Science.gov

Sample records for breath test results

  1. 49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.206 FRA access to breath test results. Documentation of breath test results must be made available...

  2. 49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.206 FRA access to breath test results. Documentation of breath test results must be made available...

  3. 49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.206 FRA access to breath test results. Documentation of breath test results must be made available...

  4. 49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.206 FRA access to breath test results. Documentation of breath test results must be made available...

  5. 49 CFR 219.206 - FRA access to breath test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FRA access to breath test results. 219.206 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Post-Accident Toxicological Testing § 219.206 FRA access to breath test results. Documentation of breath test results must be made available...

  6. Results of the first semi-annual qualification testing of devices to measure breath alcohol

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-01-01

    Eight evidential breath testers were performance tested according to the Standard for Devices to Measure Breath Alcohol Federal Register, Vol 38, No. 212, November 5, 1973. In addition, a prototype breath tester not commercially available was tested....

  7. The Effect of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizer Vapors on Evidential Breath Alcohol Test Results.

    PubMed

    Strawsine, Ellen; Lutmer, Brian

    2017-11-16

    This study was undertaken to determine if the application of alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs) to the hands of a breath test operator will affect the results obtained on evidential breath alcohol instruments (EBTs). This study obtained breath samples on three different EBTs immediately after application of either gel or foam ABHS to the operator's hands. A small, but significant, number of initial analyses (13 of 130, 10%) resulted in positive breath alcohol concentrations, while 41 samples (31.5%) resulted in a status code. These status codes were caused by ethanol vapors either in the room air or their inhalation by the subject, thereby causing a mouth alcohol effect. Replicate subject samples did not yield any consecutive positive numeric results. As ABHS application can cause a transitory mouth alcohol effect via inhalation of ABHS vapors, EBT operators should forego the use of ABHS in the 15 min preceding subject testing. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Can handling E85 motor fuel cause positive breath alcohol test results?

    PubMed

    Ran, Ran; Mullins, Michael E

    2013-09-01

    Hand-held breath alcohol analyzers are widely used by police in traffic stops of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). E85 is a motor fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbons, and is available at nearly 2,600 stations in the USA. We sought to determine whether handling E85 fuel could produce measurable breath alcohol results using a hand-held analyzer and to see if this would be a plausible explanation for a positive breath alcohol test. Five healthy adult subjects dispensed or transferred 8 US gallons of E85 fuel in each of four scenarios. We measured breath alcohol concentration in g/210 L of exhaled breath using the BACTrack S50 at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 min after each fuel-handling scenario. Most of the subjects had no detectable breath alcohol after handling E85 motor fuel. Transient elevations (0.02-0.04 g/210 L) in breath alcohol measurement occurred up to 6 min after handling E85 in a minority of subjects. We conclude that it is unlikely that handling E85 motor fuel would result in erroneous prosecution for DWI.

  9. Can Handling E85 Motor Fuel Cause Positive Breath Alcohol Test Results?

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Ran; Mullins, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Hand-held breath alcohol analyzers are widely used by police in traffic stops of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). E85 is a motor fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbons, and is available at nearly 2,600 stations in the USA. We sought to determine whether handling E85 fuel could produce measurable breath alcohol results using a hand-held analyzer and to see if this would be a plausible explanation for a positive breath alcohol test. Five healthy adult subjects dispensed or transferred 8 US gallons of E85 fuel in each of four scenarios. We measured breath alcohol concentration in g/210 L of exhaled breath using the BACTrack S50 at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 min after each fuel-handling scenario. Most of the subjects had no detectable breath alcohol after handling E85 motor fuel. Transient elevations (0.02–0.04 g/210 L) in breath alcohol measurement occurred up to 6 min after handling E85 in a minority of subjects. We conclude that it is unlikely that handling E85 motor fuel would result in erroneous prosecution for DWI. PMID:23843422

  10. Hydrogen breath test in schoolchildren.

    PubMed Central

    Douwes, A C; Schaap, C; van der Klei-van Moorsel, J M

    1985-01-01

    The frequency of negative hydrogen breath tests due to colonic bacterial flora which are unable to produce hydrogen was determined after oral lactulose challenge in 98 healthy Dutch schoolchildren. There was a negative result in 9.2%. The probability of a false normal lactose breath test (1:77) was calculated from these results together with those from a separate group of children with lactose malabsorption (also determined by hydrogen breath test). A study of siblings and mothers of subjects with a negative breath test did not show familial clustering of this condition. Faecal incubation tests with various sugars showed an increase in breath hydrogen greater than 100 parts per million in those with a positive breath test while subjects with a negative breath test also had a negative faecal incubation test. The frequency of a false negative hydrogen breath test was higher than previously reported, but this does not affect the superiority of this method of testing over the conventional blood glucose determination. PMID:4004310

  11. A novel 13C-urea breath test device for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: continuous online measurements allow for faster test results with high accuracy.

    PubMed

    Israeli, Eran; Ilan, Yaron; Meir, Shimon Bar; Buenavida, Claudia; Goldin, Eran

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of a novel laptop sized 13C-Urea breath test analyzer that continuously measures expired breath and to use its advantages to decrease testing time. One hundred and eighty-six subjects (mean age of 47.8 years) were tested simultaneously by the BreathID system (Oridion, Israel), and by the traditional IRMS. BreathID continuously measured the expired breath for a ratio of 13CO(2):12CO(2.) This value was expressed as delta over baseline (DOB) and displayed graphically on a screen in real time. One hundred and one subjects were positive and 85 were negative for H. pylori by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The correlation for the BreathID system at 30 minutes was 100% for positive cases and 98% for negative cases. Analysis of the continuous curves generated by the BreathID for all patients permitted definition of different DOB thresholds for a positive or negative result at shorter time intervals. Thus, after 6 minutes a conclusive test result could be obtained for 64% of subjects, and after 10 minutes for 92% of subjects. The 13C-Urea breath test utilizing the technology of molecular correlation spectrometry is an accurate method for determining infection by H. pylori. The advantage of continuous measurements can shorten testing time without compromising accuracy.

  12. Clinical applications of breath testing

    PubMed Central

    Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam

    2010-01-01

    Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years. PMID:21173863

  13. Breath test refusals

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-11-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has found that the percentage of people who refuse to provide breath samples when arrested for Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) varies considerably across States, and this creates a concern in the cri...

  14. Variables that Impact on the Results of Breath-Alcohol Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labianca, Dominick A.

    2004-01-01

    In a 2003 issue of the "Journal of Chemical Education," Kniesel and Bellamy describe a timely and pedagogically effective experiment involving breath-alcohol analysis using an FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) spectrometer. The present article clarifies some of the information presented in the 2003 article.

  15. Positive or negative fructose breath test results do not predict response to fructose restricted diet in children with recurrent abdominal pain: results from a prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Wirth, S; Klodt, C; Wintermeyer, P; Berrang, J; Hensel, K; Langer, T; Heusch, A

    2014-09-01

    To perform a prospective, blinded, randomized interventional trial in patients with recurrent abdominal pain. The primary endpoint was to determine the abdominal pain intensity after 2 weeks of fructose restricted diet. Secondary endpoints were changes of pain frequency and a secondary symptom score (SSS). 103 individuals with recurrent abdominal pain for more than 3 months were randomized. 51 patients were allocated to group A (diet) and 52 to group B (no diet). 2 weeks later the patients underwent hydrogen breath test and were assigned to the test positive or negative group to identify patients with fructose malabsorption. 2 weeks after intervention the pain score decreased significantly from a median 5.5 in group A to 4 and did not change significantly in group B (5.3 to 5). In group A both patients with positive and negative breath tests had a significant lower pain score (-2 and -1.75, respectively). Frequency of abdominal pain decreased in both groups but without significant difference, SSS improved only in group A from median 6 to 3.5. Positive breath test was no predicting factor, neither was abdominal pain during the test. Fructose restricted diet in children and adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain may be of benefit to improve both abdominal pain symptoms and other secondary symptoms. Since a negative breath test result does not exclude a positive response to fructose restriction, the hydrogen breath test does not seem to be the appropriate diagnostic mean to predict the response to the diet. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Comparison of Accuracy Between 13C- and 14C-Urea Breath Testing: Is an Indeterminate-Results Category Still Needed?

    PubMed

    Charest, Mathieu; Bélair, Marc-André

    2017-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the leading cause of peptic ulcer disease. The purpose of this study was, first, to assess the difference in the distribution of negative versus positive results between the older 14 C-urea breath test and the newer 13 C-urea breath test and, second, to determine whether use of an indeterminate-results category is still meaningful and what type of results should trigger repeated testing. Methods: A retrospective survey was performed of all consecutive patients referred to our service for urea breath testing. We analyzed 562 patients who had undergone testing with 14 C-urea and 454 patients who had undergone testing with 13 C-urea. Results: In comparison with the wide distribution of negative 14 C results, negative 13 C results were distributed farther from the cutoff and were grouped more tightly around the mean negative value. Distribution analysis of the negative results for 13 C testing, compared with those for 14 C testing, revealed a statistically significant difference between the two. Within the 13 C group, only 1 patient could have been classified as having indeterminate results using the same indeterminate zone as was used for the 14 C group. This is significantly less frequent than what was found for the 14 C group. Discussion: Borderline-negative results do occur with 13 C-urea breath testing, although less frequently than with 14 C-urea breath testing, and we will be carefully monitoring differences falling between 3.0 and 3.5 %Δ. 13 C-urea breath testing is safe and simple for the patient and, in most cases, provides clearer positive or negative results for the clinician. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  17. The effect of radioactive iodine treatment on 14C urea breath test results in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Arduc, Ayse; Dogan, Bercem Aycicek; Ozuguz, Ufuk; Tuna, Mazhar Muslim; Gokay, Ferhat; Tutuncu, Yasemin Ates; Isik, Serhat; Aydin, Yusuf; Peksoy, Irfan; Berker, Dilek; Guler, Serdar

    2014-12-01

    Radioactive Iodine therapy (RAIT) plays a major role in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. In addition to the thyroid gland, significant amounts of radioactive iodine are maintained in the stomach. The aim of this study was to determine if RAIT has any effect on Helicobacter pylori infection, based on the C urea breath test (UBT). The study included 85 patients with hyperthyroidism scheduled to undergo RAIT and 69 hyperthyroid subjects in whom methimazole treatment was planned. All subjects had pretreatment-positive UBT results, and the test was repeated on the first and third months after RAIT and methimazole treatment. After a mean RAIT dose of 15 mCi (range, 10-20 mCi), UBT became negative in 13 (15.3%) of 85 patients on the first month and 18 (21.2%) of 85 patients on the third month. All subjects treated with methimazole remained UBT positive on the first and third months of methimazole treatment (100%). Reduction in the number of UBT-positive patients on both the first and the third months after RAIT was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Distribution of hyperthyroidism etiologies and thyroid autoantibody levels in subjects with UBT that became negative and in subjects with UBT that remained positive were similar in the RAIT group (P > 0.05). Urea breath test negativity rates did not differ according to the radioiodine dose. Our findings indirectly showed that RAIT might have an antimicrobial effect on H. pylori. Clinical applications of this beneficial effect of RAIT on H. pylori should be further evaluated.

  18. [Results of an alcohol breath-test campaign in a sample of construction site workers in the Umbria region].

    PubMed

    Miscetti, Giorgio; Abbritti, Emilio Paolo; Bodo, Patrizia; Lumare, Alessandro; Romano Gargarella, Lea

    2015-01-09

    The purpose of the research was to evaluate the respect of the regulation on the prohibition of alcohol consumption in the building sector through an alcohol breath test campaign, and to acquire information on the alcohol consumption by the contractors. In the course of the investigation which covered the period 2011-2013, in a sample of construction, it was decided to access with verification of the presence of alcoholic beverages, administration workers to an anonymous questionnaire on alcohol consumption, execution of alcohol breath test. The reached population consisted in 1635 subjects, 1040 of which Italians and 595 foreigners; the consumers of at least 0,5 AU/die resulted being 354 among Italians and 250 among foreigners (p<0,05), the main occasion of consumption was observed being the meal for 39,8% of subjects; wine, followed by beer, were recorded as the most consumed beverages. The great majority of subjects, 1340, declared being aware of the regulation on the prohibition of alcohol consumption and only a minimum part of it, 42 subjects, declared having occasionally consumed alcoholic beverages for more than 6 AU, or having driven a car, 3 subjects, after having consumed at least 2 AU, or having had interviews, 115 subjects, about alcohol consumption with healthcare operators. The alcohol test results only marked 91 cases (5,6%) of positiveness with values mostly confined to 0,2 g/l, and the distribution of positive tests resulted substantially overlapping (p>0,05) between foreigners and Italians. Notwithstanding, among the negative subjects, 9% declared having consumed alcoholics during the meal immediately preceding the work shift; all this underlining a sound dangerous behaviour. A behaviour which may easily escape to an alcohol metric test, considering the relationship between the timing of the last alcohol consumption, the quantity assumed, the test timing and its result. The authors conclude pointing out how, in the studied sector, there

  19. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a glass tube. The tube is filled with bands of yellow crystals. The bands in the tube change colors (from yellow to ... Results Mean With the balloon method: 1 green band means that the blood-alcohol level is 0. ...

  20. [Application of the breath hydrogen test in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Loranskaia, I D; Panina, N A; Zheltakova, O V

    2006-01-01

    The diagnostic capacities of the breath hydrogen test in gastroenterology are discussed in the article. The authors describe the results of their own research--determination of the intestinal bacterial contamination in patients with chronic biliary pancreatitis with the help of the Micro H2 breath hydrogen analyzer.

  1. [Examination of gastric emptying rate by means of 13C-octanoic acid breath test. Methods of the test for adults and results of the investigation of healthy volunteers].

    PubMed

    Bures, J; Kopácová, M; Vorísek, V; Bukac, J; Neumann, D; Rejchrt, S; Pozler, O; Douda, T; Zivný, P; Palicka, V

    2005-01-01

    13C-octanoic acid breath test (13C-OABT) is a simple, safe and non-invasive technique for measuring gastric emptying. However, the method has not been standardized yet. Aim of the study was to work up, introduce and evaluate our own method of the 13C-OABT for adults. Ten healthy volunteers entered the study (5 men, 5 women, mean age 32 years, 50 % Helicobacter pylori positive). Standard test meals (with 100 mg 13C-sodium octanoate) were used three times within 3 weeks. The same solid meal (1,178 kJ) for Tests 1 and 2 contained scrambled egg (+ 3 g oil), white bread (40 g), butter (10 g) and distilled water (200 ml). Semi-solid meal (1,020 kJ) for Test 3 contained milk pudding (200 g) and distilled water (200 ml). Duplicate breath samples were obtained before and every 15 minutes after eating the test meal during 255 minutes. Altogether 1,080 breath samples were analysed twice (isotope ratio mass spectrometry, AP2003 Analytical Precision, UK). To assess the half-life of elimination (t1/2 E), we modelled the process of elimination with the incomplete gamma-function, which has a convenient form for the empiric plotting of breath test data. Mean t1/2E was 136+/-10 minutes (Test 1), 134+/-14 (Test 2) and 123+/-16 minutes (Test 3). Clinical reproducibility of 13C-OABT in particular persons was 98.2% (18 breath samples series), 90.8 % (15 samples) and 87.1% (9 breath samples series). There was a significant correlation between Test 1 and Test 2 results (r=0.887, p<0.0001). Mean difference of duplicate breath sample analysis was 1.460 % (in 540 pairs), mean baseline one-day analysis difference was 0.0982 (99.9274% accuracy). In healthy volunteers, normal range of t1/2E is 110-160 minutes for solids and 91-155 minutes for semisolid test meal. Using our own computed mean time of intermediate metabolism of 13C-octanoic acid (76.5+/-7.5 minutes), gastric emptying half-time is 33.5-83.5 minutes for solids and 14.5-78.5 minutes for semisolid test meal in healthy volunteers. The

  2. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  3. Data Mining Techniques Applied to Hydrogen Lactose Breath Test.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Escudero, Cristina; Valverde-Fernández, Justo; Nepomuceno-Chamorro, Isabel; Pontes-Balanza, Beatriz; Hernández-Mendoza, Yoedusvany; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Analyze a set of data of hydrogen breath tests by use of data mining tools. Identify new patterns of H2 production. Hydrogen breath tests data sets as well as k-means clustering as the data mining technique to a dataset of 2571 patients. Six different patterns have been extracted upon analysis of the hydrogen breath test data. We have also shown the relevance of each of the samples taken throughout the test. Analysis of the hydrogen breath test data sets using data mining techniques has identified new patterns of hydrogen generation upon lactose absorption. We can see the potential of application of data mining techniques to clinical data sets. These results offer promising data for future research on the relations between gut microbiota produced hydrogen and its link to clinical symptoms.

  4. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  5. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the...

  6. Laboratory testing of two prototype in-vehicle breath test devices

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1985-08-01

    This report presents the results of laboratory testing of two recently developed prototype in-vehicle breath test devices. These devices are designed to prevent persons with alcohol on their breath from driving a car. The devices tested were the SOBE...

  7. Outcome of breath tests in adult patients with suspected small intestinal bacterial overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Johanna; Minaya, Maria Teresa; Monegro, Milka; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Lewis, Suzanne K.; Green, Peter HR; Stenberg, Reidun

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to investigate breath test outcomes in patients with suspected SIBO and indicative symptoms of SIBO, diagnosed by breath testing. Background: Breath testing is used to detect small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) by measuring hydrogen and methane produced by intestinal bacteria. Methods: This retrospective cross sectional study included 311 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms who underwent the breath test for evaluation of SIBO at Celiac Disease Center at Columbia University, New York, in 2014-2015. The patients were divided into two groups based on the physician’s choice: lactulose breath test group (72%) and glucose breath test group (28%). Among them, 38% had a history of celiac disease or non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Results: In total, 46% had a positive breath test: 18% were positive for methane, 24 % positive for hydrogen and 4% positive for both gases (p=0.014). Also, 50% had a positive lactulose breath result and 37% had a positive glucose breath result (p=0.036). The most common symptom for performing the breath test was bloating and the only clinical symptom that significantly showed a positive glucose breath test was increased gas (p=0.028). Conclusion: Lactulose breath test was more often positive than glucose breath test. Positivity for hydrogen was more common than methane. Bloating was the most frequently perceived symptom of the patients undergoing the breath test but the only statistically significant clinical symptom for a positive glucose breath test was increased gas. Furthermore, the results showed that there was no significant association between positive breath test result and gender, age, non-celiac gluten sensitivity or celiac disease. PMID:29118931

  8. The effect of breath freshener strips on two types of breath alcohol testing instruments.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ronald L; Guillen, Jennifer

    2004-07-01

    The potential for breath freshener strips to interfere with the accuracy of a breath alcohol test was studied. Twelve varieties of breath freshener strips from five manufacturers were examined. Breath tests were conducted using the infrared based BAC DataMaster or the fuel cell based Alco-Sensor IV-XL, 30 and 150 seconds after placing a breath strip on the tongue. No effect was observed using the Alco-Sensor system. Some of the strips gave a small reading at 30 seconds (less than or equal to 0.010 g/210 L apparent alcohol) using the DataMaster. Readings on the DataMaster returned to zero by the 150 second test. A proper pre-test observation and deprivation period should prevent any interference from breath freshener strips on breath alcohol testing.

  9. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-01-01

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H2 and CH4 gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H2 breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients. PMID:24976698

  10. Breath Test Refusals and Their Effect on DWI Prosecution

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-07-01

    This report describes the design and results of a project aimed at estimating the rate that drivers : refuse to submit to a legally-requested breath alcohol concentration test, and the effect of such : refusals on the prosecution of DWI cases. The st...

  11. Air-Breathing Rocket Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine that completed an hour or 3,600 seconds of testing at the General Applied Sciences Laboratory in Ronkonkoma, New York. Referred to as ARGO by its design team, the engine is named after the mythological Greek ship that bore Jason and the Argonauts on their epic voyage of discovery. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced SpaceTransportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  12. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated with... Institute upon request. (d) The air within the bag(s) shall not contain more than 100 parts per million of... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public...

  13. Effects of homeopathic mother tinctures on breath alcohol testing.

    PubMed

    Boatto, Gianpiero; Trignano, Claudia; Burrai, Lucia; Spanu, Andrea; Nieddu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In some countries, it is illegal to drive with any detectable amount of alcohol in blood; in others, the legal limit is 0.5 g/L or lower. Recently, some defendants charged with driving under the influence of alcohol and have claimed that positive breath alcohol test results were due to the ingestion of homeopathic mother tinctures. These preparations are obtained by maceration, digestion, infusion, or decoction of herbal material in hydroalcoholic solvent. A series of tests were conducted to evaluate the alcoholic content of three homeopathic mother tinctures and their ability to produce inaccurate breath alcohol results. Nine of 30 subjects gave positive results (0.11-0.82 g/L) when tests were taken within 1 min after drinking mother tincture. All tests taken at least 15 min after the mother tincture consumption and resulted in alcohol-free readings. An observation period of 15-20 min prior to breath alcohol testing eliminates the possibility of false-positive results. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Prediction of heart transplant rejection with a breath test for markers of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Michael; Boehmer, John P; Cataneo, Renee N; Cheema, Taseer; Eisen, Howard J; Fallon, John T; Fisher, Peter E; Gass, Alan; Greenberg, Joel; Kobashigawa, Jon; Mancini, Donna; Rayburn, Barry; Zucker, Mark J

    2004-12-15

    The Heart Allograft Rejection: Detection with Breath Alkanes in Low Levels study evaluated a breath test for oxidative stress in heart transplant recipients, and we report here a mathematical model predicting the probability of grade 3 rejection. The breath test divided the heart transplant recipients into 3 groups: positive for grade 3 rejection, negative for grade 3 rejection, and intermediate. The test was 100% sensitive for grade 3 heart transplant rejection when the p value was >/=0.98, and 100% specific when the p value was breath test determined the probability of grade 3 rejection and the predictive value of the result.

  15. 46 CFR 197.450 - Breathing gas tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing gas tests. 197.450 Section 197.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Periodic Tests and Inspections of Diving Equipment § 197.450 Breathing gas tests. The diving...

  16. Operation and testing of Mark 10 Mod 3 underwater breathing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milwee, W. I., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Performance tests on a closed circuit, mixed gas underwater breathing apparatus are reported. The equipment is designed to provide a minimum diving duration of four hours at 1500 ft below sea surface; it senses oxygen partial pressure in the breathing gas mix and controls oxygen content of the breathing gas within narrow limits about a preset value. The breathing circuit subsystem provides respirable gas to the diver and removes carbon dioxide and moisture from the expired gas. Test results indicate undesirable variations in oxygen partial pressure with oxygen addition and insufficient carbon dioxide absorption.

  17. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing...

  18. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing...

  19. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing...

  20. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing...

  1. Limited electromagnetic interference testing of evidential breath testers

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1983-05-06

    This report summarizes a limited test program conducted to determine the susceptibility of evidential breath testers (EBTs) to radio frequency interference (RFI). Several comprehensive test protocols were prepared based on procedures developed by the...

  2. Breathing simulator of workers for respirator performance test.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hisashi; Kumita, Mikio; Honda, Takeshi; Kimura, Kazushi; Nozaki, Kosuke; Emi, Hitoshi; Otani, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Breathing machines are widely used to evaluate respirator performance but they are capable of generating only limited air flow patterns, such as, sine, triangular and square waves. In order to evaluate the respirator performance in practical use, it is desirable to test the respirator using the actual breathing patterns of wearers. However, it has been a difficult task for a breathing machine to generate such complicated flow patterns, since the human respiratory volume changes depending on the human activities and workload. In this study, we have developed an electromechanical breathing simulator and a respiration sampling device to record and reproduce worker's respiration. It is capable of generating various flow patterns by inputting breathing pattern signals recorded by a computer, as well as the fixed air flow patterns. The device is equipped with a self-control program to compensate the difference in inhalation and exhalation volume and the measurement errors on the breathing flow rate. The system was successfully applied to record the breathing patterns of workers engaging in welding and reproduced the breathing patterns.

  3. Breathing simulator of workers for respirator performance test

    PubMed Central

    YUASA, Hisashi; KUMITA, Mikio; HONDA, Takeshi; KIMURA, Kazushi; NOZAKI, Kosuke; EMI, Hitoshi; OTANI, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Breathing machines are widely used to evaluate respirator performance but they are capable of generating only limited air flow patterns, such as, sine, triangular and square waves. In order to evaluate the respirator performance in practical use, it is desirable to test the respirator using the actual breathing patterns of wearers. However, it has been a difficult task for a breathing machine to generate such complicated flow patterns, since the human respiratory volume changes depending on the human activities and workload. In this study, we have developed an electromechanical breathing simulator and a respiration sampling device to record and reproduce worker’s respiration. It is capable of generating various flow patterns by inputting breathing pattern signals recorded by a computer, as well as the fixed air flow patterns. The device is equipped with a self-control program to compensate the difference in inhalation and exhalation volume and the measurement errors on the breathing flow rate. The system was successfully applied to record the breathing patterns of workers engaging in welding and reproduced the breathing patterns. PMID:25382381

  4. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion inmore » an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.« less

  5. BreathDx - molecular analysis of exhaled breath as a diagnostic test for ventilator-associated pneumonia: protocol for a European multicentre observational study.

    PubMed

    van Oort, Pouline M P; Nijsen, Tamara; Weda, Hans; Knobel, Hugo; Dark, Paul; Felton, Timothy; Rattray, Nicholas J W; Lawal, Oluwasola; Ahmed, Waqar; Portsmouth, Craig; Sterk, Peter J; Schultz, Marcus J; Zakharkina, Tetyana; Artigas, Antonio; Povoa, Pedro; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Fowler, Stephen J; Bos, Lieuwe D J

    2017-01-03

    The diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains time-consuming and costly, the clinical tools lack specificity and a bedside test to exclude infection in suspected patients is unavailable. Breath contains hundreds to thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that result from host and microbial metabolism as well as the environment. The present study aims to use breath VOC analysis to develop a model that can discriminate between patients who have positive cultures and who have negative cultures with a high sensitivity. The Molecular Analysis of Exhaled Breath as Diagnostic Test for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (BreathDx) study is a multicentre observational study. Breath and bronchial lavage samples will be collected from 100 and 53 intubated and ventilated patients suspected of VAP. Breath will be analysed using Thermal Desorption - Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). The primary endpoint is the accuracy of cross-validated prediction for positive respiratory cultures in patients that are suspected of VAP, with a sensitivity of at least 99% (high negative predictive value). To our knowledge, BreathDx is the first study powered to investigate whether molecular analysis of breath can be used to classify suspected VAP patients with and without positive microbiological cultures with 99% sensitivity. UKCRN ID number 19086, registered May 2015; as well as registration at www.trialregister.nl under the acronym 'BreathDx' with trial ID number NTR 6114 (retrospectively registered on 28 October 2016).

  6. Clinical significance of the glucose breath test in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Min; Lee, Kang-Moon; Chung, Yoon Yung; Lee, Yang Woon; Kim, Dae Bum; Sung, Hea Jung; Chung, Woo Chul; Paik, Chang-Nyol

    2015-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth which has recently been diagnosed with the glucose breath test is characterized by excessive colonic bacteria in the small bowel, and results in gastrointestinal symptoms that mimic symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. This study aimed to estimate the positivity of the glucose breath test and investigate its clinical role in inflammatory bowel disease. Patients aged > 18 years with inflammatory bowel disease were enrolled. All patients completed symptom questionnaires. Fecal calprotectin level was measured to evaluate the disease activity. Thirty historical healthy controls were used to determine normal glucose breath test values. A total of 107 patients, 64 with ulcerative colitis and 43 with Crohn's disease, were included. Twenty-two patients (20.6%) were positive for the glucose breath test (30.2%, Crohn's disease; 14.1%, ulcerative colitis). Positive rate of the glucose breath test was significantly higher in patients with Crohn's disease than in healthy controls (30.2% vs 6.7%, P=0.014). Bloating, flatus, and satiety were higher in glucose breath test-positive patients than glucose breath test-negative patients (P=0.021, 0.014, and 0.049, respectively). The positivity was not correlated with the fecal calprotectin level. The positive rate of the glucose breath test was higher in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, especially Crohn's disease than in healthy controls; gastrointestinal symptoms of patients with inflammatory bowel disease were correlated with this positivity. Glucose breath test can be used to manage intestinal symptoms of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. New optical analyzer for 13C-breath test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harde, Hermann; Dressler, Matthias; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus; Groninga, Hinrich

    2008-04-01

    Medical breath tests are well established diagnostic tools, predominantly for gastroenterological inspections, but also for many other examinations. Since the composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflect the physical condition of a patient, a breath analysis allows one to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that is based on photoacoustic spectroscopy and uses a DFB diode laser at 2.744 μm. The concentration ratio of the CO II isotopologues is determined by measuring the absorption on a 13CO II line in comparison to a 12CO II line. In the specially selected spectral range the lines have similar strengths, although the concentrations differ by a factor of 90. Therefore, the signals are well comparable. Due to an excellent signal-noise-ratio isotope variations of less than 1% can be resolved as required for the breath test.

  8. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section 862.3080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test...

  9. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  10. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  11. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section 862.3080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test...

  13. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section 862.3080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test...

  14. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section 862.3080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test...

  15. sup 14 C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S.J.; Tytgat, K.M.; Hollingsworth, J.

    1990-04-01

    The high urease activity of Helicobacter pylori can be used to detect this bacterium by noninvasive breath tests. We have developed a {sup 14}C-urea breath test which uses 5 microCi {sup 14}C with 50 mg nonradioactive urea. Breath samples are collected at baseline and every 30 min for 2 h. Our study compared the outcome of the breath test to the results of histology and culture of endoscopically obtained gastric biopsies in 84 patients. The breath test discriminated well between the 50 positive patients and the 34 patients negative for Helicobacter pylori: the calculated sensitivity was 100%, specificity 88%, positivemore » predictive value 93%, and negative predictive value 100%. Treatment with bismuth subsalicylate and/or ampicillin resulted in lower counts of exhaled {sup 14}CO{sub 2} which correlated with histological improvement in gastritis. The {sup 14}C-urea breath test is a better gold standard for the detection of Helicobacter pylori than histology and/or culture.« less

  16. Breath test refusals and DWI prosecution : traffic tech.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-08-01

    There are typically about 1.4 million DWI (driving while : impaired) arrests each year in the United States. An officers : request to a driver for a breath (or blood, or urine) test is an : important part of the arrest process. The percentage of d...

  17. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: (i) Be employed on Type C supplied-air respirators of the demand and pressure-demand class; and (ii... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Type A and Type B supplied-air...

  18. (13)C breath tests in personalized medicine: fiction or reality?

    PubMed

    Modak, Anil S

    2009-11-01

    The concept of personalized medicine is gathering momentum as various biomarkers are being discovered and developed to lead to genotype and phenotype diagnostic tests, which will enable physicians to individualize therapy. Noninvasive, rapid (13)C breath tests have the potential to serve as clinically significant diagnostic tools, especially for evaluating the enzyme activity of polymorphic enzymes. This would enable physicians to rapidly identify responders/nonresponders to various drugs primarily metabolized by these enzymes prior to initiation of therapy. With the information on enzyme activity, the physician can prescribe the right drug, at the right dose, at the right time, to the right individual, for the right clinical outcome. However, the promise of the era of personalized medicine, including the novel (13)C breath tests, will have to overcome several regulatory, business and financial hurdles for diagnostic tests to become part of routine mainstream clinical practice over the next decade.

  19. Reliability of breath by breath spirometry and relative flow-time indices for pulmonary function testing in horses.

    PubMed

    Burnheim, K; Hughes, K J; Evans, D L; Raidal, S L

    2016-11-28

    Respiratory problems are common in horses, and are often diagnosed as a cause of poor athletic performance. Reliable, accurate and sensitive spirometric tests of airway function in resting horses would assist with the diagnosis of limitations to breathing and facilitate investigations of the effects of various treatments on breathing capacity. The evaluation of respiratory function in horses is challenging and suitable procedures are not widely available to equine practitioners. The determination of relative flow or flow-time measures is used in paediatric patients where compliance may limit conventional pulmonary function techniques. The aim of the current study was to characterise absolute and relative indices of respiratory function in healthy horses during eupnoea (tidal breathing) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 )-induced hyperpnoea (rebreathing) using a modified mask pneumotrachographic technique well suited to equine practice, and to evaluate the reliability of this technique over three consecutive days. Coefficients of variation, intra-class correlations, mean differences and 95% confidence intervals across all days of testing were established for each parameter. The technique provided absolute measures of respiratory function (respiratory rate, tidal volume, peak inspiratory and expiratory flows, time to peak flow) consistent with previous studies and there was no significant effect of day on any measure of respiratory function. Variability of measurements was decreased during hyperpnea caused by rebreathing CO 2 , but a number of relative flow-time variables demonstrated good agreement during eupnoeic respiration. The technique was well tolerated by horses and study findings suggest the technique is suitable for evaluation of respiratory function in horses. The use of relative flow-time variables provided reproducible (consistent) results, suggesting the technique may be of use for repeated measures studies in horses during tidal breathing or rebreathing.

  20. THE RAPID SHALLOW BREATHING RESULTING FROM PULMONARY CONGESTION AND EDEMA

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Edward D.; Cope, Oliver

    1929-01-01

    These experiments record the effects of the experimental production of pulmonary congestion and edema in a lung completely isolated from the general circulation, but with an intact nerve supply. The resulting changes are: a slowing of the heart rate, a fall in systemic blood pressure and a temporary inhibition of respiration succeeded by rapid shallow breathing. The pulse rate and blood pressure show a rapid and spontaneous return to initial conditions. The respirations show a partial but not a complete return to their former rate and depth. The effects on respiration are similar to those described by Dunn and Binger and Moore which follow multiple embolism of the pulmonary circuit with starch granules. The alterations in the pulse rate and blood pressure are characteristic of the effects of vagal stimulation. A chemical effect on the respiratory center is excluded by the nature of the preparation. These results, therefore, add further evidence to support the hypothesis that the rapid shallow breathing attending congestion and edema of the lungs is due to the stimulation of nerve endings in the lungs. PMID:19869562

  1. The glucose breath test: a diagnostic test for small bowel stricture(s) in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Mishkin, Daniel; Boston, Francis M; Blank, David; Yalovsky, Morty; Mishkin, Seymour

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an indirect noninvasive indicator of proximal bacterial overgrowth, the glucose breath test, was of diagnostic value in inflammatory bowel disease. Twenty four of 71 Crohn's disease patients tested had a positive glucose breath test. No statistical conclusions could be drawn between the Crohn's disease activity index and glucose breath test status. Of patients with radiologic evidence of small bowel stricture(s), 96.0% had a positive glucose breath test, while only one of 46 negative glucose breath test patients had a stricture. The positive and negative predictive values for a positive glucose breath test as an indicator of stricture formation were 96.0% and 97.8%, respectively. This correlation was not altered in Crohn's disease patients with fistulae or status postresection of the terminal ileum. The data in ulcerative colitis were nondiagnostic. In conclusion, the glucose breath test appears to be an accurate noninvasive inexpensive diagnostic test for small bowel stricture(s) and secondary bacterial overgrowth in Crohn's disease.

  2. A comparison of breath- and blood-alcohol test results from real-life policing situations: a one-year study of data from the Central Hessian police district in Germany.

    PubMed

    Roiu, Immanuel; Birngruber, Christoph G; Spencer, Victoria C; Wollersen, Heike; Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2013-10-10

    So far, studies investigating the comparability of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) have focused on the accuracy of BrAC testing instruments. The presented study, conducted with cases from the district of the Middle Hessian Police Headquarters, is to the best of our knowledge the first to compare both methods under real-life conditions in normal policing situations. For a 1-year period, alcohol-impaired drunk-driving suspects, who were by criminal procedure required to give a blood sample, were offered a voluntary, additional BrAC test with a "Dräger Alcotest 7110 Evidential". The BrAC test was to be administered as soon as possible after the suspect had been apprehended, without, however, delaying the collection of the blood sample. Ninety-two cases could be included in our study. In 30 cases, a blood sample was not taken; in 11 cases, a BrAC test could not be performed. In the remaining 51 cases, we found the following pairings of BrAC and BAC results: BrAC≥0.55 mg/l and BAC≥1.1‰ (n=39); 0.25 mg/l≤BrAC<0.55 mg/l and 0.5‰≤BAC<1.1‰ (n=5); BrAC≥0.55 mg/l and BAC<1.1‰ (n=4); BrAC<0.55 mg/l and BAC≥1.1‰ (n=3). The mean value for the conversion factor, Q, was 2.12‰l/mg. In accord with numerous other studies, our study results would suggest a value of 2.1‰ l/mg to German legislature as a new statutory value for Q. In borderline cases, of which there were already 7 in our study with 51 cases, suspects could benefit both from a BrAC test or a BAC test, with the benefit lastly depending more on early testing time than on the test method used. Our results support the call for the earliest possible measurement of alcohol concentration values after a drunk driving offense was committed. In some situations, this can probably only be accomplished with BrAC testing. A supplementary blood sample and BAC testing could compensate for the known weaknesses of BrAC testing. Thus, the complementary use of both methods

  3. Rapid Point-Of-Care Breath Test for Biomarkers of Breast Cancer and Abnormal Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Michael; Beatty, J. David; Cataneo, Renee N.; Huston, Jan; Kaplan, Peter D.; Lalisang, Roy I.; Lambin, Philippe; Lobbes, Marc B. I.; Mundada, Mayur; Pappas, Nadine; Patel, Urvish

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath as biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms, apparently resulting from increased oxidative stress and cytochrome p450 induction. We evaluated a six-minute point-of-care breath test for VOC biomarkers in women screened for breast cancer at centers in the USA and the Netherlands. Methods 244 women had a screening mammogram (93/37 normal/abnormal) or a breast biopsy (cancer/no cancer 35/79). A mobile point-of-care system collected and concentrated breath and air VOCs for analysis with gas chromatography and surface acoustic wave detection. Chromatograms were segmented into a time series of alveolar gradients (breath minus room air). Segmental alveolar gradients were ranked as candidate biomarkers by C-statistic value (area under curve [AUC] of receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve). Multivariate predictive algorithms were constructed employing significant biomarkers identified with multiple Monte Carlo simulations and cross validated with a leave-one-out (LOO) procedure. Results Performance of breath biomarker algorithms was determined in three groups: breast cancer on biopsy versus normal screening mammograms (81.8% sensitivity, 70.0% specificity, accuracy 79% (73% on LOO) [C-statistic value], negative predictive value 99.9%); normal versus abnormal screening mammograms (86.5% sensitivity, 66.7% specificity, accuracy 83%, 62% on LOO); and cancer versus no cancer on breast biopsy (75.8% sensitivity, 74.0% specificity, accuracy 78%, 67% on LOO). Conclusions A pilot study of a six-minute point-of-care breath test for volatile biomarkers accurately identified women with breast cancer and with abnormal mammograms. Breath testing could potentially reduce the number of needless mammograms without loss of diagnostic sensitivity. PMID:24599224

  4. Significance of hydrogen breath tests in children with suspected carbohydrate malabsorption

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hydrogen breath tests are noninvasive procedures frequently applied in the diagnostic workup of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Here, we review hydrogen breath test results and the occurrence of lactose, fructose and sorbitol malabsorption in pediatric patients; and determine the significance of the findings and the outcome of patients with carbohydrate malabsorption. Methods We included 206 children (88 male, 118 female, median age 10.7 years, range 3–18 years) with a total of 449 hydrogen breath tests (lactose, n = 161; fructose, n = 142; sorbitol, n = 146) into a retrospective analysis. Apart from test results, we documented symptoms, the therapeutic consequences of the test, the outcome and the overall satisfaction of the patients and families. Results In total, 204 (46%) of all breath tests were positive. Long-term follow-up data could be collected from 118 patients. Of 79 patients (67%) who were put on a diet reduced in lactose, fructose and/or sorbitol, the majority (92%, n = 73) reported the diet to be strict and only 13% (n = 10) had no response to diet. Most families (96%, n = 113) were satisfied by the test and the therapy. There were only 21 tests (5%) with a borderline result because the criteria for a positive result were only partially met. Conclusions Hydrogen breath tests can be helpful in the evaluation of children with gastrointestinal symptoms including functional intestinal disorders. If applied for a variety of carbohydrates but only where indicated, around two-third of all children have positive results. The therapeutic consequences are successfully relieving symptoms in the vast majority of patients. PMID:24575947

  5. [Breath tests in children with suspected lactose intolerance].

    PubMed

    Parra, P Ángela; Furió, C Simone; Arancibia, A Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Up to 70% of the world population is lactose intolerance. However, there are no epidemiological studies among Chilean pediatric population affected by this condition. Clinical characterization of a series of children who underwent the lactose intolerance breath test for lactose intolerance study, establishing intolerance and malabsorption frequencies, the most frequent symptoms, and test performance depending on the origin. Patients under 18 years old who took the lactose intolerance breath test in the Gastroenterology Laboratory of the Catholic University of Chile, and who were admitted due to clinically suspected lactose intolerance. Malabsorption was considered when there was as an increase of ≥20ppm above the baseline (H2) or ≥34ppm of H2 and methane (CH4) combined. Intolerance was considered when the above was associated with a symptom intensity score ≥7 during registration. The analysis included194 patients aged 1 to17 years of age. Of these, 102 (53%) presented with malabsorption, and 53 (27%) were intolerant. The frequency of lactose intolerance varied from 7.1 to 45.4%, and it occurred more frequently at older ages. The most common reported symptoms were abdominal pain, bloating and rumbling. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance can be investigated from the first years of life using the lactose breath test plus a symptom questionnaire. An increase in the frequency of intolerance with age, and a greater number of positive tests, if they were requested by a gastroenterologist, were observed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Compressed air demand-type firefighter's breathing system, volume 1. [design analysis and performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The commercial availability of lightweight high pressure compressed air vessels has resulted in a lightweight firefighter's breathing apparatus. The improved apparatus, and details of its design and development are described. The apparatus includes a compact harness assembly, a backplate mounted pressure reducer assembly, a lightweight bubble-type facemask with a mask mounted demand breathing regulator. Incorporated in the breathing regulator is exhalation valve, a purge valve and a whistle-type low pressure warning that sounds only during inhalation. The pressure reducer assembly includes two pressure reducers, an automatic transfer valve and a signaling device for the low pressure warning. Twenty systems were fabricated, tested, refined through an alternating development and test sequence, and extensively examined in a field evaluation program. Photographs of the apparatus are included.

  7. Evaluation of 13CO2 breath tests for the detection of fructose malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, J H; van den Aker, J H; Kneepkens, C M; Stellaard, F; Geypens, B; Ghoos, Y F

    1996-03-01

    Breath hydrogen (H2) studies have made clear that small intestinal absorption of fructose is limited, especially in toddlers. Malabsorption of fructose may be a cause of recurrent abdominal pain and chronic nonspecific diarrhea (toddler's diarrhea). Fructose absorption is facilitated by equimolar doses of glucose and, as we have found, amino acids (especially L-alanine); the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. To study fructose absorption in a more direct way, we combined breath H2 studies with breath 13CO2 studies. Gastric emptying was studied by using L-glycine-1-13C in 4 children from 12.1 to 16.0 years of age. After 25 gm of fructose and 27.5 gm of glucose, when given together, gastric emptying was significantly (p<0.05) slower than with either sugar alone. In a second series of experiments, 5 children from 12.0 to 15.9 years of age were tested with 25 gm of fructose, alone and with equimolar doses of glucose and L-alanine, and 4 younger children from 3.1 to 6.1 years of age were tested with 2 gm/kg (max 37.5 gm) fructose, alone or with an equimolar dose of L-alanine. All fructose solutions were enriched with 15 mg of D-fructose-13C-6. In all 9 children, fructose was malabsorbed as judged by breath H2 increases > or = 20 ppm, and the addition of glucose or L-alanine resulted in significantly lower breath H2 increases (p < or = 0.005 for glucose, p < or = 0.001 for alanine). In contrast, the addition of alanine or glucose did not change the pattern of breath 13CO2 excretion in the 5 older children, whereas in the 4 younger children (with relatively higher doses), L-alanine addition resulted in significantly lower increases in breath 13CO2. In the latter group, for each time point, breath H2 and 13CO2 concentrations after fructose were compared with those after fructose plus L-alanine; in 20 out of 24 points, both H2 and 13CO2 were higher after fructose. These results suggest that 13CO2 not only originated from the oxidation of absorbed substrate

  8. Performance of acidified 14C-urea capsule breath test during pantoprazole and ranitidine treatment.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Emel; Yeşilova, Zeki; Ilgan, Seyfettin; Ozgüven, Mehmet; Dağalp, Kemal

    2009-07-01

    Urea breath test (UBT) results could be false negative in patients taking antisecretory drugs. This effect would be prevented by citric acid administration during UBT. We prospectively investigated whether acidified 14C-urea capsule prevents false negative UBT results in patients taking antisecretory drugs and show interference with the duration of medications. Sixty Helicobacter pylori positive patients were included. Pantoprazole (40 mg/day) was given to 27 patients for 28 days and ranitidine (300 mg. o.d.) to 33 patients for 60 days. Urea breath tests were repeated on days 14 and 28 in both groups and on day 60 in the ranitidine group. The baseline mean breath counts of two groups did not show any significant difference. Pantoprazole led to a significant decrease in mean breath counts on day 14 (P < 0.005). Six of 27 and 3 of 25 patients taking pantoprazole developed negative or equivocal UBT results on days 14 and 28, respectively. Two of 32, 2 of 32 and 3 of 21 patients taking ranitidine developed negative or equivocal UBT results on days 14, 28 and 60, respectively. The use of acidified 14C-urea capsule did not prevent false negative UBT results in patients taking pantoprazole and ranitidine, and the duration of medication does not affect the test results.

  9. When Breathing Interferes with Cognition: Experimental Inspiratory Loading Alters Timed Up-and-Go Test in Normal Humans.

    PubMed

    Nierat, Marie-Cécile; Demiri, Suela; Dupuis-Lozeron, Elise; Allali, Gilles; Morélot-Panzini, Capucine; Similowski, Thomas; Adler, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Human breathing stems from automatic brainstem neural processes. It can also be operated by cortico-subcortical networks, especially when breathing becomes uncomfortable because of external or internal inspiratory loads. How the "irruption of breathing into consciousness" interacts with cognition remains unclear, but a case report in a patient with defective automatic breathing (Ondine's curse syndrome) has shown that there was a cognitive cost of breathing when the respiratory cortical networks were engaged. In a pilot study of putative breathing-cognition interactions, the present study relied on a randomized design to test the hypothesis that experimentally loaded breathing in 28 young healthy subjects would have a negative impact on cognition as tested by "timed up-and-go" test (TUG) and its imagery version (iTUG). Progressive inspiratory threshold loading resulted in slower TUG and iTUG performance. Participants consistently imagined themselves faster than they actually were. However, progressive inspiratory loading slowed iTUG more than TUG, a finding that is unexpected with regard to the known effects of dual tasking on TUG and iTUG (slower TUG but stable iTUG). Insofar as the cortical networks engaged in response to inspiratory loading are also activated during complex locomotor tasks requiring cognitive inputs, we infer that competition for cortical resources may account for the breathing-cognition interference that is evidenced here.

  10. 49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath... Testing § 40.277 Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations? No.... Only saliva or breath for screening tests and breath for confirmation tests using approved devices are...

  11. 49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath... Testing § 40.277 Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations? No.... Only saliva or breath for screening tests and breath for confirmation tests using approved devices are...

  12. Breathing

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... system. Other components of the respiratory system conduct air to the lungs, such as the trachea (windpipe) ... and decreases the pressure inside. As a result, air rushes in and fills the lungs. During expiration, ...

  13. Follow-up of coeliac disease with the novel one-hour 13C-sorbitol breath test versus the H2-sorbitol breath test.

    PubMed

    Tveito, Kari; Hetta, Anne Kristine; Askedal, Mia; Brunborg, Cathrine; Sandvik, Leiv; Løberg, Else Marit; Skar, Viggo

    2011-07-01

    We recently developed a (13)C-sorbitol breath test ((13)C-SBT) as an alternative to the H(2)-sorbitol breath test (H(2)-SBT) for coeliac disease. In this study we compared the diagnostic properties of the H(2)-SBT and the (13)C-SBT in follow-up of coeliac disease. Twenty-seven coeliac patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD) performed the breath tests. All had been tested before treatment in the initial study of the (13)C-SBT, in which 39 untreated coeliac patients, 40 patient controls, and 26 healthy volunteers participated. Five gram sorbitol and 100 mg (13)C-sorbitol were dissolved in 250 ml tap water and given orally. H(2), CH(4) and (13)CO(2) were measured in end-expiratory breath samples every 30 min for 4 h. Increased H(2) concentration ≥20 ppm from basal values was used as cut-off for the H(2)-SBT. Sixty minutes values were used as diagnostic index in the (13)C-SBT. (13)CO(2) levels at 60 min increased in 20/26 treated coeliac patients (77%) after GFD, but were significantly lower than in control groups. Out of 20 patients who had a positive H(2)-SBT before GFD, 12 had a negative H(2)-SBT after GFD. Peak H(2) concentrations were not correlated with (13)C-SBT results. The study confirms the sensitivity of a one-hour (13)C-SBT for small intestinal malabsorption. The (13)C-SBT has superior diagnostic properties compared with the H(2)-SBT in follow-up of coeliac disease.

  14. An acetone breath analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy: an initial test with human subjects under various situations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuji; Surampudi, Anand B.

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a portable breath acetone analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). The instrument was initially tested by measuring the absorbance of breath gases at a single wavelength (266 nm) from 32 human subjects under various conditions. A background subtraction method, implemented to obtain absorbance differences, from which an upper limit of breath acetone concentration was obtained, is described. The upper limits of breath acetone concentration in the four Type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects, tested after a 14 h overnight fast, range from 0.80 to 3.97 parts per million by volume (ppmv), higher than the mean acetone concentration (0.49 ppmv) in non-diabetic healthy breath reported in the literature. The preliminary results show that the instrument can tell distinctive differences between the breath from individuals who are healthy and those with T1D. On-line monitoring of breath gases in healthy people post-exercise, post-meals and post-alcohol-consumption was also conducted. This exploratory study demonstrates the first CRDS-based acetone breath analyzer and its potential application for point-of-care, non-invasive, diabetic monitoring.

  15. Training in multiple breath washout testing for respiratory physiotherapists.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Katherine; Elborn, J Stuart; Tunney, Michael M; O'Neill, Philip; Rowan, Stephen; Martin, Susan; Bradley, Judy M

    2018-03-01

    The development of multiple breath washout (MBW) testing in respiratory disease highlights the need for increased awareness amongst respiratory physiotherapists and a potential opportunity for professional development in the use of an important outcome measure for clinical trials. To rationalise how MBW may be a useful assessment tool for respiratory physiotherapists and to describe a local MBW training and certification programme for physiotherapists. The respiratory Multidisciplinary Team in the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust (BHSCT) identified a need for MBW testing to be available to facilitate clinical research and assessment. A 2day training programme consisting of prereading preparation, self-directed learning, theory presentations, practical demonstrations and hands-on practice was developed and delivered. All participants underwent a certification process. We have demonstrated the successful training and certification of clinical and research physiotherapists and encourage other respiratory physiotherapists to consider MBW test training. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of the analytical capabilities of the BAC Datamaster and Datamaster DMT forensic breath testing devices.

    PubMed

    Glinn, Michele; Adatsi, Felix; Curtis, Perry

    2011-11-01

    The State of Michigan uses the Datamaster as an evidential breath testing device. The newest version, the DMT, will replace current instruments in the field as they are retired from service. The Michigan State Police conducted comparison studies to test the analytical properties of the new instrument and to evaluate its response to conditions commonly cited in court defenses. The effects of mouth alcohol, objects in the mouth, and radiofrequency interference on paired samples from drinking subjects were assessed on the DMT. The effects of sample duration and chemical interferents were assessed on both instruments, using drinking subjects and wet-bath simulators, respectively. Our testing shows that Datamaster and DMT results are essentially identical; the DMT gave accurate readings as compared with measurements made using simulators containing standard ethanol solutions and that the DMT did not give falsely elevated breath alcohol results from any of the influences tested. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Walk test and school performance in mouth-breathing children.

    PubMed

    Boas, Ana Paula Dias Vilas; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Sakano, Eulália; Conti, Patricia Blau Margosian; Toro, Adyléia Dalbo Contrera; Ribeiro, José Dirceu

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, many studies on mouth breathing (MB) have been published; however, little is known about many aspects of this syndrome, including severity, impact on physical and academic performances. Compare the physical performance in a six minutes walk test (6MWT) and the academic performance of MB and nasal-breathing (NB) children and adolescents. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study with MB and NB children submitted to the 6MWT and scholar performance assessment. We included 156 children, 87 girls (60 NB and 27 MB) and 69 boys (44 NB and 25 MB). Variables were analyzed during the 6MWT: heart rate (HR), respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, distance walked in six minutes and modified Borg scale. All the variables studied were statistically different between groups NB and MB, with the exception of school performance and HR in 6MWT. MB affects physical performance and not the academic performance, we noticed a changed pattern in the 6MWT in the MB group. Since the MBs in our study were classified as non-severe, other studies comparing the academic performance variables and 6MWT are needed to better understand the process of physical and academic performances in MB children.

  18. Application of drug testing using exhaled breath for compliance monitoring of drug addicts in treatment.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Sten; Olsson, Robert; Lindkvist, Irene; Beck, Olof

    2015-04-01

    Exhaled breath has recently been identified as a possible matrix for drug testing. This study explored the potential of this new method for compliance monitoring of patients being treated for dependence disorders. Outpatients in treatment programs were recruited for this study. Urine was collected as part of clinical routine and a breath sample was collected in parallel together with a questionnaire about their views of the testing procedure. Urine was analyzed for amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine, buprenorphine, methadone and opiates using CEDIA immunochemical screening and mass spectrometry confirmation. The exhaled breath was collected using the SensAbues device and analyzed by mass spectrometry for amphetamine, methamphetamine, diazepam, oxazepam, tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, buprenorphine, methadone, morphine, codeine and 6-acetylmorphine. A total of 122 cases with parallel urine and breath samples were collected; 34 of these were negative both in urine and breath. Out of 88 cases with positive urine samples 51 (58%) were also positive in breath. Among the patients on methadone treatment, all were positive for methadone in urine and 83% were positive in breath. Among patients in treatment with buprenorphine, 92% were positive in urine and among those 80% were also positive in breath. The questionnaire response documented that in general, patients accepted drug testing well and that the breath sampling procedure was preferred. Compliance testing for the intake of prescribed and unprescribed drugs among patients in treatment for dependence disorders using the exhaled breath sampling technique is a viable method and deserves future attention.

  19. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a) The...

  20. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a) The...

  1. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a) The...

  2. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a) The...

  3. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a) The...

  4. 46 CFR 197.450 - Breathing gas tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... taken at the connection point to the distribution system— (1) Every 6 months; and (2) After every repair or modification. (b) Purchased supplies of breathing mixtures supplied to a diver are checked before... commencement of diving operations, at the umbilical or underwater breathing apparatus connection point for the...

  5. [Analysis of breath hydrogen (H2) in diagnosis of gastrointestinal function: validation of a pocket breath H2 test analyzer].

    PubMed

    Braden, B; Braden, C P; Klutz, M; Lembcke, B

    1993-04-01

    Breath hydrogen (H2) analysis, as used in gastroenterologic function tests, requires a stationary analysis system equipped with a gaschromatograph or an electrochemical sensor cell. Now a portable breath H2-analyzer has been miniaturized to pocket size (104 mm x 62 mm x 29 mm). The application of this device in clinical practice has been assessed in comparison to the standard GMI-exhaled monitor. The pocket analyzer showed a linear response to standards with H2-concentrations ranging from 0-100 ppm (n = 7), which was not different from the GMI-apparatus. The correlation of both methods during clinical application (lactose tolerance tests, mouth-to-coecum transit time determined with lactulose) was excellent (Y = 1.08 X + 0.96; r = 0.959). Using the new device, both, analysis (3 s vs. 90 s) and the reset-time (43 s vs. 140 s) were shorter whereas calibration was more feasible with the GMI-apparatus. It is concluded, that the considerably cheaper pocket-sized breath H2-analyzer is as precise and sensitive as the GMI-exhaled monitor, and thus presents a valid alternative for H2-breath tests.

  6. Stability of (13) C-Urea Breath Test Samples Over Time in the Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Perets, Tsachi Tsadok; Shporn, Einav; Boltin, Doron; Dickman, Ram; Niv, Yaron

    2016-05-01

    The accuracy and repeatability of breath test in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection have not been adequately investigated. Although it has been shown that storage for long periods does not affect the analysis results, no data are available on the effect of repetitive testing. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the repeatability of the analyses of breath samples at room temperature. A total of 202 positive breath samples were collected in duplicates, before and after administration of 75 mg (13) C- urea dissolved in 100 ml of orange juice. Breath test results were expressed as delta (13) CO2 . The cut-off value was 3.5 parts per thousand. Each sample was analyzed in a mass spectrometer 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after collection. The accuracy calculation was based on the comparison of the delta (13) CO2 obtained in the three consecutive weeks following the first test run to the delta (13) CO2 obtained in the first test run. Two hundred (99%), 197 (97.52%), and 196 (97%) of the 202 samples tested positive in the second, third, and fourth test runs, respectively. The accuracy of the delta (13) CO2 was 98.6%, 99.2%, and 96.7% in the three consecutive runs, respectively. Short-term storage of 1 month does not affect sample stability or the results of (13) C-urea breath tests in up to three consecutive repeats. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Does postprandial itopride intake affect the rate of gastric emptying? A crossover study using the continuous real time 13C breath test (BreathID system).

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Takashi; Kessoku, Takaomi; Ogawa, Yuji; Yanagisawa, Shogo; Shiba, Tadahiko; Sahaguchi, Takashi; Atsukawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hisao; Sekino, Yusuke; Iida, Hiroshi; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Yasunari; Koide, Tomoko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Tokoro, Chikako; Abe, Yasunobu; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi; Inamori, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether oral Itopride hydrochloride (itopride) intake might have any effect on the rate of gastric emptying, using a novel non-invasive technique for measuring the rate of gastric emptying, namely, the continuous real time 13C breath test (BreathID system: Exalenz Bioscience Ltd., Israel). Eight healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, two-way crossover study. The subjects fasted overnight and were randomly assigned to receive 50mg itopride following a test meal (200 kcal per 200mL, containing 100mg 13C acetate), or the test meal alone. Under both conditions, gastric emptying was monitored for 4 hours after administration of the test meal by the 13C-acetic acid breath test performed continually using the BreathID system. Using Oridion Research Software (beta version), the time required for emptying of 50% of the labeled meal (T 1/2), the analog to the scintigraphy lag time for 10% emptying of the labeled meal (T lag), the gastric emptying coefficient (GEC), and the regression-estimated constants (beta and kappa) were calculated. The parameters measured under the two conditions were compared using the Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. No significant differences in the calculated parameters, namely, the T 1/2, T lag, GEC, beta or kappa, were observed between the two test conditions, namely, administration of a test meal+itopride and administration of the test meal alone. The present study revealed that postprandial itopride intake had no significant influence on the rate of gastric emptying. Recently, several studies have shown that itopride may be effective in the treatment of patients with functional dyspepsia. Our results suggest that the efficacy of itopride in patients with functional dyspepsia may be based on its effect of improving functions other than the rate of gastric emptying, such as the activities at neuronal sites, brain-gut correlation, visceral hypersensitivity, gastric accommodation and distension

  8. Carbon-14 urea breath test: does it work in patients with partial gastric resection?

    PubMed

    Dede, Fuat; Civen, Hüseyin; Dane, Faysal; Aliustaoglu, Mehmet; Turhal, Serdar; Turoglu, Halil Turgut; Inanir, Sabahat

    2015-11-01

    The diagnostic value of Carbon-14 urea breath test (C-14 UBT) in the detection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in non-operated patients has been proved. However, the efficacy of C-14 UBT in patients with partial gastric resection (PGR) has not been evaluated yet. Herein, the results of the C-14 UBT and H. pylori stool antigen test (HpSAT) in this patient group were compared with the endoscopic findings. Multi-breath samples C-14 UBT and HpSAT were performed in all patients on the same day. Histology was used as a gold standard for testing C-14 UBT and HpSAT diagnostic efficacies. 30 patients (mean age: 54.6 ± 11 year) with PGR were included. The sensitivity and specificity of standard C-14 UBT were 29 and 100 %, respectively. When breath samples were collected at 20th min, and >35 CPM was selected as radioactivity threshold, the sensitivity raised to 86 % without any loss of specificity. The specificity and sensitivity of the HpSAT were 71 and 96 %, respectively. The sensitivity of the standard C-14 UBT was very poor for patients with PGR, and results of HpSAT were superior in this population. Certain modifications are needed if C-14 UBT is to be used in PGR patients.

  9. Establishment of a Quick and Highly Accurate Breath Test for ALDH2 Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, Ikuo; Ohashi, Shinya; Amanuma, Yusuke; Hirohashi, Kenshiro; Mizumoto, Ayaka; Funakoshi, Makiko; Tsurumaki, Mihoko; Nakai, Yukie; Tanaka, Katsuyuki; Hanada, Mariko; Uesaka, Aki; Chiba, Tsutomu; Muto, Manabu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, is a definite carcinogen for the esophagus, head, and neck; and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the metabolism of acetaldehyde. The ALDH2 genotype exists as ALDH2*1/*1 (active ALDH2), ALDH2*1/*2 (heterozygous inactive ALDH2), and ALDH2*2/*2 (homozygous inactive ALDH2). Many epidemiological studies have reported that ALDH2*2 carriers are at high risk for esophageal or head and neck squamous cell carcinomas by habitual drinking. Therefore, identification of ALDH2*2 carriers would be helpful for the prevention of those cancers, but there have been no methods suitable for mass screening to identify these individuals. Methods: One hundred and eleven healthy volunteers (ALDH2*1/*1 carriers: 53; ALDH2*1/*2 carriers: 48; and ALDH2*2/*2 carriers: 10) were recruited. Breath samples were collected after drinking 100 ml of 0.5% ethanol using specially designed gas bags, and breath ethanol and acetaldehyde levels were measured by semiconductor gas chromatography. Results: The median (range) breath acetaldehyde levels at 1 min after alcohol ingestion were 96.1 (18.1–399.0) parts per billion (p.p.b.) for the ALDH2*1/*1 genotype, 333.5 (78.4–1218.4) p.p.b. for the ALDH2*1/*2 genotype, and 537.1 (213.2–1353.8) p.p.b. for the ALDH2*2/*2 genotype. The breath acetaldehyde levels in ALDH2*2 carriers were significantly higher than for the ALDH2*1/*1 genotype. Notably, the ratio of breath acetaldehyde level-to-breath ethanol level could identify carriers of the ALDH2*2 allele very accurately (whole accuracy; 96.4%). Conclusions: Our novel breath test is a useful tool for identifying ALDH2*2 carriers, who are at high risk for esophageal and head and neck cancers. PMID:28594397

  10. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... fractional nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to anti-inflammatory therapy, as an adjunct to established clinical and laboratory assessments of asthma...

  11. [Detection of Helicobacter pylori by culture and the 13C-urea breath test using an automated breath 13C analyzer].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Kouda, M; Abe, K; Sakurabayashi, S; Sezai, S; Hirano, M; Oka, H

    1995-11-01

    Up to now, the diagnosis of H. pylori infection has been made by the breath test using 13C-urea. In this study, 13C-urea breath samples were tested in 34 patients (peptic ulcer scar 17, chronic gastritis 17 cases) with an automated breath 13C analyzer (ABCA. Europa Scientific, Crewe, UK) and compared with the results of endoscopical diagnosis for H. pylori infection. Endoscopic and 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) were performed before eradicative medication. We described a modified protocol for the growth grade of H. pylori colonies in microbiology (H. pylori score), and for the delta 13C area under curve (AUC; permil*hr) obtained from each sample of expired breath. There was a significant correlation between delta 13C-AUC and the delta 13C level of each sample, but the correlation coefficient obtained at 10min (R2 = 0.582) was lower than that obtained at the other four time points (20min; 0.891, 30min; 0.949, 40min; 0.946, 50min; 0.946, 60min; 0.820). The delta 13C-AUC well correlated with H. pylori score (p < 0.01), none of 26 H. pylori positive patients detected by culture was 13C-UBT negative (delta 13C-AUC < 8.2 permil*hr in mean + 2SD of H. pylori negative group). In conclusion, 13C-UBT using ABCA has high sensitivity and specificity, and it provides a non-invasive method for the detection of H. pylori urease activity.

  12. On the importance of developing a new generation of breath tests for Helicobacter pylori detection.

    PubMed

    Kushch, Ievgeniia; Korenev, Nikolai; Kamarchuk, Lyudmila; Pospelov, Alexander; Kravchenko, Andrey; Bajenov, Leonid; Kabulov, Mels; Amann, Anton; Kamarchuk, Gennadii

    2015-12-15

    State-of-the-art methods for non-invasive detection of the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been considered. A reported global tendency towards a non-decreasing prevalence of H. pylori worldwide could be co-influenced by the functional limitations of urea breath tests (UBTs), currently preferred for the non-invasive recognition of H. pylori in a clinical setting. Namely, the UBTs can demonstrate false-positive or false-negative results. Within this context, limitations of conventional clinically exploited H. pylori tests have been discussed to justify the existing need for the development of a new generation of breath tests for the detection of H. pylori and the differentiation of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of the bacterium. This paper presents the results of a pilot clinical study aimed at evaluating the development and diagnostic potential of a new method based on the detection of the non-urease products of H. pylori vital activity in exhaled gas. The characteristics of breath of adolescents with H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative functional dyspepsia, together with a consideration of the cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) status of H. pylori-positive subjects, have been determined for the first time using innovative point-contact nanosensor devices based on salts of the organic conductor tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). The clinical and diagnostic relevance of the response curves of the point-contact sensors was assessed. It was found that the recovery time of the point-contact sensors has a diagnostic value for differentiation of the H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease. The diagnostically significant elongation of the recovery time was even more pronounced in patients infected with CagA-positive H. pylori strains compared to the CagA-negative patients. Taking into account the operation of the point-contact sensors in the real-time mode, the obtained results are essential prerequisites for the development of a fast and

  13. Exhaled breath malondialdehyde, spirometric results and dust exposure assessment in ceramics production workers.

    PubMed

    Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad Zare; Biabani Ardekani, Javad; Firoozichahak, Ali; Zavarreza, Javad; Hajaghazade, Mohammad; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amirhooshang; Barkhordari, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at measuring exhaled breath malondialdehyde (EBC-MDA) in workers exposed to dust containing silica and at its comparison with the non-exposed control group. The cross sectional, case-control study (N = 50) was performed in a tile and ceramics production factory in Yazd, Iran. EBC-MDA was quantified in exhaled breath of the participants by a lab made breath sampler. Exposure intensity was measured according to the NIOSH 0600 method in selected homogeneous exposure groups. Additionally, spirometry test was conducted to investigate a correlation between EBC-MDA and spirometric findings in the exposed workers. There was no difference in the observed exposure intensities of silica containing dust in different units. However, "coating preparation" was the unit with the highest concentration of dust. Although, the level of EBC-MDA in the cases was slightly higher than in the controls, the difference was not statistically significant (U = 252, p = 0.464). A significant and positive correlation was found between dust exposure intensity in working units and the measured EBC-MDA of workers (r = 0.467, N = 25, p = 0.027). There were also no statistically significant differences among job categories in the exposed group for the values of FEV1% (F(3, 44) = 0.656, p = 0.584), FVC% (F(3, 44) = 1.417, p = 0.172), and FEV1/FVC% (F(3, 44) = 1.929, p = 0.139). The results showed a significant correlation between respirable dust exposure intensity and the level of EBC-MDA of the exposed subjects. However, our results did not show a significant correlation between lung function decreases and EBC-MDA. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. Carbon Monoxide in Exhaled Breath Testing and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Ryter, Stefan W.; Choi, Augustine M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation, and potential diagnostic value remains incompletely characterized. Among other candidate “medicinal gases” with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease. PMID:23446063

  15. Additional Value of CH4 Measurement in a Combined 13C/H2 Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H2) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined 13C/H2 lactose breath test that measures breath 13CO2 as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H2 and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 13C/H2 lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH4 in addition to H2 and 13CO2. Based on the 13C/H2 breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH4 further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H2-excretion were found to excrete CH4. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH4-concentrations has an added value to the 13C/H2 breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  16. [*C]octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying rate of solids.

    PubMed

    Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Rutgeerts, P J; Hiele, M I; Geypens, B; Vantrappen, G

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a breath test to measure solid gastric emptying using a standardized scrambled egg test meal (250 kcal) labeled with [14C]octanoic acid or [13C]octanoic acid. In vitro incubation studies showed that octanoic acid is a reliable marker of the solid phase. The breath test was validated in 36 subjects by simultaneous radioscintigraphic and breath test measurements. Nine healthy volunteers were studied after intravenous administration of 200 mg erythromycin and peroral administration of 30 mg propantheline, respectively. Erythromycin significantly enhanced gastric emptying, while propantheline significantly reduced gastric emptying rates. We conclude that the [*C]octanoic breath test is a promising and reliable test for measuring the gastric emptying rate of solids.

  17. A breath test for malignant mesothelioma using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Eleanor A; Thomas, Paul S; Stone, Emily; Lewis, Craig; Yates, Deborah H

    2012-08-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare tumour which is difficult to diagnose in its early stages. Earlier detection of MM could potentially improve survival. Exhaled breath sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a carbon polymer array (CPA) electronic nose recognises specific breath profiles characteristic of different diseases, and can distinguish between patients with lung cancer and controls. With MM, the potential confounding effect of other asbestos-related diseases (ARDs) needs to be considered. We hypothesised that as CPA electronic nose would distinguish patients with MM, patients with benign ARDs, and controls with high sensitivity and specificity. 20 MM, 18 ARD and 42 control subjects participated in a cross-sectional, case-control study. Breath samples were analysed using the Cyranose 320 (Smiths Detection, Pasadena, CA, USA), using canonical discriminant analysis and principal component reduction. 10 MM subjects created the training set. Smell prints from 10 new MM patients were distinguished from control subjects with an accuracy of 95%. Patients with MM, ARDs and control subjects were correctly identified in 88% of cases. Exhaled breath VOC profiling can accurately distinguish between patients with MM, ARDs and controls using a CPA electronic nose. This could eventually translate into a screening tool for high-risk populations.

  18. Use of warrants for breath test refusal : case studies

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-10-01

    This study investigated the use of warrants to obtain blood samples from drivers arrested for alcohol-impaired driving and who refuse to provide breath samples when requested to do so by law enforcement officers. Case studies were conducted in four S...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of the Carbon-13 Urea Breath Test for the Detection of Helicobacter Pylori

    PubMed Central

    Masucci, L; Blackhouse, G; Goeree, R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This analysis aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of various testing strategies for Helicobacter pylori in patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia and to calculate the budgetary impact of these tests for the province of Ontario. Data Sources Data on the sensitivity and specificity were obtained from the clinical evidence-based analysis. Resource items were obtained from expert opinion, and costs were applied on the basis of published sources as well as expert opinion. Review Methods A decision analytic model was constructed to compare the costs and outcomes (false-positive results, false-negative results, and misdiagnoses avoided) of the carbon-13 (13C) urea breath test (UBT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serology test, and a 2-step strategy of an ELISA serology test and a confirmatory 13C UBT based on the sensitivity and specificity of the tests and prevalence estimates. Results The 2-step strategy is more costly and more effective than the ELISA serology test and results in $210 per misdiagnosis case avoided. The 13C UBT is dominated by the 2-step strategy, i.e., it is more costly and less effective. The budget impact analysis indicates that it will cost $7.9 million more to test a volume of 129,307 patients with the 13C UBT than with ELISA serology, and $4.7 million more to test these patients with the 2-step strategy. Limitations The clinical studies that were pooled varied in the technique used to perform the breath test and in reference standards used to make comparisons with the breath test. However, these parameters were varied in a sensitivity analysis. The economic model was designed to consider intermediate outcomes only (i.e., misdiagnosed cases) and was not a complete model with final patient outcomes (e.g., quality-adjusted life years). Conclusions Results indicate that the 2-step strategy could be economically attractive for the testing of H. pylori. However, testing with the 2-step strategy will cost the Ministry of

  20. Inward contaminant leakage tests of the S-Tron Corporation emergency escape breathing device.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-04-01

    At the request of S-Tron Corporation, to support their contract with the U.S. Navy, performance tests of the Emergency Escape Breathing Device (EEBD) were conducted in the Environmental Physiology Research Section contaminant leakage chamber. Sulfur ...

  1. Evaluation of innovative state and community alcohol projects : breath alcohol testing program effectiveness, impact and transferability

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1987-03-01

    Breath Alcohol Testing (BAT) programs in Albuquerque and Santa Fe, New Mexico are evaluated in regard to effectiveness, impact, and transferability of the special DWI enforcement squads and their use of BAT Mobiles. Squad activity effectiveness is me...

  2. A study of characteristics of a reliable and practical breath alcohol screening test. Part A

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-08-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate several commercially available breath-alcohol screening test devices of the length-of-stain type, under standardized laboratory conditions, with respect to their ability satisfactorily to detect an...

  3. Tidal Volume Single Breath Washout of Two Tracer Gases - A Practical and Promising Lung Function Test

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Florian; Stern, Georgette; Thamrin, Cindy; Fuchs, Oliver; Riedel, Thomas; Gustafsson, Per; Frey, Urs; Latzin, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Background Small airway disease frequently occurs in chronic lung diseases and may cause ventilation inhomogeneity (VI), which can be assessed by washout tests of inert tracer gas. Using two tracer gases with unequal molar mass (MM) and diffusivity increases specificity for VI in different lung zones. Currently washout tests are underutilised due to the time and effort required for measurements. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple technique for a new tidal single breath washout test (SBW) of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and helium (He) using an ultrasonic flowmeter (USFM). Methods The tracer gas mixture contained 5% SF6 and 26.3% He, had similar total MM as air, and was applied for a single tidal breath in 13 healthy adults. The USFM measured MM, which was then plotted against expired volume. USFM and mass spectrometer signals were compared in six subjects performing three SBW. Repeatability and reproducibility of SBW, i.e., area under the MM curve (AUC), were determined in seven subjects performing three SBW 24 hours apart. Results USFM reliably measured MM during all SBW tests (n = 60). MM from USFM reflected SF6 and He washout patterns measured by mass spectrometer. USFM signals were highly associated with mass spectrometer signals, e.g., for MM, linear regression r-squared was 0.98. Intra-subject coefficient of variation of AUC was 6.8%, and coefficient of repeatability was 11.8%. Conclusion The USFM accurately measured relative changes in SF6 and He washout. SBW tests were repeatable and reproducible in healthy adults. We have developed a fast, reliable, and straightforward USFM based SBW method, which provides valid information on SF6 and He washout patterns during tidal breathing. PMID:21423739

  4. Nondispersive infrared spectrometry for 13CO2/12CO2-measurements: a clinically feasible analyzer for stable isotope breath tests in gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Braden, B; Caspary, W F; Lembcke, B

    1999-06-01

    13C-urea breath tests have become clinical routine for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and other isotope breath tests have been invented e.g. for gastric emptying or quantitative liver function testing. Recently, isotope-selective nondispersive infrared spectrometers (NDIRS) have been developed for the analysis of the 13CO2/12CO2-enrichment in breath. In this study, we prospectively tested the validity of a newly developed NDIRS in comparison to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). 142 patients with dyspeptic symptoms were tested for Helicobacter pylori infection using the 13C-urea breath test. The isotope ratio analysis of the breath samples was performed in duplicate both using IRMS and NDIRS. The results of the baseline-corrected 13CO2-exhalation values between IRMS and NDIRS were in excellent agreement. The mean difference between both methods was 0.28 +/- 1.93 delta/1000. Evaluating the qualitative urea breath test results in reference to IRMS as the reference the NDIRS had a sensitivity of 97.8% and a specificity of 98.9%. The isotope-selective nondispersive infrared spectroscopy is going to become a reliable, but low-cost and easy-to-operate alternative to expensive isotope ratio mass spectrometry in the analysis of 13C-breath tests.

  5. (13)C-Breath testing in animals: theory, applications, and future directions.

    PubMed

    McCue, Marshall D; Welch, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    The carbon isotope values in the exhaled breath of an animal mirror the carbon isotope values of the metabolic fuels being oxidized. The measurement of stable carbon isotopes in carbon dioxide is called (13)C-breath testing and offers a minimally invasive method to study substrate oxidation in vivo. (13)C-breath testing has been broadly used to study human exercise, nutrition, and pathologies since the 1970s. Owing to reduced use of radioactive isotopes and the increased convenience and affordability of (13)C-analyzers, the past decade has witnessed a sharp increase in the use of breath testing throughout comparative physiology--especially to answer questions about how and when animals oxidize particular nutrients. Here, we review the practical aspects of (13)C-breath testing and identify the strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches including the use of natural abundance versus artificially-enriched (13)C tracers. We critically compare the information that can be obtained using different experimental protocols such as diet-switching versus fuel-switching. We also discuss several factors that should be considered when designing breath testing experiments including extrinsic versus intrinsic (13)C-labelling and different approaches to model nutrient oxidation. We use case studies to highlight the myriad applications of (13)C-breath testing in basic and clinical human studies as well as comparative studies of fuel use, energetics, and carbon turnover in multiple vertebrate and invertebrate groups. Lastly, we call for increased and rigorous use of (13)C-breath testing to explore a variety of new research areas and potentially answer long standing questions related to thermobiology, locomotion, and nutrition.

  6. Changes in Breath Trihalomethane Levels Resulting from Household Water-Use Activities

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Sydney M.; Brinkman, Marielle C.; Ashley, David L.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Lyu, Christopher; Masters, John; Singer, Philip C.

    2006-01-01

    Common household water-use activities such as showering, bathing, drinking, and washing clothes or dishes are potentially important contributors to individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the major class of disinfection by-products of water treated with chlorine. Previous studies have focused on showering or bathing activities. In this study, we selected 12 common water-use activities and determined which may lead to the greatest THM exposures and result in the greatest increase in the internal dose. Seven subjects performed the various water-use activities in two residences served by water utilities with relatively high and moderate total THM levels. To maintain a consistent exposure environment, the activities, exposure times, air exchange rates, water flows, water temperatures, and extraneous THM emissions to the indoor air were carefully controlled. Water, indoor air, blood, and exhaled-breath samples were collected during each exposure session for each activity, in accordance with a strict, well-defined protocol. Although showering (for 10 min) and bathing (for 14 min), as well as machine washing of clothes and opening mechanical dishwashers at the end of the cycle, resulted in substantial increases in indoor air chloroform concentrations, only showering and bathing caused significant increases in the breath chloroform levels. In the case of bromodichloromethane (BDCM), only bathing yielded a significantly higher air level in relation to the preexposure concentration. For chloroform from showering, strong correlations were observed for indoor air and exhaled breath, blood and exhaled breath, indoor air and blood, and tap water and blood. Only water and breath, and blood and breath were significantly associated for chloroform from bathing. For BDCM, significant correlations were obtained for blood and air, and blood and water from showering. Neither dibromochloromethane nor bromoform gave measurable breath concentrations for any of the activities

  7. Cholesterol testing and results

    MedlinePlus

    ... profile results; Hyperlipidemia-results; Lipid disorder test results; Heart disease - cholesterol results ... at an earlier age if you have: Diabetes Heart disease Stroke High blood pressure A strong family history ...

  8. A nanomaterial-based breath test for distinguishing gastric cancer from benign gastric conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z-q; Broza, Y Y; Ionsecu, R; Tisch, U; Ding, L; Liu, H; Song, Q; Pan, Y-y; Xiong, F-x; Gu, K-s; Sun, G-p; Chen, Z-d; Leja, M; Haick, H

    2013-03-05

    Upper digestive endoscopy with biopsy and histopathological evaluation of the biopsy material is the standard method for diagnosing gastric cancer (GC). However, this procedure may not be widely available for screening in the developing world, whereas in developed countries endoscopy is frequently used without major clinical gain. There is a high demand for a simple and non-invasive test for selecting the individuals at increased risk that should undergo the endoscopic examination. Here, we studied the feasibility of a nanomaterial-based breath test for identifying GC among patients with gastric complaints. Alveolar exhaled breath samples from 130 patients with gastric complaints (37 GC/32 ulcers / 61 less severe conditions) that underwent endoscopy/biopsy were analyzed using nanomaterial-based sensors. Predictive models were built employing discriminant factor analysis (DFA) pattern recognition, and their stability against possible confounding factors (alcohol/tobacco consumption; Helicobacter pylori) was tested. Classification success was determined (i) using leave-one-out cross-validation and (ii) by randomly blinding 25% of the samples as a validation set. Complementary chemical analysis of the breath samples was performed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Three DFA models were developed that achieved excellent discrimination between the subpopulations: (i) GC vs benign gastric conditions, among all the patients (89% sensitivity; 90% specificity); (ii) early stage GC (I and II) vs late stage (III and IV), among GC patients (89% sensitivity; 94% specificity); and (iii) ulcer vs less severe, among benign conditions (84% sensitivity; 87% specificity). The models were insensitive against the tested confounding factors. Chemical analysis found that five volatile organic compounds (2-propenenitrile, 2-butoxy-ethanol, furfural, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and isoprene) were significantly elevated in patients with GC and/or peptic ulcer, as compared

  9. Random breath testing in Australia: getting it to work according to specifications.

    PubMed

    Homel, R

    1993-01-01

    After reading the deterrence literature, particularly the work of H. Laurence Ross, I concluded in the late 1970's that many road accidents could be prevented through the wholehearted implementation of random breath testing (RBT). RBT is a system of drink-drive law enforcement which aims to increase the perceived likelihood of apprehension through the use of mass breath testing techniques at roadblocks which are highly visible, are unpredictable in their locations and give the impression of ubiquity. As the result of public pressure, RBT was introduced in NSW in December 1982, with spectacular results. The law was intensively enforced and extensively advertised, partly due to the advocacy of researchers such as myself, but also because ther was an acute political need for instant results. Since RBT is a difficult enforcement technique for police to sustain in effective form, researchers must strive to improve their understanding of what works, and remain in close contact with police, policy makers and politicians. Although this process is costly in terms of time and, possibly, academic 'pay-off', it is essential if the fragile understanding of deterrence principles amongst these groups is not to lead to superficially attractive, but probably ineffective techniques such as low visibility mobile RBT.

  10. A metabolic simulator for unmanned testing of breathing apparatuses in hyperbaric conditions.

    PubMed

    Frånberg, Oskar; Loncar, Mario; Larsson, Åke; Ornhagen, Hans; Gennser, Mikael

    2014-11-01

    A major part of testing of rebreather apparatuses for underwater diving focuses on the oxygen dosage system. A metabolic simulator for testing breathing apparatuses was built and evaluated. Oxygen consumption was achieved through catalytic combustion of propene. With an admixture of carbon dioxide in the propene fuel, the system allowed the respiratory exchange ratio to be set freely within human variability and also made it possible to increase test pressures above the condensation pressure of propene. The system was tested by breathing ambient air in a pressure chamber with oxygen uptake (Vo₂) ranging from 1-4 L · min(-1), tidal volume (VT) from 1-3 L, breathing frequency (f) of 20 and 25 breaths/min, and chamber pressures from 100 to 670 kPa. The measured end-tidal oxygen concentration (Fo₂) was compared to calculated end-tidal Fo₂. The largest average difference in end-tidal Fo₂during atmospheric pressure conditions was 0.63%-points with a 0.28%-point average difference during the whole test. During hyperbaric conditions with pressures ranging from 100 to 670 kPa, the largest average difference in Fo₂was 1.68%-points seen during compression from 100 kPa to 400 kPa and the average difference in Fo₂during the whole test was 0.29%-points. In combination with a breathing simulator simulating tidal breathing, the system can be used for dynamic continuous testing of breathing equipment with changes in VT, f, Vo2, and pressure.

  11. Right recumbent position on gastric emptying of water evidenced by 13C breath testing

    PubMed Central

    Sanaka, Masaki; Urita, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Takatsugu; Shirai, Tsuguru; Kimura, Satoshi; Aoyagi, Hitoshi; Kuyama, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To compare the impact of the right recumbent position with the sitting position on gastric emptying of water. METHODS: In eight healthy male volunteers, the 13C acetate breath test was performed twice to assess gastric emptying of 100 mL tap water. Subjects were seated in one test and lying on their right side in the other. In both positions, pulmonary 13CO2 exhalation curves were obtained by plotting breath data against time. Percent gastric retention curves were created by analyzing data using the Wagner-Nelson protocol. RESULTS: No significant posture effect was found in pulmonary 13CO2 output curves (P = 0.2150), whereas a significant effect was seen in gastric retention curves (P = 0.0315). The percent retention values at 10 min and 15 min were significantly smaller when subjects were in the right recumbent position compared with the seated position (P < 0.05). Our results verified the accelerating effect of the right recumbent position on gastric emptying of non-nutritive solutions. Concerning clinical implications, this study suggests that placing patients with acute pain on their right side after oral administration of analgesic drugs in solution is justified as an effective practice for rapid pain relief. For patients with gastrointestinal reflux symptoms, sleeping in the right recumbent position may reduce nocturnal symptoms, as delayed gastric emptying can cause reflux symptoms. CONCLUSION: Gastric emptying of water occurs more quickly when a subject lies on the right side compared with sitting. PMID:23372358

  12. 13C-Mixed Triglyceride Breath Test and Fecal Elastase as an Indirect Pancreatic Function Test in Cystic Fibrosis Infants.

    PubMed

    Kent, Dorothea Stark; Remer, Thomas; Blumenthal, Caron; Hunt, Sharon; Simonds, Sharon; Egert, Sarah; Gaskin, Kevin J

    2018-05-01

    The 'gold standard' test for the indirect determination of pancreatic function status in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF), the 72-hour fecal fat excretion test, is likely to become obsolete in the near future. Alternative indirect pancreatic function tests with sufficient sensitivity and specificity to determine pancreatic phenotype need further evaluation in CF infants. Evaluation of the clinical utility of both the noninvasive, nonradioactive C-mixed triglyceride (MTG) breath test and fecal elastase-1 (FE1) in comparison with the 72-hour fecal fat assessment in infants with CF. C-MTG breath test and the monoclonal and polyclonal FE1 assessment in stool was compared with the 72-hour fecal fat assessment in 24 infants with CF. Oral pancreatic enzyme substitution (PERT; if already commenced) was stopped before the tests. Sensitivity rates between 82% and 100% for CF patients with pancreatic insufficiency assessed by both the C-MTG breath test and the FE1 tests proved to be high and promising. The C-MTG breath test (31%-38%) as well as both FE1 tests assessed by the monoclonal (46%-54%) and the polyclonal (45%) ELISA kits, however, showed unacceptably low-sensitivity rates for the detection of pancreatic-sufficient CF patients in the present study. The C-MTG breath test with nondispersive infrared spectroscopy (NDIRS) technique, as well as both FE1 tests, are not alternatives to the fecal fat balance test for the evaluation of pancreatic function in CF infants during the first year of life.

  13. An optimized 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of H pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Campuzano-Maya, Germán

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To validate an optimized 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) protocol for the diagnosis of H pylori infection that is cost-efficient and maintains excellent diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: 70 healthy volunteers were tested with two simplified 13C-UBT protocols, with test meal (Protocol 2) and without test meal (Protocol 1). Breath samples were collected at 10, 20 and 30 min after ingestion of 50 mg 13C-urea dissolved in 10 mL of water, taken as a single swallow, followed by 200 mL of water (pH 6.0) and a circular motion around the waistline to homogenize the urea solution. Performance of both protocols was analyzed at various cut-off values. Results were validated against the European protocol. RESULTS: According to the reference protocol, 65.7% individuals were positive for H pylori infection and 34.3% were negative. There were no significant differences in the ability of both protocols to correctly identify positive and negative H pylori individuals. However, only Protocol 1 with no test meal achieved accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 100%. The highest values achieved by Protocol 2 were 98.57%, 97.83%, 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: A 10 min, 50 mg 13C-UBT with no test meal using a cut-off value of 2-2.5 is a highly accurate test for the diagnosis of H pylori infection at a reduced cost. PMID:17907288

  14. 13C-Labeled-Starch Breath Test in Congenital Sucrase-isomaltase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Robayo-Torres, Claudia C; Diaz-Sotomayor, Marisela; Hamaker, Bruce R; Baker, Susan S; Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Opekun, Antone R; Nichols, Buford L

    2018-06-01

    Human starch digestion is a multienzyme process involving 6 different enzymes: salivary and pancreatic α-amylase; sucrase and isomaltase (from sucrose-isomaltase [SI]), and maltase and glucoamylase (from maltase-glucoamylase [MGAM]). Together these enzymes cleave starch to smaller molecules ultimately resulting in the absorbable monosaccharide glucose. Approximately 80% of all mucosal maltase activity is accounted for by SI and the reminder by MGAM. Clinical studies suggest that starch may be poorly digested in those with congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID). Poor starch digestion occurs in individuals with CSID and can be documented using a noninvasive C-breath test (BT). C-Labled starch was used as a test BT substrate in children with CSID. Sucrase deficiency was previously documented in study subjects by both duodenal biopsy enzyme assays and C-sucrose BT. Breath CO2 was quantitated at intervals before and after serial C-substrate loads (glucose followed 75 minutes later by starch). Variations in metabolism were normalized against C-glucose BT (coefficient of glucose absorption). Control subjects consisted of healthy family members and a group of children with functional abdominal pain with biopsy-proven sucrase sufficiency. Children with CSID had a significant reduction of C-starch digestion mirroring that of their duodenal sucrase and maltase activity and C-sucrase BT. In children with CSID, starch digestion may be impaired. In children with CSID, starch digestion correlates well with measures of sucrase activity.

  15. Comparison of an increased waist circumference with a positive hydrogen breath test as a clinical predictor of lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Castilleja, Carlos A; Montes-Tapia, Fernando F; Treviño-Garza, Consuelo; Martínez-Cobos, María C; García-Cantú, Jesús; Arenas-Fabbri, Vincenzo; de la O-Escamilla, Norma; de la O-Cavazos, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Lactose intolerance is a common disease in pediatrics, and its wrong diagnosis will lead to morbidity. The primary objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of an increased waist circumference during the hydrogen breath test as a predictor of lactose intolerance. The secondary objective was to analyze the impact of body mass index, waist circumference measurement, and age on the abdominal distension of patients with lactose intolerance. A total of 138 subjects aged 3 to 15 years were included. They underwent serial measurements of the waist circumference and hydrogen levels in the breath every 30 minutes over 3 hours during the hydrogen breath test. Out of the entire sample, 35 (25.4%) patients had lactose intolerance. An increase of 0.85 cm in waist circumference compared to the baseline waist circumference results in a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 85% to predict lactose intolerance (odds ratio: 42.14, 95% confidence interval: 13.08-135.75, p ≤ 0.001). The body mass index and waist circumference measurement did not affect abdominal distension (p= not significant); however, age modified the time of distension. A 0.85 cm increase in waist circumference compared to the baseline waist circumference during the hydrogen breath test is a useful parameter for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in pediatrics. Variations in relation to body mass index and waist circumference did not affect the usefulness of an increased waist circumference, unlike age.

  16. Prevalence of abnormal lactose breath hydrogen tests in children with functional abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Garg, Neha; Basu, Srikanta; Singh, Preeti; Kumar, Ruchika; Sharma, Lokesh; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-05-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of abnormal lactose breath hydrogen test in children with non-organic chronic abdominal pain. Children with chronic abdominal pain were examined and investigated for organic causes. All children without a known organic cause underwent lactose and glucose breath hydrogen test. After a standard dose of 2 g/kg of lactose to a maximum of 50 g, hydrogen in breath was measured at 15 min intervals for 3 h. A rise of 20 ppm above baseline was considered suggestive of lactose malabsorption. Of 108 children screened, organic causes were found in 46 children. Sixty-two patients without any organic cause underwent hydrogen breath test. Lactose hydrogen breath test (HBT) was positive in 36 of 62 (58%), while 11 (17%) had positive HBT with glucose suggestive of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Twenty out of 34 (59%) improved on lactose free diet while 8 out of 11 (72%) children of SIBO improved on antibiotics. Lactose malabsorption was seen in 58% of children with non-organic chronic abdominal pain.

  17. Does smoking abstinence influence distress tolerance? An experimental study comparing the response to a breath-holding test of smokers under tobacco withdrawal and under nicotine replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Cosci, Fiammetta; Anna Aldi, Giulia; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-09-30

    Distress tolerance has been operationalized as task persistence in stressful behavioral laboratory tasks. According to the distress tolerance perspective, how an individual responds to discomfort/distress predicts early smoking lapses. This theory seems weakly supported by experimental studies since they are limited in number, show inconsistent results, do not include control conditions. We tested the response to a stressful task in smokers under abstinence and under no abstinence to verify if tobacco abstinence reduces task persistence, thus distress tolerance. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, cross-over design was used. Twenty smokers underwent a breath holding test after the administration of nicotine on one test day and a placebo on another test day. Physiological and psychological variables were assessed at baseline and directly before and after each challenge. Abstinence induced a statistically significant shorter breath holding duration relative to the nicotine condition. No different response to the breath holding test was observed when nicotine and placebo conditions were compared. No response to the breath holding test was found when pre- and post-test values of heart rate, blood pressure, Visual Analogue Scale for fear or discomfort were compared. In brief, tobacco abstinence reduces breath holding duration but breath holding test does not influence discomfort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Photoacoustic sensor for VOCs: first step towards a lung cancer breath test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Marcus; Groninga, Hinrich G.; Dressler, Matthias; Harde, Hermann

    2005-08-01

    Development of new optical sensor technologies has a major impact on the progression of diagnostic methods. Specifically, the optical analysis of breath is an extraordinarily promising technique. Spectroscopic sensors for the non-invasive 13C-breath tests (the Urea Breath Test for detection of Helicobacter pylori is most prominent) are meanwhile well established. However, recent research and development go beyond gastroenterological applications. Sensitive and selective detection of certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a patient's breath, could enable the diagnosis of diseases that are very difficult to diagnose with contemporary techniques. For instance, an appropriate VOC biomarker for early-stage bronchial carcinoma (lung cancer) is n-butane (C4H10). We present a new optical detection scheme for VOCs that employs an especially compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). This method makes use of the transformation of absorbed modulated radiation into a sound wave. Employing a wavelength-modulated distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser and taking advantage of acoustical resonances of the sample cell, we performed very sensitive and selective measurements on butane. A detection limit for butane in air in the ppb range was achieved. In subsequent research the sensitivity will be successively improved to match the requirements of the medical application. Upon optimization, our photoacoustic sensor has the potential to enable future breath tests for early-stage lung cancer diagnostics.

  19. Use of the single-breath method of estimating cardiac output during exercise-stress testing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buderer, M. C.; Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Mauldin, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    The single-breath cardiac output measurement technique of Kim et al. (1966) has been modified for use in obtaining cardiac output measurements during exercise-stress tests on Apollo astronauts. The modifications involve the use of a respiratory mass spectrometer for data acquisition and a digital computer program for data analysis. The variation of the modified method for triplicate steady-state cardiac output measurements was plus or minus 1 liter/min. The combined physiological and methodological variation seen during a set of three exercise tests on a series of subjects was 1 to 2.5 liter/min. Comparison of the modified method with the direct Fick technique showed that although the single-breath values were consistently low, the scatter of data was small and the correlation between the two methods was high. Possible reasons for the low single-breath cardiac output values are discussed.

  20. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange.

  1. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests

    PubMed Central

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange. PMID:27311826

  2. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Robert Lawrence

    The solubility of inhaled radionuclides in the human lung is an important characteristic of the compounds needed to perform internal dosimetry assessments for exposed workers. A solubility testing method for uranium and several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALSsp°ler ) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of Usb3Osb8. This makes it possible to characterize solubility profiles in every section of operating facilities where airborne nuclides are found using common breathing zone air samples. The new method was evaluated by analyzing uranium compounds from two uranium mills whose product had been previously analyzed by in vitro solubility testing in the laboratory and in vivo solubility testing in rodents. The new technique compared well with the in vivo rodent solubility profiles. The method was then used to evaluate the solubility profiles in all process sections of an operating in situ uranium plant using breathing zone and area air samples collected during routine

  3. Bayesian modelling of lung function data from multiple-breath washout tests.

    PubMed

    Mahar, Robert K; Carlin, John B; Ranganathan, Sarath; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Vuillermin, Peter; Vukcevic, Damjan

    2018-05-30

    Paediatric respiratory researchers have widely adopted the multiple-breath washout (MBW) test because it allows assessment of lung function in unsedated infants and is well suited to longitudinal studies of lung development and disease. However, a substantial proportion of MBW tests in infants fail current acceptability criteria. We hypothesised that a model-based approach to analysing the data, in place of traditional simple empirical summaries, would enable more efficient use of these tests. We therefore developed a novel statistical model for infant MBW data and applied it to 1197 tests from 432 individuals from a large birth cohort study. We focus on Bayesian estimation of the lung clearance index, the most commonly used summary of lung function from MBW tests. Our results show that the model provides an excellent fit to the data and shed further light on statistical properties of the standard empirical approach. Furthermore, the modelling approach enables the lung clearance index to be estimated by using tests with different degrees of completeness, something not possible with the standard approach. Our model therefore allows previously unused data to be used rather than discarded, as well as routine use of shorter tests without significant loss of precision. Beyond our specific application, our work illustrates a number of important aspects of Bayesian modelling in practice, such as the importance of hierarchical specifications to account for repeated measurements and the value of model checking via posterior predictive distributions. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Lithium cell test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Three lithium SO2 cells, two lithium CF cells, and a vinyl chloride cell, all with crimped seals, and all strictly experimental, were independently discharged on resistors. Three temperatures were used and several different storage temperatures. Discharge rate generally on the nominal discharges were 0.1 amp, 0.5 amp, and 1 amp. Tests results show that the crimp seals are inadequate, especially for the SO2 cells. Normal discharges present no hazards. All cells discharge to zero. The problem of lithium cell explosions, such as occurred during off-limits testing, is discussed.

  5. Mosapride Accelerates the Delayed Gastric Emptying of High-Viscosity Liquids: A Crossover Study Using Continuous Real-Time 13C Breath Test (BreathID System)

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Yasunari; Sekino, Yusuke; Yamada, Eiji; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Higurashi, Takuma; Sakai, Eiji; Iida, Hiroshi; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Nonaka, Takashi; Ikeda, Tamon; Fujita, Koji; Yoneda, Masato; Koide, Tomoko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Goto, Ayumu; Abe, Yasunobu; Gotoh, Eiji; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims The administration of liquid nutrients to patients is often accompanied by complications such as gastroesophageal reflux. To prevent gastroesophageal reflux, high-viscosity liquid meals are used widely, however, it still remains controversial whether high-viscosity liquid meals have any effect on the rate of gastric emptying. The present study was conducted with the aim of determining whether high-viscosity liquid meals had any effect on the rate of gastric emptying and mosapride might accelerate the rate of gastric emptying of high-viscosity liquid meals. Methods Six healthy male volunteers underwent 3 tests at intervals of > 1 week. After fasting for > 8 hours, each subject received one of three test meals (liquid meal only, high-viscosity liquid meal [liquid meal plus pectin] only, or high-viscosity liquid meal 30 minutes after intake of mosapride). A 13C-acetic acid breath test was performed, which monitored the rate of gastric emptying for 4 hours. Using the Oridion Research Software (β version), breath test parameters were calculated. The study parameters were examined for all the 3 test conditions and compared using the Freidman test. Results Gastric emptying was significantly delayed following intake of a high-viscosity liquid meal alone as compared with a liquid meal alone; however, intake of mosapride prior to a high-viscosity liquid meal was associated with a significantly accelerated rate of gastric emptying as compared with a high-viscosity liquid meal alone. Conclusions This study showed that high-viscosity liquid meals delayed gastric emptying: however, mosapride recovered the delayed rate of gastric emptying by high-viscosity liquid meals. PMID:22148109

  6. Breath tests sustainability in hospital settings: cost analysis and reimbursement in the Italian National Health System.

    PubMed

    Volpe, M; Scaldaferri, F; Ojetti, V; Poscia, A

    2013-01-01

    The high demand of Breath Tests (BT) in many gastroenterological conditions in time of limited resources for health care systems, generates increased interest in cost analysis from the point of view of the delivery of services to better understand how use the money to generate value. This study aims to measure the cost of C13 Urea and other most utilized breath tests in order to describe key aspects of costs and reimbursements looking at the economic sustainability for the hospital. A hospital based cost-analysis of the main breath tests commonly delivery in an ambulatory setting is performed. Mean salary for professional nurses and gastroenterologists, drugs/preparation used and disposable materials, purchase and depreciation of the instrument and the testing time was used to estimate the cost, while reimbursements are based on the 2013 Italian National Health System ambulatory pricelist. Variables that could influence the model are considered in the sensitivity analyses. The mean cost for C13--Urea, Lactulose and Lactose BT are, respectively, Euros 30,59; 45,20 and 30,29. National reimbursement often doesn't cover the cost of the analysis, especially considering the scenario with lower number of exam. On the contrary, in high performance scenario all the reimbursement could cover the cost, except for the C13 Urea BT that is high influenced by the drugs cost. However, consideration about the difference between Italian Regional Health System ambulatory pricelist are done. Our analysis shows that while national reimbursement rates cover the costs of H2 breath testing, they do not cover sufficiently C13 BT, particularly urea breath test. The real economic strength of these non invasive tests should be considered in the overall organization of inpatient and outpatient clinic, accounting for complete diagnostic pathway for each gastrointestinal disease.

  7. 32 CFR 634.37 - Voluntary breath and bodily fluid testing based on implied consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.37 Voluntary breath and bodily fluid testing based on implied consent... the person was driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. (3) A request was made to the person...

  8. 32 CFR 634.37 - Voluntary breath and bodily fluid testing based on implied consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.37 Voluntary breath and bodily fluid testing based on implied consent... the person was driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. (3) A request was made to the person...

  9. Measurement of breath acetone in patients referred for an oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Brian Terence; Denzer, Wolfgang; Hancock, Gus; Lunn, Dan; Peverall, Robert; Ritchie, Grant; Williams, Karen

    2018-04-12

    Breath acetone concentrations were measured in 141 subjects (aged 19-91 yrs, mean=59.11yrs standard deviation=12.99yrs), male and female, undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), having been referred to clinic on suspicion of type 2 diabetes. Breath samples were measured using an ion-molecule-reaction mass spectrometer, at the commencement of the OGTT, and after 1 and 2hrs. Subjects were asked to observe the normal routine before and during the OGTT, which includes an overnight fast and ingestion of 75g glucose at the beginning of the routine. Several groups of diagnosis were identified: type 2 Diabetes Mellitus positive (T2DM), n=22; impaired glucose intolerance (IGT), n=33; impaired fasting glucose (IFG), n=14; and reactive hypoglycaemia (RHG), n=5. The subjects with no diagnosis (i.e. normoglycaemia) were used as a control group, n=67. Distributions of breath acetone are presented for the different groups. There was no evidence of a direct relationship between blood glucose and acetone measurements at any time during the study (0hr: p=0.4482; 1hr: p=0.6854; and 2hr: p=0.1858). Nor were there significant differences between the measurements of breath acetone for the control group and the T2DM group (0hr: p=0.1759; 1hr: p=0.4521; and 2hr: p=0.7343). However, the ratio of breath acetone at 1hr to the initial breath acetone was found to be significantly different for the T2DM group compared to both the control and IGT groups (p=0.0189 and 0.011, respectively). The T2DM group was also found to be different in terms of ratio of breath acetone after 1hr to that at 2hrs during the OGTT. And was distinctive in that it showed a significant dependence upon the level of blood glucose at 2hrs (p=0.0146). We conclude that single measurements of the concentrations of breath acetone cannot be used as a potential screening diagnostic for T2DM diabetes in this cohort, but monitoring the evolution of breath acetone could open a non-invasive window to aid in the diagnosis

  10. Results of an investigation of the performance of the Smith and Wesson Breathalyzer Model 1000 Breath Alcohol Tester

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-02-01

    The performance of breath alcohol test equipment used by : police is a major concern of the alcohol countermeasures effort : of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). : A Qualified Products List (QPL) has been established to ensu...

  11. Measurement of hepatic functional mass by means of 13C-methacetin and 13C-phenylalanine breath tests in chronic liver disease: Comparison with Child-Pugh score and serum bile acid levels

    PubMed Central

    Festi, D.; Capodicasa, S.; Sandri, L.; Colaiocco-Ferrante, L.; Staniscia, T.; Vitacolonna, E.; Vestito, A.; Simoni, P.; Mazzella, G.; Portincasa, P.; Roda, E.; Colecchia, A.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate and compare the clinical usefulness of 13C-phenylalanine and 13C-methacetin breath tests in quantitating functional hepatic mass in patients with chronic liver disease and to further compare these results with those of conventional tests, Child-Pugh score and serum bile acid levels. METHODS: One hundred and forty patients (50 HCV- related chronic hepatitis, 90 liver cirrhosis patients) and 40 matched healthy controls were studied. Both breath test and routine liver test, serum levels of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid conjugates were evaluated. RESULTS: Methacetin breath test, expressed as 60 min cumulative percent of oxidation, discriminated the hepatic functional capacity not only between controls and liver disease patients, but also between different categories of chronic liver disease patients. Methacetin breath test was correlated with liver function tests and serum bile acids. Furthermore, methacetin breath test, as well as serum bile acids, were highly predictive of Child-Pugh scores. The diagnostic power of phenylalanine breath test was always less than that of methacetin breath test. CONCLUSION: Methacetin breath test represents a safe and accurate diagnostic tool in the evaluation of hepatic functional mass in chronic liver disease patients. PMID:15609414

  12. The cholesteryl octanoate breath test: a new procedure for detection of pancreatic insufficiency in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mundlos, S; Rhodes, J B; Hofmann, A F

    1987-09-01

    A breath test for the detection of pancreatic insufficiency was developed and tested in rats. The test features the hydrophobic molecule cholesteryl-1-14C-octanoate, which liberates 14C-octanoic acid when hydrolyzed by carboxyl ester lipase (cholesterol esterase). The 14C-octanoate is absorbed passively and rapidly metabolized to 14CO2, which is excreted in expired air. The compound was administered as an emulsion of cholesteryl octanoate, triglyceride, and lecithin to rats with mild pancreatic insufficiency induced by injecting the pancreatic duct with zein. The animals had exocrine pancreatic hypofunction based on the enzyme content of pancreas at autopsy. Amylase was reduced by 97.1 +/- 1.4%, whereas chymotrypsin was reduced by 73 +/- 14%. The p-aminobenzoic acid test was abnormal at 1 wk (21.68 +/- 8.4%), but become normal at 3 months (72.08 +/- 5.8%) after zein injection. Despite this, the animals gained weight and absorbed fat normally. The 14CO2 excretion rate in the 110-min interval after feeding was significantly reduced to 60% of sham-operated animals. Peak 14CO2 collections 20 min after feeding were reduced by 75 +/- 11%. 14CO2 output was completely normalized by administration of pancreatin prior to the test meal. The results suggest that a sensitive, noninvasive method for detecting deficiency of pancreatic carboxyl ester lipase (cholesterol esterase) secretion in the rat has been developed.

  13. Clinical research on liver reserve function by 13C-phenylalanine breath test in aged patients with chronic liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate whether the 13C-phenylalanine breath test could be useful for the evaluation of hepatic function in elderly volunteers and patients with chronic hepatitis B and liver cirrhosis. Methods L-[1-13C] phenylalanine was administered orally at a dose of 100 mg to 55 elderly patients with liver cirrhosis, 30 patients with chronic hepatitis B and 38 elderly healthy subjects. The breath test was performed at 8 different time points (0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 min) to obtain the values of Delta over baseline, percentage 13CO2 exhalation rate and cumulative excretion (Cum). The relationships of the cumulative excretion with the 13C-%dose/h and blood biochemical parameters were investigated. Results The 13C-%dose/h at 20 min and 30 min combined with the cumulative excretion at 60 min and 120 min correlated with hepatic function tests, serum albumin, hemoglobin, platelet and Child-Pugh score. Prothrombin time, total and direct bilirubin were significantly increased, while serum albumin, hemoglobin and platelet, the cumulative excretion at 60 min and 120 min values decreased by degrees of intensity of the disease in Child-Pugh A, B, and C patients (P < 0.01). Conclusions The 13C-phenylalanine breath test can be used as a non-invasive assay to evaluate hepatic function in elderly patients with liver cirrhosis. The 13C-%dose/h at 20 min, at 30 min and cumulative excretion at 60 min may be the key value for determination at a single time-point. 13C-phenylalanine breath test is safe and helpful in distinguishing different stages of hepatic dysfunction for elderly cirrhosis patients. PMID:20459849

  14. Four-sample lactose hydrogen breath test for diagnosis of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian-Feng; Fox, Mark; Chu, Hua; Zheng, Xia; Long, Yan-Qin; Pohl, Daniel; Fried, Michael; Dai, Ning

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To validate 4-sample lactose hydrogen breath testing (4SLHBT) compared to standard 13-sample LHBT in the clinical setting. METHODS: Irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea (IBS-D) and healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled and received a 10 g, 20 g, or 40 g dose lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The lactase gene promoter region was sequenced. Breath samples and symptoms were acquired at baseline and every 15 min for 3 h (13 measurements). The detection rates of lactose malabsorption (LM) and lactose intolerance (LI) for a 4SLHBT that acquired four measurements at 0, 90, 120, and 180 min from the same data set were compared with the results of standard LHBT. RESULTS: Sixty IBS-D patients and 60 HVs were studied. The genotype in all participants was C/C-13910. LM and LI detection rates increased with lactose dose from 10 g, 20 g to 40 g in both groups (P < 0.001). 4SLHBT showed excellent diagnostic concordance with standard LHBT (97%-100%, Kappa​​ 0.815-0.942) with high sensitivity (90%-100%) and specificity (100%) at all three lactose doses in both groups. CONCLUSION: Reducing the number of measurements from 13 to 4 samples did not significantly impact on the accuracy of LHBT in health and IBS-D. 4SLHBT is a valid test for assessment of LM and LI in clinical practice. PMID:26140004

  15. [13C]Glucose Breath Testing Provides a Noninvasive Measure of Insulin Resistance: Calibration Analyses Against Clamp Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Maysa; Jangorbhani, Morteza; Schuette, Sally; Considine, Robert V.; Chisholm, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Exhaled 13CO2 following ingestion of [13C]glucose with a standard oral glucose tolerance load correlates with blood glucose values but is determined by tissue glucose uptake. Therefore exhaled 13CO2 may also be a surrogate measure of the whole-body glucose disposal rate (GDR) measured by the gold standard hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Subjects and Methods: Subjects from across the glycemia range were studied on 2 consecutive days under fasting conditions. On Day 1, a 75-g oral glucose load spiked with [13C]glucose was administered. On Day 2, a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was performed. Correlations between breath parameters and clamp-derived GDR were evaluated, and calibration analyses were performed to evaluate the precision of breath parameter predictions of clamp measures. Results: Correlations of breath parameters with GDR and GDR per kilogram of fat-free mass (GDRffm) ranged from 0.54 to 0.61 and 0.54 to 0.66, respectively (all P<0.001). In calibration analyses the root mean square error for breath parameters predicting GDR and GDRffm ranged from 2.32 to 2.46 and from 3.23 to 3.51, respectively. Cross-validation prediction error (CVPE) estimates were 2.35–2.51 (GDR) and 3.29–3.57 (GDRffm). Prediction precision of breath enrichment at 180 min predicting GDR (CVPE=2.35) was superior to that for inverse insulin (2.68) and the Matsuda Index (2.51) but inferior to that for the log of homeostasis model assessment (2.21) and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (2.29) (all P<10−5). Similar patterns were seen for predictions of GDRffm. Conclusions: 13CO2 appearance in exhaled breath following a standard oral glucose load with added [13C]glucose provides a valid surrogate index of clamp-derived measures of whole-body insulin resistance, with good accuracy and precision. This noninvasive breath test-based approach can provide a useful measure of whole-body insulin resistance in physiologic and epidemiologic studies. PMID

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of the 14C-urea breath test in Helicobacter pylori infections: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qiaohui; Li, Ling; Ai, Yaowei; Pan, Zhihong; Guo, Mingwen; Han, Jingbo

    2017-01-01

    To summarize and appraise the available literature regarding the use of the 14 C-urea breath test in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infections in adult patients with dyspepsia and to calculate pooled diagnostic accuracy measures. We systematically searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Chinese Journals Full-text (CNKI) and CBMDisc databases to identify published data regarding the sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of diagnostic accuracy of the 14 C-urea breath test in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infections in adult patients with dyspeptic symptoms. Risk of bias was assessed using the QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies)-2 tool. Statistical analyses were performed using Meta-Disc 1.4 software and STATA. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled results indicated that the  14 C-urea breath test showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 0.96 (95% CI 0.95 to 0.96) and specificity of 0.93 (95% CI 0.91 to 0.94). The positive like ratio (PLR) was 12.27 (95% CI 8.17 to 18.44), the negative like ratio (NLR) was 0.05 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.07), and the area under the curve was 0.985. The DOR was 294.95 (95% CI 178.37 to 487.70). The 14 C-urea breath test showed sufficient sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection, but unexplained heterogeneity after meta-regression and several subgroup analyses remained. The UBT has high accuracy for diagnosing H. pylori infections in adult patients with dyspepsia. However, the reliability of these diagnostic meta-analytic estimates is limited by significant heterogeneity due to unknown factors.

  17. Four-sample lactose hydrogen breath test for diagnosis of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Feng; Fox, Mark; Chu, Hua; Zheng, Xia; Long, Yan-Qin; Pohl, Daniel; Fried, Michael; Dai, Ning

    2015-06-28

    To validate 4-sample lactose hydrogen breath testing (4SLHBT) compared to standard 13-sample LHBT in the clinical setting. Irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea (IBS-D) and healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled and received a 10 g, 20 g, or 40 g dose lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The lactase gene promoter region was sequenced. Breath samples and symptoms were acquired at baseline and every 15 min for 3 h (13 measurements). The detection rates of lactose malabsorption (LM) and lactose intolerance (LI) for a 4SLHBT that acquired four measurements at 0, 90, 120, and 180 min from the same data set were compared with the results of standard LHBT. Sixty IBS-D patients and 60 HVs were studied. The genotype in all participants was C/C-13910. LM and LI detection rates increased with lactose dose from 10 g, 20 g to 40 g in both groups (P < 0.001). 4SLHBT showed excellent diagnostic concordance with standard LHBT (97%-100%, Kappa​​ 0.815-0.942) with high sensitivity (90%-100%) and specificity (100%) at all three lactose doses in both groups. Reducing the number of measurements from 13 to 4 samples did not significantly impact on the accuracy of LHBT in health and IBS-D. 4SLHBT is a valid test for assessment of LM and LI in clinical practice.

  18. Validation of 13C-acetic acid breath test by measuring effects of loperamide, morphine, mosapride, and itopride on gastric emptying in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tashima, Kimihito; Uchida, Masayuki; Horie, Syunji

    2008-10-01

    Several methods are used to evaluate gastric motility in rodents, but they all have technical limitations. Recent technical developments enable a convenient method to evaluate gastric motility. The (13)C-acetic acid breath test in rodents is a non-invasive and repeatable method that can be used without physical restraints. The present study aimed to validate the (13)C-acetic acid breath test by measuring the effects of loperamide, morphine, mosapride, and itopride on gastric emptying in mice. Loperamide (1-10 mg/kg) and morphine (1.25-10 mg/kg) slowed gastric emptying and decreased the maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve (AUC(90 min)) value in a dose-dependent manner. Mosapride (0.2-5 mg/kg) accelerated gastric emptying and increased C(max) value. Mosapride (20 mg/kg) did not accelerate gastric emptying on the (13)C-breath test. Itopride (30 mg/kg, per os) significantly accelerated gastric emptying compared with the vehicle group. In a comparison with the conventional phenol red test, there was a correlation between the C(max) value of breath test and gastric emptying (%) of phenol red tests in treatment with loperamide or mosapride. These results indicate that the (13)C-acetic acid breath test is an accurate, noninvasive, and simple method for monitoring gastric emptying in mice. This method is useful to assess the effect of drugs and gut function pharmacologically.

  19. Small intestinal malabsorption in chronic alcoholism: a retrospective study of alcoholic patients by the ¹⁴C-D-xylose breath test.

    PubMed

    Hope, Håvar; Skar, Viggo; Sandstad, Olav; Husebye, Einar; Medhus, Asle W

    2012-04-01

    The ¹⁴C-D-xylose breath test was used at Ullevål University Hospital in the period from 1986 TO 1995 for malabsorption testing. The objective of this retrospective study was to reveal whether patients with chronic alcoholism may have intestinal malabsorption. The consecutive ¹⁴C-D-xylose breath test database was reviewed and patients with the diagnosis of chronic alcoholism were identified. ¹⁴C-D-xylose breath test results of the alcoholic patients were compared with the results of untreated celiac patients and patient and healthy controls. In the ¹⁴C-D-xylose breath test, ¹⁴C-D-xylose was dissolved in water and given orally after overnight fast. Breath samples were taken at 30-min intervals for 210 min, and ¹⁴CO₂ : ¹²CO₂ ratios were calculated for each time point, presenting a time curve for ¹⁴C-D-xylose absorption. Urine was collected after 210 min and the fraction of the total d-xylose passed was calculated (U%). ¹⁴CO₂ in breath and ¹⁴C-D-xylose in urine were analyzed using liquid scintillation. Both breath and urine analysis revealed a pattern of malabsorption in alcoholics comparable with untreated celiac patients, with significantly reduced absorption of d-xylose compared with patient and healthy controls. Alcoholic patients have a significantly reduced ¹⁴C-D-xylose absorption, comparable with untreated celiac patients. This indicates a reduced intestinal function in chronic alcoholism.

  20. Effect of Yogic Breathing on Accommodate Braille Version of Six-letter Cancellation Test in Students with Visual Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Balaram; Mohanty, Soubhagyalaxmi; Hankey, Alex

    2018-01-01

    Context: Attentional processes tend to be less well developed in the visually impaired, who require special training to develop them fully. Yogic breathing which alters the patterns of respiration has been shown to enhance attention skills. Letter cancellation tests are well-established tools to measure attention and attention span. Here, a modified Braille version of the six-letter cancellation test (SLCT) was used for students with visual impairment (VI). Aim: This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of Bhramari Pranayama (BhPr) and breath awareness (BA) on students with VI. Methods: This study was a self-as-control study held on 2 consecutive days, on 19 participants (8 males, 11 females), with a mean age of 15.89 ± 1.59 years, randomized into two groups. On the 1st day, Group 1 performed 10 min breath awareness and Group 2 performed Bhramari; on the 2nd day, practices were reversed. Assessments used a SLCT specially adapted for the visually impaired before and after each session. Results: The Braille letter cancellation test was successfully taken by 19 students. Scores significantly improved after both techniques for each student following practices on both days (P < 0.001). BhPr may have more effect on attention performance than BA as wrong scores significantly increased following BA (P < 0.05), but the increase in the score after Bhramari was not significant. Conclusions: Despite the small sample size improvement in attentional processes by both yoga breathing techniques was robust. Attentional skills were definitely enhanced. Long-term practice should be studied. PMID:29755219

  1. Simplified 13C-urea breath test with a new infrared spectrometer for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tseng-Shing; Chang, Full-Young; Chen, Pang-Chi; Huang, Thomas W; Ou, Jonathan T; Tsai, Ming-Hung; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Lin, Jaw-Town

    2003-11-01

    Infrared spectrometry has correlated excellently with mass spectrometry in detecting the ratio of 13CO(2) to 12CO(2) in breath samples. The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) using a new model of infrared analyzer. A total of 600 patients who were undergoing upper endoscopy without receiving eradication therapy were entered into the study. Culture, histology, and rapid urease test on biopsies from the antrum and corpus of the stomach were used for the determination of Helicobacter pylori infection. Breath samples were collected before and 20 min after drinking 100 mg 13C-urea in 100 mL water. The optimal cutoff value was determined by the receiver operating characteristic curve. Of the 586 patients who were eligible for analysis, 369 were positive for H. pylori infection, 185 were negative for H. pylori infection, and 32 were indeterminate. When the appropriate cutoff value was set at 3.5 per thousand, a sensitivity of 97.8%, a specificity of 96.8% and an accuracy of 97.5% were obtained using the 13C-UBT. The accuracy of the 13C-UBT decreased when CO(2) concentration in the breath sample was <2%, as compared with > or = 2% (93.6%vs 97.7%), mainly because of a decrease in specificity (81.8%vs 97.7%). There were 2.7% of patients with Delta13CO(2) values that fell between 3.0-4.5 per thousand, in whom the risk of error was 47%. The 13C-UBT performed with infrared spectrometry is a highly sensitive, specific, and non-invasive method for the detection of H. pylori infection. The immediate availability of the test result and technical simplicity make it particularly effective in routine clinical practice.

  2. Update on diagnostic value of breath test in gastrointestinal and liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Imran; Ahmed, Sibtain; Abid, Shahab

    2016-01-01

    In the field of gastroenterology, breath tests (BTs) are used intermittently as diagnostic tools that allow indirect, non-invasive and relatively less cumbersome evaluation of several disorders by simply quantifying the appearance in exhaled breath of a metabolite of a specific substrate administered. The aim of this review is to have an insight into the principles, methods of analysis and performance parameters of various hydrogen, methane and carbon BTs which are available for diagnosing gastrointestinal disorders such as Helicobacter pylori infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and carbohydrate malabsorption. Evaluation of gastric emptying is routinely performed by scintigraphy which is however, difficult to perform and not suitable for children and pregnant women, this review has abridged the 13C-octanoic acid test in comparison to scintigraphy and has emphasized on its working protocol and challenges. A new development such as electronic nose test is also highlighted. Moreover we have also explored the limitations and constraints restraining the wide use of these BT. We conclude that breath testing has an enormous potential to be used as a diagnostic modality. In addition it offers distinct advantages over the traditional invasive methods commonly employed. PMID:27574563

  3. Breath biomarkers in toxicology.

    PubMed

    Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-11-01

    Exhaled breath has joined blood and urine as a valuable resource for sampling and analyzing biomarkers in human media for assessing exposure, uptake metabolism, and elimination of toxic chemicals. This article focuses current use of exhaled gas, aerosols, and vapor in human breath, the methods for collection, and ultimately the use of the resulting data. Some advantages of breath are the noninvasive and self-administered nature of collection, the essentially inexhaustible supply, and that breath sampling does not produce potentially infectious waste such as needles, wipes, bandages, and glassware. In contrast to blood and urine, breath samples can be collected on demand in rapid succession and so allow toxicokinetic observations of uptake and elimination in any time frame. Furthermore, new technologies now allow capturing condensed breath vapor directly, or just the aerosol fraction alone, to gain access to inorganic species, lung pH, proteins and protein fragments, cellular DNA, and whole microorganisms from the pulmonary microbiome. Future applications are discussed, especially the use of isotopically labeled probes, non-targeted (discovery) analysis, cellular level toxicity testing, and ultimately assessing "crowd breath" of groups of people and the relation to dose of airborne and other environmental chemicals at the population level.

  4. A Modified Carbon Monoxide Breath Test for Measuring Erythrocyte Lifespan in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Hou-De; Ji, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Huang, Jia-Liang; Du, Li-Tao; Cao, Ping; Zang, De-Yue; Du, Ji-Hui; Li, Rong; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This study was to develop a CO breath test for RBC lifespan estimation of small animals. The ribavirin induced hemolysis rabbit models were placed individually in a closed rebreath cage and air samples were collected for measurement of CO concentration. RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO, blood volume, and hemoglobin concentration data. RBC lifespan was determined in the same animals with the standard biotin-labeling method. RBC lifespan data obtained by the CO breath test method for control (CON, 49.0 ± 5.9 d) rabbits, rabbits given 10 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB10, 31.0 ± 4.0 d), and rabbits given 20 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB20, 25.0 ± 2.9 d) were statistically similar (all p > 0.05) to and linearly correlated (r = 0.96, p < 0.01) with the RBC lifespan data obtained for the same rabbits by the standard biotin-labeling method (CON, 51.0 ± 2.7 d; RIB10, 33.0 ± 1.3 d; and RIB20, 27.0 ± 0.8 d). The CO breath test method takes less than 3 h to complete, whereas the standard method requires at least several weeks. In conclusion, the CO breath test method provides a simple and rapid means of estimating RBC lifespan and is feasible for use with small animal models. PMID:27294128

  5. Random breath testing in Queensland and Western Australia: examination of how the random breath testing rate influences alcohol related traffic crash rates.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Jason; Mazerolle, Lorraine; King, Mark; Bates, Lyndel; Bennett, Sarah; Devaney, Madonna

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore the relationship between monthly random breath testing (RBT) rates (per 1000 licensed drivers) and alcohol-related traffic crash (ARTC) rates over time, across two Australian states: Queensland and Western Australia. We analyse the RBT, ARTC and licensed driver rates across 12 years; however, due to administrative restrictions, we model ARTC rates against RBT rates for the period July 2004 to June 2009. The Queensland data reveals that the monthly ARTC rate is almost flat over the five year period. Based on the results of the analysis, an average of 5.5 ARTCs per 100,000 licensed drivers are observed across the study period. For the same period, the monthly rate of RBTs per 1000 licensed drivers is observed to be decreasing across the study with the results of the analysis revealing no significant variations in the data. The comparison between Western Australia and Queensland shows that Queensland's ARTC monthly percent change (MPC) is 0.014 compared to the MPC of 0.47 for Western Australia. While Queensland maintains a relatively flat ARTC rate, the ARTC rate in Western Australia is increasing. Our analysis reveals an inverse relationship between ARTC RBT rates, that for every 10% increase in the percentage of RBTs to licensed driver there is a 0.15 decrease in the rate of ARTCs per 100,000 licenced drivers. Moreover, in Western Australia, if the 2011 ratio of 1:2 (RBTs to annual number of licensed drivers) were to double to a ratio of 1:1, we estimate the number of monthly ARTCs would reduce by approximately 15. Based on these findings we believe that as the number of RBTs conducted increases the number of drivers willing to risk being detected for drinking driving decreases, because the perceived risk of being detected is considered greater. This is turn results in the number of ARTCs diminishing. The results of this study provide an important evidence base for policy decisions for RBT operations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. A simple test of one minute heart rate variability during deep breathing for evaluation of sympatovagal imbalance in hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Shuvy, Mony; Arbelle, Jonathan E; Grosbard, Aviva; Katz, Amos

    2008-01-01

    Heart rate variability is a sensitive marker of cardiac sympathetic activity. To determine whether long-term hyperthyroidism induced by thyroxine suppressive therapy affects HRV. Nineteen patients treated with suppressive doses of thyroxin for thyroid cancer and 19 age-matched controls were enrolled. Thyroid function tests and 1 minute HRV were performed on all subjects and the results were compared between the groups. The 1 minute HRV was analyzed during deep breathing and defined as the difference in beats/minute between the shortest and the longest heart rate interval measured by eletrocardiographic recording during six cycles of deep breathing. One minute HRV during deep breathing was significantly lower among thyroxine-treated patients compared to healthy controls (25.6 +/- 10.5 vs. 34.3 +/- 12.6 beats/min, P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in mean, maximal and minimal heart rate between the groups. Thyroxine therapy administered for epithelial thyroid cancer resulted in subclinical hyperthyroidism and significantly decreased HRV due to autonomic dysfunction rather than basic elevated heart rate.

  7. Preschool Multiple-Breath Washout Testing. An Official American Thoracic Society Technical Statement.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Paul D; Latzin, Philipp; Ramsey, Kathryn A; Stanojevic, Sanja; Aurora, Paul; Davis, Stephanie D; Gappa, Monika; Hall, Graham L; Horsley, Alex; Jensen, Renee; Lum, Sooky; Milla, Carlos; Nielsen, Kim G; Pittman, Jessica E; Rosenfeld, Margaret; Singer, Florian; Subbarao, Padmaja; Gustafsson, Per M; Ratjen, Felix

    2018-03-01

    Obstructive airway disease is nonuniformly distributed throughout the bronchial tree, although the extent to which this occurs can vary among conditions. The multiple-breath washout (MBW) test offers important insights into pediatric lung disease, not available through spirometry or resistance measurements. The European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society inert gas washout consensus statement led to the emergence of validated commercial equipment for the age group 6 years and above; specific recommendations for preschool children were beyond the scope of the document. Subsequently, the focus has shifted to MBW applications within preschool subjects (aged 2-6 yr), where a "window of opportunity" exists for early diagnosis of obstructive lung disease and intervention. This preschool-specific technical standards document was developed by an international group of experts, with expertise in both custom-built and commercial MBW equipment. A comprehensive review of published evidence was performed. Recommendations were devised across areas that place specific age-related demands on MBW systems. Citing evidence where available in the literature, recommendations are made regarding procedures that should be used to achieve robust MBW results in the preschool age range. The present work also highlights the important unanswered questions that need to be addressed in future work. Consensus recommendations are outlined to direct interested groups of manufacturers, researchers, and clinicians in preschool device design, test performance, and data analysis for the MBW technique.

  8. Hydrogen and Methane-Based Breath Testing in Gastrointestinal Disorders: The North American Consensus

    PubMed Central

    Rezaie, Ali; Buresi, Michelle; Lembo, Anthony; Lin, Henry; McCallum, Richard; Rao, Satish; Schmulson, Max; Valdovinos, Miguel; Zakko, Salam; Pimentel, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Breath tests (BTs) are important for the diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion syndromes and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). However, standardization is lacking regarding indications for testing, test methodology and interpretation of results. A consensus meeting of experts was convened to develop guidelines for clinicians and research. Methods: Pre-meeting survey questions encompassing five domains; indications, preparation, performance, interpretation of results, and knowledge gaps, were sent to 17 clinician-scientists, and 10 attended a live meeting. Using an evidence-based approach, 28 statements were finalized and voted on anonymously by a working group of specialists. Results: Consensus was reached on 26 statements encompassing all five domains. Consensus doses for lactulose, glucose, fructose and lactose BT were 10, 75, 25 and 25 g, respectively. Glucose and lactulose BTs remain the least invasive alternatives to diagnose SIBO. BT is useful in the diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion, methane-associated constipation, and evaluation of bloating/gas but not in the assessment of oro-cecal transit. A rise in hydrogen of ≥20 p.p.m. by 90 min during glucose or lactulose BT for SIBO was considered positive. Methane levels ≥10 p.p.m. was considered methane-positive. SIBO should be excluded prior to BT for carbohydrate malabsorption to avoid false positives. A rise in hydrogen of ≥20 p.p.m. from baseline during BT was considered positive for maldigestion. Conclusions: BT is a useful, inexpensive, simple and safe diagnostic test in the evaluation of common gastroenterology problems. These consensus statements should help to standardize the indications, preparation, performance and interpretation of BT in clinical practice and research. PMID:28323273

  9. Hydrogen and Methane-Based Breath Testing in Gastrointestinal Disorders: The North American Consensus.

    PubMed

    Rezaie, Ali; Buresi, Michelle; Lembo, Anthony; Lin, Henry; McCallum, Richard; Rao, Satish; Schmulson, Max; Valdovinos, Miguel; Zakko, Salam; Pimentel, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Breath tests (BTs) are important for the diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion syndromes and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). However, standardization is lacking regarding indications for testing, test methodology and interpretation of results. A consensus meeting of experts was convened to develop guidelines for clinicians and research. Pre-meeting survey questions encompassing five domains; indications, preparation, performance, interpretation of results, and knowledge gaps, were sent to 17 clinician-scientists, and 10 attended a live meeting. Using an evidence-based approach, 28 statements were finalized and voted on anonymously by a working group of specialists. Consensus was reached on 26 statements encompassing all five domains. Consensus doses for lactulose, glucose, fructose and lactose BT were 10, 75, 25 and 25 g, respectively. Glucose and lactulose BTs remain the least invasive alternatives to diagnose SIBO. BT is useful in the diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion, methane-associated constipation, and evaluation of bloating/gas but not in the assessment of oro-cecal transit. A rise in hydrogen of ≥20 p.p.m. by 90 min during glucose or lactulose BT for SIBO was considered positive. Methane levels ≥10 p.p.m. was considered methane-positive. SIBO should be excluded prior to BT for carbohydrate malabsorption to avoid false positives. A rise in hydrogen of ≥20 p.p.m. from baseline during BT was considered positive for maldigestion. BT is a useful, inexpensive, simple and safe diagnostic test in the evaluation of common gastroenterology problems. These consensus statements should help to standardize the indications, preparation, performance and interpretation of BT in clinical practice and research.

  10. No radiation protection reasons for restrictions on 14C urea breath tests in children.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, M; Leide-Svegborn, S; Stenström, K; Skog, G; Nilsson, L-E; Hellborg, R; Mattsson, S

    2002-12-01

    Traditional (14)C urea breath tests are normally not used for younger children because the radiation exposure is unknown. High sensitivity accelerator mass spectrometry and an ultra-low amount (440 Bq) of (14)C urea were therefore used both to diagnose Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection in seven children, aged 3-6 years, and to make radiation dose estimates. The activity used was 125 times lower than the amount normally used for older children and 250 times lower than that used for adults. Results were compared with previously reported biokinetic and dosimetric data for adults and older children aged 7-14 years. (14)C activity concentrations in urine and exhaled air per unit administered activity for younger children (3-6 years) correspond well with those for older children (7-14 years). For a child aged 3-6 years who is HP negative, the urinary bladder wall receives the highest absorbed dose, 0.3 mGy MBq(-1). The effective dose is 0.1 mSv MBq(-1) for the 3-year-old child and 0.07 mSv MBq(-1) for the 6-year-old child. For two children, the 10 min and 20 min post-(14)C administration samples of exhaled air showed a significantly higher amount of (14)C activity than for the rest of the children, that is 6% and 19% of administered activity exhaled per hour compared with 0.3-0.9% (mean 0.5%) of administered activity exhaled per hour indicating that these two children that is were HP positive. For a 3-year-old HP positive child, absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall was 0.3 mGy MBq(-1) and effective dose per unit of administered activity was 0.4 mSv MBq(-1). Using 55 kBq, which is a normal amount for older children when liquid scintillation counters are used for measurement, the effective dose will be approximately 6 micro Sv to a 3-year-old HP negative child and 20 microSv to a HP positive child. Thus there is no reason for restrictions on performing a normal (14)C urea breath test, even on young children.

  11. Performance of the 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection using a substrate synthesized in Brazil: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga; Sant'Ana, Carlos Roberto; Oliveira, Ricardo Brandt de; Cezar, Raíra César E; Araujo, Aline Cordeiro Campos de; Silva, Raisa Cristina Teodoro da; Trindade, Osmar Reni; Coelho, Maria Clara; Ferrioli, Eduardo; Bendassolli, José Albertino

    2018-06-07

    The 13C-urea breath test is the main non-invasive test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. The availability of this test throughout the country is limited, mainly due to the difficulty in obtaining the labeled isotope from abroad. Recently, researchers from the Nuclear Energy Center in Agriculture at the University of São Paulo (CENA/USP) succeeded in synthesizing 13C-enriched urea for Helicobacter pylori diagnosis. The aim of the study was to compare the performance of the 13C-urea breath test using 13C-urea acquired abroad with that of a test using 13C-urea synthesized in Brazil. Sixty-four dyspeptic patients participated in the study (24 men and 40 women). Initially, the patients performed the 13C-urea breath test using the imported substrate (Euriso-Top, France). Seven to fourteen days later, all the patients repeated the test using the Brazilian substrate. The samples from both examinations were processed in an infrared isotope analyzer (IRIS, Wagner Analisen Technik, Germany), and all delta over baseline (DOB) [%] values above four were considered positive results. Twenty-seven patients (42%) exhibited negative results for Helicobacter pylori infection, and thirty-seven patients (58%) exhibited positive results when tested using the foreign substrate (gold standard). There was a 100% concordance regarding the presence or absence of infection when the gold standard results were compared with those obtained using the Brazilian substrate. Similar performance in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection was demonstrated when using the 13C-urea breath test with the Brazilian 13C-urea substrate and the test with the substrate produced abroad. This validation represents an important step toward increasing the availability of the 13C-urea breath test throughout the country, which will have a positive influence on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection.

  12. Spontaneous breathing test in the prediction of extubation failure in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Milena Siciliano; Rebello, Celso Moura; Vale, Luciana Assis Pires Andrade; Santos, Érica; Prado, Cristiane do

    2017-01-01

    To assess whether the spontaneous breathing test can predict the extubation failure in pediatric population. A prospective and observational study that evaluated data of inpatients at the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit between May 2011 and August 2013, receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours followed by extubation. The patients were classified in two groups: Test Group, with patients extubated after spontaneous breathing test, and Control Group, with patients extubated without spontaneous breathing test. A total of 95 children were enrolled in the study, 71 in the Test Group and 24 in the Control Group. A direct comparison was made between the two groups regarding sex, age, mechanical ventilation time, indication to start mechanical ventilation and respiratory parameters before extubation in the Control Group, and before the spontaneous breathing test in the Test Group. There was no difference between the parameters evaluated. According to the analysis of probability of extubation failure between the two groups, the likelihood of extubation failure in the Control Group was 1,412 higher than in the Test Group, nevertheless, this range did not reach significance (p=0.706). This model was considered well-adjusted according to the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (p=0.758). The spontaneous breathing test was not able to predict the extubation failure in pediatric population. Avaliar se o teste de respiração espontânea pode ser utilizado para predizer falha da extubação na população pediátrica. Estudo prospectivo, observacional, no qual foram avaliados todos os pacientes internados no Centro de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica, no período de maio de 2011 a agosto de 2013, que utilizaram ventilação mecânica por mais de 24 horas e que foram extubados. Os pacientes foram classificados em dois grupos: Grupo Teste, que incluiu os pacientes extubados depois do teste de respiração espontânea; e Grupo Controle, pacientes foram sem teste de respiração espont

  13. Studies regarding the mechanism of false negative urea breath tests with proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Graham, David Y; Opekun, Antone R; Hammoud, Fadi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Reddy, Rita; Osato, Michael S; El-Zimaity, Hala M T

    2003-05-01

    The mechanism of false negative urea breath tests (UBTs) results among proton pump inhibitor (PPI) users is unknown. We studied the time course of PPI-associated negative UBT, the relation to Helicobacter pylori density, and whether gastric acidification would prevent false negative UBT results. In the UBT experiment, H. pylori-infected volunteers received omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. for 13.5 days. UBTs with citric acid were done before, after 6.5 days of PPI, and 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 days after therapy. In the culture and histology experiment, after a wash-out of >5 months, nine of the original subjects were rechallenged with omeprazole for 6.5 days. Antral and corpus biopsies for histology and culture were done before and 1 day after PPI administration. Thirty subjects (mean age 42 yr) were enrolled. UBTs were significantly reduced on day 6.5 (p = 0.031); 10 subjects (33%) developed transient negative UBTs. The UBT recovered in all but one subject by the fourth day post-PPI and in all subjects by day 14. In the culture and histology experiment, upon PPI rechallenge, three of nine subjects (33%) had negative UBTs. H. pylori density, whether measured by culture or histology, decreased with PPI therapy; antral biopsies became histologically negative in five subjects and corpus biopsies in three subjects. PPI-induced negative UBT results were related to the anti-H. pylori effect of the PPI. Acidification of the stomach did not prevent false negative UBT results. Three days is likely the minimum delay from stopping PPI until one should perform a test for active infection. A delay of 14 days is preferred.

  14. Early detection of cystic fibrosis lung disease: multiple‐breath washout versus raised volume tests

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Sooky; Gustafsson, Per; Ljungberg, Henrik; Hülskamp, Georg; Bush, Andrew; Carr, Siobhán B; Castle, Rosemary; Hoo, Ah‐fong; Price, John; Ranganathan, Sarath; Stroobant, John; Wade, Angie; Wallis, Colin; Wyatt, Hilary; Stocks, Janet

    2007-01-01

    Background Lung clearance index (LCI), a measure of ventilation inhomogeneity derived from the multiple‐breath inert gas washout (MBW) technique, has been shown to detect abnormal lung function more readily than spirometry in preschool children with cystic fibrosis, but whether this holds true during infancy is unknown. Objectives To compare the extent to which parameters derived from the MBW and the raised lung volume rapid thoraco–abdominal compression (RVRTC) techniques identify diminished airway function in infants with cystic fibrosis when compared with healthy controls. Methods Measurements were performed during quiet sleep, with the tidal breathing MBW technique being performed before the forced expiratory manoeuvres. Results Measurements were obtained in 39 infants with cystic fibrosis (mean (SD) age 41.4 (22.0) weeks) and 21 controls (37.0 (15.1) weeks). Infants with cystic fibrosis had a significantly higher respiratory rate (38 (10) vs 32 (5) bpm) and LCI (8.4 (1.5) vs 7.2 (0.3)), and significantly lower values for all forced expiratory flow‐volume parameters compared with controls. Girls with cystic fibrosis had significantly lower forced expiratory volume (FEV0.5 and FEF25–75 ) than boys (mean (95% CI girls–boys): –1.2 (–2.1 to −0.3) for FEV0.5 Z score; FEF25–75: –1.2 (–2.2 to −0.15)). When using both the MBW and RVRTC techniques, abnormalities were detected in 72% of the infants with cystic fibrosis, with abnormalities detected in 41% using both techniques and a further 15% by each of the two tests performed. Conclusions These findings support the view that inflammatory and/or structural changes in the airways of children with cystic fibrosis start early in life, and have important implications regarding early detection and interventions. Monitoring of early lung disease and functional status in infants and young children with cystic fibrosis may be enhanced by using both MBW and the RVRTC. PMID:17121870

  15. Organic Separation Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-09-22

    Separable organics have been defined as “those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer” (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations,more » could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be “no visible layer” of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.« less

  16. Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS

    PubMed Central

    Skoog, S. M.; Bharucha, A. E.; Zinsmeister, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) prepared either in water or as HFCS, administered in double-blind randomized order on 2 days in 20 healthy subjects and 30 patients with IBS. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Breath hydrogen excretion was more frequently abnormal (P < 0.01) after fructose (68%) than HFCS (26%) in controls and patients. Fructose intolerance (i.e. abnormal breath test and symptoms) was more prevalent after fructose than HFCS in healthy subjects (25% vs 0%, P = 0.002) and patients (40% vs 7%, P = 0.062). Scores for several symptoms (e.g. bloating r = 0.35) were correlated (P ≤ 0.01) to peak breath hydrogen excretion after fructose but not HFCS; in the fructose group, this association did not differ between healthy subjects and patients. Symptoms were not significantly different after fructose compared to HFCS. Fructose intolerance is more prevalent with fructose alone than with HFCS in health and in IBS. The prevalence of fructose intolerance is not significantly different between health and IBS. Current methods for identifying fructose intolerance should be modified to more closely reproduce fructose ingestion in daily life. PMID:18221251

  17. Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS.

    PubMed

    Skoog, S M; Bharucha, A E; Zinsmeister, A R

    2008-05-01

    Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) prepared either in water or as HFCS, administered in double-blind randomized order on 2 days in 20 healthy subjects and 30 patients with IBS. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Breath hydrogen excretion was more frequently abnormal (P < 0.01) after fructose (68%) than HFCS (26%) in controls and patients. Fructose intolerance (i.e. abnormal breath test and symptoms) was more prevalent after fructose than HFCS in healthy subjects (25% vs. 0%, P = 0.002) and patients (40% vs. 7%, P = 0.062). Scores for several symptoms (e.g. bloating r = 0.35) were correlated (P < or = 0.01) to peak breath hydrogen excretion after fructose but not HFCS; in the fructose group, this association did not differ between healthy subjects and patients. Symptoms were not significantly different after fructose compared to HFCS. Fructose intolerance is more prevalent with fructose alone than with HFCS in health and in IBS. The prevalence of fructose intolerance is not significantly different between health and IBS. Current methods for identifying fructose intolerance should be modified to more closely reproduce fructose ingestion in daily life.

  18. Exercise training improves breathing strategy and performance during the six-minute walk test in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Monique; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Perrin, Claudine; Levy, Patrick; Wuyam, Bernard; Flore, Patrice

    2014-08-15

    We aimed to examine ventilatory responses during the six-minute walk test in healthy-weight and obese adolescents before and after exercise training. Twenty obese adolescents (OB) (age: 14.5±1.7 years; BMI: 34.0±4.7kg·m(-2)) and 20 age and gender-matched healthy-weight adolescents (HW) (age: 15.5±1.5 years; BMI: 19.9±1.4kg·m(-2)) completed six-minute walk test during which breath-by-breath gas analysis and expiratory flow limitation (expFL) were measured. OB participated in a 12-week exercise-training program. Comparison between HW and OB participants showed lower distance achieved during the 6MWT in OB (-111.0m, 95%CI: -160.1 to 62.0, p<0.05) and exertional breathlessness was greater (+0.78 a.u., 95%CI: 0.091-3.27, p=0.039) when compared with HW. Obese adolescents breathed at lower lung volumes, as evidenced by lower end expiratory and end inspiratory lung volumes during exercise (p<0.05). Prevalence of expFL (8 OB vs 2 HW, p=0.028) and mean expFL (14.9±21.9 vs 5.32±14.6% VT, p=0.043, in OB and HW) were greater in OB. After exercise training, mean increase in the distance achieved during the 6MWT was 64.5 meters (95%CI: 28.1-100.9, p=0.014) and mean decrease in exertional breathlessness was 1.62 (95%CI: 0.47-2.71, p=0.05). Obese adolescents breathed at higher lung volumes, as evidenced by the increase in end inspiratory lung volume from rest to 6-min exercise (9.9±13.4 vs 20.0±13.6%TLC, p<0.05). Improved performance was associated with improved change in end inspiratory lung volume from rest to 6-min exercise (r=0.65, p=0.025). Our results suggest that exercise training can improve breathing strategy during submaximal exercise in obese adolescents and that this increase is associated with greater exercise performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dual therapy for third-line Helicobacter pylori eradication and urea breath test prediction

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Maekawa, Takama; Harada, Naohiko; Toyokawa, Tatsuya; Kuwai, Toshio; Ohara, Masanori; Suzuki, Takahiro; Kawanishi, Masahiro; Noguchi, Kenji; Yoshio, Toshiyuki; Katsushima, Shinji; Tsuruta, Hideo; Masuda, Eiji; Tanaka, Munehiro; Katayama, Shunsuke; Kawamura, Norio; Nishizawa, Yuko; Hibi, Toshifumi; Takahashi, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of a dual therapy with rabeprazole and amoxicillin (AMX) as an empiric third-line rescue therapy. In patients with failure of first-line treatment with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-AMX-clarithromycin regimen and second-line treatment with the PPI-AMX-metronidazole regimen, a third-line eradication regimen with rabeprazole (10 mg q.i.d.) and AMX (500 mg q.i.d.) was prescribed for 2 wk. Eradication was confirmed by the results of the 13C-urea breath test (UBT) at 12 wk after the therapy. A total of 46 patients were included; however, two were lost to follow-up. The eradication rates as determined by per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses were 65.9% and 63.0%, respectively. The pretreatment UBT results in the subjects showing eradication failure; those patients showing successful eradication comprised 32.9 ± 28.8 permil and 14.8 ± 12.8 permil, respectively. The pretreatment UBT results in the subjects with eradication failure were significantly higher than those in the patients with successful eradication (P = 0.019). A low pretreatment UBT result (≤ 28.5 permil) predicted the success of the eradication therapy with a positive predictive value of 81.3% and a sensitivity of 89.7%. Adverse effects were reported in 18.2% of the patients, mainly diarrhea and stomatitis. Dual therapy with rabeprazole and AMX appears to serve as a potential empirical third-line strategy for patients with low values on pretreatment UBT. PMID:22690086

  20. 13C-Breath Tests for Sucrose Digestion in Congenital Sucrase Isomaltase Deficient and Sacrosidase Supplemented Patients

    PubMed Central

    Robayo-Torres, Claudia C.; Opekun, Antone R.; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Xavier, Villa; Smith, E. O’Brian; Navarrete, Marilyn; Baker, S. Susan; Nichols, Buford L

    2008-01-01

    Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID) is characterized by absence or deficiency of the mucosal sucrase-isomaltase enzyme. Specific diagnosis requires upper gastrointestinal biopsy with evidence of low to absent sucrase enzyme activity and normal histology. The hydrogen breath test (BT) is useful but is not specific for confirmation of CSID. We investigated a more specific 13C-sucrose labeled BT. Objectives were to determine if CSID can be detected with the 13C-sucrose BT without duodenal biopsy sucrase assay and if the 13C-sucrose BT can document restoration of sucrose digestion by CSID patients after oral supplementation with sacrosidase (Sucraid®). Methods Ten CSID patients were diagnosed by low biopsy sucrase activity. Ten controls were children who underwent endoscopy and biopsy because of dyspepsia or chronic diarrhea with normal mucosal enzymes activity and histology. Uniformly-labeled 13C-glucose and 13C-sucrose loads were orally administered. 13CO2 breath enrichments were assayed using an infrared spectrophotometer. In CSID patients the 13C-sucrose load was repeated adding Sucraid®. Sucrose digestion and oxidation were calculated as a mean % coefficient of glucose oxidation (% CGO) averaged between 30 and 90 minutes. Results Classification of patients by 13C-sucrose BT % CGO agreed with biopsy sucrase activity. The breath test also documented the return to normal of sucrose digestion and oxidation after supplementation of CSID patients with Sucraid®. Conclusion 13C-sucrose BT is an accurate and specific non-invasive confirmatory test for CSID and for enzyme replacement management. PMID:19330928

  1. Assessment of antibacterial effect of garlic in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori using urease breath test

    PubMed Central

    Zardast, Mahmoud; Namakin, Kokab; Esmaelian Kaho, Jamil; Hashemi, Sarira Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common pathogenic bacteria in the stomach. The aim of the current study was to explore the effect of oral garlic administration on bacterial urease activity inside the stomach and its contribution to the treatment of H. pylori infection. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 15 patients were studied quantitatively with Urease Breath Test (UBT). The patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and a positive serum H. pylori IgG were enrolled. UBT was performed for each patient in three sessions as follows: at the beginning of the study, an initial UBT was performed based on which, the positive cases entered the study and the negative ones were excluded. Second UBT was done three days later in patients who were not receiving any treatment and were considered as the control, whereas the third UBT was performed three days after prescribing two medium-sized cloves of garlic (3 g) with their meal, twice a day (at noon and in the evening). The collected data were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni tests and the significance level was set at p<0.05. Results: the mean UBT significantly differed before and after treatment with garlic cloves, being significantly lower after garlic consumption. No meaningful difference was observed in the mean UBT without garlic consumption between the first and second steps. Conclusion: Raw garlic has anti-bacterial effects against H. pylori residing in the stomach and may be prescribed along with routine drugs for the treatment of gastric H. pylori infection. PMID:27761418

  2. 13CO2 breath test to measure the hydrolysis of various starch formulations in healthy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Hiele, M; Ghoos, Y; Rutgeerts, P; Vantrappen, G; de Buyser, K

    1990-01-01

    13CO2 starch breath test was used to study the effect of physicochemical characteristics of starch digestion. As starch is hydrolysed to glucose, which is subsequently oxidised to CO2, differences in 13CO2 excretion after ingestion of different starch products must be caused by differences in hydrolysis rate. To study the effect of the degree of chain branching, waxy starch, containing 98% amylopectin, was compared with high amylose starch, containing 30% amylopectin, and normal crystalline starch, containing 74% amylopectin. The effect of the extent of gelatinisation was studied by comparing extruded starch and crystalline starch. Finally, the possible inhibitory effect of adding wheat fibre to extruded starch on the hydrolysis rate was studied. The 13CO2 excretion from two to four hours after intake of crystalline starch was significantly lower than that of extruded starch. Waxy starch was hydrolysed much faster than high amylose starch, but there was no significant difference between waxy starch and normal crystalline starch. Addition of wheat fibre did not influence the hydrolysis rate. The 13CO2 starch breath test is an attractive test for the study of factors affecting carbohydrate assimilation. PMID:2107133

  3. Hypersonic propulsion flight tests as essential to air-breathing aerospace plane development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, U.

    Hypersonic air-breathing propulsion utilizing scramjets can fundamentally change transatmospheric acclerators for transportation from low Earth orbits (LEOs). The value and limitations of ground tests, of flight tests, and of computations are presented, and scramjet development requirements are discussed. Near-full-scale hypersonic propulsion flight tests are essential for developing a prototype hypersonic propulsion system and for developing computation-design technology that can be used in designing that system. In order to determine how these objectives should be achieved, some lessons learned from past programs are presented. A conceptual two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) prototype/experimental aerospace plane is recommended as a means of providing access-to-space and for conducting flight tests. A road map for achieving these objectives is also presented.

  4. Air-breathing aerospace plane development essential: Hypersonic propulsion flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.

    1994-01-01

    Hypersonic air-breathing propulsion utilizing scramjets can fundamentally change transatmospheric accelerators for low earth-to-orbit and return transportation. The value and limitations of ground tests, of flight tests, and of computations are presented, and scramjet development requirements are discussed. It is proposed that near full-scale hypersonic propulsion flight tests are essential for developing a prototype hypersonic propulsion system and for developing computational-design technology so that it can be used for designing this system. In order to determine how these objectives should be achieved, some lessons learned from past programs are presented. A conceptual two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) prototype/experimental aerospace plane is recommended as a means of providing access-to-space and for conducting flight tests. A road map for achieving these objectives is also presented.

  5. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  6. A comparison of blood alcohol levels as determined by breath and blood tests taken in actual field operations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1972-01-01

    During its 1972 session, the General Assembly of Virginia enacted Senate Bill 104, which authorizes the breath test, as well as the blood test used previously, as a proper chemical test to determine the alcoholic content of the blood. Any person arre...

  7. A comparison between lactose breath test and quick test on duodenal biopsies for diagnosing lactase deficiency in patients with self-reported lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Furnari, Manuele; Bonfanti, Daria; Parodi, Andrea; Franzè, Jolanda; Savarino, Edoardo; Bruzzone, Luca; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Di Mario, Francesco; Dulbecco, Pietro; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2013-02-01

    A lactose breath test (LBT) is usually used to diagnose lactase deficiency, and a lactose quick test (LQT) has been proposed as a new test on duodenal biopsies to detect this disorder. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of LBT and LQT and their ability to predict the clinical response to a lactose-free diet in patients with self-reported lactose intolerance. Fifty-five patients (age 47 ± 14 y; M/F 15/36) underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and 25g-LBT. Two duodenal biopsies were taken to determine lactase deficiency (normal, mild, or severe) by LQT and to rule out other causes of secondary lactose malabsorption. Patients with a positive LBT and normal LQT also underwent a glucose breath test to exclude small intestinal bacterial overgrowth as a cause of the former result. The severity of gastrointestinal symptoms was measured with a GSS questionnaire, under basal condition and 1 month after a lactose-free diet. Lactose malabsorption was detected in 31/51 patients with LBT and in 37/51 patients with LQT (P = NS). Celiac disease was found in 2 patients. Two LBT+ patients showed a positive glucose breath test for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Eight patients had a mild hypolactasia by LQT and a negative LBT, but they had a significant improvement of symptoms after diet. LQT and LBT were concordant in 83% of cases and predicted the response to a lactose-free diet in 98% and 81% of the cases, respectively (P = 0.03). LQT is as sensitive as LBT in detecting lactase deficiency; however, it seems to be more accurate than LBT in predicting the clinical response to a lactose-free diet.

  8. Carbon-14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Campylobacter pylori associated gastritis

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.J.; Surveyor, I.

    1988-01-01

    Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Campylobacter pylori (CP), an organism suspected of causing chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. To detect gastric urease, we examined 32 patients who were being evaluated for possible peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given 10 microCi (370 kBq) of /sup 14/C-labeled urea. Breath samples were collected in hyamine at intervals between 1 and 30 min. The amount of /sup 14/C collected at these times was expressed as: body weight X (% of administered dose of /sup 14/C in sample)/(mmol of CO/sub 2/ collected). The presence of C. pylorimore » colonization was also determined by examination of multiple endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens. On average, patients who were proven to have C. pylori infection exhaled 20 times more labeled CO/sub 2/ than patients who were not infected. The difference between infected patients and C. pylori negative control patients was highly significant at all time points between 2 and 30 min after ingestion of the radionuclide (p less than 0.0001). The noninvasive urea breath is less expensive than endoscopic biopsy of the stomach and more accurate than serology as a means of detecting Campylobacter pylori infection. Because the test detects actual viable CP organisms, it can be used to confirm eradication of the bacterium after antibacterial therapy.« less

  9. Lack of inhibitory effect of cimetidine on caffeine metabolism in children using the caffeine breath test

    PubMed Central

    Parker, A.C.; Pritchard, P.; Preston, T.; Dalzell, A.M.; Choonara, I.

    1997-01-01

    Aims To study the potential drug interaction between cimetidine and caffeine in a group of children who received cimetidine for gastritis. Methods The caffeine breath test was carried out prior to the administration of cimetidine and after 2–3 weeks therapy. The children (n=1) received 300–800 mg cimetidine daily (11–36 mg kg−1 day−1 ). Results There was no significant change in the 2 h cumulative labelled CO2 following the administration of cimetidine (mean values 5.61% before and 4.87% during cimetidine; Student’s t-test P >0.2). Conclusions Cimetidine did not have an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of caffeine in this group of children studied. PMID:9159560

  10. Gravitational independence of single-breath washout tests in recumbent dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomioka, Shinichi; Kubo, Susumu; Guy, Harold J. B.; Prisk, G. K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of gravitational orientation in the mechanism of lung filling and emptying in dogs was examined by conducting simultaneously Ar-bolus and N2 single-breath washout tests (SBWTs) in 10 anesthetized dogs (prone and supine), with three of the dogs subjected to body rotation. Transpulmonary pressure was measured simultaneously, allowing identification of the lung volume above residual volume at which there was an inflection point in the pressure-volume curve. Combined resident gas and bolus SBWTs in recumbent dogs were found to be different from such tests in humans; in dogs, the regional distribution of ventilation was not primarily determined by gravity. The measurements did not make it possible to discern exact mechanisms of filling and emptying, but both processes appear to be related to lung, thorax, and mediastinum interactions and/or differences in regional mechanical properties of the lungs.

  11. Does low dose (13)C-urea breath test maintain a satisfactory accuracy in diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection?

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga Vaz; Silva, Arilto Eleutério da; Coelho, Maria Clara de Freitas; Penna, Francisco Guilherme Cancela e; Ferreira, Rafael Otto Antunes; Santa-Cecilia, Elisa Viana

    2011-01-01

    The standard doses of (13)C-urea in (13)C-urea breath test is 75 mg. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of (13)C-urea breath test containing 25 mg of (13)C-urea comparing with the standard doses of 75 mg in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Two hundred seventy adult patients (96 males, 174 females, median age 41 years) performed the standard (13)C-urea breath test (75 mg (13)C-urea) and repeated the (13)C-urea breath test using only 25 mg of (13)C-urea within a 2 week interval. The test was performed using an infrared isotope analyzer. Patients were considered positive if delta over baseline was >4.0‰ at the gold standard test. One hundred sixty-one (59.6%) patients were H. pylori negative and 109 (40.4%) were positive by the gold standard test. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis we established a cut-off value of 3.4% as the best value of 25 mg (13)C-urea breath test to discriminate positive and negative patients, considering the H. pylori prevalence (95% CI: 23.9-37.3) at our setting. Therefore, we obtained to 25 mg (13)C-urea breath test a diagnostic accuracy of 92.9% (95% CI: 88.1-97.9), sensitivity 83.5% (95% CI: 75.4-89.3), specificity 99.4% (95% CI: 96.6-99.9), positive predictive value 98.3% (95% CI: 92.4-99.4), and negative predictive value 93.0% (95% CI: 88.6-96.1). Low-dose (13)C-urea breath test (25 mg (13)C-urea) does not reach accuracy sufficient to be recommended in clinical setting where a 30% prevalence of H. pylori infection is observed. Further studies should be done to determine the diagnostic accuracy of low doses of (13)C-urea in the urea breath test.

  12. Comparison between hyperventilation and breath-holding in panic disorder: patients responsive and non-responsive to both tests.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Antonio E; Valença, Alexandre M; Mezzasalma, Marco A; Levy, Sandra P; Lopes, Fabiana L; Nascimento, Isabella; Freire, Rafael C; Veras, Andre B; Zin, Walter A

    2006-06-15

    Our aim was to compare the demographic and psychopathological features of panic disorder (PD) patients who underwent hyperventilation and breath-holding challenge tests, and to describe the features of patients who had a panic attack after both tests versus those patients who did not experience panic after either test. Eighty-five PD patients were induced to hyperventilate (30 breaths/min) for 4 min, and a week later to hold their breath for as long as possible four times with a 2-min interval in between. Anxiety scales were applied before and after the tests. Patients who responded with a panic attack to both tests (BPA, n = 25) were compared with patients who experienced spontaneous panic attacks but did not panic in response to the two tests (NPA, n = 16). The BPA group had a significantly higher presence of respiratory symptoms during a panic attack. The criteria for the respiratory PD subtype were fulfilled in 18 (72.0%) BPA patients and in 6 (37.5%) NPA patients. The BPA patients had a later onset of panic disorder and a higher familial prevalence of PD. Our data suggest that there is a distinction between PD patients who were sensitive to both hyperventilation and breath-holding tests and PD patients who were not affected by the challenge tests. The panic attack may be a final common pathway for different types of stimuli, and respiratory tests may characterize different PD subgroups.

  13. Identification of risk factors for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency after pancreaticoduodenectomy using a 13C-labeled mixed triglyceride breath test.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Seiko; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Tani, Masaji; Kawai, Manabu; Okada, Ken-ichi; Uemura, Kenichiro; Sudo, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Naoya; Kondo, Naru; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2015-02-01

    There are only a few reports concerning long-term exocrine function after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), although the number of long-term survivors has increased. We assessed pancreatic exocrine function after PD in 189 patients to identify risk factors for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. We evaluated patients' exocrine function by using the (13)C-labeled mixed triglyceride breath test, a noninvasive test feasible in outpatient service units. The present study included 99 patients that underwent pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) at Wakayama Medical University Hospital and 90 patients that underwent pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) at Hiroshima University Hospital, the standard reconstruction techniques during PD at the respective hospitals. We also analyzed long-term morphological changes of remnant pancreas by computed tomography (main pancreatic duct dilation and parenchymal atrophy), nutritional status, and endocrine function. Independent risk factors for exocrine insufficiency after PD include hard pancreas (P = 0.003, odds ratio; 3.157) and PG reconstruction (P = 0.040, odds ratio; 2.321). Breath test results correlated significantly with post-operative morphological changes, nutritional status, and endocrine function. Atrophic changes of the remnant pancreas in the PG group were more severe than those in the PJ group. Furthermore, for patients with a soft pancreas, postoperative body weight changes, prognostic nutritional index, serum total protein levels as well as exocrine test were worse in the PG group, compared with the PJ group. Our results showed that PJ reconstruction might be superior to PG during PD, from the viewpoint of long-term pancreatic exocrine function, although further prospective studies are needed.

  14. Application of LaserBreath-001 for breath acetone measurement in subjects with diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhennan; Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-11-01

    Breath acetone is a promising biomarker of diabetes mellitus. With an integrated standalone, on-site cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer, LaserBreath-001, we tested breath samples from 23 type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, 52 healthy subjects. In the cross-sectional studies, the obtained breath acetone concentrations were higher in the diabetic subjects compared with those in the control group. No correlation between breath acetone and simultaneous BG was observed in the T1D, T2D, and healthy subjects. A moderate positive correlation between the mean individual breath acetone concentrations and the mean individual BG levels was observed in the 20 T1D patients without ketoacidosis. In a longitudinal study, the breath acetone concentrations in a T1D patient with ketoacidosis decreased significantly and remained stable during the 5-day hospitalization. The results from a relatively large number of subjects tested indicate that an elevated mean breath acetone concentration exists in diabetic patients in general. Although many physiological parameters affect breath acetone concentrations, fast (<1 min) and on site breath acetone measurement can be used for diabetic screening and management under a specifically controlled condition.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of level 3 portable sleep tests versus level 1 polysomnography for sleep-disordered breathing: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    El Shayeb, Mohamed; Topfer, Leigh-Ann; Stafinski, Tania; Pawluk, Lawrence; Menon, Devidas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Greater awareness of sleep-disordered breathing and rising obesity rates have fueled demand for sleep studies. Sleep testing using level 3 portable devices may expedite diagnosis and reduce the costs associated with level 1 in-laboratory polysomnography. We sought to assess the diagnostic accuracy of level 3 testing compared with level 1 testing and to identify the appropriate patient population for each test. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies of level 3 versus level 1 sleep tests in adults with suspected sleep-disordered breathing. We searched 3 research databases and grey literature sources for studies that reported on diagnostic accuracy parameters or disease management after diagnosis. Two reviewers screened the search results, selected potentially relevant studies and extracted data. We used a bivariate mixed-effects binary regression model to estimate summary diagnostic accuracy parameters. Results: We included 59 studies involving a total of 5026 evaluable patients (mostly patients suspected of having obstructive sleep apnea). Of these, 19 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The estimated area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was high, ranging between 0.85 and 0.99 across different levels of disease severity. Summary sensitivity ranged between 0.79 and 0.97, and summary specificity ranged between 0.60 and 0.93 across different apnea–hypopnea cut-offs. We saw no significant difference in the clinical management parameters between patients who underwent either test to receive their diagnosis. Interpretation: Level 3 portable devices showed good diagnostic performance compared with level 1 sleep tests in adult patients with a high pretest probability of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and no unstable comorbidities. For patients suspected of having other types of sleep-disordered breathing or sleep disorders not related to breathing, level 1 testing remains the

  16. 49 CFR 40.245 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? 40.245 Section 40.245 Transportation Office of the... Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.245 What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? (a) As the STT or BAT, you must take the following steps when using the saliva...

  17. Test plan 241-C-103 natural breathing characteristics evaluation using the ultra sensitive flowmeter

    SciTech Connect

    Hertelendy, N.A.

    1995-02-13

    To facilitate the reduction of worker exposure to hazardous fumes and vapors, it is imperative to characterize and measure flows out of waste tanks that breathe due to atmospheric pressure changes. These measurements will lead to a better understanding of how these tanks breathe and thus will aid in better worker exposure control at lower cost.

  18. Misleading biochemical laboratory test results

    PubMed Central

    Nanji, Amin A.

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the general and specific factors that interfere with the performance of common biochemical laboratory tests and the interpretation of their results. The clinical status of the patient, drug interactions, and in-vivo and in-vitro biochemical interactions and changes may alter the results obtained from biochemical analysis of blood constituents. Failure to recognize invalid laboratory test results may lead to injudicious and dangerous management of patients. PMID:6375845

  19. Dirty breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisham, M.

    2017-12-01

    Breathing issues befall most asthmatics. However, the symptoms are not caused randomly. Particulate matter is a cause that has been collected and sampled at several bus stops. The following experiment provides the results of collected particulate matter in several locations around LSU.

  20. Fabry-Perot microcavity sensor for H2-breath-test analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenti, Maria Antonietta; De Sario, Marco; Petruzzelli, V.; D'Orazio, Antonella; Prudenzano, Francesco; de Ceglia, Domenico; Scalora, Michael

    2007-10-01

    Leak detection of hydrogen for medical purposes, based on the monitoring of the optical response of a simple Fabry-Perot microcavity, is proposed to investigate either the occurrence of lactose intolerance, or lactose malabsorption condition. Both pathologic conditions result in bacterial overgrowth in the intestine, which causes increased spontaneous emission of H2 in the human breath. Two sensitivity figures of merit are introduced to inspect changes in the sensor response, and to relate the microcavity response to a pathologic condition, which is strictly related to a different level of exhaled hydrogen. Different sensor configurations using a metal-dielectric microcavity are reported and discussed in order to make the most of the well-known ability of palladium to spontaneously absorb hydrogen.

  1. Evaluation of pulmonary function using single-breath-hold dual-energy computed tomography with xenon: Results of a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kyoyama, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sakai, Kosuke; Saito, Yuriko; Mikami, Shintaro; Moriyama, Gaku; Yanagita, Hisami; Watanabe, Wataru; Otani, Katharina; Honda, Norinari; Uematsu, Kazutsugu

    2017-01-01

    Xenon-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (xenon-enhanced CT) can provide lung ventilation maps that may be useful for assessing structural and functional abnormalities of the lung. Xenon-enhanced CT has been performed using a multiple-breath-hold technique during xenon washout. We recently developed xenon-enhanced CT using a single-breath-hold technique to assess ventilation. We sought to evaluate whether xenon-enhanced CT using a single-breath-hold technique correlates with pulmonary function testing (PFT) results.Twenty-six patients, including 11 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, underwent xenon-enhanced CT and PFT. Three of the COPD patients underwent xenon-enhanced CT before and after bronchodilator treatment. Images from xenon-CT were obtained by dual-source CT during a breath-hold after a single vital-capacity inspiration of a xenon-oxygen gas mixture. Image postprocessing by 3-material decomposition generated conventional CT and xenon-enhanced images.Low-attenuation areas on xenon images matched low-attenuation areas on conventional CT in 21 cases but matched normal-attenuation areas in 5 cases. Volumes of Hounsfield unit (HU) histograms of xenon images correlated moderately and highly with vital capacity (VC) and total lung capacity (TLC), respectively (r = 0.68 and 0.85). Means and modes of histograms weakly correlated with VC (r = 0.39 and 0.38), moderately with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (r = 0.59 and 0.56), weakly with the ratio of FEV1 to FVC (r = 0.46 and 0.42), and moderately with the ratio of FEV1 to its predicted value (r = 0.64 and 0.60). Mode and volume of histograms increased in 2 COPD patients after the improvement of FEV1 with bronchodilators. Inhalation of xenon gas caused no adverse effects.Xenon-enhanced CT using a single-breath-hold technique depicted functional abnormalities not detectable on thin-slice CT. Mode, mean, and volume of HU histograms of xenon images reflected

  2. State Test Results Are Predictable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-school, community demographic and family-level variables have an important influence on student achievement as measured by large-scale standardized tests. Studies described here demonstrated that about half of the test score is accounted for by variables outside the control of teachers and school administrators. The results from these…

  3. 13C-breath tests for sucrose digestion in congenital sucrase isomaltase-deficient and sacrosidase-supplemented patients

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID) is characterized by absence or deficiency of the mucosal sucrase-isomaltase enzyme. Specific diagnosis requires upper gastrointestinal biopsy with evidence of low to absent sucrase enzyme activity and normal histology. The hydrogen breath test (BT) is ...

  4. Evaluation of portable breath test devices for screening suspected drunken drivers by police in Hennepin County, Minnesota

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-06-01

    This evaluation report examines use in the field of portable breath test (PBT) devices by police in Hennepin County, Minnesota. Thirteen Brog-Warner J2 and J2A-200 "ALERT" devices were deployed by seven enforcement agencies. This report is presented ...

  5. [Breath alcohol test in construction sites in the Province of Belluno: a campaign in favour of health promotion and surveillance and against drinking].

    PubMed

    Marcolina, Daniela; De Marzo, Nicoletta; Riccio, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Health impairment due to alcohol use and abuse is well known, in terms of relationship with traffic accidents and work accidents. In Italy almost 10 per cent of accidents at work involve intoxicated people injuring themselves and innocent victims. Alcohol abuse is a factor involved in determining severe accidents in the construction industry and epidemiological studies demonstrated a relationship between an elevated alcohol use and severity of accidents. Since in the Province of Belluno alcohol consumption may be elevated also at work, the two Occupational Health Units (SPISAL) in the province organized a campaign of information and surveillance against alcohol consumption at work in the construction industry. This report shows the campaign results, mainly in terms of breath alcohol tests performed in construction workers. After an extensive information campaign we inspected 50 sites, where 105 construction companies were at work, and tested 294 workers by breath alcohol test. No-one refused the test. Only 2.7% construction workers were positive for the breath alcohol test, and the levels were not elevated. This study shows that the construction workers in Belluno Province are responsible drinkers and are well aware of the policy of prohibition of alcohol consumption at work.

  6. 13C Methacetin Breath Test for Assessment of Microsomal Liver Function: Methodology and Clinical Application.

    PubMed

    Gorowska-Kowolik, Katarzyna; Chobot, Agata; Kwiecien, Jaroslaw

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of the liver function, and the need of constant monitoring of the organ's capacity, concerns not only patients with primary liver diseases, but also those at risk of hepatopathies secondary to other chronic diseases. Most commonly, the diagnostics is based on measurements of static biochemical parameters, which allow us to draw conclusions only indirectly about the function and the degree of damage of the organ. On the other hand, liver biopsy is an invasive procedure and therefore it is associated with a considerable risk of complications. Dynamic tests enable us to assess quantitatively the organ's functional reserve by analyzing the kinetics of the metabolization of the substrate by the liver. In practice applied are breath tests using substances such as aminopyrine, caffeine, methacetin, erythromycin (for assessment of the microsomal function); phenylalanine, galactose (for assessment of the cytosolic function); methionine, octanoate, ketoisocaproic acid (for assessment of the mitochondrial function). The test with 13 C methacetin belongs to the best described and most widely applied methods in noninvasive liver function assessment. Due to the rising availability of this method, knowledge concerning its limitations and controversies regarding the methodology, as well as its usefulness in chosen groups of patients, seems to be vital.

  7. Breath Tests in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine: From Research to Practice in Current Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Cheepsattayakorn, Attapon; Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong

    2013-01-01

    Today, exhaled nitric oxide has been studied the most, and most researches have now focusd on asthma. More than a thousand different volatile organic compounds have been observed in low concentrations in normal human breath. Alkanes and methylalkanes, the majority of breath volatile organic compounds, have been increasingly used by physicians as a novel method to diagnose many diseases without discomforts of invasive procedures. None of the individual exhaled volatile organic compound alone is specific for disease. Exhaled breath analysis techniques may be available to diagnose and monitor the diseases in home setting when their sensitivity and specificity are improved in the future. PMID:24151617

  8. 13C-methacetin and 13C-galactose breath tests can assess restricted liver function even in early stages of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Holtmeier, Julia; Leuschner, Maria; Schneider, Arne; Leuschner, Ulrich; Caspary, Wolfgang F; Braden, Barbara

    2006-11-01

    The 13C-methacetin breath test quantitatively evaluates cytochrome P450-dependent liver function. The 13C-galactose breath test non-invasively measures the galactose oxidation capacity of the liver. The aim of this study was to find out whether these breath tests are sensitive parameters also in non-cirrhotic patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Nineteen patients with early-stage primary biliary cirrhosis (no cirrhotic alterations in the liver biopsy, Ludwig stage I-III) and 20 healthy controls underwent the 13C-methacetin and 13C-galactose breath tests. Patients with primary biliary cirrhosis metabolized less 13C-methacetin than controls (cumulative recovery within 30 min 7.5+/-2.4% versus 14.0+/-2.6%; p < 0.001). When a cut-off > 9.8% was used for the cumulative recovery after 30 min, the methacetin breath test reached 84.2% sensitivity and 95.0 specificity. In the 13C-galactose breath test, the percentage recovery at 60 min in patients was 3.1+/-1.3%/h, and 6.3+/-1.1%/h in controls (p < 0.001). Using a cut-off > 4.7%/h, the galactose breath test reached 89.5% sensitivity and 95.0 specificity. In non-cirrhotic, early-stage, primary biliary cirrhosis the 13C-methacetin breath test and the 13C-galactose breath test reliably indicate decreased liver function. The 13C-galactose breath test can also predict the histological score.

  9. Hybrid TE panel test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bifano, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Test results are presented for a nine couple (3 x 3 array) thermoelectric panel of hybrid thermocouples. In the hybrid couple, a hollow cylinder of p-type Si-Ge is used to encapsulate a segmented PbTe/Si-Ge n-leg. The hybrid couple is predicted to offer a 10- to 15-percent improvement in performance relative to all Si-Ge couples. The efficiency, output power, and internal resistance of the panel as well as the resistances of the individual hybrid couples are presented as a function of test time covering a period of more than 2600 hours. Initial test results indicated hybrid couple performance consistent with design predictions. Extraneous resistance ranged from 20 to 25% of the hybrid couple thermoelectric resistance.

  10. NCV Flow Diagnostic Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappuccio, Mina

    1999-01-01

    There were two objectives for this test. First, was to assess the reasons why there is approximately 1.5 drag counts (cts) discrepancy between measured and computed drag improvement of the Non-linear Cruise Validation (NCV) over the Technology Concept Airplane (TCA) wing body (WB) configurations. The Navier-Stokes (N-S) pre-test predictions from Boeing Commercial Airplane Group (BCAG) show 4.5 drag cts of improvement for NCV over TCA at a lift coefficient (CL) of 0. I at Mach 2.4. The pre-test predictions from Boeing Phantom Works - Long Beach, BPW-LB, show 3.75 drag cts of improvement. BCAG used OVERFLOW and BPW-LB used CFL3D. The first test entry to validate the improvement was held at the NASA Langley Research Center (LARC) UPV;T, test number 1687. The experimental results showed that the drag improvement was only 2.6 cts, not accounting for laminar run and trip drag. This is approximately 1.5 cts less than predicted computationally. In addition to the low Reynolds Number (RN) test, there was a high RN test in the Boeing Supersonic Wind Tunnel (BSWT) of NCV and TCA. BSV@T test 647 showed that the drag improvement of NCV over TCA was also 2.6 cts, but this did account for laminar run and trip drag. Every effort needed to be done to assess if the improvement measured in LaRC UPWT and BSWT was correct. The second objective, once the first objective was met, was to assess the performance increment of NCV over TCA accounting for the associated laminar run and trip drag corrections in LaRC UPWT. We know that the configurations tested have laminar flow on portions of the wing and have trip drag due to the mechanisms used to force the flow to go from laminar to turbulent aft of the transition location.

  11. A rapid non invasive L-DOPA-¹³C breath test for optimally suppressing extracerebral AADC enzyme activity - toward individualizing carbidopa therapy in Parkinson’s disease.

    PubMed

    Modak, Anil; Durso, Raymon; Josephs, Ephraim; Rosen, David

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral carbidopa (CD) levels directly impact on central dopamine (DA) production in Parkinson disease (PD) through extracerebral inhibition of dopa decarboxylase (AADC) resulting in an increase in levodopa (LD) bioavailability. Recent data suggests that higher CD doses than those presently used in PD treatment may result in improved clinical response. Optimizing CD doses in individual patients may, therefore, result in ideal individualized treatment. A single center, randomized, double-blind study was carried out recruiting 5 Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients already on LD/CD and 1 treatment näve PD patient using stable isotope labeled LD-1-¹³C as a substrate for a noninvasive breath test to evaluate individual AADC enzyme activity. Each patient was studied five times, receiving 200 mg LD-¹³C at each visit along with one of five randomized CD doses (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg). The metabolite ¹³CO₂ in breath was measured for evaluating AADC enzyme activity and plasma metabolite levels for LD-¹³C and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured for 4 hours. HVA in plasma and ¹³CO₂ in breath are metabolic products of LD. We found a significant positive correlation of ¹³CO₂ DOB AUC0-240 with serum HVA AUC0-240 following the oral dose of LD-1-¹³C for all 5 doses of CD (r² = 0.9378). With increasing inhibition of AADC enzyme activity with CD, we observed an increase in the plasma concentration of LD.We found an inverse correlation of the 13CO2 DOB AUC with serum LD-¹³C AUC. Our studies indicate the optimal dose of CD for maximal suppression of AADC enzyme activity can be determined for each individual from ¹³CO₂ generation in breath. The LD-breath test can be a useful noninvasive diagnostic tool for evaluation of AADC enzyme activity using the biomarker ¹³CO₂ in breath, a first step in personalizing CD doses for PD patients.

  12. Association between Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Methane and Hydrogen on Lactulose Breath Test

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Koh, Dong Hee; Sohn, Won; Lee, Sang Pyo; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Hang Lak; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon; Hahm, Joon Soo

    2013-01-01

    Whether hydrogen and methane gas produced during lactulose breath test (LBT) are associated with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not determined. We aimed to investigate whether hydrogen and methane on LBT are associated with IBS symptoms. Sixty-eight IBS patients meeting the Rome III criteria for IBS, and 55 healthy controls, underwent LBT. The IBS subjects recorded their customary gastrointestinal symptoms on a questionnaire using visual analogue scales. LBT positivity was defined to be above 20 ppm rise of hydrogen or 10 ppm rise of methane within 90 min. Gas amounts produced during LBT were determined by calculating area under the curve of hydrogen and methane excretion. Symptom severity scores were not different between the LBT (+) IBS and LBT (-) IBS subjects and also between methane producers and non-methane producers. Gas amounts produced during LBT were not associated with IBS symptoms, except a weak correlation between total gas amounts and a few IBS symptoms such as bloating (r = 0.324, P = 0.039), flatulence (r = 0.314, P = 0.046) and abdominal pain (r = 0.364, P = 0.018) only in LBT (+) IBS. In conclusion, hydrogen and methane gas on LBT are not useful for predicting the customary symptoms and subtypes of IBS. PMID:23772156

  13. Design, fabrication and testing of an air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell with compound anode flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Luwen; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhao, Youran; An, Zijiang; Zhou, Zhiping; Liu, Xiaowei

    2011-10-01

    An air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) with a compound anode flow field structure (composed of the parallel flow field and the perforated flow field) is designed, fabricated and tested. To better analyze the effect of the compound anode flow field on the mass transfer of methanol, the compound flow field with different open ratios (ratio of exposure area to total area) and thicknesses of current collectors is modeled and simulated. Micro process technologies are employed to fabricate the end plates and current collectors. The performances of the μDMFC with a compound anode flow field are measured under various operating parameters. Both the modeled and the experimental results show that, comparing the conventional parallel flow field, the compound one can enhance the mass transfer resistance of methanol from the flow field to the anode diffusion layer. The results also indicate that the μDMFC with an anode open ratio of 40% and a thickness of 300 µm has the optimal performance under the 7 M methanol which is three to four times higher than conventional flow fields. Finally, a 2 h stability test of the μDMFC is performed with a methanol concentration of 7 M and a flow velocity of 0.1 ml min-1. The results indicate that the μDMFC can work steadily with high methanol concentration.

  14. 49 CFR 40.243 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD? 40.243 Section 40.243 Transportation Office of the...-evidential breath ASD? As the BAT or STT, you must take the following steps: (a) Select, or allow the...

  15. 49 CFR 40.243 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD? 40.243 Section 40.243 Transportation Office of the...-evidential breath ASD? As the BAT or STT, you must take the following steps: (a) Select, or allow the...

  16. Prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers based on random breath tests in a roadside survey in Catalonia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Guillén, Montserrat; Santolino, Miguel; Sánchez-Moscona, Daniel; Llatje, Oscar; Ramon, Lluís

    2014-04-01

    Sobriety checkpoints are not usually randomly located by traffic authorities. As such, information provided by non-random alcohol tests cannot be used to infer the characteristics of the general driving population. In this paper a case study is presented in which the prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving is estimated for the general population of drivers. A stratified probabilistic sample was designed to represent vehicles circulating in non-urban areas of Catalonia (Spain), a region characterized by its complex transportation network and dense traffic around the metropolis of Barcelona. Random breath alcohol concentration tests were performed during spring 2012 on 7596 drivers. The estimated prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers was 1.29%, which is roughly a third of the rate obtained in non-random tests. Higher rates were found on weekends (1.90% on Saturdays and 4.29% on Sundays) and especially at night. The rate is higher for men (1.45%) than for women (0.64%) and it shows an increasing pattern with age. In vehicles with two occupants, the proportion of alcohol-impaired drivers is estimated at 2.62%, but when the driver was alone the rate drops to 0.84%, which might reflect the socialization of drinking habits. The results are compared with outcomes in previous surveys, showing a decreasing trend in the prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreases following oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Bikov, Andras; Pako, Judit; Montvai, David; Kovacs, Dorottya; Koller, Zsofia; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Horvath, Ildiko

    2015-12-15

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH is a widely measured non-invasive marker of airway acidity. However, some methodological aspects have not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on EBC pH in attempt to better standardize its measurement. Seventeen healthy subjects (24  ±  2 years, 6 men, 11 women) participated in the study. EBC collection and capillary blood glucose measurements were performed before as well as 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after a standardized OGTT test. The rate of respiratory droplet dilution and pH were evaluated in EBC. Blood glucose significantly increased at 30 min and maintained elevation after 60 and 120 min following OGTT. Compared to baseline (7.99  ±  0.25) EBC pH significantly decreased immediately after OGTT (7.41  ±  0.47); this drop sustained over 30 (7.44  ±  0.72) and 60 min (7.62  ±  0.44) without a significant difference at 120 min (7.78  ±  0.26). No change was observed in the rate of respiratory droplet dilution. There was no relationship between blood glucose and EBC pH values. Sugar intake may significantly decrease EBC pH. This effect needs to be considered when performing EBC pH studies. Further experiments are also warranted to investigate the effect of diet on other exhaled biomarkers.

  18. Hydrogen breath test for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance, is the routine sugar load the best one?

    PubMed Central

    Argnani, Fiorenza; Camillo, Mauro Di; Marinaro, Vanessa; Foglietta, Tiziana; Avallone, Veronica; Cannella, Carlo; Vernia, Piero

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI) following a load of 12.5 g in patients diagnosed as high-grade malabsorbers using the hydrogen breath test (HBT)-25. METHODS: Ninety patients showing high-grade malabsorption at HBT-25 were submitted to a second HBT with a lactose load of 12.5 g. Peak hydrogen production, area under the curve of hydrogen excretion and occurrence of symptoms were recorded. RESULTS: Only 16 patients (17.77%) with positive HBT-25 proved positive at HBT-12.5. Hydrogen production was lower as compared to HBT-25 (peak value 21.55 parts per million (ppm) ± 29.54 SD vs 99.43 ppm ± 40.01 SD; P < 0.001). Symptoms were present in only 13 patients. The absence of symptoms during the high-dose test has a high negative predictive value (0.84) for a negative low-dose test. The presence of symptoms during the first test was not useful for predicting a positive low-dose test (positive predictive value 0.06-0.31). CONCLUSION: Most patients with a positive HBT-25 normally absorb a lower dose of lactose and a strict lactose restriction on the basis of a “standard” HBT is, in most instances, unnecessary. Thus, the 25 g lactose tolerance test should probably be substituted by the 12.5 g test in the diagnosis of LI, and in providing dietary guidelines to patients with suspected lactose malabsorption/intolerance. PMID:18985811

  19. Breathing metabolic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a breathing metabolic simulator (BMS) is reported. This BMS simulates all of the breathing and metabolic parameters required for complete evaluation and test of life support and resuscitation equipment. It is also useful for calibrating and validating mechanical and gaseous pulmonary function test procedures. Breathing rate, breathing depth, breath velocity contour, oxygen uptake, and carbon dioxide release are all variable over wide ranges simulating conditions from sleep to hard work with respiratory exchange ratios covering the range from hypoventilation. In addition, all of these parameters are remotely controllable to facilitate use of the device in hostile or remote environments. The exhaled breath is also maintained at body temperature and a high humidity. The simulation is accurate to the extent of having a variable functional residual capacity independent of other parameters.

  20. Is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes? A historical review on breath acetone measurements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhennan; Wang, Chuji

    2013-09-01

    Since the ancient discovery of the 'sweet odor' in human breath gas, pursuits of the breath analysis-based disease diagnostics have never stopped. Actually, the 'smell' of the breath, as one of three key disease diagnostic techniques, has been used in Eastern-Medicine for more than three thousand years. With advancement of measuring technologies in sensitivity and selectivity, more specific breath gas species have been identified and established as a biomarker of a particular disease. Acetone is one of the breath gases and its concentration in exhaled breath can now be determined with high accuracy using various techniques and methods. With the worldwide prevalence of diabetes that is typically diagnosed through blood testing, human desire to achieve non-blood based diabetic diagnostics and monitoring has never been quenched. Questions, such as is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes and how is the breath acetone related to the blood glucose (BG) level (the golden criterion currently used in clinic for diabetes diagnostic, monitoring, and management), remain to be answered. A majority of current research efforts in breath acetone measurements and its technology developments focus on addressing the first question. The effort to tackle the second question has begun recently. The earliest breath acetone measurement in clearly defined diabetic patients was reported more than 60 years ago. For more than a half-century, as reviewed in this paper, there have been more than 41 independent studies of breath acetone using various techniques and methods, and more than 3211 human subjects, including 1581 healthy people, 242 Type 1 diabetic patients, 384 Type 2 diabetic patients, 174 unspecified diabetic patients, and 830 non-diabetic patients or healthy subjects who are under various physiological conditions, have been used in the studies. The results of the breath acetone measurements collected in this review support that many conditions might cause changes to breath

  1. Hercules Aerospace flywheel test results

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R.S. Jr.; Babelay, E.F. Jr.; Sutton, B.J.

    1981-06-01

    The detailed results of the spin test evaluation of the Hercules Aerospace flywheel at the Oak Ridge Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory (ORFEL) are presented. Details of the static evaluation with radiography and measures of weight, inertia, and natural frequencies are included. The flywheel was spun four times with the maximum speed being increased with each run. During the final run, the flywheel achieved 372 rps and stored 0.714 kWhr of kinetic energy at 37 Whr/kg. The ultimate speed was limited by a composite transverse strength that was somewhat lower than that used in the design of the flywheel. This resulted inmore » internal cracking of the flywheel and, eventually, the loss of material from the outer circumference.« less

  2. Hercules Aerospace flywheel test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, R. S., Jr.; Babelay, E. F., Jr.; Sutton, B. J.

    1981-06-01

    The detailed results of the spin test evaluation of the Hercules Aerospace flywheel at the Oak Ridge Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory (ORFEL) are presented. Details of the static evaluation with radiography and measures of weight, inertia and natural frequencies are included. The flywheel was spun four times with the maximum speed being increased with each run. During the final run, the flywheel achieved 372 rps and stored 0.714 kWhr of kinetic energy at 37 Whr/kg. The ultimate speed was limited by a composite transverse strength that was somewhat lower than that used in the design of the flywheel. This resulted in internal cracking of the flywheel and, eventually, the loss of material from the outer circumference.

  3. Effect of Yogic Breathing on Accommodate Braille Version of Six-letter Cancellation Test in Students with Visual Impairment.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Balaram; Mohanty, Soubhagyalaxmi; Hankey, Alex

    2018-01-01

    Attentional processes tend to be less well developed in the visually impaired, who require special training to develop them fully. Yogic breathing which alters the patterns of respiration has been shown to enhance attention skills. Letter cancellation tests are well-established tools to measure attention and attention span. Here, a modified Braille version of the six-letter cancellation test (SLCT) was used for students with visual impairment (VI). This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of Bhramari Pranayama (BhPr) and breath awareness (BA) on students with VI. This study was a self-as-control study held on 2 consecutive days, on 19 participants (8 males, 11 females), with a mean age of 15.89 ± 1.59 years, randomized into two groups. On the 1 st day, Group 1 performed 10 min breath awareness and Group 2 performed Bhramari ; on the 2 nd day, practices were reversed. Assessments used a SLCT specially adapted for the visually impaired before and after each session. The Braille letter cancellation test was successfully taken by 19 students. Scores significantly improved after both techniques for each student following practices on both days ( P < 0.001). BhPr may have more effect on attention performance than BA as wrong scores significantly increased following BA ( P < 0.05), but the increase in the score after Bhramari was not significant. Despite the small sample size improvement in attentional processes by both yoga breathing techniques was robust. Attentional skills were definitely enhanced. Long-term practice should be studied.

  4. Lactulose Breath Test Gas Production in Childhood IBS Is Associated With Intestinal Transit and Bowel Movement Frequency.

    PubMed

    Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Weidler, Erica M; Shulman, Robert J

    2017-04-01

    In adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), bacterial gas production (colonic fermentation) is related to both symptom generation and intestinal transit. Whether gas production affects symptom generation, psychosocial distress, or intestinal transit in childhood IBS is unknown. Children (ages 7-17 years) with pediatric Rome III IBS completed validated psychosocial questionnaires and a 2-week daily diary capturing pain and stooling characteristics. Stool form determined IBS subtype. Subjects then completed a 3-hour lactulose breath test for measurement of total breath hydrogen and methane production. Carmine red was used to determine whole intestinal transit time. A total of 87 children (mean age 13 ± 2.6 [standard deviation] years) were enrolled, of whom 50 (57.5%) were girls. All children produced hydrogen and 51 (58.6%) produced methane. Hydrogen and methane production did not correlate with either abdominal pain frequency/severity or psychosocial distress. Hydrogen and methane production did not differ significantly by IBS subtype. Methane production correlated positively with whole intestinal transit time (r = 0.31, P < 0.005) and inversely with bowel movement frequency (r = -0.245, P < 0.05). Methane production (threshold 3 ppm) as a marker for identifying IBS-C had a sensitivity of 60% and specificity of 42.9%. Lactulose breath test total methane production may serve as a biomarker of whole intestinal transit time and bowel movement frequency in children with IBS. In children with IBS, lactulose breath test hydrogen and methane production did not, however, correlate with abdominal pain, IBS subtype, or psychosocial distress.

  5. A better state-of-mind: deep breathing reduces state anxiety and enhances test performance through regulating test cognitions in children.

    PubMed

    Khng, Kiat Hui

    2017-11-01

    A pre-test/post-test, intervention-versus-control experimental design was used to examine the effects, mechanisms and moderators of deep breathing on state anxiety and test performance in 122 Primary 5 students. Taking deep breaths before a timed math test significantly reduced self-reported feelings of anxiety and improved test performance. There was a statistical trend towards greater effectiveness in reducing state anxiety for boys compared to girls, and in enhancing test performance for students with higher autonomic reactivity in test-like situations. The latter moderation was significant when comparing high-versus-low autonomic reactivity groups. Mediation analyses suggest that deep breathing reduces state anxiety in test-like situations, creating a better state-of-mind by enhancing the regulation of adaptive-maladaptive thoughts during the test, allowing for better performance. The quick and simple technique can be easily learnt and effectively applied by most children to immediately alleviate some of the adverse effects of test anxiety on psychological well-being and academic performance.

  6. 13C-sodium acetate breath test for evaluation of gastric emptying times in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, S; Jansen, N; Failing, K; Neiger, R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess solid phase gastric emptying via non-invasive 13C-sodium acetate breath test in large breed dogs with or without gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Dogs were recruited into one of the following groups: group 1 = healthy large breed dogs with no history of GDV, group 2 = dogs that underwent elective abdominal surgery for reasons unrelated to the gastrointestinal tract, and group 3 = dogs that underwent laparotomy and gastropexy to correct GDV. The dogs were fed a test meal containing 100 mg 13C-sodium acetate (for group 2 and 3, this was < 48 hours post-operatively). Breath samples were obtained at baseline and every 30 minutes for 3 hours, then every hour for a total of 7 hours. 12CO2/13CO2 ratio was measured for each breath sample via non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy and 25%, 50% and 75% gastric emptying times were calculated and compared between groups. Gastric emptying times were significantly prolonged in dogs undergoing surgery (group 2) compared to group 1 and 3. Also, gastric emptying times of dogs with GDV were significantly prolonged compared to controls, but not to the same extent as dogs in group 2. There was a significant effect of abdominal surgery on gastric emptying times. Surprisingly, dogs after GDV surgery and gastropexy had shorter gastric emptying times than dogs undergoing laparotomy for reasons other than GDV, but still prolonged compared to healthy controls. The reason for these differences requires further study.

  7. Comparison of trapezius squeeze test and jaw thrust as clinical indicators for laryngeal mask airway insertion in spontaneously breathing children

    PubMed Central

    Dinesh Kumar, K. K.; Bhardwaj, Neerja; Yaddanapudi, Sandhya

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: It is not known whether trapezius squeeze test (TPZ) is a better clinical test than jaw thrust (JT) to assess laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion conditions in children under sevoflurane anesthesia. Material and Methods: After the Institutional Ethics Committee approval and written informed parental consent, 124 American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II children of 2–8 years of age undergoing minor surgical procedures were randomized into TPZ and JT groups. The children were induced with 8% sevoflurane in oxygen at a fresh gas flow of 4 L/min. TPZ or JT was performed after 1 min of start of sevoflurane and then every 20 s till the test was negative, when end-tidal (ET) sevoflurane concentration was noted. Classic LMA of requisite size was inserted by a blinded anesthetist and conditions at the insertion of LMA, insertion time, and the number of attempts of LMA insertion were recorded. Results: The mean LMA insertion time was significantly longer (P < 0.001) for TPZ (145 ± 28.7 sec) compared to JT group (111.8 ± 31.0 sec). ET sevoflurane concentration at the time of LMA insertion was comparable in the two groups. LMA insertion conditions were similar in the two groups. There was no difference between the two groups regarding total number of attempts of LMA insertion. Heart rate (HR) decreased in both groups after LMA insertion (P < 0.001) but TPZ group had significantly lower HR compared with the JT group up to 5 min after LMA insertion (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Both JT and TPZ are equivalent clinical indicators in predicting the optimal conditions of LMA insertion in spontaneously breathing children; however, it takes a longer time to achieve a negative TPZ squeeze test. PMID:28413275

  8. Comparison of 72-hour fecal fat quantification and the 13C-mixed triglyceride breath test in assessing pancreatic exocrine sufficiency in children with chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wejnarska, Karolina; Kołodziejczyk, Elwira; Ryżko, Józef; Oracz, Grzegorz

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) in children is still a rare, although increasingly recognized entity. Over the duration of the disease several complications can be observed, two of which are major ones: endo- and exocrine insufficiency. In the medical care of children with CP it is crucial to diagnose the decreased endo- and exocrine function of the pancreas, in order to preserve patients from malnutrition and the failure to thrive. The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of two indirect methods of assessing the pancreas exocrine function in children with CP. Ninety one patients with CP were enrolled in the study (41 boys, 50 girls, aged 2-17.8 years). Only Patients who had had both the 72-hour fecal fat quantification and the 13C-mixed triglyceride breath test (13C -MTBT) performed were selected. We compared the results of both tests for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) in detecting exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Out of 91 patients, 12 were diagnosed with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). The sensitivity of the fecal fat quantification was 50%, the specificity for the test was 100%. PPV and NPV were 100% and 93%, respectively. 13C-MTBT had the sensitivity of 42% and the specificity of 99%. PPV and NPV for the breath test were of 83% and 92%, respectively. No statistically significant discrepancy between the values obtained was found. Although the 72-hour fecal fat quantification remains the gold standard in detecting EPI, both of the methods that had been investigated were shown to be comparable regarding sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV in assessing pancreas exocrine sufficiency in children with CP. Due to the easier execution of the breath test, both for the patient and for medical personnel, its importance may increase.

  9. Breath holding spell

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as Riley-Day syndrome or Rett syndrome Iron deficiency anemia A family history of breath holding spells ( ... tests may be done to check for an iron deficiency. Other tests that may be done include: EKG ...

  10. 13C-methacetin-breath test compared to also noninvasive biochemical blood tests in predicting hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Dinesen, L; Caspary, W F; Chapman, R W; Dietrich, C F; Sarrazin, C; Braden, B

    2008-09-01

    The (13)C-methacetin-breath test and also several noninvasive blood tests comprising routine laboratory parameters have been proposed to predict fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C. The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy between these tests referring to hepatic histology as gold standard. 96 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection underwent percutaneous liver biopsy and the (13)C-methacetin-breath test. The Fibroindex, the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index , and the aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase ratio were used as parameters for the staging of fibrosis. The main endpoint was the area under the characteristic curves for the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis (F3-F4) and cirrhosis (F4) according to the Batts Ludwig criteria. ROC analysis revealed a cut-off <14.6 per thousand best with 92.6% sensitivity and 84.1% specificity for the (13)C-methacetin-breath test, for the Fibroindex >1.82 70.4% sensitivity and 91.3% specificity, for the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio >1.0 a 66.7% sensitivity and 75.4% specificity, and for the aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase ratio >1.0 63.0% sensitivity and 59.4% specificity in predicting liver cirrhosis. The areas under the curve for the breath test, the Fibroindex, aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio and the aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase ratio were 0.958, 0.845, 0.799, and 0.688, respectively, when predicting cirrhosis. For identifying patients with advanced fibrosis, the areas under the curve were 0.827, 0.804, 0.779, and 0.561, respectively. Discordances between Fibroindex (21%), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio (29%) or aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase ratio (37.6%) and liver biopsy were significantly more frequent than between (13)C-breath test (11.6%) and liver biopsy (P<0.05). The (13)C-methacetin-breath test is more reliable in predicting advanced

  11. Drink driving in Hong Kong: the competing effects of random breath testing and alcohol tax reductions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jean H; Wong, Alvin H; Goggins, William B; Lau, Joseph; Griffiths, Sian M

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the competing effects of increased anti-drink driving legislation and the recent elimination of excise taxes on wine and beer. Serial cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted in 2006 (n = 9860) and 2011 (n = 4800). Hong Kong, China. Chinese adults (≥18 years of age). Respondents were asked about their drinking patterns, past-year experience of driving within 2 hours of drinking, drinking-related attitudes and reported deterrents to drink driving. Following the legislative changes, the age-standardized past-year prevalence of drink driving decreased significantly from 5.2 to 2.8% (P < 0.001) among all males, from 9.0 to 4.4% (P < 0.001) among male past-year drinkers and from 13.7 to 8.5% (P < 0.01) among male weekly drinkers. The past-year prevalence of drink driving in 2011 among all females (0.08%), female past-year drinkers (1.6%), male binge drinkers (12.5%), female weekly drinkers (4.7%) and female binge drinkers (7.9%) were not significantly different from 2006. Drink driving was associated independently with business sector employment [odds ratio (OR) = 2.47], past-month binge drinking (OR = 6.08) and beliefs in the benefits to one's wellbeing of drinking (OR = 2.62) among males and past-month binge drinking (OR = 5.57), belief in the social benefits of drinking (OR = 5.66) and being unmarried (OR = 3.00) in females (P < 0.05). The most commonly reported drink driving deterrents were concerns about random breath tests (93.8%) and the potential legal consequences of conviction (93.6-96.5%). Despite greater alcohol consumption in Hong Kong, the current anti-drink driving strategy appears to reduce drink driving in males and prevent increased levels among females. Binge drinkers, however, remain a high-risk group that should be monitored continually. © 2013 The Authors, Addiction © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Sex differences in sleep-disordered breathing after stroke: results from the BASIC project.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Mollie; Brown, Devin L; Li, Chengwei; Garcia, Nelda M; Case, Erin; Chervin, Ronald D; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2018-03-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), an independent risk factor for stroke, is associated with worse post-stroke outcomes. Differences in the relationship between SDB and stroke may exist for women versus men. In this population-based study, we compared the prevalence of both pre- and post-stroke SDB by sex. We also explored whether menopausal status is related to post-stroke SDB. We performed a cross-sectional study of subjects enrolled in the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project. Each subject (n = 1815) underwent a baseline interview including the Berlin Questionnaire to assess pre-stroke SDB risk and, if relevant, questions regarding menopausal status. Subjects were offered overnight SDB screening with a validated portable respiratory device (n = 832 with complete data). Log Poisson and linear regression models were used to assess the differences in SDB between men and women with adjustment for demographics, stroke risk factors, stroke severity, and other potential confounders. Women were less likely than men to be at high risk for pre-stroke SDB (56.6% versus 61.9%) (prevalence ratio [PR] 0.87 for women; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-0.95). A lower proportion of women than men (50.8% versus 70.2%) had post-stroke SDB by respiratory monitoring (PR 0.71; 95% CI, 0.63-0.80). SDB severity was higher for men than for women (mean difference in respiratory event index [REI] 6.5; 95% CI, 4.3-8.7). No significant association existed between post-stroke SDB and either menopausal status or age at menopause. After acute ischemic stroke, SDB was more prevalent and more severe in men than in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of different proton pump inhibitors on activity of cytochrome P450 assessed by [(13)C]-aminopyrine breath test.

    PubMed

    Kodaira, Chise; Uchida, Shinya; Yamade, Mihoko; Nishino, Masafumi; Ikuma, Mutsuhiro; Namiki, Noriyuki; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hishida, Akira; Furuta, Takahisa

    2012-03-01

    Aminopyrine is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the liver. The investigators evaluated influences of different PPIs on CYP activity as assessed by the [(13)C]-aminopyrine breath test ([(13)C]-ABT). Subjects were 15 healthy volunteers with different CYP2C19 status (5 rapid metabolizers [RMs], 5 intermediate metabolizers [IMs], and 5 poor metabolizers [PMs]). Breath samples were collected before and every 15 to 30 minutes for 3 hours after oral ingestion of [(13)C]-aminopyrine 100 mg on day 8 of each of the following regimens: control; omeprazole 20 mg and 80 mg, lansoprazole 30 mg, and rabeprazole 20 mg. Changes in carbon isotope ratios in carbon dioxide ((13)CO(2)/(12)CO(2)) in breath samples were measured by infrared spectrometry and expressed as delta-over-baseline (DOB) ratios (‰). Mean areas under the curve of DOB from 0 to 3 h (AUC(0-3h) of DOB) were significantly decreased by omeprazole 20 mg and lansoprazole 30 mg but not by rabeprazole 20 mg. Conversely, higher PPI dose (ie, omeprazole 80 mg) seemed to further decrease AUC(0-3h) of DOB in RMs but increased it in PMs. Omeprazole and lansoprazole at the standard doses inhibit CYP activity but rabeprazole does not, whereas high-dose omeprazole seems to induce CYPs.

  14. Hepatobiliary MRI: Signal intensity based assessment of liver function correlated to 13C-Methacetin breath test.

    PubMed

    Haimerl, Michael; Probst, Ute; Poelsterl, Stefanie; Beyer, Lukas; Fellner, Claudia; Selgrad, Michael; Hornung, Matthias; Stroszczynski, Christian; Wiggermann, Philipp

    2018-06-13

    Gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a paramagnetic MRI contrast agent with raising popularity and has been used for evaluation of imaging-based liver function in recent years. In order to verify whether liver function as determined by real-time breath analysis using the intravenous administration of 13 C-methacetin can be estimated quantitatively from Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI using signal intensity (SI) values. 110 patients underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3-T MRI and, for the evaluation of liver function, a 13 C-methacetin breath test ( 13 C-MBT). SI values from before (SI pre ) and 20 min after (SI post ) contrast media injection were acquired by T1-weighted volume-interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences with fat suppression. The relative enhancement (RE) between the plain and contrast-enhanced SI values was calculated and evaluated in a correlation analysis of 13 C-MBT values to SI post and RE to obtain a SI-based estimation of 13 C-MBT values. The simple regression model showed a log-linear correlation of 13 C-MBT values with SI post and RE (p < 0.001). Stratified by 3 different categories of 13 C-MBT readouts, there was a constant significant decrease in both SI post (p ≤ 0.002) and RE (p ≤ 0.033) with increasing liver disease progression as assessed by the 13 C-MBT. Liver function as determined using real-time 13 C-methacetin breath analysis can be estimated quantitatively from Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI using SI-based indices.

  15. Evaluation of pulmonary function using breathing chest radiography with a dynamic flat panel detector: primary results in pulmonary diseases.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru; Okazaki, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Fujimura, Masaki; Yasui, Masahide; Matsui, Takeshi; Nakayama, Kazuya; Nanbu, Yuko; Matsui, Osamu

    2006-10-01

    Dynamic flat panel detectors (FPD) permit acquisition of distortion-free radiographs with a large field of view and high image quality. The present study was performed to evaluate pulmonary function using breathing chest radiography with a dynamic FPD. We report primary results of a clinical study and computer algorithm for quantifying and visualizing relative local pulmonary airflow. Dynamic chest radiographs of 18 subjects (1 emphysema, 2 asthma, 4 interstitial pneumonia, 1 pulmonary nodule, and 10 normal controls) were obtained during respiration using an FPD system. We measured respiratory changes in distance from the lung apex to the diaphragm (DLD) and pixel values in each lung area. Subsequently, the interframe differences (D-frame) and difference values between maximum inspiratory and expiratory phases (D-max) were calculated. D-max in each lung represents relative vital capacity (VC) and regional D-frames represent pulmonary airflow in each local area. D-frames were superimposed on dynamic chest radiographs in the form of color display (fusion images). The results obtained using our methods were compared with findings on computed tomography (CT) images and pulmonary functional test (PFT), which were examined before inclusion in the study. In normal subjects, the D-frames were distributed symmetrically in both lungs throughout all respiratory phases. However, subjects with pulmonary diseases showed D-frame distribution patterns that differed from the normal pattern. In subjects with air trapping, there were some areas with D-frames near zero indicated as colorless areas on fusion images. These areas also corresponded to the areas showing air trapping on computed tomography images. In asthma, obstructive abnormality was indicated by areas continuously showing D-frame near zero in the upper lung. Patients with interstitial pneumonia commonly showed fusion images with an uneven color distribution accompanied by increased D-frames in the area identified as

  16. Evaluation of the 13C-octanoate breath test as a surrogate marker of liver damage in animal models.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Tamar; Aeed, Hussein; Sorin, Vladimir; Shahmurov, Mark; Didkovsky, Elena; Ilan, Yaron; Avni, Yona; Shirin, Haim

    2010-06-01

    Octanoate (also known as sodium octanoate), a medium-chain fatty acid metabolized in the liver, is a potential substrate for non-invasive breath testing of hepatic mitochondrial beta-oxidation. We evaluated the 13C-octanoate breath test (OBT) for assessing injury in acute hepatitis and two rat models of liver cirrhosis, first testing octanoate absorption (per os or intraperitoneally (i.p.)) in normal rats. We then induced acute hepatitis with thioacetamide (300 mg/kg/i.p., 24-h intervals). Liver injury end points were serum aminotransferase levels and 13C-OBT (24 and 48 h following initial injection). Thioacetamide (200 mg/kg/i.p., twice per week, 12 weeks) was used to induce liver cirrhosis. OBT and liver histological assessment were performed every 4 weeks. Bile duct ligation (BDL) was used to induce cholestatic liver injury. We completed breath tests with 13C-OBT and 13C-methacetin (MBID), liver biochemistry, and liver histology in BDL and sham-operated rats (baseline, 6, 14, 20 days post-BDL). Octanoate absorbs well by either route. Peak amplitudes and cumulative percentage dose recovered at 30 and 60 min (CPDR30/60), but not peak time, correlated with acute hepatitis. Fibrosis stage 3 at week 8 significantly correlated with each OBT parameter. Cholestatic liver injury (serum bilirubin, ALP, gamma-GT, liver histology) was associated with significant suppression of the maximal peak values and CPDR30/60, respectively (P<0.05),using MBID but not 13C-octanoate. OBT is sensitive for potentially evaluating liver function in rat models of acute hepatitis and thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis but not in cholestatic liver injury. The MBID test may be better for evaluation of cholestatic liver disease in this model.

  17. Tidal volume single breath washout of two tracer gases--a practical and promising lung function test.

    PubMed

    Singer, Florian; Stern, Georgette; Thamrin, Cindy; Fuchs, Oliver; Riedel, Thomas; Gustafsson, Per; Frey, Urs; Latzin, Philipp

    2011-03-10

    Small airway disease frequently occurs in chronic lung diseases and may cause ventilation inhomogeneity (VI), which can be assessed by washout tests of inert tracer gas. Using two tracer gases with unequal molar mass (MM) and diffusivity increases specificity for VI in different lung zones. Currently washout tests are underutilised due to the time and effort required for measurements. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple technique for a new tidal single breath washout test (SBW) of sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) and helium (He) using an ultrasonic flowmeter (USFM). The tracer gas mixture contained 5% SF(6) and 26.3% He, had similar total MM as air, and was applied for a single tidal breath in 13 healthy adults. The USFM measured MM, which was then plotted against expired volume. USFM and mass spectrometer signals were compared in six subjects performing three SBW. Repeatability and reproducibility of SBW, i.e., area under the MM curve (AUC), were determined in seven subjects performing three SBW 24 hours apart. USFM reliably measured MM during all SBW tests (n = 60). MM from USFM reflected SF(6) and He washout patterns measured by mass spectrometer. USFM signals were highly associated with mass spectrometer signals, e.g., for MM, linear regression r-squared was 0.98. Intra-subject coefficient of variation of AUC was 6.8%, and coefficient of repeatability was 11.8%. The USFM accurately measured relative changes in SF(6) and He washout. SBW tests were repeatable and reproducible in healthy adults. We have developed a fast, reliable, and straightforward USFM based SBW method, which provides valid information on SF(6) and He washout patterns during tidal breathing.

  18. Gastric emptying of solids in children: reference values for the (13) C-octanoic acid breath test.

    PubMed

    Hauser, B; Roelants, M; De Schepper, J; Veereman, G; Caveliers, V; Devreker, T; De Greef, E; Vandenplas, Y

    2016-10-01

    (99m) Technetium scintigraphy ((99m) TS) is the 'gold standard' for measuring gastric emptying (GE), but it is associated with a radiation exposure. For this reason, the (13) C-octanoic acid breath test ((13) C-OBT) was developed for measuring GE of solids. The objective of this study was to determine normal values for gastric half-emptying time (t1/2 GE) of solids in healthy children. Gastric emptying of a standardized solid test meal consisting of a pancake evaluated with (99m) TS and (13) C-OBT was compared in 22 children aged between 1 and 15 years with upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Subsequently, the (13) C-OBT was used to determine normal values for GE of the same solid test meal in 120 healthy children aged between 1 and 17 years. The results showed a significant correlation (r = 0.748, p = 0.0001) between t1/2 GE measured with both techniques in the group of children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms. In the group of healthy children, mean t1/2 GE was 157.7 ± 54.0 min (range 71-415 min), but t1/2 GE decreased with age between 1 and 10 years and remained stable afterward. There was no influence of gender, weight, height, body mass index, and body surface area on t1/2 GE. Normal values for GE of solids measured with the (13) C-OBT using a standardized methodology were determined in healthy children. We propose to use this method and corresponding reference ranges to study GE of solids in children with gastrointestinal problems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Breath measurement instrumentation as alcohol safety interlock systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1974-09-01

    This report describes the results of field tests of in-car instruments which measure alcohol on the driver's breath and prevent him from operating his vehicle if intoxicated. Two types of breath alcohol sensors were used for these tests; a fuel-cell ...

  20. Fourier-transformed infrared breath testing after ingestion of technical alcohol.

    PubMed

    Laakso, Olli; Haapala, Matti; Pennanen, Teemu; Kuitunen, Tapio; Himberg, Jaakko-Juhani

    2007-07-01

    The study aim was to evaluate the feasibility of a Fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR) analyzer for out-of-laboratory use by screening the exhalations of inebriated individuals, and to determine analysis quality using common breath components and solvents. Each of the 35 inebriated participants gave an acceptable sample. Because of the metabolism of 2-propanol, the subjects exhaled high concentrations of acetone in addition to ethanol. Other volatile ingredients of technical ethanol products (methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and 2-propanol) were also detected. The lower limits of quantification for the analyzed components ranged from 1.7 to 12 microg/L in simulated breath samples. The bias was +/-2% for ethanol and -11% for methanol. Within-day and between-day coefficients of variation were <1% for ethanol and <4% for methanol. The bias of ethanol and methanol analyses due to coexisting solvents ranged from -0.8 to +2.2% and from -5.6 to +2.9%, respectively. The FT-IR method proved suitable for use outside the laboratory and fulfilled the quality criteria for analysis of solvents in breath.

  1. The relationship of normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and BAC/BrAC ratio in 98 physically fit human test subjects.

    PubMed

    Cowan, J Mack; Burris, James M; Hughes, James R; Cunningham, Margaret P

    2010-06-01

    The relationship between normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC)/breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) ratio was studied in 98 subjects (84 men, 14 women). Subjects consumed alcohol sufficient to produce a BrAC of at least 0.06 g/210 L 45-75 min after drinking. Breath samples were analyzed using an Intoxilyzer 8000 specially equipped to measure breath temperature. Venous blood samples and body temperatures were then taken. The mean body temperature of the men (36.6 degrees C) was lower than the women (37.0 degrees C); however, their mean breath temperatures were virtually identical (men: 34.5 degrees C; women: 34.6 degrees C). The BAC exceeded the BrAC for every subject. BAC/BrAC ratios were calculated from the BAC and BrAC analytical results. There was no difference in the BAC/BrAC ratios for men (1:2379) and women (1:2385). The correlation between BAC and BrAC was high (r = 0.938, p < 0.0001), whereas the correlations between body temperature and end-expired breath temperature, body temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio, and breath temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio were much lower. Neither normal body temperature nor end-expired breath temperature was strongly associated with BAC/BrAC ratio.

  2. Determination of rifaximin treatment period according to lactulose breath test values in nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome subjects.

    PubMed

    Bae, Suhyun; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Young-Sang; Kim, Kyu-Nam

    2015-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can partly explain irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and rifaximin has been observed to improve abdominal symptoms in nonconstipated IBS patients. However, there are few reports on the association of the rifaximin treatment periods with the results of a lactulose breath test (LBT). Therefore, we performed a retrospective review of patient charts to investigate the relation between the rifaximin treatment periods with LBT results in nonconstipated IBS patients. We also evaluated the time to achieve a symptomatic improvement in the IBS patients as compared to the changes in the LBT. We reviewed the charts for patients who showed IBS symptoms with documented positive results for LBT during their initial visit and who had a follow-up LBT after treatment with rifaximin. The LBT values were compared to the subjects' symptom scores. A total of 102 subjects had a follow-up LBT to assess LBT normalization. The subjects were divided into groups according to treatment periods of 4 weeks (n = 36), 8 weeks (n = 43), and 12 weeks (n = 23). The groups with a longer treatment exhibited an increase in the hydrogen gas value at 90 min and its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT. There were significant differences in hydrogen gas value at 90 min and in its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT between the groups treated for 4 and 12 weeks. The most significant treatment response was observed during the first 4 weeks for all treatment groups. Symptomatic improvement occurred earlier than LBT normalization in the treatment period over 4 weeks. The results indicate that different rifaximin treatment periods are needed in accordance with LBT levels to effectively eradicate SIBO.

  3. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) amore » mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.« less

  4. Automatic Recognition of Breathing Route During Sleep Using Snoring Sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikami, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Yohichiro

    This letter classifies snoring sounds into three breathing routes (oral, nasal, and oronasal) with discriminant analysis of the power spectra and k-nearest neighbor method. It is necessary to recognize breathing route during snoring, because oral snoring is a typical symptom of sleep apnea but we cannot know our own breathing and snoring condition during sleep. As a result, about 98.8% classification rate is obtained by using leave-one-out test for performance evaluation.

  5. Phase 1 IWAR Test Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Symantec Server Antivirus 1 1 1 1 2 7 8 8 Service Passwords 0 10 4 4 4 10 5 5 Banner Needs 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Unauthorized Software 0 1 0 1 4 1 4 1... software needed to manage and operate systems in the testing rooms. Systems in the testing rooms were made to resemble shipboard Navy systems as closely...i.e., work- station and server software , routing and switching, operating systems, and so forth). This training was also designed to provide

  6. Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Palmer, Joe; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high-accuracy and -resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other ongoing efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changesmore » (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an ATR NSUF project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 10 21 n/cm 2. The goal of this research is to characterize and demonstrate magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer operation during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation-tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data is collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. To date, one piezoelectric transducer and two

  7. Estimation of gastric pH in cynomolgus monkeys, rats, and dogs using [(13)C]-calcium carbonate breath test.

    PubMed

    Tobita, Kazuki; Inada, Makoto; Sato, Asuka; Sudoh, Kimiyoshi; Sato, Hitoshi

    2016-09-01

    The determination of gastric pH is important for the confirmation of efficacy of anti-secretory drugs. However, current methods for measurement of gastric pH provide significant stress to animals and humans. The objective of this study is to establish an easy and reliable gastric pH measurement method by determining (13)CO2 concentration in expired air of monkeys, dogs, and rats after oral administration of Ca(13)CO3. A correlation of (13)CO2 concentration determined by a Ca(13)CO3 breath test with gastric pH just before Ca(13)CO3 administration was analyzed in the 3 animal species. The equations and contribution ratios of regression line were calculated from logarithmic (13)CO2 concentrations at 15min after administration of Ca(13)CO3 using the linear regression analysis. The (13)CO2 concentration in the Ca(13)CO3 breath test was well correlated with the gastric pH just before Ca(13)CO3 administration in the 3 animal species (r=-0.977 to -0.952). The equations of regression line between the (13)CO2 concentration and the gastric pH in each animal species showed good contribution ratios (R(2)≥0.89). The Ca(13)CO3 breath test is an informative tool to estimate gastric pH in animals and will be applicable as a new noninvasive tool for patients with GERD/PPI-resistant symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Wagner-Nelson method can generate an accurate gastric emptying flow curve from CO2 data obtained by a 13C-labeled substrate breath test.

    PubMed

    Sanaka, Masaki; Yamamoto, Takatsugu; Ishii, Tarou; Kuyama, Yasushi

    2004-01-01

    In pharmacokinetics, the Wagner-Nelson (W-N) method can accurately estimate the rate of drug absorption from its urinary elimination rate. A stable isotope (13C) breath test attempts to estimate the rate of absorption of 13C, as an index of gastric emptying rate, from the rate of pulmonary elimination of 13CO2. The time-gastric emptying curve determined by the breath test is quite different from that determined by scintigraphy or ultrasonography. In this report, we have shown that the W-N method can adjust the difference. The W-N equation to estimate gastric emptying from breath data is as follows: the fractional cumulative amount of gastric contents emptied by time t = Abreath (t)/Abreath (infinity) + (1/0.65).d[Abreath (t)/Abreath (infinity) ]/dt, where Abreath (t) = the cumulative recovery of 13CO2 in breath by time t and Abreath ( infinity ) = the ultimate cumulative 13CO2 recovery. The emptying flow curve generated by ultrasonography was compared with that generated by the W-N method-adjusted breath test in 6 volunteers. The emptying curves by the W-N method were almost identical to those by ultrasound. The W-N method can generate an accurate emptying flow curve from 13CO2 data, and it can adjust the difference between ultrasonography and the breath test. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Synthesis of ¹³C-lidocaine as a probe of breath test for the evaluation of cytochrome P450 activity.

    PubMed

    Mitome, Hidemichi; Sugiyama, Erika; Sato, Hitoshi; Akira, Kazuki

    2014-01-01

    (13)C-Labeled lidocaine, 2-di[1-(13)C]ethylamino-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide (1), was synthesized from [1-(13)C]acetic acid in six steps, as a probe for a breath test to evaluate in vivo cytochrome P450 activity. The measurement of (13)CO2 in breath was successfully performed following oral administration of (13)C-lidocaine 1 to mice.

  10. Test Results of Earth Penetrators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    34 1𔃺,,HI1rlt D’ .. ,..r rhb ’ i. ,.,..n " Ir ld t1 I ",,ll’ I ... hick lli Ihree test series were conducted to observe the stability of small length-to...241 1942 511 b3 NF2 2.6 Igo 1502 NF03 3.0 16 19635 V 104 2.1 41 2042 Be 40 PF,4 1.3 341 2043 to Is WF.4 2,8 ass 1833 53 VCF.5 all 11i 1759 34 - WEI

  11. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46 Section 655.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  12. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46 Section 655.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  13. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46 Section 655.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  14. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46 Section 655.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  15. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46 Section 655.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  16. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth as an uncommon cause of false positive lactose hydrogen breath test among patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome in Asia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilin; Xiong, Lishou; Gong, Xiaorong; Li, Weimin; Zhang, Xiangsong; Chen, Minhu

    2015-06-01

    It has been reported that small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) may lead to false positive diagnoses of lactose malabsorption (LM) in irritable bowel syndrome patients. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of SIBO on lactose hydrogen breath test (HBT) results in these patients. Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients with abnormal lactose HBTs ingested a test meal containing (99m) Tc and lactose. The location of the test meal and the breath levels of hydrogen were recorded simultaneously by scintigraphic scanning and lactose HBT, respectively. The increase in hydrogen concentration was not considered to be caused by SIBO if ≥ 10% of (99m) Tc accumulated in the cecal region at the time or before of abnormal lactose HBT. LM was present in 84% (31/37) of irritable bowel syndrome patients. Twenty of these patients agreed to measurement of oro-cecal transit time. Only three patients (15%) with abnormal lactose HBT might have had SIBO. The median oro-cecal transit time between LM and lactose intolerance patients were 75 min and 45 min, respectively (Z=2.545, P=0.011). Most of irritable bowel syndrome patients with an abnormal lactose HBT had LM. SIBO had little impact on the interpretation of lactose HBTs. The patients with lactose intolerance had faster small intestinal transit than LM patients. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Updating prognosis of cirrhosis by Cox's regression model using Child-Pugh score and aminopyrine breath test as time-dependent covariates.

    PubMed

    Merkel, C; Morabito, A; Sacerdoti, D; Bolognesi, M; Angeli, P; Gatta, A

    1998-06-01

    The determination of aminopyrine breath test on entry into the study was recently shown to improve the accuracy of prediction of death based on the Child-Pugh classification, but the possible usefulness of serial determinations of both parameters has not been assessed. In the present study, we aimed at evaluating whether serial determinations of aminopyrine breath test and Child-Pugh score improve prognostic accuracy in patients with cirrhosis, compared with determinations obtained only on admission. In 74 patients with liver cirrhosis aminopyrine breath test and Child-Pugh score were obtained upon entry into the study. Patients were followed with sequential aminopyrine breath tests and assessments of the Child-Pugh score every 4-6 months. A total number of 232 determinations were obtained. During follow-up 45 patients died, on average after 12 months of follow-up. Child-Pugh score improved in the beginning of follow-up, and then remained fairly constant; aminopyrine breath test showed no improvement in the beginning of follow-up, but rather a slowly progressive decline. In patients who died, both the Child-Pugh score and the metabolism of aminopyrine were significantly more impaired in the last year preceding death (p < 0.05). Applying Cox's regression model with time-dependent covariates, Child-Pugh score and aminopyrine breath test were independent significant predictors of survival. The model with time-dependent covariates explained the observed survival much better than the model with time-fixed covariates (chi-sq. explained by regression = 31.45 vs 11.97; d.f. = 2; p = 0.0000001 vs 0.003). These data suggest that serial determinations of Child-Pugh score and aminopyrine breath test can be used to efficiently update prognosis of cirrhosis.

  18. Diving and foraging patterns of Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus): Testing predictions from optimal-breathing models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, Patrick G.R.; Collopy, Michael W.

    1999-01-01

    The diving behavior of Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) was studied using telemetry along the Oregon coast during the 1995 and 1996 breeding seasons and examined in relation to predictions from optimal-breathing models. Duration of dives, pauses, dive bouts, time spent under water during dive bouts, and nondiving intervals between successive dive bouts were recorded. Most diving metrics differed between years but not with oceanographic conditions or shore type. There was no effect of water depth on mean dive time or percent time spent under water even though dive bouts occurred in depths from 3 to 36 m. There was a significant, positive relationship between mean dive time and mean pause time at the dive-bout scale each year. At the dive-cycle scale, there was a significant positive relationship between dive time and preceding pause time in each year and a significant positive relationship between dive time and ensuing pause time in 1996. Although it appears that aerobic diving was the norm, there appeared to be an increase in anaerobic diving in 1996. The diving performance of Marbled Murrelets in this study appeared to be affected by annual changes in environmental conditions and prey resources but did not consistently fit predictions from optimal-breathing models.

  19. An anthropomorphic breathing phantom of the thorax for testing new motion mitigation techniques for pencil beam scanning proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, R. L.; Zakova, M.; Peroni, M.; Bernatowicz, K.; Bikis, C.; Knopf, A. K.; Safai, S.; Fernandez-Carmona, P.; Tscharner, N.; Weber, D. C.; Parkel, T. C.; Lomax, A. J.

    2017-03-01

    Motion-induced range changes and incorrectly placed dose spots strongly affect the quality of pencil-beam-scanned (PBS) proton therapy, especially in thoracic tumour sites, where density changes are large. Thus motion-mitigation techniques are necessary, which must be validated in a realistic patient-like geometry. We report on the development and characterisation of a dynamic, anthropomorphic, thorax phantom that can realistically mimic thoracic motions and anatomical features for verifications of proton and photon 4D treatments. The presented phantom is of an average thorax size, and consists of inflatable, deformable lungs surrounded by a skeleton and skin. A mobile ‘tumour’ is embedded in the lungs in which dosimetry devices (such as radiochromic films) can be inserted. Motion of the tumour and deformation of the thorax is controlled via a custom made pump system driving air into and out of the lungs. Comprehensive commissioning tests have been performed to evaluate the mechanical performance of the phantom, its visibility on CT and MR imaging and its feasibility for dosimetric validation of 4D proton treatments. The phantom performed well on both regular and irregular pre-programmed breathing curves, reaching peak-to-peak amplitudes in the tumour of  <20 mm. Some hysteresis in the inflation versus deflation phases was seen. All materials were clearly visualised in CT scans, and all, except the bone and lung components, were MRI visible. Radiochromic film measurements in the phantom showed that imaging for repositioning was required (as for a patient treatment). Dosimetry was feasible with Gamma Index agreements (4%/4 mm) between film dose and planned dose  >90% in the central planes of the target. The results of this study demonstrate that this anthropomorphic thorax phantom is suitable for imaging and dosimetric studies in a thoracic geometry closely-matched to lung cancer patients under realistic motion conditions.

  20. In vivo assessment of the mitochondrial response to caloric restriction in obese women by the 2-keto[1-C]isocaproate breath test.

    PubMed

    Parra, Dolores; González, Alvaro; Martínez, J Alfredo; Labayen, Idoia; Díez, Nieves

    2003-04-01

    The 2-keto[1-(13)C]isocaproate breath test has been proposed as a tool to detect mitochondrial dysfunction in alcoholic liver disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the 2-keto[1-(13)C]isocaproate breath test could detect in vivo dynamic changes on mitochondrial activity due to caloric restriction in obese women. Fifteen obese women (body mass index [BMI] > 30 kg/m(2)) participated in the study at baseline. Ten of these women agreed to participate on a diet program to induce body weight loss. Fifteen lean women (BMI < 25 kg/m(2)) were included as a control group. The breath test was performed by the oral administration of the tracer measuring (13)CO(2) enrichment in breath before and after ingestion using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Body composition, resting energy expenditure, and plasma levels of insulin and leptin were measured. There were no relationships observed between the 2-keto[1-(13)C]isocaproate breath test and the plasma insulin (before diet: P =.863; after diet: P =.879), or leptin (before diet: P =.500; after diet: P =.637). In obese women before treatment, kilograms of fat free mass (P =.108), resting energy expenditure adjusted for body composition (P =.312), and the 2-keto[1-(13)C]isocaproate breath test (P =.205) were similar in comparison to lean women. However, 2-keto[1-(13)C]isocaproate oxidation tended to increase after dieting and was significantly higher than in controls (P =.015). These data suggest that the 2-keto[1-(13)C]isocaproate breath test reflected the adaptive modifications in mitochondrial oxidation in response to caloric restriction in obese women. Copyright 2003 Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Flow list and test results

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These data accompany the manuscript 'Critical Review of Elementary Flows in LCA Data'. Each file presents a subgroup of the elementary flows (data used for analysis) and all the analysis results. Files are separated by flow types. The 'Element or Compound' types contained over 115,000 flows and was broken into three files (a, b,and c). A guide to the file contents and explanation of flow types are provided in the 'CriticalReviewofElementaryFlows_Data_Guide' file.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Edelen, A., W. Ingwersen, C. Rodriguez, R. Alvarenga, A.R. de Almeida, and G. Wernet. Critical Review of Elementary Flows in LCA data. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT. Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG, Landsberg, GERMANY,

  2. Modified Helicobacter test using a new test meal and a 13C-urea breath test in Helicobacter pylori positive and negative dyspepsia patients on proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tepeš, Bojan; Malfertheiner, Peter; Labenz, Joachim; Aygen, Sitke

    2017-08-28

    To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the 13 C-urea breath test (UBT) in patients taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), using a new test meal Refex. One hundred and fourteen consecutive patients with dyspepsia, 53 Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) positive, 49 H. pylori negative, were included in the study. The patients were then given esomeprazole 40 mg for 29 consecutive days, and the 13 C-UBT with the new test meal was performed the next morning. The sensitivity of the 13 C-UBT with a cut off 2.5‰ was 92.45% (95%CI: 81.79%-97.91%) by per-protocol (PP) analysis and 78.13% (95%CI: 66.03%-87.49%) by intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. The specificity of the 13 C-UBT test was 96.00% in the ITT population (95%CI: 86.29%-99.51%) and 97.96% in the PP population (95%CI: 89.15%-99.95%). The new test meal based 13 C-UBT is highly accurate in patients on PPIs and can be used in those unable to stop their PPI treatment.

  3. Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Liver Function of Piglets as Evaluated by the 13C-Methacetin and 13C-α-Ketoisocaproic Acid Breath Test

    PubMed Central

    Dänicke, Sven; Diers, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids (the sum of individual ergot alkaloids are termed as total alkaloids, TA) are produced by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, which infests cereal grains commonly used as feedstuffs. Ergot alkaloids potentially modulate microsomal and mitochondrial hepatic enzymes. Thus, the aim of the present experiment was to assess their effects on microsomal and mitochondrial liver function using the 13C-Methacetin (MC) and 13C-α-ketoisocaproic acid (KICA) breath test, respectively. Two ergot batches were mixed into piglet diets, resulting in 11 and 22 mg (Ergot 5-low and Ergot 5-high), 9 and 14 mg TA/kg (Ergot 15-low and Ergot 15-high) and compared to an ergot-free control group. Feed intake and live weight gain decreased significantly with the TA content (p < 0.001). Feeding the Ergot 5-high diet tended to decrease the 60-min-cumulative 13CO2 percentage of the dose recovery (cPDR60) by 26% and 28% in the MC and KICA breath test, respectively, compared to the control group (p = 0.065). Therefore, both microsomal and mitochondrial liver function was slightly affected by ergot alkaloids. PMID:23322130

  4. Effects of ergot alkaloids on liver function of piglets as evaluated by the (13)C-methacetin and (13)C-α-ketoisocaproic acid breath test.

    PubMed

    Dänicke, Sven; Diers, Sonja

    2013-01-15

    Ergot alkaloids (the sum of individual ergot alkaloids are termed as total alkaloids, TA) are produced by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, which infests cereal grains commonly used as feedstuffs. Ergot alkaloids potentially modulate microsomal and mitochondrial hepatic enzymes. Thus, the aim of the present experiment was to assess their effects on microsomal and mitochondrial liver function using the (13)C-Methacetin (MC) and (13)C-α-ketoisocaproic acid (KICA) breath test, respectively. Two ergot batches were mixed into piglet diets, resulting in 11 and 22 mg (Ergot 5-low and Ergot 5-high), 9 and 14 mg TA/kg (Ergot 15-low and Ergot 15-high) and compared to an ergot-free control group. Feed intake and live weight gain decreased significantly with the TA content (p < 0.001). Feeding the Ergot 5-high diet tended to decrease the 60-min-cumulative (13)CO(2) percentage of the dose recovery (cPDR(60)) by 26% and 28% in the MC and KICA breath test, respectively, compared to the control group (p = 0.065). Therefore, both microsomal and mitochondrial liver function was slightly affected by ergot alkaloids.

  5. 13C-tryptophan breath test detects increased catabolic turnover of tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway in patients with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Sasayama, Daimei; Matsuo, Junko; Ogawa, Shintaro; Ota, Miho; Hattori, Kotaro; Kajiwara, Masahiro; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Altered tryptophan–kynurenine (KYN) metabolism has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD). The l-[1-13C]tryptophan breath test (13C-TBT) is a noninvasive, stable-isotope tracer method in which exhaled 13CO2 is attributable to tryptophan catabolism via the KYN pathway. We included 18 patients with MDD (DSM-IV) and 24 age- and sex-matched controls. 13C-tryptophan (150 mg) was orally administered and the 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in the breath was monitored for 180 min. The cumulative recovery rate during the 180-min test (CRR0–180; %), area under the Δ13CO2-time curve (AUC; %*min), and the maximal Δ13CO2 (Cmax; %) were significantly higher in patients with MDD than in the controls (p = 0.004, p = 0.008, and p = 0.002, respectively). Plasma tryptophan concentrations correlated negatively with Cmax in both the patients and controls (p = 0.020 and p = 0.034, respectively). Our results suggest that the 13C-TBT could be a novel biomarker for detecting a subgroup of MDD with increased tryptophan–KYN metabolism. PMID:26524975

  6. Breathing metabolic simulator.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.; Hendricks, C. M.; Morison, W. B.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a device for simulation of the human breathing and metabolic parameters required for the evaluation of respiratory diagnostic, monitoring, support and resuscitation equipment. The remotely controlled device allows wide variations in breathing rate and depth, breath velocity contour, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide release to simulate conditions from sleep to hard work, with respiration exchange ratios ranging from hypoventilation to hyperventilation. It also reduces the cost of prolonged testing when simulation chambers with human subjects require three shifts of crews and standby physicians. Several block diagrams of the device and subsystems are given.

  7. 40 CFR 799.12 - Test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Test results. 799.12 Section 799.12... results. Except as set forth in specific chemical test rules in subpart B of this part, a positive or negative test result in any of the tests required under subpart B is defined in the TSCA test guidelines...

  8. 40 CFR 799.12 - Test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test results. 799.12 Section 799.12... results. Except as set forth in specific chemical test rules in subpart B of this part, a positive or negative test result in any of the tests required under subpart B is defined in the TSCA test guidelines...

  9. 40 CFR 799.12 - Test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test results. 799.12 Section 799.12... results. Except as set forth in specific chemical test rules in subpart B of this part, a positive or negative test result in any of the tests required under subpart B is defined in the TSCA test guidelines...

  10. Sensing the effects of mouth breathing by using 3-tesla MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-A.; Kang, Chang-Ki

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effects of mouth breathing and typical nasal breathing on brain function by using blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The study had two parts: the first test was a simple contrast between mouth and nasal breathing, and the second test involved combined breathing modes, e.g., mouth inspiration and nasal expiration. Eleven healthy participants performed the combined breathing task while undergoing 3T fMRI. In the group-level analysis, contrast images acquired by using an individual participantlevel analysis were processed using the one-sample t test. We also conducted a region-of-interest analysis comparing signal intensity changes between the breathing modes; the region was selected using an automated anatomical labeling map. The results demonstrated that the BOLD signal in the hippocampus and brainstem was significantly decreased in mouth breathing relative to nasal breathing. On the other hand, both the precentral and postcentral gyri showed activation that was more significant in mouth breathing compared to nasal breathing. This study suggests that the BOLD activity patterns between mouth and nasal breathing may be induced differently, especially in the hippocampus, which could provide clues to explain the effects on brain cognitive function due to mouth breathing.

  11. Quantification of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastritis and ulcer disease using a simple and rapid carbon-14-urea breath test

    SciTech Connect

    Debongnie, J.C.; Pauwels, S.; Raat, A.

    1991-06-01

    Gastric urease was studied isotopically in 230 patients with biopsy-proven normal mucosa or chronic gastritis, including 59 patients with ulcer disease. Carbon-14-urea was given in 25 ml of water without substrate carrier or nutrient-dense meal, and breath samples were collected over a 60-min period. The amount of 14CO2 excreted at 10 min was independent of the rate of gastric emptying and was not quantitatively influenced by the buccal urease activity. The 10-min 14CO2 values discriminated well between Helicobacter pylori positive and negative patients (94% sensitivity, 89% specificity) and correlated with the number of organisms assessed by histology. The test wasmore » a good predictor of chronic gastritis (95% sensitivity and 96% specificity), and a quantitative relationship was observed between 14CO2 values and the severity and activity of the gastritis. In H. pylori positive patients, breath 14CO2 was found to be similar in patients with and without ulcer disease, suggesting that the number of bacteria is not a determining factor for the onset of ulceration.« less

  12. Legal Rights of Asbestos Exposure Victims. A Practical Legal Guide for People With Breathing and Other Medical Problems, Possibly Resulting from Exposure to Asbestos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberfeld, Roman M.; Hecht, Richard L.

    This practical legal guide for people with breathing and other medical problems, possibly resulting from exposure to asbestos, provides 19 questions and detailed answers about Asbestosis and other diseases resulting from asbestos exposure. Included is information concerning symptoms, difficulty of diagnosis, necessity of a detailed…

  13. Procedures in the 13C octanoic acid breath test for measurement of gastric emptying: analysis using Bland-Altman methods.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Miriam E; Shafat, Amir

    2010-08-01

    The (13)C octanoic acid breath test (OBT) was first developed as an alternative method of measuring gastric emptying (GE) to scintigraphy. There has been much debate about the test duration and how often measurements need to be taken. This study aims to address these issues. For 78 GE tests using the (13)C OBT, GE lag phase (T(lag)) was calculated while sampling more frequently than the recommended every 15 min. Comparisons between T(lag) were completed using Bland-Altman plots. Similarly, 4 or 6 h test durations were assessed to establish if they yield the same GE half time (T(half)). From one volunteer, samples were taken every 1 min for the first 30 min and then every 15 min until 6 h. GE times were then calculated using different combinations of sampling times. Evidence of a visible T(lag) was also explored from this data. Findings indicated that taking samples every 5 min for the first 30 min instead of every 15 min did not change the GE T(lag) based on Bland-Altman plots. The correlation between these two methods was also high (r(2) = 0.9957). The findings showed that the difference between the two sampling durations 4 and 6 h was large and the correlation between the methods was low (r(2) = 0.8335). Samples taken at a rate of one breath per min indicated lack of a visible T(lag). Sampling for the (13)C OBT should be completed every 15 min for 6 h.

  14. Hydrogen breath test for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance, is the routine sugar load the best one?

    PubMed

    Argnani, Fiorenza; Di Camillo, Mauro; Marinaro, Vanessa; Foglietta, Tiziana; Avallone, Veronica; Cannella, Carlo; Vernia, Piero

    2008-10-28

    To evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI) following a load of 12.5 g in patients diagnosed as high-grade malabsorbers using the hydrogen breath test (HBT)-25. Ninety patients showing high-grade malabsorption at HBT-25 were submitted to a second HBT with a lactose load of 12.5 g. Peak hydrogen production, area under the curve of hydrogen excretion and occurrence of symptoms were recorded. Only 16 patients (17.77%) with positive HBT-25 proved positive at HBT-12.5. Hydrogen production was lower as compared to HBT-25 (peak value 21.55 parts per million (ppm) +/- 29.54 SD vs 99.43 ppm +/- 40.01 SD; P < 0.001). Symptoms were present in only 13 patients. The absence of symptoms during the high-dose test has a high negative predictive value (0.84) for a negative low-dose test. The presence of symptoms during the first test was not useful for predicting a positive low-dose test (positive predictive value 0.06-0.31). Most patients with a positive HBT-25 normally absorb a lower dose of lactose and a strict lactose restriction on the basis of a "standard" HBT is, in most instances, unnecessary. Thus, the 25 g lactose tolerance test should probably be substituted by the 12.5 g test in the diagnosis of LI, and in providing dietary guidelines to patients with suspected lactose malabsorption/intolerance.

  15. Effect of DA-9701 on gastric emptying in a mouse model: assessment by ¹³C-octanoic acid breath test.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chul-Hyun; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Park, Hyeyeon; Baeg, Myong Ki; Park, Jae Myung

    2013-07-21

    To evaluate the effects of DA-9701 on the gastric emptying of a solid meal using the ¹³C-octanoic acid breath test in a mouse model. Male C57BL/6 mice aged > 8 wk and with body weights of 20-25 g were used in this study. The solid test meal consisted of 200 mg of egg yolk labeled with 1.5 L/g ¹³C-octanoic acid. The mice were placed in a 130 mL chamber flushed with air at a flow speed of 200 mL/min. Breath samples were collected for 6 h. The half-emptying time and lag phase were calculated using a modified power exponential model. To assess the reproducibility of the ¹³C-octanoic acid breath test, the breath test was performed two times at intervals of one week in ten mice without drug treatment. To assess the gastrokinetic effects of DA-9701, the breath test was performed three times in another twelve mice, with a randomized crossover sequence of three drug treatments: DA-9701 3 mg/kg, erythromycin 6 mg/kg, or saline. Each breath test was performed at an interval of one week. Repeatedly measured half gastric emptying time of ten mice without drug treatment showed 0.856 of the intraclass correlation coefficient for the half gastric emptying time (P = 0.004). The mean cumulative excretion curve for the ¹³C-octanoic acid breath test showed accelerated gastric emptying after DA-9701 treatment compared with the saline control (P = 0.028). The median half gastric emptying time after the DA-9701 treatment was significantly shorter than after the saline treatment [122.4 min (109.0-137.9 min) vs 134.5 min (128.4-167.0 min), respectively; P = 0.028] and similar to that after the erythromycin treatment [123.3 min (112.9-138.2 min)]. The lag phase, which was defined as the period taken to empty 15% of a meal, was significantly shorter after the DA-9701 treatment than after the saline treatment [48.1 min (44.6-57.1 min) vs 52.6 min (49.45-57.4 min), respectively; P = 0.049]. The novel prokinetic agent DA-9701 accelerated gastric emptying, assessed with repeated

  16. Exhaled breath analysis for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sutedja, Tom G.; Zimmerman, Paul V.

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer results in improved survival compared to diagnosis with more advanced disease. Early disease is not reliably indicated by symptoms. Because investigations such as bronchoscopy and needle biopsy have associated risks and substantial costs, they are not suitable for population screening. Hence new easily applicable tests, which can be used to screen individuals at risk, are required. Biomarker testing in exhaled breath samples is a simple, relatively inexpensive, non-invasive approach. Exhaled breath contains volatile and non-volatile organic compounds produced as end-products of metabolic processes and the composition of such compounds varies between healthy subjects and subjects with lung cancer. Many studies have analysed the patterns of these compounds in exhaled breath. In addition studies have also reported that the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) can reveal gene mutations or DNA abnormalities in patients with lung cancer. This review has summarised the scientific evidence demonstrating that lung cancer has distinct chemical profiles in exhaled breath and characteristic genetic changes in EBC. It is not yet possible to accurately identify individuals with lung cancer in at risk populations by any of these techniques. However, analysis of both volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and of EBC have great potential to become clinically useful diagnostic and screening tools for early stage lung cancer detection. PMID:24163746

  17. Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... with blood clots in the legs or pelvis (deep venous thrombosis), debilitating medical conditions, immobility, or inherited ... it hard for a person to take a deep breath, which usually results in retention of carbon ...

  18. Breathing difficulty

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003075.htm Breathing difficulty To use the sharing features on this page, ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  19. Breath odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... drain their stomach. The breath may have an ammonia-like odor (also described as urine-like or " ... Is there a specific odor (such as fish, ammonia, fruit, feces, or alcohol)? Have you recently eaten ...

  20. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... cabbage. And of course smoking causes its own bad smell. Some diseases and medicines can cause a specific breath odor. Having good dental habits, like brushing and flossing regularly, help fight bad ...

  1. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... for lunch. But certain strong-smelling foods like onions and garlic can cause bad breath. So can ... leave behind strong smells, like cabbage, garlic, raw onions, and coffee. If you’re trying to lose ...

  2. Breath sounds

    MedlinePlus

    The lung sounds are best heard with a stethoscope. This is called auscultation. Normal lung sounds occur ... the bottom of the rib cage. Using a stethoscope, the doctor may hear normal breathing sounds, decreased ...

  3. Bad Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... a lot, you may need to visit your dentist or doctor . What Causes Bad Breath? Here are ... particles wedged between your teeth. Also, visit your dentist twice a year for regular checkups and cleanings. ...

  4. Breathing Difficulties

    MedlinePlus

    ... frequently during the night (insomnia) Difficulty lying flat ALS and your lungs Breathing in and out is ... improve effective coughing. Techniques are explained in The ALS Association’s Living with ALS manual #6 “Adapting to ...

  5. Water cooling system for an air-breathing hypersonic test vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides concepts for hypersonic experimental scramjet test vehicles which have low cost and low risk. Cryogenic hydrogen is used as the fuel and coolant. Secondary water cooling systems were designed. Three concepts are shown: an all hydrogen cooling system, a secondary open loop water cooled system, and a secondary closed loop water cooled system. The open loop concept uses high pressure helium (15,000 psi) to drive water through the cooling system while maintaining the pressure in the water tank. The water flows through the turbine side of the turbopump to pump hydrogen fuel. The water is then allowed to vent. In the closed loop concept high pressure, room temperature, compressed liquid water is circulated. In flight water pressure is limited to 6000 psi by venting some of the water. Water is circulated through cooling channels via an ejector which uses high pressure gas to drive a water jet. The cooling systems are presented along with finite difference steady-state and transient analysis results. The results from this study indicate that water used as a secondary coolant can be designed to increase experimental test time, produce minimum venting of fluid and reduce overall development cost.

  6. 40 CFR 799.12 - Test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test results. 799.12 Section 799.12...) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 799.12 Test results. Except as set forth in specific chemical test rules in subpart B of this part, a positive or...

  7. 40 CFR 799.12 - Test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test results. 799.12 Section 799.12...) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 799.12 Test results. Except as set forth in specific chemical test rules in subpart B of this part, a positive or...

  8. The burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Middle East and North Africa: results of the BREATHE study.

    PubMed

    Uzaslan, Esra; Mahboub, Bassam; Beji, Majed; Nejjari, Chakib; Tageldin, Mohamed Awad; Khan, Javaid Ahmed; Nafti, Salim; Obeidat, Nathir M; Sayiner, Abdullah; Wali, Siraj; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader

    2012-12-01

    COPD is a progressive pulmonary disease which may have a profound impact on general health status and quality of life. This article presents data on the burden of COPD obtained from the BREATHE study in the Middle East, North Africa and Pakistan. This study was a large general population survey of COPD conducted in eleven countries of the region using a standardised methodology. A total of 62,086 subjects were screened, of whom 2,187 fulfilled the "epidemiological" definition of COPD. Data on symptoms, perceived disease severity, impact on work, limitations in activities and psychological distress were collected. 1,392 subjects were analysable of whom 661 (47.5%) reported experiencing an exacerbation of their respiratory condition, 49.4% reported comorbidities and 5.5% reported severe breathlessness as measured with the MRC breathlessness questionnaire. The degree of breathlessness, as well as the perceived severity, was correlated with the overall disease impact as measured with the COPD Assessment Test (p < 0.001). 374 subjects (28.4%) reported that their respiratory condition prevented them from working and this proportion rose to 47.8% in subjects who perceived their respiratory condition as severe. 47.9% of subjects reported difficulties in normal physical exertion, 37.5% in social activities and 31.7% in family activities. Psychological distress was reported by between 42.3% and 53.2% of subjects, depending on the item. In conclusion, the burden of COPD is important, and covers central aspects of daily life. For this reason, physicians should take time to discuss it with their patients, and ensure that the management strategy proposed addresses all their needs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Roaming through methodology. XXXII. False test results].

    PubMed

    van der Weijden, T; van den Akker, M

    2001-05-12

    The number of requests for diagnostic tests is rising. This leads to a higher chance of false test results. The false-negative proportion of a test is the proportion of negative test results among the diseased subjects. The false-positive proportion is the proportion of positive test results among the healthy subjects. The calculation of the false-positive proportion is often incorrect. For example, instead of 1 minus the specificity it is calculated as 1 minus the positive predictive value. This can lead to incorrect decision-making with respect to the application of the test. Physicians must apply diagnostic tests in such a way that the risk of false test results is minimal. The patient should be aware that a perfectly conclusive diagnostic test is rare in medical practice, and should more often be informed of the implications of false-positive and false-negative test results.

  10. Assessment of gastric emptying in non-obese diabetic mice using a [13C]-octanoic acid breath test.

    PubMed

    Creedon, Christopher T; Verhulst, Pieter-Jan; Choi, Kyoung M; Mason, Jessica E; Linden, David R; Szurszewski, Joseph H; Gibbons, Simon J; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2013-03-23

    Gastric emptying studies in mice have been limited by the inability to follow gastric emptying changes in the same animal since the most commonly used techniques require killing of the animals and postmortem recovery of the meal(1,2). This approach prevents longitudinal studies to determine changes in gastric emptying with age and progression of disease. The commonly used [(13)C]-octanoic acid breath test for humans(3) has been modified for use in mice(4-6) and rats(7) and we previously showed that this test is reliable and responsive to changes in gastric emptying in response to drugs and during diabetic disease progression(8). In this video presentation the principle and practical implementation of this modified test is explained. As in the previous study, NOD LtJ mice are used, a model of type 1 diabetes(9). A proportion of these mice develop the symptoms of gastroparesis, a complication of diabetes characterized by delayed gastric emptying without mechanical obstruction of the stomach(10). This paper demonstrates how to train the mice for testing, how to prepare the test meal and obtain 4 hr gastric emptying data and how to analyze the obtained data. The carbon isotope analyzer used in the present study is suitable for the automatic sampling of the air samples from up to 12 mice at the same time. This technique allows the longitudinal follow-up of gastric emptying from larger groups of mice with diabetes or other long-standing diseases.

  11. Sleep-disordered Breathing in Cardiac Rehabilitation: Prevalence, Predictors, and Influence on the Six-Minute Walk Test.

    PubMed

    Loo, Germaine; Chua, Ai-Ping; Tay, Hung-Yong; Poh, Ruth; Tai, Bee-Choo; Lee, Chi-Hang

    2016-06-01

    Identification of non-traditional risk factors is an important component of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). However, the prevalence and predictors of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and its influence on exercise performance in patients attending CR remain poorly described. Patients enrolled in a national CR centre were eligible for a comprehensive SDB screening program. Screening questionnaires for SDB, overnight sleep study, and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) were conducted. We recruited 332 patients (mean age 62±10 years, 62.4% male) attending CR for primary (29.2%) or secondary (70.8%) prevention, of which 209 successfully completed the overnight sleep study. Sleep-disordered breathing group patients (n=68, 32.5%) were older and had a higher body mass index (BMI) and neck and waist circumferences than the non-SDB group patients. After adjusting for neck and waist circumference, age (OR=1.06; 95% CI 1.02-1.10; p=0.001) and BMI (OR=1.19; 95% CI 1.10-1.30; p<0.001) remained independent predictors of SDB. A high risk of SDB based on the Berlin Questionnaire (43.4% versus 35.5%, p=0.277) or STOP-BANG questionnaire (63.2% versus 53.2%, p=0.170) and excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale >10, 23.9% versus 17.7%, p=0.297) were similar between the groups. The 6MWT scores were significantly lower in the SDB than non-SDB group (mean difference -32 m; 95% CI -57-7; p=0.013). The relationship was no longer significant after adjusting for age, sex, and waist circumference. Sleep-disordered breathing is prevalent in CR patients and is independently predicted by ageing and obesity. The association between SDB and poorer exercise performance may be explained by age, sex, and waist circumference. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test results? • What is the difference between the terms cervical ...

  13. Rapid CO breath test screening of drugs for protective effects on ribavirin-induced hemolysis in a rabbit model: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Hou-De; Wu, Chuang-Hong; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Ji, Yong-Qiang; Huang, Jia-Liang; Du, Li-Tao; Cao, Ping; Zang, De-Yue; Ji, Kun-Mei

    2016-08-10

    Hemolytic anemia is a major side effect of ribavirin antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Ribavirin dose reduction may compromise the antiviral response and erythropoietin can take several weeks to alleviate anemia. The purpose of the present study was to screen potentially protective drugs against ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia in a rabbit model, using our modified CO breath test for measuring erythrocyte (RBC) lifespan, the gold standard diagnostic index of hemolysis. Fifteen rabbits were divided randomly into five groups (N  =  3/group): one vehicle control group, one ribavirin (only)-treated (RBV) group, and three groups initially treated with ribavirin only, followed by a combination of ribavirin with prednisone (RBV  +  Pred), polyene phosphatidyl choline (RBV  +  PPC), or reduced glutathione (RBV  +  GSH). RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO measured in a closed rebreath apparatus, blood volume measured by the Evan's blue dye (EBD) dilution test, and hemoglobin concentration data. The RBC lifespan was normal in the vehicle control group (44-60 d), but reduced significantly in all of the ribavirin-treated groups before the addition of screened drugs (17-35 d). RBC lifespan rebounded significantly with the addition of glutathione, but not with the addition of prednisone or polyene phosphatidyl choline. A similar overall drug effect pattern was seen in the hemoglobin concentration and reticulocyte count data. In conclusion, the results of this pilot study indicate that reduced glutathione can attenuate ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia, and that the RBC lifespan measured with our modified rapid CO breath test is feasible and reliable for use in animal studies.

  14. Glucose hydrogen breath test for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Korterink, Judith J; Benninga, Marc A; van Wering, Herbert M; Deckers-Kocken, Judith M

    2015-04-01

    A potential link between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGID) has been suggested by symptom similarities and by the reported prevalence of SIBO in children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional AP. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of SIBO using the glucose hydrogen breath test (GHBT), in a cohort of Dutch children with AP-FGID fulfilling the Rome III criteria, and to identify potential predictors. Children ages 6 to 18 years with AP-FGID fulfilling the Rome III criteria were included. All of the children underwent a GHBT. SIBO was diagnosed if the fasting breath hydrogen concentration was ≥20 ppm or an increase in H2 levels of ≥12 ppm above the baseline value was measured after ingestion of glucose. Gastrointestinal symptoms were collected using a standardised AP questionnaire. A total of 161 Dutch children with AP-FGID were enrolled. Twenty-three patients (14.3%) were diagnosed as having SIBO, as assessed by GHBT; 78% of the children diagnosed as having SIBO had fasting hydrogen levels ≥20 ppm. IBS was significantly more found in children with SIBO compared with children without SIBO (P = 0.001). An altered defecation pattern (ie, change in frequency or form of stool) (P = 0.013), loss of appetite (P = 0.007), and belching (P = 0.023) were significantly more found in children with SIBO compared with those without SIBO. SIBO is present in 14.3% of children presenting with AP-FGID. IBS, altered defecation pattern, loss of appetite, and belching were predictors for SIBO in children with AP-FGID.

  15. Test 6, Test 7, and Gas Standard Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Horacio, III

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation shows results of analyses on odor, toxic off gassing and gas standards. The topics include: 1) Statistical Analysis Definitions; 2) Odor Analysis Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 6; 3) Toxic Off gassing Analysis Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 7; and 4) Gas Standard Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 7;

  16. Control of gill ventilation and air-breathing in the bowfin amia calva

    PubMed

    Hedrick; Jones

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of branchial and gas bladder reflex pathways in the control of gill ventilation and air-breathing in the bowfin Amia calva. We have previously determined that bowfin use two distinct air-breathing mechanisms to ventilate the gas bladder: type I air breaths are characterized by exhalation followed by inhalation, are stimulated by aquatic or aerial hypoxia and appear to regulate O2 gas exchange; type II air breaths are characterized by inhalation alone and possibly regulate gas bladder volume and buoyancy. In the present study, we test the hypotheses (1) that gill ventilation and type I air breaths are controlled by O2-sensitive chemoreceptors located in the branchial region, and (2) that type II air breaths are controlled by gas bladder mechanosensitive stretch receptors. Hypothesis 1 was tested by examining the effects of partial or complete branchial denervation of cranial nerves IX and X to the gill arches on gill ventilation frequency (fg) and the proportion of type I air breaths during normoxia and hypoxia; hypothesis II was tested by gas bladder inflation and deflation. Following complete bilateral branchial denervation, fg did not differ from that of sham-operated control fish; in addition, fg was not significantly affected by aquatic hypoxia in sham-operated or denervated fish. In sham-operated fish, aquatic hypoxia significantly increased overall air-breathing frequency (fab) and the percentage of type I breaths. In fish with complete IX-X branchial denervation, fab was also significantly increased during aquatic hypoxia, but there were equal percentages of type I and type II air breaths. Branchial denervation did not affect the frequency of type I air breaths during aquatic hypoxia. Gas bladder deflation via an indwelling catheter resulted in type II breaths almost exclusively; furthermore, fab was significantly correlated with the volume removed from the gas bladder, suggesting a volume

  17. Pulmonary Function Testing in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... breathing test. About 15 minutes after taking the medicine, your child will repeat the breathing test. The results from ... the first test to find out if the medicine has improved your child’s breathing. Why shouldn’t I give my child ...

  18. 32 CFR 634.37 - Voluntary breath and bodily fluid testing based on implied consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... physical control of a motor vehicle on the installation. (2) Reasonable suspicion exists to believe that... commanders will prescribe the type or types of chemical tests to be used. Testing will follow policies and... part may be used as evidence in courts-martial, nonjudicial proceedings under Article 15 of the UCMJ...

  19. 32 CFR 634.37 - Voluntary breath and bodily fluid testing based on implied consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... physical control of a motor vehicle on the installation. (2) Reasonable suspicion exists to believe that... commanders will prescribe the type or types of chemical tests to be used. Testing will follow policies and... part may be used as evidence in courts-martial, nonjudicial proceedings under Article 15 of the UCMJ...

  20. 32 CFR 634.37 - Voluntary breath and bodily fluid testing based on implied consent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... physical control of a motor vehicle on the installation. (2) Reasonable suspicion exists to believe that... commanders will prescribe the type or types of chemical tests to be used. Testing will follow policies and... part may be used as evidence in courts-martial, nonjudicial proceedings under Article 15 of the UCMJ...

  1. An inventory of aeronautical ground research facilities. Volume 2: Air breathing engine test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirrello, C. J.; Hardin, R. D.; Heckart, M. V.; Brown, K. R.

    1971-01-01

    The inventory covers free jet and direct connect altitude cells, sea level static thrust stands, sea level test cells with ram air, and propulsion wind tunnels. Free jet altitude cells and propulsion wind tunnels are used for evaluation of complete inlet-engine-exhaust nozzle propulsion systems under simulated flight conditions. These facilities are similar in principal of operation and differ primarily in test section concept. The propulsion wind tunnel provides a closed test section and restrains the flow around the test specimen while the free jet is allowed to expand freely. A chamber of large diameter about the free jet is provided in which desired operating pressure levels may be maintained. Sea level test cells with ram air provide controlled, conditioned air directly to the engine face for performance evaluation at low altitude flight conditions. Direct connect altitude cells provide a means of performance evaluation at simulated conditions of Mach number and altitude with air supplied to the flight altitude conditions. Sea level static thrust stands simply provide an instrumented engine mounting for measuring thrust at zero airspeed. While all of these facilities are used for integrated engine testing, a few provide engine component test capability.

  2. A simplified urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection using the LARA System. Laser Assisted Ratio Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Minoli, G; Prada, A; Schuman, R; Murnick, D; Rigas, B

    1998-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori, one of the most prevalent human pathogens, is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and possibly gastric cancer and primary gastric lymphoma. The need to treat these patients has necessitated the development of improved methods to diagnose H. pylori infection. We present the preliminary assessment of a 13C-urea breath test (UBT) in which the expired 13CO2 is detected in a rapid, simple, inexpensive way by the LARA (Laser Assisted Ratio Analyzer) System (Alimenterics, Inc., Morris Plains, NJ). Eighty-seven consecutive patients, examined for upper gastrointestinal symptoms, underwent endoscopy. H. pylori infection was established by antral biopsies and a rapid urease test (CLOtest). The UBT was performed between 2 and 24 hours after endoscopy. Of the 84 analyzable patients, 70 were found to be H. pylori-positive either by histology or by CLOtest. All 70 were positive by the LARA UBT, yielding a sensitivity of 100%. Fourteen patients were negative for H. pylori by histology and the CLOtest. Of these, 12 were negative by the LARA UBT and 2 were positive, yielding a specificity of 85.7%; because of the limitations of H. pylori detection by histology or urease assays, however, the specificity of the UBT may have been underestimated. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of a nonradioactive, rapid UBT based on the LARA system and suggests the need for its more detailed evaluation.

  3. Ventilation heterogeneity measured by multiple breath inert gas testing is not affected by inspired oxygen concentration in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Ann R.; Prisk, G. Kim; Darquenne, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Multiple breath washout (MBW) and oxygen-enhanced MRI techniques use acute exposure to 100% oxygen to measure ventilation heterogeneity. Implicit is the assumption that breathing 100% oxygen does not induce changes in ventilation heterogeneity; however, this is untested. We hypothesized that ventilation heterogeneity decreases with increasing inspired oxygen concentration in healthy subjects. We performed MBW in 8 healthy subjects (4 women, 4 men; age = 43 ± 15 yr) with normal pulmonary function (FEV1 = 98 ± 6% predicted) using 10% argon as a tracer gas and oxygen concentrations of 12.5%, 21%, or 90%. MBW was performed in accordance with ERS-ATS guidelines. Subjects initially inspired air followed by a wash-in of test gas. Tests were performed in balanced order in triplicate. Gas concentrations were measured at the mouth, and argon signals rescaled to mimic a N2 washout, and analyzed to determine the distribution of specific ventilation (SV). Heterogeneity was characterized by the width of a log-Gaussian fit of the SV distribution and from Sacin and Scond indexes derived from the phase III slope. There were no significant differences in the ventilation heterogeneity due to altered inspired oxygen: histogram width (hypoxia 0.57 ± 0.11, normoxia 0.60 ± 0.08, hyperoxia 0.59 ± 0.09, P = 0.51), Scond (hypoxia 0.014 ± 0.011, normoxia 0.012 ± 0.015, hyperoxia 0.010 ± 0.011, P = 0.34), or Sacin (hypoxia 0.11 ± 0.04, normoxia 0.10 ± 0.03, hyperoxia 0.12 ± 0.03, P = 0.23). Functional residual capacity was increased in hypoxia (P = 0.04) and dead space increased in hyperoxia (P = 0.0001) compared with the other conditions. The acute use of 100% oxygen in MBW or MRI is unlikely to affect ventilation heterogeneity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Hyperoxia is used to measure the distribution of ventilation in imaging and MBW but may alter the underlying ventilation distribution. We used MBW to evaluate the effect of inspired oxygen concentration on the ventilation distribution

  4. Ventilation heterogeneity measured by multiple breath inert gas testing is not affected by inspired oxygen concentration in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Susan R; Elliott, Ann R; Prisk, G Kim; Darquenne, Chantal

    2017-06-01

    Multiple breath washout (MBW) and oxygen-enhanced MRI techniques use acute exposure to 100% oxygen to measure ventilation heterogeneity. Implicit is the assumption that breathing 100% oxygen does not induce changes in ventilation heterogeneity; however, this is untested. We hypothesized that ventilation heterogeneity decreases with increasing inspired oxygen concentration in healthy subjects. We performed MBW in 8 healthy subjects (4 women, 4 men; age = 43 ± 15 yr) with normal pulmonary function (FEV 1 = 98 ± 6% predicted) using 10% argon as a tracer gas and oxygen concentrations of 12.5%, 21%, or 90%. MBW was performed in accordance with ERS-ATS guidelines. Subjects initially inspired air followed by a wash-in of test gas. Tests were performed in balanced order in triplicate. Gas concentrations were measured at the mouth, and argon signals rescaled to mimic a N 2 washout, and analyzed to determine the distribution of specific ventilation (SV). Heterogeneity was characterized by the width of a log-Gaussian fit of the SV distribution and from S acin and S cond indexes derived from the phase III slope. There were no significant differences in the ventilation heterogeneity due to altered inspired oxygen: histogram width (hypoxia 0.57 ± 0.11, normoxia 0.60 ± 0.08, hyperoxia 0.59 ± 0.09, P = 0.51), S cond (hypoxia 0.014 ± 0.011, normoxia 0.012 ± 0.015, hyperoxia 0.010 ± 0.011, P = 0.34), or S acin (hypoxia 0.11 ± 0.04, normoxia 0.10 ± 0.03, hyperoxia 0.12 ± 0.03, P = 0.23). Functional residual capacity was increased in hypoxia ( P = 0.04) and dead space increased in hyperoxia ( P = 0.0001) compared with the other conditions. The acute use of 100% oxygen in MBW or MRI is unlikely to affect ventilation heterogeneity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Hyperoxia is used to measure the distribution of ventilation in imaging and MBW but may alter the underlying ventilation distribution. We used MBW to evaluate the effect of inspired oxygen concentration on the ventilation

  5. Radiative, actively cooled panel tests results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, C. P.; Nowak, R. J.; Sharpe, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    The radiative, actively cooled panel designed to withstand a uniform incident heat flux of 136 kW/sq m to a 444 K surface temperature was evaluated. The test program consisted of preliminary static thermal mechanical loading and aerothermal flow tests. Test results are briefly discussed.

  6. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  7. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  8. Just Breathe: The Effects of Emotional Dysregulation and Test Anxiety on GPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Samantha D.; Wasieleski, David T.; Whatley, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    College is considered to be one of the most evaluative and stressful times during a student's academic career. A student's inability to regulate emotions may be correlated with an increased level of test anxiety. Previous research has indicated significant relationships between emotional dysregulation and generalized anxiety disorders (e.g.,…

  9. Results of steel containment vessel model test

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, V.K.; Ludwigsen, J.S.; Hessheimer, M.F.

    A series of static overpressurization tests of scale models of nuclear containment structures is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Two tests are being conducted: (1) a test of a model of a steel containment vessel (SCV) and (2) a test of a model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). This paper summarizes the conduct of the high pressure pneumatic test of the SCV model and the results of that test. Results of this test are summarized and are compared with pretest predictions performed bymore » the sponsoring organizations and others who participated in a blind pretest prediction effort. Questions raised by this comparison are identified and plans for posttest analysis are discussed.« less

  10. Breathing exercises for dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Jones, Mandy; Harvey, Alex; Marston, Louise; O'Connell, Neil E

    2013-05-31

    Dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome (DB/HVS) is a respiratory disorder, psychologically or physiologically based, involving breathing too deeply and/or too rapidly (hyperventilation) or erratic breathing interspersed with breath-holding or sighing (DB). DB/HVS can result in significant patient morbidity and an array of symptoms including breathlessness, chest tightness, dizziness, tremor and paraesthesia. DB/HVS has an estimated prevalence of 9.5% in the general adult population, however, there is little consensus regarding the most effective management of this patient group. (1) To determine whether breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS have beneficial effects as measured by quality of life indices (2) To determine whether there are any adverse effects of breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS SEARCH METHODS: We identified trials for consideration using both electronic and manual search strategies. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and four other databases. The latest search was in February 2013. We planned to include randomised, quasi-randomised or cluster randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which breathing exercises, or a combined intervention including breathing exercises as a key component, were compared with either no treatment or another therapy that did not include breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS. Observational studies, case studies and studies utilising a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion.We considered any type of breathing exercise for inclusion in this review, such as breathing control, diaphragmatic breathing, yoga breathing, Buteyko breathing, biofeedback-guided breathing modification, yawn/sigh suppression. Programs where exercises were either supervised or unsupervised were eligible as were relaxation techniques and acute-episode management, as long as it was clear that breathing exercises were a key component of the intervention.We excluded any intervention without breathing exercises or

  11. Workplace Breathing Rates: Defining Anticipated Values and Ranges for Respirator Certification Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Test participants cleared heavy, wet snow with either a shovel or an electric snow thrower in random order, with 10- to 15-minute rest periods between...automated snow thrower . Using the average subject population weight of 85.7 kg, estimated Po2 in L-min-l would be about 1.71 L-min-’ for shoveling and 0.72

  12. The caffeine breath test and caffeine urinary metabolite ratios in the Michigan cohort exposed to polybrominated biphenyls: A preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, G.H.; Schoeller, D.A.; Kotake, A.N.

    1990-11-01

    A field biochemical epidemiology study was conducted using the Michigan cohort consisting of 51 rural residents exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB). The study had three major objectives: (a) to determine the serum half-life of the major PBB congener, hexabromobiphenyl (HBB), in the human, (b) to determine if the PBB-exposed subjects had elevated cytochrome P-450I function as determined by the caffeine breath test (CBT) and the caffeine urinary metabolite ratio (CMR), and (c) to determine the applicability of the CBT and CMR in field studies. PBB serum levels were detected in 36 of the 51 PBB-exposed subjects. The serum half-life ofmore » HBB was determined by comparing the current serum HBB values to the subject's previous serum values obtained 5 to 8 years earlier. The median HBB half-life was 12 years (range 4-97 years). The CBT and CMR were elevated in the subjects exposed to PBBs as compared to the values obtained from urban nonsmokers and were similar to those found in adults who smoke. A gender effect was seen in the PBB-exposed subjects. There was a correlation between the CBT and the HBB serum values but not between CMR and HBB serum values. The CBT and CMR were easily conducted in the field and appear to be useful metabolic probes of cytochrome P-450I activity in human environmental toxicology.« less

  13. System analysis and test-bed for an atmosphere-breathing electric propulsion system using an inductive plasma thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, F.; Massuti-Ballester, B.; Binder, T.; Herdrich, G.; Fasoulas, S.; Schönherr, T.

    2018-06-01

    Challenging space mission scenarios include those in low altitude orbits, where the atmosphere creates significant drag to the S/C and forces their orbit to an early decay. For drag compensation, propulsion systems are needed, requiring propellant to be carried on-board. An atmosphere-breathing electric propulsion system (ABEP) ingests the residual atmosphere particles through an intake and uses them as propellant for an electric thruster. Theoretically applicable to any planet with atmosphere, the system might allow to orbit for unlimited time without carrying propellant. A new range of altitudes for continuous operation would become accessible, enabling new scientific missions while reducing costs. Preliminary studies have shown that the collectible propellant flow for an ion thruster (in LEO) might not be enough, and that electrode erosion due to aggressive gases, such as atomic oxygen, will limit the thruster lifetime. In this paper an inductive plasma thruster (IPT) is considered for the ABEP system. The starting point is a small scale inductively heated plasma generator IPG6-S. These devices are electrodeless and have already shown high electric-to-thermal coupling efficiencies using O2 and CO2 . The system analysis is integrated with IPG6-S tests to assess mean mass-specific energies of the plasma plume and estimate exhaust velocities.

  14. Individuality of breathing during volitional moderate hyperventilation.

    PubMed

    Besleaga, Tudor; Blum, Michaël; Briot, Raphaël; Vovc, Victor; Moldovanu, Ion; Calabrese, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the individuality of airflow shapes during volitional hyperventilation. Ventilation was recorded on 18 healthy subjects following two protocols: (1) spontaneous breathing (SP1) followed by a volitional hyperventilation at each subject's spontaneous (HVSP) breathing rate, (2) spontaneous breathing (SP2) followed by hyperventilation at 20/min (HV20). HVSP and HV20 were performed at the same level of hypocapnia: end tidal CO2 (FETCO2) was maintained at 1% below the spontaneous level. At each breath, the tidal volume (VT), the breath (TTOT), the inspiratory (TI) and expiratory durations, the minute ventilation, VT/TI, TI/TTOT and the airflow shape were quantified by harmonic analysis. Under different conditions of breathing, we test if the airflow profiles of the same individual are more similar than airflow profiles between individuals. Minute ventilation was not significantly different between SP1 (6.71 ± 1.64 l·min(-1)) and SP2 (6.57 ± 1.31 l·min(-1)) nor between HVSP (15.88 ± 4.92 l·min(-1)) and HV20 (15.87 ± 4.16 l·min(-1)). Similar results were obtained for FETCO2 between SP1 (5.06 ± 0.54 %) and SP2 (5.00 ± 0.51%), and HVSP (4.07 ± 0.51%) and HV20 (3.88 ± 0.42%). Only TI/TTOT remained unchanged in all four conditions. Airflow shapes were similar when comparing SP1-SP2, HVSP-HV20, and SP1-HVSP but not similar when comparing SP2-HV20. These results suggest the existence of an individuality of airflow shape during volitional hyperventilation. We conclude that volitional ventilation alike automatic breathing follows inherent properties of the ventilatory system. Registered by Pascale Calabrese on ClinicalTrials.gov, # NCT01881945.

  15. Ordering Molecular Genetic Tests and Reporting Results

    PubMed Central

    Lubin, Ira M.; Caggana, Michele; Constantin, Carolyn; Gross, Susan J.; Lyon, Elaine; Pagon, Roberta A.; Trotter, Tracy L.; Wilson, Jean Amos; McGovern, Margaret M.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that patient care may be compromised as a consequence of poor communication between clinicians and laboratory professionals in cases in which molecular genetic test results are reported. To understand better the contributing factors to such compromised care, we investigated both pre- and postanalytical processes using cystic fibrosis mutation analysis as our model. We found that although the majority of test requisition forms requested patient/family information that was necessary for the proper interpretation of test results, in many cases, these data were not provided by the individuals filling out the forms. We found instances in which result reports for simulated diagnostic testing described individuals as carriers where only a single mutation was found with no comment pertaining to a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. Similarly, reports based on simulated scenarios for carrier testing were problematic when no mutations were identified, and the patient's race/ethnicity and family history were not discussed in reference to residual risk of disease. Remarkably, a pilot survey of obstetrician-gynecologists revealed that office staff, including secretaries, often helped order genetic tests and reported test results to patients, raising questions about what efforts are undertaken to ensure personnel competency. These findings are reviewed in light of what efforts should be taken to improve the quality of test-ordering and result-reporting practices. PMID:18669879

  16. Portable Breathing Assembly

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-12

    In the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Jacobs Test and Operations Support Contract, or TOSC, technicians fill portable breathing apparatuses, or PBAS. The PBAs are to be use on board the International Space Staton to provide astronauts with breathable air in the event of a fire or other emergency situation.

  17. Results from Carbon Dioxide Washout Testing Using a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus with a Space Suit Ventilation Test Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chullen, Cinda; Conger, Bruce; McMillin, Summer; Vonau, Walt; Kanne, Bryan; Korona, Adam; Swickrath, Mike

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) to meet the needs of a new NASA advanced space suit. The PLSS is one of the most critical aspects of the space suit providing the necessary oxygen, ventilation, and thermal protection for an astronaut performing a spacewalk. The ventilation subsystem in the PLSS must provide sufficient carbon dioxide (CO2) removal and ensure that the CO2 is washed away from the oronasal region of the astronaut. CO2 washout is a term used to describe the mechanism by which CO2 levels are controlled within the helmet to limit the concentration of CO2 inhaled by the astronaut. Accumulation of CO2 in the helmet or throughout the ventilation loop could cause the suited astronaut to experience hypercapnia (excessive carbon dioxide in the blood). A suited manikin test apparatus (SMTA) integrated with a space suit ventilation test loop was designed, developed, and assembled at NASA in order to experimentally validate adequate CO2 removal throughout the PLSS ventilation subsystem and to quantify CO2 washout performance under various conditions. The test results from this integrated system will be used to validate analytical models and augment human testing. This paper presents the system integration of the PLSS ventilation test loop with the SMTA including the newly developed regenerative Rapid Cycle Amine component used for CO2 removal and tidal breathing capability to emulate the human. The testing and analytical results of the integrated system are presented along with future work.

  18. Recent Radiation Test Results for Power MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Topper, Alyson D.; Casey, Megan C.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Phan, Anthony M.; Kim, Hak S.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Single-event effect (SEE) and total ionizing dose (TID) test results are presented for various hardened and commercial power metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs), including vertical planar, trench, superjunction, and lateral process designs.

  19. Module Hipot and ground continuity test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Hipot (high voltage potential) and module frame continuity tests of solar energy conversion modules intended for deployment into large arrays are discussed. The purpose of the tests is to reveal potentially hazardous voltage conditions in installed modules, and leakage currents that may result in loss of power or cause ground fault system problems, i.e., current leakage potential and leakage voltage distribution. The tests show a combined failure rate of 36% (69% when environmental testing is included). These failure rates are believed easily corrected by greater care in fabrication.

  20. Low Emissions RQL Flametube Combustor Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Clarence T.; Holdeman, James D.

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of this test program was to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of the Rich-burn/Quick-mix/Lean-burn (RQL) combustor concept for HSR applications. This test program was in support of the Pratt & Whitney and GE Aircraft Engines HSR low-NOx Combustor Program. Collaborative programs with Parker Hannifin Corporation and Textron Fuel Systems resulted in the development and testing of the high-flow low-NOx rich-burn zone fuel-to-air ratio research fuel nozzles used in this test program. Based on the results obtained in this test program, several conclusions can be made: (1) The RQL tests gave low NOx and CO emissions results at conditions corresponding to HSR cruise. (2) The Textron fuel nozzle design with optimal multiple partitioning of fuel and air circuits shows potential of providing an acceptable uniform local fuel-rich region in the rich burner. (3) For the parameters studied in this test series, the tests have shown T3 is the dominant factor in the NOx formation for RQL combustors. As T3 increases from 600 to 1100 F, EI(NOx) increases approximately three fold. (4) Factors which appear to have secondary influence on NOx formation are P4, T4, infinity(sub rb), V(sub ref,ov). (5) Low smoke numbers were measured for infinity(sub rb) of 2.0 at P4 of 120 psia.

  1. Cryogenic Test Results of Hextek Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James; Stahl, H. Philip; Eng, Ron; Hogue, William

    2004-01-01

    A 250 mm diameter lightweight borosilicate mirror has been interferometrically tested from room-temperature down to 30 K at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The minor blank was manufactured by Hextek Corporation using a high-temperature gas fusion process and was then polished at MSFC. It is a sandwich-type mirror consisting of a thin face-sheet (approx.1.5 mm thick), a core structure (20 mm thick, approx.43 mm diameter cells, & 0.5-1.2 mm thick walls), and a thin back-sheet (3 mm thick). The mirror has a 2500 mm spherical radius-of- curvature @/lo). The areal density is 14 kg/sq m. The mirror was tested in the 1 m x 2 m chamber using an Instantaneous Phase Interferometer (PI) from ADE Phase Shift Technologies. The mirror was tested twice. The first test measured the change in surface figure from ambient to 30 K and the repeatability of the change. An attempt was then made by QED Technologies to cryo-figure the mirror using magnetorheological finishing. The second test measured the effectiveness of the cryo- figuring. This paper will describe the test goals, the test instrumentation, and the test results for these cryogenic tests.

  2. NEXT Single String Integration Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.; Pinero, Luis; Herman, Daniel A.; Snyder, Steven John

    2010-01-01

    As a critical part of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) test validation process, a single string integration test was performed on the NEXT ion propulsion system. The objectives of this test were to verify that an integrated system of major NEXT ion propulsion system elements meets project requirements, to demonstrate that the integrated system is functional across the entire power processor and xenon propellant management system input ranges, and to demonstrate to potential users that the NEXT propulsion system is ready for transition to flight. Propulsion system elements included in this system integration test were an engineering model ion thruster, an engineering model propellant management system, an engineering model power processor unit, and a digital control interface unit simulator that acted as a test console. Project requirements that were verified during this system integration test included individual element requirements ; integrated system requirements, and fault handling. This paper will present the results of these tests, which include: integrated ion propulsion system demonstrations of performance, functionality and fault handling; a thruster re-performance acceptance test to establish baseline performance: a risk-reduction PMS-thruster integration test: and propellant management system calibration checks.

  3. Investigation of Metabolism of Exogenous Glucose at the Early Stage and Onset of Diabetes Mellitus in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty Rats Using [1, 2, 3-13C]Glucose Breath Tests

    PubMed Central

    Kijima, Sho; Tanaka, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in glucose metabolism at the early stage and onset of diabetes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Specifically, after the oral administration of [1, 2, 3-13C]glucose, the levels of exhaled 13CO2, which most likely originated from pyruvate decarboxylation and tricarboxylic acid, were measured. Eight OLETF rats and eight control rats (Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO]) were administered 13C-glucose. Three types of 13C-glucose breath tests were performed thrice in each period at 2-week intervals. [3-13C]glucose results in a 13C isotope at position 1 in the pyruvate molecule, which provides 13CO2. The 13C at carbons 1 and 2 of glucose is converted to 13C at carbons 2 and 1 of acetate, respectively, which produce 13CO2. Based on metabolic differences of the labeled sites, glucose metabolism was evaluated using the results of three breath tests. The increase in 13CO2 excretion in OLETF rats was delayed in all three breath tests compared to that in control rats, suggesting that OLETF rats had a lower glucose metabolism than control rats. In addition, overall glucose metabolism increased with age in both groups. The utilization of [2-13C]glucose was suppressed in OLETF rats at 6–12 weeks of age, but they showed higher [3-13C]glucose oxidation than control rats at 22–25 weeks of age. In the [1-13C]glucose breath test, no significant differences in the area under the curve until 180 minutes (AUC180) were observed between OLETF and LETO rats of any age. Glucose metabolism kinetics were different between the age groups and two groups of rats; however, these differences were not significant based on the overall AUC180 of [1-13C]glucose. We conclude that breath 13CO2 excretion is reduced in OLETF rats at the primary stage of prediabetes, indicating differences in glucose oxidation kinetics between OLETF and LETO rats. PMID:27483133

  4. Investigation of Metabolism of Exogenous Glucose at the Early Stage and Onset of Diabetes Mellitus in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty Rats Using [1, 2, 3-13C]Glucose Breath Tests.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Naoyuki; Kano, Osamu; Kijima, Sho; Tanaka, Hideki; Takayanagi, Masaaki; Urita, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in glucose metabolism at the early stage and onset of diabetes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Specifically, after the oral administration of [1, 2, 3-13C]glucose, the levels of exhaled 13CO2, which most likely originated from pyruvate decarboxylation and tricarboxylic acid, were measured. Eight OLETF rats and eight control rats (Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO]) were administered 13C-glucose. Three types of 13C-glucose breath tests were performed thrice in each period at 2-week intervals. [3-13C]glucose results in a 13C isotope at position 1 in the pyruvate molecule, which provides 13CO2. The 13C at carbons 1 and 2 of glucose is converted to 13C at carbons 2 and 1 of acetate, respectively, which produce 13CO2. Based on metabolic differences of the labeled sites, glucose metabolism was evaluated using the results of three breath tests. The increase in 13CO2 excretion in OLETF rats was delayed in all three breath tests compared to that in control rats, suggesting that OLETF rats had a lower glucose metabolism than control rats. In addition, overall glucose metabolism increased with age in both groups. The utilization of [2-13C]glucose was suppressed in OLETF rats at 6-12 weeks of age, but they showed higher [3-13C]glucose oxidation than control rats at 22-25 weeks of age. In the [1-13C]glucose breath test, no significant differences in the area under the curve until 180 minutes (AUC180) were observed between OLETF and LETO rats of any age. Glucose metabolism kinetics were different between the age groups and two groups of rats; however, these differences were not significant based on the overall AUC180 of [1-13C]glucose. We conclude that breath 13CO2 excretion is reduced in OLETF rats at the primary stage of prediabetes, indicating differences in glucose oxidation kinetics between OLETF and LETO rats.

  5. The Diagnostic Validity of the 13C-Urea Breath Test in the Gastrectomized Patients: Single Tertiary Center Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Yong Hwan; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Ju Yup; Choi, Yoon Jin; Yoon, Kichul; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Dong Ho

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic validity of the 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) in the remnant stomach after partial gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Methods: The 13C-UBT results after Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy was compared with the results of endoscopic biopsy-based methods in the patients who have received partial gastrectomy for the gastric cancer. Results: Among the gastrectomized patients who showed the positive 13C-UBT results (≥ 2.5‰, n = 47) and negative 13C-UBT results (< 2.5‰, n = 114) after H. pylori eradication, 26 patients (16.1%) and 4 patients (2.5%) were found to show false positive and false negative results based on biopsy-based methods, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate, and false negative rate for the cut-off value of 2.5‰ were 84.0%, 80.9%, 19.1%, and 16.0%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 44.7% and 96.5%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, two or more H. pylori eradication therapies (odds ratio = 3.248, 95% confidence interval= 1.088–9.695, P = 0.035) was associated with a false positive result of the 13C-UBT. Conclusions: After partial gastrectomy, a discordant result was shown in the positive 13C-UBT results compared to the endoscopic biopsy methods for confirming the H. pylori status after eradication. Additional endoscopic biopsy-based H. pylori tests would be helpful to avoid unnecessary treatment for H. pylori eradication in these cases. PMID:25574466

  6. Rockwell-Rocketdyne flywheel test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, R. S., Jr.; Babelay, E. F., Jr.; Sutton, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of the spin test evaluation of the Rockwell-Rocketdyne RPE-10 design flywheel at the Oak Ridge Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory. Details of the static evaluation, including measures of weight, inertia, natural frequencies, and radiography, are also presented. The flywheel was subjected to seven spin cycles with a maximum of 383 rps, 105% of design speed. At that speed, the energy stored was 1.94 kWhr at 36.1 Whr/kg. The maximum speed was limited by the inability of the test facility to accommodate the increasing eccentric shift of both hub disks with increasing speed. No material degradation was observed during the testing.

  7. SPECT Analysis of Cardiac Perfusion Changes After Whole-Breast/Chest Wall Radiation Therapy With or Without Active Breathing Coordinator: Results of a Randomized Phase 3 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Zellars, Richard, E-mail: zellari@jhmi.edu; Bravo, Paco E.; Tryggestad, Erik

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Cardiac muscle perfusion, as determined by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), decreases after breast and/or chest wall (BCW) irradiation. The active breathing coordinator (ABC) enables radiation delivery when the BCW is farther from the heart, thereby decreasing cardiac exposure. We hypothesized that ABC would prevent radiation-induced cardiac toxicity and conducted a randomized controlled trial evaluating myocardial perfusion changes after radiation for left-sided breast cancer with or without ABC. Methods and Materials: Stages I to III left breast cancer patients requiring adjuvant radiation therapy (XRT) were randomized to ABC or No-ABC. Myocardial perfusion was evaluated by SPECT scans (before andmore » 6 months after BCW radiation) using 2 methods: (1) fully automated quantitative polar mapping; and (2) semiquantitative visual assessment. The left ventricle was divided into 20 segments for the polar map and 17 segments for the visual method. Segments were grouped by anatomical rings (apical, mid, basal) or by coronary artery distribution. For the visual method, 2 nuclear medicine physicians, blinded to treatment groups, scored each segment's perfusion. Scores were analyzed with nonparametric tests and linear regression. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 57 patients were enrolled and 43 were available for analysis. The cohorts were well matched. The apical and left anterior descending coronary artery segments had significant decreases in perfusion on SPECT scans in both ABC and No-ABC cohorts. In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, controlling for pretreatment perfusion score, age, and chemotherapy, ABC was not significantly associated with prevention of perfusion deficits. Conclusions: In this randomized controlled trial, ABC does not appear to prevent radiation-induced cardiac perfusion deficits.« less

  8. BREATHE to Understand©

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  9. MUC-4 Test Results and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 MUC3 MUC4 STEMS 15,285 INFLECTED FORMS 14,56 1 TOTALS est at 10,000...34 . As an indication of system development during MUC4 , we can compare our TST3 results with our results on th e MUC-4 interim test (TST2) . The relevant... MUC4 Interim Test) Summary Scores SLOT POS ACT COR PAR INC ICR IPA SPU MIS NON REC PRE OVG inc-total 529 1189 160 63 24 0 23 942 282 718 36 16 79 perp

  10. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  11. Ball Aerospace SBMD Coating Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Robert; Lightsey, Paul; Russell, J. Kevin (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Sub-scale Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator that was successfully tested to demonstrate cryogenic figuring of a bare mirror has been coated with a protected gold reflective surface and retested at cryogenic temperatures. Results showing less than 9 nm rms surface distortion attributable to the added coating are presented.

  12. [Significance of test results in drug hypersensitivity].

    PubMed

    Wozniak, K D

    1977-12-15

    For the diagnostics of allergic drug reactions in 2,246 patients tests of the skin and in vitro tests were carried out. As causes of the drug rashes analgetics/antipyretics, antibiotics, sulfonamides, local anaesthetics, oral anticonceptive drugs, remedies for the circulation, psychopharmaca and many others have been established. In these cases by means of skin test in 81.5%, by means of the lymphocyte transformation test in 42.9% and by means of the migration inhibition test in 35.9% of the patients a concordant result could be achieved concerning the clinical course of the disease. Relevant to practice from the results must be derived that in sensibilisation proved the avoidance of the pharmacon and of immunochemical related substances is necessary as well as principally in every anamnesis the question for drug tolerances must be asked. The possibility of the development of side effects of pharmaca when these facts are not taken into consideration is emphasized with the help of examples.

  13. Rockwell-Rocketdyne flywheel test results

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R.S. Jr.; Babelay, E.F. Jr.; Sutton, B.J.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of the spin test evaluation of the Rockwell-Rocketdyne RPE-10 design flywheel at the Oak Ridge Flywheel Evaluation Laboratory. Details of the static evaluation, including measures of weight, inertia, natural frequencies, and radiography, are also presented. The flywheel was subjected to seven spin cycles with a maximum of 383 rps, 105% of design speed. At that speed, the energy stored was 1.94 kWhr at 36.1 Whr/kg. The maximum speed was limited by the inability of the test facility to accommodate the increasing eccentric shift of both hub disks with increasing speed. No material degradation was observed during themore » testing.« less

  14. Validation of a new mixing chamber system for breath-by-breath indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Yeon; Robergs, Robert Andrew

    2012-02-01

    Limited validation research exists for applications of breath-by-breath systems of expired gas analysis indirect calorimetry (EGAIC) during exercise. We developed improved hardware and software for breath-by-breath indirect calorimetry (NEW) and validated this system as well as a commercial system (COM) against 2 methods: (i) mechanical ventilation with known calibration gas, and (ii) human subjects testing for 5 min each at rest and cycle ergometer exercise at 100 and 175 W. Mechanical calibration consisted of medical grade and certified calibration gas ((4.95% CO(2), 12.01% O(2), balance N(2)), room air (20.95% O(2), 0.03% CO(2), balance N(2)), and 100% nitrogen), and an air flow turbine calibrated with a 3-L calibration syringe. Ventilation was mimicked manually using complete 3-L calibration syringe manouvers at a rate of 10·min(-1) from a Douglas bag reservoir of calibration gas. The testing of human subjects was completed in a counterbalanced sequence based on 5 repeated tests of all conditions for a single subject. Rest periods of 5 and 10 min followed the 100 and 175 W conditions, respectively. COM and NEW had similar accuracy when tested with known ventilation and gas fractions. However, during human subjects testing COM significantly under-measured carbon dioxide gas fractions, over-measured oxygen gas fractions and minute ventilation, and resulted in errors to each of oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide output, and respiratory exchange ratio. These discrepant findings reveal that controlled ventilation and gas fractions are insufficient to validate breath-by-breath, and perhaps even time-averaged, systems of EGAIC. The errors of the COM system reveal the need for concern over the validity of commercial systems of EGAIC.

  15. Potential use of metabolic breath tests to assess liver disease and prognosis: has the time arrived for routine use in the clinic?

    PubMed

    Stravitz, R Todd; Ilan, Yaron

    2017-03-01

    The progression of liver disease may be unique among organ system diseases in that progressive fibrosis compromises not only the sufficiency of hepatocyte mass but also impairs blood flow to the liver, resulting in porto-systemic shunting. Although liver biopsy as an assessment of fibrosis has become the key biomarker of and target for new therapies, it is invasive and subject to sampling error, and cannot quantify metabolic function or porto-systemic shunting. Measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient accommodates some of the deficiencies of biopsy but requires expertise not widely available and misses minor changes in hepatocellular mass and thereby information about metabolic function. Thus, an unmet need in clinical hepatology remains unfulfilled: a noninvasive biomarker which quantitates both the hepatocellular insufficiency and porto-systemic shunting inherent in progressive hepatic fibrosis. Ideally, such a biomarker should correlate with clinical endpoints including liver-related survival and cirrhotic complications, be performed at the point-of-care, and be affordable and easy to use. This review, an expert opinion, summarizes background and recent data suggesting that metabolic breath tests may now meet these requirements and have a valid place in clinical hepatology to supplant the time-honoured assessment of hepatic fibrosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effect of fructose-reduced diet in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, and its correlation to a standard fructose breath test.

    PubMed

    Berg, Leif Kyrre; Fagerli, Erik; Martinussen, Marit; Myhre, Arnt-Otto; Florholmen, Jon; Goll, Rasmus

    2013-08-01

    To perform a validation of dairy registrations for use as diagnostic tool in IBS and fructose malabsorption (FM). To investigate the precision of the fructose breath test (FBT) as compared with symptom score reduction on fructose-reduced diet (FRD) in a cohort of patients with Rome II defined irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). IBS patients diagnosed according to the Rome II criteria and with no organic gastrointestinal disease were enrolled. The patients were randomized in an open study design with a 2 week run-in on IBS diet, followed by 4 weeks w/wo additional FRD. FBT was performed in all patients. Dairy registrations of stool frequency and consistency as well as abdominal pain/discomfort and bloating on a visual analog scale (VAS) were performed during the whole study. A total of 182 subjects performed the study according to protocol (88 FRD, 94 controls). The VAS symptom registration performed well in validation procedures, whereas stool data showed less impressive characteristics. FRD improved symptom scores (abdominal pain/discomfort and bloating) significantly whereas no changes were observed in the control group. The effect of FRD on the stool frequency was modest but no effect was observed on the stool consistency. The FBT did not discriminate between patients with and without effect of FRD, and even in the group with a negative FBT significant improvement of symptom scores was observed. VAS measures yield reliable symptom evaluation in dairy registrations of IBS. FRD improves symptom scores in IBS patients independent of results from the FBT.

  17. Laboratory results of the AOF system testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Johann; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Arsenault, Robin; Oberti, Sylvain; Paufique, Jérôme; La Penna, Paolo; Ströbele, Stefan; Donaldson, Robert; Soenke, Christian; Suárez Valles, Marcos; Kiekebusch, Mario; Argomedo, Javier; Le Louarn, Miska; Vernet, Elise; Haguenauer, Pierre; Duhoux, Philippe; Aller-Carpentier, Emmanuel; Valenzuela, Jose Javier; Guerra, Juan Carlos

    2016-07-01

    For two years starting in February 2014, the AO modules GRAAL for HAWK-I and GALACSI for MUSE of the Adaptive Optics Facility project have undergone System Testing at ESO's Headquarters. They offer four different modes: NGS SCAO, LGS GLAO in the IR, LGS GLAO and LTAO in the visible. A detailed characterization of those modes was made possible by the existence of ASSIST, a test bench emulating an adaptive VLT including the Deformable Secondary Mirror, a star simulator and turbulence generator and a VLT focal plane re-imager. This phase aimed at validating all the possible components and loops of the AO modules before installation at the actual VLT that comprises the added complexity of real LGSs, a harsher non-reproducible environment and the adaptive telescope control. In this paper we present some of the major results obtained and challenges encountered during the phase of System Tests, like the preparation of the Acquisition sequence, the testing of the Jitter loop, the performance optimization in GLAO and the offload of low-order modes from the DSM to the telescope (restricted to the M2 hexapod). The System Tests concluded with the successful acceptance, shipping, installation and first commissioning of GRAAL in 2015 as well as the acceptance and shipping of GALACSI, ready for installation and commissioning early 2017.

  18. Failure of erythromycin breath test to correlate with midazolam clearance as a probe of cytochrome P4503A.

    PubMed

    Kinirons, M T; O'Shea, D; Kim, R B; Groopman, J D; Thummel, K E; Wood, A J; Wilkinson, G R

    1999-09-01

    Cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) activity exhibits considerable interindividual variability, and an in vivo probe to measure such differences would serve several purposes. The erythromycin breath test (ERBT) is an established approach that has proven useful in this regard, but it has several limitations. More recently, the hydroxylation of midazolam has been suggested as an alternative in vivo probe approach, because it is possible to estimate CYP3A activity in the intestinal epithelium as well as in the liver. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship, if any, between the ERBT and midazolam's CYP3A-mediated metabolism. Twenty healthy, medication-free young (24 to 46 years) European Americans (10 women) each received on separate days, in random order, either 3 microCi [14C-N-methyl]-erythromycin intravenously, 1 mg midazolam intravenously, or 2 mg midazolam orally. An ERBT value was determined 60 minutes after administration, and clearances were estimated after midazolam administration. In addition, an endogenous 0- to 4-hour urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio was measured. All three measured drug trait values varied approximately threefold to fivefold, whereas the endogenous phenotype measure exhibited far greater variability (>100-fold). No statistically significant (P < .05) correlations existed between any of the trait values, including the ERBT value, obtained after intravenous administration of the radiolabeled probe and the systemic clearance of midazolam, expressed in terms of either total or unbound drug, or on an absolute or a body weight-corrected basis (r = 0.03 to r = 0.24; P = .08 to P = .90). Substratification according to sex generally did not improve such relationships. Although both erythromycin N-demethylation and the metabolism of midazolam by hydroxylation are mediated by CYP3A, the phenotypic trait measures associated with these two in vivo probe drugs do not provide the same information about the catalytic activity of

  19. Deep breathing after surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... and taking big breaths can be uncomfortable. A device called an incentive spirometer can help you take deep breaths correctly. If you do not have this device, you can still practice deep breathing on your ...

  20. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among Alaskans: Factors associated with infection and comparison of urea breath test and anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Miernyk, Karen M; Bulkow, Lisa R; Gold, Benjamin D; Bruce, Michael G; Hurlburt, Debby H; Griffin, Patricia M; Swerdlow, David L; Cook, Kim; Hennessy, Thomas W; Parkinson, Alan J

    2018-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common human infections in the world, and studies in Alaska Native people, as well as other Indigenous peoples, have shown a high prevalence of this gastric infection. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection by urea breath test (UBT) and anti- H. pylori IgG among Alaskans living in four regions of the state and to identify factors associated with infection. A convenience sample of persons > 6 months old living in five rural and one urban Alaskan community were recruited from 1996 to 1997. Participants were asked about factors possibly associated with infection. Sera were collected and tested for anti- H. pylori IgG antibodies; a UBT was administered to participants > 5 years old. We recruited 710 people of whom 571 (80%) were Alaska Native and 467 (66%) were from rural communities. Rural residents were more likely to be Alaska Native compared with urban residents (P < .001). Of the 710 people, 699 (98%) had a serum sample analyzed, and 634 (97%) persons > 5 years old had a UBT performed. H. pylori prevalence was 69% by UBT and 68% by anti- H. pylori IgG. Among those with a result for both tests, there was 94% concordance. Factors associated with H. pylori positivity were Alaska Native racial status, age ≥ 20 years, rural region of residence, living in a crowded home, and drinking water that was not piped or delivered. Helicobacter pylori prevalence is high in Alaska, especially in Alaska Native persons and rural residents. Concordance between UBT and serology was also high in this group. Two socioeconomic factors, crowding and drinking water that was not piped or delivered, were found to be associated with H. pylori positivity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Cut-off optimization for 13C-urea breath test in a community-based trial by mathematic, histology and serology approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe-Xuan; Huang, Lei-Lei; Liu, Cong; Formichella, Luca; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Lian; Ma, Jun-Ling; Liu, Wei-Dong; Ulm, Kurt; Wang, Jian-Xi; Zhang, Lei; Bajbouj, Monther; Li, Ming; Vieth, Michael; Quante, Michael; Zhou, Tong; Wang, Le-Hua; Suchanek, Stepan; Soutschek, Erwin; Schmid, Roland; Classen, Meinhard; You, Wei-Cheng; Gerhard, Markus; Pan, Kai-Feng

    2017-05-18

    The performance of diagnostic tests in intervention trials of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) eradication is crucial, since even minor inaccuracies can have major impact. To determine the cut-off point for 13 C-urea breath test ( 13 C-UBT) and to assess if it can be further optimized by serologic testing, mathematic modeling, histopathology and serologic validation were applied. A finite mixture model (FMM) was developed in 21,857 subjects, and an independent validation by modified Giemsa staining was conducted in 300 selected subjects. H.pylori status was determined using recomLine H.pylori assay in 2,113 subjects with a borderline 13 C-UBT results. The delta over baseline-value (DOB) of 3.8 was an optimal cut-off point by a FMM in modelling dataset, which was further validated as the most appropriate cut-off point by Giemsa staining (sensitivity = 94.53%, specificity = 92.93%). In the borderline population, 1,468 subjects were determined as H.pylori positive by recomLine (69.5%). A significant correlation between the number of positive H.pylori serum responses and DOB value was found (r s  = 0.217, P < 0.001). A mathematical approach such as FMM might be an alternative measure in optimizing the cut-off point for 13 C-UBT in community-based studies, and a second method to determine H.pylori status for subjects with borderline value of 13 C-UBT was necessary and recommended.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of helicobacter pylori in Turkey: a nationally-representative, cross-sectional, screening with the 13C-Urea breath test

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is an important global pathogen infecting approximately 50% of the world’s population. This study was undertaken in order to estimate the prevalence rate of Helicobacter pylori infections among adults living in Turkey and to investigate the associated risk factors. Method This study was a nationally representative cross sectional survey, using weighted multistage stratified cluster sampling. All individuals aged ≥18 years in the selected households were invited to participate in the survey. Ninety two percent (n = 2382) of the households in 55 cities participated; 4622 individuals from these households were tested with the 13C-Urea breath test. Helicobacter pylori prevalence and associated factors were analysed by the t test, chi square and multiple logistic regression with SPSS11.0. Results The weighted overall prevalence was 82.5% (95% CI: 81.0-84.2) and was higher in men. It was lowest in the South which has the major fruit growing areas of the country. The factors included in the final model were sex, age, education, marital status, type of insurance (social security), residential region, alcohol use, smoking, drinking water source. While education was the only significant factor for women, residential region, housing tenure, smoking and alcohol use were significant for men in models by sex. Conclusion In Turkey, Helicobacter pylori prevalence was found to be very high. Individuals who were women, elderly adults, single, had a high educational level, were living in the fruit growing region, had social security from Emekli Sandigi, were drinking bottled water, non smokers and regular alcohol consumers, were under less risk of Helicobacter pylori infection than others. PMID:24359515

  3. Boeing's STAR-FODB test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Martin E.; de la Chapelle, Michael; Van Ausdal, Arthur W.

    1995-05-01

    Boeing has successfully concluded a 2 1/2 year, two phase developmental contract for the STAR-Fiber Optic Data Bus (FODB) that is intended for future space-based applications. The first phase included system analysis, trade studies, behavior modeling, and architecture and protocal selection. During this phase we selected AS4074 Linear Token Passing Bus (LTPB) protocol operating at 200 Mbps, along with the passive, star-coupled fiber media. The second phase involved design, build, integration, and performance and environmental test of brassboard hardware. The resulting brassboard hardware successfully passed performance testing, providing 200 Mbps operation with a 32 X 32 star-coupled medium. This hardware is suitable for a spaceflight experiment to validate ground testing and analysis and to demonstrate performace in the intended environment. The fiber bus interface unit (FBIU) is a multichip module containing transceiver, protocol, and data formatting chips, buffer memory, and a station management controller. The FBIU has been designed for low power, high reliability, and radiation tolerance. Nine FBIUs were built and integrated with the fiber optic physical layer consisting of the fiber cable plant (FCP) and star coupler assembly (SCA). Performance and environmental testing, including radiation exposure, was performed on selected FBIUs and the physical layer. The integrated system was demonstrated with a full motion color video image transfer across the bus while simultaneously performing utility functions with a fiber bus control module (FBCM) over a telemetry and control (T&C) bus, in this case AS1773.

  4. Aquifer test results, Green Swamp area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tibbals, C.H.; Grubb, Hayes F.

    1982-01-01

    An aquifer test conducted in the Green Swamp area December 15-16 , 1975 was designed to stress the uppermost part of the Floridan aquifer so that the leakage characteristics of the overlying confining bed could be determined. A well tapping the upper part of the Floridan aquifer was pumped at a rate of about 1,040 gallons per minute for 35 hours; drawdown was measured in the Floridan aquifer and in two horizons in the confining bed. Analysis of the data indicates that the transmissivity of the uppper 160 feet of the Floridan is 13,000 square feet per day, the storage coefficient is about 0.0002.5, and the overlying confining bed leakance coefficient is about 0.02 to 0.025 per day. The vertical hydraulic diffusivity of the confining bed ranged from 610 square feet per day to 16,000 square feet per day. Results of the test indicate that, in the area of the test site, a Floridan aquifer well field would induce additional recharge to the Floridan. As a result of that increased recharge , water levels in the surficial aquifer would tend to stand lower, runoff from the area would tend to be less, and, perhaps, evapotranspiration would be less than normal.(USGS)

  5. Test Results from a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This presentation describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

  6. Test Results From a High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Hervol, David S.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    Stirling cycle power conversion is an enabling technology that provides high thermodynamic efficiency but also presents unique challenges with regard to electrical power generation, management, and distribution. The High Power Linear Alternator Test Rig (HPLATR) located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio is a demonstration test bed that simulates electrical power generation from a Stirling engine driven alternator. It implements the high power electronics necessary to provide a well regulated DC user load bus. These power electronics use a novel design solution that includes active rectification and power factor control, active ripple suppression, along with a unique building block approach that permits the use of high voltage or high current alternator designs. This report describes the HPLATR, the test program, and the operational results.

  7. Breathing and Relaxation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Health Information Doctors & Departments Clinical Research & Science Education & Training Home Health Insights Stress & Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Breathing and Relaxation Make ...

  8. Highly Loaded Composite Strut Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. C.; Jegley, Dawn C.; Barnard, Ansley; Phelps, James E.; McKeney, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Highly loaded composite struts from a proposed truss-based Altair lunar lander descent stage concept were selected for development under NASA's Advanced Composites Technology program. Predicted compressive member forces during launch and ascent of over -100,000 lbs were much greater than the tensile loads. Therefore, compressive failure modes, including structural stability, were primary design considerations. NASA's industry partner designed and built highly loaded struts that were delivered to NASA for testing. Their design, fabricated on a washout mandrel, had a uniform-diameter composite tube with composite tapered ends. Each tapered end contained a titanium end fitting with facing conical ramps that are overlaid and overwrapped with composite materials. The highly loaded struts were loaded in both tension and compression, with ultimate failure produced in compression. Results for the two struts tested are presented and discussed, along with measured deflections, strains and observed failure mechanisms.

  9. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a SNAP derivative reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  10. TR-BREATH: Time-Reversal Breathing Rate Estimation and Detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Han, Yi; Chen, Yan; Lai, Hung-Quoc; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Beibei; Liu, K J Ray

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce TR-BREATH, a time-reversal (TR)-based contact-free breathing monitoring system. It is capable of breathing detection and multiperson breathing rate estimation within a short period of time using off-the-shelf WiFi devices. The proposed system exploits the channel state information (CSI) to capture the miniature variations in the environment caused by breathing. To magnify the CSI variations, TR-BREATH projects CSIs into the TR resonating strength (TRRS) feature space and analyzes the TRRS by the Root-MUSIC and affinity propagation algorithms. Extensive experiment results indoor demonstrate a perfect detection rate of breathing. With only 10 s of measurement, a mean accuracy of can be obtained for single-person breathing rate estimation under the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) scenario. Furthermore, it achieves a mean accuracy of in breathing rate estimation for a dozen people under the line-of-sight scenario and a mean accuracy of in breathing rate estimation of nine people under the NLOS scenario, both with 63 s of measurement. Moreover, TR-BREATH can estimate the number of people with an error around 1. We also demonstrate that TR-BREATH is robust against packet loss and motions. With the prevailing of WiFi, TR-BREATH can be applied for in-home and real-time breathing monitoring.

  11. AOF: standalone test results of GALACSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Penna, P.; Aller Carpentier, E.; Argomedo, J.; Arsenault, R.; Conzelmann, R. D.; Delabre, B.; Donaldson, R.; Gago, F.; Gutierrez-Cheetam, P.; Hubin, N.; Jolley, P.; Kiekebusch, M.; Kirchbauer, J. P.; Klein, B.; Kolb, J.; Kuntschner, H.; Le Louarn, M.; Lizon, J.-L.; Madec, P.-Y.; Manescau, A.; Mehrgan, L.; Oberti, S.; Quentin, J.; Sedghi, B.; Ströbele, S.; Suárez Valles, M.; Soenke, C.; Tordo, S.; Vernet, J.

    2016-07-01

    GALACSI is the Adaptive Optics (AO) module that will serve the MUSE Integral Field Spectrograph. In Wide Field Mode it will enhance the collected energy in a 0.2"×0.2" pixel by a factor 2 at 750 nm over a Field of View (FoV) of 1'×1' using the Ground Layer AO (GLAO) technique. In Narrow Field Mode, it will provide a Strehl Ratio of 5% (goal 10%) at 650 nm, but in a smaller FoV (7.5"×7.5" FoV), using Laser Tomography AO (LTAO). Before being ready for shipping to Paranal, the system has gone through an extensive testing phase in Europe, first in standalone mode and then in closed loop with the DSM in Europe. After outlining the technical features of the system, we describe here the first part of that testing phase and the integration with the AOF ASSIST (Adaptive Secondary Setup and Instrument Stimulator) testbench, including a specific adapter for the IRLOS truth sensor. The procedures for the standalone verification of the main system performances are outlined, and the results of the internal functional tests of GALACSI after full integration and alignment on ASSIST are presented.

  12. Direct comparison of solid-phase gastric emptying times assessed by means of a carbon isotope-labeled sodium acetate breath test and technetium Tc 99m albumin colloid radioscintigraphy in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Silke; Götte, Birte; Borsch, Christian; Kunz, Clemens; Failing, Klaus; Neiger, Reto

    2014-07-01

    To directly compare solid-phase gastric emptying times assessed by means of a [(13)C]sodium acetate breath test ([(13)C]-SABT) and technetium Tc 99m albumin colloid radioscintigraphy ((99m)Tc-ACR) in healthy cats. 12 healthy cats. After ingestion of a test meal containing 50 mg of [(13)C]sodium acetate and 250 MBq of (99m)Tc-albumin colloid, each cat underwent simultaneous [(13)C]-SABT and (99m)Tc-ACR on 2 consecutive days. Breath samples and scintigrams were acquired at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 300, 360, 480, and 600 minutes after meal ingestion. Quartiles of gastric emptying (25%, 50%, and 75%) were calculated for breath test analysis by use of the area under the curve of the (13)C:(12)C ratio. Quartiles of gastric emptying times were extrapolated from the scintigraphic findings by beans of nonlinear curve regression analysis. Mean ± SD gastric half-emptying (50%) times obtained with [(13)C]-SABT and (99m)Tc-ACR, were 239 ± 28 minutes and 276 ± 59 minutes, respectively. A 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that mean gastric emptying times determined with [(13)C]-SABT and (99m)Tc-ACR differed significantly. For the stages of gastric emptying, Pearson correlation between the 2 methods was good at 25% (r = 0.655) and weak at 50% (r = 0.588) and 75% (r = 0.566)of gastric emptying. Results indicated that the [(13)C]-SABT can be a valid alternative to (99m)Tc-ACR in healthy cats; it was easy to perform, was tolerated well by the cats, and had acceptable correlation to scintigraphic findings at gastric emptying of 25%, 50% and 75%. Studies in cats with delayed gastric emptying will be needed to verify the validity of the [(13)C]-SABT.

  13. The NASA B-757 HIRF Test Series: Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Karl J.; Dudley, Kenneth L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, the NASA Langley Research Center conducted a series of aircraft tests aimed at characterizing the electromagnetic environment (EME) in and around a Boeing 757 airliner. Measurements were made of the electromagnetic energy coupled into the aircraft and the signals induced on select structures as the aircraft was flown past known RF transmitters. These measurements were conducted to provide data for the validation of computational techniques for the assessment of electromagnetic effects in commercial transport aircraft. This paper reports on the results of flight tests using RF radiators in the HF, VHF, and UHF ranges and on efforts to use computational and analytical techniques to predict RF field levels inside the airliner at these frequencies.

  14. Diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome by exhaled breath analysis

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a complication of critical illness that is characterized by acute onset, protein rich, pulmonary edema. There is no treatment for ARDS, other than the reduction of additional ventilator induced lung injury. Prediction or earlier recognition of ARDS could result in preventive measurements and might decrease mortality and morbidity. Exhaled breath contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a collection of hundreds of small molecules linked to several physiological and pathophysiological processes. Analysis of exhaled breath through gas-chromatography and mass-spectrometry (GC-MS) has resulted in an accurate diagnosis of ARDS in several studies. Most identified markers are linked to lipid peroxidation. Octane is one of the few markers that was validated as a marker of ARDS and is pathophysiologically likely to be increased in ARDS. None of the currently studied breath analysis methods is directly applicable in clinical practice. Two steps have to be taken before any breath test can be allowed into the intensive care unit. External validation in a multi-center study is a prerequisite for any of the candidate breath markers and the breath test should outperform clinical prediction scores. Second, the technology for breath analysis should be adapted so that it is available at a decentralized lab inside the intensive care unit and can be operated by trained nurses, in order to reduce the analysis time. In conclusion, exhaled analysis might be used for the early diagnosis and prediction of ARDS in the near future but several obstacles have to be taken in the coming years. Most of the candidate markers can be linked to lipid peroxidation. Only octane has been validated in a temporal external validation cohort and is, at this moment, the top-ranking breath biomarker for ARDS. PMID:29430450

  15. Flight test results from the CV990 simulated space shuttle during unpowered automatic approaches and landings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, F. G.; Foster, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Unpowered automatic approaches and landings with a CV990 aircraft were conducted to study navigation, guidance, and control problems associated with terminal area approach and landing for the space shuttle. The flight tests were designed to study from 11,300 m to touchdown the performance of a navigation and guidance concept which utilized blended radio/inertial navigation using VOR, DME, and ILS as the ground navigation aids. In excess of fifty automatic approaches and landings were conducted. Preliminary results indicate that this concept may provide sufficient accuracy to accomplish automatic landing of the shuttle orbiter without air-breathing engines on a conventional size runway.

  16. The Diagnostic Validity of Citric Acid-Free, High Dose (13)C-Urea Breath Test After Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong Hwan; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Ju Yup; Choi, Yoon Jin; Yoon, Kichul; Hwang, Jae Jin; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, AeRa; Jeong, Yeon Sang; Oh, Sooyeon; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Dong Ho

    2015-06-01

    The (13)C-urea breath test ((13)C-UBT) is a noninvasive method for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic validity of the (13)C-UBT cutoff value and to identify influencing clinical factors responsible for aberrant results. (13)C-UBT (UBiTkit; Otsuka Pharmaceutical, cutoff value: 2.5‰) results in the range 2.0‰ to 10.0‰ after H. pylori eradication therapy were compared with the results of endoscopic biopsy results of the antrum and body. Factors considered to affect test results adversely were analyzed. Among patients with a positive (13)C-UBT result (2.5‰ to 10.0‰, n = 223) or a negative (13)C-UBT result (2.0‰ to < 2.5‰, n = 66) after H. pylori eradication, 73 patients (34.0%) were false positive, and one (1.5%) was false negative as determined by endoscopic biopsy. The sensitivity, specificity, false-positive rate, and false-negative rate for a cutoff value of 2.5‰ were 99.3%, 47.1%, 52.9%, and 0.7%, respectively, and positive and negative predictive values of the (13)C-UBT were 67.3% and 98.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that a history of two or more previous H. pylori eradication therapies (OR = 2.455, 95%CI = 1.299-4.641) and moderate to severe gastric intestinal metaplasia (OR = 3.359, 95%CI = 1.572-7.178) were associated with a false-positive (13)C-UBT result. The (13)C-UBT cutoff value currently used has poor specificity for confirming H. pylori status after eradication, and this lack of specificity is exacerbated in patients that have undergone multiple prior eradication therapies and in patients with moderate to severe gastric intestinal metaplasia. In addition, the citric-free (13)C-UBT would increase a false-positive (13)C-UBT result. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. First results from the NEMO Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccobene, Giorgio; NEMO Collaboration

    2007-03-01

    The NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) Collaboration is constructing, 25 km E from Catania (Sicily) at 2000 m depth, an underwater test site to perform long-term tests of prototypes and new technologies for an underwater high energy neutrino detector in the Mediterranean Sea. In this framework the collaboration deployed and operated an experimental apparatus for on-line monitoring of deep-sea noise. The station is equipped with 4 hydrophones operational in the range 30 Hz - 40 kHz. This interval of frequencies matches the range suitable for acoustic detection of high energy neutrino-induced showers in water. Hydrophone signals are digitized underwater at 96 kHz sampling frequency and 24 bits resolution. A custom software was developed to record data on high resolution 4-channels PCM .le. Data are used to model underwater acoustic noise as a function of frequency and time, a mandatory parametre for future acoustic neutrino detectors. Results indicate that the average noise in the site is compatible with noise produced in condition of sea surface agitation (sea state.)

  18. Smart wing wind tunnel test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Lewis B.; Martin, Christopher A.; Appa, Kari; Kudva, Jayanth N.; West, Mark N.

    1997-05-01

    The use of smart materials technologies can provide unique capabilities in improving aircraft aerodynamic performance. Northrop Grumman built and tested a 16% scale semi-span wind tunnel model of the F/A-18 E/F for the on-going DARPA/WL Smart Materials and Structures-Smart Wing Program. Aerodynamic performance gains to be validated included increase in the lift to drag ratio, increased pitching moment (Cm), increased rolling moment (Cl) and improved pressure distribution. These performance gains were obtained using hingeless, contoured trailing edge control surfaces with embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) wires and spanwise wing twist via a SMA torque tube and are compared to a conventional wind tunnel model with hinged control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the results from the first wind tunnel test performed at the NASA Langley's 16 ft Transonic Dynamic Tunnel. Among the benefits demonstrated are 8 - 12% increase in rolling moment due to wing twist, a 10 - 15% increase in rolling moment due to contoured aileron, and approximately 8% increase in lift due to contoured flap, and improved pressure distribution due to trailing edge control surface contouring.

  19. Tuned Chamber Core Panel Acoustic Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Allen, Albert R.

    2016-01-01

    This report documents acoustic testing of tuned chamber core panels, which can be used to supplement the low-frequency performance of conventional acoustic treatment. The tuned chamber core concept incorporates low-frequency noise control directly within the primary structure and is applicable to sandwich constructions with a directional core, including corrugated-, truss-, and fluted-core designs. These types of sandwich structures have long, hollow channels (or chambers) in the core. By adding small holes through one of the facesheets, the hollow chambers can be utilized as an array of low-frequency acoustic resonators. These resonators can then be used to attenuate low-frequency noise (below 400 Hz) inside a vehicle compartment without increasing the weight or size of the structure. The results of this test program demonstrate that the tuned chamber core concept is effective when used in isolation or combined with acoustic foam treatments. Specifically, an array of acoustic resonators integrated within the core of the panels was shown to improve both the low-frequency absorption and transmission loss of the structure in targeted one-third octave bands.

  20. Trillium 360 Seismometer Initial Test Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, Geoffrey; Devanney, Peter; Upadhyaya, Sarvesh

    2017-04-01

    Test results for Trillium 360 show this seismometer can resolve the Peterson New Low Noise Model down to 300 seconds period. This has been confirmed at multiple sites: Pinon Flat (California), Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (New Mexico) and Nanometrics (Ottawa, Canada). The Pinon Flat deployment captured the March 2, 2016 Mw=7.9 Indonesian event and showed a response coherent with reference sensors including an STS-1 at periods down to 0.0015 Hz. At frequencies below 0.0015 Hz the reference sensors showed a noncoherent spurious response, i.e. noise in the presence of signal, whereas the Trillium 360 was relatively unaffected. Magnetic sensitivity has been measured to be 0.01 m/s^2/T in two independent tests at ASL and Nanometrics. Temperature sensitivity is 3*10^-4 m/s^2/T. This combination of low sensitivity to both magnetic field and temperature is achieved through magnetic shielding which resolves the side effect of magnetic sensitivity in temperature-compensated ferromagnetic spring alloys. The T360 seismometer components are sufficiently miniaturized for deployment in a borehole. This enables low-noise performance even in an urban environment with thick sediments (at Nanometrics, Ottawa) since the seismometer can be emplaced in bedrock below surface sediments and away from surface noise.

  1. Boeing's High Voltage Solar Tile Test Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Brian J.; Harden, David E.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.

    2002-10-01

    Real concerns of spacecraft charging and experience with solar array augmented electrostatic discharge arcs on spacecraft have minimized the use of high voltages on large solar arrays despite numerous vehicle system mass and efficiency advantages. Boeing's solar tile (patent pending) allows high voltage to be generated at the array without the mass and efficiency losses of electronic conversion. Direct drive electric propulsion and higher power payloads (lower spacecraft weight) will benefit from this design. As future power demand grows, spacecraft designers must use higher voltage to minimize transmission loss and power cable mass for very large area arrays. This paper will describe the design and discuss the successful test of Boeing's 500-Volt Solar Tile in NASA Glenn's Tenney chamber in the Space Plasma Interaction Facility. The work was sponsored by NASA's Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) Program and will result in updated high voltage solar array design guidelines being published.

  2. Boeing's High Voltage Solar Tile Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian J.; Harden, David E.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.

    2002-01-01

    Real concerns of spacecraft charging and experience with solar array augmented electrostatic discharge arcs on spacecraft have minimized the use of high voltages on large solar arrays despite numerous vehicle system mass and efficiency advantages. Boeing's solar tile (patent pending) allows high voltage to be generated at the array without the mass and efficiency losses of electronic conversion. Direct drive electric propulsion and higher power payloads (lower spacecraft weight) will benefit from this design. As future power demand grows, spacecraft designers must use higher voltage to minimize transmission loss and power cable mass for very large area arrays. This paper will describe the design and discuss the successful test of Boeing's 500-Volt Solar Tile in NASA Glenn's Tenney chamber in the Space Plasma Interaction Facility. The work was sponsored by NASA's Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) Program and will result in updated high voltage solar array design guidelines being published.

  3. A prototype tap test imaging system: Initial field test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, J. J.; Barnard, D. J.; Hudelson, N. A.; Simpson, T. S.; Hsu, D. K.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a simple, field-worthy tap test imaging system that gives quantitative information about the size, shape, and severity of defects and damages. The system consists of an accelerometer, electronic circuits for conditioning the signal and measuring the impact duration, a laptop PC and data acquisition and processing software. The images are generated manually by tapping on a grid printed on a plastic sheet laid over the part's surface. A mechanized scanner is currently under development. The prototype has produced images for a variety of aircraft composite and metal honeycomb structures containing flaws, damages, and repairs. Images of the local contact stiffness, deduced from the impact duration using a spring model, revealed quantitatively the stiffness reduction due to flaws and damages, as well as the stiffness enhancement due to substructures. The system has been field tested on commercial and military aircraft as well as rotor blades and engine decks on helicopters. Field test results will be shown and the operation of the system will be demonstrated.—This material is based upon work supported by the Federal Aviation Administration under Contract #DTFA03-98-D-00008, Delivery Order No. IA016 and performed at Iowa State University's Center for NDE as part of the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability program.

  4. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Captain, Janine E.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Gibson, Tracy L.; Perusich, Stephen A.; Weis, Kyle H.

    2009-01-01

    NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (lSRU) project called RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). This project is an Earth-based lunar precursor demonstration of a system that could be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, where it would drill into regolith, quantify the volatiles that are present, and extract oxygen by hydrogen reduction of iron oxides. The RESOLVE chemical processing system was mounted within the CMU rover "Scarab" and successfully demonstrated on Hawaii's Mauna Kea volcano in November 2008. This technology could be used on Mars as well. As described at the 2008 Mars Society Convention, the Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) supports the objectives of the RESOLVE project by capturing and quantifying water and hydrogen released by regolith upon heating. Field test results for the quantification of water using LWRD showed that the volcanic ash (tephra) samples contained 0.15-0.41% water, in agreement with GC water measurements. Reduction of the RH in the surge tank to near zero during recirculation show that the water is captured by the water beds as desired. The water can be recovered by heating the Water Beds to 230 C or higher. Test results for the capture and quantification of pure hydrogen have shown that over 90% of the hydrogen can be captured and 98% of the absorbed hydrogen can be recovered upon heating the hydride to 400 C and desorbing the hydrogen several times into the evacuated surge tank. Thus, the essential requirement of capturing hydrogen and recovering it has been demonstrated. ,

  5. A Portable Real-Time Ringdown Breath Acetone Analyzer: Toward Potential Diabetic Screening and Management

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chenyu; Sun, Meixiu; Wang, Zhennan; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-01-01

    Breath analysis has been considered a suitable tool to evaluate diseases of the respiratory system and those that involve metabolic changes, such as diabetes. Breath acetone has long been known as a biomarker for diabetes. However, the results from published data by far have been inconclusive regarding whether breath acetone is a reliable index of diabetic screening. Large variations exist among the results of different studies because there has been no “best-practice method” for breath-acetone measurements as a result of technical problems of sampling and analysis. In this mini-review, we update the current status of our development of a laser-based breath acetone analyzer toward real-time, one-line diabetic screening and a point-of-care instrument for diabetic management. An integrated standalone breath acetone analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique has been developed. The instrument was validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The linear fittings suggest that the obtained acetone concentrations via both methods are consistent. Breath samples from each individual subject under various conditions in total, 1257 breath samples were taken from 22 Type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 Type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, which is one of the largest numbers of T2D subjects ever used in a single study, and 52 non-diabetic healthy subjects. Simultaneous blood glucose (BG) levels were also tested using a standard diabetic management BG meter. The mean breath acetone concentrations were determined to be 4.9 ± 16 ppm (22 T1D), and 1.5 ± 1.3 ppm (312 T2D), which are about 4.5 and 1.4 times of the one in the 42 non-diabetic healthy subjects, 1.1 ± 0.5 ppm, respectively. A preliminary quantitative correlation (R = 0.56, p < 0.05) between the mean individual breath acetone concentration and the mean individual BG levels does exist in 20 T1D subjects with no ketoacidosis. No direct correlation is observed in T1D subjects, T

  6. A Portable Real-Time Ringdown Breath Acetone Analyzer: Toward Potential Diabetic Screening and Management.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chenyu; Sun, Meixiu; Wang, Zhennan; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-07-30

    Breath analysis has been considered a suitable tool to evaluate diseases of the respiratory system and those that involve metabolic changes, such as diabetes. Breath acetone has long been known as a biomarker for diabetes. However, the results from published data by far have been inconclusive regarding whether breath acetone is a reliable index of diabetic screening. Large variations exist among the results of different studies because there has been no "best-practice method" for breath-acetone measurements as a result of technical problems of sampling and analysis. In this mini-review, we update the current status of our development of a laser-based breath acetone analyzer toward real-time, one-line diabetic screening and a point-of-care instrument for diabetic management. An integrated standalone breath acetone analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique has been developed. The instrument was validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The linear fittings suggest that the obtained acetone concentrations via both methods are consistent. Breath samples from each individual subject under various conditions in total, 1257 breath samples were taken from 22 Type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 Type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, which is one of the largest numbers of T2D subjects ever used in a single study, and 52 non-diabetic healthy subjects. Simultaneous blood glucose (BG) levels were also tested using a standard diabetic management BG meter. The mean breath acetone concentrations were determined to be 4.9 ± 16 ppm (22 T1D), and 1.5 ± 1.3 ppm (312 T2D), which are about 4.5 and 1.4 times of the one in the 42 non-diabetic healthy subjects, 1.1 ± 0.5 ppm, respectively. A preliminary quantitative correlation (R = 0.56, p < 0.05) between the mean individual breath acetone concentration and the mean individual BG levels does exist in 20 T1D subjects with no ketoacidosis. No direct correlation is observed in T1D subjects, T2D

  7. Air-Breathing Ramjet Electric Propulsion for Controlling Low-Orbit Spacecraft Motion to Compensate for Aerodynamic Drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erofeev, A. I.; Nikiforov, A. P.; Popov, G. A.; Suvorov, M. O.; Syrin, S. A.; Khartov, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Problems on designing the air-breathing ramjet electric propulsion thruster for controlling loworbit spacecraft motion are examined in the paper. Information for choosing orbits' altitudes for reasonable application of an air-breathing ramjet electric propulsion thruster and propellant exhaust velocity is presented. Estimates of the probable increase of gas concentration in the area of air-breathing ramjet ionization are presented. The test results of the thruster are also given.

  8. Inside anesthesia breathing circuits: time to reach a set sevoflurane concentration in toddlers and newborns: simulation using a test lung.

    PubMed

    Kern, Delphine; Larcher, Claire; Basset, Bertrand; Alacoque, Xavier; Fesseau, Rose; Samii, Kamran; Minville, Vincent; Fourcade, Olivier

    2012-08-01

    We measured the time it takes to reach the desired inspired anesthetic concentration using the Primus (Drägerwerk, AG, Lübeck, Germany) and the Avance (GE Datex-Ohmeda, Munich, Germany) anesthesia machines with toddler and newborn ventilation settings. The time to reach 95% of inspired target sevoflurane concentration was measured during wash-in from 0 to 6 vol% sevoflurane and during wash-out from 6 to 0 vol% with fresh gas flows equal to 1 and 2 times the minute ventilation. The Avance was faster than the Primus (65 seconds [95% confidence interval (CI): 55 to 78] vs 310 seconds [95% CI: 261 to 359]) at 1.5 L/min fresh gas flow, tidal volume of 50 mL, and 30 breaths/min. Times were shorter by the same magnitude at higher fresh gas flows and higher minute ventilation rates. The effect of doubling fresh gas flow was variable and less than expected. The Primus is slower during newborn than toddler ventilation, whereas the Avance's response time was the same for newborn and toddler ventilation. Our data confirm that the time to reach the target-inspired anesthetic concentration depends on breathing circuit volume, fresh gas flow, and minute ventilation.

  9. A simple, remote, video based breathing monitor.

    PubMed

    Regev, Nir; Wulich, Dov

    2017-07-01

    Breathing monitors have become the all-important cornerstone of a wide variety of commercial and personal safety applications, ranging from elderly care to baby monitoring. Many such monitors exist in the market, some, with vital signs monitoring capabilities, but none remote. This paper presents a simple, yet efficient, real time method of extracting the subject's breathing sinus rhythm. Points of interest are detected on the subject's body, and the corresponding optical flow is estimated and tracked using the well known Lucas-Kanade algorithm on a frame by frame basis. A generalized likelihood ratio test is then utilized on each of the many interest points to detect which is moving in harmonic fashion. Finally, a spectral estimation algorithm based on Pisarenko harmonic decomposition tracks the harmonic frequency in real time, and a fusion maximum likelihood algorithm optimally estimates the breathing rate using all points considered. The results show a maximal error of 1 BPM between the true breathing rate and the algorithm's calculated rate, based on experiments on two babies and three adults.

  10. 49 CFR 40.245 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a breath tube ASD? (a) As the STT or BAT, you must take the following steps when using the saliva... ATF. (b) As the STT or BAT, you must take the following steps when using the breath tube ASD: (1... the manufacturer's directions. (11) You must note the fact that you used a breath tube device in Step...

  11. Analyzing Educational Testing Service Graduate Major Field Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Barry; Arbogast, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    The Educational Testing Service (ETS) created the Graduate Major Field Test in Business (GMFT-B) for MBA students. This test is administered to all MBA classes at Jacksonville University for the purpose of measuring student academic achievement and growth, as well as to assess educational outcomes. The test is given in the capstone course,…

  12. Effects of ergot alkaloids in feed on performance and liver function of piglets as evaluated by the ¹³C-methacetin breath test.

    PubMed

    Dänicke, Sven; Diers, Sonja

    2013-02-01

    Ergot alkaloids (the sum of individual alkaloids is termed as total alkaloids, TA) are mycotoxins of the fungus Claviceps purpurea and might adversely affect the performance and aspects of liver physiology of pigs. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of feeding ergot alkaloids to piglets on performance and liver function by using the ¹³C-methacetin breath test. Two ergot batches were mixed into piglet diets resulting in 5 and 6 mg (Ergot 17-low and -high) and 9 and 21 mg TA/kg (Ergot 19-low and -high) and compared to an ergot free Control group. Feed intake and live weight gain decreased significantly with the TA content (p = 0.006). The time of the maximum ¹³CO₂-exhalation (t (max)) occurred significantly earlier in Control piglets (8.9 min) compared to the groups Ergot 17-high and Ergot 19-high (24.7 and 23.6 min, respectively, p = 0.014) whilst the elimination half-life remained uninfluenced by dietary treatments (55-64 min). The cumulative ¹³CO₂-recovery (cPDR) was significantly reduced in piglets fed the Ergot 19-high diet (7.6%) compared to the groups Control and Ergot 17-high (13.1% and 10.8%, respectively, p = 0.011). In conclusion, the TA content of the diets is closer related to the adverse effects of ergot on piglet performance than the dietary ergot content itself. The mechanisms by which TA affects porcine liver function need to be studied further.

  13. Summary of CPAS EDU Testing Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, Leah M.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Davidson, John.; Engert, Meagan E.; Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Galaviz, Fernando S.; Galvin, Patrick J.; Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Orion program's Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is currently conducting its third generation of testing, the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) series. This series utilizes two test articles, a dart-shaped Parachute Compartment Drop Test Vehicle (PCDTV) and capsule-shaped Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV), both of which include a full size, flight-like parachute system and require a pallet delivery system for aircraft extraction. To date, 15 tests have been completed, including six with PCDTVs and nine with PTVs. Two of the PTV tests included the Forward Bay Cover (FBC) provided by Lockheed Martin. Advancements in modeling techniques applicable to parachute fly-out, vehicle rate of descent, torque, and load train, also occurred during the EDU testing series. An upgrade from a composite to an independent parachute simulation allowed parachute modeling at a higher level of fidelity than during previous generations. The complexity of separating the test vehicles from their pallet delivery systems necessitated the use the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) simulator for modeling mated vehicle aircraft extraction and separation. This paper gives an overview of each EDU test and summarizes the development of CPAS analysis tools and techniques during EDU testing.

  14. Round Robin Fatigue Crack Growth Testing Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    testing was accomplished, in accordance with ASTM E647, using two different capacity SATEC frames-a 20 kip test frame for the 7075-T6 panels and a 55 kip...Equipment and Setup a. SATEC b. 20 kip (7075-T6); 55 kip (2024-T351) c. Test control hardware/software i. Hardware: Teststar Ilm ii. Software: Station...5c. WROGRK M UN LEMBERTNME 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS( ES ) S. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Center for A44rcraft

  15. X-48B Preliminary Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the preliminary Flight tests of the X-48B development program. The X-48B is a blended wing body aircraft that is being used to test various features of the BWB concept. The research concerns the following: (1) Turbofan Development, (2) Intelligent Flight Control and Optimization, (3) Airdata Calibration (4) Parameter Identification (i.e., Determination of the parameters of a mathematical model of a system based on observation of the system inputs and response.)

  16. Cryogenic optical testing results of JWST aspheric test plate lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Koby Z.; Towell, Timothy C.

    2011-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) is a circular 740mm diameter beryllium convex hyperboloid that has a 23.5nm-RMS (λ/27 RMS) on-orbit surface figure error requirement. The radius of curvature of the SMA is 1778.913mm+/-0.45mm and has a conic constant of -1.6598+/-0.0005. The on-orbit operating temperature of the JWST SMA is 22.5K. Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (BATC) is under contract to Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) to fabricate, assemble, and test the JWST SMA to its on-orbit requirements including the optical testing of the SMA at its cryogenic operating temperature. BATC has fabricated and tested an Aspheric Test Plate Lens (ATPL) that is an 870mm diameter fused silica lens used as the Fizeau optical reference in the ambient and cryogenic optical testing of the JWST Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA). As the optical reference for the SMA optical test, the concave optical surface of the ATPL is required to be verified at the same 20K temperature range required for the SMA. In order to meet this objective, a state-of-the-art helium cryogenic testing facility was developed to support the optical testing requirements of a number of the JWST optical testing needs, including the ATPL and SMA. With the implementation of this cryogenic testing facility, the ATPL was successfully cryogenically tested and performed to less than 10nm-RMS (λ/63 RMS) surface figure uncertainty levels for proper reference backout during the SMA optical testing program.

  17. Nutritional status, fecal elastase-1, and 13C-labeled mixed triglyceride breath test in the long-term after pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Muniz, Cinara Knychala; dos Santos, José Sebastião; Pfrimer, Karina; Ferrioli, Eduardo; Kemp, Rafael; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio; Cunha, Selma Freire

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the body composition, dietary intake and serum levels of vitamins and minerals, and exocrine pancreatic function in patients late after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and healthy subjects. Fifteen patients (PD group) who had undergone PD over 1 year before the study and 15 health volunteers (control group) were included in the study. All volunteers underwent dietary intake evaluation, body composition, laboratory data, exocrine pancreatic function by elastase-1, and carbon (C )-labeled triglycerides in breath tests. The PD group subjects also underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth analysis. Nutrient intake was adequate, and there were no differences in body mass index and mineral serum levels between the groups. The PD group showed lower serum levels of retinol, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth occurred in 39% of the patients. Fecal elastase-1 was lower in the PD group. The PD group had a higher C peak time; the cumulative label C recovery in 7 hours was similar in both groups. Fecal elastase-1 decreased, and the excretion of C in breath was similar to healthy controls. Although the data point toward an adaptation in the absorptive capacity of fats, A, C, and E hypovitaminosis indicate that some absorptive insufficiency persists late after PD.

  18. The importance of a normal breathing pattern for an effective abdominal-hollowing maneuver in healthy people: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ha, Sung-min; Kwon, Oh-yun; Kim, Su-jung; Choung, Sung-dae

    2014-02-01

    A normal breathing pattern while performing the abdominal-hollowing (AH) maneuver or spinal-stabilization exercise is essential for the success of rehabilitation programs and exercises. In previous studies, subjects were given standardized instructions to control the influence of respiration during the AH maneuver. However, the effect of breathing pattern on abdominal-muscle thickness during the AH maneuver has not been investigated. To compare abdominal-muscle thickness in subjects performing the AH maneuver under normal and abnormal breathing-pattern conditions and to investigate the effect of breathing pattern on the preferential contraction ratio (PCR) of the transverse abdominis. Comparative, repeated-measures experimental study. University research laboratory. 16 healthy subjects (8 male, 8 female) from a university population. A real-time ultrasound scanner was used to measure abdominal-muscle thickness during normal and abnormal breathing patterns. A paired t test was used to assess the effect of breathing pattern on abdominal-muscle thickness and PCR. Muscle thickness in the transverse abdominis and internal oblique muscles was significantly greater under the normal breathing pattern than under the abnormal pattern (P < .05). The PCR of the transverse abdominis was significantly higher under the normal breathing pattern compared with the abnormal pattern (P < .05). The results indicate that a normal breathing pattern is essential for performance of an effective AH maneuver. Thus, clinicians should ensure that patients adopt a normal breathing pattern before performing the AH maneuver and monitor transverse abdominis activation during the maneuver.

  19. ASTAR Flight Test: Overview and Spacing Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roper, Roy D.; Koch, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Langley Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) research aboard the Boeing ecoDemonstrator aircraft was to demonstrate the use of NASA's ASTAR algorithm using contemporary tools of the Federal Aviation Administration's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NEXTGEN). EcoDemonstrator is a Boeing test program which utilizes advanced experimental equipment to accelerate the science of aerospace and environmentally friendly technologies. The ASTAR Flight Test provided a proof-of-concept flight demonstration that exercised an algorithmic-based application in an actual aircraft. The test aircraft conducted Interval Management operations to provide time-based spacing off a target aircraft in non-simulator wind conditions. Work was conducted as a joint effort between NASA and Boeing to integrate ASTAR in a Boeing supplied B787 test aircraft while using a T-38 aircraft as the target. This demonstration was also used to identify operational risks to future flight trials for the NASA Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration expected in 2017.

  20. Phase II NCAT test track results.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-12-01

    There is a need to be able to quickly test materials and mixtures in-place, under real traffic. : There have been many developments during the last few years that need verification prior to : adopting. One such development is the new proposed mechani...

  1. Liquid Motion Experiment Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato David J.; Dalton, Penni J.; Dodge, Franklin T.; Green, Steve

    1998-01-01

    The Liquid Motion Experiment (LME), designed to study the effects of liquid motion in rotating tanks, was flown on STS 84. LME was essentially a spin table that created a realistic nutation motion of scale-model tanks containing liquid. TWo spherical and two cylindrical transparent tanks were tested simultaneously, and three sets of such tanks were employed to vary liquid viscosity, fill level, and propellant management device (PMD) design. All the tanks were approximately 4.5 inches diameter. The primary test measurements were the radial and tangential torques exerted on the tanks by the liquid. Resonant frequencies and damping of the liquid oscillations were determined by sine sweep tests. For a given tank shape, the resonant frequency depended on fill level. For the cylindrical tanks, the resonances had somewhat different frequencies for the tangential axis (0.55 to 0.75 times spin rate) and the radial axis (0.73 to 0.78 times spin rate), and the tangential axis resonance agreed more closely with available analytical models. For the spherical tanks, the resonant frequencies were between 0.74 to 0.77 times the spin rate and were the same for the tangential and radial axes. The damping coefficients varied from about I% to 3% of critical, depending on tank shape, fill level, and liquid viscosity. 'Me viscous energy dissipation rates of the liquid oscillations were determined from sine dwell tests. The LME energy dissipation rates varied from 0.3 to 0.5 times the estimates obtained from scaling previous ground tests and spacecraft flight data. The PNDs sometimes enhanced the resonances and energy dissipation rates and sometimes decreased them, which points out the need to understand better the effects of PMD on liquid motion as a function of PMD and tank design.

  2. NICMOS Focus and HST Breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchkov, A.; Hershey, J.

    1998-09-01

    The program 7608 monitored on a biweekly basis NICMOS camera foci from June 9, 1997, through February 18, 1998. Each of the biweekly observations included 17 measurements of focus position (focus sweeps), individually for each of the three cameras. The measurements for camera 1 and camera 3 foci covered one or two HST orbital periods. Comparison of these measurements with the predictions of the three OTA focus breathing models has shown the following. (1). Focus variations seen in NICMOS focus sweeps correlate well with the OTA focus thermal breathing as predicted by breathing models (“4- temperature”, “full-temperature”, and “attitude” models). Thus they can be attributed mostly to the HST orbital temperature variation. (2). The amount of breathing (breathing amplitude) has been found to be on average larger in the first orbit after a telescope slew to a new target. This is explained as being due to additional thermal perturbations caused by the change in the HST attitude as the telescope repoints to a new target. (3). In the first orbit, the amount of focus change predicted by the 4-temperature model is about the same as that seen in the focus sweeps data (breathing scale factor ~1). However the full-temperature model predicts a two times smaller breathing amplitude (breathing scale factor ~1.7). This suggests that the light shield temperatures are more responsive to the attitude change than temperatures from the other temperature sensors. The results of this study may help to better understand the HST thermal cycles and to improve the models describing the impact of those on both the OTA and NICMOS focus.

  3. Variability in the blood/breath alcohol ratio and implications for evidentiary purposes.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Dena H; Siman-Tov, Maya; Gopher, Asher; Peleg, Kobi

    2013-09-01

    The breath analyzer is an indispensable tool for identifying alcohol levels among drivers. While numerous studies have shown high correlations between blood and breath alcohol concentrations, most are limited by the study design. This study seeks to assess this relationship by minimizing potential measurement bias, document time from alcohol consumption to testing, and adjusting for potential confounders. A blinded study was performed using conditions closely resembling those in the field. The Draeger 7110 MKIII IL breath analyzer was used to assess breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC). Participants were 61 healthy volunteers aged 21-37 years with body mass index ≤30 and no history of alcoholism. A total of 242 valid blood/breath tests were performed in four test sets. The study results showed a high correlation coefficient between BrAC and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels (r = 0.983) with high sensitivity (97%) and specificity (93%). This strong association between the breath analyzer and BAC persisted even after adjustment for various stages of alcohol absorption. These results illustrate the high diagnostic sensitivity of the breath analyzer in field-tested conditions. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Easing Concerns About Returning Genetic Test Results

    Cancer.gov

    Women with breast cancer participating in a research study were given the opportunity to learn their genetic research results. This Cancer Currents blog details the impact these results had on women who opted to review their results with a genetic counselor.

  5. Imposed Work of Breathing for Flow Meters with In-Line versus Flow-Through Technique during Simulated Neonatal Breathing

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability to determine airflow during nasal CPAP (NCPAP) treatment without adding dead space or resistance would be useful when investigating the physiologic effects of different NCPAP systems on breathing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on pressure stability of different flow measuring devices at the in-line and flow-through position, using simulated neonatal breathing. Methods Six different flow measure devices were evaluated by recording pressure changes and imposed work of breathing for breaths with 16 and 32 ml tidal volumes. The tests were performed initially with the devices in an in line position and with 5 and 10 L/min using flow through technique, without CPAP. The flow meters were then subsequently tested with an Infant Flow CPAP system at 3, 5 and 8 cm H2O pressure using flow through technique. The quality of the recorded signals was compared graphically. Results The resistance of the measuring devices generated pressure swings and imposed work of breathing. With bias flow, the resistance also generated CPAP pressure. Three of the devices had low resistance and generated no changes in pressure stability or CPAP pressure. The two devices intended for neonatal use had the highest measured resistance. Conclusion The importance of pressure stability and increased work of breathing during non-invasive respiratory support are insufficiently studied. Clinical trials using flow-through technique have not focused on pressure stability. Our results indicate that a flow-through technique might be a way forward in obtaining a sufficiently high signal quality without the added effects of rebreathing and increased work of breathing. The results should stimulate further research and the development of equipment for dynamic flow measurements in neonates. PMID:26192188

  6. Occupied Volume Integrity Testing : Elastic Test Results and Analyses

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-09-21

    Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and the Volpe Center have been conducting research into developing an alternative method of demonstrating occupied volume integrity (OVI) through a combination of testing and analysis. Previous works have been pu...

  7. Conventional fuel tank blunt impact tests : test and analysis results

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-04-02

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research : and Development is conducting research into fuel tank : crashworthiness. A series of impact tests are planned to : measure fuel tank deformation under two types of dynamic : loading conditi...

  8. Initial Burn Pan (JMTF) Testing Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    of Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard for fire - resistant boom. It had not been used for over 15 years and was almost completely destroyed when...Environment Canada had produced operational guides, provided standards for fire - resistant booms and igniting techniques needed to perform offshore burns...are currently in the smoke zone; and the heat from the fire could be felt from that area. While no one was injured, some miscommunication at the

  9. Preliminary Results of Field Emission Cathode Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Kovaleski, Scott D.

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary screening tests of field emission cathodes such as chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, textured pyrolytic graphite, and textured copper were conducted at background pressures typical of electric thruster test facilities to assess cathode performance and stability. Very low power electric thrusters which provide tens to hundreds micronewtons of thrust may need field emission neutralizers that have a capability of tens to hundreds of microamperes. From current voltage characteristics, it was found that the CVD diamond and textured metals cathodes clearly satisfied the Fowler-Nordheim emission relation. The CVD diamond and a textured copper cathode had average current densities of 270 and 380 mA/sq cm, respectively, at the beginning-of-life. After a few hours of operation the cathode emission currents degraded by 40 to 75% at background pressures in the 10(exp -5) Pa to 10(exp -4) Pa range. The textured pyrolytic graphite had a modest current density at beginning-of-life of 84 mA/sq cm, but this cathode was the most stable of all. Extended testing of the most promising cathodes is warranted to determine if current degradation is a burn-in effect or whether it is a long-term degradation process. Preliminary experiments with ferroelectric emission cathodes, which are ceramics with spontaneous electric polarization, were conducted. Peak current densities of 30 to 120 mA/sq cm were obtained for pulse durations of about 500 ns in the 10(exp -4) Pa pressure range.

  10. The likelihood of acetone interference in breath alcohol measurement

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1985-09-01

    This report discusses the significance of possible interference of acetone in breath alcohol testing. The following dimensions were considered: 1) what levels of acetone concentration may appear on the breath; 2) what levels of acetone concentration ...

  11. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath

  12. 49 CFR 236.110 - Results of tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Results of tests. 236.110 Section 236.110...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.110 Results of tests. (a) Results of tests made... records must show the name of the railroad, place and date, equipment tested, results of tests, repairs...

  13. 49 CFR 236.110 - Results of tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Results of tests. 236.110 Section 236.110...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.110 Results of tests. (a) Results of tests made... records must show the name of the railroad, place and date, equipment tested, results of tests, repairs...

  14. 49 CFR 236.110 - Results of tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Results of tests. 236.110 Section 236.110...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.110 Results of tests. (a) Results of tests made... records must show the name of the railroad, place and date, equipment tested, results of tests, repairs...

  15. 49 CFR 236.110 - Results of tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Results of tests. 236.110 Section 236.110...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.110 Results of tests. (a) Results of tests made... records must show the name of the railroad, place and date, equipment tested, results of tests, repairs...

  16. 49 CFR 236.110 - Results of tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Results of tests. 236.110 Section 236.110...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.110 Results of tests. (a) Results of tests made... records must show the name of the railroad, place and date, equipment tested, results of tests, repairs...

  17. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... and hyperventilation as well as factors like emotional stress, overexertion, habitual postures and exposure to environmental irritants. Pursed-Lip Breathing One focus of occupational therapy is to teach pursed-lip breathing. This ...

  18. Traveling with breathing problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... obstructive lung disease - travel; Chronic bronchitis - travel; Emphysema - travel ... you: Are short of breath most of the time Get short of breath ... doctor if you plan to travel in a place at a high altitude (such ...

  19. Rapid shallow breathing

    MedlinePlus

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Kraft M. Approach to the patient with respiratory disease. In: ... Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 83. McGee S. Respiratory rate and ...

  20. Imposed Work of Breathing for Flow Meters with In-Line versus Flow-Through Technique during Simulated Neonatal Breathing.

    PubMed

    Donaldsson, Snorri; Falk, Markus; Jonsson, Baldvin; Drevhammar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The ability to determine airflow during nasal CPAP (NCPAP) treatment without adding dead space or resistance would be useful when investigating the physiologic effects of different NCPAP systems on breathing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on pressure stability of different flow measuring devices at the in-line and flow-through position, using simulated neonatal breathing. Six different flow measure devices were evaluated by recording pressure changes and imposed work of breathing for breaths with 16 and 32 ml tidal volumes. The tests were performed initially with the devices in an in line position and with 5 and 10 L/min using flow through technique, without CPAP. The flow meters were then subsequently tested with an Infant Flow CPAP system at 3, 5 and 8 cm H2O pressure using flow through technique. The quality of the recorded signals was compared graphically. The resistance of the measuring devices generated pressure swings and imposed work of breathing. With bias flow, the resistance also generated CPAP pressure. Three of the devices had low resistance and generated no changes in pressure stability or CPAP pressure. The two devices intended for neonatal use had the highest measured resistance. The importance of pressure stability and increased work of breathing during non-invasive respiratory support are insufficiently studied. Clinical trials using flow-through technique have not focused on pressure stability. Our results indicate that a flow-through technique might be a way forward in obtaining a sufficiently high signal quality without the added effects of rebreathing and increased work of breathing. The results should stimulate further research and the development of equipment for dynamic flow measurements in neonates.

  1. RESULTS OF INITIAL AMMONIA OXIDATION TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.; Fowley, M.

    This memo presents an experimental survey of aqueous phase chemical processes to remove aqueous ammonia from waste process streams. Ammonia is generated in both the current Hanford waste flowsheet and in future waste processing. Much ammonia will be generated in the Low Activity Waste (LAW) melters.i Testing with simulants in glass melters at Catholic University has demonstrated the significant ammonia production.ii The primary reaction there is the reducing action of sugar on nitrate in the melter cold cap. Ammonia has been found to be a problem in secondary waste stabilization. Ammonia vapors are noxious and destruction of ammonia could reducemore » hazards to waste treatment process personnel. It is easily evolved especially when ammonia-bearing solutions are adjusted to high pH.« less

  2. Effect of Time-of-Flight Information on PET/MR Reconstruction Artifacts: Comparison of Free-breathing versus Breath-hold MR-based Attenuation Correction.

    PubMed

    Delso, Gaspar; Khalighi, Mohammed; Ter Voert, Edwin; Barbosa, Felipe; Sekine, Tetsuro; Hüllner, Martin; Veit-Haibach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the magnitude and anatomic extent of the artifacts introduced on positron emission tomographic (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) images by respiratory state mismatch in the attenuation map. Materials and Methods The method was tested on 14 patients referred for an oncologic examination who underwent PET/MR imaging. The acquisition included standard PET and MR series for each patient, and an additional attenuation correction series was acquired by using breath hold. PET data were reconstructed with and without time-of-flight (TOF) information, first by using the standard free-breathing attenuation map and then again by using the additional breath-hold map. Two-tailed paired t testing and linear regression with 0 intercept was performed on TOF versus non-TOF and free-breathing versus breath-hold data for all detected lesions. Results Fluorodeoxyglucose-avid lesions were found in eight of the 14 patients included in the study. The uptake differences (maximum standardized uptake values) between PET reconstructions with free-breathing versus breath-hold attenuation ranged, for non-TOF reconstructions, from -18% to 26%. The corresponding TOF reconstructions yielded differences from -15% to 18%. Conclusion TOF information was shown to reduce the artifacts caused at PET/MR by respiratory mismatch between emission and attenuation data. © RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  3. Afternoon serum-melatonin in sleep disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Ulfberg, J; Micic, S; Strøm, J

    1998-08-01

    To study afternoon serum-melatonin values in patients with sleep disordered breathing. Melatonin has a strong circadian rhythm with high values during the night-time and low values in the afternoon. Sleep disordered breathing may change the circadian rhythm of melatonin which may have diagnostic implications. The Sleep Laboratory, The Department of Internal Medicine, Avesta Hospital, Sweden, and the Department of Anaesthesiology, Glostrup University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. We examined 60 consecutive patients admitted for sleep disordered breathing and 10 healthy non snoring controls. The patients underwent a sleep apnoea screening test having a specificity of 100% for the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) using a combination of static charge sensitive bed and oximetry. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome was found in 49 patients, eight patients had borderline sleep disordered breathing (BSDB) and three patients were excluded due to interfering disease. Patients and controls had an afternoon determination of serum-melatonin. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used to score day-time sleepiness. In comparison with normal controls patients suffering from OSAS had significantly higher serum-melatonin levels in the afternoon. However, as a diagnostic test for OSAS in patients with sleep disordered breathing serum-melatonin showed a low sensitivity but a high specificity. The results indicate that breathing disorders during sleep in general affect pineal function. Sleep disordered breathing seems to disturb pineal function. Determination of afternoon serum-melatonin alone or together with a scoring of daytime sleepiness does not identify OSAS-patients in a heterogeneous population of patients complaining of heavy snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness.

  4. NASA firefighters breathing system program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the rising incidence of respiratory injury to firefighters, local governments expressed the need for improved breathing apparatus. A review of the NASA firefighters breathing system program, including concept definition, design, development, regulatory agency approval, in-house testing, and program conclusion is presented.

  5. Flight Test Results for the NICMOS Cryocooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, F. X.; McCormick, J. A.; Nellis, G. F.; Sixsmith, H.; Swift, W. L.

    1999-01-01

    In October 1998 a mechanical cryocooler and cryogenic circulator loop were flown on NASA's STS-95 as part of the Hubble Orbital System Test (HOST). The system will be installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during Service Mission #3 in 2000 and will provide cooling to the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). It will extend the useful life of that instrument by 5 to 10 years. This was the first successful space demonstration of a turbobrayton cryocooler. The cooler is a single stage reverse Brayton type, using low-vibration high-speed miniature turbomachines for the compression and expansion functions. A miniature centrifugal cryogenic circulator is used to deliver refrigerated neon to the instrument. During the mission, the cooler operated without anomalies for approximately 185 hours over a range of conditions to verify its mechanical, thermodynamic and control functions. The cryocooler satisfied all mission objectives including maximum cooldown to near-design operating conditions, warm and cold starts and stops, operation at near-design temperatures, and demonstration of long-term temperature stability. This paper presents a description of the cooler and its operation during the HOST flight.

  6. Middleware for big data processing: test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gankevich, I.; Gaiduchok, V.; Korkhov, V.; Degtyarev, A.; Bogdanov, A.

    2017-12-01

    Dealing with large volumes of data is resource-consuming work which is more and more often delegated not only to a single computer but also to a whole distributed computing system at once. As the number of computers in a distributed system increases, the amount of effort put into effective management of the system grows. When the system reaches some critical size, much effort should be put into improving its fault tolerance. It is difficult to estimate when some particular distributed system needs such facilities for a given workload, so instead they should be implemented in a middleware which works efficiently with a distributed system of any size. It is also difficult to estimate whether a volume of data is large or not, so the middleware should also work with data of any volume. In other words, the purpose of the middleware is to provide facilities that adapt distributed computing system for a given workload. In this paper we introduce such middleware appliance. Tests show that this middleware is well-suited for typical HPC and big data workloads and its performance is comparable with well-known alternatives.

  7. Shortness of breath in clinical practice: A case for left atrial function and exercise stress testing for a comprehensive diastolic heart failure workup

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, Pupalan; Anavekar, Nagesh S; Neil, Christopher; Thomas, Liza; Hare, David L

    2017-01-01

    The symptom cluster of shortness of breath (SOB) contributes significantly to the outpatient workload of cardiology services. The workup of these patients includes blood chemistry and biomarkers, imaging and functional testing of the heart and lungs. A diagnosis of diastolic heart failure is inferred through the exclusion of systolic abnormalities, a normal pulmonary function test and normal hemoglobin, coupled with diastolic abnormalities on echocardiography. Differentiating confounders such as obesity or deconditioning in a patient with diastolic abnormalities is difficult. While the most recent guidelines provide more avenues for diagnosis, such as incorporating the left atrial size, little emphasis is given to understanding left atrial function, which contributes to at least 25% of diastolic left ventricular filling; additionally, exercise stress testing to elicit symptoms and test the dynamics of diastolic parameters, especially when access to the “gold standard” invasive tests is lacking, presents clinical translational gaps. It is thus important in diastolic heart failure work up to understand left atrial mechanics and the role of exercise testing to build a comprehensive argument for the diagnosis of diastolic heart failure in a patient presenting with SOB. PMID:29354484

  8. Usefulness of rectally administering [1-(13)C]-butyrate for breath test in patients with active and quiescent ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kimitoshi; Ishii, Yukimoto; Mizuno, Shigeaki; Sugitani, Masahiko; Asai, Satoshi; Kohno, Tadashi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Komuro, Sachiko; Iwamoto, Maho; Miyamoto, Shunpachi; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Arakawa, Yasuyuki

    2007-02-01

    Impaired butyrate metabolism plays a part in ulcerative colitis (UC). To assess the usefulness of measuring butyrate metabolism as an indication of inflammatory activity, we investigated the rate of butyrate metabolism by breath test after administering [1-(13)C]-butyrate rectally to patients with UC. Thirty-eight UC patients (22 active, 16 quiescent) and 15 healthy controls were given [1-(13)C]-butyrate enemas. The (13)CO2 production rate was measured by breath test using an infrared spectrometric analyzer. The quantity of expired (13)CO2 was significantly lower in the active than in the quiescent UC and control groups. Cumulative (13)CO2 production at 240 min showed significant negative correlations with the clinical activity index (r=-0.65, p<0.0001), endoscopic activity index (r=-0.63, p=0.0001) and histology (r=-0.71, p<0.0001) in the active UC group. The (13)CO2 production rate was significantly increased in the quiescent stage as compared with the active stage in six UC patients, in whom clinical remission was achieved, in accordance with improvements in the clinical activity index, the endoscopic activity index, histology and fecal butyrate concentrations. Significant inverse correlations between the cumulative (13)CO2 production rate and these three parameters were seen in these six UC patients assessed in both the active and quiescent stages. Measurement of expired (13)CO2 after rectally administering [1-(13)C]-butyrate in active and quiescent UC appears to be a promising and reliable method for evaluating disease activity and metabolic changes associated with amelioration of inflammation.

  9. 40 CFR 204.57-5 - Reporting of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Reporting of test results. 204.57-5... of test results. (a)(1) The manufacturer shall submit a copy of the test report for all testing... compressor. (iii) Compressor serial number. (iv) Test results by serial numbers (3) The first test report for...

  10. 40 CFR 204.57-5 - Reporting of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting of test results. 204.57-5... of test results. (a)(1) The manufacturer shall submit a copy of the test report for all testing... compressor. (iii) Compressor serial number. (iv) Test results by serial numbers (3) The first test report for...

  11. 40 CFR 204.57-5 - Reporting of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting of test results. 204.57-5... of test results. (a)(1) The manufacturer shall submit a copy of the test report for all testing... compressor. (iii) Compressor serial number. (iv) Test results by serial numbers (3) The first test report for...

  12. 40 CFR 204.57-5 - Reporting of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting of test results. 204.57-5... of test results. (a)(1) The manufacturer shall submit a copy of the test report for all testing... compressor. (iii) Compressor serial number. (iv) Test results by serial numbers (3) The first test report for...

  13. 40 CFR 204.57-5 - Reporting of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting of test results. 204.57-5... of test results. (a)(1) The manufacturer shall submit a copy of the test report for all testing... compressor. (iii) Compressor serial number. (iv) Test results by serial numbers (3) The first test report for...

  14. Breathing and sense of self: visuo-respiratory conflicts alter body self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Adler, Dan; Herbelin, Bruno; Similowski, Thomas; Blanke, Olaf

    2014-11-01

    Bodily self-consciousness depends on the processing of interoceptive and exteroceptive signals. It can be disrupted by inducing signal conflicts. Breathing, at the crossroad between interoception and exteroception, should contribute to bodily self-consciousness. We induced visuo-respiratory conflicts in 17 subjects presented with a virtual body or a parallelepidedal object flashing synchronously or asynchronously with their breathing. A questionnaire detected illusory changes in bodily self-consciousness and breathing agency (the feeling of sensing one's breathing command). Changes in self-location were tested by measuring reaction time during mental ball drop (MBD). Synchronous illumination changed the perceived location of breathing (body: p=0.008 vs. asynchronous; object: p=0.013). It resulted in a significant change in breathing agency, but no changes in self-identification. This was corroborated by prolonged MBD reaction time (body: +0.045s, 95%CI [0.013; 0.08], p=0.007). We conclude that breathing modulates bodily self-consciousness. We also conclude that one can induce the irruption of unattended breathing into consciousness without modifying respiratory mechanics or gas exchange. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Exhaled Breath Temperature as a Novel Marker of Future Development of COPD: Results of a Follow-Up Study in Smokers.

    PubMed

    Labor, Marina; Vrbica, Žarko; Gudelj, Ivan; Labor, Slavica; Jurić, Iva; Plavec, Davor

    2016-12-01

    Although only less than one-third of smokers develop COPD, early marker(s) of COPD development are lacking. The aim of this research was to assess the ability of an average equilibrium exhaled breath temperature (EBT) in identifying susceptibility to cigarette smoke so as to predict COPD development in smokers at risk. The study was a part of a multicenter prospective cohort study in current smokers (N = 140, both sexes, 40-65 years, ≥20 pack-years) with no prior diagnosis of COPD. Diagnostic workup includes history, physical, quality of life, hematology and highly sensitive CRP, EBT before and after smoking a cigarette, lung function with bronchodilator test, and 6-minute walk test. Patients without a diagnosis of COPD and in GOLD 1 stage at initial assessment were reassessed after 2 years. COPD was additionally diagnosed based on lower level of normal (LLN) lung function criteria. Utility of EBT for disease progression was analyzed using receiver operator curve (ROC) and logistic regression analyses. Change in EBT after smoking a cigarette at initial visit (ΔEBT) was significantly predictive for disease progression (newly diagnosed COPD; newly diagnosed COPD + severity progression) after 2 years (p < 0.05 for both). ΔEBT had an AUC of 0.859 (p = 0.011) with sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 98.1% for newly diagnosed COPD using LLN criteria. We conclude that EBT shows potential for predicting the future development of COPD in current smokers. This was best seen using LLN to diagnose COPD, adding further evidence to question the use of GOLD criteria for diagnosing COPD.

  16. A study of the methodological and clinical validity of the combined lactulose hydrogen breath test with scintigraphic oro-cecal transit test for diagnosing small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in IBS patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Zheng, X; Chu, H; Zhao, J; Cong, Y; Fried, M; Fox, M; Dai, N

    2014-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) may be a cause of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, current investigations have important limitations. We aimed to identify clinically relevant diagnostic criteria for SIBO based on lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) alone and combined with scintigraphic measurement of oro-cecal transit (SOCT). Results of LHBT/SOCT investigation from 89 IBS patients and 13 healthy volunteers were included in a systematic analysis of six published criteria for SIBO diagnosis. Clinical relevance of competing criteria was determined by assessing (i) prevalence of SIBO in IBS patients and healthy volunteers (ii) if SIBO diagnosis predicted improvement in IBS symptoms in a prospective, pilot therapeutic trial of a non-absorbable antibiotic (rifaximin 600 mg b.d.) in IBS patients. Reproducibility of SIBO diagnosis by combined LHBT/SOCT was near perfect. A ≥5 ppm H2 increase prior to appearance of cecal contrast was detected in more IBS patients than healthy volunteers (35/89 vs 1/13; p = 0.026), but not for other diagnostic criteria. IBS patients with SIBO, compared to those without SIBO, reported significantly greater improvement in abdominal symptoms following rifaximin therapy (p < 0.002 overall IBS symptom severity). This improvement was most marked in D-IBS patients in whom all symptoms improved, including stool frequency and consistency (all p < 0.004). Combined LHBT/SOCT testing using a H2 5 ppm cutoff may identify a subgroup of IBS patients with SIBO. Pilot data examining the clinical response to rifaximin suggest that this subset of IBS patients may benefit more than those with a normal test. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Stirling convertor performance mapping test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Songgang; Peterson, Allen A.; White, Maurice A.; Faultersack, Franklyn; Redinger, Darin L.; Petersen, Stephen L.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has selected Free-Piston Stirling Convertors as a technology for future advanced radioisotope space power systems. In August 2000, DOE awarded competitive Phase I, Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) power system integration contracts to three major aerospace contractors, resulting in SRG conceptual designs in February 2001. All three contractors based their designs on the Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) developed by Stirling Technology Company (STC) for DOE. The contract award to a single system integration contractor for Phases II and III of the SRG program is anticipated in late 2001. The first potential SRG mission is targeted for a Mars rover. Recent TDC performance data are provided in this paper, together with predictions from Stirling simulation models. .

  18. Breath-hold times in air compared to breath-hold times during cold water immersions.

    PubMed

    Taber, Michael J; MacKinnon, Scott N; Power, Jonathan; Walker, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Given the effects of cold water immersion on breath-hold (BH) capabilities, a practical training exercise was developed for military/paramilitary personnel completing a helicopter underwater egress training (HUET) program. The exercise was designed to provide firsth and experience of the effects of cold water exposure on BH time. After completing the required HUET, 47 subjects completed two BH testing sessions as well as a short questionnaire. The first BH was completed while standing on the pool deck. The second BH was completed while fully immersed (face down) in 2-3°C water. There were 40 of the volunteers who also breathed from an emergency breathing system (EBS) while in the cold water. Results demonstrated that BH capabilities in cold water were significantly lower than those in ambient air. A significant correlation was also found between BH in air and the difference in cold water vs. air BH capabilities, which suggests that subjects who can hold their breath the longest in air experienced the greatest decrease in BH when immersed. Results indicate that 92% of the subjects reported that the practical cold water immersion exercise had a high value. Finally, 58% of those who used the EBS reported that it was harder to breathe in cold water than while in the training pool (approximately 22°C). The BH times for this group were similar to those reported in previous cold water immersion studies. Based on the questionnaire results, it is possible, when carefully applied, to include a practical cold water immersion exercise into existing HUET programs.

  19. 49 CFR 234.273 - Results of inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Results of inspections and tests. 234.273 Section....273 Results of inspections and tests. (a) Results of inspections and tests made in compliance with.../DOT inventory number, place and date, equipment tested, results of tests, repairs, replacements...

  20. 49 CFR 234.273 - Results of inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Results of inspections and tests. 234.273 Section....273 Results of inspections and tests. (a) Results of inspections and tests made in compliance with.../DOT inventory number, place and date, equipment tested, results of tests, repairs, replacements...

  1. 49 CFR 234.273 - Results of inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Results of inspections and tests. 234.273 Section....273 Results of inspections and tests. (a) Results of inspections and tests made in compliance with.../DOT inventory number, place and date, equipment tested, results of tests, repairs, replacements...

  2. A dual mode breath sampler for the collection of the end-tidal and dead space fractions.

    PubMed

    Salvo, P; Ferrari, C; Persia, R; Ghimenti, S; Lomonaco, T; Bellagambi, F; Di Francesco, F

    2015-06-01

    This work presents a breath sampler prototype automatically collecting end-tidal (single and multiple breaths) or dead space air fractions (multiple breaths). This result is achieved by real time measurements of the CO2 partial pressure and airflow during the expiratory and inspiratory phases. Suitable algorithms, used to control a solenoid valve, guarantee that a Nalophan(®) bag is filled with the selected breath fraction even if the subject under test hyperventilates. The breath sampler has low pressure drop (<0.5 kPa) and uses inert or disposable components to avoid bacteriological risk for the patients and contamination of the breath samples. A fully customisable software interface allows a real time control of the hardware and software status. The performances of the breath sampler were evaluated by comparing (a) the CO2 partial pressure calculated during the sampling with the CO2 pressure measured off-line within the Nalophan(®) bag; (b) the concentrations of four selected volatile organic compounds in dead space, end-tidal and mixed breath fractions. Results showed negligible deviations between calculated and off-line CO2 pressure values and the distributions of the selected compounds into dead space, end-tidal and mixed breath fractions were in agreement with their chemical-physical properties. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Measurement of starch digestion of naturally 13C-enriched weaning foods, before and after partial digestion with amylase-rich flour, using a 13C breath test.

    PubMed

    Weaver, L T; Dibba, B; Sonko, B; Bohane, T D; Hoare, S

    1995-10-01

    Malnutrition in infancy is a global problem which leads to retardation of childhood growth and development. There is a pressing need to improve weaning strategies for infants of the developing world. Traditional Gambian weaning foods are watery and of low energy density, but addition of energy in the form of fat and carbohydrate leads to thick, viscous gruels which are difficult to ingest. Partial digestion with amylase (EC 3.2.1.1)-rich flour reduces their viscosity while retaining their energy density. The aim of the present study was to measure the digestibility of a maize-based weaning food, before and after amylase digestion, in malnourished children using a 13C breath test. Ten children (aged 7-16 months; mean weight-for-age Z score -0.8) received isovolumetric and isoenergetic quantities of a maize-based weaning food naturally abundant with 13C. Breath samples were collected at intervals of 30 min for 5 h thereafter and 13CO2 enrichment was measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Percentage dose of 13C recovered increased from a mean 13.7 (SD 3.7)% before, to 18.3 (SD 5.6)% after ingestion of amylase-treated weaning foods (P < 0.1). There was a significant inverse relation between age and weight, and percentage dose of 13C recovered in children receiving amylase-treated feeds. There were no differences in concentrations of amylase in saliva of infants or breast milk of their mothers. Partial digestion of supplementary foods may improve the nutrition of undernourished weaning children, not only by reducing their viscosity, thereby increasing ingestion, but also by improving their digestion and thereby their absorption.

  4. Breath alcohol analyzer mistakes methanol poisoning for alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Caravati, E Martin; Anderson, Kathleen T

    2010-02-01

    Breath alcohol analyzers are used to detect ethanol in motorists and others suspected of public intoxication. One concern is their ability to detect interfering substances that may falsely increase the ethanol reading. A 47-year-old-man was found in a public park, acting intoxicated. A breath analyzer test (Intoxilyzer 5000EN) measured 0.288 g/210 L breath ethanol, without an interferent noted. In the emergency department, the patient admitted to drinking HEET Gas-Line antifreeze, which contains 99% methanol. Two to three hours after ingestion, serum and urine toxicology screen results were negative for ethanol and multiple other substances. His serum methanol concentration was 589 mg/dL, serum osmolality 503 mOsm/kg, osmolar gap 193 mOsm/kg, and anion gap 17 mmol/L. The patient was treated with intravenous ethanol, fomepizole, and hemodialysis without complication. This is a unique clinical case of a breath alcohol analyzer reporting methanol as ethanol. Intoxilyzer devices have been shown to indicate some substances (acetone) as interferents in humans but not methanol. Increased serum concentrations of methanol can be reported as ethanol by a commonly used breath alcohol analyzer, which can result in a delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis and subsequent methanol toxicity if antidotal treatment is not administered in a timely manner. Copyright (c) 2009 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 49 CFR 234.273 - Results of inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Results of inspections and tests. 234.273 Section... Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.273 Results of inspections and tests. (a) Results of inspections and tests made in compliance with this part shall be recorded on forms provided by...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1281 - Standard: Comparison of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281... Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1281 Standard: Comparison of test results. (a) If a laboratory performs the... between test results using the different methodologies, instruments, or testing sites. (b) The laboratory...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1281 - Standard: Comparison of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281... Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1281 Standard: Comparison of test results. (a) If a laboratory performs the... between test results using the different methodologies, instruments, or testing sites. (b) The laboratory...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1281 - Standard: Comparison of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281... Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1281 Standard: Comparison of test results. (a) If a laboratory performs the... between test results using the different methodologies, instruments, or testing sites. (b) The laboratory...

  9. 49 CFR 234.273 - Results of inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Results of inspections and tests. 234.273 Section... Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.273 Results of inspections and tests. (a) Results of inspections and tests made in compliance with this part shall be recorded on forms provided by...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1281 - Standard: Comparison of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281... Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1281 Standard: Comparison of test results. (a) If a laboratory performs the... between test results using the different methodologies, instruments, or testing sites. (b) The laboratory...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1281 - Standard: Comparison of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281... Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1281 Standard: Comparison of test results. (a) If a laboratory performs the... between test results using the different methodologies, instruments, or testing sites. (b) The laboratory...

  12. Calculating rhythmicity of infant breathing using wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macey, Katherine E.; Page, Wyatt H.; Harper, Ronald M.; Macey, Paul M.; Ford, Rodney P. K.

    2000-12-01

    Breathing signals are one set of physiological data that may provide information regarding the mechanisms that cause SIDS. Isolated breathing pauses have been implicated in fatal events. Other features of interest include slow amplitude modulation of the breathing signal, a phenomenon whose origin is unclear, and periodic breathing. The latter describes a repetitive series of apnea, and may be considered an extreme manifestation of amplitude modulation with successive cessations of breathing. Rhythmicity is defined to assess the impact of amplitude modulation on breathing signals and describes the extent to which frequency components remain constant for the duration of the signal. The wavelet transform was used to identify sections of constant frequency components within signals. Rhythmicity can be evaluated for all the frequency components in a signal, for individual frequencies. The rhythmicity of eight breathing epochs from sleeping infants at high and low risk for SIDS was calculated. Initial results show breathing from infants at high risk for SIDS exhibits greater rhythmicity of modulating frequencies than breathing from low risk infants.

  13. HESTIA Phase I Test Results: The Air Revitalization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Sarah E.; Hansen, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    In any human spaceflight mission, a number of Environmental Control & Life Support System (ECLSS) technologies work together to provide the conditions astronauts need to live healthily, productively, and comfortably in space. In a long-duration mission, many of these ECLSS technologies may use materials supplied by In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), introducing more interactions between systems. The Human Exploration Spacecraft Test-bed for Integration & Advancement (HESTIA) Project aims to create a test-bed to evaluate ECLSS and ISRU technologies and how they interact in a high-fidelity, closed-loop, human-rated analog habitat. Air purity and conditioning are essential components within any ECLSS and for HESTIA's first test they were achieved with the Air Revitalization System (ARS) described below. The ARS provided four essential functions to the test-bed chamber: cooling the air, removing humidity from the air, removing trace contaminants, and scrubbing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air. In this case, the oxygen supply function was provided by ISRU. In the current configuration, the ARS is a collection of different subsystems. A fan circulates the air, while a condensing heat exchanger (CHX) pulls humidity out of the air. A Trace Contaminant Removal System (TCRS) filters the air of potentially harmful contaminants. Lastly, a Reactive Plastic Lithium Hydroxide (RP-LiOH) unit removes CO2 from the breathing air. During the HESTIA Phase I test in September 2015, the ARS and its individual components each functioned as expected, although further analysis is underway. During the Phase I testing and in prior bench-top tests, the energy balance of heat removed by the CHX was not equal to the cooling it received. This indicated possible instrument error and therefore recalibration of the instruments and follow-up testing is planned in 2016 to address the issue. The ARS was tested in conjunction with two other systems: the Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS) and the

  14. 49 CFR 229.313 - Product testing results and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Product testing results and records. 229.313....313 Product testing results and records. (a) Results of product testing conducted by a railroad as... by this subpart. Results of product testing conducted by a vendor or private equipment owner in...

  15. 12 CFR 252.147 - Reports of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports of stress test results. 252.147 Section... Covered Companies § 252.147 Reports of stress test results. (a) Reports to the Board of stress test results. (1) A covered company must report the results of the stress test required under § 252.144 to the...

  16. 49 CFR 229.313 - Product testing results and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Product testing results and records. 229.313....313 Product testing results and records. (a) Results of product testing conducted by a railroad as... by this subpart. Results of product testing conducted by a vendor or private equipment owner in...

  17. 12 CFR 252.147 - Reports of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports of stress test results. 252.147 Section... Covered Companies § 252.147 Reports of stress test results. (a) Reports to the Board of stress test results. (1) A covered company must report the results of the stress test required under section 252.144...

  18. 49 CFR 229.313 - Product testing results and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Product testing results and records. 229.313....313 Product testing results and records. (a) Results of product testing conducted by a railroad as... by this subpart. Results of product testing conducted by a vendor or private equipment owner in...

  19. Value of the 13C-urea breath test for detection of gastric Helicobacter spp. infection in dogs undergoing endoscopic examination.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Sanae; Ohno, Koichi; Tsukamoto, Atsushi; Maeda, Shingo; Murata, Yosuke; Nakashima, Ko; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Fujino, Yasuhito; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Urea breath test (UBT) using an infrared spectral analyzer is widely used for non-invasive and rapid detection of gastric Helicobacter spp. in human, but not veterinary medicine. The main purposes of this study were to determine the reference range of the UBT in dogs and to evaluate its clinical usefulness. To address the first aim, 6 healthy laboratory beagles were subjected to UBT and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastric endoscopic biopsy samples from the antrum, corpus and fundus were examined for Helicobacter spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, rapid urease test (RUT), histology and cytology. Amoxicillin, metronidazole and omeprazole were given to infected dogs for 14 days, and dogs that became Helicobacter-negative were used to determine the reference range for UBT. To address the second aim, 32 canine patients underwent UBT before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and the sensitivity and specificity of UBT were calculated based on our newly determined reference range using PCR as the gold standard for detection of Helicobacter spp. Initially, all 6 laboratory beagles were infected in all gastric regions and became uninfected after eradication. The mean ± 2 SD UBT value after eradication was 0.6 ± 1.8‰, and the reference range for UBT was determined to be less than 2.5‰. UBT was completed successfully in 27 patients. Using our reference range, UBT displayed 89% (16/18) sensitivity and 89% (8/9) specificity, indicating that UBT was quite useful for the detection of gastric Helicobacter spp. infection in dogs.

  20. A NON-INVASIVE DIAGNOSIS OF INTESTINAL ISCHEMIA BY EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS SPECTROMETRY-PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To explore the potential of exhaled breath analysis by Column Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) as a non invasive and sensitive approach to evaluate mesenteric ischemia in pigs.

    Domestic pigs (n=3) were anesthetized with Guaifenesin/ Fentanyl/ Ketamine/ Xylazine...

  1. Breath Methane Levels Are Increased Among Patients with Diverticulosis.

    PubMed

    Yazici, Cemal; Arslan, Deniz Cagil; Abraham, Rana; Cushing, Kelly; Keshavarzian, Ali; Mutlu, Ece A

    2016-09-01

    Diverticulosis and its complications are important healthcare problems in the USA and throughout the Western world. While mechanisms as to how diverticulosis occurs have partially been explored, few studies examined the relationship between colonic gases such as methane and diverticulosis in humans. This study aimed to demonstrate a significant relationship between methanogenic Archaea and development of diverticulosis. Subjects who consecutively underwent hydrogen breath test at Rush University Medical Center between 2003 and 2010 were identified retrospectively through a database. Medical records were reviewed for presence of a colonoscopy report. Two hundred and sixty-four subjects were identified who had both a breath methane level measurement and a colonoscopy result. Additional demographic and clinical data were obtained with chart review. Mean breath methane levels were higher in subjects with diverticulosis compared to those without diverticulosis (7.89 vs. 4.94 ppm, p = 0.04). Methane producers (defined as those with baseline fasting breath methane level >5 ppm) were more frequent among subjects with diverticulosis compared to those without diverticulosis (50.9 vs. 34 %, p = 0.0025). When adjusted for confounders, breath methane levels and age were the two independent predictors of diverticulosis on colonoscopy with logistic regression modeling. Methanogenesis is associated with the presence of diverticulosis. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and prospectively evaluate a possible etiological role of methanogenesis and methanogenic archaea in diverticulosis.

  2. Breath acidification in adolescent runners exposed to atmospheric pollution: A prospective, repeated measures observational study

    PubMed Central

    Ferdinands, Jill M; Crawford, Carol A Gotway; Greenwald, Roby; Van Sickle, David; Hunter, Eric; Teague, W Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Background Vigorous outdoors exercise during an episode of air pollution might cause airway inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vigorous outdoor exercise during peak smog season on breath pH, a biomarker of airway inflammation, in adolescent athletes. Methods We measured breath pH both pre- and post-exercise on ten days during peak smog season in 16 high school athletes engaged in daily long-distance running in a downwind suburb of Atlanta. The association of post-exercise breath pH with ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations was tested with linear regression. Results We collected 144 pre-exercise and 146 post-exercise breath samples from 16 runners (mean age 14.9 years, 56% male). Median pre-exercise breath pH was 7.58 (interquartile range: 6.90 to 7.86) and did not change significantly after exercise. We observed no significant association between ambient ozone or particulate matter and post-exercise breath pH. However both pre- and post-exercise breath pH were strikingly low in these athletes when compared to a control sample of 14 relatively sedentary healthy adults and to published values of breath pH in healthy subjects. Conclusion Although we did not observe an acute effect of air pollution exposure during exercise on breath pH, breath pH was surprisingly low in this sample of otherwise healthy long-distance runners. We speculate that repetitive vigorous exercise may induce airway acidification. PMID:18328105

  3. Dynamic Docking Test System (DDTS) active table frequency response test results. [Apollo Soyuz Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of the frequency response test performed on the dynamic docking test system (DDTS) active table. Sinusoidal displacement commands were applied to the table and the dynamic response determined from measured actuator responses and accelerometers mounted to the table and one actuator.

  4. Meeting Reports for 2013: Recent Advances in Breath Biomarker Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article reports the efforts of the breath research community affiliated with the International Association of Breath Research (IABR) in disseminating research results in high profile technical meetings in the United States (US). Specifically, we describe presentations at a ...

  5. Quiet breathing in hindlimb casted mice.

    PubMed

    Receno, Candace N; Roffo, Katelynn E; Mickey, Marisa C; DeRuisseau, Keith C; DeRuisseau, Lara R

    2018-06-07

    The hindlimb casting model was developed to study skeletal muscle reloading following a period of unloading. It is unknown if ventilation parameters of mice are affected by the casting model. We tested the hypothesis that hindlimb casted mice have similar ventilatory patterns compared to mice with the casts removed. Male CD-1 mice underwent 14 days of hindlimb immobilization via plaster casting. Breathing parameters were obtained utilizing unrestrained barometric plethysmography (UBP). Breathing traces were analyzed with Ponemah software for breathing frequency, tidal volume (TV), and minute ventilation (MV). Frequency, TV and MV did not show any differences in quiet breathing patterns during or post-casting in mice. Thus, the hindlimb casting model does not complicate breathing during and after casting and should not interfere with the unloading and reloading of skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a) Each... alcohol testing results using the Management Information System (MIS) form and instructions as required by...

  7. 12 CFR 252.156 - Reports of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports of stress test results. 252.156 Section....156 Reports of stress test results. (a) Reports to the Board of stress test results—(1) Savings and... report the results of the stress test to the Board by January 5 of each calendar year in the manner and...

  8. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a) Each... alcohol testing results using the Management Information System (MIS) form and instructions as required by...

  9. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a) Each... alcohol testing results using the Management Information System (MIS) form and instructions as required by...

  10. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a) Each... alcohol testing results using the Management Information System (MIS) form and instructions as required by...

  11. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a) Each... alcohol testing results using the Management Information System (MIS) form and instructions as required by...

  12. Drug and alcohol testing results 1998 annual report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-12-01

    The Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 1998 Annual Report is a compilation and analysis of drug and alcohol testing results reported by transit systems in the United States during 1998. The report covers results for the following drug types: marijuana ...

  13. Drug and alcohol testing results 2000 annual report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-12-01

    The Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 2000 Annual Report is a compilation and analysis of drug and alcohol testing results reported by transit systems in the United State during 2000. The report covers results for the following drug types: marijuana (...

  14. Drug and alcohol testing results 1999 annual report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-12-01

    The Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 1999 Annual Report is a compilation and analysis of drug and alcohol testing results reported by transit systems in the United States during 1999. The report covers results for the following drug types: marijuana ...

  15. Chemical sensors for breath gas analysis: the latest developments at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013.

    PubMed

    Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

    2014-06-01

    Profiling the body chemistry by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath opens exciting new avenues in medical diagnostics. Gas sensors could provide ideal platforms for realizing portable, hand-held breath testing devices in the near future. This review summarizes the latest developments and applications in the field of chemical sensors for diagnostic breath testing that were presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013 in Wallerfangen, Germany. Considerable progress has been made towards clinically applicable breath testing devices, especially by utilizing chemo-sensitive nanomaterials. Examples of several specialized breath testing applications are presented that are either based on stand-alone nanomaterial-based sensors being highly sensitive and specific to individual breath compounds over others, or on combinations of several highly specific sensors, or on experimental nanomaterial-based sensors arrays. Other interesting approaches include the adaption of a commercially available MOx-based sensor array to indirect breath testing applications, using a sample pre-concentration method, and the development of compact integrated GC-sensor systems. The recent trend towards device integration has led to the development of fully integrated prototypes of point-of-care devices. We describe and compare the performance of several prototypes that are based on different sensing technologies and evaluate their potential as low-cost and readily available next-generation medical devices.

  16. Personal Breathing Zone Exposures among Hot-Mix Asphalt Paving Workers; Preliminary Analysis for Trends and Analysis of Work Practices That Resulted in the Highest Exposure Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Linda V.; Snawder, John E.; Kriech, Anthony J.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; McClean, Michael D.; Herrick, Robert F.; Blackburn, Gary R.; Olsen, Larry D.

    2015-01-01

    An exposure assessment of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) paving workers was conducted to determine which of four exposure scenarios impacted worker exposure and dose. Goals of this report are to present the personal-breathing zone (PBZ) data, discuss the impact of substituting the releasing/cleaning agent, and discuss work practices that resulted in the highest exposure concentration for each analyte. One-hundred-seven PBZ samples were collected from HMA paving workers on days when diesel oil was used as a releasing/cleaning agent. An additional 36 PBZ samples were collected on days when B-100 (100% biodiesel, containing no petroleum-derived products) was used as a substitute releasing/cleaning agent. Twenty-four PBZ samples were collected from a reference group of concrete workers, who also worked in outdoor construction but had no exposure to asphalt emissions. Background and field blank samples were also collected daily. Total particulates and the benzene soluble fraction were determined gravimetrically. Total organic matter was determined using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection and provided qualitative information about other exposure sources contributing to worker exposure besides asphalt emissions. Thirty-three individual polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were determined using GC with time-offlight mass spectrometry; results were presented as either the concentration of an individual PAC or a summation of the individual PACs containing either 2- to 3-rings or 4- to 6-rings. Samples were also screened for PACs containing 4- to 6-rings using fluorescence spectroscopy. Arithmetic means, medians, and box plots of the PBZ data were used to evaluate trends in the data. Box plots illustrating the diesel oil results were more variable than the B-100. Also, the highest diesel oil results were much higher in concentration than the highest B-100 results. An analysis of the highest exposure results and field notes revealed a probable association between

  17. Personal breathing zone exposures among hot-mix asphalt paving workers; preliminary analysis for trends and analysis of work practices that resulted in the highest exposure concentrations.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Linda V; Snawder, John E; Kriech, Anthony J; Cavallari, Jennifer M; McClean, Michael D; Herrick, Robert F; Blackburn, Gary R; Olsen, Larry D

    2013-01-01

    An exposure assessment of hot-mix asphalt (HMA) paving workers was conducted to determine which of four exposure scenarios impacted worker exposure and dose. Goals of this report are to present the personal-breathing zone (PBZ) data, discuss the impact of substituting the releasing/cleaning agent, and discuss work practices that resulted in the highest exposure concentration for each analyte. One-hundred-seven PBZ samples were collected from HMA paving workers on days when diesel oil was used as a releasing/cleaning agent. An additional 36 PBZ samples were collected on days when B-100 (100% biodiesel, containing no petroleum-derived products) was used as a substitute releasing/cleaning agent. Twenty-four PBZ samples were collected from a reference group of concrete workers, who also worked in outdoor construction but had no exposure to asphalt emissions. Background and field blank samples were also collected daily. Total particulates and the benzene soluble fraction were determined gravimetrically. Total organic matter was determined using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection and provided qualitative information about other exposure sources contributing to worker exposure besides asphalt emissions. Thirty-three individual polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were determined using GC with time-of-flight mass spectrometry; results were presented as either the concentration of an individual PAC or a summation of the individual PACs containing either 2- to 3-rings or 4- to 6-rings. Samples were also screened for PACs containing 4- to 6-rings using fluorescence spectroscopy. Arithmetic means, medians, and box plots of the PBZ data were used to evaluate trends in the data. Box plots illustrating the diesel oil results were more variable than the B-100. Also, the highest diesel oil results were much higher in concentration than the highest B-100 results. An analysis of the highest exposure results and field notes revealed a probable association between

  18. The characterisation of hepatic mitochondrial function in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) using the 13C-ketoisocaproate breath test.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Paul R; Scorletti, Eleonora; Smith, Debbie E; Almehmadi, Amal A; Calder, Philip C; Byrne, Christopher D

    2018-06-26

    Hepatic mitochondrial function (HMF) assessed by the <sup>13</sup>C-ketoisocaproate breath test (<sup>13</sup>C-KICA BT) has been previously shown to be significantly associated with the severity of biopsy proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, it is uncertain whether any perturbation in HMF relates specifically to severity of liver disease or factors associated with metabolic syndrome within non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our aim was to investigate whether there was any change in HMF assessed by <sup>13</sup>C-KICA BT in patients with NAFLD compared to control subjects, and to assess the factors that are independently associated with HMF. 77 patients with NAFLD and 11 healthy control subjects were studied. HMF was assessed using <sup>13</sup>C-KICA BT and expressed as cumulative % <sup>13</sup>C-dose recovered on breath over 1hr (cPDR over 1hr). Liver fat and fibrosis was assessed by transient elastography. Multi-variable linear regression modelling was undertaken to test the independence of associations with HMF. HMF (cPDR over 1hr) was lower in NAFLD compared to controls [13.4% (4.8) v. 21.0% (6.3); p< 0.0001)]. In NAFLD, HMF was lower in patients with diabetes versus no diabetes [12.7% (3.4) v. 14.3% (6.1); p=0.003)]. Regression modelling showed age (β= -0.08; p=0.01), waist circumference (β= -0.08; p=0.01), hip circumference (β= -0.04; p=0.01), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (β= -0.05; p=0.01) and diabetes status (β= -1.81; p=0.01) were independently associated with HMF (R<sup>2</sup>= 41.5%; p<0.0001). In patients with NAFLD (compared to healthy subjects), there was a reduction in HMF assessed by the <sup>13</sup>C-KICA BT. Furthermore, in patients with NAFLD, HMF is independent and inversely associated with age, waist and hip circumference, AST and diabetes status. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. What Do the Results of Genetic Tests Mean?

    MedlinePlus

    ... does it take to get the results? Will health insurance cover the costs of genetic testing? What are the benefits of genetic testing? What are the risks and limitations of genetic testing? What is genetic ...

  20. Initial test results with single cylinder rhombic drive Stirling engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairelli, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    A brief description is given of the GPU 3-2 hardware, the test methods used, and the result of these tests. Comparison is made to unpublished data from similar hydrogen tests performed by the U.S. Army.

  1. Initial test results using the GEOS-3 engineering model altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayne, G. S.; Clary, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Data from a series of experimental tests run on the engineering model of the GEOS 3 radar altimeter using the Test and Measurement System (TAMS) designed for preflight testing of the radar altimeter are presented. These tests were conducted as a means of preparing and checking out a detailed test procedure to be used in running similar tests on the GEOS 3 protoflight model altimeter systems. The test procedures and results are also included.

  2. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... pursed lip breathing; Hypoxia - pursed lip breathing; Chronic respiratory failure - pursed lip breathing ... et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  3. 49 CFR 199.109 - Review of drug testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Review of drug testing results. 199.109 Section... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.109 Review of drug testing results. (a) MRO appointment. Each operator shall...

  4. 49 CFR 199.109 - Review of drug testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of drug testing results. 199.109 Section... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.109 Review of drug testing results. (a) MRO appointment. Each operator shall...

  5. 49 CFR 199.109 - Review of drug testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Review of drug testing results. 199.109 Section... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.109 Review of drug testing results. (a) MRO appointment. Each operator shall...

  6. 49 CFR 199.109 - Review of drug testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Review of drug testing results. 199.109 Section... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.109 Review of drug testing results. (a) MRO appointment. Each operator shall...

  7. 49 CFR 199.109 - Review of drug testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review of drug testing results. 199.109 Section... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.109 Review of drug testing results. (a) MRO appointment. Each operator shall...

  8. 12 CFR 252.156 - Reports of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports of stress test results. 252.156 Section... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for....156 Reports of stress test results. (a) Reports to the Board of stress test results—(1) Savings and...

  9. Breath acetone monitoring by portable Si:WO3 gas sensors

    PubMed Central

    Righettoni, Marco; Tricoli, Antonio; Gass, Samuel; Schmid, Alex; Amann, Anton; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    Breath analysis has the potential for early stage detection and monitoring of illnesses to drastically reduce the corresponding medical diagnostic costs and improve the quality of life of patients suffering from chronic illnesses. In particular, the detection of acetone in the human breath is promising for non-invasive diagnosis and painless monitoring of diabetes (no finger pricking). Here, a portable acetone sensor consisting of flame-deposited and in situ annealed, Si-doped epsilon-WO3 nanostructured films was developed. The chamber volume was miniaturized while reaction-limited and transport-limited gas flow rates were identified and sensing temperatures were optimized resulting in a low detection limit of acetone (~20 ppb) with short response (10–15 s) and recovery times (35–70 s). Furthermore, the sensor signal (response) was robust against variations of the exhaled breath flow rate facilitating application of these sensors at realistic relative humidities (80–90%) as in the human breath. The acetone content in the breath of test persons was monitored continuously and compared to that of state-of-the-art proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Such portable devices can accurately track breath acetone concentration to become an alternative to more elaborate breath analysis techniques. PMID:22790702

  10. Effect of alcohol consumption on the liver detoxication capacity as measured by [13C]methacetin- and [methyl-13C]methionine-breath tests.

    PubMed

    Wutzke, Klaus D; Forberger, Anke; Wigger, Marianne

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatic microsomal and mitochondrial functions by using the 13CO2-breath test in healthy subjects either before or after the consumption of red wine. Fourteen adults received [13C]methacetin and [methyl-13C]methionine together with a standardised dinner. Expired air samples were taken over 6 h. After a wash-out period, the subjects consumed 0.4 ml ethanol/kg/day together with dinner over a 10-day period. Thereafter, 13C-tracer administration was repeated under identical conditions. The 13CO2-enrichments were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The mean cumulative percentage 13C-dose recovery (CPDR) after administration of [13C]methacetin and [methyl-13C]methionine either without or with red wine consumption amounted to 38.2+/-6.3 vs. 36.3+/-6.7% (p=0.363) and 9.5+/-3.3 vs. 8.8+/-2.5% (p=0.47), respectively. Moderate alcohol consumption does not induce significant short-term changes of the microsomal and the mitochondrial functions of the human liver in healthy subjects.

  11. Effect of alcohol consumption on the liver detoxication capacity as measured by [13C2]aminopyrine and L-[1-13C]phenylalanine breath tests.

    PubMed

    Wutzke, Klaus D; Wigger, Marianne

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatic microsomal and cytosolic functions by using the 13CO2 breath test in healthy subjects either before or after consumption of red wine. Twelve adults received [13C2]aminopyrine and L-[1-13C]phenylalanine together with a standardised dinner. Expired air samples were taken over 6 h. After a wash-out period, the subjects consumed 0.4 ml ethanol per kg per day together with dinner over a 7.5-day period on average. Thereafter, 13C-tracer administration was repeated under identical conditions. The 13CO2 enrichments were measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The mean cumulative percentage 13C-dose recovery after administration of [13C2]aminopyrine and L-[1-13C]phenylalanine either without or with red wine consumption amounted to 17.0+/-4.4 vs. 14.7+/-3.1% (p=0.170) and 14.0+/-2.8 vs. 11.5+/-3.9% (p=0.084), respectively. Moderate alcohol consumption does not induce significant short-term changes of the microsomal and the cytosolic function of the human liver in healthy subjects.

  12. 12 CFR 325.207 - Publication of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Publication of stress test results. 325.207... GENERAL POLICY CAPITAL MAINTENANCE Annual Stress Test § 325.207 Publication of stress test results. (a) Publication date. (1) A $10 billion to $50 billion covered bank must publish a summary of the results of its...

  13. 12 CFR 252.148 - Disclosure of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of stress test results. 252.148... Requirements for Covered Companies § 252.148 Disclosure of stress test results. (a) Public disclosure of results—(1) In general. (i) A covered company must disclose a summary of the results of the stress test...

  14. 12 CFR 252.157 - Disclosure of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure of stress test results. 252.157... Companies § 252.157 Disclosure of stress test results. (a) Public disclosure of results—(1) In general. (i... loan holding company, or state member bank must disclose a summary of the results of the stress test in...

  15. 12 CFR 252.157 - Disclosure of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disclosure of stress test results. 252.157... Companies § 252.157 Disclosure of stress test results. (a) Public disclosure of results—(1) In general. (i... loan holding company, or state member bank must disclose a summary of the results of the stress test in...

  16. 12 CFR 325.207 - Publication of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Publication of stress test results. 325.207... GENERAL POLICY CAPITAL MAINTENANCE Annual Stress Test § 325.207 Publication of stress test results. (a) Publication date. (1) A $10 billion to $50 billion covered bank must publish a summary of the results of its...

  17. Mathematics Placement Test: Typical Results with Unexpected Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingalls, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Based on the results of a prior case-study analysis of mathematics placement at one university, the mathematics department developed and piloted a mathematics placement test. This article describes the implementation process for a mathematics placement test and further analyzes the test results for the pilot group. As an unexpected result, the…

  18. From breathing to respiration.

    PubMed

    Fitting, Jean-William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. GOES Type III Loop Heat Pipe Life Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottenstein, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The GOES Type III Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) was built as a life test unit for the loop heat pipes on the GOES N-Q series satellites. This propylene LHP was built by Dynatherm Corporation in 2000 and tested continuously for approximately 14 months. It was then put into storage for 3 years. Following the storage period, the LHP was tested at Swales Aerospace to verify that the loop performance hadn t changed. Most test results were consistent with earlier results. At the conclusion of testing at Swales, the LHP was transferred to NASA/GSFC for continued periodic testing. The LHP has been set up for testing in the Thermal Lab at GSFC since 2006. A group of tests consisting of start-ups, power cycles, and a heat transport limit test have been performed every six to nine months since March 2006. Tests results have shown no change in the loop performance over the five years of testing. This presentation will discuss the test hardware, test set-up, and tests performed. Test results to be presented include sample plots from individual tests, along with conductance measurements for all tests performed.

  20. Detection of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in exhaled breath collected from cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Sandqvist, Sören; Dubbelboer, Ilse; Franck, Johan

    2011-10-01

    Exhaled breath has recently been proposed as a new possible matrix for drugs of abuse testing. A key drug is cannabis, and the present study was aimed at investigating the possibility of detecting tetrahydrocannabinol and tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid in exhaled breath after cannabis smoking. Exhaled breath was sampled from 10 regular cannabis users and 8 controls by directing the exhaled breath by suction through an Empore C(18) disk. The disk was extracted with hexane/ethyl acetate, and the resulting extract was evaporated to dryness and redissolved in 100 μL hexane/ethyl acetate. A 3-μL aliquot was injected onto the LC-MS-MS system and analyzed using positive electrospray ionization and selected reaction monitoring. In samples collected 1-12 h after cannabis smoking, tetrahydrocannabinol was detected in all 10 subjects. The rate of excretion was between 9.0 and 77.3 pg/min. Identification of tetrahydrocannabinol was based on correct retention time relative to tetrahydrocannabinol-d(3) and correct product ion ratio. In three samples, peaks were observed for tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid, but these did not fulfill identification criteria. Neither tetrahydrocannabinol or tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid was detected in the controls. These results confirm older reports that tetrahydrocannabinol is present in exhaled breath following cannabis smoking and extend the detection time from minutes to hours. The results further support the idea that exhaled breath is a promising matrix for drugs-of-abuse testing.

  1. The Effect of Hyperventilation on the Ability To Hold One's Breath: Testing the Influence of Beliefs versus Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Given, Mac F.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a simple classroom exercise that investigates whether students' beliefs of what they think should happen influences their measurements. The exercise also provides a framework for discussing the challenges that human belief systems bring to the discipline of using the scientific process. Results suggest that students' preconceived…

  2. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.605 Positive drug test results; procedures. (a) [Reserved] (b) Procedures for administrative... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605...

  3. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.605 Positive drug test results; procedures. (a) [Reserved] (b) Procedures for administrative... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605...

  4. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.605 Positive drug test results; procedures. (a) [Reserved] (b) Procedures for administrative... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605...

  5. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.605 Positive drug test results; procedures. (a) [Reserved] (b) Procedures for administrative... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605...

  6. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.605 Positive drug test results; procedures. (a) [Reserved] (b) Procedures for administrative... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605...

  7. 12 CFR 252.148 - Disclosure of stress test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure of stress test results. 252.148... RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) ENHANCED PRUDENTIAL STANDARDS (REGULATION YY) Company-Run Stress Test Requirements for Covered Companies § 252.148 Disclosure of stress test results. (a) Public disclosure of...

  8. Drug and alcohol testing results : 1997 annual report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-12-01

    The Drug and Alcohol Testing Results 1997 Annual Report is a compilation and analysis of mass transit drug and alcohol testing reported by transit systems in the United States during 1997. The report covers testing results for the following drug type...

  9. Heart rate variability (HRV) in deep breathing tests and 5-min short-term recordings: agreement of ear photoplethysmography with ECG measurements, in 343 subjects.

    PubMed

    Weinschenk, Stefan W; Beise, Reinhard D; Lorenz, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed heart rate variability (HRV) taken by ECG and photoplethysmography (PPG) to assess their agreement. We also analyzed the sensitivity and specificity of PPG to identify subjects with low HRV as an example of its potential use for clinical applications. The HRV parameters: mean heart rate (HR), amplitude, and ratio of heart rate oscillation (E-I difference, E/I ratio), RMSSD, SDNN, and Power LF, were measured during 1-min deep breathing tests (DBT) in 343 individuals, followed by a 5-min short-term HRV (s-HRV), where the HRV parameters: HR, SD1, SD2, SDNN, Stress Index, Power HF, Power LF, Power VLF, and Total Power, were determined as well. Parameters were compared through correlation analysis and agreement analysis by Bland-Altman plots. PPG derived parameters HR and SD2 in s-HRV showed better agreement than SD1, Power HF, and stress index, whereas in DBT HR, E/I ratio and SDNN were superior to Power LF and RMSSD. DBT yielded stronger agreement than s-HRV. A slight overestimation of PPG HRV over HCG HRV was found. HR, Total Power, and SD2 in the s-HRV, HR, Power LF, and SDNN in the DBT showed high sensitivity and specificity to detect individuals with poor HRV. Cutoff percentiles are given for the future development of PPG-based devices. HRV measured by PPG shows good agreement with ECG HRV when appropriate parameters are used, and PPG-based devices can be employed as an easy screening tool to detect individuals with poor HRV, especially in the 1-min DBT test.

  10. 7 CFR 91.24 - Reports of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports of test results. 91.24 Section 91.24... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Reporting § 91.24 Reports of test results. (a) Results of analyses are provided, in writing, by facsimile, by e-mail or other electronic means to the applicant. (b) Results of...

  11. 7 CFR 91.24 - Reports of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports of test results. 91.24 Section 91.24... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Reporting § 91.24 Reports of test results. (a) Results of analyses are provided, in writing, by facsimile, by e-mail or other electronic means to the applicant. (b) Results of...

  12. 7 CFR 91.24 - Reports of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of test results. 91.24 Section 91.24... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Reporting § 91.24 Reports of test results. (a) Results of analyses are... may call the appropriate Science and Technology laboratory for interim or final results prior to...

  13. 7 CFR 91.24 - Reports of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports of test results. 91.24 Section 91.24... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Reporting § 91.24 Reports of test results. (a) Results of analyses are provided, in writing, by facsimile, by e-mail or other electronic means to the applicant. (b) Results of...

  14. 7 CFR 91.24 - Reports of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports of test results. 91.24 Section 91.24... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Reporting § 91.24 Reports of test results. (a) Results of analyses are provided, in writing, by facsimile, by e-mail or other electronic means to the applicant. (b) Results of...

  15. Test results of the DOE/Sandia 17 meter VAWT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nellums, R. O.; Worstell, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of the test program of a 17 meter Vertical Axis Wind Turbine VAWT. Performance test results are discussed including difficulties encountered during the VAWT operation along with ways of solving these problems.

  16. Results from the 2013 drug and alcohol testing survey.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 2013 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey. This annual survey measures the percentage of drivers with commercial drivers licenses (CDLs) that test positive fo...

  17. Drug and alcohol testing results 1996 annual report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-12-01

    The report is a compilation and analysis of mass transit drug and alcohol testing reported by transit systems in the United States during 1996. The report covers testing results for the following drug types: marijuana (THC), cocaine, phencyclidine (P...

  18. Results from the 2008 Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 2008 Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Drug and Alcohol Testing Survey. This annual survey measures the percentage of drivers with commercial drivers licenses who test positive for controlled sub...

  19. Metabolic and ventilatory responses to submaximal and maximal exercise using different breathing assemblies.

    PubMed

    Evans, B W; Potteiger, J A

    1995-06-01

    This study compared ventilatory and metabolic responses during exercise using three breathing assemblies: mouthpiece/noseclip (BV); mouth/face mask (MM); and facemask (FM). Ten male runners completed three maximal treadmill tests with breathing assembly randomly assigned. Metabolic and ventilatory data were recorded every 15s, and heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) each min. No significant differences were found for treadmill run time, HRmax, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and RPE, indicating similar efforts on all trials. No significant differences were found at maximal exercise for VO2 minute ventilation (VE), tidal volume (VT), and breathing frequency (f). At ventilatory threshold (TVENT), VO2, VE, and f were not significantly different. However, peak flow (PF) was significantly higher for BV than FM, and VT was significantly higher for BV than MM and FM. Results indicate alterations in ventilatory mechanics occur at TVENT, but type of breathing assembly does not significantly affect maximal values.

  20. Cardiorespiratory interactions during resistive load breathing.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, P; Perrault, H; Dinh, T P; Eberhard, A; Benchetrit, G

    2000-12-01

    The addition to the respiratory system of a resistive load results in breathing pattern changes and in negative intrathoracic pressure increases. The aim of this study was to use resistive load breathing as a stimulus to the cardiorespiratory interaction and to examine the extent of the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in relation to the breathing pattern changes. HRV and RSA were studied in seven healthy subjects where four resistive loads were applied in a random order during the breath and 8-min recording made in each condition. The HRV spectral power components were computed from the R-R interval sequences, and the RSA amplitude and phase were computed from the sinusoid fitting the instantaneous heart rate within each breath. Adding resistive loads resulted in 1) increasing respiratory period, 2) unchanging heart rate, and 3) increasing HRV and changing RSA characteristics. HRV and RSA characteristics are linearly correlated to the respiratory period. These modifications appear to be linked to load-induced changes in the respiratory period in each individual, because HRV and RSA characteristics are similar at a respiratory period obtained either by loading or by imposed frequency breathing. The present results are discussed with regard to the importance of the breathing cycle duration in these cardiorespiratory interactions, suggesting that these interactions may depend on the time necessary for activation and dissipation of neurotransmitters involved in RSA.

  1. Determination of breath isoprene and acetone concentration with a needle-type extraction device in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ueta, Ikuo; Mizuguchi, Ayako; Okamoto, Mitsuyoshi; Sakamaki, Hiroyuki; Hosoe, Masahiko; Ishiguro, Motoyuki; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2014-03-20

    Isoprene in human breath is said to be related to cholesterol metabolism, and the possibility of the correlations with some clinical parameters has been studied. However, at this stage, no clear benefit of breath isoprene has been reported for clinical diagnosis. In this work, isoprene and acetone concentrations were measured in the breath of healthy and obese subjects using a needle-type extraction device for subsequent analysis in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the possibility of these compounds as an indicator of possible diseases. After measuring intraday and interday variations of isoprene and acetone concentrations in breath samples of healthy subjects, their concentrations were also determined in 80 healthy and 17 obese subjects. In addition, correlation between these breath concentrations and the blood tests result was studied for these healthy and obese subjects. The results indicated successful determination of breath isoprene and acetone in this work, however, no clear correlation was observed between these measured values and the blood test results. Breath isoprene concentration may not be a useful indicator for obesity or hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Air sampling unit for breath analyzers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabra, Dariusz; Prokopiuk, Artur; Mikołajczyk, Janusz; Ligor, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław; Bielecki, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents a portable breath sampling unit (BSU) for human breath analyzers. The developed unit can be used to probe air from the upper airway and alveolar for clinical and science studies. The BSU is able to operate as a patient interface device for most types of breath analyzers. Its main task is to separate and to collect the selected phases of the exhaled air. To monitor the so-called I, II, or III phase and to identify the airflow from the upper and lower parts of the human respiratory system, the unit performs measurements of the exhaled CO2 (ECO2) in the concentration range of 0%-20% (0-150 mm Hg). It can work in both on-line and off-line modes according to American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society standards. A Tedlar bag with a volume of 5 dm3 is mounted as a BSU sample container. This volume allows us to collect ca. 1-25 selected breath phases. At the user panel, each step of the unit operation is visualized by LED indicators. This helps us to regulate the natural breathing cycle of the patient. There is also an operator's panel to ensure monitoring and configuration setup of the unit parameters. The operation of the breath sampling unit was preliminarily verified using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) laboratory setup. At this setup, volatile organic compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction. The tests were performed by the comparison of GC/MS signals from both exhaled nitric oxide and isoprene analyses for three breath phases. The functionality of the unit was proven because there was an observed increase in the signal level in the case of the III phase (approximately 40%). The described work made it possible to construct a prototype of a very efficient breath sampling unit dedicated to breath sample analyzers.

  3. Optimal ventilatory patterns in periodic breathing.

    PubMed

    Ghazanshahi, S D; Khoo, M C

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether periodic breathing (PB), which is highly prevalent during sleep at high altitudes, imposes physiological penalties on the respiratory system in the absence of any accompanying disease. Using a computer model of respiratory gas exchange, we compared the effects of a variety of PB patterns on the chemical and mechanical costs of breathing to those resulting from regular tidal breathing. Although PB produced considerable fluctuation in arterial blood gas tensions, for the same cycle-averaged ventilation, higher arterial oxygen saturation and lower arterial carbon dioxide levels were achieved. This result can be explained by the fact that the combination of large breaths and apnea in PB leads to a substantial reduction in dead space ventilation. At the same time, the savings in mechanical cost achieved by the respiratory muscles during apnea partially offset the increase during the breathing phase. Consequently, the "pressure cost," a criterion based on mean inspiratory pressure, was elevated only slightly, although the average work rate of breathing increased significantly. We found that, at extreme altitudes, PB patterns with clusters of 2 to 4 large breaths that alternate with apnea produce the highest arterial oxygenation levels and lowest pressure costs. The common occurrence of PB patterns with closely similar features has been reported in sleeping healthy sojourners at extreme altitudes. Taken together, these findings suggest that PB favors a reduction in the oxygen demands of the respiratory muscles and therefore may not be as detrimental as it is generally believed to be.

  4. B-52 control configured vehicles: Flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. I.; Murphy, F. B.

    1976-01-01

    Recently completed B-52 Control Configured Vehicles (CCV) flight testing is summarized, and results are compared to analytical predictions. Results are presented for five CCV system concepts: ride control, maneuver load control, flutter mode control, augmented stability, and fatigue reduction. Test results confirm analytical predictions and show that CCV system concepts achieve performance goals when operated individually or collectively.

  5. Standardized Test Results: An Opportunity for English Program Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiménez, Maureyra; Rodríguez, Caroll; Rey Paba, Lourdes

    2017-01-01

    This case study explores the relationship between the results obtained by a group of Industrial Engineering students on a national standardized English test and the impact these results had on language program improvement. The instruments used were interviews, document analysis, observations, surveys, and test results analysis. Findings indicate…

  6. Test Results for Entry Guidance Methods for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (or any space vehicle that enters an atmosphere) safety and reliability, and reducing the cost. This paper examines some approaches to entry guidance. An effort called Integration and Testing of Advanced Guidance and Control Technologies has recently completed a rigorous testing phase where these algorithms faced high-fidelity vehicle models and were required to perform a variety of representative tests. The algorithm developers spent substantial effort improving the algorithm performance in the testing. This paper lists the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, shows an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and displays results of the tests. Results show a significant improvement over previous guidance approaches. The two best-scoring algorithm approaches show roughly equivalent results and are ready to be applied to future vehicle concepts.

  7. Test Results for Entry Guidance Methods for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control (AG&C) that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety and reliability, and reducing the cost. This paper examines some approaches to entry guidance. An effort called Integration and Testing of Advanced Guidance and Control Technologies (ITAGCT) has recently completed a rigorous testing phase where these algorithms faced high-fidelity vehicle models and were required to perform a variety of representative tests. The algorithm developers spent substantial effort improving the algorithm performance in the testing. This paper lists the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, shows an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and displays results of the tests. Results show a significant improvement over previous guidance approaches. The two best-scoring algorithm approaches show roughly equivalent results and are ready to be applied to future reusable vehicle concepts.

  8. Analytical methodologies for broad metabolite coverage of exhaled breath condensate.

    PubMed

    Aksenov, Alexander A; Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Pasamontes, Alberto; Brown, Joshua F; Schivo, Michael; Foutouhi, Soraya; Weimer, Bart C; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Davis, Cristina E

    2017-09-01

    Breath analysis has been gaining popularity as a non-invasive technique that is amenable to a broad range of medical uses. One of the persistent problems hampering the wide application of the breath analysis method is measurement variability of metabolite abundances stemming from differences in both sampling and analysis methodologies used in various studies. Mass spectrometry has been a method of choice for comprehensive metabolomic analysis. For the first time in the present study, we juxtapose the most commonly employed mass spectrometry-based analysis methodologies and directly compare the resultant coverages of detected compounds in exhaled breath condensate in order to guide methodology choices for exhaled breath condensate analysis studies. Four methods were explored to broaden the range of measured compounds across both the volatile and non-volatile domain. Liquid phase sampling with polyacrylate Solid-Phase MicroExtraction fiber, liquid phase extraction with a polydimethylsiloxane patch, and headspace sampling using Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane Solid-Phase MicroExtraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry were tested for the analysis of volatile fraction. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry were used for analysis of non-volatile fraction. We found that liquid phase breath condensate extraction was notably superior compared to headspace extraction and differences in employed sorbents manifested altered metabolite coverages. The most pronounced effect was substantially enhanced metabolite capture for larger, higher-boiling compounds using polyacrylate SPME liquid phase sampling. The analysis of the non-volatile fraction of breath condensate by hydrophilic and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry indicated orthogonal metabolite coverage by these chromatography modes. We found that the metabolite coverage

  9. Changes in cytochrome P4501A activity during development in common tern chicks fed polychlorinated biphenyls, as measured by the caffeine breath test

    SciTech Connect

    Feyk, L.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Bosveld, A.T.C.

    2000-03-01

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYPIA) activity is often used as a biomarker of exposure of wildlife to polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons and is usually measured ex vivo in liver tissue. A caffeine breath test (CBT) with radiolabeled substrate ({sup 14}C-caffeine) was used to measure in vivo CYP1A activity twice during development in 14 common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks treated with polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons. Tern hatchlings were fed fish spiked with 3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime},5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) such that the diet contained an average of 23, 99, or 561 pg of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents per gram of fish for 21 d. Sixteen additionalmore » common tern chicks were similarly dosed with polyhalogenated diaromatic hydrocarbons but were not subjected to the CBT procedure. In weeks 1 and 2, caffeine N-demethylation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation activity on day 21 were elevated in birds that received the greatest PCB dose. There was less constitutive and greater induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation activity than caffeine N-demethylation. The {sup 14}C-CBT was less invasive than the ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assay. Only one morphological parameter differed significantly between CBT subjects and no-CBT subjects fed the same level of PCBs. Bursa weight was significantly less in control CBT subjects than in control no-CBT subjects, but bursa weights did not differ among CBT and no-CBT birds from the two PCB treatment groups. No alterations of survival or growth occurred in CBT subjects compared with no-CBT subjects.« less

  10. Gastric emptying and related symptoms in patients treated with buspirone, amitriptyline or clebopride: a "real world" study by 13C-octanoic Acid Breath Test.

    PubMed

    Caviglia, Gian P; Sguazzini, Carlo; Cisarò, Fabio; Ribaldone, Davide G; Rosso, Chiara; Fagoonee, Sharmila; Smedile, Antonina; Saracco, Giorgio M; Astegiano, Marco; Pellicano, Rinaldo

    2017-12-01

    Gastric motility is a key-factor in the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia (FD). 13C-octanoic Acid Breath Test (OBT) is a tool used for measuring gastric emptying time in clinical setting. We aimed to investigate the variation in FD symptoms and OBT parameters after treatment with buspirone, amitriptyline or clebopride. Between Jan-2007 and Dec-2014, we enrolled 59 patients with FD unresponsive to first-line therapy with proton pump inhibitors and/or domperidone that underwent OBT before and after 3 months of buspirone (N.=32), amitriptyline (N.=16) or clebopride (N.=11) treatment. Early satiation severity was positively correlated with gastric half emptying time (t1/2) (r=0.3789, P=0.003) and gastric lag phase (r=0.3371, P=0.011), and negatively correlated with gastric emptying coefficient (r=-0.3231, P=0.015). A reduction in t1/2 measurement in association to postprandial fullness, and early satiation severity improvement was observed (P=0.009, P=0.005 and P<0.001, respectively). Patients treated with buspirone obtained both a decrease in t1/2 (P=0.005) and an amelioration in early satiation (P=0.001). Patients under amitriptyline treatment experienced an improvement in postprandial fullness (P=0.046), whereas no variation was reported in patients treated with clebopride. Patients with FD, non-responders to first-line therapy and reporting meal-related discomfort, may benefit from buspirone or amitriptyline-based therapies.

  11. TEST RESULTS FOR FUEL-CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Test results from a demonstration of fuel-cell (FC) energy recovery and control of landfill gas emissions are presented. The project addressed two major issues: (i) the design, construction, and testing of a landfill-gas cleanup system; and (ii) a field test of a commercial phos...

  12. Advanced Stirling Convertor Dynamic Test Approach and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meer, David W.; Hill, Dennis; Ursic, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Lockheed Martin Corporation (LM), and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. As part of the extended operation testing of this power system, the Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC) at NASA GRC undergo a vibration test sequence intended to simulate the vibration history that an ASC would experience when used in an ASRG for a space mission. This sequence includes testing at workmanship and flight acceptance levels interspersed with periods of extended operation to simulate prefueling and post fueling. The final step in the test sequence utilizes additional testing at flight acceptance levels to simulate launch. To better replicate the acceleration profile seen by an ASC incorporated into an ASRG, the input spectra used in testing the convertors was modified based on dynamic testing of the ASRG Engineering Unit (ASRG EU) at LM. This paper outlines the overall test approach, summarizes the test results from the ASRG EU, describes the incorporation of those results into the test approach, and presents the results of applying the test approach to the ASC-1 #3 and #4 convertors. The test results include data from several accelerometers mounted on the convertors as well as the piston position and output power variables.

  13. The Dornier 328 Acoustic Test Cell (ATC) for interior noise tests and selected test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackstein, H. Josef; Borchers, Ingo U.; Renger, Klaus; Vogt, Konrad

    1992-01-01

    To perform acoustic studies for achieving low noise levels for the Dornier 328, an acoustic test cell (ATC) of the Dornier 328 has been built. The ATC consists of a fuselage section, a realistic fuselage suspension system, and three exterior noise simulation rings. A complex digital 60 channel computer/amplifier noise generation system as well as multichannel digital data acquisition and evaluation system have been used. The noise control tests started with vibration measurements for supporting acoustic data interpretation. In addition, experiments have been carried out on dynamic vibration absorbers, the most important passive noise reduction measure for low frequency propeller noise. The design and arrangement of the current ATC are presented. Furthermore, exterior noise simulation as well as data acquisition are explained. The most promising results show noise reduction due to synchrophasing and dynamic vibration absorbers.

  14. Production Facility Prototype Blower 1000 Hour Test Results II

    SciTech Connect

    Wass, Alexander Joseph; Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.

    Long duration tests of the Aerzen GM 12.4 roots style blower in a closed loop configuration provides valuable data and lessons learned for long-term operation at the Mo-99 production facility. The blower was operated in a closed loop configuration with the flow conditions anticipated in plant operation with a Mo-100 target inline. The additional thermal energy generated from beam heating of the Mo-100 disks were not included in these tests. Five 1000 hour tests have been completed since the first test was performed in January of 2016. All five 1000 hour tests have proven successful in exposing preventable issues relatedmore » to oil and helium leaks. All blower tests to this date have resulted in stable blower performance and consistency. A summary of the results for each test, including a review of the first and second tests, are included in this report.« less

  15. Applications of breath gas analysis in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Anton; Poupart, Guy; Telser, Stefan; Ledochowski, Maximilian; Schmid, Alex; Mechtcheriakov, Sergei

    2004-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath gas provide valuable information about the subjects' physiological and pathophysiological condition. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) allows rapid and online measurements of these substances. We present results of three studies illustrating the potential of breath gas analysis by PTR-MS in various contexts: long-time online monitoring of VOCs in sleeping subjects suggests that VOC profiles are related to sleep stages. Analysis of VOC concentrations in the breath of carbohydrate malabsorbers emphasizes the role played by bacteria in the gut. Finally, we demonstrate the large intra- and intersubject concentration variability of VOCs by considering one particular mass.

  16. Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This joint mobility KC lecture included information from two papers, "A Method for and Issues Associated with the Determination of Space Suit Joint Requirements" and "Results and Analysis from Space Suit Joint Torque Testing," as presented for the International Conference on Environmental Systems in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The first paper discusses historical joint torque testing methodologies and approaches that were tested in 2008 and 2009. The second paper discusses the testing that was completed in 2009 and 2010.

  17. Hawaiian Electric Advanced Inverter Test Plan - Result Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Hoke, Anderson; Nelson, Austin; Prabakar, Kumaraguru

    This presentation is intended to share the results of lab testing of five PV inverters with the Hawaiian Electric Companies and other stakeholders and interested parties. The tests included baseline testing of advanced inverter grid support functions, as well as distribution circuit-level tests to examine the impact of the PV inverters on simulated distribution feeders using power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) techniques. hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) techniques.

  18. 2007 Nissan Altima-7982 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Grey; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number 1N4CL21E27C177982). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporationmore » conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.« less

  19. Medical Issues: Breathing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Opportunities Research Conference Recruit for Clinical Trials Research Publications Spinraza Support & Care For Newly Diagnosed Care Packages Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At School At Home ...

  20. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    MedlinePlus

    ... orthopnea Images Breathing References Davis JL, Murray JF. History and physical examination. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...