the drugs. The analysis was performed in an liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system for the opiates and cocaine and in a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system for the cannabinoids. Cocaine was the most frequent detected drug (68.8-80.5%) followed by cannabinoids (47.6-63.3%) and opiates (34.7-46.7%) depending on the body site that the samples were collected. The mean concentrations of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were 0.63 ± 2.11 for head, 0.54 ± 1.03 for pubic, 0.34 ± 0.51 for axillary and 0.18 ± 0.18 ng/mg for chest hair samples. The values of cocaine were 6.52 ± 15.98, 4.64 ± 10.77, 6.96 ± 38.21 and 3.94 ± 6.35 ng/mg, while the values of 6-monoacetylmorphine (MAM) were 3.33 ± 5.89, 3.06 ± 9.33, 1.37 ± 1.37 and 16.4 ± 1.77 ng/mg for head, pubic, axillary and chest samples, respectively. Differences between the detected concentrations of cocaine and opiates between the hair samples of different anatomical sites, as well as the ratio of drug metabolites to the parent compounds were observed in some cases. Statistically significant differences in the mean detected levels were noticed for morphine and heroin between head and pubic hair and also for cocaine and benzoylecgonine, between head and axillary hair samples. Moreover, the ratio of MAM to morphine and THC to cannabinol seems to correlate statistically with the total opiate or

  18. The Apollo Lunar Sample Image Collection: Digital Archiving and Online Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary E.; Stefanov, William L.; Garcia, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of the Apollo Program was to land human beings on the Moon and bring them safely back to Earth. This goal was achieved during six missions - Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 - that took place between 1969 and 1972. Among the many noteworthy engineering and scientific accomplishments of these missions, perhaps the most important in terms of scientific impact was the return of 382 kg (842 lb.) of lunar rocks, core samples, pebbles, sand, and dust from the lunar surface to Earth. Returned samples were curated at JSC (then known as the Manned Spacecraft Center) and, as part of the original processing, high-quality photographs were taken of each sample. The top, bottom, and sides of each rock sample were photographed, along with 16 stereo image pairs taken at 45-degree intervals. Photographs were also taken whenever a sample was subdivided and when thin sections were made. This collection of lunar sample images consists of roughly 36,000 photographs; all six Apollo missions are represented.

  19. Parameters of oxidative stress status in healthy subjects: their correlations and stability after sample collection.

    PubMed

    Firuzi, Omidreza; Mladenka, Premysl; Riccieri, Valeria; Spadaro, Antonio; Petrucci, Rita; Marrosu, Giancarlo; Saso, Luciano

    2006-01-01

    It has been proposed that sample storage may have some influence on the parameters of oxidative stress status (OSS) in biological fluids. We measured four important OSS parameters in plasma of 23 healthy subjects and repeated the measurements in the same samples kept at -70 degrees C after different time intervals. Hydroperoxides and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined by ferrous ion oxidation in presence of xylenol orange (FOX) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, respectively. Sulfhydryls and carbonyls were measured spectrophotometrically. In fresh samples, OSS seemed to increase with age and relatively good correlations were found among different parameters. The mean values of hydroperoxides (6.08 microM), TAC (0.334 mM Trolox equivalent), and sulfhydryls (0.562 mM) in fresh samples did not show any significant change after 1, 7, and 30 days of storage. Mean carbonyl concentration determined after 1 day storage (2.0 nmol/mg protein) did not change after 30 days. However, extents of changes in hydroperoxide concentrations varied considerably from one individual to another, even after 1 day. A similar phenomenon was observed in TAC, but after 7 days. We suggest measuring hydroperoxides in fresh samples and TAC maximally after 1 week. Sulfhydryls and carbonyls showed more stability and can be measured at least 1 month after sample collection.

  20. Aqueous Processing of Atmospheric Organic Particles in Cloud Water Collected via Aircraft Sampling.

    PubMed

    Boone, Eric J; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Wirth, Christopher; Shepson, Paul B; Stirm, Brian H; Pratt, Kerri A

    2015-07-21

    Cloudwater and below-cloud atmospheric particle samples were collected onboard a research aircraft during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) over a forested region of Alabama in June 2013. The organic molecular composition of the samples was studied to gain insights into the aqueous-phase processing of organic compounds within cloud droplets. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) and direct infusion electrospray ionization (ESI) were utilized to compare the organic composition of the particle and cloudwater samples, respectively. Isoprene and monoterpene-derived organosulfates and oligomers were identified in both the particles and cloudwater, showing the significant influence of biogenic volatile organic compound oxidation above the forested region. While the average O:C ratios of the organic compounds were similar between the atmospheric particle and cloudwater samples, the chemical composition of these samples was quite different. Specifically, hydrolysis of organosulfates and formation of nitrogen-containing compounds were observed for the cloudwater when compared to the atmospheric particle samples, demonstrating that cloud processing changes the composition of organic aerosol.

  1. ISOLATION OF Cryptococcus neoformans FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES COLLECTED IN SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    NWEZE, Emeka I.; KECHIA, Fred A.; DIBUA, Uju E.; EZE, Charles; ONOJA, Uwakwe S.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans is the second most common fungal opportunistic pathogen and a lifethreatening infection with serious clinical manifestations especially in HIV/AIDS and other immunocompromised patients. In Nigeria, HIV/AIDS infection has reached an alarming level. Despite this, information on the presence of this fungus in clinical and environmental samples is very scanty in Nigeria and many other parts of Africa. We set out to evaluate the presence of Cryptococcus neoformans or C. gattii in pigeon droppings obtained from Southeastern Nigeria. One hundred and seventy-seven samples of pigeon droppings from six sample types were collected. The area covered comprised of ten cities and other locations spanning across five States in Nigeria. Using established techniques, Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from 39 of the 177 (22.0%) samples overall. No C. gattiiwas isolated. Most of the isolates (32.4%) were recovered from dovecotes (11 of 34) followed closely by samples taken from markets (31.8%; seven of 22) and least from the church (4.0%; one of 25). The highest isolation rate (38.9%) was found in samples from Enugu-Ezike(seven of 23) while the least came from Afikpoand the other locations each with 9.1% isolation rate. This is the first large-scale screening of Cryptococcus neoformans from pigeon droppings in Nigeria. The ecological and epidemiological significance of these findings are discussed. PMID:26422152

  2. Aqueous Processing of Atmospheric Organic Particles in Cloud Water Collected via Aircraft Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, Eric J.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Wirth, Christopher; Shepson, Paul B.; Stirm, Brian H.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2015-07-21

    Cloud water and below-cloud atmospheric particle samples were collected onboard a research aircraft during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) over a forested region of Alabama in June 2013. The organic molecular composition of the samples was studied to gain insights into the aqueous-phase processing of organic compounds within cloud droplets. High resolution mass spectrometry with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization and direct infusion electrospray ionization were utilized to compare the organic composition of the particle and cloud water samples, respectively. Isoprene and monoterpene-derived organosulfates and oligomers were identified in both the particles and cloud water, showing the significant influence of biogenic volatile organic compound oxidation above the forested region. While the average O:C ratios of the organic compounds were similar between the atmospheric particle and cloud water samples, the chemical composition of these samples was quite different. Specifically, hydrolysis of organosulfates and formation of nitrogen-containing compounds were observed for the cloud water when compared to the atmospheric particle samples, demonstrating that cloud processing changes the composition of organic aerosol.

  3. Study design in qualitative research--2: Sampling and data collection strategies.

    PubMed

    Devers, K J; Frankel, R M

    2000-01-01

    In two prior papers in our series on qualitative research [Frankel & Devers (2000a, 2000b) Qualitative research: a consumer's guide, Education for Health, 13, 113-123; Frankel & Devers (2000) Study design in qualitative research-1: developing research questions and assessing research needs, Education for Health, 13, 251-261], we examine two critical issues in qualitative research design: sampling, including identifying and negotiating access to research sites and subjects, and data collection and management. We describe these two key steps in the qualitative research design process, discuss challenges that often emerge when pursuing these steps, and provide guidelines for addressing them. Qualitative research most often uses "purposive," rather than random, sampling strategies. A good understanding of these sampling strategies and why they are used is central to designing a credible qualitative study. In addition, given the real-world context in which most qualitative research is carried out, identifying and negotiating access to research sites and subjects are critical parts of the process. We also provide suggestions for developing and maintaining productive and mutually satisfying research relationships with sites and subjects. Finally, data collection and management are often neglected subjects in qualitative research. We offer practical advice on how to collect and manage qualitative data, including factors to consider when deciding how structured the data collection process should be, the pros and cons of audio- and/or videotaping compared with note-taking, and tips for writing up field notes and document management. A forthcoming, final paper in the series will focus on qualitative data analysis and the publication of qualitative research results.

  4. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in butter samples collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Dervisoglu, Muhammed; Guvenc, Dilek; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Atmaca, Enes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of 9 organochlorine compounds (aldrin, hexachlorobenzene, 2,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, and α-, β-, and γ-HCH) in butter samples collected in the Eastern, Middle and Western Black Sea Regions of Turkey between October 2009 and June 2010. The liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the organochlorine compounds from the samples and the measurements were performed by using a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. DDT metabolites, aldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and α-, and γ-HCH were not detected in the samples but β-HCH was detected in 3 of a total of 88 samples. In the first period, only one sample from the West Black Sea Region was β-HCH positive (0.014 mg kg(-1)). The other β-HCH positive samples collected in Middle and West Black Sea Regions in the second period had a concentration of 0.066 and 0.019 mg kg(-1), respectively. All concentrations of the detected compounds exceeded the legal limits of 0.003 mg kg(-1) for β-HCH, as prescribed by the Turkish Food Codex, and therefore pose a potential health risk for consumers. The contamination detected is most likely due to the past usage of β-HCH in agriculture and its long term persistence in the environment. These results strongly suggest that further research should be focused on the detection of pesticide residues in agricultural areas across the nation.

  5. Breath-Holding Spells

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause kids to stop breathing and sometimes lose consciousness for up to a minute. In the most ... pose a choking hazard once your child regains consciousness roll your child over onto his or her ...

  6. Breathing - slowed or stopped

    MedlinePlus

    ... who is not responsive is called cardiac (or cardiopulmonary) arrest. In infants and children, the most common ... brain inflammation and infection that affects vital brain functions) Gastroesophageal reflux (heartburn) Holding one's breath Meningitis (inflammation ...

  7. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wound. Bandage such wounds at once. A "sucking" chest wound allows air to enter the person's ... things you can do to help prevent breathing problems: If you have a history of severe allergic ...

  8. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... with blood clots in the legs or pelvis (deep venous thrombosis), debilitating medical conditions, immobility, or inherited ... it hard for a person to take a deep breath, which usually results in retention of carbon ...

  9. Shortness-of-Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience of shortness ... are used to treat patients with anxiety or panic attacks. Other commonly used drugs include bronchodilators to widen ...

  10. Breath-Holding Spells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Breath-Holding ... > For Parents > Breath-Holding Spells Print A A A What's ...

  11. Changes in breath trihalomethane levels resulting from household water-use activities.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Sydney M; Brinkman, Marielle C; Ashley, David L; Blount, Benjamin C; Lyu, Christopher; Masters, John; Singer, Philip C

    2006-04-01

    Common household water-use activities such as showering, bathing, drinking, and washing clothes or dishes are potentially important contributors to individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the major class of disinfection by-products of water treated with chlorine. Previous studies have focused on showering or bathing activities. In this study, we selected 12 common water-use activities and determined which may lead to the greatest THM exposures and result in the greatest increase in the internal dose. Seven subjects performed the various water-use activities in two residences served by water utilities with relatively high and moderate total THM levels. To maintain a consistent exposure environment, the activities, exposure times, air exchange rates, water flows, water temperatures, and extraneous THM emissions to the indoor air were carefully controlled. Water, indoor air, blood, and exhaled-breath samples were collected during each exposure session for each activity, in accordance with a strict, well-defined protocol. Although showering (for 10 min) and bathing (for 14 min), as well as machine washing of clothes and opening mechanical dishwashers at the end of the cycle, resulted in substantial increases in indoor air chloroform concentrations, only showering and bathing caused significant increases in the breath chloroform levels. In the case of bromodichloromethane (BDCM), only bathing yielded a significantly higher air level in relation to the preexposure concentration. For chloroform from showering, strong correlations were observed for indoor air and exhaled breath, blood and exhaled breath, indoor air and blood, and tap water and blood. Only water and breath, and blood and breath were significantly associated for chloroform from bathing. For BDCM, significant correlations were obtained for blood and air, and blood and water from showering. Neither dibromochloromethane nor bromoform gave measurable breath concentrations for any of the activities

  12. Background levels of carbon-13 reduced in breath and stool by new infant formula.

    PubMed

    Boutton, T W; Hopkinson, J M; Benton, D A; Klein, P D

    1988-01-01

    Studies of the absorption and bioavailability of nutrients naturally enriched with 13C require accurate measurements of small increases of 13C in respiratory CO2 and stool carbon. The sensitivity of these measurements would be increased if the natural background of 13C in these excreta were reduced. We have developed a 13C-depleted infant formula based on lactose, whey, and casein from New Zealand cows that consume only C3 vegetation naturally low in 13C. This formula, designated CNRC3, was produced by a commercial infant formula manufacturer and was comparable with a 60:40 whey/casein product. To test the ability of the formula to reduce baseline levels of 13C in infant excreta, 10 formula-fed infants 28-60 days old and free of metabolic disorders were enrolled in the 9-day study. Two stool samples were collected daily. Infants received their usual formula on days 1 and 2 and were switched to CNRC3 formula for days 3-9. On days 2 and 9, seven breath samples were collected at 30-min intervals with a face mask. Breath and stool samples were analyzed for 13C content by gas isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Infants consuming their commercial formula had breath delta 13C values of -21.1 +/- 0.6% over the 3-h collection period; stool values were -22.9 +/- 0.4%. After 7 days on the CNRC3 formula, delta 13C values of breath declined by 5.6% to -26.7 +/- 0.7%; stool values declined by 3.0% to -25.6 +/- 0.5%. The reduced background of 13C achieved by the CNRC3 formula can improve resolution of excess 13C from naturally enriched substrates in infant breath by approximately 50% and in stool by approximately 30%.

  13. Seminal plasma anti-sperm antibodies and IVF: the effect of semen sample collection into 50% serum.

    PubMed

    Elder, K T; Wick, K L; Edwards, R G

    1990-02-01

    A retrospective analysis was carried out which studied IVF results for couples in whom the male partner had anti-sperm antibodies in seminal plasma, as judged by a positive MAR test. Of the 59 couples studied over a total of 113 cycles, 30 had IVF semen samples collected into sterile, dry pots. Thirty-eight of the couples had samples collected into medium containing 50% serum, and nine couples underwent separate treatment cycles with samples collected both dry and into 50% serum. The results demonstrate that the addition of serum to sample collection pots significantly improves the oocyte fertilization rate and is followed by a greater chance of conception for these couples.

  14. Estimation of actinide skeletal content in humans based on bone samples collected at autopsy.

    PubMed

    Filipy, R E; Alldredge, J R; Hall, C A; McInroy, J F; Glover, S E; Qualls, S

    2003-01-01

    The USTUR has developed simple linear and multiple regression models for estimating skeletal actinide concentrations on the basis of bone samples collected at autopsies of non-whole body tissue donors. Bone samples usually collected include a clavicle, the patella(e), one or more ribs, the sternum, and a vertebral wedge cut from within the abdominal cavity. The described models were derived by regression analyses with the analytical results from those bones and the entire skeletons of eight whole body donations to the USTUR. With the model, skeletal concentrations of 238Pu, (239+240)Pu, and 241Am can be estimated from wet or ashed actinide concentrations in one to five of the bones usually collected at autopsy and analyzed. Application of the models to a selected USTUR non-whole body donation (Case 0240) indicated that the skeletal actinide concentration estimates were reasonably precise and that there was good agreement between the results from individual bones with wet or ashed actinide concentrations. The USTUR will apply the model that is based on wet concentrations of bones to estimate skeletal concentrations of actinides in all non-whole body autopsy cases for the sake of consistency because of the large number of early cases for which ashed weights of bones were not recorded.

  15. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that u...

  16. Exhaled breath analysis for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sutedja, Tom G.; Zimmerman, Paul V.

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer results in improved survival compared to diagnosis with more advanced disease. Early disease is not reliably indicated by symptoms. Because investigations such as bronchoscopy and needle biopsy have associated risks and substantial costs, they are not suitable for population screening. Hence new easily applicable tests, which can be used to screen individuals at risk, are required. Biomarker testing in exhaled breath samples is a simple, relatively inexpensive, non-invasive approach. Exhaled breath contains volatile and non-volatile organic compounds produced as end-products of metabolic processes and the composition of such compounds varies between healthy subjects and subjects with lung cancer. Many studies have analysed the patterns of these compounds in exhaled breath. In addition studies have also reported that the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can reveal gene mutations or DNA abnormalities in patients with lung cancer. This review has summarised the scientific evidence demonstrating that lung cancer has distinct chemical profiles in exhaled breath and characteristic genetic changes in EBC. It is not yet possible to accurately identify individuals with lung cancer in at risk populations by any of these techniques. However, analysis of both volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and of EBC have great potential to become clinically useful diagnostic and screening tools for early stage lung cancer detection. PMID:24163746

  17. Conceptual study and key technology development for Mars Aeroflyby sample collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, K.; Ozawa, T.; Okudaira, K.; Mikouchi, T.; Suzuki, T.; Takayanagi, H.; Tsuda, Y.; Ogawa, N.; Tachibana, S.; Satoh, T.

    2014-01-01

    Conceptual study of Mars Aeroflyby Sample Collection (MASC) is conducted as a part of the next Mars exploration mission currently entertained in Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. In the mission scenario, an atmospheric entry vehicle is flown into the Martian atmosphere, collects the Martian dust particles as well as atmospheric gases during the guided hypersonic flight, exits the Martian atmosphere, and is inserted into a parking orbit from which a return system departs for the earth to deliver the dust and gas samples. In order to accomplish a controlled flight and a successful orbit insertion, aeroassist orbit transfer technologies are introduced into the guidance and control system. System analysis is conducted to assess the feasibility and to make a conceptual design, finding that the MASC system is feasible at the minimum system mass of 600 kg approximately. The aerogel, which is one of the candidates for the dust sample collector, is assessed by arcjet heating tests to examine its behavior when exposed to high-temperature gases, as well as by particle impingement tests to evaluate its dust capturing capability.

  18. Miniature CVD-diamond corning drills for robotic sample collection and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D. T.; Trava-Airoldi, V.J.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    Coring tools have been used etlectivelv on the Moon, but to date no such tools have been used on any other extraterrestrial surface. The lunar experience includes both manual (Apollo) and robotic (Luna) systems . These coring systems were concerned primarily with acquiring samples from depth for return to Earth or for the creation of instrument emplacement holes (e .g ., heat probes). Current designs for planetary drills differ from the lunar tools primarily in that they are integrated with robotic instrumentation for remote analysis, but the role of the drilling or coring system remains one of acquiring samples that must be extracted from the core barrel for analysis . Missing from current sample collection systems is a tool that can double as both a conng device and a sample holder. This dual utility can minimize the number of motions, the mass, and the power required for several classes of instruments in planetary surface exploration. To be effective, such a system must be durable and simple in operation. Hollow CVD diamond drills possess the hardness, excellent cutting properties, and heat resistance required for drilling into a wide variety of rocks and minerals. Because CVD diamond is also unreactive and transparent to infrared radiation and to X-rays of moderate to high energry, it can be used as a sample holder in various instruments for X-ray diffraction (XRD), Xray fluorescence (XRF), infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal analysis.

  19. Diffraction cartography: applying microbeams to macromolecular crystallography sample evaluation and data collection.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Matthew W; Guijarro, Matias; Petitdemange, Sebastien; Baker, Isabel; Svensson, Olof; Burghammer, Manfred; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph; Gordon, Elspeth J; Flot, David; McSweeney, Sean M; Leonard, Gordon A

    2010-08-01

    Crystals of biological macromolecules often exhibit considerable inter-crystal and intra-crystal variation in diffraction quality. This requires the evaluation of many samples prior to data collection, a practice that is already widespread in macromolecular crystallography. As structural biologists move towards tackling ever more ambitious projects, new automated methods of sample evaluation will become crucial to the success of many projects, as will the availability of synchrotron-based facilities optimized for high-throughput evaluation of the diffraction characteristics of samples. Here, two examples of the types of advanced sample evaluation that will be required are presented: searching within a sample-containing loop for microcrystals using an X-ray beam of 5 microm diameter and selecting the most ordered regions of relatively large crystals using X-ray beams of 5-50 microm in diameter. A graphical user interface developed to assist with these screening methods is also presented. For the case in which the diffraction quality of a relatively large crystal is probed using a microbeam, the usefulness and implications of mapping diffraction-quality heterogeneity (diffraction cartography) are discussed. The implementation of these techniques in the context of planned upgrades to the ESRF's structural biology beamlines is also presented.

  20. Comparative evaluation of vacuum-based surface sampling methods for collection of Bacillus spores

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, M. Worth; Rose, Laura J.; Morse, Stephen; Mattorano, Dino; Clayton, Matt; Touati, Abderrahmane; Griffin-Gatchalian, Nicole; Slone, Christina; McSweeney, Neal

    2016-01-01

    In this study, four commonly-used sampling devices (vacuum socks, 37 mm 0.8 μm mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filter cassettes, 37 mm 0.3 μm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter cassettes, and 3M™ forensic filters) were comparatively evaluated for their ability to recover surface-associated spores. Aerosolized spores (~105 CFU cm−2) of a Bacillus anthracis surrogate were allowed to settle onto three material types (concrete, carpet, and upholstery). Ten replicate samples were collected using each vacuum method, from each material type. Stainless steel surfaces, inoculated simultaneously with test materials, were sampled with pre-moistened wipes. Wipe recoveries were utilized to normalize vacuum-based recoveries across trials. Recovery (CFU cm−2) and relative recovery (vacuum recovery/wipe recovery) were determined for each method and material type. Recoveries and relative recoveries ranged from 3.8 × 103 to 7.4 × 104 CFU cm−2 and 0.035 to 1.242, respectively. ANOVA results indicated that the 37 mm MCE method exhibited higher relative recoveries than the other methods when used for sampling concrete or upholstery. While the vacuum sock resulted in the highest relative recoveries on carpet, no statistically significant difference was detected. The results of this study may be used to guide selection of sampling approaches following biological contamination incidents. PMID:24184017

  1. Comparative evaluation of vacuum-based surface sampling methods for collection of Bacillus spores.

    PubMed

    Calfee, M Worth; Rose, Laura J; Morse, Stephen; Mattorano, Dino; Clayton, Matt; Touati, Abderrahmane; Griffin-Gatchalian, Nicole; Slone, Christina; McSweeney, Neal

    2013-12-01

    In this study, four commonly-used sampling devices (vacuum socks, 37 mm 0.8 μm mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filter cassettes, 37 mm 0.3 μm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter cassettes, and 3M™ forensic filters) were comparatively evaluated for their ability to recover surface-associated spores. Aerosolized spores (~10(5)CFUcm(-2)) of a Bacillus anthracis surrogate were allowed to settle onto three material types (concrete, carpet, and upholstery). Ten replicate samples were collected using each vacuum method, from each material type. Stainless steel surfaces, inoculated simultaneously with test materials, were sampled with pre-moistened wipes. Wipe recoveries were utilized to normalize vacuum-based recoveries across trials. Recovery (CFUcm(-2)) and relative recovery (vacuum recovery/wipe recovery) were determined for each method and material type. Recoveries and relative recoveries ranged from 3.8 × 10(3) to 7.4 × 10(4)CFUcm(-2) and 0.035 to 1.242, respectively. ANOVA results indicated that the 37 mm MCE method exhibited higher relative recoveries than the other methods when used for sampling concrete or upholstery. While the vacuum sock resulted in the highest relative recoveries on carpet, no statistically significant difference was detected. The results of this study may be used to guide selection of sampling approaches following biological contamination incidents.

  2. Attic dust and human blood samples collected near a former wood treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Hensley, A R; Scott, A; Rosenfeld, P E; Clark, J J J

    2007-10-01

    A wood treatment facility operating in southern Alabama released dioxins and other hazardous substances into the surrounding community over a period of approximately 35 years. The facility used a variety of chemical insecticides including pentachlorophenol (PCP), chromated copper arsenate (CCA), and creosote (which contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) to treat wood. The health risks associated with the released contaminants are numerous and significant. To evaluate the historic exposure to the contaminants from the facility, blood samples and health surveys were collected from 21 current and past residents of the adjacent, isolated community and analyzed for concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (dioxins) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (furans). In addition, attic dust sampling was performed in 11 buildings located within a 1-mile radius of the former wood treatment facility. The average total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration in the residents' blood samples was 36.6 pg/g lipids. In the attic dust, the average total dioxin TEQ concentration, benzo[a]pyrene (PAH) TEQ concentration, and arsenic concentration were 145 ng/kg, 0.98 and 29.8 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of dioxins measured in the blood samples exceed the 90th percentile total dioxin levels found in the general US adult population. Concentrations of dioxin, arsenic, and PAHs found in the attic samples exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Region 4 soil exposure cancer risk preliminary remediation goal (PRG) values. These findings indicate a very significant potential for related health effects in these communities.

  3. Analysis of Breath Specimens for Biomarkers of Plasmodium falciparum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Amalia Z.; McCarthy, James S.; Wang, Rosalind X.; Saliba, Kevin J.; Bravo, Florence G.; Cassells, Julie; Padovan, Benjamin; Trowell, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the majority of diagnoses of malaria rely on a combination of the patient's clinical presentation and the visualization of parasites on a stained blood film. Breath offers an attractive alternative to blood as the basis for simple, noninvasive diagnosis of infectious diseases. In this study, breath samples were collected from individuals during controlled malaria to determine whether specific malaria-associated volatiles could be detected in breath. We identified 9 compounds whose concentrations varied significantly over the course of malaria: carbon dioxide, isoprene, acetone, benzene, cyclohexanone, and 4 thioethers. The latter group, consisting of allyl methyl sulfide, 1-methylthio-propane, (Z)-1-methylthio-1-propene, and (E)-1-methylthio-1-propene, had not previously been associated with any disease or condition. Before the availability of antimalarial drug treatment, there was evidence of concurrent 48-hour cyclical changes in the levels of both thioethers and parasitemia. When thioether concentrations were subjected to a phase shift of 24 hours, a direct correlation between the parasitemia and volatile levels was revealed. Volatile levels declined monotonically approximately 6.5 hours after initial drug treatment, correlating with clearance of parasitemia. No thioethers were detected in in vitro cultures of Plasmodium falciparum. The metabolic origin of the thioethers is not known, but results suggest that interplay between host and parasite metabolic pathways is involved in the production of these thioethers. PMID:25810441

  4. Analysis of Breath Specimens for Biomarkers of Plasmodium falciparum Infection.

    PubMed

    Berna, Amalia Z; McCarthy, James S; Wang, Rosalind X; Saliba, Kevin J; Bravo, Florence G; Cassells, Julie; Padovan, Benjamin; Trowell, Stephen C

    2015-10-01

    Currently, the majority of diagnoses of malaria rely on a combination of the patient's clinical presentation and the visualization of parasites on a stained blood film. Breath offers an attractive alternative to blood as the basis for simple, noninvasive diagnosis of infectious diseases. In this study, breath samples were collected from individuals during controlled malaria to determine whether specific malaria-associated volatiles could be detected in breath. We identified 9 compounds whose concentrations varied significantly over the course of malaria: carbon dioxide, isoprene, acetone, benzene, cyclohexanone, and 4 thioethers. The latter group, consisting of allyl methyl sulfide, 1-methylthio-propane, (Z)-1-methylthio-1-propene, and (E)-1-methylthio-1-propene, had not previously been associated with any disease or condition. Before the availability of antimalarial drug treatment, there was evidence of concurrent 48-hour cyclical changes in the levels of both thioethers and parasitemia. When thioether concentrations were subjected to a phase shift of 24 hours, a direct correlation between the parasitemia and volatile levels was revealed. Volatile levels declined monotonically approximately 6.5 hours after initial drug treatment, correlating with clearance of parasitemia. No thioethers were detected in in vitro cultures of Plasmodium falciparum. The metabolic origin of the thioethers is not known, but results suggest that interplay between host and parasite metabolic pathways is involved in the production of these thioethers.

  5. Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure with image analysis

    DOEpatents

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2011-08-09

    A system and method utilizes an image analysis approach for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance in a sampling system for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. Such an approach involves the capturing of an image of the collection instrument or the shadow thereof cast across the surface and the utilization of line average brightness (LAB) techniques to determine the actual distance between the collection instrument and the surface. The actual distance is subsequently compared to a target distance for re-optimization, as necessary, of the collection instrument-to-surface during an automated surface sampling operation.

  6. The heavy metal content of wild edible mushroom samples collected in canakkale province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cayir, Akin; Coşkun, Münevver; Coşkun, Mahmut

    2010-05-01

    In this study, concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) were determined in three edible mushroom species (Lactarius deliciosus, Russula delica, and Rhizopogon roseolus) collected in five sampling sites in Canakkale province, Turkey. Mean values of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were 0.72, 0.26, 28.34, 1.53, and 64.62 mg/kg, respectively. The highest concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were determined in species R. delica, while Cr was observed in L. deliciosus. In terms of the nutritional aspect, taking into account the concentration of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake recommended by FAO/WHO, the maximum concentration of Cd is a restrictive factor for consumption of the collected mushroom species. The concentrations of the other elements have no health risks when consumed at optimal levels.

  7. Exhaled breath condensate: determination of non-volatile compounds and their potential for clinical diagnosis and monitoring. A review.

    PubMed

    Kubáň, Petr; Foret, František

    2013-12-17

    Exhaled breath condensate is a promising, non-invasive, diagnostic sample obtained by condensation of exhaled breath. Starting from a historical perspective of early attempts of breath testing towards the contemporary state-of-the-art breath analysis, this review article focuses mainly on the progress in determination of non-volatile compounds in exhaled breath condensate. The mechanisms by which the aerosols/droplets of non-volatile compounds are formed in the airways are discussed with methodological consequences for sampling. Dilution of respiratory droplets is a major problem for correct clinical interpretation of the measured data and there is an urgent need for standardization of EBC. This applies also for collection instrumentation and therefore various commercial and in-house built devices are described and compared with regard to their design, function and collection parameters. The analytical techniques and methods for determination of non-volatile compounds as potential markers of oxidative stress and lung inflammation are scrutinized with an emphasis on method suitability, sensitivity and appropriateness. The relevance of clinical findings for each group of possible non-volatile markers of selected pulmonary diseases and methodological recommendations with emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration that is essential for future development into a fully validated clinical diagnostic tool are given.

  8. Strategy to obtain axenic cultures from field-collected samples of the cyanobacterium Phormidium animalis.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Martínez, Guadalupe; Rodriguez, Mario H; Hernández-Hernández, Fidel; Ibarra, Jorge E

    2004-04-01

    An efficient strategy, based on a combination of procedures, was developed to obtain axenic cultures from field-collected samples of the cyanobacterium Phormidium animalis. Samples were initially cultured in solid ASN-10 medium, and a crude separation of major contaminants from P. animalis filaments was achieved by washing in a series of centrifugations and resuspensions in liquid medium. Then, manageable filament fragments were obtained by probe sonication. Fragmentation was followed by forceful washing, using vacuum-driven filtration through an 8-microm pore size membrane and an excess of water. Washed fragments were cultured and treated with a sequential exposure to four different antibiotics. Finally, axenic cultures were obtained from serial dilutions of treated fragments. Monitoring under microscope examination and by inoculation in Luria-Bertani (LB) agar plates indicated either axenicity or the degree of contamination throughout the strategy.

  9. Ram-air sample collection device for a chemical warfare agent sensor

    DOEpatents

    Megerle, Clifford A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2002-01-01

    In a surface acoustic wave sensor mounted within a body, the sensor having a surface acoustic wave array detector and a micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator exposed on a surface of the body, an apparatus for collecting air for the sensor, comprising a housing operatively arranged to mount atop the body, the housing including a multi-stage channel having an inlet and an outlet, the channel having a first stage having a first height and width proximate the inlet, a second stage having a second lower height and width proximate the micro-fabricated sample preconcentrator, a third stage having a still lower third height and width proximate the surface acoustic wave array detector, and a fourth stage having a fourth height and width proximate the outlet, where the fourth height and width are substantially the same as the first height and width.

  10. Methods for collecting benthic invertebrate samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate communities are evaluated as part of the ecological survey component of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These biological data are collected along with physical and chemical data to assess water-quality conditions and to develop an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. The objectives of benthic invertebrate community characterizations are to (1) develop for each site a list of tax a within the associated stream reach and (2) determine the structure of benthic invertebrate communities within selected habitats of that reach. A nationally consistent approach is used to achieve these objectives. This approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection and methods and equipment for qualitative multihabitat sampling and semi-quantitative single habitat sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data within and among study units.

  11. Biobanks for research. Ethical and legal aspects in human biological samples collections in France.

    PubMed

    Noiville, Christine

    2012-06-01

    Because they gather huge quantities of human biological samples and information allowing for better understanding of diseases, biobanks appear as a very powerful tool for boosting both medical research and public health as a whole. Although France does not really appear as a leader in biobanking compared to China or UK, biobanks and other samples collections abound in our country and have then been regulated, even though french law does not use the term biobank as such. The present article gives an overview of the current legal framework and explores the remaining ethical and legal issues, concerning particularly the protection of donors, the sharing of biobanks content and the sharing of biobanks benefits. The article explains how these universal questions arise in this country and what answers (sometimes specific) they get or could get in the following years.

  12. Geochemistry of Rock Samples Collected from the Iron Hill Carbonatite Complex, Gunnison County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    A study conducted in 2006 by the U.S. Geological Survey collected 57 surface rock samples from nine types of intrusive rock in the Iron Hill carbonatite complex. This intrusive complex, located in Gunnison County of southwestern Colorado, is known for its classic carbonatite-alkaline igneous geology and petrology. The Iron Hill complex is also noteworthy for its diverse mineral resources, including enrichments in titanium, rare earth elements, thorium, niobium (columbium), and vanadium. This study was performed to reexamine the chemistry and metallic content of the major rock units of the Iron Hill complex by using modern analytical techniques, while providing a broader suite of elements than the earlier published studies. The report contains the geochemical analyses of the samples in tabular and digital spreadsheet format, providing the analytical results for 55 major and trace elements.

  13. RoboHound:developing sample collection and preconcentration hardware for a remote trace explosives detection system.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, David J.; Denning, David J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Lenz, Michael C.; Anderson, Robert J.; Carlson, Dennis L.; Hunter, John Anthony; Gladwell, T. Scott; Mitchell, Mary-Anne; Hannum, David W.; Baumann, Mark J.

    2005-09-01

    The RoboHound{trademark} Project was a three-year, multiphase project at Sandia National Laboratories to build and refine a working prototype trace explosive detection system as a tool for a commercial robot. The RoboHound system was envisioned to be a tool for emergency responders to test suspicious items (i.e., packages or vehicles) for explosives while maintaining a safe distance. The project investigated combining Sandia's expertise in trace explosives detection with a wheeled robotic platform that could be programmed to interrogate suspicious items remotely for the presence of explosives. All of the RoboHound field tests were successful, especially with regards to the ability to collect and detect trace samples of RDX. The project has gone from remote sampling with human intervention to a fully automatic system that requires no human intervention until the robot returns from a sortie. A proposal is being made for additional work leading towards commercialization.

  14. Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: a lion case study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sam M; Maruping, Nkabeng T; Schoultz, Darius; Smit, Travis R

    2013-05-24

    Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of people present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

  15. Metabolite and Lipid Profiling of Biobank Plasma Samples Collected Prior to Onset of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Surowiec, Izabella; Ärlestig, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective The early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is desirable to install treatment to prevent disease progression and joint destruction. Autoantibodies and immunological markers pre-date the onset of symptoms by years albeit not all patients will present these factors, even at disease onset. Additional biomarkers would be of high value to improve early diagnosis and understanding of the process, leading to disease development. Methods Plasma samples donated before the onset of RA were identified in the Biobank of Northern Sweden, a collection within national health survey programs. Thirty samples from pre-symptomatic individuals and nineteen from controls were subjected to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) metabolite and lipid profiling. Lipid and metabolite profiles discriminating samples from pre-symptomatic individuals from controls were identified after univariate and multivariate OPLS-DA based analyses. Results The OPLS-DA models including pre-symptomatic individuals and controls identified profiles differentiating between the groups that was characterized by lower levels of acyl-carnitines and fatty acids, with higher levels of lysophospatidylcholines (LPCs) and metabolites from tryptophan metabolism in pre-symptomatic individuals compared with controls. Lipid profiling showed that the majority of phospholipids and sphingomyelins were at higher levels in pre-symptomatic individuals in comparison with controls. Conclusions Our LCMS based approach demonstrated that there are changes in small molecule and lipid profiles detectable in plasma samples collected from the pre-symptomatic individuals who subsequently developed RA, which point to an up-regulation of levels of lysophospatidylcholines, and of tryptophan metabolism, perturbation of fatty acid beta-oxidation and increased oxidative stress in pre-symptomatic individuals’ years before onset of symptoms. PMID:27755546

  16. Organophosphate esters in dust samples collected from Danish homes and daycare centers.

    PubMed

    Langer, Sarka; Fredricsson, Malin; Weschler, Charles J; Bekö, Gabriel; Strandberg, Bo; Remberger, Mikael; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2016-07-01

    Organophosphates are used in a wide range of materials and consumer products and are ubiquitous in indoor environments. Certain organophosphates have been associated with various adverse health effects. The present paper reports mass fractions of organophosphates in dust samples collected from 500 bedrooms and 151 daycare centers of children living in Odense, Denmark. The identified compounds include: tris(isobutyl) phosphate (TIBP), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), triphenylphosphate (TPHP), 2-ethylhexyl-diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP). Both the number of organophosphates with median values above the limit of detection and the median values were higher for samples from daycare centers than for samples from homes. Organophosphates with median mass fractions above the limit of detection were: TCEP from homes (6.9 μg g(-1)), and TCEP (16 μg g(-1)), TCIPP (5.6 μg g(-1)), TDCIPP (7.1 μg g(-1)), TBOEP (26 μg g(-1)), TPHP (2.0 μg g(-1)) and EHDPP (2.1 μg g(-1)) from daycare centers. When present, TBOEP was typically the most abundant of the identified OPs. The sum of the organophosphate dust mass fractions measured in this study was roughly in the mid-range of summed mass fractions reported for dust samples collected in other countries. On a global scale, the geographical distribution of organophosphates in indoor dust is quite variable, with higher concentrations in industrialized countries. This trend differs from that for phthalate esters, whose geographic distribution is more homogeneous. Exposure to organophosphates via dust ingestion is relatively low, although there is considerable uncertainly in this assessment.

  17. Implementation of Fowler's method for end-tidal air sampling.

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, F; Loccioni, C; Fioravanti, M; Russo, A; Pioggia, G; Ferro, M; Roehrer, I; Tabucchi, S; Onor, M

    2008-09-01

    The design, realization and testing of a CO(2)-triggered breath sampler, capable of a separate collection of dead space and end-tidal air on multiple breaths, is presented. This sampling procedure has advantages in terms of the sample volume, insights regarding the origin of compounds, increased reproducibility and higher concentrations of compounds. The high quality of design and the speed of the components ensure a breath-by-breath estimate of dead volume, as well as the comfort and safety of the subject under test. The system represents a valid tool to contribute to the development of a standardized sampling protocol needed to compare results obtained by the various groups in this field.

  18. [Determination of proteomic and metabolic composition of exhaled breath condensate of newborns].

    PubMed

    Kononikhin, A S; Chagovets, V V; Starodubtseva, N L; Ryndin, A Y; Bugrova, A E; Kostyukevich, Y I; Popov, I A; Frankevich, V E; Ionov, O V; Sukhikh, G T; Nikolaev, E N

    2016-01-01

    Here, the possibility of proteomic and metabolomic analysis of the composition of exhaled breath condensate of neonates with respiratory support. The developed method allows non-invasive collecting sufficient amount of the material for identification of disease-specific biomarkers. Samples were collected by using a condensing device that was incorporated into the ventilation system. The collected condensate was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. The isolated substances were identified with a use of databases for proteins and metabolites. As a result, a number of compounds that compose the exhaled breath condensate was determined and can be considered as possible biomarkers of newborn diseases or stage of development.

  19. Activity concentrations of environmental samples collected in Fukushima Prefecture immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Monzen, Satoru; Osanai, Minoru; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sahoo, Sarata K.; Kovács, Tibor; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Yoshino, Hironori; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples such as surface soils, plants and water were evaluated by high purity germanium detector measurements. The contribution rate of short half-life radionuclides such as 132I to the exposure dose to residents was discussed from the measured values. The highest values of the 131I/137Cs activity ratio ranged from 49 to 70 in the environmental samples collected at Iwaki City which is located to the south of the F1-NPS. On the other hand, the 132I/131I activity ratio in the same environmental samples had the lowest values, ranging from 0.01 to 0.02. By assuming that the 132I/131I activity ratio in the atmosphere was equal to the ratio in the environmental samples, the percent contribution to the thyroid equivalent dose by 132I was estimated to be less than 2%. Moreover, the contribution to the thyroid exposure by 132I might be negligible if 132I contamination was restricted to Iwaki City. PMID:23887080

  20. Journal: A Review of Some Tracer-Test Design Equations for Tracer-Mass Estimation and Sample Collection Frequency

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of necessary tracer mass, initial sample-collection time, and subsequent sample-collection frequency are the three most difficult aspects to estimate for a proposed tracer test prior to conducting the tracer test. To facilitate tracer-mass estimation, 33 mass-estima...

  1. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.20)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting soil samples from the child's outdoor play area to measure for persistent organic pollutants. Soil samples are collected by scraping up the top 0.5 cm of soil in a 0.095 m2 (1 ft2) area in the middle of the child's play area.

  2. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF DISLODGEABLE RESIDUES -- PUF ROLLER SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.18)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method to collect transferable residues from indoor floor surfaces. The sampling procedures described are applicable to bare floors or covered floor surfaces, e.g., carpeting and vinyl flooring. The samples will be collected only in the day care centers o...

  3. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FLOOR DUST SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.19)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collecting a floor dust sample from carpet. Dust samples will be collected in the room that the child uses most at home and/or at day care using a High Volume Small Surface Sampler (HVS3). In addition, participants will also be asked to donate a ...

  4. PIXE Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosol Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Josh; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Safiq, Alexandrea; Smith, Jeremy; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2013-10-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced x-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the samples and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The PIXE experiments were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. X-Ray energy spectra were measured with a silicon drift detector and analyzed with GUPIX software to determine the elemental concentrations of the aerosols. A broad range of elements from silicon to zinc were detected with significant sulfur concentrations measured for particulate matter between 0.25 and 0.5 μm in size. The PIXE analysis will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

  5. A comparison of sampling media for environmental viable fungi collected in a hospital environment.

    PubMed

    Wu, P C; Su, H J; Ho, H M

    2000-03-01

    Quantitative evaluation of fungal exposure is often conducted by analysis of the composition of microbes in air samples and calculation of the concentrations afterward. The collecting medium that favors the growth for most saprophytic fungi is considered to be the ideal choice in most circumstances. Currently, the culture medium most frequently adopted in environmental sampling for airborne fungi is MEA (malt extract agar) recommended by the ACGIH for its suitability for most fungal growth. DG18 (dichloran glycerol-18), developed in 1980, is suggested for growth at lower water activity (a(w)=0.95) specifically and is not as commonly used in general studies. This investigation collected airborne viable fungi using a single stage/N6 Andersen impactor with MEA and DG18 agar plates attached simultaneously to the same set of samplers. The sampling locations were at 17 sites within a central air-conditioned hospital. After incubation and morphological identification, concentrations of airborne fungi and bacteria were expressed as CFU/m(3) (colony forming units/m(3)). There are 405 DG18 plates and 378 plates available for statistical analysis. Results show that the airborne fungal concentrations, shown by geometric mean (GM), are higher from the DG18 plates than from the MEA plates. The total fungal concentrations is 68.6 vs 12.94 CFU/m(3), and for Aspergillus spp., the concentration is 1.58 vs 0.72 CFU/m(3); for Penicillium spp., 3.37 vs 0.71; and for yeast, 5.09 vs 0.49 CFU/m(3). In addition, the number of different genera present is greater on the DG18 plates than on the MEA plates, on average, 2.85 types vs 1.72. This study suggests that in a hospital environment with 24-h, central air conditioning, DG18 plates appear to be more effective in collecting more fungal colonies in terms of both quantity and types of genera. Such a finding is presumed to be attributed to the characteristic of DG18 in slowing colony growth so that the dominating genus will not over occupy

  6. Combined-sewer overflow data and methods of sample collection for selected sites, Detroit, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, M.J.; Wolf, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The discharge of untreated sewage is illegal in Michigan unless permitted under Act 245 due to public health concerns. In October, 1992, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR, now the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality) issued a discharge permit to Detroit authorizing discharge from the City's 78 combined-sewer overflows (CSOs), and requiring that a long-term control plan be developed to achieve mandated waterquality standards in receiving waters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) issued a national CSO policy in April, 1994, which requires (1) operational improvements of existing systems to minimize discharges and prevent their occurrence in dry weather; (2) publicly operated treatment works (POTW) to characterize the frequency and volume of discharges; and (3) construction of CSO discharge control projects where necessary.In 1993, the Southeast Michigan Council of Governments (SEMCOG) requested assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (DWSD) and MDNR, Surface Water Quality Division, to address part of the technical data requirements for requirement 2. The USGS scope of services for this interdisciplinary, multiagency investigation consisted of collection, compilation, and interpretation of the necessary hydrologic data, and documentation of results. In addition to USGS personnel, personnel from DWSD assisted with the field collection of samples and in alerting USGS personnel to CSO effluent discharges.From October 1, 1994 through December 31, 1995, four CSOs discharging to the Detroit River in Detroit, Michigan (figure 1) were monitored to characterize storm-related water quantity and quality. Water velocity, stage, and precipitation were measured continuously and recorded at 5-minute intervals. Water-quality samples were collected at discrete times during storms and analyzed for inorganic and organic pollutants. Discharges were sampled between 30 and 78 times

  7. Ground-Water Data-Collection Protocols and Procedures for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Collection and Documentation of Water-Quality Samples and Related Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koterba, Michael T.; Wilde, Franceska D.; Lapham, Wayne W.

    1995-01-01

    Protocols for ground-water sampling are described in a report written in 1989 as part of the pilot program for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These protocols have been reviewed and revised to address the needs of the full-scale implementation of the NAWQA Program that began in 1991. This report, which is a collaborative effort between the NAWQA Program and the USGS Office of Water Quality, is the result of that review and revision. This report describes protocols and recommended procedures for the collection of water-quality samples and related data from wells for the NAWQA Program. Protocols and recommended procedures discussed include (1) equipment setup and other preparations for data collection; (2) well purging and field measurements; (3) collecting and processing ground-water-quality samples; (4) equipment decontamination; (5) quality-control sampling; and (6) sample handling and shipping.

  8. Influences of mixed expiratory sampling parameters on exhaled volatile organic compound concentrations.

    PubMed

    Thekedar, B; Oeh, U; Szymczak, W; Hoeschen, C; Paretzke, H G

    2011-03-01

    Breath gas analysis is a promising technology for medical applications. By identifying disease-specific biomarkers in the breath of patients, a non-invasive and easy method for early diagnosis or therapy monitoring can be developed. In order to achieve this goal, one essential prerequisite is the reproducibility of the method applied, i.e. the quantification of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The variability of breath gas VOC measurements can be affected by many factors. In this respect, sampling-specific parameters like flow rate and volume of exhalation, exhalation with or without breath holding, exhalation in single or multiple breathing and volume of air inhaled before breath gas exhalation can play a vital role. These factors affecting the measurements must be controlled by optimizing the sampling procedure. For such an optimization, it is important to know how exactly the different parameters affect the exhaled VOC concentrations. Therefore, a study has been undertaken in order to identify some effects of different breath sampling-specific parameters on the exhaled VOC profile using the mixed expired breath sampling technique. It was found that parameters such as filling the sampling bag with high or low flow rate of exhalation, with multiple or single exhalations, in different volumes of exhalation, with breath holding and under different surrounding air conditions significantly affect the concentrations of the exhaled VOCs. Therefore, the specific results of this work should be taken into account before planning new breath gas studies or developing new breath gas collection systems in order to minimize the number of artefacts affecting the concentration of exhaled VOCs.

  9. Gaseous contaminant distribution in the breathing zone.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Conventionally, the "breathing zone" is defined as the zone within a 0.3 m (or 10 inches) radius of a worker's nose and mouth, and it has been generally assumed that a contaminant in the breathing zone is homogeneous and its concentration is equivalent to the concentration inhaled by the worker. However, several studies have mentioned that the concentration is not uniform in the breathing zone when a worker is close to the contaminant source. In order to examine the spatial variability of contaminant concentrations in a worker's breathing zone, comparative measurements of personal exposure were carried out in a laboratory. In experiment, ethanol vapor was released in front of a model worker (human subject and mockup mannequin) and the vapor concentrations were measured at two different sampling points, at the nose and at the chest, in the breathing zone. Then, the effects of the sampling location and the body temperature on the exposure were observed. The ratios of nose concentration to chest concentration for the human subject and the mannequin were 0-0.2 and 0.12, respectively. The exposure level of the mannequin was about 5.5-9.3 times higher than that of the human subject.

  10. DISTRIBUTION COEFICIENTS (KD) GENERATED FROM A CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.

    2011-04-25

    Core samples originating from Vault 4, Cell E of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) were collected in September of 2008 (Hansen and Crawford 2009, Smith 2008) and sent to SRNL to measure chemical and physical properties of the material including visual uniformity, mineralogy, microstructure, density, porosity, distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), and chemical composition. Some data from these experiments have been reported (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). In this study, leaching experiments were conducted with a single core sample under conditions that are representative of saltstone performance. In separate experiments, reducing and oxidizing environments were targeted to obtain solubility and Kd values from the measurable species identified in the solid and aqueous leachate. This study was designed to provide insight into how readily species immobilized in saltstone will leach from the saltstone under oxidizing conditions simulating the edge of a saltstone monolith and under reducing conditions, targeting conditions within the saltstone monolith. Core samples were taken from saltstone poured in December of 2007 giving a cure time of nine months in the cell and a total of thirty months before leaching experiments began in June 2010. The saltstone from Vault 4, Cell E is comprised of blast furnace slag, class F fly ash, portland cement, and Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) Batch 2 salt solution. The salt solution was previously analyzed from a sample of Tank 50 salt solution and characterized in the 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) report (Zeigler and Bibler 2009). Subsequent to Tank 50 analysis, additional solution was added to the tank solution from the Effluent Treatment Project as well as from inleakage from Tank 50 pump bearings (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). Core samples were taken from three locations and at three depths at each location using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit (1-1, 1-2, 1-3; 2-1, 2-2, 2-3; 3-1, 3-2, 3-3) (Hansen and

  11. Detection of hepatitis E virus in samples of animal origin collected in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Forgách, Petra; Nowotny, Norbert; Erdélyi, Károly; Boncz, Attila; Zentai, János; Szucs, György; Reuter, Gábor; Bakonyi, Tamás

    2010-07-14

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an enterically transmitted human pathogen. HEV infections are mainly associated with acute, self-limited, icteric hepatitis with an average mortality rate of 1%. Animal reservoirs are considered to play an important role in the maintenance of the virus and in the spread of HEV to humans. HEV-induced seroconversion was described in several species, however clinical hepatitis in animals has not been observed to date. HEV strains from animals are genetically closely related to human HEV isolates, which supports the opinions on the zoonotic transmission of the virus. In this expansive study the occurrence of HEV was investigated in Hungarian wild and domesticated animal samples. HEV RNA was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in liver samples of wild boars, roe deer, and deer. The investigations of domestic swine samples detected HEV in 39% of the investigated Hungarian pig farms. Simultaneous investigation revealed no definite difference between liver and faeces samples of domestic pigs in the frequency of HEV positivity. The highest (36%) incidence of HEV infection was found among the 11-16-week-old pigs. Samples from domestic cattle and rodents collected in pig farms, forests and meadows were tested negative for HEV RNA. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences amplified within the ORF1 and ORF2 regions of selected strains revealed that the detected viruses belong to three subgroups of the third genogroup of HEV, and are closely related to human and swine HEV strains detected in different countries. The investigations revealed widespread distribution of HEV in Hungarian wild ungulate and domesticated swine populations, with considerable genetic diversity among the strains.

  12. GC-Based Techniques for Breath Analysis: Current Status, Challenges, and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mingjun; Tang, Zhentao; Duan, Yixiang; Liu, Yong

    2016-07-03

    Breath analysis is a noninvasive diagnostic method that profiles a person's physical state by volatile organic compounds in the breath. It has huge potential in the field of disease diagnosis. In order to offer opportunities for practical applications, various GC-based techniques have been investigated for on-line breath analysis since GC is the most preferred technique for mixed gas separation. This article reviews the development of breath analysis and GC-based techniques in basic breath research, involving sampling methods, preconcentration methods, conventional GC-based techniques, and newly developed GC techniques for breath analysis. The combination of GC and newly developed detection techniques takes advantages of the virtues of each. In addition, portable GC or micro GC are poised to become field GC-based techniques in breath analysis. Challenges faced in GC-based techniques for breath analysis are discussed candidly. Effective cooperation of experts from different fields is urgent to promote the development of breath analysis.

  13. Preparation of polyethylene sacks for collection of precipitation samples for chemical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroder, L.J.; Bricker, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Polyethylene sacks are used to collect precipitation samples. Washing polyethylene with acetone, hexane, methanol, or nitric acid can change the adsorptive characteristics of the polyethylene. In this study, simulated precipitation at pH 4.5 was in contact with the polyethylene sacks for 21 days; subsamples were removed for chemical analysis at 7, 14, and 21 days after intitial contact. Sacks washed with acetone adsorbed iron and lithium; sacks washed with hexane adsorbed barium, iron , and lithium; sacks washed with methanol adsorbed calcium and iron; and sacks washed with 0.30 N nitric acid adsorbed iron. Leaching the plastic sacks with 0.15 N nitric acid did not result in 100-percent recovery of any of the adsorbed metals. Washing polyethylene sacks with dilute nitric acid caused the pH of the simulated precipitation to be decreased by 0.2 pH unit after 1 week of contact with the polyethylene. The specific conductance increased by 10 microsiemens per centimeter. Contamination of precipitation samples by lead was determined to be about 0.1 microgram per liter from contact with precleaned polyethylene sacks. No measurable contamination of precipitation samples by zinc occurred. (USGS)

  14. Volatile organic components of air samples collected from Vertical Launch Missile capsules. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Tappan, D.V.; Knight, D.R.; Heyder, E.; Weathersby, P.K.

    1988-09-27

    Gas chromatographic/mass spectroscopic analyses are presented for the volatile organic components found in air samples collected from the inboard vents from Vertical Launch System (VLS) missile capsules aboard a 688 class submarine. Similar analyses were also conducted for a sample of the ship's high pressure air used to fill the missile tubes. A wide variety of organics was detected in the air from the missile capsules; and while no unique components have yet been identified, a significant contribution has been shown to be made by pressure-ventilation of the VLS capsules into the submarine atmosphere which is already heavily laden with volatile organic compounds. The most apparent conclusion from these preliminary analyses is that the mixtures of organic components in the air within VLS missile capsules vary greatly from capsule to capsule (and probably from time to time). Many such samples need to be investigated to provide sufficient information to judge the seriousness of the possibility of venting toxic components into the submarine atmosphere during the maintenance or firing of VLS missiles.

  15. Guidance Regarding Sample Collection and Refinement of Fecal Flotation Exam for the Isolation of Aspiculuris tetraptera.

    PubMed

    Goodroe, Anna E; Baxter, Victoria K; Watson, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Aspiculuris tetraptera continues to be a problem in rodent vivaria, in part due to difficulties in parasite detection. Although PCR testing is highly sensitive, it is expensive and does not always provide immediate results. Consequently, many institutions rely on passive fecal flotation as a quick inhouse exam for diagnosing A. tetraptera infections. To increase the sensitivity of this test, we examined multiple parameters to determine the optimal test protocol. A 30-min soaking period prior to fecal flotation for 15 min allowed fecal pellets to soften and facilitated efficient egg isolation. We also evaluated the effect of time of day, sample size, age, sex, and housing status on egg isolation. No evidence of cyclical egg shedding was found, and although larger fecal sample sizes did not result in more eggs isolated, their use reduced the incidence of false-negative exams. The most eggs were isolated from 8- and 12-wk-old mice, and as mice aged, the number of eggs isolated declined. Overall, neither sex nor housing status influenced the number of eggs isolated. Finally, examination of multiple diagnostic tests (fecal flotation exam, direct examination of cecal and colonic contents, and fecal PCR) revealed that no single test was definitive, thus indicating that multiple tests might be required to successfully screen mice with low pinworm burdens. These findings provide guidance regarding sample selection, collection, and processing to efficiently detect A. tetraptera.

  16. Analytical results from samples collected during coal-bed methane exploration drilling in Caldwell Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, Peter D.; Breland, F. Clayton; Hackley, Paul C.; Dulong, Frank T.; Nichols, Douglas J.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Bustin, R. Marc; Barker, Charles E.; Willett, Jason C.; Trippi, Michael H.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, and 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Louisiana Geological Survey (LGS), through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Devon SFS Operating, Inc. (Devon), participated in an exploratory drilling and coring program for coal-bed methane in north-central Louisiana. The USGS and LGS collected 25 coal core and cuttings samples from two coal-bed methane test wells that were drilled in west-central Caldwell Parish, Louisiana. The purpose of this report is to provide the results of the analytical program conducted on the USGS/LGS samples. The data generated from this project are summarized in various topical sections that include: 1. molecular and isotopic data from coal gas samples; 2. results of low-temperature ashing and X-ray analysis; 3. palynological data; 4. down-hole temperature data; 5. detailed core descriptions and selected core photographs; 6. coal physical and chemical analytical data; 7. coal gas desorption results; 8. methane and carbon dioxide coal sorption data; 9. coal petrographic results; and 10. geophysical logs.

  17. Guidance Regarding Sample Collection and Refinement of Fecal Flotation Exam for the Isolation of Aspiculuris tetraptera

    PubMed Central

    Goodroe, Anna E; Baxter, Victoria K; Watson, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Aspiculuris tetraptera continues to be a problem in rodent vivaria, in part due to difficulties in parasite detection. Although PCR testing is highly sensitive, it is expensive and does not always provide immediate results. Consequently, many institutions rely on passive fecal flotation as a quick inhouse exam for diagnosing A. tetraptera infections. To increase the sensitivity of this test, we examined multiple parameters to determine the optimal test protocol. A 30-min soaking period prior to fecal flotation for 15 min allowed fecal pellets to soften and facilitated efficient egg isolation. We also evaluated the effect of time of day, sample size, age, sex, and housing status on egg isolation. No evidence of cyclical egg shedding was found, and although larger fecal sample sizes did not result in more eggs isolated, their use reduced the incidence of false-negative exams. The most eggs were isolated from 8- and 12-wk-old mice, and as mice aged, the number of eggs isolated declined. Overall, neither sex nor housing status influenced the number of eggs isolated. Finally, examination of multiple diagnostic tests (fecal flotation exam, direct examination of cecal and colonic contents, and fecal PCR) revealed that no single test was definitive, thus indicating that multiple tests might be required to successfully screen mice with low pinworm burdens. These findings provide guidance regarding sample selection, collection, and processing to efficiently detect A. tetraptera. PMID:27657708

  18. Temporal and spatial trends of chemical composition of wet deposition samples collected in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiner, Elisabeth; Kasper-Giebl, Anne; Lohninger, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Triggered by the occurrence of acid rain a sampling network for the collection of wet deposition samples was initiated in Austria in the early 1980s. Now the data set covers a time period of slightly more than 30 years for the stations being operable since the beginning. Sampling of rain water and snow was and is performed with Wet and Dry Only Samplers (WADOS) on a daily basis. Chemical analysis of rain water and snow samples comprised anions (chloride, nitrate, sulfate) and cations (sodium, ammonium, potassium, calcium and magnesium) as well as pH and electrical conductivity. Here we evaluate and discuss temporal trends of both, ion concentrations and wet deposition data for twelve sampling stations, which were operable for most of the observation period of 30 years. As expected concentrations and wet deposition loads of sulfate and acidity decreased significantly during the last three decades - which is also reflected by a strong decrease of sulfur emissions in Austria and neighboring countries. Regarding nitrate the decrease of concentrations and wet deposition loads is less pronounced. Again this is in accordance with changes in emission data. In case of ammonium even less stations showed a significant decrease of annual average concentrations and depositions. Reasons for that might be twofold. On one hand emissions of ammonia did not decrease as strongly as e.g. sulfur emissions. Furthermore local sources will be more dominant and can influence the year to year variability. Seasonality of ion concentrations and deposition loads were investigated using Fourier analysis. Sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity and also precipitation amount showed characteristic seasonal patterns for most of the sites and for concentrations as well as deposition loads. However the maxima in ion concentrations and deposition loads were observed during different times of the year. Concentrations of basic cations and chloride, on the contrary, hardly showed any seasonality. However, as

  19. The TEAM (Total Exposure Assessment Methodology) Study: personal exposures to toxic substances in air, drinking water, and breath of 400 residents of New Jersey, North Carolina, and North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Wallace, L A; Pellizzari, E D; Hartwell, T D; Sparacino, C; Whitmore, R; Sheldon, L; Zelon, H; Perritt, R

    1987-08-01

    EPA's TEAM Study has measured exposures to 20 volatile organic compounds in personal air, outdoor air, drinking water, and breath of approximately 400 residents of New Jersey, North Carolina, and North Dakota. All residents were selected by a probability sampling scheme to represent 128,000 inhabitants of Elizabeth and Bayonne, New Jersey, 131,000 residents of Greensboro, North Carolina, and 7000 residents of Devils Lake, North Dakota. Participants carried a personal monitor to collect two 12-hr air samples and gave a breath sample at the end of the day. Two consecutive 12-hr outdoor air samples were also collected on identical Tenax cartridges in the backyards of some of the participants. About 5000 samples were collected, of which 1500 were quality control samples. Ten compounds were often present in personal air and breath samples at all locations. Personal exposures were consistently higher than outdoor concentrations for these chemicals and were sometimes 10 times the outdoor concentrations. Indoor sources appeared to be responsible for much of the difference. Breath concentrations also often exceeded outdoor concentrations and correlated more strongly with personal exposures than with outdoor concentrations. Some activities (smoking, visiting dry cleaners or service stations) and occupations (chemical, paint, and plastics plants) were associated with significantly elevated exposures and breath levels for certain toxic chemicals. Homes with smokers had significantly increased benzene and styrene levels in indoor air. Residence near major point sources did not affect exposure.

  20. Breath hydrogen reflects canine intestinal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Perman, J A; Waters, L A; Harrison, M R; Yee, E S; Heldt, G P

    1981-09-01

    The relationship between breath hydrogen excretion and intestinal ischemia was investigated in nine mechanically ventilated dogs under pentobarbital anesthesia. An ileal segment was isolated in situ, ligated at each end, and insufflated with hydrogen. Expired air was collected at intervals. Blood volume was reduced 30% by three successive equivalent hemorrhages 10 min apart. Local bowel ischemia was produced by clamping the blood supply to the isolated segment for 10 min. Graded hemorrhage produced step-wise reductions in breath hydrogen concentration, to 77 +/- 13, 66 +/- 15, and 35 +/- 8% (mean +/- S.E.) of baseline after the first, second, and third hemorrhages, respectively. These reductions correlated highly (r = 0.84; P less than 0.01) with declines in mean aortic blood pressure. Occlusion of blood supply caused a significant (P less than 0.025) decrease in breath hydrogen concentration and excretion to 39 +/- 14% of baseline. Termination of occlusion was followed within 2 min by a 7-fold increase in breath H2 concentration above the original baseline, probably reflecting reactive hyperemia. Breath hydrogen measurements appear to reflect functional (hemorrhagic shock-induced) and mechanical (vascular occlusion induced) enteric ischemia in dogs.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A TAMPER RESISTANT/INDICATING AEROSOL COLLECTION SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AT BULK HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.

    2012-06-06

    Environmental sampling has become a key component of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards approaches since its approval for use in 1996. Environmental sampling supports the IAEA's mission of drawing conclusions concerning the absence of undeclared nuclear material or nuclear activities in a Nation State. Swipe sampling is the most commonly used method for the collection of environmental samples from bulk handling facilities. However, augmenting swipe samples with an air monitoring system, which could continuously draw samples from the environment of bulk handling facilities, could improve the possibility of the detection of undeclared activities. Continuous sampling offers the opportunity to collect airborne materials before they settle onto surfaces which can be decontaminated, taken into existing duct work, filtered by plant ventilation, or escape via alternate pathways (i.e. drains, doors). Researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been working to further develop an aerosol collection technology that could be installed at IAEA safeguarded bulk handling facilities. The addition of this technology may reduce the number of IAEA inspector visits required to effectively collect samples. The principal sample collection device is a patented Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (ACE) which utilizes electrostatic precipitation principles to deposit particulates onto selected substrates. Recent work has focused on comparing traditional swipe sampling to samples collected via an ACE system, and incorporating tamper resistant and tamper indicating (TRI) technologies into the ACE system. Development of a TRI-ACE system would allow collection of samples at uranium/plutonium bulk handling facilities in a manner that ensures sample integrity and could be an important addition to the international nuclear safeguards inspector's toolkit. This work was supported by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), Office

  2. Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure using a laser sensor

    DOEpatents

    Van Berkel, Gary J [Clinton, TN; Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-21

    A system and method utilizes distance-measuring equipment including a laser sensor for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance during a sample collection process for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. The laser sensor is arranged in a fixed positional relationship with the collection instrument, and a signal is generated by way of the laser sensor which corresponds to the actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface. The actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface is compared to a target distance between the laser sensor and the surface when the collection instrument is arranged at a desired distance from the surface for sample collecting purposes, and adjustments are made, if necessary, so that the actual distance approaches the target distance.

  3. The Consistency of Isotopologues of Ambient Atmospheric Nitric Acid in Passively Collected Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, M. D.; Sickman, J. O.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Padgett, P.; Allen, E. B.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic sources of nitrogen oxides have previously been shown to have distinctive isotopic signatures of oxygen and nitrogen. Nylon filters are currently used in passive sampling arrays to measure ambient atmospheric nitric acid concentrations and estimate deposition rates. This experiment measured the ability of nylon filters to consistently collect isotopologues of atmospheric nitric acid in the same ratios as they are present in the atmosphere. Samplers were deployed in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and at field sites across a nitrogen deposition gradient in Southern California. Filters were exposed over a four week period with individual filters being subjected to 1-4 week exposure times. Extracted nitric acid were measured for δ18O and δ15N ratios and compared for consistency based on length of exposure and amount of HNO3 collected. Filters within the CSTRs collected HNO3 at a consistent rate in both high and low concentration chambers. After two weeks of exposure, the mean δ18O values were within 0.5‰ of the δ18O of the source HNO3 solution. The mean of all weekly exposures were within 0.5‰ of the δ15N of the source solution, but after three weeks, the mean δ15N of adsorbed HNO3 was within 0.2‰. As the length of the exposure increased, the variability of measured delta values decreased for both elements. The field samplers collected HNO3 consistent with previously measured values along a deposition gradient. The mean δ18O at high deposition sites was 52.2‰ compared to 35.7‰ at the low deposition sites. Mean δ15N values were similar at all sites across the deposition gradient. Due to precipitation events occurring during the exposure period, the δ15N and δ18O of nitric acid were highly variable at all field sites. At single sites, changes in δ15N and δ18O were negatively correlated, consistent with two-sourcing mixing dynamics, but the slope of the regressions differed between high and low deposition sites. Anthropogenic

  4. Human Exploration of Near-Earth Asteroids and Sample Collection Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In 2009 the Augustine Commission identified near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) as high profile destinations for human exploration missions beyond the Earth-Moon system as part of the Flexible Path. Subsequently, the U.S. presidential administration directed NASA on April 15, 2010 to include NEAs as destinations for future human exploration with the goal of sending astronauts to a NEA in the mid to late 2020s. This directive became part of the official National Space Policy of the United States of America as of June 28, 2010. Human Exploration Considerations: These missions would be the first human expeditions to interplanetary bodies beyond the Earth-Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars, Phobos and Deimos, and other Solar System destinations. Missions to NEAs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. However, prior to sending human explorers to NEAs, robotic investigations of these bodies would be required in order to maximize operational efficiency and reduce mission risk. These precursor missions to NEAs would fill crucial strategic knowledge gaps concerning their physical characteristics that are relevant for human exploration of these relatively unknown destinations. Sample Science Benefits: Information obtained from a human investigation of a NEA, together with ground-based observations and prior spacecraft investigations of asteroids and comets, will also provide a real measure of ground truth to data obtained from terrestrial meteorite collections. Major advances in the areas of geochemistry, impact history, thermal history, isotope analyses, mineralogy, space weathering, formation ages, thermal inertias, volatile content, source regions, solar system formation, etc. can be expected from human NEA missions. Samples directly returned from a

  5. Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon oil spill samples collected from Alabama shoreline.

    PubMed

    Mulabagal, V; Yin, F; John, G F; Hayworth, J S; Clement, T P

    2013-05-15

    We compare the chromatographic signatures of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon (DH) source oil, three other reference crude oils, DH emulsified mousse that arrived on Alabama's shoreline in June 2010, and seven tar balls collected from Alabama beaches from 2011 to 2012. Characteristic hopane and sterane fingerprints show that all the tar ball samples originated from DH oil. In addition, the diagnostic ratios of various hopanes indicate an excellent match. Quantitation data for C₃₀αβ-hopane concentration levels show that most of the weathering observed in DH-related tar balls found on Alabama's beaches is likely the result of natural evaporation and dissolution that occurred during transport across the Gulf of Mexico prior to beach deposition. Based on the physical and biomarker characterization data presented in this study we conclude that virtually all fragile, sticky, brownish tar balls currently found on Alabama shoreline originated from the DH oil spill.

  6. Lessons Learned for Geologic Data Collection and Sampling: Insights from the Desert RATS 2010 Geologist Crewmembers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurtado, J. M., Jr.; Bleacher, J. E.; Rice, J.; Young, K.; Garry, W. B.; Eppler, D.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997, Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) has conducted hardware and operations tests in the Arizona desert that advance human and robotic planetary exploration capabilities. D-RATS 2010 (8/31-9/13) simulated geologic traverses through a terrain of cinder cones, lava flows, and underlying sedimentary units using a pair of crewed rovers and extravehicular activities (EVAs) for geologic fieldwork. There were two sets of crews, each consisting of an engineer/commander and an experienced field geologist drawn from the academic community. A major objective of D-RATS was to examine the functions of a science support team, the roles of geologist crewmembers, and protocols, tools, and technologies needed for effective data collection and sample documentation. Solutions to these problems must consider how terrestrial field geology must be adapted to geologic fieldwork during EVAs

  7. Efficient isolation of multiphoton processes and detection of collective resonances in dilute samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruder, Lukas; Binz, Marcel; Stienkemeier, Frank

    2015-11-01

    A phase modulation technique to sensitively and selectively isolate multiple-quantum coherences in a femtosecond pump-probe setup is presented. By detecting incoherent observables and incorporating lock-in amplification, even weak signals of highly dilute samples can be acquired. Applying this method, efficient isolation of one- and two-photon quantum beats in a rubidium-doped helium droplet beam experiment is demonstrated and collective resonances are observed in a potassium vapor for the first time up to fourth order. Our approach provides promising perspectives for coherent time-resolved experiments in the deep UV and multidimensional spectroscopy schemes, in particular when mass-selective detection of particles in dilute gas-phase targets is possible.

  8. Floating sample-collection platform with stage-activated automatic water sampler for streams with large variation in stage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarte, Stephen R.; Schmidt, A.R.; Sullivan, Daniel J.

    1992-01-01

    A floating sample-collection platform is described for stream sites where the vertical or horizontal distance between the stream-sampling point and a safe location for the sampler exceed the suction head of the sampler. The platform allows continuous water sampling over the entire storm-runoff hydrogrpah. The platform was developed for a site in southern Illinois.

  9. Single-breath analysis using a novel simple sampler and capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection.

    PubMed

    Greguš, Michal; Foret, František; Kubáň, Petr

    2015-02-01

    The analysis of ionic content of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) from one single breath by CE with C(4) D is demonstrated for the first time. A miniature sampler made from a 2-mL syringe and an aluminum cooling cylinder for collection of EBC was developed. Various parameters of the sampler that influence its collection efficiency, repeatability, and effect of respiratory patterns were studied in detail. Efficient procedures for the cleanup of the miniature sampler were also developed and resulted in significant improvement of sampling repeatability. Analysis of EBC was performed by CE-C(4) D in a 60 mM MES/l-histidine BGE with 30 μM CTAB and 2 mM 18-crown-6 at pH 6 and excellent repeatability of migration times (RSD < 1.3% (n = 7)) and peak areas (RSD < 7% (n = 7)) of 12 inorganic anions, cations, and organic acids was obtained. It has been shown that the breathing pattern has a significant impact on the concentration of the analytes in the collected EBC. As the ventilatory pattern can be easily controlled during single exhalation, the developed collection system and method provides a highly reproducible and fast way of collecting EBC with applicability in point-of-care diagnostics.

  10. Comparison of glucose determinations on blood samples collected in three types of tubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Geling; Cabanero, Michael; Wang, Zhenglong; Wang, Huiying; Huang, Tao; Alexis, Herol; Eid, Ikram; Muth, Gilad; Pincus, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Because of the metabolism of serum glucose in collection tubes containing blood samples, serum glucose levels may be found to decrease over time. Several types of collection tubes have been designed to, at least partially, block glucose metabolism by red blood cells in blood collection tubes that may not be analyzed immediately after blood collection. These include red-top collection tubes with serum separator, grey-top tubes with a fluoride glycolysis inhibitor, and heparin-containing green-top tubes which prevent clot formation. As part of a quality assurance project, we investigated whether glucose levels differed in the three tube types from each of 18 volunteers on a prolonged standing of 4 hours. We then determined the glucose concentrations of all three tubes from each of the 18 volunteers. We used refrigerated samples over a five-day period to determine if the initial values were reproducible. Surprisingly, after standing for four hours at room temperature, we found that the glucose levels in the three tubes from each volunteer were statistically indistinguishable from one another using the two-tailed paired t-test. Also, a linear regression analysis showed that the values of glucose for the three pairs of two tube types were closely correlated with one another, with correlation coefficients of >0.97, slopes close to 1, and Y-intercepts close to 0. These results suggest that blood collection in any of these tubes will render similar values for serum glucose even after standing for four hours. The tubes were then refrigerated at 4°C and re-analyzed after another six hours and then once per day for the next four days. Beginning at the first day at the six-hour determination, the glucose levels in the red- and grey-top tubes were statistically indistinguishable from one another but not in the red- and green-top tubes and in the grey- and green-top tubes. This was due to a steady decrease in the glucose levels in the green-top tubes. The glucose levels in the

  11. Gene Expression Analysis of the Irrigation Solution Samples Collected during Vitrectomy for Idiopathic Epiretinal Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Myojin, Sayaka; Yoshida, Shigeo; Takeda, Atsunobu; Murakami, Yusuke; Kawano, Yoichi; Oshima, Yuji; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The analysis of gene expression in idiopathic epiretinal membranes (iERMs) may help elucidate ERM formation and its pathology. Here, we conducted a case-control study, in order to determine the expression levels of cytokines and other genes in eyes with macular hole (MH) or iERM. Methods Twenty eyes, obtained from seven male and 13 female patients, were included in the study. The average age of the study subjects was 69.1 ± 7.67 years, and 15 eyes had iERM, while five eyes had MH. Irrigation solution samples were collected during vitrectomy, centrifuged, and the levels of cytokine and other mRNAs in the sediment were assessed using real-time PCR. The expression level of 11 cytokine genes, four transcription factor genes, two cytoskeletal genes, and genes encoding two extracellular matrix proteins in eyes with MH or iERM were determined and compared. Results The expression levels of interleukin 6 (IL6), tumor growth factor B2 (TGFB2), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1), v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (RELA), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and tenascin C (TNC) were significantly higher in eyes with iERM than in eyes with MH. The expression of these genes was not associated with the preoperative visual acuity of the investigated patients. Conclusions The obtained results indicate that real-time PCR analysis of irrigation solution samples collected during vitrectomy can help assess the expression levels of several genes, and that iERM is associated with the expression of pro-inflammatory genes and the genes expressed during angiogenesis and wound healing process (IL6, TGFB2, VEGFA, CXCL1, RELA, GFAP, and TNC). PMID:27736918

  12. Magnetic Properties of Lunar Samples: an Exhaustive Survey of the Apollo Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, J.; Andrade Lima, E.; Rochette, P.; Weiss, B. P.; Uehara, M.; Quesnel, Y.; Baratchart, L.; Leblond, J.; Chevillard, S.

    2014-12-01

    Detailed paleomagnetic studies of lunar samples shed light on the existence and timing of the ancient lunar dynamo, with insights to the inner structure and thermal evolution of the Moon, as well as constraints for the lunar dynamo models [e.g., 1-6]. However these studies are usually performed on small cm-scale samples, typically below 100 mg. Such a small size, combined with anisotropy and other spurious effects have been shown to be the source of additional complexity [7]. We measured the natural remanent magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of 105 large Apollo samples (mass range 40 g to 2.9 kg, median mass 350 g). For this, following the approach utilized for the initial paleomagnetic evaluation of Apollo 11 samples [8], we developed a dedicated magnetometer using a fluxgate sensor and a rotating stage, which allowed measuring the bulk samples in their original Teflon and aluminum packaging under nitrogen atmosphere. Despite a number of caveats (no demagnetization steps, existence of viscous magnetization and other soft secondary magnetization), the ratio of natural remanent magnetization to susceptibility gives a rough estimate of the paleointensity. The evolution of the paleointensity with the estimated age of the samples will provide a broad picture of the evolution of the lunar dynamo. Susceptibility, as a proxy to the bulk metal content in lunar rocks [9], is also a valuable source of information per se but is currently available only for a small fraction of the Apollo collection. Our survey will allow identification of rocks with unusual magnetic properties, and therefore potentially unusual petrogenesis. References: [1] Fuller & Cisowski 1987. In Jacobs (Ed.) Geomagnetism, 307-455 [2] Garrick-Bethell et al. 2009. Science 323:356-359 [3] Cournède et al. 2012. EPSL 33:31-42 [4] Shea et al. 2012. Science 335:453-456 [5] Suavet et al. 2013. PNAS 110:8453-8456 [6] Tikoo et al. 2014. EPSL in press [7] Tikoo et al. 2012. EPSL 337:93-103 [8] Doell & Gromm

  13. Interpretation of the breath hydrogen profile obtained after ingesting a solid meal containing unabsorbable carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Read, N W; Al-Janabi, M N; Bates, T E; Holgate, A M; Cann, P A; Kinsman, R I; McFarlane, A; Brown, C

    1985-08-01

    The extent to which monitoring breath hydrogen excretion provides information concerning the entry of the residues of a solid test meal into the colon was investigated in 89 normal subjects, and 11 patients with the irritable bowel syndrome. The profile of breath hydrogen concentration showed an early peak, that occurred soon after ingesting the test meal in 89% subjects. This was followed by a later more prolonged rise in breath hydrogen concentration. The early peak occurred well before a radioactive marker, incorporated in the test meal, reached the caecum and the data suggest it was predominantly caused by the emptying of the remnants of the previous meal from the ileum into the colon. This hypothesis was supported by direct measurements of the rate of delivery of ileostomy effluent in 12 subjects with terminal ileostomies. Fermentation of carbohydrate in the mouth may, however, contribute to the initial peak, but this contribution may be avoided by collecting gas samples from the nares. The secondary rise in breath hydrogen excretion was closely correlated with the arrival of the radioactive marker in the caecum (r = 0.91), p less than 0.001), though the time, at which the secondary peak of breath hydrogen excretion occurred was poorly correlated with the time that all the radioactive test meal had entered the colon. When lactulose was infused directly into the colon, as little as 0.5 g produced a discernible hydrogen response, which occurred within two minutes of the infusion. Increasing the rate of colonic infusion of a 50 ml solution of 10% lactulose from 0.02 to 0.15 g/min in five subjects significantly increased the breath hydrogen concentration. At infusion rates below 0.075 g lactulose/minute, the peak breath hydrogen response preceded the end ot the infusion, while at higher rates of infusion, the peak hydrogen response occurred after the end of the infusion. Although these results confirmed that monitoring breath hydrogen concentration usefully

  14. Training in metabolomics research. I. Designing the experiment, collecting and extracting samples and generating metabolomics data

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Stephen; Benton, H. Paul; Casazza, Krista; Cooper, Sara J.; Cui, Xiangqin; Du, Xiuxia; Engler, Jeffrey; Kabarowski, Janusz H.; Li, Shuzhao; Pathmasiri, Wimal; Prasain, Jeevan K.; Renfrow, Matthew B.; Tiwari, Hemant K.

    2016-01-01

    The study of metabolism has had a long history. Metabolomics, a systems biology discipline representing analysis of known and unknown pathways of metabolism, has grown tremendously over the past 20 years. Because of its comprehensive nature, metabolomics requires careful consideration of the question(s) being asked, the scale needed to answer the question(s), collection and storage of the sample specimens, methods for extraction of the metabolites from biological matrices, the analytical method(s) to be employed and the quality control of the analyses, how collected data are correlated, the statistical methods to determine metabolites undergoing significant change, putative identification of metabolites and the use of stable isotopes to aid in verifying metabolite identity and establishing pathway connections and fluxes. The National Institutes of Health Common Fund Metabolomics Program was established in 2012 to stimulate interest in the approaches and technologies of metabolomics. To deliver one of the program’s goals, the University of Alabama at Birmingham has hosted an annual 4-day short course in metabolomics for faculty, postdoctoral fellows and graduate students from national and international institutions. This paper is the first part of a summary of the training materials presented in the course to be used as a resource for all those embarking on metabolomics research. PMID:27434804

  15. Handbook: Collecting Groundwater Samples from Monitoring Wells in Frenchman Flat, CAU 98

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Jenny; Lyles, Brad; Cooper, Clay; Hershey, Ron; Healey, John

    2015-06-01

    Frenchman Flat basin on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) contains Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 98, which is comprised of ten underground nuclear test locations. Environmental management of these test locations is part of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended) with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the State of Nevada. A Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been approved for CAU 98 (DOE, 2011). The CADD/CAP reports on the Corrective Action Investigation that was conducted for the CAU, which included characterization and modeling. It also presents the recommended corrective actions to address the objective of protecting human health and the environment. The recommended corrective action alternative is “Closure in Place with Modeling, Monitoring, and Institutional Controls.” The role of monitoring is to verify that Contaminants of Concern (COCs) have not exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) limits (Code of Federal Regulations, 2014) at the regulatory boundary, to ensure that institutional controls are adequate, and to monitor for changed conditions that could affect the closure conditions. The long-term closure monitoring program will be planned and implemented as part of the Closure Report stage after activities specified in the CADD/CAP are complete. Groundwater at the NNSS has been monitored for decades through a variety of programs. Current activities were recently consolidated in an NNSS Integrated Sampling Plan (DOE, 2014). Although monitoring directed by the plan is not intended to meet the FFACO long-term monitoring requirements for a CAU (which will be defined in the Closure Report), the objective to ensure public health protection is similar. It is expected that data collected in accordance with the plan will support the transition to long-term monitoring at each

  16. Capillary electrophoresis--a new tool for ionic analysis of exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Kubáň, Petr; Kobrin, Eeva-Gerda; Kaljurand, Mihkel

    2012-12-07

    Exhaled breath condensate has been analyzed for its ionic content by capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductometric detection. A simple device for collection of small volumes (100-200 μL) of exhaled breath condensate in less than 2 min was developed. A method for simultaneous determination of inorganic cations, inorganic anions and organic anions from the samples using dual-opposite end injection principle with a short fused silica capillary (35 cm, 50 μm I.D.) was developed. A background electrolyte composed of 20mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid, 20 mM l-histidine, 30 μM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and 2mM 18-crown-6 was used. The analysis time was less than 3 min with limits of detection reaching low μM levels for most of the anions and cations. It has been shown that changes of nitrite could be observed in acute inflammation of upper airways and in a person with diagnosed mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, while changes of other ions could also be observed. Lactate concentrations could also be monitored and about 4-fold increase of lactate concentration in exhaled breath condensate was determined following an exhaustive cycling exercise. The developed non-invasive sampling of exhaled breath condensate, followed by rapid capillary electrophoretic analysis, could be very useful in lung inflammatory disease screening as well as in monitoring fast metabolic processes such as lactate build-up and removal.

  17. Detection of Helicobacter pylori infection by examination of human breath odor using electronic nose Bloodhound-214ST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shnayder, E. P.; Moshkin, M. P.; Petrovskii, D. V.; Shevela, A. I.; Babko, A. N.; Kulikov, V. G.

    2009-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the possibility of use e-nose Bloodhound-214ST to determine presence or absence of H. pylori infection using exhalation samples of patients. Breath samples were collected twice: at baseline and after oral administration of 500 mg of urea. H. pylori status of patients was confirmed by antral biopsy. Using two approaches for the data analysis we showed the possibility to distinguish H. pylori free and infected patients.

  18. Variability of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) volume and pH using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a valuable biological medium for non-invasively measuring biomarkers with the potential to reflect organ systems responses to environmental and dietary exposures and disease processes. Collection of EBC has typically been with spontaneous breat...

  19. Automated biowaste sampling system improved feces collection, mass measurement and sampling. [by use of a breadboard model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Young, R.

    1974-01-01

    The capability of the basic automated Biowaste Sampling System (ABSS) hardware was extended and improved through the design, fabrication and test of breadboard hardware. A preliminary system design effort established the feasibility of integrating the breadboard concepts into the ABSS.

  20. Specific activity and hazards of granite samples collected from the Eastern Desert of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Wafaa

    2004-01-01

    Fifty granitic rock samples were collected from different plutons in the central part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt and were analyzed for specific concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K radionuclei. The measurements were carried out using a high performance and stability Nomad Plus spectroscopy system attached to a 1.7 keV (FWHM) HPGe detector. The spectra were analyzed using the direct gamma counting comparison method as well as the traditional absolute efficiency curve method. The highest average value of (238)U concentration (1184 Bq kg(-1)) was observed at EI Misikat region whereas the highest average values of (40)K and (232)Th concentration (2301.8 and 162.5 Bq kg(-1) respectively), were detected at Gabal Homret Waggat area. The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), the absorbed dose rate (D), the external hazard index (H(ex)) and the annual gonadal dose equivalent were also calculated and compared to the international recommended values. Radon exhalation rate from the rock samples were measured using the activated charcoal canister method. The average value of radon exhalation varies from 0.052 to 0.69 Bq m(-2) h(-1) and depends on the specific concentration of uranium.

  1. Uranium analysis in some food samples collected from Bathinda area of Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Prasher, Sangeeta; Singh, Surinder

    2009-07-01

    To strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure in Bathinda, the uranium concentration in daily diet of the residents has been measured and its associated radiation risks were estimated for the adult population. Food samples were collected from major cancer prone areas of the district, from which daily diets were prepared. These diet samples were analyzed using fission track technique. The measured values of the uranium content were found to vary from 0.38 mBq/g in mustard seeds to 4.60 mBq/g in wheat. In case of milk the uranium content is found to vary from 28.57-213.36 mBq/ℓ with mean concentration of 61.35 mBq/ℓ. This leads to a daily dietary intake of 0.90 Bq/day. The measured value of 0.90 Bq d-1, contributes to 1.12 mSv to the cumulative effective dose to the population. This dose is much large than the International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) annual effective dose limit of 1 mSv for the general public [1]. Therefore, it would pose significant health hazard.

  2. Breathing Like a Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  3. Breathing metabolic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given of an automatic computer controlled second generation breathing metabolic simulator (BMS). The simulator is used for evaluating and testing respiratory diagnostic, monitoring, support, and resuscitation equipment. Any desired sequence of metabolic activities can be simulated on the device for up to 15 hours. The computer monitors test procedures and provides printouts of test results.

  4. Metabolic breath analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    Instrument measures metabolic breathing rate and dynamics of human beings in atmospheres ranging from normal air to 100 percent oxygen at ambient pressures from 14.7 to 3.0 psia. Measurements are made at rest or performing tasks up to maximum physical capacity under either zero or normal gravity.

  5. The Air We Breathe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

  6. Life and Breath

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Helen D.

    1974-01-01

    This article describes a public education program combining the screening process and a follow-up program for teaching victims of emphysema and other respiratory diseases how to better their living condition through proper breathing, avoidance of air pollutants and cigarette smoking, and taking better care of themselves physically. (PD)

  7. Field guide for collecting and processing stream-water samples for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program includes extensive data- collection efforts to assess the quality of the Nations's streams. These studies require analyses of stream samples for major ions, nutrients, sediments, and organic contaminants. For the information to be comparable among studies in different parts of the Nation, consistent procedures specifically designed to produce uncontaminated samples for trace analysis in the laboratory are critical. This field guide describes the standard procedures for collecting and processing samples for major ions, nutrients, organic contaminants, sediment, and field analyses of conductivity, pH, alkalinity, and dissolved oxygen. Samples are collected and processed using modified and newly designed equipment made of Teflon to avoid contamination, including nonmetallic samplers (D-77 and DH-81) and a Teflon sample splitter. Field solid-phase extraction procedures developed to process samples for organic constituent analyses produce an extracted sample with stabilized compounds for more accurate results. Improvements to standard operational procedures include the use of processing chambers and capsule filtering systems. A modified collecting and processing procedure for organic carbon is designed to avoid contamination from equipment cleaned with methanol. Quality assurance is maintained by strict collecting and processing procedures, replicate sampling, equipment blank samples, and a rigid cleaning procedure using detergent, hydrochloric acid, and methanol.

  8. Insights into explosion dynamics at Stromboli in 2009 from ash samples collected in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddeucci, J.; Lautze, N.; Andronico, D.; D'Auria, L.; Niemeijer, A.; Houghton, B.; Scarlato, P.

    2012-04-01

    Rapid characterization of tephra during explosive eruptions can provide valuable insights into eruptive mechanisms, also integrating other monitoring systems. Here we reveal a perspective on Stromboli's conduit processes by linking ash textures to geophysical estimates of eruption parameters of observed explosions. A three day campaign at Stromboli was undertaken by Italy's Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in October 2009. At this time activity was moderately intense, with an average 4 to 5, both ash-rich and ash-poor, explosions per hour at each the SW and NE vents. A total of fifteen ash samples were collected in real time. We used binocular and scanning electron microscopes to analyze the components, grain size and morphology distributions, and surface chemistry of ash particles within eight selected samples. In addition, the INGV monitoring network provided visual, thermal, and seismic information on the explosions that generated the sampled ash. In each sample, the proportion of fluidal, glassy sideromelane (as opposed to blocky, microcrystalline tachylite plus lithics), the degree of "chemical freshness" (as opposed to chemical alteration), and the average size of particles appear to correlate directly with the maximum height and the seismic amplitude of the corresponding explosion, and inversely correlate with the amount of ash erupted, as estimated by monitoring videos. These observations suggest that more violent explosions (i.e., those driven by the release of larger and more pressurized gas volumes) produce ash via the fragmentation of hotter, more fluid magma, while weaker ones mostly erupt ash-sized particles derived by the fragmentation of colder magma and incorporation of conduit wall debris. The formation of fluidal ash particles (up to Pele's hairs) requires aerodynamic deformation of a relatively low-viscosity magma, in agreement with the strong acceleration imposed upon fragmented magma clots by the rapid expansion of

  9. Location and Age Database for Selected Foraminifer Samples Collected by Exxon Petroleum Geologists in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brabb, Earl E.; Parker, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Most of the geologic maps published for central California before 1960 were made without the benefit of age determinations from microfossils. The ages of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks in the mostly poorly exposed and structurally complex sedimentary rocks represented in the Coast Ranges are critical in determining stratigraphic succession or lack of it, and in determining whether the juxtaposition of similar appearing but different age formations means a fault is present. Since the 1930’s, at least, oil company geologists have used microfossils to assist them in geologic mapping and in determining the environments of deposition of the sediment containing the microfossils. This information has been so confidential that some companies even coded the names of foraminifers to prevent disclosure. In the past 20 years, however, the attitude of petroleum companies about this information has changed, and many of the formerly confidential materials and reports are now available. We report here on 1,964 Exxon foraminifer samples mostly from surface localities in the San Francisco Bay region, and elsewhere in California. Most but not all the samples were plotted on U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) 7.5’ topographic maps or on obsolete USGS 15’ maps. The information from the slides can be used to update geologic maps prepared without the benefit of microfossil data, to analyze the depth and temperature of ocean water covering parts of California during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras, and for solving nomenclature and other scientific problems. A similar report on more than 30,000 slides for surface samples collected by Chevron geologists has been released (Brabb and Parker, 2003), and another report provides information on slides for more than 2000 oil test wells in Northern California (Brabb, Powell, and Brocher, 2001).

  10. Antibiotic resistance among bacteria isolated from seawater and penguin fecal samples collected near Palmer Station, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert V; Gammon, Katharine; Day, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in aquatic bacteria has increased steadily as a consequence of the widespread use of antibiotics, but practice and international treaty should have limited antibiotic contamination in Antarctica. We estimated antibiotic resistance in microorganisms isolated from the Antarctic marine waters and a penguin rookery, for 2 reasons: (i) as a measure of human impact and (ii) as a potential "snapshot" of the preantibiotic world. Samples were taken at 4 established sampling sites near Palmer Station, which is situated at the southern end of the Palmer Archipelago (64 degrees 10'S, 61 degrees 50'W). Sites were chosen to provide different potentials for human contamination. Forty 50 mL samples of seawater were collected and colony-forming units (CFU)/mL were determined at 6 and 20 degrees C. For this study, presumed psychrophiles (growth at 6 degrees C) were assumed to be native to Antarctic waters, whereas presumed mesophiles (growth at 20 degrees C but not at 6 degrees C) were taken to represent introduced organisms. The 20-6 degrees C CFU/mL ratio was used as a measure of the relative impact to the ecosystem of presumably introduced organisms. This ratio was highest at the site nearest to Palmer Station and decreased with distance from it, suggesting that human presence has impacted the natural microbial flora of the site. The frequency of resistance to 5 common antibiotics was determined in each group of isolates. Overall drug resistance was higher among the presumed mesophiles than the presumed psychrophiles and increased with proximity to Palmer Station, with the presumed mesophiles showing higher frequencies of single and multiple drug resistance than the psychrophile population. The frequency of multidrug resistance followed the same pattern. It appears that multidrug resistance is low among native Antarctic bacteria but is increased by human habitation.

  11. Sampling strategies and post-processing methods for increasing the time resolution of organic aerosol measurements requiring long sample-collection times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modini, Rob L.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    The composition and properties of atmospheric organic aerosols (OAs) change on timescales of minutes to hours. However, some important OA characterization techniques typically require greater than a few hours of sample-collection time (e.g., Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy). In this study we have performed numerical modeling to investigate and compare sample-collection strategies and post-processing methods for increasing the time resolution of OA measurements requiring long sample-collection times. Specifically, we modeled the measurement of hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and oxygenated OA (OOA) concentrations at a polluted urban site in Mexico City, and investigated how to construct hourly resolved time series from samples collected for 4, 6, and 8 h. We modeled two sampling strategies - sequential and staggered sampling - and a range of post-processing methods including interpolation and deconvolution. The results indicated that relative to the more sophisticated and costly staggered sampling methods, linear interpolation between sequential measurements is a surprisingly effective method for increasing time resolution. Additional error can be added to a time series constructed in this manner if a suboptimal sequential sampling schedule is chosen. Staggering measurements is one way to avoid this effect. There is little to be gained from deconvolving staggered measurements, except at very low values of random measurement error (< 5 %). Assuming 20 % random measurement error, one can expect average recovery errors of 1.33-2.81 µg m-3 when using 4-8 h-long sequential and staggered samples to measure time series of concentration values ranging from 0.13-29.16 µg m-3. For 4 h samples, 19-47 % of this total error can be attributed to the process of increasing time resolution alone, depending on the method used, meaning that measurement precision would only be improved by 0.30-0.75 µg m-3 if samples could be collected over 1 h instead of 4 h. Devising a

  12. The daytime breath hydrogen profile: technical aspects and normal pattern.

    PubMed

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Bijleveld, C M; Fernandes, J

    1985-04-30

    A method is described for breath sampling which can be used for breath hydrogen estimations not only in clinical practice, but also at home. Sampling of end-expiratory air is performed using a 10-ml syringe with a side hole. The samples are transferred to 3-ml vacuum tubes, which can be stored and mailed without significant loss of hydrogen. The hydrogen concentration is estimated gas chromatographically using 0.4 ml of sampled air. This method was used to assess the breath hydrogen pattern under normal circumstances: the daytime breath hydrogen profile. Fourteen children sampled their breath at 30-min intervals during one full day, and recorded diet and activity. The normal daytime breath hydrogen profile showed a typical pattern. Morning values were low, but the evening values were markedly increased in half of the children. These patterns differed markedly from those registered in three children with carbohydrate malabsorption. The daytime breath hydrogen profile, which is easy to perform and applicable at home, might provide valuable additional information in the investigation of children with suspected carbohydrate malabsorption.

  13. Geochemical results from stream-water and stream-sediment samples collected in Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hageman, Philip L.; Todd, Andrew S.; Smith, Kathleen S.; DeWitt, Ed; Zeigler, Mathew P.

    2013-01-01

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey are studying the relationship between watershed lithology and stream-water chemistry. As part of this effort, 60 stream-water samples and 43 corresponding stream-sediment samples were collected in 2010 and 2011 from locations in Colorado and New Mexico. Sample sites were selected from small to midsize watersheds composed of a high percentage of one rock type or geologic unit. Stream-water and stream-sediment samples were collected, processed, preserved, and analyzed in a consistent manner. This report releases geochemical data for this phase of the study.

  14. Variation in aluminum, iron, and particle concentrations in oxic ground-water samples collected by use of tangential-flow ultrafiltration with low-flow sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, Z.; Oden, J.H.; Gibs, J.; Rice, D.E.; Ding, Y.; ,

    2001-01-01

    Particulates that move with ground water and those that are artificially mobilized during well purging could be incorporated into water samples during collection and could cause trace-element concentrations to vary in unfiltered samples, and possibly in filtered samples (typically 0.45-um (micron) pore size) as well, depending on the particle-size fractions present. Therefore, measured concentrations may not be representative of those in the aquifer. Ground water may contain particles of various sizes and shapes that are broadly classified as colloids, which do not settle from water, and particulates, which do. In order to investigate variations in trace-element concentrations in ground-water samples as a function of particle concentrations and particle-size fractions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, collected samples from five wells completed in the unconfined, oxic Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Samples were collected by purging with a portable pump at low flow (0.2-0.5 liters per minute and minimal drawdown, ideally less than 0.5 foot). Unfiltered samples were collected in the following sequence: (1) within the first few minutes of pumping, (2) after initial turbidity declined and about one to two casing volumes of water had been purged, and (3) after turbidity values had stabilized at less than 1 to 5 Nephelometric Turbidity Units. Filtered samples were split concurrently through (1) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter, (2) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter and a 0.0029-um pore size tangential-flow filter in sequence, and (3), in selected cases, a 0.45-um and a 0.05-um pore size capsule filter in sequence. Filtered samples were collected concurrently with the unfiltered sample that was collected when turbidity values stabilized. Quality-assurance samples consisted of sequential duplicates (about 25 percent) and equipment blanks. Concentrations of particles were determined by light scattering

  15. Adaptive free energy sampling in multidimensional collective variable space using boxed molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Mike; Paci, Emanuele; McIntosh-Smith, Simon; Glowacki, David R

    2016-12-22

    The past decade has seen the development of a new class of rare event methods in which molecular configuration space is divided into a set of boundaries/interfaces, and then short trajectories are run between boundaries. For all these methods, an important concern is how to generate boundaries. In this paper, we outline an algorithm for adaptively generating boundaries along a free energy surface in multi-dimensional collective variable (CV) space, building on the boxed molecular dynamics (BXD) rare event algorithm. BXD is a simple technique for accelerating the simulation of rare events and free energy sampling which has proven useful for calculating kinetics and free energy profiles in reactive and non-reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations across a range of systems, in both NVT and NVE ensembles. Two key developments outlined in this paper make it possible to automate BXD, and to adaptively map free energy and kinetics in complex systems. First, we have generalized BXD to multidimensional CV space. Using strategies from rigid-body dynamics, we have derived a simple and general velocity-reflection procedure that conserves energy for arbitrary collective variable definitions in multiple dimensions, and show that it is straightforward to apply BXD to sampling in multidimensional CV space so long as the Cartesian gradients ∇CV are available. Second, we have modified BXD to undertake on-the-fly statistical analysis during a trajectory, harnessing the information content latent in the dynamics to automatically determine boundary locations. Such automation not only makes BXD considerably easier to use; it also guarantees optimal boundaries, speeding up convergence. We have tested the multidimensional adaptive BXD procedure by calculating the potential of mean force for a chemical reaction recently investigated using both experimental and computational approaches - i.e., F + CD3CN → DF + D2CN in both the gas phase and a strongly coupled explicit CD3CN solvent

  16. Variation in aluminum, iron, and particle concentrations in oxic groundwater samples collected by use of tangential-flow ultrafiltration with low-flow sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, Zoltan; Oden, Jeannette H.; Gibs, Jacob; Rice, Donald E.; Ding, Yuan

    2002-02-01

    Particulates that move with ground water and those that are artificially mobilized during well purging could be incorporated into water samples during collection and could cause trace-element concentrations to vary in unfiltered samples, and possibly in filtered samples (typically 0.45-um (micron) pore size) as well, depending on the particle-size fractions present. Therefore, measured concentrations may not be representative of those in the aquifer. Ground water may contain particles of various sizes and shapes that are broadly classified as colloids, which do not settle from water, and particulates, which do. In order to investigate variations in trace-element concentrations in ground-water samples as a function of particle concentrations and particle-size fractions, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, collected samples from five wells completed in the unconfined, oxic Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system of the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Samples were collected by purging with a portable pump at low flow (0.2-0.5 liters per minute and minimal drawdown, ideally less than 0.5 foot). Unfiltered samples were collected in the following sequence: (1) within the first few minutes of pumping, (2) after initial turbidity declined and about one to two casing volumes of water had been purged, and (3) after turbidity values had stabilized at less than 1 to 5 Nephelometric Turbidity Units. Filtered samples were split concurrently through (1) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter, (2) a 0.45-um pore size capsule filter and a 0.0029-um pore size tangential-flow filter in sequence, and (3), in selected cases, a 0.45-um and a 0.05-um pore size capsule filter in sequence. Filtered samples were collected concurrently with the unfiltered sample that was collected when turbidity values stabilized. Quality-assurance samples consisted of sequential duplicates (about 25 percent) and equipment blanks. Concentrations of particles were determined by light scattering.

  17. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF FOOD PREPARATION SURFACE WIPE SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.17)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP describes the method for collection of the food preparation surface wipe samples for the measurement of persistent organic pollutants (POP). This method uses a wipe to collect POP residues from a surface where a study participant prepares food the most often (i.e., kitch...

  18. A Raman cell based on hollow core photonic crystal fiber for human breath analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Kam Kong; Zeng, Haishan; Short, Michael; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Breath analysis has a potential prospect to benefit the medical field based on its perceived advantages to become a point-of-care, easy to use, and cost-effective technology. Early studies done by mass spectrometry show that volatile organic compounds from human breath can represent certain disease states of our bodies, such as lung cancer, and revealed the potential of breath analysis. But mass spectrometry is costly and has slow-turnaround time. The authors’ goal is to develop a more portable and cost effective device based on Raman spectroscopy and hollow core-photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) for breath analysis. Methods: Raman scattering is a photon-molecular interaction based on the kinetic modes of an analyte which offers unique fingerprint type signals that allow molecular identification. HC-PCF is a novel light guide which allows light to be confined in a hollow core and it can be filled with a gaseous sample. Raman signals generated by the gaseous sample (i.e., human breath) can be guided and collected effectively for spectral analysis. Results: A Raman-cell based on HC-PCF in the near infrared wavelength range was developed and tested in a single pass forward-scattering mode for different gaseous samples. Raman spectra were obtained successfully from reference gases (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide gases), ambient air, and a human breath sample. The calculated minimum detectable concentration of this system was ∼15 parts per million by volume, determined by measuring the carbon dioxide concentration in ambient air via the characteristic Raman peaks at 1286 and 1388 cm{sup −1}. Conclusions: The results of this study were compared to a previous study using HC-PCF to trap industrial gases and backward-scatter 514.5 nm light from them. The authors found that the method presented in this paper has an advantage to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This SNR advantage, coupled with the better transmission of HC-PCF in the near-IR than in the

  19. Mercury speciation in wet deposition samples collected from a coastal area of Minamata Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marumoto, Kohji; Matsuyama, Akito

    2014-04-01

    To better understand the methylation and demethylation of mercury (Hg) in the atmosphere, monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in wet deposition samples collected in the Minamata Bay area from September, 2009 to August, 2010 were determined. The concentrations of total Hg (dissolved Hg + particulate Hg) and dissolved reactive Hg were also measured. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of dissolved MMHg and total Hg were 0.061 and 5.9 ng L-1, respectively. Almost 90% of total Hg was in the dissolved phase and dissolved reactive Hg was the dominant Hg species in the wet deposition. The wet deposition fluxes of total Hg and reactive Hg increased in the rainy season (summer and fall), while the concentrations and wet deposition fluxes of MMHg were higher in winter and spring than in summer. Factors affecting this seasonal variation of MMHg were also considered. The MMHg in wet depositions may be decomposed by the increased levels of UV radiation in summer months, although MMHg can also be emitted from anthropogenic and biogenic sources and/or produced by photochemical reactions. Long-range transport from the Asian continent may also contribute to the seasonal variation of the wet MMHg deposition flux.

  20. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff.

  1. Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of agricultural soil samples collected in Dakahlia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Issa, Shams A M

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by using a gamma-ray spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3″ × 3″] system, in surface soil samples collected from various locations in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. These locations form the agriculturally important regions of Egypt. The study area has many industries such as chemical, paper, organic fertilisers and construction materials, and the soils of the study region are used as a construction material. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil ranged from 5.7 ± 0.3 to 140 ± 7, from 9.0 ± 0.4 to 139 ± 7 and from 22 ± 1 to 319 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent (Req), excess lifetime cancer risk, hazard indices (Hex and Hin) and annual gonadal dose equivalent, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in the soil were calculated.

  2. Dynamic simulation tools for the analysis and optimization of novel collection, filtration and sample preparation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clague, D; Weisgraber, T; Rockway, J; McBride, K

    2006-02-12

    The focus of research effort described here is to develop novel simulation tools to address design and optimization needs in the general class of problems that involve species and fluid (liquid and gas phases) transport through sieving media. This was primarily motivated by the heightened attention on Chem/Bio early detection systems, which among other needs, have a need for high efficiency filtration, collection and sample preparation systems. Hence, the said goal was to develop the computational analysis tools necessary to optimize these critical operations. This new capability is designed to characterize system efficiencies based on the details of the microstructure and environmental effects. To accomplish this, new lattice Boltzmann simulation capabilities where developed to include detailed microstructure descriptions, the relevant surface forces that mediate species capture and release, and temperature effects for both liquid and gas phase systems. While developing the capability, actual demonstration and model systems (and subsystems) of national and programmatic interest were targeted to demonstrate the capability. As a result, where possible, experimental verification of the computational capability was performed either directly using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry or published results.

  3. Simultaneous quantification of stevioside and rebaudioside A in different stevia samples collected from the Indian subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Karishma; Tamboli, Ennus T.; Singh, Mhaveer; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2012-01-01

    Background: A high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method was developed for simultaneous estimation of stevioside and rebaudioside A in Stevia rebaudiana samples collected from different regions of Indian subcontinent. Materials and Methods: The separation was achieved by using acetone: ethyl acetate: water (5:4:1, v/v/v) as the solvent system on precoated silica gel 60 F254 TLC plates. The densitometric quantification of stevia glycosides was carried out at wavelength 360 nm in absorption mode after spraying with anisaldehyde sulphuric acid as detecting reagent. Results: The well resolved peaks for stevioside and rebaudioside A were observed at Rf values 0.31± 0.02 and 0.21± 0.02 respectively. The calibration curves were found linear with a wide range of concentration 100 - 2000 ng spot-1 with good correlation coefficient 0.996 and 0.991 for stevioside and rebaudioside A, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed method was validated as per the ICH (International Conferences on Harmonization) guidelines and found simple, sensitive, economic, reproducible, robust and accurate for quantitative analysis of stevia glycosides, which can be applied for quality control of stevia as well as to check. PMID:23248559

  4. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  5. Variability of Organophosphorous Pesticide Metabolite Levels in Spot and 24-hr Urine Samples Collected from Young Children during 1 Week

    PubMed Central

    Kogut, Katherine; Eisen, Ellen A.; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Castorina, Rosemary; Chevrier, Jonathan; Holland, Nina T.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Kavanagh-Baird, Geri; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites in spot urine samples are frequently used to characterize children’s exposures to organophosphorous (OP) pesticides. However, variable exposure and short biological half-lives of OP pesticides could result in highly variable measurements, leading to exposure misclassification. Objective: We examined within- and between-child variability in DAP metabolites in urine samples collected during 1 week. Methods: We collected spot urine samples over 7 consecutive days from 25 children (3–6 years of age). On two of the days, we collected 24-hr voids. We assessed the reproducibility of urinary DAP metabolite concentrations and evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of spot urine samples as predictors of high (top 20%) or elevated (top 40%) weekly average DAP metabolite concentrations. Results: Within-child variance exceeded between-child variance by a factor of two to eight, depending on metabolite grouping. Although total DAP concentrations in single spot urine samples were moderately to strongly associated with concentrations in same-day 24-hr samples (r ≈ 0.6–0.8, p < 0.01), concentrations in spot samples collected > 1 day apart and in 24-hr samples collected 3 days apart were weakly correlated (r ≈ –0.21 to 0.38). Single spot samples predicted high (top 20%) and elevated (top 40%) full-week average total DAP excretion with only moderate sensitivity (≈ 0.52 and ≈ 0.67, respectively) but relatively high specificity (≈ 0.88 and ≈ 0.78, respectively). Conclusions: The high variability we observed in children’s DAP metabolite concentrations suggests that single-day urine samples provide only a brief snapshot of exposure. Sensitivity analyses suggest that classification of cumulative OP exposure based on spot samples is prone to type 2 classification errors. PMID:23052012

  6. Emergency Response Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Aerospace Design & Development, Inc.'s (ADD's) SCAMP was developed under an SBIR contract through Kennedy Space Center. SCAMP stands for Supercritical Air Mobility Pack. The technology came from the life support fuel cell support systems used for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. It uses supercritical cryogenic air and is able to function in microgravity environments. SCAMP's self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA) systems are also ground-based and can provide twice as much air than traditional SCBA's due to its high-density capacity. The SCAMP system was designed for use in launch pad emergency rescues. ADD also developed a protective suit for use with SCAMP that is smaller and lighter system than the old ones. ADD's SCAMP allows for body cooling and breathing from the supercritical cryogenic air, requiring no extra systems. The improvement over the traditional SCBA allows for a reduction of injuries, such as heat stress, and makes it easier for rescuers to save lives.

  7. Airborne Detection and Quantification of Swine Influenza A Virus in Air Samples Collected Inside, Outside and Downwind from Swine Barns

    PubMed Central

    Corzo, Cesar A.; Culhane, Marie; Dee, Scott; Morrison, Robert B.; Torremorell, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Airborne transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in swine is speculated to be an important route of virus dissemination, but data are scarce. This study attempted to detect and quantify airborne IAV by virus isolation and RRT-PCR in air samples collected under field conditions. This was accomplished by collecting air samples from four acutely infected pig farms and locating air samplers inside the barns, at the external exhaust fans and downwind from the farms at distances up to 2.1 km. IAV was detected in air samples collected in 3 out of 4 farms included in the study. Isolation of IAV was possible from air samples collected inside the barn at two of the farms and in one farm from the exhausted air. Between 13% and 100% of samples collected inside the barns tested RRT-PCR positive with an average viral load of 3.20E+05 IAV RNA copies/m3 of air. Percentage of exhaust positive air samples also ranged between 13% and 100% with an average viral load of 1.79E+04 RNA copies/m3 of air. Influenza virus RNA was detected in air samples collected between 1.5 and 2.1 Km away from the farms with viral levels significantly lower at 4.65E+03 RNA copies/m3. H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes were detected in the air samples and the hemagglutinin gene sequences identified in the swine samples matched those in aerosols providing evidence that the viruses detected in the aerosols originated from the pigs in the farms under study. Overall our results indicate that pigs can be a source of IAV infectious aerosols and that these aerosols can be exhausted from pig barns and be transported downwind. The results from this study provide evidence of the risk of aerosol transmission in pigs under field conditions. PMID:23951164

  8. [TMJ, eating and breathing].

    PubMed

    Cheynet, F

    2016-09-01

    The study of the relationship between temporomandibular joints (TMJ), mastication and ventilation and the involvement of these two functions in the genesis of primary Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and in some dentofacial deformities, was initiated in France, more than 30years, by Professor Raymond Gola. Once criticized the weakness of the scientific literature in this domain, the originality of the TMJ within the masticatory system is recalled with its huge adaptation potential to very different biomechanical constraints according to the age and masticatory activities during the day. But the biomechanics of the masticatory system does not stop at night and the positions of the mandible and head during sleep should be studied carefully. In case of nocturnal mouth breathing with open mouth, the predominant sleeping position (generating small but long-term strengths) may be deleterious to the condyle-disc complex, to the surrounding muscles and the occlusal relationships. Some condyle-disc displacements and asymmetric malocclusions occur in this long portion of life what sleep, especially as oral breathing leads to a lot of dysfunctions (low position of the tongue, labio-lingual dysfunctions, exacerbation of bruxism sleep…). The aim of this work was to share our multidisciplinary experience of the biomechanical consequences of the nocturnal mouth breathing on the face involving orthodontists, maxillofacial surgeons, ENT, allergists, speech therapists, physiotherapists and radiologists.

  9. Results of chemical and stable isotopic analyses of water samples collected in the Patagonia Mountains, southern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, Richard B.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Lamothe, Paul; Meier, A.L.; Lichte, Fred; Briggs, Paul H.; Berger, Byron R.

    2001-01-01

    Water samples were collected in the Patagonia Mountains in February, 1997. Most of the samples were collected from portals of abandoned mines, or from stream drainages immediately downstream from abandoned mines. Most of the samples have low pH ( 1000 mg/L). Anion composition of the water samples is dominated by sulfate, while cation compositions range from calcium-dominated to mixed calcium-magnesium or calcium-sodium-dominated waters. Metals such as iron, manganese, copper, zinc, and aluminum contribute a significant portion (>10%) of the cation content to the water samples. Because of the low pH?s, protons contribute up to several percent of the cation character of the waters in some of the samples. The data are presented in tabular and graphical formats, with descriptions of data quality and brief descriptions of results.

  10. Role of mandibular displacement and airway size in improving breathing after rapid maxillary expansion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral breathing and maxillary deficiency are often associated with steep mandibular plane angle, and retrognathic mandible compared with the faces of healthy controls. Some studies suggested that after rapid maxillary expansion, improvement in nasal breathing and repositioning of mandible with transitory increasing of facial height and, in some cases, spontaneous forward repositioning might occur. The abovementioned mandibular effects could contribute to enlarge oropharynx volume with repositioning of tongue and soft palate with an improvement of upper airway volume after treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate by cone beam computed tomography the role of oropharyngeal volume and mandibular position changes after rapid maxillary expansion in patients showing improved breathing pattern confirmed by polysomnography exam. Methods The final sample of this retrospective study comprised 14 Caucasian patients (mean age 7.6 years) who undergone rapid maxillary expansion with Haas-type expander banded on second deciduous upper molars. Cone beam computed tomography scans and polysomnography exams were collected before placing the appliance (T0) and after 12 months (T1). Mandibular landmarks localization and airway semiautomatic segmentation on cone beam computed tomography scans allowed airway volume computing and measurements. Results No significant differences were found between oropharyngeal airway changes and mandibular displacement after rapid maxillary expansion in growing patients. Conclusions The suggested improvement in upper airway and breathing after rapid maxillary expansion should be further related to different compartments of airway such as rhinopharynx and nasal cavity. PMID:24934328

  11. (Collection of North Pacific Ocean surface seawater samples from a container ship): Foreign trip report, January 24--March 4, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, J.G.

    1989-03-16

    This trip was a continuation of the sampling program undertaken during 1984--1985 to study the seasonal and regional variability of CO/sub 2/ chemistry in high-latitude deep water formation areas of the North Pacific. The work is conducted by Columbia University (Dr. Taro Takahashi, Principal Investigator) for the Department of Energy's Energy Systems Program managed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Aboard the President Eisenhower, we collected surface seawater samples at forty-two stations along the route from Oakland, California, to Keelung, Taiwan, via Guam. On the return trip, samples were collected from thirty-nine stations during transit from Kaohsiung, Taiwan, to Los Angeles, California.

  12. (Collection of North Pacific Ocean surface seawater samples for chemical analysis): Foreign trip report, January 26--February 27, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, J.G.

    1988-03-04

    This trip was a continuation of the sampling program undertaken during 1984--1985 to study the seasonal and regional variability of CO/sub 2/ chemistry in high latitude deep water formation areas of the North Pacific. The work is conducted by Columbia University (Dr. Taro Takahashi, Principal Investigator) for the Department of Energy's Energy Systems Program managed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Aboard the PRESIDENT ARTHUR, surface seawater samples were collected at forty-one stations along the route from Oakland, California, to Keeling, Taiwan, via Guam. On the return trip, samples were collected from thirty-seven stations during transit from Keelung to Los Angeles, California.

  13. Clinical forensic sample collection techniques following consensual intercourse in volunteers - cervical canal brush compared to conventional swabs.

    PubMed

    Joki-Erkkilä, Minna; Tuomisto, Sari; Seppänen, Mervi; Huhtala, Heini; Ahola, Arja; Rainio, Juha; Karhunen, Pekka J

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the research was to evaluate gynecological evidence collection techniques; the benefit of cervical canal brush sample compared to vaginal fornix and cervical swab samples and the time frame for detecting Y-chromosomal material QiAmp DNA Mini Kit(®) and Quantifiler Y Human Male DNA Quantification Kit(®) in adult volunteers following consensual intercourse. Eighty-four adult female volunteers following consensual intercourse were recruited for the study. By combining all sample collecting techniques, 81.0% of the volunteers were Y-DNA positive. Up to 60 h the conventional swab sampling techniques detected more Y-DNA positive samples when compared to the brush technique. However, after 60 h, the cervical canal brush sample technique showed its benefit by detecting 27.3% (6/22) of Y-DNA positive samples, which were Y-DNA negative in both conventional swab sampling techniques. By combining swab and brush techniques, 75% of the volunteers were still Y-DNA positive in 72-144 post-coital hours. The rate of measurable Y-DNA decreased approximately 3% per hour. Despite reported consensual intercourse, 6.8% (3/44) of volunteers were Y-DNA negative within 48 h. Y-DNA was not detected after 144 post-coital hours (6 days). In conclusion, the brush as a forensic evidence collection method may provide additional biological trace evidence from the cervical canal, although the best biological trace evidence collection can be obtained by combining all three sampling techniques. The time frame for gynecological forensic evidence sample collection should be considered to be at least a week if sexual violence is suspected.

  14. Breathing simulator of workers for respirator performance test.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hisashi; Kumita, Mikio; Honda, Takeshi; Kimura, Kazushi; Nozaki, Kosuke; Emi, Hitoshi; Otani, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Breathing machines are widely used to evaluate respirator performance but they are capable of generating only limited air flow patterns, such as, sine, triangular and square waves. In order to evaluate the respirator performance in practical use, it is desirable to test the respirator using the actual breathing patterns of wearers. However, it has been a difficult task for a breathing machine to generate such complicated flow patterns, since the human respiratory volume changes depending on the human activities and workload. In this study, we have developed an electromechanical breathing simulator and a respiration sampling device to record and reproduce worker's respiration. It is capable of generating various flow patterns by inputting breathing pattern signals recorded by a computer, as well as the fixed air flow patterns. The device is equipped with a self-control program to compensate the difference in inhalation and exhalation volume and the measurement errors on the breathing flow rate. The system was successfully applied to record the breathing patterns of workers engaging in welding and reproduced the breathing patterns.

  15. Detection of pulmonary amylase activity in exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, M; Rechsteiner, T; Hofer, M; Boehler, A

    2013-12-01

    Amylase activity in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is usually interpreted as an indication of oropharyngeal contamination despite the fact that amylase can be found in pulmonary excretions. The aim of this study was to recruit and refine an amylase assay in order to detect amylase activity in any EBC sample and to develop a method to identify EBC samples containing amylase of pulmonary origin. EBC was collected from 40 volunteers with an EcoScreen condenser. Amylase assays and methods to discriminate between oropharyngeal and pulmonary proteins were tested and developed using matched EBC and saliva samples. Our refined 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-α-D-maltotriosid (CNP-G3) assay was 40-fold more sensitive than the most sensitive commercial assay and allowed detection of amylase activity in 30 µl of EBC. We developed a dot-blot assay which allowed detection of salivary protein in saliva diluted up to 150 000-fold. By plotting amylase activity against staining intensity we identified a few EBC samples with high amylase activity which were aligned with diluted saliva. We believe that EBC samples aligned with diluted saliva contain amylase activity introduced during EBC collection and that all other EBC samples contain amylase activity of pulmonary origin and are basically free of oropharyngeal protein contamination.

  16. Clinically relevant differences in prothrombin time and INR values related to blood sample collection in plastic vs glass tubes.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Eberhard W; Etzell, Joan E; Ng, Valerie L

    2005-12-01

    We compared prothrombin times (PTs) and international normalized ratios (INRs) for blood samples drawn into plastic vs glass collection tubes. We collected 60 venous blood samples into 4.5-mL glass and 2 plastic tubes (2.7 and 3.5 mL). An additional 153 samples, including 63 from warfarin-anticoagulated patients, were collected only in glass and 2.7-mL plastic tubes. The PTs and INRs were determined following routine laboratory procedures. A subset of 35 frozen aliquot samples was analyzed with a different instrument-reagent combination. The PTs and INRs for samples in plastic tubes were significantly lower than for samples in glass tubes. The mean INR differences increased with INR magnitude from approximately -0.1 (INR, 1.5) to -0.7 (INR, 4.5). Of the plastic tube INRs, 50% were more than 10% lower than INRs from samples collected in glass tubes. Therapeutic monitoring based on plastic-tube INRs could result in higher doses of warfarin.

  17. Brevibacillus halotolerans sp. nov., isolated from saline soil sample collected from paddy field.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinlong; Wang, Yanwei; Song, Yi; Zhao, Bingqiang; Wang, Huimin; Zhou, Shan; Kong, Delong; Guo, Xiang; Li, Yanting; He, Mingxiong; Ma, Kedong; Ruan, Zhiyong; Yan, Yanchun

    2016-10-17

    Two novel aerobic bacteria, designated strains LAM0312T and LAM0313, were isolated from saline soil sample collected from paddy field in Dezhou city, Shandong Province in China. The Cells of these strains were Gram-stain positive, sporogenous, rod-shaped and motile with peritrichous flagella. The optimal growth temperature and pH were 30 ºC and pH 7.0-8.0, repesctively. Strain LAM0312T was found to be able to grow in the presence of 12 % (w/v) NaCl. The major fatty acids of strains were identified as anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:0. The dominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, glycolipids, five unidentitied lipids and phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine. The cell wall peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone was identified as menaquinone-7. The G+C content of genomic DNA of strains LAM0312T and LAM0313 were 45.0 mol% and 46.0 mol%, respectively as determined by the Tm method. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis indicated that the strains were closely related to Brevibacillus laterosporus DSM 25T and Brevibacillus fluminis JCM 15716T with 98.5 % and 96.4 % sequence similarity, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain LAM0312T and LAM0313 was 92 ± 0.6 % (reciprocal 90 ± 0.2 %)and the value between LAM0312T andBrevibacillus laterosporus DSM 25T was 48 ± 0.5 % (reciprocal 40 ± 0.4 %). On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, the strains are proposed to represent a novel species of the genus Brevibacillus, for which the name Brevibacillus halotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LAM0312T (=ACCC 06527T =JCM 30849T).

  18. Association between RR interval and high-frequency heart rate variability acquired during short-term, resting recordings with free and paced breathing.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, Gavin; Gladwell, Valerie; Dawson, Samantha; Nunan, David; Brodie, David; Beneke, Ralph

    2008-07-01

    High-frequency (HF) oscillations in RR interval from 0.15-0.40 Hz are widely accepted as a measure of cardiac vagal outflow but the HF/RR relationship appears complex, particularly with longer RR intervals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HF/RR interval relationship during free and paced breathing. HF power and mean RR interval length were recorded in 150 men and 120 women (mean age 34.5 +/- 11.4) during 5 min of supine rest with either free or paced (12 cycles min(-1)) breathing. Linear and quadratic models were used to assess the relationship between RR interval and the natural logarithm of HF power (lnHF). The RR interval length at which there was no further increase in lnHF was determined as the deflection point. ANCOVA was used to determine differences in the linear regression slopes for lnHF/RR with paced or free breathing. With free breathing (n = 131), the adjusted R(2) was similar between linear (15.3%) and quadratic (17.5%) fits and saturation of lnHF occurred within the recorded RR interval range (1326 ms). With paced breathing (n = 139), adjusted R(2) values were again similar between linear (22.4%) and quadratic (23.2%) fits. The deflection point was outside the range of recorded RR intervals at 1458 ms. ANCOVA showed a significant difference in the slope of the lnHF/RR regression lines between free and paced breathing. The lnHF/RR relationship is weaker when derived from between-subject recordings than from repeated within-subject samples. lnHF/RR showed evidence of saturation at approximately 45 bpm with free breathing. With paced breathing, a deflection in lnHF was found outside the recorded RR interval range ( approximately 41 bpm). Paced breathing creates a stronger lnHF/RR relationship. The slope of the lnHF/RR regression line with paced breathing is significantly different from that observed with free breathing. It appears that lnHF is a valid index of vagal outflow, except in subjects with very low heart rates. Paced breathing data

  19. Validation of a Novel Collection Device for Non-Invasive Urine Sampling from Free-Ranging Animals

    PubMed Central

    Danish, Lisa Michelle; Heistermann, Michael; Agil, Muhammad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in non-invasively collected samples have opened up new and exciting opportunities for wildlife research. Different types of samples, however, involve different limitations and certain physiological markers (e.g., C-peptide, oxytocin) can only be reliably measured from urine. Common collection methods for urine to date work best for arboreal animals and large volumes of urine. Sufficient recovery of urine is thus still difficult for wildlife biologists, particularly for terrestrial and small bodied animals. We tested three collection devices (two commercially available saliva swabs, Salivette synthetic and cotton, and cotton First aid swabs) against a control to permit the collection of small volumes of urine from the ground. We collected urine samples from captive and wild macaques, and humans, measured volume recovery, and analyzed concentrates of selected physiological markers (creatinine, C-peptide, and neopterin). The Salivette synthetic device was superior to the two alternative devices. Concentrations of creatinine, absolute C-peptide, C-peptide per creatinine, absolute neopterin, and neopterin per creatinine measured in samples collected with this device did not differ significantly from the control and were also strongly correlated to it. Fluid recovery was also best for this device. The least suitable device is the First aid collection device; we found that while absolute C-peptide and C-peptide per creatinine concentrations did not differ significantly from the control, creatinine concentrations were significantly lower than the control. In addition, these concentrations were either not or weakly correlated to the control. The Salivette cotton device provided intermediate results, although these concentrations were strongly correlated to the control. Salivette synthetic swabs seem to be useful devices for the collection of small amounts of urine from the ground destined for the assessment of physiological parameters. They thus provide new

  20. Validation of a Novel Collection Device for Non-Invasive Urine Sampling from Free-Ranging Animals.

    PubMed

    Danish, Lisa Michelle; Heistermann, Michael; Agil, Muhammad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in non-invasively collected samples have opened up new and exciting opportunities for wildlife research. Different types of samples, however, involve different limitations and certain physiological markers (e.g., C-peptide, oxytocin) can only be reliably measured from urine. Common collection methods for urine to date work best for arboreal animals and large volumes of urine. Sufficient recovery of urine is thus still difficult for wildlife biologists, particularly for terrestrial and small bodied animals. We tested three collection devices (two commercially available saliva swabs, Salivette synthetic and cotton, and cotton First aid swabs) against a control to permit the collection of small volumes of urine from the ground. We collected urine samples from captive and wild macaques, and humans, measured volume recovery, and analyzed concentrates of selected physiological markers (creatinine, C-peptide, and neopterin). The Salivette synthetic device was superior to the two alternative devices. Concentrations of creatinine, absolute C-peptide, C-peptide per creatinine, absolute neopterin, and neopterin per creatinine measured in samples collected with this device did not differ significantly from the control and were also strongly correlated to it. Fluid recovery was also best for this device. The least suitable device is the First aid collection device; we found that while absolute C-peptide and C-peptide per creatinine concentrations did not differ significantly from the control, creatinine concentrations were significantly lower than the control. In addition, these concentrations were either not or weakly correlated to the control. The Salivette cotton device provided intermediate results, although these concentrations were strongly correlated to the control. Salivette synthetic swabs seem to be useful devices for the collection of small amounts of urine from the ground destined for the assessment of physiological parameters. They thus provide new

  1. Purposeful Sampling for Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis in Mixed Method Implementation Research.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Horwitz, Sarah M; Green, Carla A; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Duan, Naihua; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2015-09-01

    Purposeful sampling is widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest. Although there are several different purposeful sampling strategies, criterion sampling appears to be used most commonly in implementation research. However, combining sampling strategies may be more appropriate to the aims of implementation research and more consistent with recent developments in quantitative methods. This paper reviews the principles and practice of purposeful sampling in implementation research, summarizes types and categories of purposeful sampling strategies and provides a set of recommendations for use of single strategy or multistage strategy designs, particularly for state implementation research.

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Periodic Breathing and Very Long Apnea in Preterm Infants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Mary A.

    Electronic signals from bedside monitors in University of Virginia's Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) are routinely collected and stored. The overall goal of our research is predictive monitoring: we seek patterns in signals that give early warning of impending pathology. This work focuses on apnea (pauses in regular respiration), and on periodic breathing (regular cycles of breathing and apnea). Our examination of apnea events revealed a disturbing number of cases in which the cessation of breathing lasted at least 60 seconds. These observations were validated, clinical correlations of these events were identified, and a theory was developed that partially explains how they occur. Periodic breathing in neonates is a normal developmental phenomenon. It arises when there is instability in the respiratory control system. A mathematical model of periodic breathing was developed to analyze the stability of the control system in infants. Periodic breathing has long been thought to be benign, however, exaggerated durations of periodic breathing may be an indicator of pathology. Characterization of periodic breathing has previously been limited to short monitoring times in small numbers of infants. An automated system for measurement and characterization of periodic breathing was developed and applied to 5 years of data from the NICU. The amount of periodic breathing that infants had was found to increase with gestational age (up to 32 weeks). Also, times of excessive periodic breathing were recorded and clinical correlations were sought. A significant increase in periodic breathing in the 24 hours before diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis was found.

  3. Electronic Nose Functionality for Breath Gas Analysis during Parabolic Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolch, Michael E.; Hummel, Thomas; Fetter, Viktor; Helwig, Andreas; Lenic, Joachim; Moukhamedieva, Lana; Tsarkow, Dimitrij; Chouker, Alexander; Schelling, Gustav

    2017-02-01

    The presence of humans in space represents a constant threat for their health and safety. Environmental factors such as living in a closed confinement, as well as exposure to microgravity and radiation, are associated with significant changes in bone metabolism, muscular atrophy, and altered immune response, which has impacts on human performance and possibly results in severe illness. Thus, maintaining and monitoring of crew health status has the highest priority to ensure whole mission success. With manned deep space missions to moon or mars appearing at the horizon where short-term repatriation back to earth is impossible the availability of appropriate diagnostic platforms for crew health status is urgently needed. In response to this need, the present experiment evaluated the functionality and practicability of a metal oxide based sensor system (eNose) together with a newly developed breath gas collecting device under the condition of altering acceleration. Parabolic flights were performed with an Airbus A300 ZeroG at Bordeaux, France. Ambient air and exhaled breath of five healthy volunteers was analyzed during steady state flight and parabolic flight maneuvres. All volunteers completed the study, the breath gas collecting device valves worked appropriately, and breathing through the collecting device was easy and did not induce discomfort. During breath gas measurements, significant changes in metal oxide sensors, mainly sensitive to aromatic and sulphur containing compounds, were observed with alternating conditions of acceleration. Similarly, metal oxide sensors showed significant changes in all sensors during ambient air measurements. The eNose as well as the newly developed breath gas collecting device, showed appropriate functionality and practicability during alternating conditions of acceleration which is a prerequisite for the intended use of the eNose aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for breath gas analysis and crew health status

  4. Breath-by-breath measurement of particle deposition in the lung of spontaneously breathing rats.

    PubMed

    Karrasch, S; Eder, G; Bolle, I; Tsuda, A; Schulz, H

    2009-10-01

    A number of deposition models for humans, as well as experimental animals, have been described. However, no breath-by-breath deposition measurement in rats has been reported to date. The objective of this study is to determine lung deposition of micrometer-sized particles as a function of breathing parameters in the adult rat lung. A new aerosol photometry system was designed to measure deposition of nonhygroscopic, 2-mum sebacate particles in anesthetized, intubated, and spontaneously breathing 90-day-old Wistar-Kyoto rats placed in a size-adjusted body plethysmograph box. Instrumental dead space of the system was minimized down to 310 microl (i.e., approximately 20% of respiratory dead space). The system allows continuous monitoring of particle concentration in the respired volume. Breathing parameters, such as respiratory rate (f), tidal volume (Vt), as well as inspiration/expiration times, were also monitored at different levels of anesthesia. The results showed that Vt typically varied between 1.5 and 4.0 ml for regular breathing and between 4.0 and 10.0 ml for single-sigh breaths; f ranged from 40 to 200 breaths/min. Corresponding deposition values varied between 5 and 50%, depending on breath-by-breath breathing patterns. The best fit of deposition (D) was achieved by a bilinear function of Vt and f and found to be D = 11.0 - 0.09.f + 3.75.Vt. We conclude that our approach provides more realistic conditions for the measurement of deposition than conventional models using ventilated animals and allows us to analyze the correlation between breath-specific deposition and spontaneous breathing patterns.

  5. 9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... premises. Disposable caps should be provided and discarded after use on each premises. After collection... retaining the upper half for future disposal. Replace the cap on the inoculated tube and continue the... transport them, on ice or otherwise refrigerated, to a laboratory within 48 hours of collection. The...

  6. 9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... premises. Disposable caps should be provided and discarded after use on each premises. After collection... retaining the upper half for future disposal. Replace the cap on the inoculated tube and continue the... transport them, on ice or otherwise refrigerated, to a laboratory within 48 hours of collection. The...

  7. 9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... premises. Disposable caps should be provided and discarded after use on each premises. After collection... retaining the upper half for future disposal. Replace the cap on the inoculated tube and continue the... transport them, on ice or otherwise refrigerated, to a laboratory within 48 hours of collection. The...

  8. 9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... premises. Disposable caps should be provided and discarded after use on each premises. After collection... retaining the upper half for future disposal. Replace the cap on the inoculated tube and continue the... transport them, on ice or otherwise refrigerated, to a laboratory within 48 hours of collection. The...

  9. 9 CFR 147.12 - Procedures for collection, isolation, and identification of Salmonella from environmental samples...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... premises. Disposable caps should be provided and discarded after use on each premises. After collection... retaining the upper half for future disposal. Replace the cap on the inoculated tube and continue the... transport them, on ice or otherwise refrigerated, to a laboratory within 48 hours of collection. The...

  10. MACRO- MICRO-PURGE SOIL GAS SAMPLING METHODS FOR THE COLLECTION OF CONTAMINANT VAPORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purging influence on soil gas concentrations for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), as affected by sampling tube inner diameter and sampling depth (i.e., dead-space purge volume), was evaluated at different field sites. A macro-purge sampling system consisted of a standard hollo...

  11. Sample Collection from Small Airless Bodies: Examination of Temperature Constraints for the TGIP Sample Collector for the Hera Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franzen, M. A.; Roe, L. A.; Buffington, J. A.; Sears, D. W. G.

    2005-01-01

    There have been a number of missions that have explored the solar system with cameras and other instruments but profound questions remain that can only be addressed through the analysis of returned samples. However, due to lack of appropriate technology, high cost, and high risk, sample return has only recently become a feasible part of robotic solar system exploration. One specific objective of the President s new vision is that robotic exploration of the solar system should enhance human exploration as it discovers and understands the the solar system, and searches for life and resources [1]. Missions to small bodies, asteroids and comets, will partially fill the huge technological void between missions to the Moon and missions to Mars. However, such missions must be low cost and inherently simple, so they can be applied routinely to many missions. Sample return from asteroids, comets, Mars, and Jupiter s moons will be an important and natural part of the human exploration of space effort. Here we describe the collector designed for the Hera Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission. We have built a small prototype for preliminary evaluation, but expect the final collector to gather approx.100 g of sample of dust grains to centimeter sized clasts on each application to the surface of the asteroid.

  12. A study on the levels of a polybrominated biphenyl in Chinese human milk samples collected in 2007 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Wen, Sheng; Li, Jingguang; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-09-01

    The levels of a 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) were measured in human milk samples collected in 2007 and 2011 from residents in China by high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass chromatography (HRGC-HRMS) with isotope dilution. The median concentrations of BB-153 from the samples collected in 2007 and 2011 were 8.3 and 7.2 pg/g lipid weight, respectively. The levels of BB-153 in the human milk collected from rural areas were not significantly different to those collected from the urban areas in China. Meanwhile, significant positive correlations were found between the levels of BB-153 in human milk and the consumption of animal-origin foods. In the present study, the mean levels of BB-153 in human milk from Chinese mothers were found to be lower than those from European and American mothers.

  13. Analytical results for 544 water samples collected in the Attean Quartz Monzonite in the vicinity of Jackman, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ficklin, W.H.; Nowlan, G.A.; Preston, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Water samples were collected in the vicinity of Jackman, Maine as a part of the study of the relationship of dissolved constituents in water to the sediments subjacent to the water. Each sample was analyzed for specific conductance, alkalinity, acidity, pH, fluoride, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and silica. Trace elements determined were copper, zinc, molybdenum, lead, iron, manganese, arsenic, cobalt, nickel, and strontium. The longitude and latitude of each sample location and a sample site map are included in the report as well as a table of the analytical results.

  14. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, Markus K. Reisecker, Michael; Hohenau, Andreas; Ditlbacher, Harald; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Krenn, Joachim R.

    2014-10-27

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200 nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  15. Improved method for collection of sputum for tuberculosis testing to ensure adequate sample volumes for molecular diagnostic testing.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Mark; Dolby, Tania; Surtie, Shireen; Omar, Gaironesa; Hapeela, Nchimunya; Basu, Debby; DeWalt, Abby; Kelso, David; Nicol, Mark; McFall, Sally

    2017-04-01

    The quality and quantity of sputum collected has an important impact on the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary TB. We conducted a pilot study to assess a new collection cups for the collection of sputum for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. The pilot study utilized the standard collection cup in South Africa demonstrating a mean collection volume of 2.86±2.36SDml for 198 samples; 19% of the specimens contained <1ml and 12% contained >5ml. We designed and tested two novel sputum cups with a narrow bottom section and clear minimum and maximum markings to allow patients and clinicians to know whether sufficient sputum volume has been produced. The cups differed in their shape and manufacturing approach. The two options also support different mixing approaches being considered for a highly sensitive companion TB-screening assay being developed at Northwestern University (XtracTB assay). Sputum was collected from 102 patients at Nolungile Youth Centre, Khayelitsha, Cape Town, South Africa for a total of 204 samples. The mean volumes collected from the two cups were 2.70±0.88SDml and 2.88±0.89SDml. While the mean volumes of current and novel cups are similar, the volume ranges collected with the novel cups were narrower, and 98% of the specimen volumes were within the target range. Only 4 samples contained >5ml, but none were >6ml, and none of the specimens contained <1ml. The number of coughs that produced the samples, patient HIV and TB status plus qualitative descriptions of the sputum specimens were also evaluated.

  16. Sample Collection Information Document for Chemical & Radiochemical Analytes – Companion to Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM) 2012

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sample Collection Information Document is intended to provide sampling information to be used during site assessment, remediation and clearance activities following a chemical or radiological contamination incident.

  17. Sample Collection Information Document for Pathogens and Biotoxins − Companion to Standardized Analytical Methods for Environmental Restoration Following Homeland Security Events (SAM) Revision 5.0

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sample Collection Information Document is intended to provide sampling information to be used during site assessment, remediation and clearance activities following a biological or biotoxin contamination incident.

  18. Apparatus for Collection of Fecal Samples from Undisturbed Spiny Mice (Acomys cahirinus) Living in a Complex Social Group

    PubMed Central

    Frynta, Daniel; Nováková, Marcela; Kutalová, Hana; Palme, Rupert; Sedláček, František

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites has become a widely used method for monitoring stress responses. Because most small rodents are social animals whose physiologic parameters are affected by social stimuli, individual housing may compromise these data. Nevertheless, housing rodents in families or social groups may be an important limitation to the experimental design. The challenge is to collect samples from individual rodents while avoiding stress-associated effects from the sampling method itself. Here we present an apparatus and protocol allowing routine repeated collection of an individual rodent's fresh fecal samples without noticeable disturbance of any of the study animals; continuous maintenance of studied animals in a familiar environment; group housing; and uninterrupted visual and olfactory communication among group members during sampling. The apparatus consists of 1 central and 4 lateral compartments. The experimental animal was allowed to enter a lateral compartment voluntarily, where it remained for the short (4 h) period necessary for sample collection before rejoining the rest of the group. Evaluations involved Egyptian spiny mice, a social rodent increasingly studied in laboratories. The results confirmed the repeatability of the assessment of baseline levels of glucocorticoid metabolites. Moreover, keeping the animals in our experimental apparatus did not induce any increase in the levels of glucocorticoid metabolites, even when isolation in the compartment was relatively prolonged. We interpret these results as confirmation that our sampling procedure allows repeated individual sampling within a nearly undisturbed social unit. PMID:19383218

  19. Apparatus for collection of fecal samples from undisturbed spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus) living in a complex social group.

    PubMed

    Frynta, Daniel; Nováková, Marcela; Kutalová, Hana; Palme, Rupert; Sedlácek, Frantisek

    2009-03-01

    Assessment of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites has become a widely used method for monitoring stress responses. Because most small rodents are social animals whose physiologic parameters are affected by social stimuli, individual housing may compromise these data. Nevertheless, housing rodents in families or social groups may be an important limitation to the experimental design. The challenge is to collect samples from individual rodents while avoiding stress-associated effects from the sampling method itself. Here we present an apparatus and protocol allowing routine repeated collection of an individual rodent's fresh fecal samples without noticeable disturbance of any of the study animals; continuous maintenance of studied animals in a familiar environment; group housing; and uninterrupted visual and olfactory communication among group members during sampling. The apparatus consists of 1 central and 4 lateral compartments. The experimental animal was allowed to enter a lateral compartment voluntarily, where it remained for the short (4 h) period necessary for sample collection before rejoining the rest of the group. Evaluations involved Egyptian spiny mice, a social rodent increasingly studied in laboratories. The results confirmed the repeatability of the assessment of baseline levels of glucocorticoid metabolites. Moreover, keeping the animals in our experimental apparatus did not induce any increase in the levels of glucocorticoid metabolites, even when isolation in the compartment was relatively prolonged. We interpret these results as confirmation that our sampling procedure allows repeated individual sampling within a nearly undisturbed social unit.

  20. Bridging the Gap between Sample Collection and Laboratory Analysis: Using Dried Blood Spots to Identify Human Exposure to Chemical Agents.

    PubMed

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I; Blake, Thomas A; Perez, Jonas W; Crow, Brian S; Shaner, Rebecca L; Coleman, Rebecca M; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2016-05-13

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  1. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  2. The 'Prof. Dr. Rómulo Lambre' Collection: an Argentinian sample of modern skeletons.

    PubMed

    Salceda, S A; Desántolo, B; Mancuso, R García; Plischuk, M; Inda, A M

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the 'Prof. Dr. Rómulo Lambre' skeletal collection. The Lambre Collection is housed in the School of Medical Sciences of the National University of La Plata and it consists of skeletal remains ceded by the Municipal Cemetery of La Plata. The collection has more than four hundred skeletons, with information on age, sex, nationality, date and cause of death. It was created for teaching and research purposes in compliance with current legislation, and its management meets guidelines specified in the Declaration of the Argentinian Association for Biological Anthropology on Research Ethics on Human Remains (2007).

  3. Challenges in collecting clinical samples for research from pregnant women of South Asian origin: evidence from a UK study

    PubMed Central

    Neelotpol, Sharmind; Hay, Alastair W M; Jolly, A Jim; Woolridge, Mike W

    2016-01-01

    Objective To recruit South Asian pregnant women, living in the UK, into a clinicoepidemiological study for the collection of lifestyle survey data and antenatal blood and to retain the women for the later collection of cord blood and meconium samples from their babies for biochemical analysis. Design A longitudinal study recruiting pregnant women of South Asian and Caucasian origin living in the UK. Setting Recruitment of the participants, collection of clinical samples and survey data took place at the 2 sites within a single UK Northern Hospital Trust. Participants Pregnant women of South Asian origin (study group, n=98) and of Caucasian origin (comparison group, n=38) living in Leeds, UK. Results Among the participants approached, 81% agreed to take part in the study while a ‘direct approach’ method was followed. The retention rate of the participants was a remarkable 93.4%. The main challenges in recruiting the ethnic minority participants were their cultural and religious conservativeness, language barrier, lack of interest and feeling of extra ‘stress’ in taking part in research. The chief investigator developed an innovative participant retention method, associated with the women's cultural and religious practices. The method proved useful in retaining the participants for about 5 months and in enabling successful collection of clinical samples from the same mother–baby pairs. The collection of clinical samples and lifestyle data exceeded the calculated sample size required to give the study sufficient power. The numbers of samples obtained were: maternal blood (n=171), cord blood (n=38), meconium (n=176), lifestyle questionnaire data (n=136) and postnatal records (n=136). Conclusions Recruitment and retention of participants, according to the calculated sample size, ensured sufficient power and success for a clinicoepidemiological study. Results suggest that development of trust and confidence between the participant and the researcher is the

  4. 7 CFR 52.44 - Inspection fees when charges for sampling have been collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... collected. 52.44 Section 52.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED...

  5. Analyses of Gas, Steam and Water Samples Collected in and Around Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, 1975-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janik, Cathy J.; Bergfeld, D.

    2010-01-01

    This report contains physical and chemical data from gas, steam, and water samples collected between July 1975 and September 2002 from locations in and around Lassen Volcanic National Park, California. Data are compiled as tables in Excel spreadsheets and are organized by locale. Most data are keyed to 1 of 107 site codes that are shown on local- and regional-scale maps. Brief descriptions of terminology, sampling, and analytical methods are provided.

  6. Investigation into Alternative Sample Preparation Techniques for the Determination of Heavy Metals in Stationary Source Emission Samples Collected on Quartz Filters

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Sharon L.; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring stationary source emissions for heavy metals generally requires the use of quartz filters to collect samples because of the high temperature and high moisture sampling environment. The documentary standard method sample preparation technique in Europe, EN 14385, uses digestion in hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid (HF/HNO3) followed by complexing with boric acid (H3BO3) prior to analysis. However, the use of this method presents a number of problems, including significant instrumental drift during analysis caused by the matrix components, often leading to instrument breakdown and downtime for repairs, as well as posing significant health and safety risks. The aim of this work was to develop an alternative sample preparation technique for emissions samples on quartz filters. The alternative techniques considered were: (i) acid digestion in a fluoroboric acid (HBF4) and HNO3 mixture and (ii) acid extraction in an aqua regia (AR) mixture (HCl and HNO3). Assessment of the effectiveness of these options included determination of interferences and signal drift, as well as validating the different methods by measurement of matrix certified reference materials (CRMs), and comparing the results obtained from real test samples and sample blanks to determine limits of detection. The results showed that the HBF4/HNO3 mixture provides the most viable alternative to the documentary standard preparation technique. PMID:25407906

  7. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. (a) Compressed breathing gas...

  8. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. (a) Compressed breathing gas...

  9. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. (a) Compressed breathing gas...

  10. Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Dimitri; Doghramji, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Sleep disorders are becoming more prevalent. There is an overlap of symptoms related to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and many psychiatric conditions. Complaints of excessive sleepiness, insomnia, cognitive dysfunction, and depressive symptoms can be related to both disease states. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive disruption of sleep by cessation of breathing and was first described in the 19th century by bedside observation during sleep. Physicians observed this cessation of breathing while the patient slept and postulated that these episodes were responsible for subsequent complaints of sleepiness. OSAS can coexist with major depressive disorder, exacerbate depressive symptoms, or be responsible for a large part of the symptom complex of depression. Additionally, in schizophrenia, sleep apnea may develop as a result of chronic neuroleptic treatment and its effect on gains in body weight, a major risk factor for the development of OSAS. It is important to recognize the signs and symptoms of sleep apnea, namely excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, and witnessed apneas. Recognition of the existence of sleep apnea, prompt referral to a sleep specialist, and ultimately treatment of an underlying sleep disorder, such as OSAS, can ameliorate symptoms of psychiatric disease. PMID:20975818

  11. Data interpretation in breath biomarker research: pitfalls and directions.

    PubMed

    Miekisch, Wolfram; Herbig, Jens; Schubert, Jochen K

    2012-09-01

    Most--if not all--potential diagnostic applications in breath research involve different marker concentrations rather than unique breath markers which only occur in the diseased state. Hence, data interpretation is a crucial step in breath analysis. To avoid artificial significance in breath testing every effort should be made to implement method validation, data cross-testing and statistical validation along this process. The most common data analysis related problems can be classified into three groups: confounding variables (CVs), which have a real correlation with both the diseased state and a breath marker but lead to the erroneous conclusion that disease and breath are in a causal relationship; voodoo correlations (VCs), which can be understood as statistically true correlations that arise coincidentally in the vast number of measured variables; and statistical misconceptions in the study design (SMSD). CV: Typical confounding variables are environmental and medical history, host factors such as gender, age, weight, etc and parameters that could affect the quality of breath data such as subject breathing mode, effects of breath sampling and effects of the analytical technique itself. VC: The number of measured variables quickly overwhelms the number of samples that can feasibly be taken. As a consequence, the chances of finding coincidental 'voodoo' correlations grow proportionally. VCs can typically be expected in the following scenarios: insufficient number of patients, (too) many measurement variables, the use of advanced statistical data mining methods, and non-independent data for validation. SMSD: Non-prospective, non-blinded and non-randomized trials, a priori biased study populations or group selection with unrealistically high disease prevalence typically represent misconception of study design. In this paper important data interpretation issues are discussed, common pitfalls are addressed and directions for sound data processing and interpretation

  12. A Review of Metal Concentrations Measured in Surface Soil Samples Collected on and Around the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.

    2009-07-27

    The data used in this report was collected by two separate projects. The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project collected routine samples in 2008 at 41 locations on and around the Hanford Site, and had them analyzed for metals in addition to the normal radiological constituents. In 2004 and 2005, soil samples were collected at 117 locations on the Hanford Reach National Monument (HRNM) in support of the radiological release of that property. In 2008, archived HRNM soil samples were analyzed for metals to supplement the radiological analyses. Concentration results for 30 individual metals were generated by the analytical methods. Selenium and antimony were not measured at detectable concentrations in most of the samples. Mercury was detected in about half of the samples analyzed. All other constituents were measured at detectable concentrations in nearly all samples analyzed. The average concentrations measured in this study were well below the soil cleanup levels for unrestricted land use established by the Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA). In addition to the average concentration being less than the benchmark, the 90th percentile concentration was also lower than the benchmark for the metals included in the MTCA. The results indicate that the measured concentrations of metals in surface soil were within the expected natural range of concentrations.

  13. The Effect of Breathing Elevated CO2 Gas Mixtures on Tracking Performance, Blood Pressure, and Subjective Tolerance at 1Gz

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    subjects. The following is a collection of those comments. Mlen breathing the air mixture six subjects reported no problem and one subject reported an...complained of being short of breath ; the remainirg five subjects reported no problems with 100% 0 2* During the exposure to 2.5% CO2 , one subject...more difficult to breathe than breathing ambient air. The remaining five reported no problems . Using 3.5% CO2, one subject aborted after being on the

  14. Measurement of Ethanol in Gaseous Breath Using a Miniature Gas Chromatograph

    PubMed Central

    Morey, Timothy E.; Booth, Matthew M.; Prather, Robert A.; Nixon, Sara J.; Boissoneault, Jeff; Melker, Richard J.; Goldberger, Bruce A.; Wohltjen, Hank; Dennis, Donn M.

    2011-01-01

    We designed and built a novel, miniature gas chromatograph (mGC) to use exhaled breath to estimate blood ethanol concentrations that may offer GC quality sensitivity and specificity, but with portability, reduced size, and decreased cost. We hypothesized that the mGC would accurately estimate the serum ethanol concentration using exhaled breath. Human subjects (n = 8) were dosed with ethanol employing the Widmark criteria, targeting a blood concentration of 0.08 g/dL. Serum and breath samples were collected concurrently over an hour. Ethanol concentrations in serum were measured using a CLIA-approved laboratory. Ethanol concentrations in conventional breath were assayed using a calibrated mGC or Intoxilyzer 400PA. Data were analyzed using Bland-Altman analysis using serum concentrations as a “gold standard”. For the mGC, the regression line (correlation coefficient), bias, and 95% limits of agreement were y = 1.013x − 0.009 (r = 0.91), −0.008 g/dL, and −0.031 to 0.016 g/dL, respectively, for 30 specimens. For the Intoxilyzer 400PA, the regression line (correlation coefficient), bias, and 95% limits of agreement were y = 0.599x + 0.008 (r = 0.86), −0.024 g/dL, and −0.049 to 0.002 g/dL, respectively, for 71 specimens with a large magnitude effect. We concluded that the mGC, using exhaled breath, performed well to estimate the serum ethanol concentrations. PMID:21439148

  15. Analysis of Biodiesel Blends Samples Collected in the United States in 2008 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, T. L.; Fouts, L.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-12-01

    NREL sampled and tested the quality of U.S. B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% petroleum diesel) in 2008; 32 samples from retail locations and fleets were tested against a proposed ASTM D7467 B6-B20 specification, now in effect.

  16. A Future Moon Mission: Curatorial Statistics on Regolith Fragments Applicable to Sample Collection by Raking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, J. H.; Bevill, T. J.

    2003-01-01

    The strategy of raking rock fragments from the lunar regolith as a means of acquiring representative samples has wide support due to science return, spacecraft simplicity (reliability) and economy [3, 4, 5]. While there exists widespread agreement that raking or sieving the bulk regolith is good strategy, there is lively discussion about the minimum sample size. Advocates of consor-tium studies desire fragments large enough to support petrologic and isotopic studies. Fragments from 5 to 10 mm are thought adequate [4, 5]. Yet, Jolliff et al. [6] demonstrated use of 2-4 mm fragments as repre-sentative of larger rocks. Here we make use of cura-torial records and sample catalogs to give a different perspective on minimum sample size for a robotic sample collector.

  17. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  18. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  19. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  20. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  1. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  2. Detection of Group B Streptococcus Directly from Collected ESwab Samples by Use of the BD Max GBS Assay

    PubMed Central

    Rocchetti, Talita T.; Gostnell, Alicia; Kubasek, Carly; Widen, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus detection directly from Copan ESwab collected samples, using the BD Max GBS assay, was evaluated on receipt in the laboratory and after 24 h at room temperature. Results were compared to those using Lim broth enrichment PCR and culture. No significant difference was observed between 24 h ESwab and Lim broth PCRs. PMID:27053670

  3. RECOMMENDED OPERATING PROCEDURE NO. 56: COLLECTION OF GASEOUS GRAB SAMPLES FROM COMBUSTION SOURCES FOR NITROUS OXIDE MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is a recommended operating procedure, prepare or use in research activities conducted by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL). The procedure applies to the collection of gaseous grab samples from fossil fuel combustion sources for subsequent a...

  4. EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL WIPES, COTTON SUITES, AND ALTERNATIVE URINARY COLLECTION MATERIALS FOR PESTICIDE SAMPLING FROM INFANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues.

    One...

  5. Illuminating the NARS data entry black box: what happens between sample collection and data availability for use in assessments?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The steps between field collection of data and samples and availability of the resulting data from National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) can appear to be a black box. This presentation is intended to shed some light on that process. The pathway for data depends on their source...

  6. Hydrogen breath test in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Douwes, A C; Schaap, C; van der Klei-van Moorsel, J M

    1985-04-01

    The frequency of negative hydrogen breath tests due to colonic bacterial flora which are unable to produce hydrogen was determined after oral lactulose challenge in 98 healthy Dutch schoolchildren. There was a negative result in 9.2%. The probability of a false normal lactose breath test (1:77) was calculated from these results together with those from a separate group of children with lactose malabsorption (also determined by hydrogen breath test). A study of siblings and mothers of subjects with a negative breath test did not show familial clustering of this condition. Faecal incubation tests with various sugars showed an increase in breath hydrogen greater than 100 parts per million in those with a positive breath test while subjects with a negative breath test also had a negative faecal incubation test. The frequency of a false negative hydrogen breath test was higher than previously reported, but this does not affect the superiority of this method of testing over the conventional blood glucose determination.

  7. BREATHE to Understand©

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  8. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary.

    PubMed

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses.

  9. What Happens When You Breathe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Explore How the Lungs Work What Are... The Respiratory System What Happens When You Breathe What Controls Your Breathing Lung Diseases & Conditions Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Asthma Bronchitis COPD How the Heart Works Respiratory Failure Send a link to NHLBI to someone ...

  10. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses. PMID:27542677

  11. Clinical applications of breath testing

    PubMed Central

    Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam

    2010-01-01

    Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years. PMID:21173863

  12. Patient's breath controls comfort devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

  13. Hematological Assessment in Pet Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus): Blood Sample Collection and Blood Cell Identification.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count.

  14. Hematological assessment in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus): blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count.

  15. Microcontroller-based system for collecting anaerobic blood samples from a running greyhound.

    PubMed

    Schmalzried, R T; Toll, P W; Devore, J J; Fedde, M R

    1992-04-01

    Many physiological variables change rapidly in the blood during sprint exercise. To characterize the dynamics and extent of these changes, blood samples must be obtained during exercise. We describe herein a portable, microcontroller-based system used to automatically obtain repeated, anaerobic, arterial blood samples from greyhounds before, during, and following a race on a track. In addition, the system also records the blood temperature in the pulmonary artery each time a blood sample is taken. The system has been tested for more than 2 years and has proven to be reliable and effective.

  16. Analyses of native water, core material, and elutriate samples collected from the Atchafalaya River and Atchafalaya Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demas, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    During October and November 1976 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected native water and core material from 14 sites along the Atchafalya River in Louisiana (from the head of Whiskey Bay Pilot Channel to American Pass) and 5 sites in Atchafalya Bay for evaluation of possible environmental effects of a proposed channel-enlargement project. Core material from all river sites and one bay site was collected to a depth of 50 feet (15 meters). At the remaining bay sites, samples were collected to a depth of less than 6 inches (15 centimeters) using a pipe dredge. Core material and native water were analyzed (separately and as elutriate samples prepared from mixtures) for selected metals, nutrients, organic compounds, and physical characteristics. No interpretation of the data is given. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Performance of Self-Collected Cervical Samples in Screening for Future Precancer Using Human Papillomavirus DNA Testing

    PubMed Central

    Hildesheim, Allan; González, Paula; Schiffman, Mark; Rodríguez, Ana Cecilia; Wacholder, Sholom; Jiménez, Silvia; Quint, Wim; Guillen, Diego; Kreimer, Aimée R.; Herrero, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-collected human papillomavirus (HPV) testing could reduce barriers to cervical cancer screening, with performance comparable to clinician-collected specimens. The ability of self-collected specimens to cross-sectionally and prospectively detect precursor lesions was investigated in an HPV vaccine randomized trial in Costa Rica. Methods: In the trial, 7466 women age 18 to 25 years received an HPV16/18 or control vaccine and were followed at least annually for four years. In this secondary analysis, we included all women who provided a self-collected cervicovaginal specimen six months after enrollment (5109 women = full analytical cohort). A subset (615 women = restricted cohort) also had clinician-collected specimens at the six-month postenrollment visit. High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or repeat low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion prompted colposcopic referral throughout the study. HPV testing was performed with SPF10PCR/DEIA/LiPA25. Cross-sectional and prospective sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were estimated. Results: In the full cohort, one-time HPV testing on self-collected samples detected prevalent CIN2+ with a sensitivity of 88.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] =77.0% to 95.7%) and a specificity of 68.9% (95% CI = 67.6% to 70.1%). For predicting incident CIN2+ in the subsequent four years, sensitivity was 73.9% (95% CI = 65.8% to 81.0%) and specificity 69.4% (95% CI = 68.1% to 70.7%). In the restricted cohort, for incident CIN2+, self-collected HPV was much more sensitive than cytology (80.0% vs 10.0%); relative sensitivity was 0.1 (95% CI = 0.03% to 0.5%). Furthermore, three times more women with normal baseline cytology developed incident CIN2+ than those with negative self-collected HPV. Self-collected and clinician-collected HPV testing had comparable performance. Agreement between self- and clinician-collected samples was 89.7% (kappa = 0.78, McNemar χ2 = 0.62) for carcinogenic HPV types. Conclusions

  18. Effects of sampling nozzles on the particle-collection characteristics of inertial sizing devices. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, A.D.; Farthing, W.E.; Ward, T.E.; Midgett, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    In several particle-sizing samplers, the sample extraction nozzle is necessarily closely coupled to the first inertial sizing stage. Devices of this type include small sampling cyclones, right-angle impactor precollectors for in-stack impactors, and the first impaction stage of several cascade impactors. In a recent laboratory study of a stack-sampling cyclone with various sampling nozzles, significant perturbations were observed in the actual D50 when some of the nozzles were used. Some nozzles caused the D50 of the cyclone to be reduced from 10 micrometers to less than 6 micrometers. Several alternate nozzle designs were considered to alleviate this behavior. Simple extension of the nozzle length was sufficient to restore the 10-micrometers sampler D50, but at the expense of enhanced deposition of the test-aerosol particles on the nozzle walls.

  19. The brominated flame retardants, PBDEs and HBCD, in Canadian human milk samples collected from 1992 to 2005; concentrations and trends.

    PubMed

    Ryan, John Jake; Rawn, Dorothea F K

    2014-09-01

    Human milk samples were collected from individuals residing in various regions across Canada mostly in the years 1992 to 2005. These included five large cities in southern Canada as well as samples from Nunavik in northern Quebec. Comparative samples were also collected from residents of Austin, Texas, USA in 2002 and 2004. More than 300 milk samples were analysed for the brominated flame retardants (BFRs), PBDEs and HBCD, by extraction, purification and quantification using either isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-MS. The Canadian total PBDE values in the years 2002-2005 show median levels of about 20μg/kg on a lipid basis; a value significantly higher than in the 1980s and 1990s. Milk samples from Inuit donors in the northern region of Nunavik were slightly lower in PBDE concentrations than those from populated regions in the south of Quebec. Milk samples from Ontario contained slightly lower amounts of PBDEs in two time periods than those from Texas. HBCD levels in most milk samples were usually less than 1ppb milk lipid and dominated by the α-isomer. This large data set of BFRs in Canadian human milk demonstrates an increase in the last few decades in human exposure to BFRs which now appears to have stabilized.

  20. Evaluation of a novel tagging and tissue preservation system for potential use in forensic sample collection.

    PubMed

    Grassberger, Martin; Stein, Christina; Hanslik, Stefan; Hochmeister, Manfred

    2005-07-16

    The authors describe a new, easy-to-use barcode-based tissue collection, preservation and body tracking system, which might prove instrumental in the containment of mass fatalities such as aircraft accidents, war related accidents, environmental disasters (e.g. earthquakes, hurricanes, and floods) terrorist bombings or mass murders.