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Sample records for breeder blanket mockup

  1. Neutronics Experiments Using Small Partial Mockups of the ITER Test Blanket Module with a Solid Breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Satoshi; Verzilov, Yury; Nakao, Makoto; Ochiai, Kentaro; Wada, Masayuki; Nishitani, Takeo

    2005-05-15

    In order to evaluate the impacts of the incident neutron spectrum and the tungsten armor on the tritium production, integral experiments have been performed with small partial mockups relevant to the ITER test blanket module using DT neutrons at FNS of JAERI. The Monte Carlo calculation results for the integrated tritium productions agree well with the experimental data within 2 and 11 % for the mockups without the armor in the experiments without and with the neutron reflector, respectively. It is clarified that the tritium production can be very accurately predicted in the experiment without the reflector. In the mockups with the 12.6 and 25.2 mm thick tungsten armors, it is experimentally clarified that the integrated tritium productions are reduced by 3 and 6 % relative to the case without the armor, respectively.

  2. Ceramic Breeder Blanket for ARIES-CS

    SciTech Connect

    Raffray, A.R.; Malang, S.; El-Guebaly, L.; Wang, X.

    2005-05-15

    This paper describes the conceptual design of a ceramic breeder blanket considered as one of the candidate blankets in the first phase of the ARIES-CS study. The blanket is coupled to a Brayton power cycle to avoid the safety concern associated with the possibility of Be/steam reaction in case of accident.

  3. US solid breeder blanket design for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Attaya, H.; Billone, M.; Lin, C.; Johnson, C.; Majumdar, S.; Smith, D. ); Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Williamson, D.; Baker, C. ); Raffray, A.; Badawi, A.; Gorbis, Z.; Ying, A.; Abdou, M. ); Sviatoslavsky, I.; Blanchard, J.; Mogahed, E.; Sawan, M.; Kulcinski, G. )

    1990-09-01

    The US blanket design activity has focused on the developments and the analyses of a solid breeder blanket concept for ITER. The main function of this blanket is to produce the necessary tritium required for the ITER operation and the test program. Safety, power reactor relevance, low tritium inventory, and design flexibility are the main reasons for the blanket selection. The blanket is designed to operate satisfactorily in the physics and the technology phases of ITER without the need for hardware changes. Mechanical simplicity, predictability, performance, minimum cost, and minimum R D requirements are the other criteria used to guide the design process. The design aspects of the blanket are summarized in this paper. 2 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. ITER solid breeder blanket materials database

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.C.; Dienst, W.; Flament, T.; Lorenzetto, P.; Noda, K.; Roux, N.

    1993-11-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li{sub 2},O, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and LiAlO{sub 2}) and beryllium multiplier material are critically reviewed and evaluated. Emphasis is placed on physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Correlations are selected for design analysis and compared to the database. Areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology are highlighted and prioritized.

  5. Neutronic optimization of solid breeder blankets for STARFIRE design

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Abdou, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Extensive neutronic tradeoff studies were carried out to define and optimize the neutronic performance of the different solid breeder options for the STARFIRE blanket design. A set of criteria were employed to select the potential blanket materials. The basic criteria include the neutronic performance, tritium-release characteristics, material compatibility, and chemical stability. Three blanket options were analyzed. The first option is based on separate zones for each basic blanket function where the neutron multiplier is kept in a separate zone. The second option is a heterogeneous blanket type with two tritium breeder zones. In the first zone the tritium breeder is assembled in a neutron multiplier matrix behind the first wall while the second zone has a neutron moderator matrix instead of the neutron multiplier. The third blanket option is similar to the second concept except the tritium breeder and the neutron multiplier form a homogeneous mixture.

  6. Overview of EU activities on DEMO liquid metal breeder blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.

    1994-12-31

    The European test-blanket development programme, started in 1988, is aiming at the selection by 1995 of two DEMO-relevant blanket lines to be tested in ITER. At present, four lines of blanket are under development, two of them using solid and the other two liquid breeder materials. As far as liquid breeders are concerned, two lines of blankets have been selected within the European Union, the water-cooled lithium-lead (the eutectic Pb-17Li) blankets and the dual-coolant Pb-17Li blankets. Designs have been developed considering an agreed set of DEMO specifications, such as, for instance, a fusion power of 2,200 MW, a neutron wall-loading of 2MW/m{sup 2}, a life-time of 20,000 hours, and the use of martensitic steel as a structural material. Moreover, an experimental program has been set up in order to address the main critical issues for each line. The present paper gives an overview of both design and experimental activities within the European Union concerning these two lines of liquid breeder blankets.

  7. Testing needs and experiments for solid breeder blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierszewski, P.; Puigh, R.

    1986-11-01

    Most of the critical issues for solid breeder blankets are related to the tritium and thermomechanical behavior of the solid breeder and multiplier. A major contributor to this uncertainty is the lack of definition of a preferred material, microstructure and form. Material selection and development is particularly cost-effective at present since much of the important blanket behavior is driven by local conditions rather than the overall blanket design, and since the choice of material affects the nature of the later and larger experiments. This stage of testing is also the most appropriate time to consider basic material choices such as sphere-pac or sintered pellet, and the incorporation of multiplier material into the blanket. The major testing needs and experiments are characterized here.

  8. Evaluation of organic moderator/coolants for fusion breeder blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, J.B.

    1980-03-01

    Organic coolants have several attractive features for fusion breeder blanket design. Their apparent compatibility with lithium and their ideal physical and nuclear properties allows straight-forward, high performance designs. Radiolytic damage can be reduced to about the same order as comparable fission systems by using multiplier/stripper blanket designs. Tritium recovery from the organic should be straightforward, but additional data is needed to make a better assessment of the economics of the process.

  9. Solid breeder blanket option for the ITER conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Attaya, H.; Billone, M.C.; Finn, P.; Majumdar, S.; Turner, L.R.; Baker, C.C.; Nelson, B.E.; Raffray, R.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN; California Univ., Los Angeles, CA )

    1989-10-01

    A solid-breeder water-cooled blanket option was developed for ITER based on a multilayer configuration. The blanket uses beryllium for neutron multiplication and lithium oxide for tritium breeding. The material forms are sintered products for both material with 0.8 density factor. The lithium-6 enrichment is 90%. This blanket has the capability to accommodate a factor of two change in the neutron wall loading without violating the different design guidelines. The design philosophy adopted for the blanket is to produce the necessary tritium required for the ITER operation and to operate at power reactor conditions as much as possible. At the same time, the reliability and the safety aspects of the blanket are enhanced by the use of a low-pressure coolant and the separation of the tritium purge lines from the coolant system. The blanket modules are made by hot vacuum forming and diffusion bonding a double wall structure with integral cooling channels. The different aspects of the blanket design including tritium breeding, nuclear heat deposition, activation analyses, thermal-hydraulics, tritium inventory, structural analyses, and water coolant conditions are summarized in this paper. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. ITER R & D on breeder blanket materials*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. L.; Daenner, W.; Kalinin, G.; Yoshida, H.

    1991-03-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) activity includes specific R&D in critical areas to support the ITER design. Several of the critical tasks defined as part of the ITER validating R&D are materials related. This paper presents a summary of the breeder/blanket materials related R&D conducted by the four participating parties; viz., European Community, Japan, Soviet Union and the United States. The current effort includes several subtasks in each of the following four task areas: (1) ceramic breeder materials, (2) lead-lithium breeder, (3) aqueous salt solutions, (4) neutron multiplier materials. The objective and scope of each subtask is stated. Although this work was initiated in late 1988, important results have been obtained in all four areas. The work on ceramic breeders includes properties measurements, compatibility studies, and tritium recovery experiments with Li 2O and selected ternary ceramics. Investigations on the lead-lithium breeder have focused primarily on properties, compatibility, and tritium extraction from the 17Li-83Pb eutectic alloy. The work on the aqueous salt breeders includes corrosion, solution chemistry, and radiolysis effects in a radiation environment. Investigations defined under the neutron multiplier task are focused on beryllium; however, lead in the lithium lead alloy also serves as a neutron multiplier. The schedule and planned future work in each area are summarized.

  11. Key achievements in elementary R&D on water-cooled solid breeder blanket for ITER test blanket module in JAERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Hatano, T.; Hirose, T.; Hayashi, K.; Tanigawa, H.; Ochiai, K.; Nishitani, T.; Tobita, K.; Akiba, M.

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents the significant progress made in the research and development (R&D) of key technologies on the water-cooled solid breeder blanket for the ITER test blanket modules in JAERI. Development of module fabrication technology, bonding technology of armours, measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of pebble beds, neutronics studies on a blanket module mockup and tritium release behaviour from a Li2TiO3 pebble bed under neutron-pulsed operation conditions are summarized. With the improvement of the heat treatment process for blanket module fabrication, a fine-grained microstructure of F82H can be obtained by homogenizing it at 1150 °C followed by normalizing it at 930 °C after the hot isostatic pressing process. Moreover, a promising bonding process for a tungsten armour and an F82H structural material was developed using a solid-state bonding method based on uniaxial hot compression without any artificial compliant layer. As a result of high heat flux tests of F82H first wall mockups, it has been confirmed that a fatigue lifetime correlation, which was developed for the ITER divertor, can be made applicable for the F82H first wall mockup. As for R&D on the breeder material, Li2TiO3, the effect of compression loads on effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds has been clarified for the Li2TiO3 pebble bed. The tritium breeding ratio of a simulated multi-layer blanket structure has successfully been measured using 14 MeV neutrons with an accuracy of 10%. The tritium release rate from the Li2TiO3 pebble has also been successfully measured with pulsed neutron irradiation, which simulates ITER operation.

  12. Modelling of tritium transport in a pin-type solid breeder blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1986-02-01

    This study supplements a larger study of a solid breeder blanket design featuring lithium ceramic pins. This aspect of the study looks at tritium transport, release, and inventory within this blanket design. Li/sub 2/O and ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/ are the two primary candidates for ceramic solid breeders. ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/ was chosen for this blanket design due to its higher structural stability. Analysis of tritium behavior in solid breeder blankets is of great importance due to its impact on several critical issues: the generation of an adequate amount of fusion fuel, the safety-related issue of keeping radioactive blanket inventories as low as possible, and the release, purge, and economical processing of the bred tritium without undue contamination of the coolant and other reactor structures.

  13. Status of EC solid breeder blanket designs and R&D for DEMO fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Dalle Donne, M.; Anziedi, L.A.; Kwast, H.

    1994-12-31

    In the framework of the European Community Fusion Technology Program four blanket concepts for a DEMO reactor are being investigated. DEMO is the next step after ITER. It should ensure tritium self-sufficiency and operate at coolant temperatures high enough to have a reasonable plant efficiency. Further requirements have been specified for the four concepts, namely an average neutron wall load of 2.2 MW/m{sup 2}, a blanket lifetime of 20000 hours and the capability of the blanket segment to withstand the forces caused by a rapid distribution of the plasma current (20 MA to zero in 20 ms), so that after the disruption the segment can still allow a comparison of the various options, in view of reducing this number to two in 1995 and to design and develop modules and articles representative of the chosen blankets to be tested in ITER. The present paper deals with two solid breeder concepts. They have many features in common: both use high pressure helium as coolant and helium to purge the tritium from the breeder material, martensitic steel as structural material and beryllium as neutron multiplier. The configuration of the two blankets are however different: in the B.I.T. (Breeder Inside Tube) concept the breeder material is LiAlO{sub 2} or LiZrO{sub 3} in the form of annular pellets contained in tubes surrounded by beryllium blocks, the coolant helium being outside the tubes, whereas in the B.O.T. (Breeder out of Tube) the breeder and multiplier material are Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} and beryllium pebbles forming a mixed bed placed outside the tubes containing the coolant helium.

  14. Materials data base and design equations for the UCLA solid breeder blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Sharafat, S.; Amodeo, R.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1986-02-01

    The materials and properties investigated for this blanket study are listed. The phenomenological equations and mathematical fits for all materials and properties considered are given. Efforts to develop a swelling equation based on the few experimental data points available for breeder materials are described. The sintering phenomena for ceramics is investigated.

  15. Helium-cooled, FLiBe-breeder, beryllium-multiplier blanket for MINIMARS

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.

    1986-06-01

    We adapted the helium-cooled, FLiBe-breeder blanket to the commercial tandem-mirror fusion-reactor design, MINIMARS. Vanadium was used to achieve high performance from the high-energy-release neutron-capture reactions and from the high-temperature operation permitted by the refractory property of the material, which increases the conversion efficiency and decreases the helium-pumping power. Although this blanket had the highest performance among the MINIMARS blankets designs, measured by Mn/sub th/ (blanket energy multiplication times thermal conversion efficiency), it had a cost of electricity (COE) 18% higher than the University of Wisconsin (UW) blanket design (42.5 vs 35.9 mills/kW.h). This increased cost was due to using higher-cost blanket materials (beryllium and vanadium) and a thicker blanket, which resulted in higher-cost central-cell magnets and the need for more blanket materials. Apparently, the high efficiency does not substantially affect the COE. Therefore, in the future, we recommend lowering the helium temperature so that ferritic steel can be used. This will result in a lower-cost blanket, which may compensate for the lower performance resulting from lower efficiency.

  16. Neutronics Analysis of Water-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qingjun; Li, Jia; Liu, Songlin

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the nuclear response to the water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket models for CFETR, a detailed 3D neutronics model with 22.5° torus sector was developed based on the integrated geometry of CFETR, including heterogeneous WCCB blanket models, shield, divertor, vacuum vessel, toroidal and poloidal magnets, and ports. Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code MCNP5 and IAEA Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library FENDL2.1, the neutronics analyses were performed. The neutron wall loading, tritium breeding ratio, the nuclear heating, neutron-induced atomic displacement damage, and gas production were determined. The results indicate that the global TBR of no less than 1.2 will be a big challenge for the water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket for CFETR. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000, and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  17. Thermal creep of granular breeder materials in fusion blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, L.; Reimann, J.

    2002-12-01

    Continuum models for granular materials in fusion blankets are efficient tools for modeling of the nonlinear elastic behavior of pebble beds, granular particle flow caused by shear, volume compaction and hardening. The present paper describes how the material models used in finite element analyses can be extended in order to account additionally for thermally activated creep. The derived material model gives results which are in reasonable accordance with experimental data for pebble beds.

  18. Methodology for accident analyses of fusion breeder blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Dobromir Panayotov; Andrew Grief; Brad J. Merrill; Julian T. Murgatroyd; Paul Humrickhouse; Yves Poitevin; Simon Owen; Markus Iseli

    2015-06-01

    'Fusion for Energy' (F4E) develops designs and implements the European Test Blanket Systems (TBS) in ITER - Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB). Safety demonstration is an essential element for the integration of TBS in ITER and accident analyses are one of its critical segments. A systematic approach to the accident analyses had been acquired under the F4E contract on TBS safety analyses. F4E technical requirements and AMEC and INL efforts resulted in the development of a comprehensive methodology for fusion breeding blanket accident analyses. It addresses the specificity of the breeding blankets design, materials and phenomena and at the same time is consistent with the one already applied to ITER accident analyses. Methodology consists of several phases. At first the reference scenarios are selected on the base of FMEA studies. In the second place elaboration of the accident analyses specifications we use phenomena identification and ranking tables to identify the requirements to be met by the code(s) and TBS models. Thus the limitations of the codes are identified and possible solutions to be built into the models are proposed. These include among others the loose coupling of different codes or code versions in order to simulate multi-fluid flows and phenomena. The code selection and issue of the accident analyses specifications conclude this second step. Furthermore the breeding blanket and ancillary systems models are built on. In this work challenges met and solutions used in the development of both MELCOR and RELAP5 codes models of HCLL and HCPB TBSs will be shared. To continue the developed models are qualified by comparison with finite elements analyses, by code to code comparison and sensitivity studies. Finally, the qualified models are used for the execution of the accident analyses of specific scenario. When possible the methodology phases will be illustrated in the paper by limited number of tables and figures

  19. Advanced methods comparisons of reaction rates in the Purdue Fast Breeder Blanket Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.N.; Ott, K.O.

    1988-01-01

    A review of worldwide results revealed that reaction rates in the blanket region are generally underpredicted with the discrepancy increasing with penetration; however, these results vary widely. Experiments in the large uniform Purdue Fast Breeder Blanket Facility (FBBF) blanket yield an accurate quantification of this discrepancy. Using standard production code methods (diffusion theory with 50 group cross sections), a consistent Calculated/Experimental (C/E) drop-off was observed for various reaction rates. A 50% increase in the calculated results at the outer edge of the blanket is necessary for agreement with experiments. The usefulness of refined group constant generation utilizing specialized weighting spectra and transport theory methods in correcting this discrepancy was analyzed. Refined group constants reduce the discrepancy to half that observed using the standard method. The surprising result was that transport methods had no effect on the blanket deviations; thus, transport theory considerations do not constitute or even contribute to an explanation of the blanket discrepancies. The residual blanket C/E drop-off (about half the standard drop-off) using advanced methods must be caused by some approximations which are applied in all current methods. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. US-DOE Fusion-Breeder Program: blanket design and system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Conceptual design studies are being used to assess the technical and economic feasibility of fusion's potential to produce fissile fuel. A reference design of a fission-suppressed blanket using conventional materials is under development. Theoretically, a fusion breeder that incorporates this fusion-suppressed blanket surrounding a 3000-MW tandem mirror fusion core produces its own tritium plus 5600 kg of /sup 233/U per year. The /sup 233/U could then provide fissile makeup for 21 GWe of light-water reactor (LWR) power using a denatured thorium fuel cycle with full recycle. This is 16 times the net electric power produced by the fusion breeder (1.3 GWe). The cost of electricity from this fusion-fission system is estimated to be only 23% higher than the cost from LWRs that have makeup from U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ at present costs (55 $/kg). Nuclear performance, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), radiation effects, and other issues concerning the fission-suppressed blanket are summarized, as are some of the present and future objectives of the fusion breeder program.

  1. Analysis of Time-Dependent Tritium Breeding Capability of Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiaokang; Pu, Yong; Zhu, Qingjun; Liu, Songlin

    2016-08-01

    Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is an important mission for the Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) operating on a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fuel cycle. It is necessary to study the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and breeding tritium inventory variation with operation time so as to provide an accurate data for dynamic modeling and analysis of the tritium fuel cycle. A water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket is one candidate of blanket concepts for the CFETR. Based on the detailed 3D neutronics model of CFETR with the WCCB blanket, the time-dependent TBR and tritium surplus were evaluated by a coupling calculation of the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) and the fusion activation code FISPACT-2007. The results indicated that the TBR and tritium surplus of the WCCB blanket were a function of operation time and fusion power due to the Li consumption in breeder and material activation. In addition, by comparison with the results calculated by using the 3D neutronics model and employing the transfer factor constant from 1D to 3D, it is noted that 1D analysis leads to an over-estimation for the time-dependent tritium breeding capability when fusion power is larger than 1000 MW. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2015GB108002, and 2014GB119000), and by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  2. Re-analysis of HCPB/HCLL Blanket Mock-up Experiments Using Recent Nuclear Data Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, K.; Fischer, U.; Klix, A.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Serikov, A.; Villari, R.

    2014-06-15

    We have re-analysed the two breeding blankets experiments performed previously in the frame of the European fusion program on two mock-ups of the European Helium-Cooled-Lithiium Lead (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled-Pebble-Bed (HCPB) test blanket modules for ITER. The tritium production rate and the neutron and photon spectra measured in these mock-ups were compared with calculations using FENDL-3 Starter Library, release 4 and state-of-the-art nuclear data evaluations, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-4.0 and ENDF/B-VII.0. The tritium production calculated for the HCPB mock-up underestimates the experimental result by about 10%. The result calculated with FENDL-3/SLIB4 gives slightly smaller tritium production by 2% than the one with FENDL-2.1. The difference attributes to the slight modification of the total and elastic scattering cross section of Be. For the HCLL experiment, all libraries reproduce the experimental results well. FENDL-3/SLIB4 gives better result both for the measured spectra and the tritium production compared to FENDL-2.1.

  3. Re-analysis of HCPB/HCLL Blanket Mock-up Experiments Using Recent Nuclear Data Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, K.; Fischer, U.; Klix, A.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Serikov, A.; Villari, R.

    2014-06-01

    We have re-analysed the two breeding blankets experiments performed previously in the frame of the European fusion program on two mock-ups of the European Helium-Cooled-Lithiium Lead (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled-Pebble-Bed (HCPB) test blanket modules for ITER. The tritium production rate and the neutron and photon spectra measured in these mock-ups were compared with calculations using FENDL-3 Starter Library, release 4 and state-of-the-art nuclear data evaluations, JEFF-3.1.2, JENDL-4.0 and ENDF/B-VII.0. The tritium production calculated for the HCPB mock-up underestimates the experimental result by about 10%. The result calculated with FENDL-3/SLIB4 gives slightly smaller tritium production by 2% than the one with FENDL-2.1. The difference attributes to the slight modification of the total and elastic scattering cross section of Be. For the HCLL experiment, all libraries reproduce the experimental results well. FENDL-3/SLIB4 gives better result both for the measured spectra and the tritium production compared to FENDL-2.1.

  4. Tritium permeation through steam generator tubing of helium-cooled ceramic breeder blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Fuetterer, M.; Raepsaet, X.; Proust, E.

    1994-12-31

    The potential sources of tritium contamination of the helium-coolant of ceramic breeder blankets have been evaluated in a previous paper for the specific case of the European BIT DEMO blanket. This evaluation associated with a rough assessment of the permeability to tritium of the tubing of helium-heated steam generators confirmed that the control of tritium losses to the steam circuit is a critical issue for this class of blanket requiring developments in three areas: (1) permeation barriers, (2) tritium recovery processes maintaining a very low concentration in tritiated species in the coolant, and (3) methods for controlling the chemistry of the coolant. Consequently, in order to define the specifications of these developments, a detailed evaluation of the permeability to tritium of helium-heated steam generators (SGs) was performed, which will be reported in this paper. This study includes the definition of the thermal-hydraulic operating conditions of the SGs through thermodynamic cycle calculations, and its thermal-hydraulic design. The obtained geometry, area and temperature profiles along the tubes are then used to estimate, based on relevant permeability data, the tritium permeation through the SG as a function of the composition in tritiated species of the coolant. The implications of these results, in terms of requirements for the considered tritium control methods, will also be discussed on the basis of expected limits in tritium release to the steam circuit.

  5. Palladium-catalyzed oxidative diffusion for tritium extraction from breeder-blanket fluids at low concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Cheazone; Buxbaum, Robert E.

    1986-11-01

    Oxidative diffusion can extract hydrogen from metal solutions at extremely low partial pressures. The hydrogen diffuses through a metal membrane and is oxidized to water. The oxidation reaction produces the very low downstream pressures that drive the flux. This method is attractive because the flux can be proportional to the square-root of upstream pressure. For fusion reactors with liquid lithium or lithium-lead alloy breeder blankets, permeation windows provide a simple, cheap tritium extraction method. Interdiffusion rates, separation flux, window size, helium contents, tritium holdup costs, and overall costs are calculated for membranes of palladium-coated zirconium, niobium, vanadium, nickel and stainless-steel. For extracting tritium from liquid lithium using the cheapest windows, Zr-Pd, the material and labor cost is 8.0 M at 1 wppm, and is inversely proportional to tritium concentration in the lithium. The tritium holdup cost for the windows is 4.8 M, and for the blanket it is proportional to the blanket volume and concentration. An overall economic optimization suggests that 1 to 1.5 wppm in lithium is optimal. For extracting tritium from 17Li83Pb at 0.26 wppb, the cheapest window is V-Pd; the cost is 2.6 M$, and the tritium holdup is negligible.

  6. Achievements in the development of the Water Cooled Solid Breeder Test Blanket Module of Japan to the milestones for installation in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuru, Daigo; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Mohri, Kensuke; Seki, Yohji; Enoeda, Mikio; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Nishi, Hiroshi; Akiba, Masato

    2009-06-01

    As the primary candidate of ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be tested under the leadership of Japan, a water cooled solid breeder (WCSB) TBM is being developed. This paper shows the recent achievements towards the milestones of ITER TBMs prior to the installation, which consist of design integration in ITER, module qualification and safety assessment. With respect to the design integration, targeting the detailed design final report in 2012, structure designs of the WCSB TBM and the interfacing components (common frame and backside shielding) that are placed in a test port of ITER and the layout of the cooling system are presented. As for the module qualification, a real-scale first wall mock-up fabricated by using the hot isostatic pressing method by structural material of reduced activation martensitic ferritic steel, F82H, and flow and irradiation test of the mock-up are presented. As for safety milestones, the contents of the preliminary safety report in 2008 consisting of source term identification, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and identification of postulated initiating events (PIEs) and safety analyses are presented.

  7. Recent advances in the development of solid breeder-blanket materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.; Hollenburg, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Increasing attention in breeder-blanket development has been given to the lithium-containing ceramic materials. The most promising of these materials include Li/sub 2/O, Li/sub 8/ZrO/sub 6/, Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/, and ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/. Recent studies have focused on Li/sub 2/O because of its high tritium breeding potential and good thermal characteristics. Tritium solubility in Li/sub 2/O is within acceptable ranges and this oxide displays excellent behavior under neutron irradiation. A broad scope of laboratory and in-reactor irradiation experiments are underway to further investigate these materials.

  8. Research and development work for the lithium orthosilicate pebbles for the Karlsruhe ceramic breeder blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donne, M. Dalle; Günther, E.; Schumacher, G.; Sordon, G.; Vollath, D.; Wedemeyer, H.; Werle, H.

    1991-03-01

    The Karlsruhe ceramic breeder blanket design for a demo reactor and for the test objects to be tested in NET is based on lithium orthosilicate (Li 4SiO 4) in form of 0.5 mm diameter pebbles contained in 6 mm wide gaps between beryllium plates. Two methods have been used to fabricate the pebbles: at KfK the pebbles were manufactured by extrusion, spheroidizing, and subsequent sintering using a fluidized bed, while at Schott Glaswerke, Mainz they were obtained by melting followed by spraying of the melt. Various tests have been performed with pebbles, namely: (a) measurements of the compressive forces which single pebbles can substain, (b) thermal cycling tests of Li 4SiO 4 pebbles in steel containers, (c) measurements of the effective thermal conductivity of Li 4SiO 4 beds, (d) in situ tritium extraction experiments using helium as purge flow.

  9. Localized Fast-Ion Induced Heat Loads in Test Blanket Module Mockup Experiments on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G. J.; Budny, R. V.; Ellis, R. A.; Nazikian, R.; McLean, A. G.; Brooks, N. H.; Schaffer, M. J.; van Zeeland, M. A.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Koskela, T.; Shinohara, K.; Snipes, J. A.; Spong, D. A.

    2012-10-01

    Localized hot spots can be created in ITER on the Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) because the ferritic steel of the TBMs distorts the local magnetic field near the modules and alters fast ion confinement. Predicting the TBM heat load levels is important for assessing their effects on the ITER first wall. Experiments in DIII-D were carried out with a mock-up of the ITER TBM ferromagnetic error field to provide data for validation of fast-ion orbit following codes. The front surface temperature of the protective TBM tiles was imaged directly with a calibrated infrared camera and heat loads were extracted. The detailed spot sizes and measured heat loads are compared with results from heat load calculations performed with a suite of orbit following codes. The codes reproduce the hot spots well, thereby validating the codes and giving confidence in predictions for fast-ion heat loads in ITER.

  10. Displacement damage parameters for fusion breeder blanket materials based on BCA computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leichtle, Dieter

    2002-12-01

    Based on the MARLOWE code, a refined binary collision approximation (BCA) simulation model has been developed which is particularly suited for light mass and polyatomic ionic solids in a fusion environment. Main features of the model are described, including appropriate extensions of the kinematical procedure and the ion-solid interactions. Defect yields from the simulated collision cascades are used for deriving displacement cross sections in Be, Li 2O, Li 2SiO 3, Li 2SiO 4 and Li 2TiO 3. Comparisons with standard results show that there is an energy dependence which is strongly correlated with the spectrum of primary knock-on atoms. In particular, for lithium ceramics the contribution of damage induced by secondary helium and tritium is remarkable even in a fast neutron flux. The total displacements per atom in a fusion demonstration reactor blanket obtained by means of BCA-simulation results is in general lower than NRT-values by about 30% for the lithium breeder materials, but higher by around 90% for beryllium. These differences can be attributed to differences of binding properties and crystalline structure of the respective material, which also influence the defect composition.

  11. Thermal Hydraulic Design and Analysis of a Water-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket with Superheated Steam for CFETR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaoman; Ma, Xuebin; Jiang, Kecheng; Chen, Lei; Huang, Kai; Liu, Songlin

    2015-09-01

    The water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket (WCCB) is one of the blanket candidates for China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR). In order to improve power generation efficiency and tritium breeding ratio, WCCB with superheated steam is under development. The thermal-hydraulic design is the key to achieve the purpose of safe heat removal and efficient power generation under normal and partial loading operation conditions. In this paper, the coolant flow scheme was designed and one self-developed analytical program was developed, based on a theoretical heat transfer model and empirical correlations. Employing this program, the design and analysis of related thermal-hydraulic parameters were performed under different fusion power conditions. The results indicated that the superheated steam water-cooled blanket is feasible. supported by the National Special Project for Magnetic Confined Nuclear Fusion Energy of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000 and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  12. A methodology for accident analysis of fusion breeder blankets and its application to helium-cooled lead–lithium blanket

    DOE PAGES

    Panayotov, Dobromir; Poitevin, Yves; Grief, Andrew; ...

    2016-09-23

    'Fusion for Energy' (F4E) is designing, developing, and implementing the European Helium-Cooled Lead-Lithium (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) for ITER (Nuclear Facility INB-174). Safety demonstration is an essential element for the integration of these TBSs into ITER and accident analysis is one of its critical components. A systematic approach to accident analysis has been developed under the F4E contract on TBS safety analyses. F4E technical requirements, together with Amec Foster Wheeler and INL efforts, have resulted in a comprehensive methodology for fusion breeding blanket accident analysis that addresses the specificity of the breeding blanket designs, materials,more » and phenomena while remaining consistent with the approach already applied to ITER accident analyses. Furthermore, the methodology phases are illustrated in the paper by its application to the EU HCLL TBS using both MELCOR and RELAP5 codes.« less

  13. A methodology for accident analysis of fusion breeder blankets and its application to helium-cooled lead–lithium blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Panayotov, Dobromir; Poitevin, Yves; Grief, Andrew; Trow, Martin; Dillistone, Michael; Murgatroyd, Julian T.; Owen, Simon; Peers, Karen; Lyons, Alex; Heaton, Adam; Scott, Richard; Merrill, Brad J.; Humrickhouse, Paul

    2016-09-23

    'Fusion for Energy' (F4E) is designing, developing, and implementing the European Helium-Cooled Lead-Lithium (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) for ITER (Nuclear Facility INB-174). Safety demonstration is an essential element for the integration of these TBSs into ITER and accident analysis is one of its critical components. A systematic approach to accident analysis has been developed under the F4E contract on TBS safety analyses. F4E technical requirements, together with Amec Foster Wheeler and INL efforts, have resulted in a comprehensive methodology for fusion breeding blanket accident analysis that addresses the specificity of the breeding blanket designs, materials, and phenomena while remaining consistent with the approach already applied to ITER accident analyses. Furthermore, the methodology phases are illustrated in the paper by its application to the EU HCLL TBS using both MELCOR and RELAP5 codes.

  14. Nucleonics of a Be-Li-Th blanket for the fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1983-03-28

    The nuclear performance of a candidate fission-suppressed, U233-producing blanket is assessed. It is predicted to have a breeding ratio (fusile + fissile) of 1.68 and produce U233 at a rate of 8030 kg/year from 3140 MW of DT fusion and a blanket coverage of 96%. Blanket energy multiplication is estimated to vary between 1.3 and 2.0 as the U233/Th232 ratio varies between 0 and 0.5%. Heterogeneous effects in the blanket's pebble-bed configuration were found to be important and more detailed analysis is needed to more accurately predict Li6 content required and U233 fission power versus U233 content.

  15. Neutronics experiments for uncertainty assessment of tritium breeding in HCPB and HCLL blanket mock-ups irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batistoni, P.; Angelone, M.; Fischer, U.; Klix, A.; Kodeli, I.; Leichtle, D.; Pillon, M.; Pohorecki, W.; Villari, R.

    2012-08-01

    Two neutronics experiments have been carried out at 14 MeV neutron sources on mock-ups of the helium cooled pebble bed (HCBP) and the helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL) variants of ITER test blanket modules (TBMs). These experiments have provided an experimental validation of the calculations of the tritium production rate (TPR) in the two blanket concepts and an assessment of the uncertainties due to the uncertainties on nuclear data. This paper provides a brief summary of the HCPB experiment and then focuses in particular on the final results of the HCLL experiment. The TPR has been measured in the HCLL mock-up irradiated for long times at the Frascati 14 MeV Neutron Generator (FNG). Redundant and well-assessed experimental techniques have been used to measure the TPR by different teams for inter-comparison. Measurements of the neutron and gamma-ray spectra have also been performed. The analysis of the experiment, carried out by the MCNP code with FENDL-2.1 and JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data libraries, and also including sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, shows good agreement between measurements and calculations, within the total uncertainty of 5.9% at 1σ level.

  16. A study of 239Pu production rate in a water cooled natural uranium blanket mock-up of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Song; Liu, Rong; Lu, Xinxin; Yang, Yiwei; Xu, Kun; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Tonghua; Jiang, Li; Qin, Jianguo; Jiang, Jieqiong; Han, Zijie; Lai, Caifeng; Wen, Zhongwei

    2016-03-01

    The 239Pu production rate is important data in neutronics design for a natural uranium blanket of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, and the accuracy and reliability should be validated by integral experiments. The distribution of 239Pu production rates in a subcritical natural uranium blanket mock-up was obtained for the first time with a D-T neutron generator by using an activation technique. Natural uranium foils were placed in different spatial locations of the mock-up, the counts of 277.6 keV γ-rays emitted from 239Np generated by 238U capture reaction were measured by an HPGe γ spectrometer, and the self-absorption of natural uranium foils was corrected. The experiment was analyzed using the Super Monte Carlo neutron transport code SuperMC2.0 with recent nuclear data of 238U from the ENDF/B-VII.0, ENDF/B-VII.1, JENDL-4.0u2, JEFF-3.2 and CENDL-3.1 libraries. Calculation results with the JEFF-3.2 library agree with the experimental ones best, and they agree within the experimental uncertainty in general with the average ratios of calculation results to experimental results (C/E) in the range of 0.93 to 1.01.

  17. Chemical compatibility study between ceramic breeder and EUROFER97 steel for HCPB-DEMO blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Keisuke; Sanchez, Fernando; Knitter, Regina

    2017-05-01

    Chemical compatibility between ceramic breeder (Li4SiO4 + 20 mol% addition of Li2TiO3) and EUROFER97 steel was examined in this study. These materials were contacted and heated at 623, 823 and 1073 K under He + 0.1 vol.% H2 atmosphere for up to 12 weeks. Limited influence was found in the breeder specimens, although losses of the constituent elements appeared near the surface of the breeder pellets heated at 1073 K. For the EUROFER specimens with formation of a corrosion layer, element diffusivity was estimated based on diffusion kinetics. In the temperature range, effective diffusion coefficients of oxygen into EUROFER steel were in the range from 3.5 × 10-14 to 2.5 × 10-12 cm2/s and found to be faster than that of Li. The coefficients yielded an activation energy of 0.93 eV for oxygen diffusion into EUROFER steel and predicted the possible thickness of the corrosion layer after operational periods.

  18. Nuclear performance optimization of the Be/Li/Th blanket for the fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.; Bandini, B.R.

    1985-02-26

    More rigorous nuclear analysis, including treatment of resonance self-shielding effects coupled with an optimization procedure, has resulted in improved performance of the Be/Li/Th blanket. Net U-233 breeding ratio has increased 36% (to 0.84) while at an average U-233/Th ratio of 0.5 a/o average energy multiplication has increased only 12% (to 2.1) compared with earlier results.

  19. GCFR radial blanket and shield experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Muckenthaler, F.J.; Hull, J.L.; Manning, J.J.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents integral neutron flux, energy spectra, and gamma-ray heating measurements made for the Radial Blanket and Shield Experiment at the ORNL Tower Shielding Facility as part of a continuing Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor program. The experimental configurations were divided into four basic segments: a spectrum modifier inserted into the Tower Shielding Reactor II beam; blanket slabs consisting of either ThO/sub 2/ or UO/sub 2/ placed directly behind the spectrum modifier; an inner radial shield behind the blankets; and an outer radial shield to complete the mockup. The segments were added in sequence, with selected measurements made within and beyond each segment. The integral experiment was performed to provide verification of calculational methods and nuclear data used in designing a radial shield for the GCFR and determining the effectiveness of the design. The ThO/sub 2/ blanket measurements were needed to bracket the uncertainties in the nuclear cross sections for calculating both the neutron transmission through the blanket and the gamma-ray heating rates within the blanket. Measurements with a UO/sub 2/ blanket were included both as a reference for the ThO/sub 2/ analysis, neutron transmission through UO/sub 2/ having been successfully calculated in previous experiments, and to provide comparison information for other breeder reactor designs.

  20. Analysis of mechanical effects caused by plasma disruptions in the European BOT solid breeder blanket design with MANET as structural material

    SciTech Connect

    Boccaccini, L.V.; Ruatto, P.

    1994-12-31

    The Karlsruhe Nuclear Center is developing, through design and experimental work, a BOT (Breeder Out of Tube) Helium Cooled Solid Breeder Blanket for a DEMO application. One of the crucial problems in the blanket design is to demonstrate the capability of the structure to withstand the mechanical effects of a major plasma disruption as extrapolated to DEMO from the experience of present machines. In this paper the results of the assessment work are presented; the acceptability of the design is discussed on the basis of a stress analysis of the structure under combined thermal and electromagnetic loads. The martensitic steel MANET has been chosen as structural material, because it is able to withstand the high neutron fluence in Demo (70 dpa) without appreciably swelling and has good thermal-mechanical properties - lower thermal expansion and higher strength - in comparison to AISI 316L steel. As far as it concerns the mechanical effects of plasma disruptions, MANET presents two important features which have been carefully investigated in the assessment: the magnetic properties of the material and the degradation of the fracture toughness behavior under irradiation.

  1. TOKOPS: Tokamak Reactor Operations Study: The influence of reactor operations on the design and performance of tokamaks with solid-breeder blankets: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Firestone, M.A.

    1986-09-01

    Reactor system operation and procedures have a profound impact on the conception and design of power plants. These issues are studied here using a model tokamak system employing a solid-breeder blanket. The model blanket is one which has evolved from the STARFIRE and BCSS studies. The reactor parameters are similar to those characterizing near-term fusion engineering reactors such as INTOR or NET (Next European Tokamak). Plasma startup, burn analysis, and methods for operation at various levels of output power are studied. A critical, and complicating, element is found to be the self-consistent electromagnetic response of the system, including the presence of the blanket and the resulting forces and loadings. Fractional power operation, and the strategy for burn control, is found to vary depending on the scaling law for energy confinement, and an extensive study is reported. Full-power reactor operation is at a neutron wall loading pf 5 MW/m/sup 2/ and a surface heat flux of 1 MW/m/sup 2/. The blanket is a pressurized steel module with bare beryllium rods and low-activation HT-9-(9-C-) clad LiAlO/sub 2/ rods. The helium coolant pressure is 5 MPa, entering the module at 297/sup 0/C and exiting at 550/sup 0/C. The system power output is rated at 1000 MW(e). In this report, we present our findings on various operational scenarios and their impact on system design. We first start with the salient aspects of operational physics. Time-dependent analyses of the blanket and balance of plant are then presented. Separate abstracts are included for each chapter.

  2. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  3. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-04-07

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  4. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies. (MOW)

  5. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-04-20

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  6. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-02-22

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  7. Special topics reports for the reference tandem mirror fusion breeder: liquid metal MHD pressure drop effects in the packed bed blanket. Vol. 1

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wong, C.P.C.

    1984-09-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects which result from the use of liquid metal coolants in magnetic fusion reactors include the modification of flow profiles (including the suppression of turbulence) and increases in the primary loop pressure drop and the hydrostatic pressure at the first wall of the blanket. In the reference fission-suppressed tandem mirror fusion breeder design concept, flow profile modification is a relatively minor concern, but the MHD pressure drop in flowing the liquid lithium coolant through an annular packed bed of beryllium/thorium pebbles is directly related to the required first wall structure thickness. As such, it is a major concern which directly impacts fissile breeding efficiency. Consequently, an improved model for the packed bed pressure drop has been developed. By considering spacial averages of electric fields, currents, and fluid flow velocities the general equations have been reduced to simple expressions for the pressure drop. The averaging approach results in expressions for the pressure drop involving a constant which reflects details of the flow around the pebbles. Such details are difficult to assess analytically, and the constant may eventually have to be evaluated by experiment. However, an energy approach has been used in this study to bound the possible values of the constant, and thus the pressure drop. In anticipation that an experimental facility might be established to evaluate the undetermined constant as well as to address other uncertainties, a survey of existing facilities is presented.

  8. Development and trial manufacturing of 1/2-scale partial mock-up of blanket box structure for fusion experimental reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Toshiyuki; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Sato, Satoshi

    1994-07-01

    Conceptual design of breeding blanket has been discussed during the CDA (Conceptual Design Activities) of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). Structural concept of breeding blanket is based on box structure integrated with first wall and shield, which consists of three coolant manifolds for first wall, breeding and shield regions. The first wall must have cooling channels to remove surface heat flux and nuclear heating. The box structure includes plates to form the manifolds and stiffening ribs to withstand enormous electromagnetic load, coolant pressure and blanket internal (purge gas) pressure. A 1/2-scale partial model of the blanket box structure for the outboard side module near midplane is manufactured to estimate the fabrication technology, i.e. diffusion bonding by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) and EBW (Electron Beam Welding) procedure. Fabrication accuracy is a key issue to manufacture first wall panel because bending deformation during HIP may not be small for a large size structure. Data on bending deformation during HIP was obtained by preliminary manufacturing of HIP elements. For the shield structure, it is necessary to reduce the welding strain and residual stress of the weldment to establish the fabrication procedure. Optimal shape of the parts forming the manifolds, welding locations and welding sequence have been investigated. In addition, preliminary EBW tests have been performed in order to select the EBW conditions, and fundamental data on built-up shield have been obtained. Especially, welding deformation by joining the first wall panel to the shield has been measured, and total deformation to build-up shield by EBW has been found to be smaller than 2 mm. Consequently, the feasibility of fabrication technologies has been successfully demonstrated for a 1m-scaled box structure including the first wall with cooling channels by means of HIP, EBW and TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas arc)-welding.

  9. Nuclear Analyses of Indian LLCB Test Blanket System in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swami, H. L.; Shaw, A. K.; Danani, C.; Chaudhuri, Paritosh

    2017-04-01

    Heading towards the Nuclear Fusion Reactor Program, India is developing Lead Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) tritium breeding blanket for its future fusion Reactor. A mock-up of the LLCB blanket is proposed to be tested in ITER equatorial port no.2, to ensure the overall performance of blanket in reactor relevant nuclear fusion environment. Nuclear analyses play an important role in LLCB Test Blanket System design & development. It is required for tritium breeding estimation, thermal-hydraulic design, coolants process design, radioactive waste management, equipment maintenance & replacement strategies and nuclear safety. The nuclear behaviour of LLCB test blanket module in ITER is predicated in terms of nuclear responses such as tritium production, nuclear heating, neutron fluxes and radiation damages. Radiation shielding capability of LLCB TBS inside and outside bio-shield was also assessed to fulfill ITER shielding requirements. In order to supports the rad-waste and safety assessment, nuclear activation analyses were carried out and radioactivity data were generated for LLCB TBS components. Nuclear analyses of LLCB TBS are performed using ITER recommended nuclear analyses codes (i.e. MCNP, EASY), nuclear cross section data libraries (i.e. FENDL 2.1, EAF) and neutronic model (ITER C-lite v.l). The paper describes a comprehensive nuclear performance of LLCB TBS in ITER.

  10. ITER breeding blanket design

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Cardella, A.; Ioki, K.; Lousteau, D.; Mohri, K.; Raffray, R.; Zolti, E.

    1995-12-31

    A breeding blanket design has been developed for ITER to provide the necessary tritium fuel to achieve the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase. It uses a ceramic breeder and water coolant for compatibility with the ITER machine design of the Basic Performance Phase. Lithium zirconate and lithium oxide am the selected ceramic breeders based on the current data base. Enriched lithium and beryllium neutron multiplier are used for both breeders. Both forms of beryllium material, blocks and pebbles are used at different blanket locations based on thermo-mechanical considerations and beryllium thickness requirements. Type 316LN austenitic steel is used as structural material similar to the shielding blanket. Design issues and required R&D data are identified during the development of the design.

  11. Fusion Breeder Program interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.

    1982-06-11

    This interim report for the FY82 Fusion Breeder Program covers work performed during the scoping phase of the study, December, 1981-February 1982. The goals for the FY82 study are the identification and development of a reference blanket concept using the fission suppression concept and the definition of a development plan to further the fusion breeder application. The context of the study is the tandem mirror reactor, but emphasis is placed upon blanket engineering. A tokamak driver and blanket concept will be selected and studied in more detail during FY83.

  12. Solid breeder/structure mechanical interaction and thermal stability

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.Y.; Billone, M.C.; Taghavi, K.

    1985-04-01

    Solid breeder/structure mechanical interaction (BSMI) during fusion reactor blanket operation is a potential failure mode which could limit the lifetime of the blanket. The severity of BSMI will generally depend on the materials, specific blanket designs, and blanket operating conditions. Thermomechanical analyses performed for a helium-cooled blanket employing Li/sub 2/O/HT-9 plates indicate that BSMI could be a serious concern for this blanket.

  13. Solid breeder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.; Clemmer, R.G.; Hollenber, G.w.

    1981-01-01

    Increased attention is being given to the consideration of lithium-containing ceramic materials for use as breeder blankets in fusion devices. These materials, e.g., Li/sub 2/O, ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/, Li/sub 4/SiO/sub 4/, Li/sub 2/ZrO/sub 3/, etc., are attractive because of their inherent safety advantages. At present, there is a broad scope of laboratory and irradiation activities in force to provide the requisite data enabling selection of th prime-candidate solid breeder material.

  14. Light-water breeder reactors: preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Information is presented concerning prebreeder and breeder reactors based on light-water-breeder (LWBR) Type 1 modules; light-water backfit prebreeder supplying advanced breeder; light-water backfit prebreeder/seed-blanket breeder system; and light-water backfit low-gain converter using medium-enrichment uranium, supplying a light-water backfit high-gain converter.

  15. Ceramic breeder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.; Kummerer, K.R.; Roth, E.

    1987-01-01

    Ceramic materials are under investigation as potential breeder material in fusion reactors. This paper will review candidate materials with respect to fabrication routes and characterization, properties in as-fabricated and irradiated condition, and experimental results from laboratory and inpile investigations on tritium transport and release. Also discussed are the resources of beryllium, which is being considered as a neutron multiplier. The comparison of ceramic properties that is attempted here aims at the identification of the most-promising material for use in a tritium breeding blanket. 82 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Updated reference design of a liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Garner, J.K.; Gromada, R.J.; McCarville, T.J.; Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Bandini, B.R.; Fulton, F.J.; Wong, C.P.C.; Maya, I.; Hoot, C.G.; Schultz, K.R.; Miller, L.G.; Beeston, J.M.; Harris, B.L.; Westman, R.A.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Orient, G.; Wolfer, M.; DeVan, J.H.; Torterelli, P.

    1985-09-01

    Detailed studies of key techinical issues for liquid metal cooled fusion breeder (fusion-fission hybrid blankets) have been performed during the period 1983-4. Based upon the results of these studies, the 1982 reference liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder blanket design was updated and is described. The updated reference blankets provides increased breeding and lower technological risk in comparison with the original reference blanket. In addition to the blanket design revisions, a plant concept, cost, and fuel cycle economics assessment is provided. The fusion breeder continues to promise an economical source of fissile fuel for the indefinite future.

  17. U.S. technical report for the ITER blanket/shield: A. blanket: Topical report, July 1990--November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Three solid-breeder water-cooled blanket concepts have been developed for ITER based on a multilayer configuration. The primary difference among the concepts is in the fabricated form of breeder and multiplier. All the concepts have beryllium for neutron multiplication and solid-breeder temperature control. The blanket design does not use helium gaps or insulator material to control the solid breeder temperature. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O) and lithium zirconate (Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) are the primary and the backup breeder materials, respectively. The lithium-6 enrichment is 95%. The use of high lithium-6 enrichment reduces the solid breeder volume required in the blanket and consequently the total tritium inventory in the solid breeder material. Also, it increases the blanket capability to accommodate power variation. The multilayer blanket configuration can accommodate up to a factor of two change in the neutron wall loading without violating the different design guidelines. The blanket material forms are sintered products and packed bed of small pebbles. The first concept has a sintered product material (blocks) for both the beryllium multiplier and the solid breeder. The second concept, the common ITER blanket, uses a packed bed breeder and beryllium blocks. The last concept is similar to the first except for the first and the last beryllium zones. Two small layers of beryllium pebbles are located behind the first wall and the back of the last beryllium zone to reduce the total inventory of the beryllium material and to improve the blanket performance. The design philosophy adopted for the blanket is to produce the necessary tritium required for the ITER operation and to operate at power reactor conditions as much as possible. Also, the reliability and the safety aspects of the blanket are enhanced by using low-pressure water coolant and the separation of the tritium purge flow from the coolant system by several barriers.

  18. Light-Water Breeder Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Beaudoin, B. R.; Cohen, J. D.; Jones, D. H.; Marier, Jr, L. J.; Raab, H. F.

    1972-06-20

    Described is a light-water-moderated and -cooled nuclear breeder reactor of the seed-blanket type characterized by core modules comprising loosely packed blanket zones enriched with fissile fuel and axial zoning in the seed and blanket regions within each core module. Reactivity control over lifetime is achieved by axial displacement of movable seed zones without the use of poison rods in the embodiment illustrated. The seed is further characterized by a hydrogen-to-uranium-233 atom ratio in the range 10 to 200 and a uranium-233-to-thorium-232 atom ratio ranging from 0.012 to 0.200. The seed occupies from 10 to 35 percent of the core volume in the form of one or more individual islands or annuli. (NSA 26: 55130)

  19. Thermomechanical analysis of the ITER breeding blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.; Gruhn, H.; Gohar, Y.; Giegerich, M.

    1997-03-01

    Thermomechanical performance of the ITER breeding blanket is an important design issue because it requires first, that the thermal expansion mismatch between the blanket structure and the blankets internals (such as, beryllium multiplier and tritium breeders) can be accommodated without creating high stresses, and second, that the thermomechanical deformation of various interfaces within the blanket does not create high resistance to heat flow and consequent unacceptably high temperatures in the blanket materials. Thermomechanical analysis of a single beryllium block sandwiched between two stainless steel plates was carried out using the finite element code ABAQUS to illustrate the importance of elastic deformation on the temperature distributions. Such an analysis for the whole ITER blanket needs to be conducted in the future. Uncertainties in the thermomechanical contact analysis can be reduced by bonding the beryllium blocks to the stainless steel plates by a thin soft interfacial layer.

  20. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wolfer, W.; Fulton, F.J.; Lee, J.D.; Maninger, R.C.; Moir, R.W.; Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented.

  1. Progress on DCLL Blanket Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Clement; Abdou, M.; Katoh, Yutai; Kurtz, Richard J.; Lumsdaine, A.; Marriott, Edward P.; Merrill, Brad; Morley, Neil; Pint, Bruce A.; Sawan, M.; Smolentsev, S.; Williams, Brian; Willms, Scott; Youssef, M.

    2013-09-01

    Under the US Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology Development program, we have selected the Dual Coolant Lead Lithium concept (DCLL) as a reference blanket, which has the potential to be a high performance DEMO blanket design with a projected thermal efficiency of >40%. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAF/M) steel is used as the structural material. The self-cooled breeder PbLi is circulated for power conversion and for tritium breeding. A SiC-based flow channel insert (FCI) is used as a means for magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop reduction from the circulating liquid PbLi and as a thermal insulator to separate the high-temperature PbLi (~700°C) from the helium-cooled RAF/M steel structure. We are making progress on related R&D needs to address critical Fusion Nuclear Science and Facility (FNSF) and DEMO blanket development issues. When performing the function as the Interface Coordinator for the DCLL blanket concept, we had been developing the mechanical design and performing neutronics, structural and thermal hydraulics analyses of the DCLL TBM module. We had estimated the necessary ancillary equipment that will be needed at the ITER site and a detailed safety impact report has been prepared. This provided additional understanding of the DCLL blanket concept in preparation for the FNSF and DEMO. This paper will be a summary report on the progress of the DCLL TBM design and R&Ds for the DCLL blanket concept.

  2. An assessment of the base blanket for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Raffray, A.R.; Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.

    1991-12-31

    Ideally, the ITER base blanket would provide the necessary tritium for the reactor to be self-sufficient during operation, while having minimal impact on the overall reactor cost, reliability and safety. A solid breeder blanket has been developed in CDA phase in an attempt to achieve such objectives. The reference solid breeder base blanket configurations at the end of the CDA phase has many attractive features such as a tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of 0.8--0.9 and a reasonably low tritium inventory. However, some concerns regarding the risk, cost and benefit of the base blanket have been raised. These include uncertainties associated with the solid breeder thermal control and the potentially high cost of the amount of Be used to achieve high TBR and to provide the necessary thermal barrier between the high temperature solid breeder and low temperature coolant. This work addresses these concerns. The basis for the selection of a breeding blanket is first discussed in light of the incremental risk, cost and benefits relative to a non-breeding blanket. Key issues associated with the CDA breeding blanket configurations are then analyzed. Finally, alternative schemes that could enhance the attractiveness and flexibility of a breeding blanket are explored.

  3. An assessment of the base blanket for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Raffray, A.R.; Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.

    1991-01-01

    Ideally, the ITER base blanket would provide the necessary tritium for the reactor to be self-sufficient during operation, while having minimal impact on the overall reactor cost, reliability and safety. A solid breeder blanket has been developed in CDA phase in an attempt to achieve such objectives. The reference solid breeder base blanket configurations at the end of the CDA phase has many attractive features such as a tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of 0.8--0.9 and a reasonably low tritium inventory. However, some concerns regarding the risk, cost and benefit of the base blanket have been raised. These include uncertainties associated with the solid breeder thermal control and the potentially high cost of the amount of Be used to achieve high TBR and to provide the necessary thermal barrier between the high temperature solid breeder and low temperature coolant. This work addresses these concerns. The basis for the selection of a breeding blanket is first discussed in light of the incremental risk, cost and benefits relative to a non-breeding blanket. Key issues associated with the CDA breeding blanket configurations are then analyzed. Finally, alternative schemes that could enhance the attractiveness and flexibility of a breeding blanket are explored.

  4. Laser fusion driven breeder design study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berwald, D.H.; Massey, J.V.

    1980-12-01

    The results of the Laser Fusion Breeder Design Study are given. This information primarily relates to the conceptual design of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) breeder reactor (or fusion-fission hybrid) based upon the HYLIFE liquid metal wall protection concept developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The blanket design for this breeder is optimized to both reduce fissions and maximize the production of fissile fuel for subsequent use in conventional light water reactors (LWRs). When the suppressed fission blanket is compared with its fast fission counterparts, a minimal fission rate in the blanket results in a unique reactor safety advantage for this concept with respect to reduced radioactive inventory and reduced fission product decay afterheat in the event of a loss-of-coolant-accident.

  5. Fabrication, properties, and tritium recovery from solid breeder materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E. ); Kondo, T. ); Roux, N. ); Tanaka, S. ); Vollath, D. )

    1991-01-01

    The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction, both of which are critical to development of fusion power. The lithium ceramics continue to show promise as candidate breeder materials. This promise was recognized by the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design team in its selection of ceramics as the first option for the ITER breeder material. Blanket design studies have indicated properties in the candidate materials data base that need further investigation. Current studies are focusing on tritium release behavior at high burnup, changes in thermophysical properties with burnup, compatibility between the ceramic breeder and beryllium multiplier, and phase changes with burnup. Laboratory and in-reactor tests, some as part of an international collaboration for development of ceramic breeder materials, are underway. 133 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Lithium ceramics as the solid breeder material in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenberg, G. W.; Reuther, T. C.; Johnson, C. E.

    1982-03-01

    Fusion blanket designs have for almost a decade considered the use of a solid breeder relying on available data and assumed performance. The conclusion from these studies is that acceptable neutronic and thermal hydraulic performance can be achieved. In the future, it will be necessary to establish that a particular material can tolerate the thermal and irradiation environment of the fusion blanket while still providing the required functions of tritium recovery, power production and neutron shielding.

  7. High power density self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket.

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Majumdar, S.; Smith, D.

    1999-07-01

    A self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket concept capable of operating with 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading has been developed. The blanket has liquid lithium as the tritium breeder and the coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because it can accommodate high heat loads. Also, it has good mechanical properties at high temperatures, high neutron fluence capability, low degradation under neutron irradiation, good compatibility with the blanket materials, low decay heat, low waste disposal rating, and adequate strength to accommodate the electromagnetic loads during plasma disruption events. Self-healing electrical insulator (CaO) is utilized to reduce the MHD pressure drop. A poloidal coolant flow with high velocity at the first wall is used to reduce the peak temperature of the vanadium structure and to accommodate high surface heat flux. The blanket has a simple blanket configuration and low coolant pressure to reduce the fabrication cost, to improve the blanket reliability, and to increase confidence in the blanket performance. Spectral shifter, moderator, and reflector are utilized to improve the blanket shielding capability and energy multiplication, and to reduce the radial blanket thickness. Natural lithium is used to avoid extra cost related to the lithium enrichment process.

  8. Impact of Solid Breeder Materials on Tritium Breeding in a Hybrid Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Übeyli, Mustafa

    2006-06-01

    Tritium breeding ratio (TBR) is one of the important parameters in design of a Deuterium-Tritium (DT) driven hybrid reactor. Therefore, selection of tritium breeder materials to be used in the blanket is very crucial. In this study, tritium breeding potential of the solid breeders, namely, or in a (DT) fusion driven hybrid reactor fuelled with or was investigated. For this purpose in addition to these solid breeders, different types of liquid breeders, namely natural lithium, Flibe, Flinabe and were used to examine the tritium breeding behavior of liquid-solid breeder couple combinations. Numerical calculations were carried out by using Scale 4.3. According to numerical results, the blanket with fuel using natural lithium as coolant and as solid breeder had the highest TBR value.

  9. The requirements for processing tritium recovered from liquid lithium blankets: The blanket interface

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Greenwood, L.R.; Grimm, T.L.; Sze, D.K.; Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse

    1988-03-01

    We have initiated a study to define a blanket processing mockup for Tritium Systems Test Assembly. Initial evaluation of the requirements of the blanket processing system have been started. The first step of the work is to define the condition of the gaseous tritium stream from the blanket tritium recovery system. This report summarizes this part of the work for one particular blanket concept, i.e., a self-cooled lithium blanket. The total gas throughput, the hydrogen to tritium ratio, the corrosive chemicals, and the radionuclides are defined. The key discoveries are: the throughput of the blanket gas stream (including the helium carrier gas) is about two orders of magnitude higher than the plasma exhaust stream;the protium to tritium ratio is about 1, the deuterium to tritium ratio is about 0.003;the corrosion chemicals are dominated by halides;the radionuclides are dominated by C-14, P-32, and S-35;their is high level of nitrogen contamination in the blanket stream. 77 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Test Strategy for the European HCPB Test Blanket Module in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Boccaccini, L.V.; Meyder, R.; Fischer, U.

    2005-05-15

    According to the European Blanket Programme two blanket concepts, the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) and a Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) will be tested in ITER. During 2004 the test blanket modules (TBM) of both concepts were redesigned with the goal to use as much as possible similar design options and fabrication techniques for both types in order to reduce the European effort for TBM development. The result is a robust TBM box being able to withstand 8 MPa internal pressure in case of in-box LOCA; the TBM box consists of First wall (FW), caps, stiffening grid and manifolds. The box is filled with typically 18 and 24 breeding units (BU), for HCPB and HCLL respectively. A breeding unit has about 200 mm in poloidal and toroidal direction and about 400 mm in radial direction; the design is adapted to contain and cooling ceramic breeder/beryllium pebble beds for the HCPB and eutectic Lithium-Lead for the HCLL.The use of a new material, EUROFER, and the innovative design of these Helium Cooled components call for a large qualification programme before the installation in ITER; availability and safety of ITER should not be jeopardised by a failure of these components. Fabrication technologies especially in the welding processes (diffusion welding, EB, TIG, LASER) need to be tested in the manufacturing of large mock-ups; an extensive out-of-pile programme in Helium facility should be foreseen for the verification of the concept from basic helium cooling functions (uniformity of flow in parallel channels, heat transfer coefficient in FW, etc.) up to the verification of large portions of the TBM design under relevant ITER loading.In ITER the TBM will have the main objective to collect information that will contribute to the final design of DEMO blankets. A strategy has been proposed in 2001 that leads to the tests in ITER 4 different Test Blanket Modules (TBM's) type during the first 10 years of ITER operation. For the new HCPB design this strategy is confirmed with

  11. MIT LMFBR blanket research project. Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, M.J.

    1983-08-01

    This is a final summary report on an experimental and analytical program for the investigation of LMFBR blanket characteristics carried out at MIT in the period 1969 to 1983. During this span of time, work was carried out on a wide range of subtasks, ranging from neutronic and photonic measurements in mockups of blankets using the Blanket Test Facility at the MIT Research Reactor, to analytic/numerical investigations of blanket design and economics. The main function of this report is to serve as a resource document which will permit ready reference to the more detailed topical reports and theses issued over the years on the various aspects of project activities. In addition, one aspect of work completed during the final year of the project, on doubly-heterogeneous blanket configurations, is documented for the record.

  12. Nuclear breeder reactor fuel element with silicon carbide getter

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    An improved cesium getter 28 is provided in a breeder reactor fuel element or pin in the form of an extended surface area, low density element formed in one embodiment as a helically wound foil 30 located with silicon carbide, and located at the upper end of the fertile material upper blanket 20.

  13. Fission-suppressed hybrid reactor: the fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Coops, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    Results of a conceptual design study of a /sup 233/U-producing fusion breeder are presented. The majority of the study was devoted to conceptual design and evaluation of a fission-suppressed blanket and to fuel cycle issues such as fuel reprocessing, fuel handling, and fuel management. Studies in the areas of fusion engineering, reactor safety, and economics were also performed.

  14. Fusion breeder: its potential role and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a concept that utilizes 14 MeV neutrons from D + T ..-->.. n(14.1 MeV) + ..cap alpha..(3.5 MeV) fusion reactions to produce more fuel than the tritium (T) needed to sustain the fusion process. This excess fuel production capacity is used to produce fissile material (Pu-239 or U-233) for subsequent use in fission reactors. We are concentrating on a class of blankets we call fission suppressed. The blanket is the region surrounding the fusion plasma in which fusion neutrons interact to produce fuel and heat. The fission-suppressed blanket uses non-fission reactions (mainly (n,2n) or (n,n't)) to generate excess neutrons for the production of net fuel. This is in contrast to the fast fission class of blankets which use (n,fiss) reactions to generate excess neutrons. Fusion reactors with fast fission blankets are commony known as fusion-fission hybrids because they combine fusion and fission in the same device.

  15. Progress in tritium retention and release modeling for ceramic breeders

    SciTech Connect

    Raffray, A.R.; Federici, G.; Billone, M.C.; Tanaka, S.

    1994-07-11

    Tritium behavior in ceramic breeder blankets is a key design issue for this class of blanket because of its impact on safety and fuel self-sufficiency. Over the past 10-15 years, substantial theoretical and experimental efforts have been dedicated world-wide to develop a better understanding of tritium transport in ceramic breeders. Models that are available today seem to cover reasonably well all the key physical transport and trapping mechanisms. They have allowed for reasonable interpretation and reproduction of experimental data and have helped in pointing out deficiencies in material property data base, in providing guidance for future experiments, and in analyzing blanket tritium behavior. This paper highlights the progress in tritium modeling over the last decade. Key tritium transport mechanisms are briefly described along with the more recent and sophisticated models developed to help understand them. Recent experimental data are highlighted and model calibration and validation discussed. Finally, example applications to blanket cases are shown as illustration of progress in the prediction of ceramic breeder blanket tritium inventory.

  16. Ceramic pebble bed development for fusion blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Gierszewski, P.; Kawamura, H.; Donne, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    Research on lithium ceramic breeders has been intensive since the late 1970`s. The bulk material properties of several candidate lithium ceramics are generally available, although there is still much work to be done on properties under irradiation and on overall behavior in blanket modules. Based on these results, lithium ceramic breeders have been selected in many fusion design studies. These lithium ceramics are incorporated into blankets typically as monolithic pellets of packed pebble beds. There is substantial industrial experience with pebble beds made from other ceramics, notably in chemical processes as catalyst supports and grinding media, and in advanced fission reactor fuels. In fusion blankets, the pebble bed form offers several attractive features, including simpler assembly into complex geometry, uniform pore network, and low sensitivity to cracking or irradiation damage. Ceramic breeder pebbles have been a focus for several research groups. In general, the database is similar to that of monolithic pellets for the materials studied: basic production and material property data are available, but the irradiation and engineering database remains sparse.

  17. Orion Capsule Mockup is Dropped

    NASA Image and Video Library

    An Orion capsule mockup is dropped from a plane 25,000 feet above the Arizona desert to test its parachute design. Orion will return to Earth at speeds faster than previous human spacecraft, and wi...

  18. Thermomechanical analysis of solid breeders in sphere-pac, plate, and pellet configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, J.P.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1986-02-01

    The first configuration studied is called sphere-pac. It features small breeder spheres of three different diameters, thus allowing efficient packing and minimal void fraction. The concept originated as an attempt to minimize thermal stresses in the breeder and improve the predictability of the breeder-structure interface heat conduction. In general the breeder is made as thin as possible, to maximize the breeding ratio, so the cladding's integrity will likely be the life-limiting issue of this concept. The third breeder configuration is in the form of pellets cladded by steel tubes. The major thermomechanical issue of the pin-type designs is cracking, which would impair the thermal performance of the blanket. Fortunately, the pins can be sized to prevent cracking under normal operation. In this report we have treated each blanket generically, dealing with basic issues rather than design specifics. Our basic philosophy is to avoid cracking of the breeder if at all possible. It can be argued that cracking could be allowed, but this would sacrifice predictability of the blanket thermal performance and tritium release characteristics. Proper design can and should minimize breeder cracking.

  19. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  20. NASA HL-20 PLS Lifting Body (Mockup)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA HL-20 PLS Lifting Body (Mockup): The HL-20 came into use at Langley in October 1990 and is a full-scale non-flying mockup. This mockup was used for engineering studies of maintainability of the vehicle, as testing crew positions, pilot visibility and other human factors considerations.

  1. Ceramic breeder materials: Status and needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. E.; Noda, K.; Roux, N.

    1998-10-01

    The tritium breeding blanket is one of the most important components of a fusion reactor because it directly involves both energy extraction and tritium production, both of which are critical to fusion power. Because of their overall desirable properties, lithium-containing ceramic solids are recognized as attractive tritium breeding materials for fusion reactor blankets. Indeed, their inherent thermal stability and chemical inertness are significant safety advantages. In numerous in-pile experiments, these materials have performed well, showing good thermal stability and good tritium release characteristics. Tritium release is particularly facile when an argon or helium purge gas containing hydrogen, typically at levels of about 0.1%, is used. However, the addition of hydrogen to the purge gas imposes a penalty when it comes to recovery of the tritium produced in the blanket. In particular, a large amount of hydrogen in the purge gas will necessitate a large multiple-stage tritium purification unit, which could translate into higher costs. Optimizing tritium, release while minimizing the amount of hydrogen necessary in the purge gas requires a deeper understanding of the tritium release process, especially the interactions of hydrogen with the surface of the lithium ceramic. This paper reviews the status of ceramic breeder research and highlights several issues and data needs.

  2. ITER Test Blanket Module Error Field Simulation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    Recent experiments at DIII-D used an active-coil mock-up to investigate effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from two ferromagnetic Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) in one ITER equatorial port. The largest and most prevalent observed effect was plasma toroidal rotation slowing across the entire radial profile, up to 60% in H-mode when the mock-up local ripple at the plasma was ˜4 times the local ripple expected in front of ITER TBMs. Analysis showed the slowing to be consistent with non-resonant braking by the mock-up field. There was no evidence of strong electromagnetic braking by resonant harmonics. These results are consistent with the near absence of resonant helical harmonics in the TBM field. Global particle and energy confinement in H-mode decreased by <20% for the maximum mock-up ripple, but <5% at the local ripple expected in ITER. These confinement reductions may be linked with the large velocity reductions. TBM field effects were small in L-mode but increased with plasma beta. The L-H power threshold was unaffected within error bars. The mock-up field increased plasma sensitivity to mode locking by a known n=1 test field (n = toroidal harmonic number). In H-mode the increased locking sensitivity was from TBM torque slowing plasma rotation. At low beta, locked mode tolerance was fully recovered by re-optimizing the conventional DIII-D ``I-coils'' empirical compensation of n=1 errors in the presence of the TBM mock-up field. Empirical error compensation in H-mode should be addressed in future experiments. Global loss of injected neutral beam fast ions was within error bars, but 1 MeV fusion triton loss may have increased. The many DIII-D mock-up results provide important benchmarks for models needed to predict effects of TBMs in ITER.

  3. Mechanical design of a light water breeder reactor

    DOEpatents

    Fauth, Jr., William L.; Jones, Daniel S.; Kolsun, George J.; Erbes, John G.; Brennan, John J.; Weissburg, James A.; Sharbaugh, John E.

    1976-01-01

    In a light water reactor system using the thorium-232 -- uranium-233 fuel system in a seed-blanket modular core configuration having the modules arranged in a symmetrical array surrounded by a reflector blanket region, the seed regions are disposed for a longitudinal movement between the fixed or stationary blanket region which surrounds each seed region. Control of the reactor is obtained by moving the inner seed region thus changing the geometry of the reactor, and thereby changing the leakage of neutrons from the relatively small seed region into the blanket region. The mechanical design of the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core includes means for axially positioning of movable fuel assemblies to achieve the neutron economy required of a breeder reactor, a structure necessary to adequately support the fuel modules without imposing penalties on the breeding capability, a structure necessary to support fuel rods in a closely packed array and a structure necessary to direct and control the flow of coolant to regions in the core in accordance with the heat transfer requirements.

  4. Design of a helium-cooled molten salt fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Fulton, F.J.; Huegel, F.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Sherwood, A.E.; Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Wong, C.P.C.; DeVan, J.H.

    1985-02-01

    A new conceptual blanket design for a fusion reactor produces fissile material for fission power plants. Fission is suppressed by using beryllium, rather than uranium, to multiply neutrons and also by minimizing the fissile inventory. The molten-salt breeding media (LiF + BeF/sub 2/ + TghF/sub 4/) is circulated through the blanket and on to the online processing system where /sup 233/U and tritium are continuously removed. Helium cools the blanket including the steel pipes containing the molten salt. Austenitic steel was chosen because of its ease of fabrication, adequate radiation-damage lifetime, and low corrosion rate by molten salt. We estimate the breeder, having 3000 MW of fusion power, produces 6400 kg of /sup 233/U per year, which is enough to provide make up for 20 GWe of LWR per year (or 14 LWR plants of 4440 MWt) or twice that many HTGRs or CANDUs. Safety is enhanced because the afterheat is low and the blanket materials do not react with air or water. The fusion breeder based on a pre-MARS tandem mirror is estimated to cost $4.9B or 2.35 times an LWR of the same power. The estimated present value cost of the /sup 2/anumber/sup 3/U produced is $40/g if utility financed or $16/g if government financed.

  5. Light-water breeder reactor (LWBR Development Program)

    DOEpatents

    Beaudoin, B.R.; Cohen, J.D.; Jones, D.H.; Marier, L.J. Jr.; Raab, H.F.

    1972-06-20

    Described is a light-water-moderated and -cooled nuclear breeder reactor of the seed-blanket type characterized by core modules comprising loosely packed blanket zones enriched with fissile fuel and axial zoning in the seed and blanket regions within each core module. Reactivity control over lifetime is achieved by axial displacement of movable seed zones without the use of poison rods in the embodiment illustrated. The seed is further characterized by a hydrogen-to-uranium-233 atom ratio in the range 10 to 200 and a uranium-233-to-thorium-232 atom ratio ranging from 0.012 to 0.200. The seed occupies from 10 to 35 percent of the core volume in the form of one or more individual islands or annuli. (NSA 26: 55130)

  6. European ceramic B.I.T. blanket for DEMO: Recent development for the zirconate version

    SciTech Connect

    Bielak, B.; Eid, M.; Fuetterer, M.

    1994-12-31

    Within the framework of the European test-blanket program, CEA and ENEA are jointly developing a DEMO-relevant, helium-cooled, Breeder-Inside-Tube (BIT) ceramic blanket. Two ceramics are possible breeder material candidate: LiAlO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. Despite the design has been originally developed for aluminate, the CEA has recently focused its work on zirconate. This concept blanket segments are made by a directly-cooled vacuum-tight steel box which contains banana-shaped poloidal breeder modules arranged in rows (6 rows in an outboard segment and 4 rows in an inboard one). A breeder module consists of a pressure vessel containing a bundle of breeder rods surrounded by baffles. Each one of the rods is made-up of a steel tube containing a stack of annular pellets of sintered lithium-zirconate, through which flows helium (the tritium purge gas). The thermo-mechanical analysis has shown that the thermal gradient in the ceramics can be kept at acceptable levels despite the poorer out-of-pile thermo-mechanical properties of zirconate compared to aluminate. Moreover, the neutronic analysis has shown that, besides the maintained tritium-breeding self-sufficiency capability of this blanket, the lower lithium burn-up could be an indication that the zirconate characteristics remains more stable after long term irradiation (i.e., close to the end-of-life fluence of 5 MWa/m{sup 2}).

  7. Ejecta Blanket on Vesta

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-13

    This image from NASA Dawn spacecraft shows an ejecta blanket mantling the surface and obscuring older caters. The bright crater rim, seen in the middle right edge, is one of a group of craters which are the source of this ejecta blanket.

  8. Detection of Breeding Blankets Using Antineutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogswell, Bernadette; Huber, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement between the United States and Russia makes arrangements for the disposal of 34 metric tons of excess weapon-grade plutonium. Under this agreement Russia plans to dispose of its excess stocks by processing the plutonium into fuel for fast breeder reactors. To meet the disposition requirements this fuel would be burned while the fast reactors are run as burners, i.e., without a natural uranium blanket that can be used to breed plutonium surrounding the core. This talk discusses the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the verification of the presence or absence of a breeding blanket. It is found that a 36 kg antineutrino detector, exploiting coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering and made of silicon, could determine the presence of a breeding blanket at a liquid sodium cooled fast reactor at the 95% confidence level within 90 days. Such a detector would be a novel non-intrusive verification tool and could present a first application of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering to a real-world challenge.

  9. Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A high-angle view of overall activity in the JSC Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory. In the foreground is the manipulator development facility (MDF), a high fidelity trainer designed to prepare mission specialists for the operation of the remote manipulator system (RMS) on Space Shuttle Orbiters. Here, a helium-filled balloon represents the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), in the grasp of the RMS end effector. Astronaut crewmembers for STS 41-C mission in the MDF's cabin control the arm while simulating LDEF deployment. Other Shuttle training hardware is visible as well; the full fuselage trainer (FFT) is in upper left and the crew compartment trainer (CCT) is at top center.

  10. Development of fusion blanket technology for the DEMO reactor.

    PubMed

    Colling, B R; Monk, S D

    2012-07-01

    The viability of various materials and blanket designs for use in nuclear fusion reactors can be tested using computer simulations and as parts of the test blanket modules within the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) facility. The work presented here focuses on blanket model simulations using the Monte Carlo simulation package MCNPX (Computational Physics Division Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2010) and FISPACT (Forrest, 2007) to evaluate the tritium breeding capability of a number of solid and liquid breeding materials. The liquid/molten salt breeders are found to have the higher tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and are to be considered for further analysis of the self sufficiency timing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. First wall and blanket module safety enhancement by material selection and design decision

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    A thermal/mechanical study has been performed which illustrates the behavior of a fusion reactor first wall and blanket module during a loss of coolant flow event. The relative safety advantages of various material and design options were determined. A generalized first wall-blanket concept was developed to provide the flexibility to vary the structural material (stainless steel vs titanium), coolant (helium vs water), and breeder material (liquid lithium vs solid lithium aluminate). In addition, independent vs common first wall-blanket cooling and coupled adjacent module cooling design options were included in the study. The comparative analyses were performed using a modified thermal analysis code to handle phase change problems.

  12. Composite flexible blanket insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Lowe, David M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An improved composite flexible blanket insulation is presented comprising top silicon carbide having an interlock design, wherein the reflective shield is composed of single or double aluminized polyimide and wherein the polyimide film has a honeycomb pattern.

  13. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Lithium Ceramic Pebble Beds for Fusion Blankets: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Abou-Sena, A.; Ying, A.; Abdou, M.

    2005-05-15

    The use of lithium ceramic pebble beds has been considered in many blanket designs for the fusion reactors. Lithium ceramics have received a significant interest as tritium breeders for the fusion blankets during the last three decades. The thermal performance of the lithium ceramic pebble beds plays a key role for the fusion blankets. In order to study the heat transfer in the blanket, the effective thermal conductivity of the lithium ceramics pebble beds has to be well measured and characterized. The data of effective thermal conductivity of lithium ceramic pebble beds is important for the blanket design. Several studies have been dedicated to investigate the effective conductivity of the lithium ceramics pebble beds. The objective of this work is to review and compare the available data, presented by various studies, of effective conductivity of lithium ceramic pebble beds in order to address the current status of these data.

  14. Evaluation of tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, T.; Ochiai, K.; Edao, Y.; Kawamura, Y.

    2015-03-15

    Demonstration power plant (DEMO) fusion reactors require advanced tritium breeders with high thermal stability. Lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) advanced tritium breeders with excess Li (Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y}) are stable in a reducing atmosphere at high temperatures. Although the tritium release properties of tritium breeders are documented in databases for DEMO blanket design, no in situ examination under fusion neutron (DT neutron) irradiation has been performed. In this study, a preliminary examination of the tritium release properties of advanced tritium breeders was performed, and DT neutron irradiation experiments were performed at the fusion neutronics source (FNS) facility in JAEA. Considering the tritium release characteristics, the optimum grain size after sintering is <5 μm. From the results of the optimization of granulation conditions, prototype Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles with optimum grain size (<5 μm) were successfully fabricated. The Li{sub 2+x}TiO{sub 3+y} pebbles exhibited good tritium release properties similar to the Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles. In particular, the released amount of HT gas for easier tritium handling was higher than that of HTO water. (authors)

  15. Helium-cooled molten-salt fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Fulton, F.J.; Huegel, F.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Sherwood, A.E.; Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Wong, C.P.C.; Devan, J.H.

    1984-12-01

    We present a new conceptual design for a fusion reactor blanket that is intended to produce fissile material for fission power plants. Fast fission is suppressed by using beryllium instead of uranium to multiply neutrons. Thermal fission is suppressed by minimizing the fissile inventory. The molten-salt breeding medium (LiF + BeF/sub 2/ + ThF/sub 4/) is circulated through the blanket and to the on-line processing system where /sup 233/U and tritium are continuously removed. Helium cools the blanket and the austenitic steel tubes that contain the molten salt. Austenitic steel was chosen because of its ease of fabrication, adequate radiation-damage lifetime, and low corrosion by molten salt. We estimate that a breeder having 3000 MW of fusion power will produce 6500 kg of /sup 233/U per year. This amount is enough to provide makeup for 20 GWe of light-water reactors per year or twice that many high-temperature gas-cooled reactors or Canadian heavy-water reactors. Safety is enhanced because the afterheat is low and blanket materials do not react with air or water. The fusion breeder based on a pre-MARS tandem mirror is estimated to cost $4.9B or 2.35 times a light-water reactor of the same power. The estimated cost of the /sup 233/U produced is $40/g for fusion plants costing 2.35 times that of a light-water reactor if utility owned or $16/g if government owned.

  16. Effective Thermal Conductivity of a Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} Pebble Bed for a DEMO Blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Hatano, T.; Enoeda, M.; Suzuki, S.; Kosaku, Y.; Akiba, M.

    2003-07-15

    In development of the ceramic breeder blanket, the effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds is an important design parameter. For thermo-mechanical design of blanket, pebble beds were investigated used for Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} that was a candidate for tritium breeder. Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebble beds, whose size was 0.28-1.91 mm diameter, were measured on load under no neutron irradiation. The effective thermal conductivity was increased with load increasing was obtained.

  17. POWER BREEDER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Monson, H.O.

    1960-11-22

    An arrangement is offered for preventing or minimizing the contraction due to temperature rise, of a reactor core comprising vertical fuel rods in sodium. Temperature rise of the fuel rods would normally make them move closer together by inward bowing, with a resultant undesired increase in reactivity. According to the present invention, assemblies of the fuel rods are laterally restrained at the lower ends of their lower blanket sections and just above the middle of the fuel sections proper of the rods, and thus the fuel sections move apart, rather than together, with increase in temperature.

  18. ITER shielding blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Strebkov, Y.; Blinov, Y.; Avsjannikov, A.

    1994-12-31

    A version of ITER shielding blanket design is presented. Main features of this proposal are: Cu based alloy as structure material of the first wall - integrated in the blanket segment box structure and 316L SS as material of both back/side walls of the box and the shield structure elements; water of medium pressure (up to 4 MPa) as coolant with toroidal direction of flow; two variants of beryllium protection tiles joining (either permanent joints by mince of solid diffusion bonding or demountable attachment with compliant layer; for last versions designs options of tiles attachment units are given). Problems of manufacturing of such blanket segment including its assembly sequence are considered in details. Results of stress problem analysis for thermal, pressure, and electromagnetic loads will be given in this report also.

  19. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Jolodosky, A.; Fratoni, M.

    2015-09-22

    Lithium is often the preferred choice as breeder and coolant in fusion blankets as it offers excellent heat transfer and corrosion properties, and most importantly, it has a very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and exacerbates plant safety concerns. For this reason, over the years numerous blanket concepts have been proposed with the scope of reducing concerns associated with lithium. The European helium cooled pebble bed breeding blanket (HCPB) physically confines lithium within ceramic pebbles. The pebbles reside within a low activation martensitic ferritic steel structure and are cooled by helium. The blanket is composed of the tritium breeding lithium ceramic pebbles and neutron multiplying beryllium pebbles. Other blanket designs utilize lead to lower chemical reactivity; LiPb alone can serve as a breeder, coolant, neutron multiplier, and tritium carrier. Blankets employing LiPb coolants alongside silicon carbide structural components can achieve high plant efficiency, low afterheat, and low operation pressures. This alloy can also be used alongside of helium such as in the dual-coolant lead-lithium concept (DCLL); helium is utilized to cool the first wall and structural components made up of low-activation ferritic steel, whereas lithium-lead (LiPb) acts as a self-cooled breeder in the inner channels of the blanket. The helium-cooled steel and lead-lithium alloy are separated by flow channel inserts (usually made out of silicon carbide) which thermally insulate the self-cooled breeder region from the helium cooled steel walls. This creates a LiPb breeder with a much higher exit temperature than the steel which increases the power cycle efficiency and also lowers the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop [6]. Molten salt blankets with a mixture of lithium, beryllium, and fluorides (FLiBe) offer good tritium breeding

  20. Multiplier, moderator, and reflector materials for lithium-vanadium fusion blankets.

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Smith, D. L.

    1999-10-07

    The self-cooled lithium-vanadium fusion blanket concept has several attractive operational and environmental features. In this concept, liquid lithium works as the tritium breeder and coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because of its superior performance relative to other alloys for this application. However, this concept has poor attenuation characteristics and energy multiplication for the DT neutrons. An advanced self-cooled lithium-vanadium fusion blanket concept has been developed to eliminate these drawbacks while maintaining all the attractive features of the conventional concept. An electrical insulator coating for the coolant channels, spectral shifter (multiplier, and moderator) and reflector were utilized in the blanket design to enhance the blanket performance. In addition, the blanket was designed to have the capability to operate at high loading conditions of 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading. This paper assesses the spectral shifter and the reflector materials and it defines the technological requirements of this advanced blanket concept.

  1. Students Visit Space Station Lab Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Students from Albuquerque, MN, tour through the mockup of the U.S. Destiny laboratory module that will be attached to the International Space Station (ISS). Behind them are the racks for the Fluids and Combustion Facility being developed by Glenn Research Center. The mockup was on display at the Space Tehnology International Forum in Albuquerque, MN. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

  2. Students Visit Space Station Lab Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Students from Albuquerque, MN, tour through the mockup of the U.S. Destiny laboratory module that will be attached to the International Space Station (ISS). Behind them are the racks for the Fluids and Combustion Facility being developed by Glenn Research Center. The mockup was on display at the Space Tehnology International Forum in Albuquerque, MN. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

  3. Gauge Measures Thicknesses Of Blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, George R.; Yoshino, Stanley Y.

    1991-01-01

    Tool makes highly repeatable measurements of thickness of penetrable blanket insulation. Includes commercial holder for replaceable knife blades, which holds needle instead of knife. Needle penetrates blanket to establish reference plane. Ballasted slider applies fixed preload to blanket. Technician reads thickness value on scale.

  4. Crush probability analysis of ceramic breeder pebble beds under mechanical stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yixiang; Kamlah, Marc; Riesch-Oppermann, Heinz; Rolli, Rolf; Liu, Ping

    2011-10-01

    A framework for analyzing crush events of individual ceramic pebbles in solid breeder blankets is developed by means of probabilistic methods. As a brittle material, ceramic breeder pebbles show considerable scatter in crush strengthen for single pebbles. The combination of the discrete element method and experimental data of crush loads provides the possibility of obtaining the overall crush probability of a pebble bed under compression. Furthermore, micro-macro relations are used to correlate the crush probability of pebbles with the overall stress level of the bed. Analysis of uniaxial compression of a mono-sized lithium-orthosilicate pebble bed is presented to demonstrate the application of this tool.

  5. Thermal insulation blanket material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusch, R. H.

    1982-06-01

    A study was conducted to provide a tailorable advanced blanket insulation based on a woven design having an integrally woven core structure. A highly pure quartz yarn was selected for weaving and the cells formed were filled with a microquartz felt insulation.

  6. Thermal insulation blanket material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusch, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide a tailorable advanced blanket insulation based on a woven design having an integrally woven core structure. A highly pure quartz yarn was selected for weaving and the cells formed were filled with a microquartz felt insulation.

  7. An Analysis of Ripple and Error Fields Induced by a Blanket in the CFETR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guanying; Liu, Xufeng; Liu, Songlin

    2016-10-01

    The Chinese Fusion Engineering Tokamak Reactor (CFETR) is an important intermediate device between ITER and DEMO. The Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) blanket whose structural material is mainly made of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steel, is one of the candidate conceptual blanket design. An analysis of ripple and error field induced by RAFM steel in WCCB is evaluated with the method of static magnetic analysis in the ANSYS code. Significant additional magnetic field is produced by blanket and it leads to an increased ripple field. Maximum ripple along the separatrix line reaches 0.53% which is higher than 0.5% of the acceptable design value. Simultaneously, one blanket module is taken out for heating purpose and the resulting error field is calculated to be seriously against the requirement. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China (No. 2013GB108004)

  8. ITER blanket and shield studies for high aspect ratio design option

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Attaya, H.; Billone, M.; Johnson, C.; Kopasz, J.; Majumdar, S.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L. ); Lousteau, D.; Nelson, B.; Williamson, D. ); Raffray, A.; Badawi, A.; Ying, A.; Abdou, M. ); El-Guebaly, L.; Sawan, M.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Mogahed, E.; Kulcinski, G. (Wisconsin U

    1991-01-01

    The attractiveness of the high aspect ratio design (HARD) option for ITER has motivated a study to assess the blanket and shield design performance for this configuration relative to the ITER reference design. The blanket and shield have been configured to take an advantage of the HARD option. The layered solid breeder blanket concept with water-coolant and steel-structure and the water-steel shield have been used. The changes in the neutron wall loading distribution, the mechanical design, the net tritium breeding ratio, the total tritium inventory, and the nuclear heating profiles are evaluated. The tradeoff between the net tritium breeding ratio, and the fuel operating cost is analyzed. The mechanical design and the structural interaction between the first wall and the blanket is studied. 4 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, B. William; Chiu, Ing L.

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  10. Integration mockup and process material management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verble, Adas James, Jr.

    1992-02-01

    Work to define and develop a full scale Space Station Freedom (SSF) mockup with the flexibility to evolve into future designs, to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify human task allocations and support trade studies is described. This work began in early 1985 and ended in August, 1991. The mockups are presently being used at MSFC in Building 4755 as a technology and design testbed, as well as for public display. Micro Craft also began work on the Process Material Management System (PMMS) under this contract. The PMMS simulator was a sealed enclosure for testing to identify liquids, gaseous, particulate samples, and specimen including, urine, waste water, condensate, hazardous gases, surrogate gasses, liquids, and solids. The SSF would require many trade studies to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify system task allocations; it was necessary to develop a full scale mockup which would be representative of current SSF design with the ease of changing those designs as the SSF design evolved and changed. The tasks defined for Micro Craft were to provide the personnel, services, tools, and materials for the SSF mockup which would consist of four modules, nodes, interior components, and part task mockups of MSFC responsible engineering systems. This included the Engineering Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) testbed. For the initial study, the mockups were low fidelity, soft mockups of graphics art bottle, and other low cost materials, which evolved into higher fidelity mockups as the R&D design evolved, by modifying or rebuilding, an important cost saving factor in the design process. We designed, fabricated, and maintained the full size mockup shells and support stands. The shells consisted of cylinders, end cones, rings, longerons, docking ports, crew airlocks, and windows. The ECLSS required a heavier cylinder to support the ECLSS systems test program. Details of this activity will be covered. Support stands were

  11. Integration mockup and process material management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verble, Adas James, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Work to define and develop a full scale Space Station Freedom (SSF) mockup with the flexibility to evolve into future designs, to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify human task allocations and support trade studies is described. This work began in early 1985 and ended in August, 1991. The mockups are presently being used at MSFC in Building 4755 as a technology and design testbed, as well as for public display. Micro Craft also began work on the Process Material Management System (PMMS) under this contract. The PMMS simulator was a sealed enclosure for testing to identify liquids, gaseous, particulate samples, and specimen including, urine, waste water, condensate, hazardous gases, surrogate gasses, liquids, and solids. The SSF would require many trade studies to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify system task allocations; it was necessary to develop a full scale mockup which would be representative of current SSF design with the ease of changing those designs as the SSF design evolved and changed. The tasks defined for Micro Craft were to provide the personnel, services, tools, and materials for the SSF mockup which would consist of four modules, nodes, interior components, and part task mockups of MSFC responsible engineering systems. This included the Engineering Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) testbed. For the initial study, the mockups were low fidelity, soft mockups of graphics art bottle, and other low cost materials, which evolved into higher fidelity mockups as the R&D design evolved, by modifying or rebuilding, an important cost saving factor in the design process. We designed, fabricated, and maintained the full size mockup shells and support stands. The shells consisted of cylinders, end cones, rings, longerons, docking ports, crew airlocks, and windows. The ECLSS required a heavier cylinder to support the ECLSS systems test program. Details of this activity will be covered. Support stands were

  12. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concepts are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  13. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concepts are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  14. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  15. EBIS charge breeder for CARIBU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashev, S.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Fischer, R.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Vondrasek, R.; Pikin, A.

    2014-02-01

    A high-efficiency charge breeder based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) is being developed by the ANL Physics Division to increase the intensity and improve the purity of accelerated radioactive ion beams. A wide variety of low-energy neutron-rich ion beams are produced by the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). These beams will be charge-bred by an EBIS charge breeder to a charge-to-mass ratio (q/A) ≥ 1/7 and accelerated by ATLAS to energies of about 10 MeV/u. The assembly of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder except the injection/extraction beam lines has been completed. This summer we started electron beam commissioning of the EBIS. The first results on electron beam extraction, transport from the electron gun to a high power electron collector are presented and discussed.

  16. Fabrication and integrity test preparation of HIP-joined W and ferritic-martensitic steel mockups for fusion reactor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Shin, Kyu In; Kim, Suk Kwon; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae Sung; Choi, Bo Guen; Moon, Se Youn; Hong, Bong Guen

    2014-10-01

    Tungsten (W) and ferritic-martensitic steel (FMS) as armor and structural materials, respectively, are the major candidates for plasma-facing components (PFCs) such as the blanket first wall (BFW) and the divertor, in a fusion reactor. In the present study, three W/FMS mockups were successfully fabricated using a hot isostatic pressing (HIP, 900 °C, 100 MPa, 1.5 hrs) with a following post-HIP heat treatment (PHHT, tempering, 750 °C, 70 MPa, 2 hrs), and the W/FMS joining method was developed based on the ITER BFW and the test blanket module (TBM) development project from 2004 to the present. Using a 10-MHz-frequency flat-type probe to ultrasonically test of the joint, we found no defects in the fabricated mockups. For confirmation of the joint integrity, a high heat flux test will be performed up to the thermal lifetime of the mockup under the proper test conditions. These conditions were determined through a preliminary analysis with conventional codes such as ANSYS-CFX for thermal-hydraulic conditions considering the test facility, the Korea heat load test facility with an electron beam (KoHLT-EB), and its water coolant system at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI).

  17. Size limitations for microwave cavity to simulate heating of blanket material in fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, D.

    1987-01-01

    The power profile in the blanket material of a nuclear fusion reactor can be simulated by using microwaves at 200 MHz. Using these microwaves, ceramic breeder materials can be thermally tested to determine their acceptability as blanket materials without entering a nuclear fusion environment. A resonating cavity design is employed which can achieve uniform cross sectional heating in the plane transverse to the neutron flux. As the sample size increases in height and width, higher order modes, above the dominant mode, are propagated and destroy the approximation to the heating produced in a fusion reactor. The limits at which these modes develop are determined in the paper.

  18. Optimization of a variable flow allocation scheme in heterogeneous liquid-metal fast breeder reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tzanos, C.P.

    1981-12-01

    Maximum cladding temperatures in heterogeneous liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) can be reduced if the flow allocation between core and blanket assemblies is continuously varied during burnup. An analytical model has been developed that optimizes the time variation of the flow such that the reduction in maximum cladding temperatures is maximized. In addition, the concept of continuously varying the flow allocation between core and blanket assemblies has been evaluated for different fuel management schemes in a low sodium void reactivity 3000-MW heterogeneous LMFBR. This evaluation shows that the reduction in maximum cladding midwall temperatures is small ( about 10/sup 0/C) if the reactor is partially refueled at the end of each burnup cycle (cycle length of one year), and this reduction is increased to 20/sup 0/C if a straight burn fuel scheme is used with a core and internal blanket fuel residence time of two years.

  19. Numerical and experimental studies on thermal deformation of ceramic breeder pebble bed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Zhiyong

    The goal of this work is to develop modeling capabilities for understanding and predicting thermo-mechanical behavior of ceramic breeder pebble bed systems at elevated temperatures (600-800°C). The thermo-mechanical behavior of solid breeder pebble beds is a critical issue for the solid breeder blanket designs and is different from the behaviors of solid materials. The issue includes potential breakage of pebble materials and change in heat transfer characteristics across the breeder materials and cladding interface. Furthermore, at elevated temperatures, thermal creep deformation plays an uncertain role related to the contact stresses in the pebble beds. To understand these effects, the following efforts have been undertaken: First, experiments of a typical breeder blanket design have been conducted to study the thermal creep behaviors of the pebble bed system. Other than providing data for benchmarking numerical simulation, the experimental results show that the thermal deformation behaviors of typical pebble materials, such as Li2O and Li4SiO4 lithium ceramics, are nonlinear with respect to time and temperature. Under fixed temperatures (higher than 600°C), stresses generated from differential thermal expansion begin to decrease as a result of creep deformation. Second, a new numerical program, based on discrete element method (DEM), has been developed to simulate the fundamental mechanical behaviors of the packed pebble bed system. Considering the effects in a high temperature situation, inelastic contact models have been derived to predict thermal creep deformation. Our DEM program is mainly used to derive the effective mechanical constitutive equations for a pebble bed system. Besides that, it can provide the stress distribution inside the pebble bed and the force evolution related to the changes of boundary loadings. Last, a numerical program based on the finite element analysis (FEA) has been utilized to simulate the stress magnitude and deformation

  20. Tailorable Advanced Blanket Insulation (TABI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1987-01-01

    Single layer and multilayer insulating blankets for high-temperature service fabricated without sewing. TABI woven fabric made of aluminoborosilicate. Triangular-cross-section flutes of core filled with silica batting. Flexible blanket formed into curved shapes, providing high-temperature and high-heat-flux insulation.

  1. Mock-ups as "interactive laboratories": mixed methods research using inpatient unit room mock-ups.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Nicholas; Myers, Donald; Villasante, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    To establish evidence-based design (EBD) guidelines for inpatient rooms at Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities. Simulation allows clients, designers, and researchers to visualize how users might interact with a proposed design before actual construction of the design. This study used mock-ups as a simulation technique during a study of the VA inpatient room standards. The participants used the inpatient room mock-ups as "interactive laboratory" environments to maximize opportunities for participatory design, qualitative research, and quantitative research of project-specific EBD solutions. The research used questionnaires, scenarios, on-demand modifications, and observations to evaluate and confirm EBD solutions for inpatient room mock-ups. A total of 71 participants responded to a questionnaire administered across five mock-up work sessions. These 71 participants consisted of administrators, nurses, physicians, support staff, environment and maintenance staff, and patient and staff safety representatives from throughout the VA healthcare system. EBD solutions were tested, evaluated, and modified for each inpatient room type and were applicable to two or more of the inpatient room types. The latter included the location of patient beds and standard headwall position, technology and spaces for nurse charting activities, clearances (e.g., equipment, wheelchair, and bariatric patient), universal rooms, and patient and family amenities. Also, EBD solutions were tested, validated, and modified to the needs of each inpatient room. The mock-ups allowed researchers and designers to evaluate and confirm EBD solutions and strategies for the development of VA inpatient room standards. When used as a means for mixed-methods research, mock-ups can successfully integrate research and design during project-related work. EBD research using mock-ups not only addresses project- or organization-specific concerns, but it may contribute to the knowledge base of the

  2. Mockups of blanket cooling plates manufactured in different diffusion welding setups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weth, A. von der; Aktaa, J.

    2009-04-01

    The high amount of energy applied to the structural elements of a future fusion power plant results in the need of using plates with meandering cooling channels. Of the different proposals [J.-F. Salavy, G. Aiello, P. Aubert, L.V. Boccaccini, M. Daichendt, G. De Dinechin, E. Diegele, L.M. Giancarli, R. Lässer, H. Neuberger, Y. Poitevin, Y. Stephan, G. Rampal, E. Rigal, J. Nucl. Mater., 386-388 (2009) 922. [1

  3. Thermal insulating conformal blanket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barney, Andrea (Inventor); Whittington, Charles A (Inventor); Eilertson, Bryan (Inventor); Siminski, Zenon (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The conformal thermal insulating blanket may have generally rigid batting material covered by an outer insulating layer formed of a high temperature resistant woven ceramic material and an inner insulating layer formed of a woven ceramic fiber material. The batting and insulating layers may be fastened together by sewing or stitching using an outer mold layer thread fabricated of a high temperature resistant material and an inner mold layer thread of a ceramic fiber material. The batting may be formed to a composite structure that may have a firmness factor sufficient to inhibit a pillowing effect after the stitching to not more than 0.03 inch. The outer insulating layer and an upper portion of the batting adjacent the outer insulating layer may be impregnated with a ceramic coating material.

  4. NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL-BREEDER FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Currier, E.L. Jr.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1962-08-14

    A fuel-breeder fuel element was developed for a nuclear reactor wherein discrete particles of fissionable material are dispersed in a matrix of fertile breeder material. The fuel element combines the advantages of a dispersion type and a breeder-type. (AEC)

  5. UF6 breeder reactor power plants for electric power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, J. H.; Clement, J. D.; Hohl, F.

    1976-01-01

    The reactor concept analyzed is a U-233F6 core surrounded by a molten salt (Li(7)F, BeF2, ThF4) blanket. Nuclear survey calculations were carried out for both spherical and cylindrical geometries. Thermodynamic cycle calculations were performed for a variety of Rankine cycles. A conceptual design is presented along with a system layout for a 1000 MW stationary power plant. Advantages of the gas core breeder reactor (GCBR) are as follows: (1) high efficiency; (2) simplified on-line reprocessing; (3) inherent safety considerations; (4) high breeding ratio; (5) possibility of burning all or most of the long-lived nuclear waste actinides; and (6) possibility of extrapolating the technology to higher temperatures and MHD direct conversion.

  6. Tritium adsorption/release behaviour of advanced EU breeder pebbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Matthias H. H.; Rolli, Rolf; Knitter, Regina

    2017-06-01

    The tritium loading of current grades of advanced ceramic breeder pebbles with three different lithium orthosilicate (LOS)/lithium metatitanate (LMT) compositions (20-30 mol% LMT in LOS) and pebbles of EU reference material, was performed in a consistent way. The temperature dependent release of the introduced tritium was subsequently investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments to gain insight into the desorption characteristics. The obtained TPD data was decomposed into individual release mechanisms according to well-established desorption kinetics. The analysis showed that the pebble composition of the tested samples does not severely change the release behaviour. Yet, an increased content of lithium metatitanate leads to additional desorption peaks at medium temperatures. The majority of tritium is released by high temperature release mechanisms of chemisorbed tritium, while the release of physisorbed tritium is marginal in comparison. The results allow valuable projections for the tritium release behaviour in a fusion blanket.

  7. UF6 breeder reactor power plants for electric power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, J. H.; Clement, J. D.; Hohl, F.

    1976-01-01

    The reactor concept analyzed is a U-233F6 core surrounded by a molten salt (Li(7)F, BeF2, ThF4) blanket. Nuclear survey calculations were carried out for both spherical and cylindrical geometries. Thermodynamic cycle calculations were performed for a variety of Rankine cycles. A conceptual design is presented along with a system layout for a 1000 MW stationary power plant. Advantages of the gas core breeder reactor (GCBR) are as follows: (1) high efficiency; (2) simplified on-line reprocessing; (3) inherent safety considerations; (4) high breeding ratio; (5) possibility of burning all or most of the long-lived nuclear waste actinides; and (6) possibility of extrapolating the technology to higher temperatures and MHD direct conversion.

  8. First wall structural analysis of the aqueous self-cooled blanket concept

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, D.A.; Steiner, D.; Embrechts, M.J.; Deutch, L.; Gierszewski, P.

    1986-11-01

    A recently proposed blanket concept using water coolant with dissolved lithium compounds for breeding employs water cooled first walls. Water cooled first walls for blankets have also been proposed for some solid breeder blankets. Design options for water cooled first walls are examined in this paper. Four geometries and three materials are analyzed for water coolant at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi). Maximum neutron wall loads (with surface heat loads being 25% of neutron wall load) are determined for each geometry and material combination. Of the materials studied, only vanadium alloy is found to be capable of withstanding high wall loads (>10MW/m/sup 2/ neutron and >2.5 MW/m/sup 2/ heat).

  9. Sonically-Welded Thermal Blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bettini, R.; Citrin, F.

    1985-01-01

    Insulating layers joined by seams. Sonic welding saves time and reduces weight. Layers of blanket built up from alternating layers of polyester sheet and polyester net. Paper pattern showing lines along which layers are joined together placed over top layer.

  10. Feasibility study of a fission-suppressed tokamak fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.S.; Berwald, D.H.; Garner, J.K.; Whitley, R.H.; Ghoniem, N.; Wong, C.P.C.; Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.

    1984-12-01

    The preliminary conceptual design of a tokamak fissile fuel producer is described. The blanket technology is based on the fission suppressed breeding concept where neutron multiplication occurs in a bed of 2 cm diameter beryllium pebbles which are cooled by helium at 50 atmospheres pressure. Uranium-233 is bred in thorium metal fuel elements which are in the form of snap rings attached to each beryllium pebble. Tritium is bred in lithium bearing material contained in tubes immersed in the pebble bed and is recovered by a purge flow of helium. The neutron wall load is 3 MW/m/sup 2/ and the blanket material is ferritic steel. The net fissile breeding ratio is 0.54 +- 30% per fusion reaction. This results in the production of 4900 kg of /sup 233/U per year from 3000 MW of fusion power. This quantity of fuel will provide makeup fuel for about 12 LWRs of equal thermal power or about 18 1 GW/sub e/ LWRs. The calculated cost of the produced uranium-233 is between $23/g and $53/g or equivalent to $10/kg to $90/kg of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ depending on government financing or utility financing assumptions. Additional topics discussed in the report include the tokamak operating mode (both steady state and long pulse considered), the design and breeding implications of using a poloidal divertor for impurity control, reactor safety, the choice of a tritium breeder, and fuel management.

  11. Technicians assembly the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mockup at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    At JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A, technicians install a high gain antenna (HGA) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mockup. On the ground a technician operates the controls for the overhead crane that is lifting the HGA into place on the Support System Module (SSM) forward shell. Others in a cherry picker basket wait for the HGA to near its final position so they can secure it on the mockup.

  12. Neutronic analysis of graphite-moderated solid breeder design for INTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, J.; Abdou, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    An in-depth analysis of the INTOR tritium-production-blanket design is presented. A ternary system of solid silicate breeder, lead neutron multiplier, and graphite moderator is explored primary from safety and blanket tritium-inventory considerations. Lithium-silicate (Li/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/) breeder systems are studied along with water (H/sub 2/O/D/sub 2/O) and Type 316 stainless steel as coolant and structural material, respectively. The analysis examines the neutronics effects on tritium-production regarding: (1) coolant choice; (2) moderator choice; (3) moderator location; (4) multiplier thickness; (5) /sup 6/Li enrichment; and (6) /sup 6/Li burnup. The tritium-breeding-blanket modules are located at the top, outboard, and bottom (outer) parts of the torus, resulting in a breeding coverage of approx. 60% at the first-wall surface. It is found that the reference INTOR design yields, based on a three-dimensional analysis, a net tritium breeding ratio (BR) of approx. 0.65 at the beginning of reactor operation, satisfying the design criterion of BR > 0.6.

  13. Lunar/Mars Surface Habitat Mockups Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tri, Terry O.; Daues, Katherine R.

    2005-01-01

    Surface habitats play a centric role with respect to integration of the crew operations and supporting surface systems for external operations on the moon and Mars. Up to now the only planetary surface habitat NASA has ever developed is the 2-person, 3-day duration Lunar Module from the 1960 s-era Apollo Program. Today s National Vision for Space Exploration pushes far beyond the safety, performance and operational requirements of the Lunar Module, and NASA needs to develop a basis for making habitat design decisions Experience has shown that using mockups very early in a project s life cycle is extremely beneficial, providing data that influences requirements for human design, volumetrics, functionality, systems hardware and operations. Evaluating and comparing a variety of habitat configurations will provide NASA with a cost-effective basis for trades to support lunar and Martian habitat design selection. This paper describes the NASA project that recently has been created to undertake the development and evaluation of a series of planetary surface habitat mockups. This project is in direct response to the Advanced Space Platforms and Systems (ASPS) Element Program s request for novel systems approaches for robust and reconfigurable habitation systems.

  14. Lunar/Mars Surface Habitat Mockups Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tri, Terry O.; Daues, Katherine R.

    2005-01-01

    Surface habitats play a centric role with respect to integration of the crew operations and supporting surface systems for external operations on the moon and Mars. Up to now the only planetary surface habitat NASA has ever developed is the 2-person, 3-day duration Lunar Module from the 1960 s-era Apollo Program. Today s National Vision for Space Exploration pushes far beyond the safety, performance and operational requirements of the Lunar Module, and NASA needs to develop a basis for making habitat design decisions Experience has shown that using mockups very early in a project s life cycle is extremely beneficial, providing data that influences requirements for human design, volumetrics, functionality, systems hardware and operations. Evaluating and comparing a variety of habitat configurations will provide NASA with a cost-effective basis for trades to support lunar and Martian habitat design selection. This paper describes the NASA project that recently has been created to undertake the development and evaluation of a series of planetary surface habitat mockups. This project is in direct response to the Advanced Space Platforms and Systems (ASPS) Element Program s request for novel systems approaches for robust and reconfigurable habitation systems.

  15. Fusion Blanket Coolant Section Criteria, Methodology, and Results

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, J. A.; Meier, W. R.; Jolodosky, A.; Frantoni, M.; Reyes, S.

    2015-10-02

    The focus of this LDRD was to explore potential Li alloys that would meet the tritium breeding and blanket cooling requirements but with reduced chemical reactivity, while maintaining the other attractive features of pure Li breeder/coolant. In other fusion approaches (magnetic fusion energy or MFE), 17Li- 83Pb alloy is used leveraging Pb’s ability to maintain high TBR while lowering the levels of lithium in the system. Unfortunately this alloy has a number of potential draw-backs. Due to the high Pb content, this alloy suffers from very high average density, low tritium solubility, low system energy, and produces undesirable activation products in particular polonium. The criteria considered in the selection of a tritium breeding alloy are described in the following section.

  16. Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup 2008 Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles S.; Litaker, Harry L.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the LER is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G LER mockup and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the aft bulkhead mockup test results from Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. Refer to 39th International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) for test results of the EU. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the LER cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the LER cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

  17. Suit Port Aft Bulkhead Mockup Test Results and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romig, Barbara A.; Allton, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Small Pressurized Rover (SPR) is currently being carried as an integral part of the current Lunar Surface Architectures under consideration in the Constellation program. One element of the SPR is the suit port, the means by which the crew performs Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: an aft bulkhead mockup for functional integrated testing with the 1-G SPR mockup and a functional and pressurizable engineering unit. This paper focuses on the test results and lessons learned on the aft bulkhead mockup. The suit port aft bulkhead mockup was integrated with the mockup of the SPR cabin and chassis. It is located on the aft bulkhead of the SPR cabin structure and includes hatches, a locking mechanism, seals, interior and exterior suit don/doff aids, and exterior platforms to accommodate different crewmember heights. A lightweight mockup of the Mark III suit was tested with the suit port aft bulkhead mockup. There are several limitations to the suit port and mockup suits, and results of the suit port evaluation are presented and interpreted within the context of the limitations.

  18. Lithium Ceramic Blankets for Russian Fusion Reactors and Influence of Breeding Operation Mode on Parameters of Reactor Tritium Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kapyshev, Victor K.; Chernetsov, Mikhail Yu.; Zhevotov, Sergej I.; Kersnovskij, Alexandr Yu.; Kolbasov, Boris N.; Kovalenko, Victor G.; Paltusov, Nikolaj P.; Sernyaev, Georgeij A.; Sterebkov, Juri S.; Zyryanov, Alexej P.

    2005-07-15

    Russian controlled fusion program supposes development of a DEMO reactor design and participation in ITER Project. A solid breeder blanket of DEMO contains a ceramic lithium orthosilicate breeder and a beryllium multiplier. Test modules of the blanket are developed within the scope of ITER activities. Experimental models of module tritium breeding zones (TBZ), materials and fabrication technology of the TBZ, tritium reactor systems to analyse and process gas released from lithium ceramics are being developed. Two models of tritium breeding and neutron multiplying elements of the TBZ have been designed, manufactured and tested in IVV-2M nuclear reactor. Initial results of the in-pile experiments and outcome of lithium ceramics irradiation in a water-graphite nuclear reactor are considered to be a data base for development of the test modules and initial requirements for DEMO tritium system design. Influence of the tritium release parameters and hydrogen concentration in a purge gas on parameters of reactor system are discussed.

  19. Special topics reports for the reference tandem mirror fusion breeder: beryllium lifetime assessment. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.G.; Beeston, J.M.; Harris, B.L.; Wong, C.P.C.

    1984-10-01

    The lifetime of beryllium pebbles in the Reference Tandem Mirror Fusion Breeder blanket is estimated on the basis of the maximum stress generated in the pebbles. The forces due to stacking height, lithium flow, and the internal stresses due to thermal expansion and differential swelling are considered. The total stresses are calculated for three positions in the blanket, at a first wall neutron wall loading of 1.3 MW/m/sup 2/. These positions are: (a) near the first fuel zone wall, (b) near the center, and (c) near the back wall. The average lifetime of the pebbles is estimated to be 6.5 years. The specific estimated lifetimes are 2.4 years, 5.4 years, and 15 years for the first fuel zone wall, center and near the back wall, respectively.

  20. Accelerator breeders: will they replace liquid metal fast breeders

    SciTech Connect

    Grand, P.; Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.; Takahashi, H.

    1983-06-01

    Investigation of accelerator breeders at Brookhaven National Laboratory indicate that the AB-LWR fuel cycle is economically competitive with the LMFBR fuel cycle. The same can be said about the accelerator breeder-High Temperature Gas Reactor symbiosis. This system appears to be very competitive with the added real advantage of superior safety and proliferation resistance. This discussion would be incomplete if the real competitor to accelerator breeding was not mentioned, namely Fusion Hybrid Breeding (FHB). Fusion Hybrid Breeding is a nearer option than pure fusion, as the breakeven Q value requirements are much more modest. Fusion Hybrid Breeding, if successful and practical, has the potential for highly efficient fissile fuel breeding, leading to cheaper fuel. The system, however, has yet to be demonstrated scientifically and to be shown commercially feasible. This is in contrast with the AB system which is an extension of proven, state-of-the-art technology with implementation possible within twenty years. 25 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  1. Neutronics and shielding results of the U.S. ITER blanket trade-off study

    SciTech Connect

    Sawan, M.E.; El-Guebaly, L.A.

    1994-12-31

    The first formal phase of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project was the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) which was conducted from May 1988 until December 1990. The CDA blanket utilized Li{sub 2}O solid breeder, beryllium neutron multiplier, 316 SS structure and low temperature water coolant. The ITER project embarked on a new phase called the Engineering Design Activity (EDA) which started in July 1992. A variety of blanket design options have been considered since the start of the EDA. The US ITER home team started a blanket option trade-off-study (BOTS) in May 1993. The options considered included a self-cooled Li/V option, ferritic steel designs with helium cooled first wall and liquid metal (Li or LiPb) cooled blanket, the CDA design option, and a water cooled 316/SS nonbreeding shield option. Detailed neutronics and shielding analysis have been performed for the different ITER blanket design options considered in this study. The shielding performance was determined for these options and inboard shielding space requirements were compared. Peak first wall (FW) nuclear performance parameters were calculated in addition to power density distribution in the blanket required for the thermal hydraulics calculations. Peak vacuum vessel (VV) nuclear performance parameters have also been determined. The overall tritium breeding ratio (TBR) was determined for each of the design options. A double wall Inconel 625 VV is used with water cooled 316 SS balls. For the design options with liquid metal in the blanket, the use of tungsten carbide balls cooled by NaK is considered. The minimum total thickness of FW/B/S/W is maintained at 1 m in the inboard region.

  2. COUPLED FAST-THERMAL POWER BREEDER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Avery, R.

    1961-07-18

    A nuclear reactor having a region operating predominantly on fast neutrons and another region operating predominantly on slow neutrons is described. The fast region is a plutonium core and the slow region is a natural uranium blanket around the core. Both of these regions are free of moderator. A moderating reflector surrounds the uranium blanket. The moderating material and thickness of the reflector are selected so that fissions in the uranium blanket make a substantial contribution to the reactivity of the reactor.

  3. Foreign Blanket Orders: Precedent and practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedgeworth, Robert

    1970-01-01

    This investigation based upon a survey of 26 American and West European booksellers attemts to provide some basic information about foreign blanket orders. The characteristics of foreign blanket orders as well as the attitudes of the booksellers are summarized. (Author)

  4. 47 CFR 22.353 - Blanketing interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... are not required to resolve blanketing interference to mobile receivers or non-RF devices or... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES... Public Mobile Services stations are responsible for resolving cases of blanketing interference...

  5. Radial blanket assembly orificing arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Patterson, J.F.

    1975-07-01

    A nuclear reactor core for a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor is described in which means are provided for increasing the coolant flow through the reactor fuel assemblies as the reactor ages by varying the coolant flow rate with the changing coolant requirements during the core operating lifetime. (auth)

  6. [Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pig breeders and cattle breeders].

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E; Beaujean, D J M A

    2006-08-05

    It was recently observed that pig breeders in The Netherlands often carry methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA). These MRSA strains are related to MRSA strains found in pigs. A case-control study showed that not only pig breeders but also cattle breeders are at risk of carrying MRSA. It is advised to keep pig breeders, if they are admitted to a hospital, in isolation until surveillance cultures are proven negative. This also applies to veterinarians and slaughterhouse personnel. For cattle breeders screening without isolation on admission to a hospital is sufficient.

  7. Corrosion testing of laser welded sleeve mockups

    SciTech Connect

    Leasure, R.A.; Gold, R.E.; Jacko, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    A laser welded sleeving technique is used by Westinghouse to restore degraded PWR steam generator tubes to a condition that permits the continued safe operation of the steam generator. Prior to installing laser welded sleeves in operating steam generators, it was necessary to qualify the installation processes and to verify that the sleeved tubes had acceptable resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the steam generator operating environment. Verification of the stress corrosion cracking resistance of sleeved tubes in an operating PWR plant was obtained through accelerated corrosion tests. The tests were performed on mockups of tubes sleeved by laser welding using prototypic field equipment and procedures. The SCC tests were conducted in autoclaves operated at 400 C with the ID of the sleeve and the ID of the tube exposed to a doped steam plus hydrogen environment that promotes cracking in materials with low resistance to primary water stress corrosion cracking. Tests were performed on sleeved samples stress relieved in the range of 760 to 871C as required by the sleeving process specifications, on samples stress relieved at temperatures below and above the specified range, and on sleeved samples without stress relief. SCC tests were also performed on mockups of the tube-to-tubesheet roll transition expansions. The stress corrosion cracking test results for the laser welded tubes stress relieved in the 760 to 871 C range verified that the sleeved tubes have acceptable SCC resistance at the operating conditions of the steam generator. Performance of the sleeves in these tests supported the installation of laser welded sleeves to permit continued operation of the steam generators.

  8. Analysis of Photogrammetry Data from ISIM Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Maria; Hill, Mike

    2007-01-01

    During ground testing of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the ISIM Optics group plans to use a Photogrammetry Measurement System for cryogenic calibration of specific target points on the ISIM composite structure and Science Instrument optical benches and other GSE equipment. This testing will occur in the Space Environmental Systems (SES) chamber at Goddard Space Flight Center. Close range photogrammetry is a 3 dimensional metrology system using triangulation to locate custom targets in 3 coordinates via a collection of digital photographs taken from various locations and orientations. These photos are connected using coded targets, special targets that are recognized by the software and can thus correlate the images to provide a 3 dimensional map of the targets, and scaled via well calibrated scale bars. Photogrammetry solves for the camera location and coordinates of the targets simultaneously through the bundling procedure contained in the V-STARS software, proprietary software owned by Geodetic Systems Inc. The primary objectives of the metrology performed on the ISIM mock-up were (1) to quantify the accuracy of the INCA3 photogrammetry camera on a representative full scale version of the ISIM structure at ambient temperature by comparing the measurements obtained with this camera to measurements using the Leica laser tracker system and (2), empirically determine the smallest increment of target position movement that can be resolved by the PG camera in the test setup, i.e., precision, or resolution. In addition, the geometrical details of the test setup defined during the mockup testing, such as target locations and camera positions, will contribute to the final design of the photogrammetry system to be used on the ISIM Flight Structure.

  9. Breeder Reactors, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Walter, III; Turner, Stanley E.

    The theory of breeder reactors in relationship to a discussion of fission is presented. Different kinds of reactors are characterized by the cooling fluids used, such as liquid metal, gas, and molten salt. The historical development of breeder reactors over the past twenty-five years includes specific examples of reactors. The location and a brief…

  10. Normal operation and maintenance safety lessons from the ITER US PbLi test blanket module program for a US FNSF and DEMO

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; C. P. C. Wong; M. Abdou; B. B. Morely; B.J Merrill

    2014-10-01

    A leading power reactor breeding blanket candidate for a fusion demonstration power plant (DEMO) being pursued by the US Fusion Community is the Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) concept. The safety hazards associated with the DCLL concept as a reactor blanket have been examined in several US design studies. These studies identify the largest radiological hazards as those associated with the dust generation by plasma erosion of plasma blanket module first walls, oxidation of blanket structures at high temperature in air or steam, inventories of tritium bred in or permeating through the ferritic steel structures of the blanket module and blanket support systems, and the 210Po and 203Hg produced in the PbLi breeder/coolant. What these studies lack is the scrutiny associated with a licensing review of the DCLL concept. An insight into this process was gained during the US participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Test Blanket Module (TBM) Program. In this paper we discuss the lessons learned during this activity and make safety proposals for the design of a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) or a DEMO that employs a lead lithium breeding blanket.

  11. Fast breeder reactor protection system

    DOEpatents

    van Erp, J.B.

    1973-10-01

    Reactor protection is provided for a liquid-metal-fast breeder reactor core by measuring the coolant outflow temperature from each of the subassemblies of the core. The outputs of the temperature sensors from a subassembly region of the core containing a plurality of subassemblies are combined in a logic circuit which develops a scram alarm if a predetermined number of the sensors indicate an over temperature condition. The coolant outflow from a single subassembly can be mixed with the coolant outflow from adjacent subassemblies prior to the temperature sensing to increase the sensitivity of the protection system to a single subassembly failure. Coherence between the sensors can be required to discriminate against noise signals. (Official Gazette)

  12. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    DOEpatents

    Capossela, Harry J.; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Luce, Robert G.; McCoy, Daniel F.; Merriman, Floyd C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  13. Design of the waveguide for microwave heating of solid lithium ceramic blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Kustom, R.L.; Fendley, P.; Tidona, J.

    1985-01-01

    A description is given of the design of a dielectric-loaded waveguide for thermohydraulic testing of solid ceramic tritium breeder material in a non-nuclear environment. The dielectric-loaded waveguide provides uniform heating over module surfaces that would face a fusion reactor plasma and simulates the exponential power decay characteristic of the neutron flux over the high power region of the blankets. A 200-MHz design suitable for modules with cross section of up to 20 x 40 cm is presented.

  14. Boeing CST-100 Mock-Up Undergoes Airbag Stabilization Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Boeing Company's mock-up CST-100 spacecraft was put through water landing development tests Oct. 1-5, 2012, at Bigelow Aerospace's headquarters outside of Las Vegas. Engineers with Bigelow have...

  15. Environmental Control and Life Support System Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This photograph shows the mockup of the the ECLSS to be installed in the Node 3 module of the ISS. From left to right, shower rack, waste management rack, Water Recovery System (WRS) Rack #2, WRS Rack #1, and Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack are shown. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters and is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA. The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. The OGS produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen loss. The OGS is comprised of a cell stack, which electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the WRS, and the separators that remove the gases from the water after electrolysis.

  16. Environmental Control and Life Support System Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This photograph shows the mockup of the the ECLSS to be installed in the Node 3 module of the ISS. From left to right, shower rack, waste management rack, Water Recovery System (WRS) Rack #2, WRS Rack #1, and Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack are shown. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters and is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA. The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. The OGS produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen loss. The OGS is comprised of a cell stack, which electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the WRS, and the separators that remove the gases from the water after electrolysis.

  17. Universal Fast Breeder Reactor Subassembly Counter manual

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.W.; Swansen, J.E.; Goris, P.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Ramalho, A.

    1984-08-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the measurement of fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies. This assay system can accommodate the full range of geometries and masses found in fast breeder subassemblies under IAEA safeguards. The system's high-performance capability accommodates high plutonium loadings of up to 16 kg. This manual describes the system and its operation and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications.

  18. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Chi, John W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  19. Toughened Thermal Blanket for MMOD Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal blankets are used extensively on spacecraft to provide passive thermal control of spacecraft hardware from thermal extremes encountered in space. Toughened thermal blankets have been developed that greatly improve protection from hypervelocity micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts. These blankets can be outfitted if so desired with a reliable means to determine the location, depth and extent of MMOD impact damage by incorporating an impact sensitive piezoelectric film. Improved MMOD protection of thermal blankets was obtained by adding selective materials at various locations within the thermal blanket. As given in Figure 1, three types of materials were added to the thermal blanket to enhance its MMOD performance: (1) disrupter layers, near the outside of the blanket to improve breakup of the projectile, (2) standoff layers, in the middle of the blanket to provide an area or gap that the broken-up projectile can expand, and (3) stopper layers, near the back of the blanket where the projectile debris is captured and stopped. The best suited materials for these different layers vary. Density and thickness is important for the disrupter layer (higher densities generally result in better projectile breakup), whereas a highstrength to weight ratio is useful for the stopper layer, to improve the slowing and capture of debris particles.

  20. Psychosomatic effects of blanketing in nursing care.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Namiji; Fukai, Kiyoko

    2017-04-01

    Blanketing, which involves covering patients with a blanket in order to maintain their body temperature and privacy and help alleviate the stress that is associated with medical procedures, is a fundamental skill in nursing care. However, the actual therapeutic effects of blanketing have not been adequately investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the psychosomatic effects of blanketing in nursing care by observing autonomic nervous activity. This single-cohort, intra-participant, comparative cross-over study included 30 healthy female adolescents. Two of the 30 participants were excluded from the analysis. After splitting the participants into blanketing and non-blanketing groups, the stress and anxiety that patients undergo during nursing care was simulated and the responses were analyzed by using psychological and physiological indicators. The parametric data were analyzed by using a paired t-test or one-way ANOVA and the non-parametric data were analyzed by using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The significance level was <5%. No significant difference was seen between the two groups in vital signs, salivary alpha-amylase activity, respiratory movement or skin surface temperature. However, the postintervention scores for "Tension-Anxiety" in the Profile of Mood States - Brief Form were significantly lower for the blanketed than the non-blanketed arm, "sense of ease" and "feeling protected" were significantly higher for the blanketed arm, and in the middle intervention segment, the parasympathetic nervous activity and sympathetic nervous activity were significantly higher and lower, respectively, for the blanketed arm. These results suggest that blanketing is effective in relieving psychological stress and promoting a sense of ease among patients who are receiving nursing care. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  1. High heat flux test with HIP-bonded Ferritic Martensitic Steel mock-up for the first wall of the KO HCML TBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won Lee, Dong; Dug Bae, Young; Kwon Kim, Suk; Yun Shin, Hee; Guen Hong, Bong; Cheol Bang, In

    2011-10-01

    In order for a Korean Helium Cooled Molten Lithium (HCML) Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be tested in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), fabrication method for the TBM FW such as Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP, 1050 °C, 100 MPa, 2 h) has been developed including post HIP heat treatment (PHHT, normalizing at 950 °C for 2 h and tempering at 750 °C for 2 h) with Ferritic Martensitic Steel (FMS). Several mock-ups were fabricated using the developed methods and one of them, three-channel mock-up, was used for performing a High Heat Flux (HHF) test to verify the joint integrity. Test conditions were determined using the commercial code, ANSYS-11, and the test was performed in the Korea Heat Load Test (KoHLT) facility, which was used a radiation heating with a graphite heater. The mock-up survived up to 1000 cycles under 1.0 MW/m 2 heat flux and there is no delamination or failure during the test.

  2. Nuclear-radiation-actuated valve. [Patent application; for increasing coolant flow to blanket

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Schively, D.P.

    1982-01-19

    The present invention relates to a breeder reactor blanket fuel assembly coolant system valve which increases coolant flow to the blanket fuel assembly to minimize long-term temperature increases caused by fission of fissile fuel created from fertile fuel through operation of the breeder reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  3. Building 9 ISS mock-ups and trainers

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-08-02

    Photographic documentation showing the bldg. 9 ISS module mock-ups and trainers. Views include: various overall views of the configuration of the ISS module trainers on the floor of bldg. 9 (08445-46, 08449-51, 08458-61, 08464-65, 08469, 08471, 08476); various portions of the mock-ups (08447-48, 08470); views of the Node 2, Experiment Module and Logistics Module (08452); Node 2 (08453, 08466); Destiny and Node 2 (08454); Destiny, Unity and Airlock (08455); Zarya, Service Module and shuttle mock-ups (08456); Logistics Module and Experiment Module (08457, 08468); various views of Columbia, Node 2 and Destiny (08462-63); Columbus, Node 2, Experiment Module and Logistics Module (08467); U.S. Laboratory module (08472); Logistics Module (08473); module layout (08474); Logistics Module and Experiment Module (08475).

  4. Flow excursion experiments with a production reactor assembly mockup

    SciTech Connect

    Rush, G.C.; Blake, J.E. ); Nash, C.A. )

    1990-01-01

    A series of power ramp and loss-of-coolant accidents were simulated with an electrically heated mockup of a Savannah River Site production reactor assembly. The one-to-one scale mockup had full multichannel annular geometry in its heated section in addition to prototypical inlet and outlet endfitting hardware. Power levels causing void generation and flow instability in the water coolant flowing through the mockup were found under different transient and quasi-steady state test conditions. A reasonably sharp boundary between initial operating powers leading to or not leading to flow instability were found: that being 0.2 MW or less on power levels of 4 to 6.3 MW. Void generation occurred before, but close to, the point of flow instability. The data were taken in support of the Savannah River reactor limits program and will be used in continuing code benchmarking efforts. 6 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Accelerator breeder with uranium, thorium target

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, H.; Powell, J.; Kouts, H.

    1983-01-01

    An accelerator breeder, that uses a low-enriched fuel as the target material, can produce substantial amounts of fissile material and electric power. A study of H/sub 2/O- and D/sub 2/O-cooled, UO/sub 2/, U, (depleted U), or thorium indicates that U-metal fuel produces a good fissile production rate and electrical power of about 60% higher than UO/sub 2/ fuel. Thorium fuel has the same order of magnitude as UO/sub 2/ fuel for fissile-fuel production, but the generating electric power is substantially lower than in a UO/sub 2/ reactor. Enriched UO/sub 2/ fuel increases the generating electric power but not the fissile-material production rate. The Na-cooled breeder target has many advantages over the H/sub 2/O-cooled breeder target.

  6. Astronauts Weitz and Bobko log some training time in flight deck mock-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Astronauts Paul J. Weitz, right, and Karol J. Bobko log some training time in the flight deck of the engineering mockup for the Space Shuttle orbiter in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory. Both are wearing flight suits and helmets.

  7. Evaluation of nutrient specifications for broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Wilson, H R; Harms, R H

    1984-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if previously suggested nutrient requirements of broiler breeders (23 g protein, 850 mg sulfur amino acids, 4.5 g calcium, and 750 mg phosphorus/bird/day) are in excess and could be reduced during the laying period. In Experiment 1, Cobb color-sex broiler breeders were fed daily nutrient allowances that were 100.0, 96.3, 92.5, 89.4, and 86.6% of the suggested requirements. In Experiment 2, Cobb feather-sex breeders were fed daily allowances that were 92.5, 89.4, 86.6, 83.4, and 80.9% of the suggested requirements. Birds on all diets were fed the same energy level; however, energy varied with season to maintain body weight. Egg production, fertility, hatchability, egg weight, and shell quality were not significantly affected by the reductions in nutrient intake in either experiment. The diet with the lowest nutrient level (80.9% of the suggested requirement) was adequate, indicating a considerable margin of safety for the stated requirements. Body weight was quite variable but tended to decrease with nutrient restriction. Weights of broilers hatched from treated breeders were not significantly affected at 49 days of age by the breeder dietary treatments. These results indicate that broiler breeder diets formulated to meet presently suggested requirements have a large margin of safety and a reduction of specifications by approximately 10% is suggested. The revised daily intakes recommended are: 20.6 g protein, 754 mg sulfur amino acids, 400 mg methionine, 938 mg lysine, 1379 mg arginine, 256 mg tryptophan, 4.07 g calcium, 683 mg total phosphorus, and 170 mg sodium.

  8. Neutronics Comparison Analysis of the Water Cooled Ceramics Breeding Blanket for CFETR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Xiaokang; Gao, Fangfang; Pu, Yong

    2016-02-01

    China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is an ITER-like fusion engineering test reactor that is intended to fill the scientific and technical gaps between ITER and DEMO. One of the main missions of CFETR is to achieve a tritium breeding ratio that is no less than 1.2 to ensure tritium self-sufficiency. A concept design for a water cooled ceramics breeding blanket (WCCB) is presented based on a scheme with the breeder and the multiplier located in separate panels for CFETR. Based on this concept, a one-dimensional (1D) radial built breeding blanket was first designed, and then several three-dimensional models were developed with various neutron source definitions and breeding blanket module arrangements based on the 1D radial build. A set of nuclear analyses have been carried out to compare the differences in neutronics characteristics given by different calculation models, addressing neutron wall loading (NWL), tritium breeding ratio (TBR), fast neutron flux on inboard side and nuclear heating deposition on main in-vessel components. The impact of differences in modeling on the nuclear performance has been analyzed and summarized regarding the WCCB concept design. supported by the National Special Project for Magnetic Confined Nuclear Fusion Energy (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000, and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  9. ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    WONG, CPC; MALANG, S; NISHIO, S; RAFFRAY, R; SAGARA, S

    2002-04-01

    OAK A271 ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS. First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability.

  10. Helium-Cooled Refractory Alloys First Wall and Blanket Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.P.C.; Nygren, R.E.; Baxi, C.B.; Fogarty, P.; Ghoniem, N.; Khater, H.; McCarthy, K.; Merrill, B.; Nelson, B.; Reis, E.E.; Sharafat, S.; Schleicher, R.; Sze, D.K.; Ulrickson, M.; Willms, S.; Youssef, M.; Zinkel, S.

    1999-08-01

    Under the APEX program the He-cooled system design task is to evaluate and recommend high power density refractory alloy first wall and blanket designs and to recommend and initiate tests to address critical issues. We completed the preliminary design of a helium-cooled, W-5Re alloy, lithium breeder design and the results are reported in this paper. Many areas of the design were assessed, including material selection, helium impurity control, and mechanical, nuclear and thermal hydraulics design, and waste disposal, tritium and safety design. System study results show that at a closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) gross thermal efficiency of 57.5%, a superconducting coil tokamak reactor, with an aspect ratio of 4, and an output power of 2 GWe, can be projected to have a cost of electricity at 54.6 mill/kWh. Critical issues were identified and we plan to continue the design on some of the critical issues during the next phase of the APEX design study.

  11. Final Report: Characterization of Canister Mockup Weld Residual Stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Enos, David; Bryan, Charles R.

    2016-12-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of interim storage containers has been indicated as a high priority data gap by the Department of Energy (DOE) (Hanson et al., 2012), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI, 2011), the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board (NWTRB, 2010a), and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, 2012a, 2012b). Uncertainties exist in terms of the environmental conditions that prevail on the surface of the storage containers, the stress state within the container walls associated both with weldments as well as within the base metal itself, and the electrochemical properties of the storage containers themselves. The goal of the work described in this document is to determine the stress states that exists at various locations within a typical storage canister by evaluating the properties of a full-diameter cylindrical mockup of an interim storage canister. This mockup has been produced using the same manufacturing procedures as the majority of the fielded spent nuclear fuel interim storage canisters. This document describes the design and procurement of the mockup and the characterization of the stress state associated with various portions of the container. It also describes the cutting of the mockup into sections for further analyses, and a discussion of the potential impact of the results from the stress characterization effort.

  12. Astronaut Curtis Brown on flight deck mockup during training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Curtis L. Brown, STS-66 pilot, mans the pilot's station during a rehearsal of procedures to be followed during the launch and entry phases of their scheduled November 1994 flight. This rehearsal, held in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) of JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory, was followed by a training session on emergency egress procedures.

  13. The conversion of a room temperature NaK loop to a high temperature MHD facility for Li/V blanket testing

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, C.B.; Haglund, R.C.; Miller, M.E.; Nasiatka, J.R.; Kirillov, I.R.; Ogorodnikov, A.P.; Preslitski, G.V.; Goloubovitch, G.P.; Xu, Zeng Yu

    1996-12-31

    The Vanadium/Lithium system has been the recent focus of ANL`s Blanket Technology Pro-ram, and for the last several years, ANL`s Liquid Metal Blanket activities have been carried out in direct support of the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) breeding blanket task area. A key feasibility issue for the ITER Vanadium/Lithium breeding blanket is the Near the development of insulator coatings. Design calculations, Hua and Gohar, show that an electrically insulating layer is necessary to maintain an acceptably low magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop in the current ITER design. Consequently, the decision was made to convert Argonne`s Liquid Metal EXperiment (ALEX) from a 200{degrees}C NaK facility to a 350{degrees}C lithium facility. The upgraded facility was designed to produce MHD pressure drop data, test section voltage distributions, and heat transfer data for mid-scale test sections and blanket mockups at Hartmann numbers (M) and interaction parameters (N) in the range of 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5} in lithium at 350{degrees}C. Following completion of the upgrade work, a short performance test was conducted, followed by two longer multiple-hour, MHD tests, all at 230{degrees}C. The modified ALEX facility performed up to expectations in the testing. MHD pressure drop and test section voltage distributions were collected at Hartmann numbers of 1000.

  14. Conversion of a room temperature NaK loop to a high temperature MHD facility for Li/V blanket testing

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, C.B.; Haglund, R.C.; Miller, M.E.; Nasiatka, J.R.; Kirillov, I.R.; Ogorodnikov, A.P.; Preslitski, G.V.; Goloubovitch, G.P.; Xu, Z.Y.

    1996-12-31

    The Vanadium/Lithium system has been the recent focus of ANL`s Blanket Technology Program, and for the last several years, ANL`s Liquid Metal Blanket activities have been carried out in direct support of the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) breeding blanket task area. A key feasibility issue for the ITER Vanadium/Lithium breeding blanket is the development of insulator coatings. Design calculations, Hua and Gohar, show that an electrically insulating layer is necessary to maintain an acceptably low magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop in the current ITER design. Consequently, the decision was made to convert Argonne`s Liquid Metal EXperiment (ALEX) from a 200{degree}C NaK facility to a 350{degree}C lithium facility. The upgraded facility was designed to produce MHD pressure drop data, test section voltage distributions, and heat transfer data for mid-scale test sections and blanket mockups at Hartmann numbers (M) and interaction parameters (N) in the range of 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5} in lithium at 350{degree}C. Following completion of the upgrade work, a short performance test was conducted, followed by two longer, multiple-hour, MHD tests, all at 230{degree}C. The modified ALEX facility performed up to expectations in the testing. MHD pressure drop and test section voltage distributions were collected at Hartmann numbers of 1000. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  15. The materials of fast breeder reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Donald R.

    1980-02-01

    The most difficult problems affecting commercialization of the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) concern the behavior of its materials of construction in the thermal and irradiation environment in which the device must operate. The responses which these conditions provoke in the fuel, cladding, and core structures depend upon complex interactions of many physical and chemical processes.

  16. Isotopic Tailoring to Improve the Breeding Capability of the Sn-Li Eutectic in Liquid First Wall Fusion Blanket Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Youssef, Mahmoud Z.

    2003-09-15

    Due to its low vapor pressure, the Sn-Li eutectic has been identified as a potential breeder for deployment in the liquid first wall (FW)/Blanket concepts under investigation in the APEX study for high power density fusion reactors. However, its breeding capability is limited. This drawback is rather improved due to the neutron multiplication via Sn(n,2n) reactions. However, the 'local' tritium breeding ratio (TBR) was found to be still on the marginal side (even with 90%Li-6 enrichment). Aside from using a beryllium multiplier, other means to improve the capability of Sn-Li for breeding are explored. In this paper, we show that by isotopic tailoring of Tin in the Sn-Li breeder, one can achieve substantial improvement in TBR in addition to attaining significant reduction in the activation level in this material.

  17. Method of fabricating a multilayer insulation blanket

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.; Boroski, W.N.

    1993-07-06

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel.

  18. Method of fabricating a multilayer insulation blanket

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, John D.; Niemann, Ralph C.; Boroski, William N.

    1993-01-01

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel.

  19. Multilayer insulation blanket, fabricating apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.; Boroski, W.N.

    1992-09-01

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel. 7 figs.

  20. Multilayer insulation blanket, fabricating apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, John D.; Niemann, Ralph C.; Boroski, William N.

    1992-01-01

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel.

  1. APT target-blanket fabrication development

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.L.

    1997-06-13

    Concepts for producing tritium in an accelerator were translated into hardware for engineering studies of tritium generation, heat transfer, and effects of proton-neutron flux on materials. Small-scale target- blanket assemblies were fabricated and material samples prepared for these performance tests. Blanket assemblies utilize composite aluminum-lead modules, the two primary materials of the blanket. Several approaches are being investigated to produce large-scale assemblies, developing fabrication and assembly methods for their commercial manufacture. Small-scale target-blanket assemblies, designed and fabricated at the Savannah River Site, were place in Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) for irradiation. They were subjected to neutron flux for nine months during 1996-97. Coincident with this test was the development of production methods for large- scale modules. Increasing module size presented challenges that required new methods to be developed for fabrication and assembly. After development, these methods were demonstrated by fabricating and assembling two production-scale modules.

  2. Multifractal Framework Based on Blanket Method

    PubMed Central

    Paskaš, Milorad P.; Reljin, Irini S.; Reljin, Branimir D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes two local multifractal measures motivated by blanket method for calculation of fractal dimension. They cover both fractal approaches familiar in image processing. The first two measures (proposed Methods 1 and 3) support model of image with embedded dimension three, while the other supports model of image embedded in space of dimension three (proposed Method 2). While the classical blanket method provides only one value for an image (fractal dimension) multifractal spectrum obtained by any of the proposed measures gives a whole range of dimensional values. This means that proposed multifractal blanket model generalizes classical (monofractal) blanket method and other versions of this monofractal approach implemented locally. Proposed measures are validated on Brodatz image database through texture classification. All proposed methods give similar classification results, while average computation time of Method 3 is substantially longer. PMID:24578664

  3. 49 CFR 366.5 - Blanket designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FMCSA a list of process agents for each State and DC (blanket agent), motor carriers, brokers and... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DESIGNATION OF PROCESS...

  4. Research and development of the tritium recovery system for the blanket of the fusion reactor in JAEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Y.; Isobe, K.; Iwai, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Nakamura, H.; Hayashi, T.; Yamanishi, T.

    2009-05-01

    A water-cooling solid breeder blanket is a prime candidate for the blanket of the fusion reactor in Japan. In this case, the blanket tritium recovery system will be composed of three processes: tritium recovery from helium sweep gas as hydrogen, that as water vapour and tritium recovery from coolant water. The authors have proposed a set of advanced systems. For tritium recovery as hydrogen, an electrochemical hydrogen pump with a ceramic proton conductor has been proposed. The correlation between the proton concentration in the ceramic and the hydrogen gas pressure has been investigated to describe the pumping performance specifically. A ceramic electrolysis cell has been proposed to process the tritiated water vapour. The authors have developed a new electrode containing cerium oxide, and it has shown fairly good electrolysis efficiency. For tritium recovery from coolant water, reduction in the processing water by tritium concentration is necessary. The authors have proposed to apply the fixed-bed adsorption process of synthetic zeolite, and have developed new zeolite. It showed unique characteristics for water adsorption and desorption. The authors have determined the potential of these systems for the blanket of the fusion DEMO reactor.

  5. Neutron transport-burnup code MCORGS and its application in fusion fission hybrid blanket conceptual research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xue-Ming; Peng, Xian-Jue

    2016-09-01

    Fusion science and technology has made progress in the last decades. However, commercialization of fusion reactors still faces challenges relating to higher fusion energy gain, irradiation-resistant material, and tritium self-sufficiency. Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactors (FFHR) can be introduced to accelerate the early application of fusion energy. Traditionally, FFHRs have been classified as either breeders or transmuters. Both need partition of plutonium from spent fuel, which will pose nuclear proliferation risks. A conceptual design of a Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactor for Energy (FFHR-E), which can make full use of natural uranium with lower nuclear proliferation risk, is presented. The fusion core parameters are similar to those of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. An alloy of natural uranium and zirconium is adopted in the fission blanket, which is cooled by light water. In order to model blanket burnup problems, a linkage code MCORGS, which couples MCNP4B and ORIGEN-S, is developed and validated through several typical benchmarks. The average blanket energy Multiplication and Tritium Breeding Ratio can be maintained at 10 and 1.15 respectively over tens of years of continuous irradiation. If simple reprocessing without separation of plutonium from uranium is adopted every few years, FFHR-E can achieve better neutronic performance. MCORGS has also been used to analyze the ultra-deep burnup model of Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) from LLNL, and a new blanket design that uses Pb instead of Be as the neutron multiplier is proposed. In addition, MCORGS has been used to simulate the fluid transmuter model of the In-Zinerater from Sandia. A brief comparison of LIFE, In-Zinerater, and FFHR-E will be given.

  6. Silver Teflon blanket: LDEF tray C-08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, E. Russ; Nishimura, L. S.; Warner, K. J.; Wascher, W. W.

    1992-01-01

    A study of the Teflon blanket surface at the edge of tray C-08 illustrates the complexity of the microenvironments on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The distribution of particulate contaminants varied dramatically over a distance of half a centimeter (quarter of an inch) near the edge of the blanket. The geometry and optical effects of the atomic oxygen erosion varied significantly over the few centimeters where the blanket folded over the edge of the tray resulting in a variety of orientations to the atomic oxygen flux. A very complex region of combined mechanical and atomic oxygen damage occurred where the blanket contacted the edge of the tray. A brown film deposit apparently fixed by ultraviolet light traveling by reflection through the Teflon film was conspicuous beyond the tray contract zone. Chemical and structural analysis of the surface of the brown film and beyond toward the protected edge of the blanket indicated some penetration of energetic atomic oxygen at least five millimeters past the blanket-tray contact interface.

  7. Fast Breeder Reactors in Sweden: Vision and Reality.

    PubMed

    Fjaestad, Maja

    2015-01-01

    The fast breeder is a type of nuclear reactor that aroused much attention in the 1950s and '60s. Its ability to produce more nuclear fuel than it consumes offered promises of cheap and reliable energy. Sweden had advanced plans for a nuclear breeder program, but canceled them in the middle of the 1970s with the rise of nuclear skepticism. The article investigates the nuclear breeder as a technological vision. The nuclear breeder reactor is an example of a technological future that did not meet its industrial expectations. But that does not change the fact that the breeder was an influential technology. Decisions about the contemporary reactors were taken with the idea that in a foreseeable future they would be replaced with the efficient breeder. The article argues that general themes in the history of the breeder reactor can deepen our understanding of the mechanisms behind technological change.

  8. Summary report for ITER task - T68: MHD facility preparation for Li/V blanket option

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, C.B.; Haglund, R.C.; Miller, M.E.

    1995-08-01

    A key feasibility issue for the ITER Vanadium/Lithium breeding blanket is the question of insulator coatings. Design calculations show that an electrically insulating layer is necessary to maintain an acceptably low MHD pressure drop. To enable experimental investigations of the MHD performance of candidate insulator materials and the technology for putting them in place, the room-temperature ALEX (Argonne`s Liquid Metal EXperiment) NaK facility was upgraded to a 300{degrees}C lithium system. The objective of this upgrade was to modify the existing facility to the minimum extent necessary, consistent with providing a safe, flexible, and easy to operate MHD test facility which uses lithium at ITER-relevant temperatures, Hartmann numbers, and interaction parameters. The facility was designed to produce MHD pressure drop data, test section voltage distributions, and heat transfer data for mid-scale test sections and blanket mockups. The system design description for this lithium upgrade of the ALEX facility is given in this document.

  9. Experimental Breeder Reactor I Preservation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Braun

    2006-10-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) is a National Historic Landmark located at the Idaho National Laboratory, a Department of Energy laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The facility is significant for its association and contributions to the development of nuclear reactor testing and development. This Plan includes a structural assessment of the interior and exterior of the EBR I Reactor Building from a preservation, rather than an engineering stand point and recommendations for maintenance to ensure its continued protection.

  10. Current experimental activities for solid breeder development

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.E.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Roux, N.; Watanabe, H.

    1988-01-01

    The current data base for ceramic breeder materials does not exhibit any negative features as regards to thermophysical, mechanical, and irradiation behavior. All candidate materials show excellent stability for irradiation testing to 3% burnup. In-situ tritium recovery tests show very low tritium inventories for all candidates. Theoretical models are being developed to accurately predict real time release rates. Fabrication of kilogram quantities of materials has been achieved and technology is available for further scale-up.

  11. STS-120 Crew Training, Bldg. 9NW, FFT Mockup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-02-07

    JSC2007-E-08822 (7 Feb. 2007) --- Attired in a training version of his shuttle launch and entry suit, astronaut George D. Zamka, STS-120 pilot, and United Space Alliance (USA) suit technician Daniel E. Palmer (back to camera) exchange thoughts prior to the start of a post insertion/de-orbit training session in one of the full-scale trainers (out of frame) in the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at Johnson Space Center.

  12. Lithium-vanadium advanced blanket development. ITER final report on U.S. contribution: Task T219/T220

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.F.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this task is to develop the required data base and demonstrate the performance of a liquid lithium-vanadium advanced blanket design. The task has two main activities related to vanadium structural material and liquid lithium system developments. The vanadium alloy development activity included four subtasks: (1.1) baseline mechanical properties of non irradiated base metal and weld metal joints; (1.2) compatibility with liquid lithium; (1.3) material irradiation tests; and (1.4) development of material manufacturing and joining methods. The lithium blanket technology activity included four subtasks: (2.1) electrical insulation development and testing for liquid metal systems; (2.2) MHD pressure drop and heat transfer study for self-cooled liquid metal systems; (2.3) chemistry of liquid lithium; and (2.4) design, fabrication and testing of ITER relevant size blanket mockups. A summary of the progress and results obtained during the period 1995 and 1996 in each of the subtask areas is presented in this report.

  13. BREEDER: a microcomputer program for financial analysis of a large-scale prototype breeder reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Giese, R.F.

    1984-04-01

    This report describes a microcomputer-based, single-project financial analysis program: BREEDER. BREEDER is a user-friendly model designed to facilitate frequent and rapid analyses of the financial implications associated with alternative design and financing strategies for electric generating plants and large-scale prototype breeder (LSPB) reactors in particular. The model has proved to be a useful tool in establishing cost goals for LSPB reactors. The program is available on floppy disks for use on an IBM personal computer (or IBM look-a-like) running under PC-DOS or a Kaypro II transportable computer running under CP/M (and many other CP/M machines). The report documents version 1.5 of BREEDER and contains a user's guide. The report also includes a general overview of BREEDER, a summary of hardware requirements, a definition of all required program inputs, a description of all algorithms used in performing the construction-period and operation-period analyses, and a summary of all available reports. The appendixes contain a complete source-code listing, a cross-reference table, a sample interactive session, several sample runs, and additional documentation of the net-equity program option.

  14. Do avian cooperative breeders live longer?

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Guy

    2014-07-22

    Cooperative breeding is not common in birds but intriguingly over-represented in several families, suggesting that predisposing factors, similar ecological constraints or a combination of the two facilitate the evolution of this breeding strategy. The life-history hypothesis proposes that cooperative breeding is facilitated by high annual survival, which increases the local population and leads to a shortage of breeding opportunities. Clutch size in cooperative breeders is also expected to be smaller. An earlier comparative analysis in a small sample of birds supported the hypothesis but this conclusion has been controversial. Here, I extend the analysis to a larger, worldwide sample and take into account potential confounding factors that may affect estimates of a slow pace of life and clutch size. In a sample of 81 species pairs consisting of closely related cooperative and non-cooperative breeders, I did not find an association between maximum longevity and cooperative breeding, controlling for diet, body mass and sampling effort. However, in a smaller sample of 37 pairs, adult annual survival was indeed higher in the cooperative breeders, controlling for body mass. There was no association between clutch size and cooperative breeding in a sample of 93 pairs. The results support the facilitating effect of high annual survival on the evolution of cooperative breeding in birds but the effect on clutch size remains elusive.

  15. Do avian cooperative breeders live longer?

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative breeding is not common in birds but intriguingly over-represented in several families, suggesting that predisposing factors, similar ecological constraints or a combination of the two facilitate the evolution of this breeding strategy. The life-history hypothesis proposes that cooperative breeding is facilitated by high annual survival, which increases the local population and leads to a shortage of breeding opportunities. Clutch size in cooperative breeders is also expected to be smaller. An earlier comparative analysis in a small sample of birds supported the hypothesis but this conclusion has been controversial. Here, I extend the analysis to a larger, worldwide sample and take into account potential confounding factors that may affect estimates of a slow pace of life and clutch size. In a sample of 81 species pairs consisting of closely related cooperative and non-cooperative breeders, I did not find an association between maximum longevity and cooperative breeding, controlling for diet, body mass and sampling effort. However, in a smaller sample of 37 pairs, adult annual survival was indeed higher in the cooperative breeders, controlling for body mass. There was no association between clutch size and cooperative breeding in a sample of 93 pairs. The results support the facilitating effect of high annual survival on the evolution of cooperative breeding in birds but the effect on clutch size remains elusive. PMID:24898375

  16. Experimental modal survey of the probe mass mock-up

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, P.A.; Woehrle, T.G.

    1992-07-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is engaged in a technology development project which includes designing a lightweight, autonomous, highly maneuverable space vehicle, commonly referred to as a probe. The current probe design includes a guidance and control system that requires complete information on the dynamic response of the probe during operation. A finite element model of the probe was constructed to provide analytical information on the dynamic response to specific operational inputs. In order to verify the assumptions made in the model, a mass mock-up of the probe was constructed at LLNL and an experimental modal survey was performed to determine the frequencies, damping values and deflection shapes for each natural mode of the mock-up. The experimental modal parameters were compared with the parameters obtained through modal analysis of the finite element model to provide a measure of the correlation between the model and the actual structure. This report describes the experimental modal testing and analysis of the mass mock-up and compares the experimental results with the finite element results.

  17. A Coupled THMC model of FEBEX mock-up test

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Liange; Samper, Javier

    2008-09-15

    FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) is a demonstration and research project for the engineered barrier system (EBS) of a radioactive waste repository in granite. It includes two full-scale heating and hydration tests: the in situ test performed at Grimsel (Switzerland) and a mock-up test operating at CIEMAT facilities in Madrid (Spain). The mock-up test provides valuable insight on thermal, hydrodynamic, mechanical and chemical (THMC) behavior of EBS because its hydration is controlled better than that of in situ test in which the buffer is saturated with water from the surrounding granitic rock. Here we present a coupled THMC model of the mock-up test which accounts for thermal and chemical osmosis and bentonite swelling with a state-surface approach. The THMC model reproduces measured temperature and cumulative water inflow data. It fits also relative humidity data at the outer part of the buffer, but underestimates relative humidities near the heater. Dilution due to hydration and evaporation near the heater are the main processes controlling the concentration of conservative species while surface complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation and cation exchanges affect significantly reactive species as well. Results of sensitivity analyses to chemical processes show that pH is mostly controlled by surface complexation while dissolved cations concentrations are controlled by cation exchange reactions.

  18. Stress corrosion cracking of welded Alloy 600 penetration mockups

    SciTech Connect

    Sarver, J.M.; Pathania, R.S.; Stuckey, K.; Fyfitch, S.; Gelpi, A.; Foucault, M.; Hunt, E.S.

    1995-12-31

    The primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 in components other than steam generators is a problem of increasing concern for nuclear power plants. Of greatest concern at the present time is the PWSCC of Alloy 600 vessel head penetrations. The common elements of these components are threefold: (1) the Alloy 600 material has a susceptible microstructure, (2) the Alloy 600 material is either a thick-walled tube or a bar which has been machined into a thick-walled tube, and (3) the Alloy 600 material has been welded into a structure such that high residual welding stresses exist in the postwelded Alloy 600 material. The objectives of the present program were to evaluate the PWSCC behavior of various configurations of welded Alloy 600 penetrations, and possible remedial measures which would prevent or retard PWSCC in these components. Mockups were instrumented to permit instantaneous remote sensing of through-wall cracking and were autoclave tested along with control C-rings in a doped steam environment. Following the test exposures, the mockups were split and examined to characterize the cracking morphology and the material microstructure. A Weibull distribution was used to analyze the time-to-failure results, and the observed cracking locations were compared to residual stress levels predicted by an elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the mockups.

  19. Designing Struts for the Low-Fidelity Orion Cockpit Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucienne, Runa A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and construct nine struts to be installed in the low-fidelity Orion cockpit mockup (Rev F; located at NASA s Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX) as simplified representations of the existing flight designed struts designed by engineers at Lockheed Martin (the primary contractor of the Orion). The project design included: researching the existing flight designs, brainstorming design upgrades, developing three unrelated three-dimensional (3D) strut designs using Pro/Engineer Wildfire 3.0, choosing the best fit design, locating materials and their sources, implementing the chosen design, and making design modifications. The project resulted in making simple modifications to the existing struts used in the last Orion cockpit mockup. The project is relevant to NASA, because upgrades to the low-fidelity Orion cockpit mockup progresses NASA s goals of developing and testing a new spacecraft, conducting the spacecraft's first crewed mission by 2015, returning to the moon by 2020, and exploring Mars and other planets in the future.

  20. Some computations in planning reconstitution of a 500-MW(electric) fast breeder reactor (metallic) fuel by electrorefining

    SciTech Connect

    Nawada, H.P.; Bhat, N.P.; Balasubramanian, G.R.

    1996-04-01

    To compare and evaluate various fuel cycle options for a 500-MW(electric) fast breeder reactor, the electrorefining process has been examined for reprocessing spent fuel. Making use of an improved thermochemical model, optimum process conditions for electrorefining have been worked out. These conditions are the following: capacity of the electrorefining cell, number of cells, batch size, feed adjustments, sequential operations for recovery of uranium and co-recovery of uranium and plutonium, number of cycles, and time frame to meet the refueling schedule. The spent fuel is envisaged to undergo reprocessing in three campaigns: (a) the inner core campaign, (b) the outer core campaign, and (c) the blanket and the leftover campaign. Feed adjustments are done by mixing either the spent inner core or the outer core fuels with the blankets. Three product streams with required fuel composition for direct refabrication of the inner core, the outer core, and the blanket fuel subassemblies, respectively, are obtained by certain sequential electrorefiing operations. These calculations made for a mixed-oxide fuel core can be easily extended to the metallic core.

  1. Space or rescue blanket--a bluff?

    PubMed

    Renström, B

    1992-10-01

    A product which has been heavily promoted for a number of years is an aluminized plastic foil designed to reflect 80% of body heat. However, a large body of experience points to the following: 1. A minimal amount of heat is radiated by a clothed body. This can easily be demonstrated with a thermocamera. 2. The plastic foils is impermeable to both water and water vapour. Thus condensation is formed on the blanket's interior. This virtually eliminates the reflective properties of the aluminum foil, often after only 15-20 minutes. 3. The blanket usually works best when the wind velocity is less than 9 m/s, otherwise the wind tears it into pieces. The greater the wind velocity and amount of clothing worn, the less the effect of the blanket. 4. Water accumulation on the clothing inside the blanket rapidly conducts heat from the skin. The blanket and the aluminum then take over and conduct heat 9,300 times faster than air. 5. It is supposed to reflect radar waves. Theoretically yes, but practical tests made in lifeboats at sea have showed that it gives no help. 6. The plastic film is inflammable.

  2. Water cooled breeder program summary report (LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) development program)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of the Department of Energy Water Cooled Breeder Program was to demonstrate pratical breeding in a uranium-233/thorium fueled core while producing electrical energy in a commercial water reactor generating station. A demonstration Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was successfully operated for more than 29,000 effective full power hours in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The reactor operated with an availability factor of 76% and had a gross electrical output of 2,128,943,470 kilowatt hours. Following operation, the expended core was examined and no evidence of any fuel element defects was found. Nondestructive assay of 524 fuel rods determined that 1.39 percent more fissile fuel was present at the end of core life than at the beginning, proving that breeding had occurred. This demonstrates the existence of a vast source of electrical energy using plentiful domestic thorium potentially capable of supplying the entire national need for many centuries. To build on the successful design and operation of the Shippingport Breeder Core and to provide the technology to implement this concept, several reactor designs of large breeders and prebreeders were developed for commercial-sized plants of 900--1000 Mw(e) net. This report summarizes the Water Cooled Breeder Program from its inception in 1965 to its completion in 1987. Four hundred thirty-six technical reports are referenced which document the work conducted as part of this program. This work demonstrated that the Light Water Breeder Reactor is a viable alternative as a PWR replacement in the next generation of nuclear reactors. This transition would only require a minimum of change in design and fabrication of the reactor and operation of the plant.

  3. Thermally distinct ejecta blankets from Martian craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, B. H.; Murray, B. C.

    1993-06-01

    A study of Martian ejecta blankets is carried out using the high-resolution thermal IR/visible data from the Termoskan instrument aboard Phobos '88 mission. It is found that approximately 100 craters within the Termoskan data have an ejecta blanket distinct in the thermal infrared (EDITH). These features are examined by (1) a systematic examination of all Termoskan data using high-resolution image processing; (2) a study of the systematics of the data by compiling and analyzing a data base consisting of geographic, geologic, and mormphologic parameters for a significant fraction of the EDITH and nearby non-EDITH; and (3) qualitative and quantitative analyses of localized regions of interest. It is noted that thermally distinct ejecta blankets are excellent locations for future landers and remote sensing because of relatively dust-free surface exposures of material excavated from depth.

  4. First Wall, Blanket, Shield Engineering Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Technology Program sponsored by the Office of Fusion Energy of DOE has the overall objective of providing engineering data that will define performance parameters for nuclear systems in advanced fusion reactors. The program comprises testing and the development of computational tools in four areas: (1) thermomechanical and thermal-hydraulic performance of first-wall component facsimiles with emphasis on surface heat loads; (2) thermomechanical and thermal-hydraulic performance of blanket and shield component facsimiles with emphasis on bulk heating; (3) electromagnetic effects in first wall, blanket, and shield component facsimiles with emphasis on transient field penetration and eddy-current effects; (4) assembly, maintenance and repair with emphasis on remote-handling techniques. This paper will focus on elements 2 and 4 above and, in keeping with the conference participation from both fusion and fission programs, will emphasize potential interfaces between fusion technology and experience in the fission industry.

  5. Mock-ups of USSR Soyuz spacecraft on display at Star City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Two mock-ups of the USSR Soyuz spacecraft which are on display at the Cosmonaut Training Center (Star City) near Moscow. The spherical-shaped section of the Soyuz is called the orbital module. The middle section with the lettering 'CCCP' (USSR) on it is called the descent vehicle. Two solar panels extend out from the instrument-assembly module. A docking module mock-up is atop the Soyuz training mock-up on the left.

  6. Mock-ups of USSR Soyuz spacecraft on display at Star City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Two mock-ups of the USSR Soyuz spacecraft which are on display at the Cosmonaut Training Center (Star City) near Moscow. The spherical-shaped section of the Soyuz is called the orbital module. The middle section with the lettering 'CCCP' (USSR) on it is called the descent vehicle. Two solar panels extend out from the instrument-assembly module. A docking module mock-up is atop the Soyuz training mock-up on the left.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope mock-up in use in the MDF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    View of helium filled mock-up of the Hubble Space Telescope in use in the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF) in bldg 9A. The mock-up is being maneuvered into a mock-up of the Shuttle payload bay on the end of the remote manipulator system (RMS) arm. The Space Shuttle full fuselage trainer is seen in the background, to the left. To the right is another simulation of the Hubble Telescope.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope mock-up in use in the MDF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    View of helium filled mock-up of the Hubble Space Telescope in use in the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF) in bldg 9A. The mock-up is being maneuvered into a mock-up of the Shuttle payload bay on the end of the remote manipulator system (RMS) arm. The Space Shuttle full fuselage trainer is seen in the background, to the left. To the right is another simulation of the Hubble Telescope.

  9. Technicians complete assembly of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mockup at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Technicians complete assembly of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mockup at JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. In the foreground, a technician holds the controls for an overhead crane attached to one of the HST's high gain antennas (HGAs). Technicians on the ground prepare the HGA to be hoisted into position on the mockup's Support System Module (SSM) forward shell as others work on SSM from a cherry picker.

  10. Technicians complete assembly of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mockup at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A technician listens to instructions as he operates the controls for the overhead crane that is lifting one of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) high gain antennas (HGAs) into place on the HST Support System Module (SSM) forward shell. Others in a cherry picker basket wait to install the HGA on the SSM mockup. The HST mockup will be used for astronaut training and is being assembled in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A.

  11. Insulation Blankets for High-Temperature Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, H.; Leiser, D.; Sawko, P. M.; Larson, H. K.; Estrella, C.; Smith, M.; Pitoniak, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Insulating blanket resists temperatures up to 1,500 degrees F (815 degrees C). Useful where high-temperature resistance, flexibility, and ease of installation are important - for example, insulation for odd-shaped furnaces and high-temperature ducts, curtains for furnace openings and fire control, and conveyor belts in hot processes. Blanket is quilted composite consisting of two face sheets: outer one of silica, inner one of silica or other glass cloth with center filling of pure silica glass felt sewn together with silica glass threads.

  12. Lightweight IMM PV Flexible Blanket Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) photovoltaic (PV) integrated modular blanket assembly (IMBA) that can be rolled or z-folded. This IMM PV IMBA technology enables a revolutionary flexible PV blanket assembly that provides high specific power, exceptional stowed packaging efficiency, and high-voltage operation capability. DSS's technology also accommodates standard third-generation triple junction (ZTJ) PV device technologies to provide significantly improved performance over the current state of the art. This SBIR project demonstrated prototype, flight-like IMM PV IMBA panel assemblies specifically developed, designed, and optimized for NASA's high-voltage solar array missions.

  13. Some new ideas for Tandem Mirror blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Neef, W.S. Jr.

    1981-10-12

    The Tandem Mirror Reactor, with its cylindrical central cell, has led to numerous blanket designs taking advantage of the simple geometry. Also many new applications for fusion neutrons are now being considered. To the pure fusion electricity producers and hybrids producing fissile fuel, we are adding studies of synthetic fuel producers and fission-suppressed hybrids. The three blanket concepts presented are new ideas and should be considered illustrative of the breadth of Livermore's application studies. They are not meant to imply fully analyzed designs.

  14. Flute stabilization by a cold line-tied blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, D.; Wickham, M.; Rynn, N.

    1982-09-01

    The curvature-driven flute instability in an axisymmetric mirror was stabilized by an annular line-tied plasma blanket. A significant temperature difference was maintained between core and blanket. Theoretical calculations support the experimental observations.

  15. 48 CFR 1313.303 - Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs). 1313.303 Section 1313.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE....303 Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs). ...

  16. 48 CFR 13.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 13.303 Section 13.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Methods 13.303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). ...

  17. 48 CFR 613.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 613.303 Section 613.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE....303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). ...

  18. [Reoccurrence of histomonosis in turkey breeder farm].

    PubMed

    Aka, Johannes; Hauck, Rüdiger; Blankenstein, Petra; Balczulat, Stefanie; Hafez, Hafez Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Histomonosis is a severe disease caused by the protozoan parasite Histomonas (H.) meleagridis, which can lead to high losses in turkeys. The present report describes the reoccurrence of histomonosis in a turkey breeder farm. The first outbreak occurred in 2005 in 17 weeks old hens, the second in 2009 in 8 weeks old hens. The disease remained restricted in one house and one compartment, respectively. Mortality rose to 26 and 65% respectively within few days in spite of therapy with various compounds. Both flocks had to be euthanized. In both cases H. meleagridis belonging to genotype A was detected. The source of infection remained unclear in both cases.

  19. Safety design of prototype fast breeder reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bhoje, S.B.; Chetal, S.C.; Singh, Om Pal

    2004-07-01

    The basic design and safety design of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is presented. Design aspects covered include safety classification, seismic categorization, design basis conditions, design safety limits, core physics, core monitoring, shutdown system, decay heat removal system, protection against sodium leaks and tube leaks in steam generator, plant layout, radiation protection, event analysis, beyond design basis accidents, integrity of primary containment, reactor containment building and design pressure resulting from core disruptive accident. The measures provided in the design represent a robust case of the safety of the reactor. (authors)

  20. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Jolodosky, A.; Fratoni, M.

    2014-11-20

    Pre-conceptual fusion blanket designs require research and development to reflect important proposed changes in the design of essential systems, and the new challenges they impose on related fuel cycle systems. One attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. If the chemical reactivity of lithium could be overcome, the result would have a profound impact on fusion energy and associated safety basis. The overriding goal of this project is to develop a lithium-based alloy that maintains beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) while reducing overall flammability concerns. To minimize the number of alloy combinations that must be explored, only those alloys that meet certain nuclear performance metrics will be considered for subsequent thermodynamic study. The specific scope of this study is to evaluate the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) engine. The results of this study will inform the development of lithium alloys that would guarantee acceptable neutronics performance while mitigating the chemical reactivity issues of pure lithium.

  1. 75 FR 51482 - Woven Electric Blankets From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Woven Electric Blankets From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... United States is materially injured by reason of imports from China of woven electric blankets, provided... woven electric blankets from China were being sold at LTFV within the meaning of section 733(b) of the...

  2. Neutron spectrum from the little boy mock-up

    SciTech Connect

    Robba, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Most of the human exposure data used for setting radiation protection guidelines have been obtained by following the survivors of the nuclear explosions at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Proper evaluation of these data requires estimates of the radiation exposure received by those survivors. Until now neutron dose estimates have relied primarily on calculations as no measurements of the leakage neutron flux or neutron spectrum were available. We have measured the high-energy leakage neutron spectrum from a mock-up of the Little Boy device operating at delayed critical. The measurements are compared with Monte Carlo calculations of the leakage neutron spectrum.

  3. Aerogel Blanket Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, B. E.; Fesmire, J. E.; White, S.; Gould, G.; Augustynowicz, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aerogel blanket materials for use in thermal insulation systems are now commercially available and implemented by industry. Prototype aerogel blanket materials were presented at the Cryogenic Engineering Conference in 1997 and by 2004 had progressed to full commercial production by Aspen Aerogels. Today, this new technology material is providing superior energy efficiencies and enabling new design approaches for more cost effective cryogenic systems. Aerogel processing technology and methods are continuing to improve, offering a tailor-able array of product formulations for many different thermal and environmental requirements. Many different varieties and combinations of aerogel blankets have been characterized using insulation test cryostats at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Detailed thermal conductivity data for a select group of materials are presented for engineering use. Heat transfer evaluations for the entire vacuum pressure range, including ambient conditions, are given. Examples of current cryogenic applications of aerogel blanket insulation are also given. KEYWORDS: Cryogenic tanks, thermal insulation, composite materials, aerogel, thermal conductivity, liquid nitrogen boil-off

  4. Drugs: blanket ban or harm reduction?

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2015-06-29

    As the commercial success of electronic cigarettes offers the opportunity to study harm reduction by replacement therapy, the UK government steers in the opposite direction and plans to expand the 'war on drugs' with a blanket ban on all psychoactive substances. Michael Gross reports.

  5. The climatic impact of supervolcanic ash blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Morgan T.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.; Valdes, Paul J.

    2007-11-01

    Supervolcanoes are large caldera systems that can expel vast quantities of ash, volcanic gases in a single eruption, far larger than any recorded in recent history. These super-eruptions have been suggested as possible catalysts for long-term climate change and may be responsible for bottlenecks in human and animal populations. Here, we consider the previously neglected climatic effects of a continent-sized ash deposit with a high albedo and show that a decadal climate forcing is expected. We use a coupled atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Model (GCM) to simulate the effect of an ash blanket from Yellowstone volcano, USA, covering much of North America. Reflectivity measurements of dry volcanic ash show albedo values as high as snow, implying that the effects of an ash blanket would be severe. The modeling results indicate major disturbances to the climate, particularly to oscillatory patterns such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Atmospheric disruptions would continue for decades after the eruption due to extended ash blanket longevity. The climatic response to an ash blanket is not significant enough to instigate a change to stadial periods at present day boundary conditions, though this is one of several impacts associated with a super-eruption which may induce long-term climatic change.

  6. 27 CFR 40.67 - Blanket bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Where a manufacturer of tobacco products operates more than one factory in the same region he may, in... provisions of § 40.134, for any or all of the factories in the same region. The total amount of any blanket... factory covered by the bond. (72 Stat. 1421; 26 U.S.C. 5711) ...

  7. 18 CFR 157.203 - Blanket certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blanket certification. 157.203 Section 157.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS...

  8. 18 CFR 157.203 - Blanket certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blanket certification. 157.203 Section 157.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS...

  9. The climatic impact of supervolcanic ash blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. T.; Sparks, S. J.; Valdes, P. J.

    2006-12-01

    Supervolcanoes are capable of ejecting 1000's of cubic kilometres of magmatic material in a single eruption, far surpassing anything recorded in human history. It has been postulated that these eruptions have acted as catalysts for long-term climate change and are responsible for bottlenecks in human and animal populations. Tephra deposits from a super-eruption are capable of covering an area the size of USA (~10,000,000 sq. km) with ash, destroying vegetation and considerably raising the surface albedo. Ecological responses to smaller eruptions show that recovery of flora takes over 15 years, while previous studies of ash blankets demonstrate sustained surface residence times. This suggests that a supervolcanic ash blanket would instigate a decadal climate response that would dominate in the aftermath of the effects of aerosols in the stratosphere. We use a coupled atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Model (GCM) to simulate the effect of an ash blanket from Yellowstone volcano, USA, and show that it causes major disruptions to the climate, particularly to oscillatory systems such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The regional disturbance instigates a global response, with significant variations in surface temperatures, pressures and precipitation patterns. The ocean remains largely unaffected, though a marked increase in sea ice is seen in the North Atlantic. While the response to a supervolcanic ash blanket is predicted to be severe, the isolated effects of the disturbance are not significant enough to instigate long-term climate change at present day boundary conditions.

  10. Synergy between fast-ion transport by core MHD and test blanket module fields in DIII-D experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Austin, M. E.; Collins, C. S.; ...

    2015-07-21

    We measured fast-ion transport caused by the combination of MHD and a mock-up test-blanket module (TBM) coil in the DIII-D tokamak. The primary diagnostic is an infrared camera that measures the heat flux on the tiles surrounding the coil. The combined effects of the TBM and four other potential sources of transport are studied: neoclassical tearing modes, Alfvén eigenmodes, sawteeth, and applied resonant magnetic perturbation fields for the control of edge localized modes. A definitive synergistic effect is observed at sawtooth crashes where, in the presence of the TBM, the localized heat flux at a burst increases from 0.36±0.27 tomore » 2.6±0.5 MW/m-2.« less

  11. Synergy between fast-ion transport by core MHD and test blanket module fields in DIII-D experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Austin, M. E.; Collins, C. S.; Gray, T.; Grierson, B. A.; Kramer, G. J.; Lanctot, M.; Pace, D. C.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Mclean, A. G.

    2015-07-21

    We measured fast-ion transport caused by the combination of MHD and a mock-up test-blanket module (TBM) coil in the DIII-D tokamak. The primary diagnostic is an infrared camera that measures the heat flux on the tiles surrounding the coil. The combined effects of the TBM and four other potential sources of transport are studied: neoclassical tearing modes, Alfvén eigenmodes, sawteeth, and applied resonant magnetic perturbation fields for the control of edge localized modes. A definitive synergistic effect is observed at sawtooth crashes where, in the presence of the TBM, the localized heat flux at a burst increases from 0.36±0.27 to 2.6±0.5 MW/m-2.

  12. A blanket design, apparatus, and fabrication techniques for the mass production of multilayer insulation blankets for the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Gonczy, J.D.; Boroski, W.N.; Niemann, R.C.; Otavka, J.G.; Ruschman, M.K.; Schoo, C.J.

    1989-09-01

    The multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) consists of full cryostat length assemblies of aluminized polyester film fabricated in the form of blankets and installed as blankets to the 4.5K cold mass and the 20K and 80K thermal radiation shields. Approximately 40,000 MLI blankets will be required in the 10,000 cryogenic devices comprising the SSC accelerator. Each blanket is nearly 17 meters long and 1.8 meters wide. This paper reports the blanket design, an apparatus, and the fabrication method used to mass produce pre-fabricated MLI blankets. Incorporated in the blanket design are techniques which automate quality control during installation of the MLI blankets in the SSC cryostat. The apparatus and blanket fabrication method insure consistency in the mass produced blankets by providing positive control of the dimensional parameters which contribute to the thermal performance of the MLI blanket. By virtue of the fabrication process, the MLI blankets have inherent features of dimensional stability three-dimensional uniformity, controlled layer density, layer-to-layer registration, interlayer cleanliness, and interlayer material to accommodate thermal contraction differences. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Superphenix: Is the fast breeder dream over -- or over yonder?

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    A detailed history of France`s Superphenix commercial fast breeder reactor project is presented. Important project milestones are discussed from the project`s conception in 1971 to its current status. Recommendations of the Castaing Commission on the project and future plans for use of the reactor are outlined. In addition, world wide fast breeder projects are listed and discussed.

  14. Expedition 44/45 crew members Oleg Kononenko, Kimiya Yui and Kjell Lindgren during emergency scenarios training in the ISS mockups. Photo Date: March 11, 2015. Location: Building 9NW - ISS Mockups. Photographer: Robert Markowitz

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-11

    Expedition 44/45 crew members Oleg Kononenko, Kimiya Yui and Kjell Lindgren during emergency scenarios training in the ISS mockups. Photo Date: March 11, 2015. Location: Building 9NW - ISS Mockups. Photographer: Robert Markowitz

  15. Hubble Space Telescope mock-up in use in the MDF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    View of helium filled mock-up of the Hubble Space Telescope in use in the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF) in bldg 9A. The mock-up is being maneuvered on the end of the remote manipulator system (RMS) arm. The Space Shuttle full fuselage trainer is seen in the background, to the left.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope mock-up in use in the MDF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    View of helium filled mock-up of the Hubble Space Telescope in use in the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF) in bldg 9A. The mock-up is being maneuvered on the end of the remote manipulator system (RMS) arm. The Space Shuttle full fuselage trainer is seen in the background, to the left.

  17. STS-26 Commander Hauck poses on shuttle mockup aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck poses on shuttle mockup aft flight deck in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Hauck's right hand is propped on Onorbit Station control panel A2 remote manipulator system (RMS) translation hand control. Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  18. Effect of hafnium concentration on nuclear performance of blanket materials containing zirconium: a sensitivity analysis of TBR to hafnium content in lithium metazirconate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepraga, D. G.; Panini, G.; Diamanti, D.; Cambi, G.; Costa, M.; Cavallone, G.; Bruzzi, L.

    1994-09-01

    The reduction of hafnium content in blanket materials containing zirconium is costly. Therefore, a sensitivity analysis was performed to estimate the impact of hafnium content on nuclear properties of lithium metazirconate, a promising breeder material candidate for fusion reactors. This paper summarises the results of extensive shielding neutronic analysis and transmutation-activation calculations aiming to evaluate the tritium breeding ratio, the inventories of various radionuclides, and the surface γ-dose rate. Attention has been mainly focused on the activation inventory variations resulting from hafnium content in lithium metazirconate breeding material. Different design configurations including homogenised solid breeder mixtures of Li 2ZrO 3 and structural materials and a separate beryllium multiplierr zone have been assessed. Hf contents up to 3% have been assessed, resulting in a TBR reduction up to 10%. The Hf content provokes a noticeable increase of the level of the equivalent contact dose.

  19. Characterization of flaws in a tube bundle mock-up for reliability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.; Bakhtiari, S.

    1996-10-01

    As part of an assessment of in-service inspection of steam generator tubes, the authors will assemble a steam generator mock-up for round robin studies and use as a test bed in evaluating emerging technologies. Progress is reported on the characterization of flaws that will be part of the mock-up. Eddy current and ultrasonic techniques are being evaluated as a means to characterize the flaws in the mock-up tubes before final assembly. Twenty Inconel 600 tubes with laboratory-grown cracks, typical of those to be used in the mock-up, were provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for laboratory testing. After the tubes were inspected with eddy current and ultrasonic techniques, they were destructively analyzed to establish the actual depths, lengths, and profiles of the cracks. The analysis of the results will allow the best techniques to be used for characterizing the flaws in the mock-up tubes.

  20. Characterization of flaws in a tube bundle mock-up for reliability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.; Bakhtiari, S.

    1997-02-01

    As part of an assessment of in-service inspection of steam generator tubes, the authors will assemble a steam generator mock-up for round robin studies and use as a test bed in evaluating emerging technologies. Progress is reported on the characterization of flaws that will be part of the mock-up. Eddy current and ultrasonic techniques are being evaluated as a means to characterize the flaws in the mock-up tubes before final assembly. Twenty Inconel 600 tubes with laboratory-grown cracks, typical of those to be used in the mock-up, were provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for laboratory testing. After the tubes were inspected with eddy current and ultrasonic techniques, they were destructively analyzed to establish the actual depths, lengths, and profiles of the cracks. The analysis of the results will allow the best techniques to be used for characterizing the flaws in the mock-up tubes.

  1. Digitally-bypassed transducers: interfacing digital mockups to real-time medical equipment.

    PubMed

    Sirowy, Scott; Givargis, Tony; Vahid, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Medical device software is sometimes initially developed by using a PC simulation environment that executes models of both the device and a physiological system, and then later by connecting the actual medical device to a physical mockup of the physiological system. An alternative is to connect the medical device to a digital mockup of the physiological system, such that the device believes it is interacting with a physiological system, but in fact all interaction is entirely digital. Developing medical device software by interfacing with a digital mockup enables development without costly or dangerous physical mockups, and enables execution that is faster or slower than real time. We introduce digitally-bypassed transducers, which involve a small amount of hardware and software additions, and which enable interfacing with digital mockups.

  2. Thermal baffle for fast-breeder reacton

    DOEpatents

    Rylatt, John A.

    1977-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactor includes a bridge structure for separating hot outlet coolant from relatively cool inlet coolant consisting of an annular stainless steel baffle plate extending between the core barrel surrounding the core and the thermal liner associated with the reactor vessel and resting on ledges thereon, there being inner and outer circumferential webs on the lower surface of the baffle plate and radial webs extending between the circumferential webs, a stainless steel insulating plate completely covering the upper surface of the baffle plate and flex seals between the baffle plate and the ledges on which the baffle plate rests to prevent coolant from washing through the gaps therebetween. The baffle plate is keyed to the core barrel for movement therewith and floating with respect to the thermal liner and reactor vessel.

  3. Plasma instabilities of a charge breeder ECRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Angot, J.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Koivisto, H.; Thuillier, T.; Kalvas, T.; Lamy, T.

    2017-10-01

    Experimental observation of plasma instabilities in a charge breeder electron cyclotron resonance ion source (CB-ECRIS) is reported. It is demonstrated that the injection of 133Cs+ or 85Rb+ ion beam into the oxygen discharge of the CB-ECRIS can trigger electron cyclotron instabilities, which restricts the parameter space available for the optimization of the charge breeding efficiency. It is concluded that the transition from a stable to unstable plasma regime is caused by gradual accumulation and ionization of Cs/Rb and simultaneous change of the discharge parameters in 10–100 ms time scale, not by a prompt interaction between the incident ion beam and the ECRIS plasma. The instabilities lead to loss of ion confinement, which results in the sputtering of the surfaces in contact with the plasma, followed by up to an order of magnitude increase of impurity currents in the extracted n+ ion beam.

  4. Monensin toxicity in turkey breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Wages, D P; Gonder, E

    1989-01-01

    High mortality in two flocks of 1900 turkey breeder hens accidentally fed 280 g monensin/ton of complete feed is described. Mortality attributed to the poisoning was 76% in flock 1 and 18% in flock 2. Clinically, turkeys were found dead, exhibited respiratory distress with wings extended laterally, had fine tremors, or showed posterior paresis and inability to rise. The most striking finding at necropsy was the almost complete absence of gross lesions. Some turkeys had severely congested lungs; however, many did not. A few birds had pale streaks within the adductor muscles of the legs. Microscopic lesions included myofiber degeneration and necrosis of skeletal and myocardial muscle. Serum phosphorus, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine phosphokinase were markedly elevated, whereas potassium, chloride, and calcium values were lowered.

  5. A Precambrian proximal ejecta blanket from Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amor, Kenneth; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Porcelli, Don; Thackrey, Scott; Parnell, John

    2008-04-01

    Ejecta blankets around impact craters are rarely preserved onEarth. Although impact craters are ubiquitous on solid bodiesthroughout the solar system, on Earth they are rapidly effaced,and few records exist of the processes that occur during emplacementof ejecta. The Stac Fada Member of the Precambrian Stoer Groupin Scotland has previously been described as volcanic in origin.However, shocked quartz and biotite provide evidence for high-pressureshock metamorphism, while chromium isotope values and elevatedabundances of platinum group metals and siderophile elementsindicate addition of meteoritic material. Thus, the unit isreinterpreted here as having an impact origin. The ejecta blanketreaches >20 m in thickness and contains abundant dark green,vesicular, devitrified glass fragments. Field observations suggestthat the deposit was emplaced as a single fluidized flow thatformed as a result of an impact into water-saturated sedimentarystrata. The continental geological setting and presence of groundwatermake this deposit an analogue for Martian fluidized ejecta blankets.

  6. Recent designs for advanced fusion reactor blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.

    1994-11-01

    A series of reactor design studies based on the Tokamak configuration have been carried out under the direction of Professor Robert Conn of UCLA. They are called ARIES-I through IV. The key mission of these studies is to evaluate the attractiveness of fusion assuming different degrees of advancement in either physics or engineering development. This paper discusses the directions and conclusions of the blanket and related engineering systems for those design studies. ARIES-1 investigated the use of SiC composite as the structural material to increase the blanket temperature and reduce the blanket activation. Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} was used as the breeding material due to its high temperature stability and good tritium recovery characteristics. The ARIES-IV is a modification of ARIES-1. The plasma was in the second stability regime. Li{sub 2}O was used as the breeding material to remove Zr. A gaseous divertor was used to replace the conventional divertor so that high Z divertor target is not required. The physics of ARIES-II was the same as ARIES-IV. The engineering design of the ARIES-II was based on a self-cooled lithium blanket with a V-alloy as the structural material. Even though it was assumed that the plasma was in the second stability regime, the plasma beta was still rather low (3.4%). The ARIES-III is an advanced fuel (D-{sup 3}He) tokamak reactor. The reactor design assumed major advancement on the physics, with a plasma beta of 23.9%. A conventional structural material is acceptable due to the low neutron wall loading. From the radiation damage point of view, the first wall can last the life of the reactor, which is expected to be a major advantage from the engineering design and waste disposal point of view.

  7. Prediction of stainless steel activation in experimental breeder reactor 2 (EBR-II) reflector and blanket subassemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Bunde, K.A.

    1996-12-31

    Stainless steel structural components in nuclear reactors become radioactive wastes when no longer useful. Prior to disposal, certain physical attributes must be analyzed. These attributes include structural integrity, chemical stability, and the radioactive material content among others. The focus of this work is the estimation of the radioactive material content of stainless steel wastes from a research reactor operated by Argonne National Laboratory.

  8. Report of a technical evaluation panel on the use of beryllium for ITER plasma facing material and blanket breeder material

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrickson, M.A.; Manly, W.D.; Dombrowski, D.E.

    1995-08-01

    Beryllium because of its low atomic number and high thermal conductivity, is a candidate for both ITER first wall and divertor surfaces. This study addresses the following: why beryllium; design requirements for the ITER divertor; beryllium supply and unirradiated physical/mechanical property database; effects of irradiation on beryllium properties; tritium issues; beryllium health and safety; beryllium-coolant interactions and safety; thermal and mechanical tests; plasma erosion of beryllium; recommended beryllium grades for ITER plasma facing components; proposed manufacturing methods to produce beryllium parts for ITER; emerging beryllium materials; proposed inspection and maintenance techniques for beryllium components and coatings; time table and costs; and the importance of integrating materials and manufacturing personnel with designers.

  9. Design of the APT Target/Blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappiello, M. W.

    1998-04-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium Target/Blanket system is composed of a separated tungsten spallation target surrounded by a lead moderator, as well as attendant heat removal systems. The system is housed in a building located at the end of a 1.3 km long linear accelerator, which can produce a 100 mA proton beam up to 1700 MeV (170MW). The beam is expanded by a rastering system to a 0.19m x 190.m shape before passing through an Inconel window and impacting the heavy-water cooled tungsten target. Neutrons produced in the tungsten by the spallation process are further multiplied and moderated in a surrounding light-water cooled lead blanket. Neutron capture in tubes of Helium-3 gas inserted in the blanket produce tritium which is removed on a continual basis in an adjacent Tritium Separation Facility (TSF). The APT T/B is a robust design based on existing technology. Where possible, proven materials and component designs are used. To accommodate uncertainties in predicted lifetimes, the design is modularized to allow for a straightforward replacement of spent components. The thermal hydraulic design is well within allowable limits and due to the low temperature and pressure systems, offers additional safety and reliability benefits. The safety by design process has incorporated passive design features, redundancy, and defense in depth to provide adequate protection of both the worker and the public.

  10. Advanced smile diagnostics using CAD/CAM mock-ups.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Puchades, Manuel; Fehmer, Vincent; Hämmerle, Christoph; Sailer, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostics are essential for predictable restorative dentistry. Both patient and clinician must agree on a treatment goal before the final restorations are delivered to avoid future disappointments. However, fully understanding the patient's desires is difficult. A useful tool to overcome this problem is the diagnostic wax-up and mock-up. A potential treatment outcome is modeled in wax prior to treatment and transferred into the patient's mouth using silicon indexes and autopolymerizing resin to obtain the patient's approval. Yet, this time-consuming procedure only produces a single version of the possible treatment outcome, which can be unsatisfactory for both the patient and the restorative team. Contemporary digital technologies may provide advantageous features to aid in this diagnostic treatment step. This article reviews opportunities digital technologies offer in the diagnostic phase, and presents clinical cases to illustrate the procedures.

  11. IXV Mock-Up Water Impact Test and Results Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullio, R.; Becchio, V.; D'Amico, J.; Di Vita, G.

    2012-07-01

    In the frame of the ESA FLPP/IXV project one of the main goal is to validate the simulation methodology defined by TAS-I for the estimation of the maximum expected loads generated during splashdown event. Numerical results, obtained in different vehicle attitudes and landing conditions, were compared with experimental results from a reduced-scale drop test campaign, carried out making use of a rigid IXV vehicle scaled mock-up (1/4 of the IXV vehicle size). The test campaign was performed in the CNR-INSEAN (Istituto Nazionale per Studied Esperienze di Architettura Navale) facilities in Rome. In this paper firstly the engineering evaluation of the test results are discussed especially with respect to the selection of the best attitude candidate for landing. Then, the comparison of the test/analysis correlation activity is presented, and the related outcomes are evaluated in order to reduce the model factor uncertainty and enhance the derivation of the splashdown loads.

  12. STS-26 crew in JSC Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers have donned their new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (launch and entry suits (LESs)) for a training exercise in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Commander Frederick H. Hauck is in the center foreground. Hauck is flanked by fellow crewmembers (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) John M. Lounge, MS George D. Nelson, Pilot Richard O. Covey, and MS David C. Hilmers. Astronaut Steven R. Nagel, not assigned as crewmember but assisting in training, is at far right. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew is scheduled to check out the new partial pressure suits and crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  13. Astronaut Curtis Brown on flight deck mockup during training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-06-23

    S94-40091 (23 June 1994) --- Astronaut Curtis L. Brown mans the pilot's station of a Shuttle trainer during a rehearsal of procedures to be followed during launch and entry phases of the scheduled November flight of STS-66. This rehearsal, held in the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT) of the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory, was followed by a training session on emergency egress procedures. Making his second flight in space, Brown will join four other NASA astronauts and a European mission specialist for a week and a half aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis in Earth-orbit in support of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3).

  14. Characterization of Plasma Sprayed Beryllium ITER First Wall Mockups

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Richard G.; Vaidya, Rajendra U.; Hollis, Kendall J.

    1997-12-31

    ITER first wall beryllium mockups, which were fabricated by vacuum plasma spraying the beryllium armor, have survived 3000 thermal fatigue cycles at 1 MW/sq m without damage during high heat flux testing at the Plasma Materials Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico. The thermal and mechanical properties of the plasma sprayed beryllium armor have been characterized. Results are reported on the chemical composition of the beryllium armor in the as-deposited condition, the through thickness and normal to the through thickness thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, the four-point bend flexure strength and edge-notch fracture toughness of the beryllium armor, the bond strength between the beryllium armor and the underlying heat sink material, and ultrasonic C-scans of the Be/heat sink interface.

  15. Recent High Heat Flux Tests on W-Rod-Armored Mockups

    SciTech Connect

    NYGREN,RICHARD E.; YOUCHISON,DENNIS L.; MCDONALD,JIMMIE M.; LUTZ,THOMAS J.; MISZKIEL,MARK E.

    2000-07-18

    In the authors initial high heat flux tests on small mockups armored with W rods, done in the small electron beam facility (EBTS) at Sandia National Laboratories, the mockups exhibited excellent thermal performance. However, to reach high heat fluxes, they reduced the heated area to only a portion ({approximately}25%) of the sample. They have now begun tests in their larger electron beam facility, EB 1200, where the available power (1.2 MW) is more than enough to heat the entire surface area of the small mockups. The initial results indicate that, at a given power, the surface temperatures of rods in the EB 1200 tests is somewhat higher than was observed in the EBTS tests. Also, it appears that one mockup (PW-10) has higher surface temperatures than other mockups with similar height (10mm) W rods, and that the previously reported values of absorbed heat flux on this mockup were too high. In the tests in EB 1200 of a second mockup, PW-4, absorbed heat fluxes of {approximately}22MW/m{sup 2} were reached but the corresponding surface temperatures were somewhat higher than in EBTS. A further conclusion is that the simple 1-D model initially used in evaluating some of the results from the EBTS testing was not adequate, and 3-D thermal modeling will be needed to interpret the results.

  16. Steam generator mock-up for assessment of inservice inspection technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhtiari, S.; Kupperman, D. S.; Muscara, J.

    1999-09-11

    A steam generator mock-up has been assembled for round-robin studies of the effectiveness of currently practiced inservice inspection (ISI) technology for detection of current-day flaws. The mock-up will also be used to evaluate emerging inspection technologies. The 3.66-m (12-ft.)-tall mock-up contains 400 tube openings, each consisting of 9 test sections that can be used to simulate current-day field-induced flaws and artifacts. Included in the mock-up are simulations of tube support plate (TSP) intersections and the tube sheet (TS). Cracks are present at the TSP, TS, and in the free span sections of the mock-up. For initial evaluation of the round-robin results, various eddy current methods, as well as multivariate models for data analysis techniques, are being used to estimate the depth and length of defects in the mock-up. To ensure that the round-robin is carried out with procedures as close as possible to those implemented in the field, input was obtained from industry experts on the protocol and procedures to be used for the exercise. One initial assembly of the mock-up with a limited number of flaws and artifact has been completed and tested. A second completed configuration with additional flaw and artifacts simulations will be used for the round-robin.

  17. Cost and performance projections for SPS photovoltaic blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    An estimate, based on optimistic projections of current technology, is given for the specific power of photovoltaic blankets which might be achieved if the SPS concept was to be implemented. A simultaneous consideration of cost and technical requirements is used to identify key blanket technologies which must be developed for this reference system. The terrestrial photovoltaic experience coupled with new technology is used to develop cost estimates for the blanket, assuming an annual demand of 5 GW and a manufacturing industry dedicated to blanket production. The results indicate that blanket specific power goals may be exceeded, but there is little prospect that the cost goals can be met. This argues for a reconsideration of the photovoltaic option based on more expensive but higher performance blankets.

  18. Numerical modelling of dynamic sludge blanket behaviour in secondary clarifiers.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, M; Krebs, P; Rodi, W

    2001-01-01

    New developments in numerical modelling of turbulent and density-affected flow in secondary clarifiers are reported. The sludge blanket is included in the computation domain which allows us to account for sedimentation and resuspension of sludge as well as the growth and diminution of the sludge blanket and at the same time respecting mass conservation. It is shown how strongly the prediction of the sludge-blanket height depends on the approaches to describe the settling behaviour of the sludge and the rheological properties within the sludge blanket. Further, an example of dynamic simulation is presented and discussed. This demonstrates how the sludge blanket behaves during load variation and that instabilities may occur at the interface of sludge blanket and supernatant, potentially resulting in sludge wash-off during transient phases, which is not only during load increase but also during load decrease.

  19. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers sit on flight deck of the crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup. Pilot Richard O. Covey (left) at pilot station controls and Mission Specialist (MS) John M. Lounge (center) and MS David C. Hilmers on aft flight deck are wearing the new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (launch and entry suits (LESs)). During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. CCT shuttle mockup is located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A.

  20. Analysis of UF6 breeder reactor power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Gaseous UF6 fueled breeder reactor design and technical applications of such concepts are summarized. Special attention was given to application in nuclear power plants and to reactor efficiency and safety factors.

  1. Fast-ion effects during test blanket module simulation experiments in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G. J.; Budny, B. V.; Ellis, R.; Gorelenkova, M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Nazikian, R.; Salmi, A.; Schaffer, M. J.; Shinohara, K.; Snipes, J. A.; Spong, D. A.; Koskela, T.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2011-10-01

    Fast beam-ion losses were studied in DIII-D in the presence of a scaled mock-up of two test blanket modules (TBM) for ITER. Heating of the protective tiles on the front of the TBM surface was found when neutral beams were injected and the TBM fields were engaged. The fast-ion core confinement was not significantly affected. Different orbit-following codes predict the formation of a hot spot on the TBM surface arising from beam ions deposited near the edge of the plasma. The codes are in good agreement with each other on the total power deposited at the hot spot, predicting an increase in power with decreasing separation between the plasma edge and the TBM surface. A thermal analysis of the heat flow through the tiles shows that the simulated power can account for the measured tile temperature rise. The thermal analysis, however, is very sensitive to the details of the localization of the hot spot, which is predicted to be different among the various codes.

  2. Fast Ion Effects During Test Blanket Module Simulation Experiments in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G. J.; Budny, R.; Nazikian, R.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Salmi, A.; Schaffer, M. J.; van Zeeland, M. A.; Shinohara, K.; Snipes, J. A.; Spong, D.

    2010-11-01

    The fast beam-ion confinement in the presence of a scaled mock-up of two Test Blanket Modules (TBM) for ITER was studied in DIII-D. The TBM on DIII-D has four vertically arranged protective carbon tiles with thermocouples placed at the back of each tile. Temperature increases of up to 200^oC were measured for the two tiles closest to the midplane when the TBM fields were present. These measurements agree qualitatively with results from the full orbit-following beam-ion code, SPIRAL, that predict beam-ion losses to be localized on the central two carbon tiles when the TBM fields present. Within the experimental uncertainties no significant change in the fast-ion population was found in the core of these plasmas which is consistent with SPIRAL analysis. These experiments indicate that the TBM fields do not affect the fast-ion confinement in a harmful way which is good news for ITER.

  3. Fast Ion Effects During Test Blanket Module Simulation Experiments in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G J; Ellis, R; Gorelenkova, M; Heidbrink, W W; Kurki-Suonio, T; Nazikian, R; Salmi, A; Schaffer, M J; Shinohara, K; Snipes, J A; Spong, D A; Koskela, T

    2011-06-03

    Fast beam-ion losses were studied in DIII-D in the presence of a scaled mockup of two Test Blanket Modules (TBM) for ITER. Heating of the protective tiles on the front of the TBM surface was found when neutral beams were injected and the TBM fields were engaged. The fast-ion core confinement was not significantly affected. Different orbit-following codes predict the formation of a hot spot on the TBM surface arising from beam-ions deposited near the edge of the plasma. The codes are in good agreement with each other on the total power deposited at the hot spot predicting an increase in power with decreasing separation between the plasma edge and the TBM surface. A thermal analysis of the heat flow through the tiles shows that the simulated power can account for the measured tile temperature rise. The thermal analysis, however, is very sensitive to the details of the localization of the hot spot which is predicted to be different among the various codes.

  4. Tritium permeation and recovery for the helium-cooled molten salt fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, A.E.

    1984-09-01

    Design concepts are presented to control tritium permeation from a molten salt/helium fusion breeder reactor. This study assumes tritium to be a gas dissolved in molten salt, with TF formation suppressed. Tritium permeates readily through the hot steel tubes of the reactor and steam generator and will leak into the steam system at the rate of about one gram per day in the absence of special permeation barriers, assuming that 1% of the helium coolant flow rate is processed for tritium recovery at 90% efficiency per pass. The proposed permeation barrier for the reactor tubes is a 10 ..mu..m layer of tungsten which, in principle, will reduce tritium blanket permeation by a factor of about 300 below the bare-steel rate. A research and development effort is needed to prove feasibility or to develop alternative barriers. A 1 mm aluminum sleeve is proposed to suppress permeation through the steam generator tubes. This gives a calculated reduction factor of more than 500 relative to bare steel, including a factor of 30 due to an assumed oxide layer. The permeation equations are developed in detail for a multi-layer tube wall including a frozen salt layer and with two fluid boundary-layer resistances. Conditions are discussed for which Sievert's or Henry's Law materials become flux limiters. An analytical model is developed to establish the tritium split between wall permeation and reactor-tube flow.

  5. The influence of surface desorption on tritium recovery and inventory in fusion solid breeders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billone, M. C.

    1986-11-01

    In previous work, models were developed to describe the roles of bulk diffusion and solubility in tritium recovery and inventory in tritium-breeding ceramics (e.g., Li 2O and LiA1O 2) for fusion reactor blankets. These models were tested against the data from closed-capsule (e.g., FUBR-lA) and purge-flow (e.g., TRIO) tests with varying degrees of success, depending on the breeder microstructure and the chemistry of the gas phase in and around the ceramic breeding material. In this paper, the role of surface adsorption/desorption is explored to better understand the conditions under which this mechanism is rate-limiting for tritium release and makes a significant contribution to the tritium inventory. The surface adsorption data for several oxides (e.g., Al 2O 3, Fe 20 3, Ti0 2, ZnO, and SiO 2) are reviewed. A model for chemisorption and physisorption (Type II) of water vapor onto solid surfaces is developed, with the constants in the model chosen to match the Al 2O 3 data. Model predictions are then compared to data from closed- and open-capsule tests.

  6. Ceramics for fusion reactors: The role of the lithium orthosilicate as breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carella, Elisabetta; Hernández, Teresa

    2012-11-01

    Lithium-based oxide ceramics are studied as breeder blanket materials for the controlled thermonuclear reactors (CTR). Lithium orthosilicate (Li4SiO4) is one of the most promising candidates because of its lithium concentration (0.54 g/cm3), its high melting temperature (1523 K) and its excellent tritium release behavior. It is reported that the diffusion of tritium is closely related to that of lithium, so it is possible to find an indirect measure of the trend of tritium studying the diffusivity of Li+. In the present work, the synthesis of the Li4SiO4 is carried out by Spray drying followed by pyrolysis. The study of the Li+ ion diffusion on the sintered bodies, is investigated by means of electrical conductivity measurements. The effect of the γ-ray irradiation is evaluated by the impedance spectroscopy method (EIS) from room temperature to 1173 K. The results indicate that the síntesis process employed can produce Li4SiO4 in the form of pebbles, finally the best ion species for the electrical conduction is the Li+ and is shown that the g-irradiation to a dose of 5MGy, facilitate its mobility through the creation of defects, without change in its conduction process.

  7. High temperature - low mass solar blanket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesch, H. G.

    1979-01-01

    Interconnect materials and designs for use with ultrathin silicon solar cells are discussed, as well as the results of an investigation of the applicability of parallel-gap resistance welding for interconnecting these cells. Data relating contact pull strength and cell electrical degradation to variations in welding parameters such as time, voltage and pressure are presented. Methods for bonding ultrathin cells to flexible substances and for bonding thin (75 micrometers) covers to these cells are described. Also, factors influencing fabrication yield and approaches for increasing yield are discussed. The results of vacuum thermal cycling and thermal soak tests on prototype ultrathin cell test coupons and one solar module blanket are presented.

  8. Recent designs for advanced fusion reactor blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.

    1994-06-01

    A series of reactor design studies based on the Tokamak configuration have been carried out under the direction of Professor Robert Conn of UCLA. They are called ARIES-1 through 4 and PULSAR 1 and 2. The key mission of these studies is to evaluate the attractiveness of fusion assuming different degrees of advancement in either physics or engineering development. Also, the requirements of engineering and physics systems for a pulsed reactor were evaluated by the PULSAR design studies. This paper discusses the directions and conclusions of the blanket and related engineering systems for those design studies.

  9. Isotope production in fast reactor blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Zvonarev, A.V.; Koloskov, B.V.; Kochetkov, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    At the BR-10 research reactor radioactive isotopes are produced that are required for the production of radiopharmaceuticals and phosphor 32 used for the synthesis of biochemical labelled compounds. A procedure has been developed of uranium target irradiation followed by radiochemical processing aimed at isotope isolation of molybdenum 99, xenon 133 and iodine 131,132,and 133 isotopes mixture. Irradiation is carried out in a special channel of the radial blanket. The production of cobalt 60 at the BN-600 reactor and facilities are also described.

  10. Design of the injection beamline for the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade electron beam ion source for charge breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson C. A.; Pikin A.; Mustapha, B.; Kondrashev, S.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Savard, S.; Levand, A.

    2012-02-07

    The design of the ion injection line connecting the electron beam ion source (EBIS) charge breeder and the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade radio frequency quadrupole cooler-buncher at the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System was investigated with particle tracking simulations. The injection line was configured to accommodate several differential pumping sections, individual optical components were optimized to minimize emittance growth, and the ion beam parameters were matched with the EBIS electron beam acceptance to minimize losses upon injection.

  11. Design of the injection beamline for the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade electron beam ion source charge breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, C. A.; Mustapha, B.; Kondrashev, S.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Savard, G.; Levand, A.; Pikin, A.

    2012-02-15

    The design of the ion injection line connecting the electron beam ion source (EBIS) charge breeder and the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade radio frequency quadrupole cooler-buncher at the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System was investigated with particle tracking simulations. The injection line was configured to accommodate several differential pumping sections, individual optical components were optimized to minimize emittance growth, and the ion beam parameters were matched with the EBIS electron beam acceptance to minimize losses upon injection.

  12. Design of the injection beamline for the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade electron beam ion source charge breeder.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, C A; Mustapha, B; Kondrashev, S; Ostroumov, P N; Savard, G; Levand, A; Pikin, A

    2012-02-01

    The design of the ion injection line connecting the electron beam ion source (EBIS) charge breeder and the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade radio frequency quadrupole cooler-buncher at the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System was investigated with particle tracking simulations. The injection line was configured to accommodate several differential pumping sections, individual optical components were optimized to minimize emittance growth, and the ion beam parameters were matched with the EBIS electron beam acceptance to minimize losses upon injection.

  13. Mock-ups of USSR Soyuz spacecraft on display at Star City

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-06-01

    S74-24675 (June 1974) --- Two mock-ups of the USSR Soyuz spacecraft which are on display at the Cosmonaut Training Center (Star City) near Moscow. The Soyuz spacecraft mounted vertically on the left is a training mock-up. The Soyuz mounted horizontally on the right was exhibited at the Paris air show in May-June 1973 in a docked configuration with an Apollo spacecraft. The spherical-shaped section of the Soyuz is called the orbital module. The middle section with the lettering ?CCCP? (USSR) on it called the descent vehicle. Two solar panels extend out from the instrument-assembly module. The joint U.S.-USSR Apollo-Soyuz docking mission in Earth orbit is scheduled for the summer of 1975. A docking module mock-up is atop the Soyuz training mock-up on the left.

  14. Systematic methodology for estimating direct capital costs for blanket tritium processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology developed for estimating the relative capital costs of blanket processing systems. The capital costs of the nine blanket concepts selected in the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study are presented and compared.

  15. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade.

    PubMed

    Kondrashev, S; Dickerson, C; Levand, A; Ostroumov, P N; Pardo, R C; Savard, G; Vondrasek, R; Alessi, J; Beebe, E; Pikin, A; Kuznetsov, G I; Batazova, M A

    2012-02-01

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs(+) surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved ∼70% injection∕extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of ∼17%.

  16. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgradea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashev, S.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Pardo, R. C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A.

    2012-02-01

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs+ surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved ˜70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of ˜17%.

  17. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashev S.; Alessi J.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Pardo, R.C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G.I.; Batazova, M.A.

    2012-02-03

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  18. Development of electron beam ion source charge breeder for rare isotopes at Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashev, S.; Dickerson, C.; Levand, A.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Pardo, R. C.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A.

    2012-02-15

    Recently, the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) was commissioned and became available for production of rare isotopes. Currently, an electron cyclotron resonance ion source is used as a charge breeder for CARIBU beams. To further increase the intensity and improve the purity of neutron-rich ion beams accelerated by ATLAS, we are developing a high-efficiency charge breeder for CARIBU based on an electron beam ion source (EBIS). The CARIBU EBIS charge breeder will utilize the state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The electron beam current density in the CARIBU EBIS trap will be significantly higher than that in existing operational charge-state breeders based on the EBIS concept. The design of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder is nearly complete. Long-lead components of the EBIS such as a 6-T superconducting solenoid and an electron gun have been ordered with the delivery schedule in the fall of 2011. Measurements of expected breeding efficiency using the BNL Test EBIS have been performed using a Cs{sup +} surface ionization ion source for external injection in pulsed mode. In these experiments we have achieved {approx}70% injection/extraction efficiency and breeding efficiency into the most abundant charge state of {approx}17%.

  19. STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, crewmembers train in JSC Mockup and Integration Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-28 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crewmembers participate in shuttle emergency egress (bailout) procedures in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Wearing orange launch and entry suits (LESs), crewmembers (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) Mark C. Brown, MS David C. Leestma, MS James C. Adamson, Pilot Richard N. Richards, and Commander Brewster H. Shaw pause before training exercise. In the background are training personnel and the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF) surrounded by helium-filled mockups.

  20. STS-26 crew poses for group portrait on shuttle mockup middeck in Bldg 9A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers pose on shuttle mockup middeck (port side) in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Clockwise from left foreground are Commander Frederick H. Hauck, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson, Pilot Richard O. Covey, MS John M. Lounge, and MS David C. Hilmers. Crewmembers are wearing flight coveralls (jump suits). Nelson stands on middeck ladder and Lounge sits in open side hatch. Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  1. STS-45 payload specialists with crew escape system (CES) mockup at JSC's MAIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-45 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, payload specialists Byron K. Lichtenberg (left) and Dirk D. Frimout (European Space Agency (ESA) Belgian crewmember) practice crew escape system (CES) pole opeation using a side hatch mockup. Lichtenberg is engaging the handle which extends the CES pole out the side hatch. The payload specialists along with the other STS-45 crewmembers are participating in side hatch emergency egress exercises in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A.

  2. STS-29 crewmembers launch/landing procedural training in JSC mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Pilot John E. Blaha and Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer participate in launch and landing training on JSC mockup flight deck in the Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Blaha sits at the pilots station controls in front of Springer who is seated on aft flight deck in mission specialist seat. Springer prepares to don communications kit assembly headset.

  3. STS-34 crewmembers review IFM procedures on JSC's CCT mockup middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-34 crewmembers review inflight maintenance (IFM) procedures on the middeck of JSC's crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in the Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. IFM trainer, holding cable, discusses procedures with Mission Specialist (MS) Ellen S. Baker (center) and Pilot Michael J. McCulley. An open stowage locker appears in front of the group. Visible on the mockup's middeck are forward and aft stowage lockers, the airlock hatch, and the starboard wall mounted sleep restraints.

  4. STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, crewmembers train in JSC Mockup and Integration Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-28 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crewmembers participate in shuttle emergency egress (bailout) procedures in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Wearing orange launch and entry suits (LESs), crewmembers (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) Mark C. Brown, MS David C. Leestma, MS James C. Adamson, Pilot Richard N. Richards, and Commander Brewster H. Shaw pause before training exercise. In the background are training personnel and the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF) surrounded by helium-filled mockups.

  5. STS-47 MS Jemison extends side hatch mockup CES pole during JSC training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison extends crew escape system (CES) pole through a side hatch mockup during launch emergency egress (bailout) training in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. MS Jerome Apt (right) looks on. The crewmembers practiced extending the CES pole prior to donning their launch and entry suits (LESs) and conducting the simulation in the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT).

  6. STS-26 Commander Hauck looks out window W8 on shuttle mockup aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck looks up at overhead window W8 while on shuttle mockup aft flight deck in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Hauck rests his right arm between Onorbit Station control panel A7U and aft viewing window W10. Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  7. STS-26 Pilot Covey looks up at window W7 on shuttle mockup aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Pilot Richard O. Covey, leaning on Onorbit Station control panel, looks up at overhead window W7 on shuttle mockup aft flight deck in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Covey's left hand is positioned on Onorbit Station control panel A7U remote manipulator system (RMS) rotation hand control (RHC). Photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  8. ITER ICRF Antenna Reduced-Scale Mock-up EM Simulations and Comparisons with the Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrytsya, V.; Dumortier, P.; Messiaen, A.; Louche, F.; Vervier, M.

    2009-11-26

    A reduced-scale mock-up of one ITER ICRF antenna triplet has been recently built, featuring the optimized front-end geometry, an optimized 4-port junction and the implementation of a service stub. Provision is made to adapt the frequency response of the antenna by acting on the 4-port junction arms lengths, the service stub length as well as the position of its inclusion in the circuit. Variable antenna loading is achieved by moving a salted water tank in front of the antenna. A summary of the first measurements carried out on this mockup is reported in a companion paper. The EM simulations of the mock-up are done with CST Microwave Studio registered. The geometry of the mock-up is converted from a CAD file and all essential details are included in the model. S parameters of the mock-up are calculated in a large frequency range covering the ITER ICRF antenna frequency band for different geometries of the mock-up and distances to the load. Results of the simulations and systematic comparisons with the measurements are presented.

  9. Development of blanket box structure fabrication technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mohri, K.; Sata, S.; Kawaguchi, I.

    1994-12-31

    Fabrication studies have been performed for first wall and blanket box structure in the Fusion Experimental Reactor designed in Japan. The first wall must have internal cooling channels to remove volumetric heat loading by neutron wall load and surface heat loading from the plasma. The blanket which is higher than 10 m and 1 m wide withstands enormous electromagnetic load (about 10 MN/m). And a fabrication accuracy is required in the order of 10 mm from the machine configuration and remote assembling standpoints. To make cooling channels inside the first wall and to reduce the deformation during fabrication, the authors adopted advance techniques Hot Isostatic Pressing method (HIP) and Electron Beam Welding (EBW) respectively. Evaluation studies for the bondability of the HIP bonding joint have been performed. To evaluate the bondability, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, impact value, low cycle fatigue strength and creep strength of the bonded part were investigated using HIP bonded test specimens. And the detectability of ultrasonic detection tests were also studied on them.

  10. UHF Relay Antenna Measurements on Phoenix Mars Lander Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilott, Peter; Harrel, Jefferson; Arnold, Bradford; Bliznyuk, Natalia; Nielsen, Rick; Dawson, David; McGee, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, a NASA Discovery mission which lands on Mars in the spring of 2008, will rely entirely on UHF relay links between it and Mars orbiting assets, (Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)), to communicate with the Earth. As with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) relay system, non directional antennas will be used to provide roughly emispherical coverage of the Martian sky. Phoenix lander deck object pattern interference and obscuration are significant, and needed to be quantified to answer system level design and operations questions. This paper describes the measurement campaign carried out at the SPAWAR (Space and Naval Warfare Research) Systems Center San Diego (SSC-SD) hemispherical antenna range, using a Phoenix deck mockup and engineering model antennas. One goal of the measurements was to evaluate two analysis tools, the time domain CST, and the moment method WIPL-D software packages. These would subsequently be used to provide pattern analysis for configurations that would be difficult and expensive to model and test on Earth.

  11. UHF Relay Antenna Measurements on Phoenix Mars Lander Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilott, Peter; Harrel, Jefferson; Arnold, Bradford; Bliznyuk, Natalia; Nielsen, Rick; Dawson, David; McGee, Jodi

    2006-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, a NASA Discovery mission which lands on Mars in the spring of 2008, will rely entirely on UHF relay links between it and Mars orbiting assets, (Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)), to communicate with the Earth. As with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) relay system, non directional antennas will be used to provide roughly emispherical coverage of the Martian sky. Phoenix lander deck object pattern interference and obscuration are significant, and needed to be quantified to answer system level design and operations questions. This paper describes the measurement campaign carried out at the SPAWAR (Space and Naval Warfare Research) Systems Center San Diego (SSC-SD) hemispherical antenna range, using a Phoenix deck mockup and engineering model antennas. One goal of the measurements was to evaluate two analysis tools, the time domain CST, and the moment method WIPL-D software packages. These would subsequently be used to provide pattern analysis for configurations that would be difficult and expensive to model and test on Earth.

  12. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket marketing...

  13. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket marketing...

  14. 75 FR 11557 - Woven Electric Blankets From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... COMMISSION Woven Electric Blankets From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... of woven electric blankets, provided for in subheading 6301.10.00 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule... has defined the subject merchandise as finished, semi- finished, and unassembled woven electric...

  15. Security Blanket or Mother: Which Benefits Linus during Pediatric Examinations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ybarra, Gabriel; Passman, Richard H.; Eisenberg, Carl S. L.

    This study compared the degree to which young children were placated during a standard medical evaluation by the presence of their mother, blanket, mother plus blanket, or no supportive agent. Participating were 64 three-year-olds who underwent 4 routine medical procedures. Children were rated by their mothers as attached or nonattached to…

  16. US blanket technology programs. [Directory of current research

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental research in US programs related to blanket technology is described through brief summaries of the objectives, facilities, recent experimental results and principal investigators for the Blanket Technology Program, TRIO-1 Experiment, TSTA, Fusion Hybrid Program and selected activities in the Fusion Materials and Fusion Safety Programs in neutronics research.

  17. Conceptual design of a self-cooled Flibe blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.; Jung, J.; Cheng, E.T.; Piet, S.; Klein, A.

    1986-06-01

    A self-cooled Flibe blanket concept has been developed. The problems associated with tritium breeding, tritium containment, and corrosion have been investigated and potential solutions developed. A highly efficient and compact blanket and power conversion system has been incorporated. The resulting system is low pressure with high thermal efficiency and is inherently safe.

  18. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  19. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  20. 48 CFR 213.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 213.303 Section 213.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 213.303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). ...

  1. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  2. Fullerene Type Multilayer Insulation Blanket on a Spherical Cold Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, T.; Shinozaki, T.; Kaneko, H.

    2010-04-01

    Fullerene type multilayer insulation blanket is proposed for the insulation around a spherical cold surface, and has been applied to a 10 liter spherical tank of liquid nitrogen. As fullerene has 32 faces with 90 edges, 32 polygons of stacked insulation sheets must be connected each other to fabricate such a MLI blanket. The MLI blanket has 90 slots at connecting part between the polygons where thermal radiation heat transfer should be reduced. The size of the polygon made by the insulation films must be chosen so as to avoid excess compressive pressure between stacked insulation sheets. The design principle and the method to fabricate the blanket were studied, and the experimental results obtained by the fullerene type MLI blanket applied to the 10 liter spherical tank were measured.

  3. Effect of vaccinating breeder chickens with a killed Salmonella vaccine on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, R D; Thayer, S G; Maurer, J J; Hofacre, C L

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaccination of breeder chickens on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks. Chickens housed on six commercial breeder farms were vaccinated with a killed Salmonella vaccine containing Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Kentucky. Unvaccinated breeders placed on six additional farms served as controls. Eggs from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks were kept separately in the hatchery, and the resulting chicks were used to populate 58 commercial broiler flock houses by using a pair-matched design. Vaccinated breeder flocks had significantly higher Salmonella-specific antibody titers than did the unvaccinated breeder flocks, although they did not differ significantly with respect to environmental Salmonella prevalences or loads. Broiler flocks that were the progeny of vaccinated breeders had significantly lower Salmonella prevalences and loads than broiler flocks that were the progeny of unvaccinated breeders. After adjusting for sample type and clustering at the farm level, the odds of detecting Salmonella in samples collected from broiler flocks originating from vaccinated breeders were 62% lower (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.38 [0.21, 0.68]) than in flocks from unvaccinated breeders. In addition, the mean load of culture-positive samples was lower in broilers from vaccinated breeders by 0.30 log most probable number per sample (95% confidence interval of -0.51, -0.09; P = 0.004), corresponding to a 50% decrease in Salmonella loads. In summary, vaccination of broiler breeder pullets increased humoral immunity in the breeders and reduced Salmonella prevalences and loads in their broiler progeny, but did not significantly decrease Salmonella in the breeder farm environment.

  4. IEC-^3He Breeder for D-^3He Satellite Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon, L.; Miley, G. H.

    1996-11-01

    D-^3He fusion minimizes neutrons and maximizes charged fusion products, enabling increased energy recovery efficiency by direct conversion. However, scarce ^3He terrestrial resources have deterred R&D on this alternative. Here, we explore ^3He production through Inertial Electrostatic Confinement^1 (IEC) D-breeders, which supply ^3He to FRC D-^3He satellite reactors.^2 Favorable features for the IEC breeder include simplicity, low cost, easy extraction of fusion products, and compatibility with direct conversion. The breeder-satellite system energy balance is analyzed taking the net energy gain of the overall system, Q_N, as the figure of merit. Breeding is applicable for systems where the satellite Q-value, Q_S, > the breeder Q-value, Q_B. For improved performance, i.e., for high Q_N, QS >= QB >> 1 is needed; however, lower QB values (typical of the IEC) are permissible and still offer sufficient Q_N. An economic study determined breeding produces ^3He at a cost comparable to lunar ^3He, already shown to lead to competitive power.^3 The cost of electricity (COE) for the breeder-satellite complex was compared with the ARTEMIS COE,^4 using lunar ^3He fuel: assuming one satellite (1000 MWe)/breeder (170 MWe), the ratio of the breeding system COE to the lunar mining base COE is ~ 1.2. However, economic breeding is driven by large IEC breeder powers, i.e., increased ^3He breeding rates. Thus, the COE ratio approaches unity with two or three satellites/breeder, requiring increased breeder size and power (340 MWe for 2 satellites, 510 MWe for 3 satellites). Such systems potentially provide a ``bridge'' to a future lunar ^3He economy. 1. G.H. Miley et al., Dense Z-pinches, AIP Conf. 299, AIP Press, 675-689 (1994). 2. G.H. Miley, Nucl. Instrum. Methods, A271, 197-202 (1988). 3. L.J. Wittenberg et al., Fusion Technol., 10, 167-178 (1986). 4. H. Momota et al., Fusion Technol., 21, 2307-2323 (1992).

  5. Aerosol Blanket Likely Thinned During 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Each day, a blanket of tiny particles drifting through the Earth's atmosphere filters out some of the sunlight headed for the planet's surface. These aerosols, including dust, smoke, and human-produced pollution, can reflect incoming light or absorb it, directly affecting the Earth's energy balance and climate. Aerosols also influence the climate indirectly, by affecting the brightness and amount of clouds. Research by NASA scientists on global aerosol patterns since the 1990s indicate the global aerosol blanket has likely thinned, allowing more sunlight to reach the Earth's surface over the past decade. The thinning of the blanket is shown by this trio of images based on satellite observations of aerosol optical thickness, a measurement that scientists use to describe how much the aerosols filter the incoming sunlight. Higher optical thickness (orange and red) means more sunlight blocking. The globes show average aerosol optical thickness for 1988-1991 (top), 2002-2005 (middle), and the change between the two time periods (bottom). Overall, the 1988-1991 image appears redder, a sign that aerosols were blocking more incoming sunlight; the 2002-2005 image has more light yellow areas. In the bottom image, small pockets of red (increased aerosol optical thickness), mostly near land masses in the Northern Hemisphere, are far outnumbered by blue areas (decreased aerosol optical thickness). Because they block incoming sunlight from reaching Earth's surface, aerosols may counterbalance greenhouse gas warming. The decline in the dimming power of aerosols over the past decade may have made the greenhouse warming trend more evident in the past decade than in previous decades. The scientists describe their results as a 'likely' trend because the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite sensors they used in their analysis were not specifically designed to observe aerosols, and may contain some errors. However, specific, major aerosol events, such as large

  6. Pulsed activation analyses of the ITER blanket design options considered in the blanket trade-off study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Henderson, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project began a new design phase called the Engineering Design Activity (EDA) which started in July 1992. A variety of blanket designs options were analyzed as a part of the U.S. ITER home team blanket option trade-off study (BOTS) which began in May 1993. The options considered were a self-cooled Li/V blanket, a helium cooled Li/V blanket and a water cooled 316 SS nonbreeding shield option. Detailed activation, dose rate and waste disposal rating calculations have been performed for these different ITER blanket design options based on a fluence of 3.0 MWa/m{sup 2} and an average neutron wall loading of 2.0 MW/m{sup 2}. A continuous operation assumption was utilized in the analysis. The results of this work are presented in this conference.

  7. Neutronics and activation analysis of lithium-based ternary alloys in IFE blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Jolodosky, Alejandra; Kramer, Kevin; Meier, Wayne; DeMuth, James; Reyes, Susana; Fratoni, Massimiliano

    2016-04-09

    Here we report that an attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant in fusion blankets is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is carrying an effort to develop a lithium-based alloy that maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) and at the same time reduces overall flammability concerns. This study evaluates the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy chamber in order to inform such development. 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and the fusion energy multiplication factor (EMF). It was found that elements that exhibit low absorption cross sections and higher q-values such as lead, tin, and strontium, perform well with those that have high neutron multiplication such as lead and bismuth. These elements meet TBR constrains ranging from 1.02 to 1.1. However, most alloys do not reach EMFs greater than 1.15. Additionally, it was found that enriching lithium significantly increases the TBR and decreases the minimum lithium concentration by more than 60%. The amount of enrichment depends on how much total lithium is in the alloy to begin with. Alloys that performed well in the TBR and EMF calculations were considered for activation analysis. Activation simulations were executed with 50 years of irradiation and 300 years of cooling. It was discovered that bismuth is a poor choice due to achieving the highest decay heat, contact dose rates, and accident doses. In addition, it does not meet the waste disposal ratings (WDR). Some of the activation results for alloys with tin, zinc, and gallium were in the higher

  8. Neutronics and activation analysis of lithium-based ternary alloys in IFE blankets

    DOE PAGES

    Jolodosky, Alejandra; Kramer, Kevin; Meier, Wayne; ...

    2016-04-09

    Here we report that an attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant in fusion blankets is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is carrying an effort to develop a lithium-based alloy that maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) and at the same time reduces overall flammability concerns. This study evaluates the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys inmore » the blanket of an inertial fusion energy chamber in order to inform such development. 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and the fusion energy multiplication factor (EMF). It was found that elements that exhibit low absorption cross sections and higher q-values such as lead, tin, and strontium, perform well with those that have high neutron multiplication such as lead and bismuth. These elements meet TBR constrains ranging from 1.02 to 1.1. However, most alloys do not reach EMFs greater than 1.15. Additionally, it was found that enriching lithium significantly increases the TBR and decreases the minimum lithium concentration by more than 60%. The amount of enrichment depends on how much total lithium is in the alloy to begin with. Alloys that performed well in the TBR and EMF calculations were considered for activation analysis. Activation simulations were executed with 50 years of irradiation and 300 years of cooling. It was discovered that bismuth is a poor choice due to achieving the highest decay heat, contact dose rates, and accident doses. In addition, it does not meet the waste disposal ratings (WDR). Some of the activation results for alloys with tin, zinc, and gallium were in

  9. EBIS charge breeder for radioactive ion beams at ATLAS.

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, P.; Kondrashev, S.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.

    2010-07-01

    The construction of the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) for the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility is completed and its commissioning is being performed. In its full capacity, the CARIBU facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Curie (Ci) {sup 252}Cf source. The ions will be thermalized and collected into a low-energy ion beam by a helium gas catcher, mass analyzed by an isobar separator, and charge bred to higher charge states for acceleration in ATLAS. To reach energies E/A 10 MeV/u, one should inject ions with charge-to-mass ratio (q/A) {ge} 1/7 into the ATLAS linac. In the first stage, the existing Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source will be used as a charge breeder. The maximum intensity of radioactive ion beams at the output of the gas catcher will not exceed 10{sup 7} ions per second. A charge breeder based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) has significant advantages over the ECR option for ion beam intensities up to about 10{sup 9} ions per second, providing 3-4 times higher efficiency and significantly better purity of highly charged radioactive ion beams for further acceleration. The proposed EBIS project for CARIBU will heavily utilize state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This will allow us to reduce both the project cost and timescale, simultaneously insuring reliable technical realization of the cutting-edge technology. Several parameters of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder (EBIS-CB) will be relaxed with respect to the BNL EBIS in favor of higher reliability and lower cost. Technical performance of the CARIBU charge breeder will not suffer from such a relaxation and will provide high efficiency for a whole range of radioactive ion beams. The goal of this paper is to present the initial design of the EBIS charge breeder for radioactive ion beams at ATLAS.

  10. EBIS charge breeder for radioactive ion beams at ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostroumov, P.; Kondrashev, S.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.

    2010-07-01

    The construction of the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) for the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility is completed and its commissioning is being performed. In its full capacity, the CARIBU facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Curie (Ci) 252Cf source. The ions will be thermalized and collected into a low-energy ion beam by a helium gas catcher, mass analyzed by an isobar separator, and charge bred to higher charge states for acceleration in ATLAS. To reach energies E/A 10 MeV/u, one should inject ions with charge-to-mass ratio (q/A) >= 1/7 into the ATLAS linac. In the first stage, the existing Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source will be used as a charge breeder. The maximum intensity of radioactive ion beams at the output of the gas catcher will not exceed 107 ions per second. A charge breeder based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) has significant advantages over the ECR option for ion beam intensities up to about 109 ions per second, providing 3-4 times higher efficiency and significantly better purity of highly charged radioactive ion beams for further acceleration. The proposed EBIS project for CARIBU will heavily utilize state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This will allow us to reduce both the project cost and timescale, simultaneously insuring reliable technical realization of the cutting-edge technology. Several parameters of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder (EBIS-CB) will be relaxed with respect to the BNL EBIS in favor of higher reliability and lower cost. Technical performance of the CARIBU charge breeder will not suffer from such a relaxation and will provide high efficiency for a whole range of radioactive ion beams. The goal of this paper is to present the initial design of the EBIS charge breeder for radioactive ion beams at ATLAS.

  11. EBIS charge breeder for radioactive ion beams at ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, P.; Alessi, J.; Kondrashev, S.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Vondrasek, R.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.

    2010-07-20

    The construction of the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) for the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility is completed and its commissioning is being performed. In its full capacity, the CARIBU facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Curie (Ci) {sup 252}Cf source. The ions will be thermalized and collected into a low-energy ion beam by a helium gas catcher, mass analyzed by an isobar separator, and charge bred to higher charge states for acceleration in ATLAS. To reach energies E/A 10 MeV/u, one should inject ions with charge-to-mass ratio (q/A) {ge} 1/7 into the ATLAS linac. In the first stage, the existing Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source will be used as a charge breeder. The maximum intensity of radioactive ion beams at the output of the gas catcher will not exceed 10{sup 7} ions per second. A charge breeder based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) has significant advantages over the ECR option for ion beam intensities up to about 10{sup 9} ions per second, providing 3-4 times higher efficiency and significantly better purity of highly charged radioactive ion beams for further acceleration. The proposed EBIS project for CARIBU will heavily utilize state-of-the-art EBIS technology recently developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This will allow us to reduce both the project cost and timescale, simultaneously insuring reliable technical realization of the cutting-edge technology. Several parameters of the CARIBU EBIS charge breeder (EBIS-CB) will be relaxed with respect to the BNL EBIS in favor of higher reliability and lower cost. Technical performance of the CARIBU charge breeder will not suffer from such a relaxation and will provide high efficiency for a whole range of radioactive ion beams. The goal of this paper is to present the initial design of the EBIS charge breeder for radioactive ion beams at ATLAS.

  12. Spacecraft thermal blanket cleaning: Vacuum bake of gaseous flow purging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1990-01-01

    The mass losses and the outgassing rates per unit area of three thermal blankets consisting of various combinations of Mylar and Kapton, with interposed Dacron nets, were measured with a microbalance using two methods. The blankets at 25 deg C were either outgassed in vacuum for 20 hours, or were purged with a dry nitrogen flow of 3 cu. ft. per hour at 25 deg C for 20 hours. The two methods were compared for their effectiveness in cleaning the blankets for their use in space applications. The measurements were carried out using blanket strips and rolled-up blanket samples fitting the microbalance cylindrical plenum. Also, temperature scanning tests were carried out to indicate the optimum temperature for purging and vacuum cleaning. The data indicate that the purging for 20 hours with the above N2 flow can accomplish the same level of cleaning provided by the vacuum with the blankets at 25 deg C for 20 hours, In both cases, the rate of outgassing after 20 hours is reduced by 3 orders of magnitude, and the weight losses are in the range of 10E-4 gr/sq cm. Equivalent mass loss time constants, regained mass in air as a function of time, and other parameters were obtained for those blankets.

  13. Spacecraft thermal blanket cleaning - Vacuum baking or gaseous flow purging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1992-01-01

    The mass losses and the outgassing rates per unit area of three thermal blankets consisting of various combinations of Mylar and Kapton, with interposed Dacron nets, were measured with a microbalance using two methods. The blankets at 25 deg C were either outgassed in vacuum for 20 hours, or were purged with a dry nitrogen flow of 3 cu. ft. per hour at 25 deg C for 20 hours. The two methods were compared for their effectiveness in cleaning the blankets for their use in space applications. The measurements were carried out using blanket strips and rolled-up blanket samples fitting the microbalance cylindrical plenum. Also, temperature scanning tests were carried out to indicate the optimum temperature for purging and vacuum cleaning. The data indicate that the purging for 20 hours with the above N2 flow can accomplish the same level of cleaning provided by the vacuum with the blankets at 25 deg C for 20 hours. In both cases, the rate of outgassing after 20 hours is reduced by 3 orders of magnitude, and the weight losses are in the range of 10E-4 gr/sq cm. Equivalent mass loss time constants, regained mass in air as a function of time, and other parameters were obtained for those blankets.

  14. Spacecraft thermal blanket cleaning - Vacuum baking or gaseous flow purging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1992-01-01

    The mass losses and the outgassing rates per unit area of three thermal blankets consisting of various combinations of Mylar and Kapton, with interposed Dacron nets, were measured with a microbalance using two methods. The blankets at 25 deg C were either outgassed in vacuum for 20 hours, or were purged with a dry nitrogen flow of 3 cu. ft. per hour at 25 deg C for 20 hours. The two methods were compared for their effectiveness in cleaning the blankets for their use in space applications. The measurements were carried out using blanket strips and rolled-up blanket samples fitting the microbalance cylindrical plenum. Also, temperature scanning tests were carried out to indicate the optimum temperature for purging and vacuum cleaning. The data indicate that the purging for 20 hours with the above N2 flow can accomplish the same level of cleaning provided by the vacuum with the blankets at 25 deg C for 20 hours. In both cases, the rate of outgassing after 20 hours is reduced by 3 orders of magnitude, and the weight losses are in the range of 10E-4 gr/sq cm. Equivalent mass loss time constants, regained mass in air as a function of time, and other parameters were obtained for those blankets.

  15. Al-based anti-corrosion and T-permeation barrier development for future DEMO blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, W.; Konys, J.; Holstein, N.; Zimmermann, H.

    2011-10-01

    In the Helium-Cooled-Liquid-Lead (HCLL) design of Test-Blanket-Modules (TBM's) for a future fusion power plant Pb-15.7Li is used as liquid breeder which is in direct contact with the structure material, e.g. EUROFER steel. Compatibility testing showed that high corrosion attack appears and that the dissolved steel components form precipitates with a high risk of system blockages. A reliable operation needs coatings as corrosion barriers. The earlier developed Hot-Dip Aluminisation (HDA) process has shown that Al-based scales can act as anti-corrosion as well as T-permeation barriers. Meanwhile two advanced electro-chemically based processes for deposition of Al-scales were successfully developed. The first (ECA = Electro-Chemical Al-deposition) is working with an organic electrolyte and the second one (ECX = Electro-Chemical-X-metal-deposition) is based on ionic liquids. Coatings in the μm-range were deposited homogeneously with exact controllable thicknesses. Metallurgical investigations showed the successful generation of protective scales and compatibility testing demonstrated the barrier function.

  16. Review of accidental safety studies for the European HCPB test blanket system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccaccini, L. V.; Ciattaglia, S.; Meyder, R.; Jin, X.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a review of safety studies for accidental sequences in the European solid breeder test blanket module (TBM) system. These studies are the starting point for the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report of ITER, under preparation to get the construction permit first and then later the operation licence. In general the reduced inventory of activation products and tritium associated with the TBM system makes the impact of this test system almost negligible on the overall safety risk of ITER. Nevertheless, the possibility of jeopardizing the ITER safety concept has been analysed in connection to the consequences of specific accident sequences, e.g. the pressurization of the vacuum vessel due to the He coolant blow-down, the hydrogen production from the Be-steam reaction, the possible interconnection between the port cell and the vacuum vessel causing air ingress and the necessity to assure heat removal in the short and long periods. In the frame of this assessment, three LOCA sequences have been selected as representative of accidents judged to cover all scenarios envisaged in Cat II to IV events involving the TBM, namely, in-vessel LOCA, ex-vessel LOCA and in-box LOCA.

  17. Non-destructive assay of EBR-II blanket elements using resonance transmission analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R.T.; Poenitz, W.P.

    1998-09-11

    Resonance transmission analysis utilizing a faltered reactor beam was examined as a means of determining the {sup 239}Pu content in Experimental Breeder Reactor-II depleted uranium blanket elements. The technique uses cadmium and gadolinium falters along with a {sup 239}Pu fission chamber to isolate the 0.3 eV resonance in {sup 239}Pu. In the energy range of this resonance (0.1 eV to 0.5 ev), the total microscopic cross-section of {sup 239}Pu is significantly greater than the cross-sections of {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U. This large difference allows small changes in the {sup 239}Pu content of a sample to result in large changes in the mass signal response. Tests with small stacks of depleted uranium and {sup 239}Pu foils indicate a significant change in response based on the {sup 239}Pu content of the foil stack. In addition, the tests indicate good agreement between the measured and predicted values of {sup 239}Pu up to approximately two weight percent.

  18. Stability of LMR oxide pins and blanket rods during run-beyond-cladding-break (RBCB) operation

    SciTech Connect

    Bottcher, J.H.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Strain, R.V. ); Boltax, A. ); Ukai, S.; Shikakura, S. )

    1992-01-01

    Since 1981, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan have collaborated on an operational reliability testing program in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. The tests were designed to determine the irradiation behavior of liquid-metal reactor (LMR) oxide pins and blanket rods during steady-state, transient, and run-beyond-claddin-breach (RBCB) operation. Phase I tests completed in 1987 involved current LMR oxide designs and claddings; the phase II tests begun in 1988 concentrate on advanced LMR designs, large-diameter pins (7.5 mm), and advance cladding alloys. The cladding breaches in these tests have been readily detected by fission-gas and delayed-neutron (DN) precursor release. The condition of the fuel pin has been monitored by these releases during RBCB operation. A variety of failures have been intentionally studied in the RBCB portion of the program for operating times of up to 142 full-power days; also, several failure types have been incidentally experienced during the transient tests. Types of failure have included those induced by gas-pressure loading either naturally or by prethinning of the cladding defects, and fuel-cladding mechanical interaction (FCMI)-induced failures or secondary failures caused by the formation of low-density fuel-sodium reaction product (FSRP). This paper summarizes this experience with regard to LMR oxide fuel stability during RBCB operation.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Thermal Blanket Repair Design and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ousley, Wes; Skladany, Joseph; Dell, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Substantial damage to the outer layer of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) thermal blankets was observed during the February 1997 servicing mission. After six years in LEO, many areas of the aluminized Teflon(R) outer blanket layer had significant cracks, and some material was peeled away to expose inner layers to solar flux. After the mission, the failure mechanism was determined, and repair materials and priorities were selected for follow-on missions. This paper focuses on the thermal, mechanical, and EVA design requirements for the blanket repair, the creative solutions developed for these unique problems, hardware development, and testing.

  20. Simulation and design of an electron beam ion source charge breeder for the californium rare isotope breeder upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Clayton; Mustapha, Brahim; Pikin, Alexander; Kondrashev, Sergey; Ostroumov, Peter; Levand, Anthony; Fischer, Rick

    2013-02-01

    An electron beam ion source (EBIS) will be constructed and used to charge breed ions from the californium rare isotope breeder upgrade (CARIBU) for postacceleration into the Argonne tandem linear accelerator system (ATLAS). Simulations of the EBIS charge breeder performance and the related ion transport systems are reported. Propagation of the electron beam through the EBIS was verified, and the anticipated incident power density within the electron collector was identified. The full normalized acceptance of the charge breeder with a 2 A electron beam, 0.024πmmmrad for nominal operating parameters, was determined by simulating ion injection into the EBIS. The optics of the ion transport lines were carefully optimized to achieve well-matched ion injection, to minimize emittance growth of the injected and extracted ion beams, and to enable adequate testing of the charge bred ions prior to installation in ATLAS.

  1. Conformity Between LR0 Mock-Ups and Vvers Npp Rpv Neutron Flux Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousov, Sergey; Ilieva, Krassimira; Kirilova, Desislava

    2009-08-01

    The conformity of the mock-up results and those for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of nuclear power plants (NPP) has been evaluated in order to qualify if the mock-ups data could be used for benchmark's purpose only, or/and for simulating of the NPP irradiation conditions. Neutron transport through the vessel has been calculated by the three-dimensional discrete ordinate code TORT with problem oriented multigroup energy neutron cross-section library BGL. Neutron flux/fluence and spectrum shape represented by normalized group neutron fluxes in the multigroup energy structure, for neutrons with energy above 0.5 MeV, have been used for conformity analysis. It has been demonstrated that the relative difference of the attenuation factor as well as the group neutron fluxes did not exceed 10% at all considered positions for VVER-440. For VVER-1000, it has been obtained the same consistency, except for the location behind the RPV. The neutron flux attenuation behind the RPV is 18% higher than the mock-up attenuation. It has been shown that this difference arises from the dissimilarity of the biological shielding. The obtained results have demonstrated that the VVERs' mock-ups are appropriate for simulating the NPP irradiation conditions. The mock-up results for VVER-1000 have to be applied more carefully i.e. taking into account the existing peculiarity of the biological shielding and RPV attenuation azimuthal dependence.

  2. Tritium recovery from a breeder material: Gamma lithium aluminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, E.; Botter, F.; Briec, M.; Rostaing, M.; Werle, H.; Clemmer, R. G.

    1986-11-01

    This paper discusses phenomena that have been observed during tritium extraction from y-lithium aluminate, specifically: Increase of rate of extraction when adding hydrogen to the sweep gas formation of tritiated water in all cases permeation of tritium through gas pipes adsorption of tritiated water on gas lines.To minimize the blanket tritium inventory a flowchart is proposed whose specificity rests in the addition of hydrogen to the gas within the blanket, followed by recovery of the tritium after oxidation of hydrogen to water, electrolysis and reconcentration. This flowchart includes a provision for detritiation of the coolant which is separate from the purge gas.

  3. Two ASTP prime crews atop mock-ups at JSC to symbolize historic docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The two prime crews of the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) sit atop ASTP mock-ups at JSC to symbolize their historic docking in Earth orbit mission schedules for summer of 1975. They are, left to right, Astronaut Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot of the American crew; Astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot of the American Crew; Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, commander of the American crew; Cosmonaut Valeriy N. Kubasov, engineer of the Soviet crew; and Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet crew. The three Americans are seated on a mock-up of a Docking Module, which is designed to link the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft. The two Soviets are atop a mock-up of a Soyuz spacecraft orbital module. Leonov and Kubasov were among a group of cosmonauts and engineers who visited JSC for three weeks of joint crew training.

  4. Structuring Visualization Mock-ups at the Graphical Level by Dividing the Display Space.

    PubMed

    Vuillemot, Romain; Boy, Jeremy

    2017-08-29

    Mock-ups are rapid, low fidelity prototypes, that are used in many design-related fields to generate and share ideas. While their creation is supported by many mature methods and tools, surprisingly few are suited for the needs of information visualization. In this article, we introduce a novel approach to creating visualizations mock-ups, based on a dialogue between graphic design and parametric toolkit explorations. Our approach consists in iteratively subdividing the display space, while progressively informing each division with realistic data. We show that a wealth of mock-ups can easily be created using only temporary data attributes, as we wait for more realistic data to become available. We describe the implementation of this approach in a D3-based toolkit, which we use to highlight its generative power, and we discuss the potential for transitioning towards higher fidelity prototypes.

  5. Mock-up Test of Remote Controlled Dismantling Apparatus for Large-sized Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, M.; Myodo, M.; Okane, S.; Miyajima, K.

    2002-02-26

    The remote dismantling apparatus, which is equipped with multi-units for functioning of washing, cutting, collection of cut pieces and so on, has been constructed to dismantle the large-sized vessels in the JAERI's Reprocessing Test Facility (JRTF). The apparatus has five-axis movement capability and its operation is performed remotely. The mock-up tests were performed to evaluate the applicability of the apparatus to actual dismantling activities by using the mock-ups of LV-3 and LV-5 in the facility. It was confirmed that each unit was satisfactory functioned by remote operation. Efficient procedure for dismantling the large-sized vessel was studied and various data were obtained from the mock-up tests. This apparatus was found to be applicable for the actual dismantling activity in JRTF.

  6. Performance of uncoated AFRSI blankets during multiple Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1992-04-01

    Uncoated Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blankets were successfully flown on seven consecutive flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter OV-099 (Challenger). In six of the eight locations monitored (forward windshield, forward canopy, mid-fuselage, upper wing, rudder/speed brake, and vertical tail) the AFRSI blankets performed well during the ascent and reentry exposure to the thermal and aeroacoustic environments. Several of the uncoated AFRSI blankets that sustained minor damage, such as fraying or broken threads, could be repaired by sewing or by patching with a surface coating called C-9. The chief reasons for replacing or completely coating a blanket were fabric embrittlement and fabric abrasion caused by wind erosion. This occurred in the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pod sidewall and the forward mid-fuselage locations.

  7. Blanket options for high-efficiency fusion power

    SciTech Connect

    Usher, J L; Lazareth, O W; Fillo, J A; Horn, F L; Powell, J R

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500/sup 0/C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO/sub 2/ interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li/sub 2/O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230/sup 0/C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case.

  8. Fusion blanket for high-efficiency power cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Usher, J.L.; Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Taussig, R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperature (500/sup 0/C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO/sub 2/ interior (cooled by Ar) utilizing Li/sub 2/O for tritium breeding. In this design, approx. 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum Ar temperature is 2230/sup 0/C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case.

  9. Young Stars in Their Baby Blanket of Dust

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-11

    Newborn stars peek out from beneath their natal blanket of dust in this dynamic image of the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. This nebula is about 407 light years away from Earth.

  10. Performance of uncoated AFRSI blankets during multiple Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1992-01-01

    Uncoated Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blankets were successfully flown on seven consecutive flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter OV-099 (Challenger). In six of the eight locations monitored (forward windshield, forward canopy, mid-fuselage, upper wing, rudder/speed brake, and vertical tail) the AFRSI blankets performed well during the ascent and reentry exposure to the thermal and aeroacoustic environments. Several of the uncoated AFRSI blankets that sustained minor damage, such as fraying or broken threads, could be repaired by sewing or by patching with a surface coating called C-9. The chief reasons for replacing or completely coating a blanket were fabric embrittlement and fabric abrasion caused by wind erosion. This occurred in the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pod sidewall and the forward mid-fuselage locations.

  11. Cassini/Titan-4 Acoustic Blanket Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.

    1996-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center recently led a multi-organizational effort to develop and test verify new acoustic blankets. These blankets support NASA's goal in reducing the Titan-4 payload fairing internal acoustic environment to allowable levels for the Cassini spacecraft. To accomplish this goal a two phase acoustic test program was utilized. Phase One consisted of testing numerous blanket designs in a flat panel configuration. Phase Two consisted of testing the most promising designs out of Phase One in a full scale cylindrical payload fairing. This paper will summarize this highly successful test program by providing the rationale and results for each test phase, the impacts of this testing on the Cassini mission, as well as providing some general information on blanket designs.

  12. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant Project: construction schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, W.J.; Martin, E.M.; Shivley, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The construction schedule for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant and its evolution are described. The initial schedule basis, changes necessitated by the evaluation of the overall plant design, and constructability improvements that have been effected to assure adherence to the schedule are presented. The schedule structure and hierarchy are discussed, as are tools used to define, develop, and evaluate the schedule.

  13. Deployment Scenario of Heavy Water Cooled Thorium Breeder Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mardiansah, Deby; Takaki, Naoyuki

    2010-06-22

    Deployment scenario of heavy water cooled thorium breeder reactor has been studied. We have assumed to use plutonium and thorium oxide fuel in water cooled reactor to produce {sup 233}U which will be used in thorium breeder reactor. The objective is to analysis the potential of water cooled Th-Pu reactor for replacing all of current LWRs especially in Japan. In this paper, the standard Pressurize Water Reactor (PWR) has been designed to produce 3423 MWt; (i) Th-Pu PWR, (ii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR = 1.0) and (iii) Th-Pu HWR (MFR 1.2). The properties and performance of the core were investigated by using cell and core calculation code. Th-Pu PWR or HWR produces {sup 233}U to introduce thorium breeder reactor. The result showed that to replace all (60 GWe) LWR by thorium breeder reactor within a period of one century, Th-Pu oxide fueled PWR has insufficient capability to produce necessary amount of {sup 233}U and Th-Pu oxide fueled HWR has almost enough potential to produce {sup 233}U but shows positive void reactivity coefficient.

  14. Breeder Spent Fuel Handling Program multipurpose cask design basis document

    SciTech Connect

    Duckett, A.J.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1985-09-01

    The Breeder Spent Fuel Handling (BSFH) Program multipurpose cask Design Basis Document defines the performance requirements essential to the development of a legal weight truck cask to transport FFTF spent fuel from reactor to a reprocessing facility and the resultant High Level Waste (HLW) to a repository. 1 ref.

  15. World directory of forest geneticists and tree breeders

    Treesearch

    F. Thomas Ledig; David B. Neale

    1998-01-01

    A formal task of the Forest Genetic Resources Study Group/North American Forestry Commission/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Working Party 2.04.09 / Division 2- Physiology and Genetics / International Union of Forest ResearchOrganizations, this international directory lists more than 1,800 forest geneticists and tree breeders from 86...

  16. ORNL breeder reactor safety quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, M H; Wantland, J L

    1981-01-01

    Six tasks are reported upon: THORS (Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety) program, environmental assessment of alternate FBR fuels, model evaluation of breeder reactor radioactivity releases, nuclear safety information center activities, breeder reactor reliability data analysis center activities, and central data base for breeder reactor safety codes. (DLC)

  17. Shipment of the Light Water Breeder Reactor fuel assemblies from the Shippingport Atomic Power Station to the extended core facility (Idaho) (LWBR Development Program)

    SciTech Connect

    Selsley, I.A.

    1987-10-01

    After successfully operating for 29,047 effective full power hours, the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core was defueled prior to total decommissioning of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. All nuclear fuel and much of the reactor internal hardware was removed from the reactor vessel and prepared for shipment to disposal sites or to the Naval Reactors Expended Core Facility in Idaho for testing or further disassembly. Three M-130 shipping containers were modified to accept LWBR seed, blanket, and reflector fuel modules for rail shipment to the Expended Core Facility. Thirty-nine LWBR fuel modules were transferred in 10 shipments. All shipments were completed successfully, without significant problems. Radiation and personnel exposure levels were carefully controlled.

  18. Applications of the Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket concept

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, D.; Embrechts, M.J.; Varsamis, G.; Wrisley, K.; Deutch, L.; Gierszewski, P.

    1986-11-01

    In this paper a novel water-cooled blanket concept is examined. This concept, designated the Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket (ASCB), employs water with small amounts of dissolved fertile compounds as both the coolant and the breeding medium. The ASCB concept is reviewed and its application in three different contexts is examined: (1) power reactors; (2) near-term devices such as NET; and (3) fusion-fission hybrids.

  19. Thin Thermal-Insulation Blankets for Very High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal-insulation blankets of a proposed type would be exceptionally thin and would endure temperatures up to 2,100 C. These blankets were originally intended to protect components of the NASA Solar Probe spacecraft against radiant heating at its planned closest approach to the Sun (a distance of 4 solar radii). These blankets could also be used on Earth to provide thermal protection in special applications (especially in vacuum chambers) for which conventional thermal-insulation blankets would be too thick or would not perform adequately. A blanket according to the proposal (see figure) would be made of molybdenum, titanium nitride, and carbon- carbon composite mesh, which melt at temperatures of 2,610, 2,930, and 2,130 C, respectively. The emittance of molybdenum is 0.24, while that of titanium nitride is 0.03. Carbon-carbon composite mesh is a thermal insulator. Typically, the blanket would include 0.25-mil (.0.00635-mm)-thick hot-side and cold-side cover layers of molybdenum. Titanium nitride would be vapor-deposited on both surfaces of each cover layer. Between the cover layers there would be 10 inner layers of 0.15-mil (.0.0038-mm)-thick molybdenum with vapor-deposited titanium nitride on both sides of each layer. The thickness of each titanium nitride coat would be about 1,000 A. The cover and inner layers would be interspersed with 0.25-mil (0.00635-mm)-thick layers of carbon-carbon composite mesh. The blanket would have total thickness of 4.75 mils (approximately equal to 0.121 mm) and an areal mass density of 0.7 kilograms per square meter. One could, of course, increase the thermal- insulation capability of the blanket by increasing number of inner layers (thereby unavoidably increasing the total thickness and mass density).

  20. STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, crewmembers train in JSC Mockup and Integration Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-28 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crewmembers participate in shuttle emergency egress (bailout) procedures in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Wearing launch and entry suits (LESs), crewmembers (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) Mark C. Brown, MS David C. Leestma, MS James C. Adamson, Pilot Richard N. Richards, and Commander Brewster H. Shaw pause before training exercise. Training personnel adjust Richards' and Shaw's LESs. In the background are additional personnel and the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF) surrounded by helium-filled mockups.

  1. STS-46 Payload Specialist Malerba on the middeck of JSC's FFT mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Italian Payload Specialist Franco Malerba with his hand resting on the crew escape system (CES) pole stands on the middeck of the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9. Malerba, wearing a flight suit, familiarizes himself with the operation of the CES pole which extends out the shuttle mockup's open side hatch. The CES pole is used if emergency egress is required during the launch or ascent phase of flight.

  2. STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, crewmembers train in JSC Mockup and Integration Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-28 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crewmembers participate in shuttle emergency egress (bailout) procedures in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Wearing launch and entry suits (LESs), crewmembers (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) Mark C. Brown, MS David C. Leestma, MS James C. Adamson, Pilot Richard N. Richards, and Commander Brewster H. Shaw pause before training exercise. Training personnel adjust Richards' and Shaw's LESs. In the background are additional personnel and the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF) surrounded by helium-filled mockups.

  3. A path to stable low-torque plasma operation in ITER with test blanket modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanctot, M. J.; Snipes, J. A.; Reimerdes, H.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Logan, N.; Hanson, J. M.; Buttery, R. J.; deGrassie, J. S.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gray, T. K.; Grierson, B. A.; King, J. D.; Kramer, G. J.; La Haye, R. J.; Pace, D. C.; Park, J.-K.; Salmi, A.; Shiraki, D.; Strait, E. J.; Solomon, W. M.; Tala, T.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    New experiments in the low-torque ITER Q  =  10 scenario on DIII-D demonstrate that n  =  1 magnetic fields from a single row of ex-vessel control coils enable operation at ITER performance metrics in the presence of applied non-axisymmetric magnetic fields from a test blanket module (TBM) mock-up coil. With n  =  1 compensation, operation below the ITER-equivalent injected torque is successful at three times the ITER equivalent toroidal magnetic field ripple for a pair of TBMs in one equatorial port, whereas the uncompensated TBM field leads to rotation collapse, loss of H-mode and plasma current disruption. In companion experiments at high plasma beta, where the n  =  1 plasma response is enhanced, uncorrected TBM fields degrade energy confinement and the plasma angular momentum while increasing fast ion losses; however, disruptions are not routinely encountered owing to increased levels of injected neutral beam torque. In this regime, n  =  1 field compensation leads to recovery of a dominant fraction of the TBM-induced plasma pressure and rotation degradation, and an 80% reduction in the heat load to the first wall. These results show that the n  =  1 plasma response plays a dominant role in determining plasma stability, and that n  =  1 field compensation alone not only recovers most of the impact on plasma performance of the TBM, but also protects the first wall from potentially damaging heat flux. Despite these benefits, plasma rotation braking from the TBM fields cannot be fully recovered using standard error field control. Given the uncertainty in extrapolation of these results to the ITER configuration, it is prudent to design the TBMs with as low a ferromagnetic mass as possible without jeopardizing the TBM mission.

  4. A path to stable low-torque plasma operation in ITER with test blanket modules

    DOE PAGES

    Lanctot, Matthew J.; Snipes, J. A.; Reimerdes, H.; ...

    2016-12-12

    New experiments in the low-torque ITER Q = 10 scenario on DIII-D demonstrate that n = 1 magnetic fields from a single row of ex-vessel control coils enable operation at ITER performance metrics in the presence of applied non-axisymmetric magnetic fields from a test blanket module (TBM) mock-up coil. With n = 1 compensation, operation below the ITER-equivalent injected torque is successful at three times the ITER equivalent toroidal magnetic field ripple for a pair of TBMs in one equatorial port, whereas the uncompensated TBM field leads to rotation collapse, loss of H-mode and plasma current disruption. In companion experimentsmore » at high plasma beta, where the n = 1 plasma response is enhanced, uncorrected TBM fields degrade energy confinement and the plasma angular momentum while increasing fast ion losses; however, disruptions are not routinely encountered owing to increased levels of injected neutral beam torque. In this regime, n = 1 field compensation leads to recovery of a dominant fraction of the TBM-induced plasma pressure and rotation degradation, and an 80% reduction in the heat load to the first wall. These results show that the n = 1 plasma response plays a dominant role in determining plasma stability, and that n = 1 field compensation alone not only recovers most of the impact on plasma performance of the TBM, but also protects the first wall from potentially damaging heat flux. Despite these benefits, plasma rotation braking from the TBM fields cannot be fully recovered using standard error field control. Lastly, given the uncertainty in extrapolation of these results to the ITER configuration, it is prudent to design the TBMs with as low a ferromagnetic mass as possible without jeopardizing the TBM mission.« less

  5. ITER test blanket module error field simulation experiments at DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, M. J.; Snipes, J. A.; Gohil, P.; de Vries, P.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Gao, X.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gates, D. A.; Greenfield, C. M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Kramer, G. J.; La Haye, R. J.; Liu, S.; Loarte, A.; Nave, M. F. F.; Osborne, T. H.; Oyama, N.; Park, J.-K.; Ramasubramanian, N.; Reimerdes, H.; Saibene, G.; Salmi, A.; Shinohara, K.; Spong, D. A.; Solomon, W. M.; Tala, T.; Zhu, Y. B.; Boedo, J. A.; Chuyanov, V.; Doyle, E. J.; Jakubowski, M.; Jhang, H.; Nazikian, R. M.; Pustovitov, V. D.; Schmitz, O.; Srinivasan, R.; Taylor, T. S.; Wade, M. R.; You, K.-I.; Zeng, L.; DIII-D Team

    2011-10-01

    Experiments at DIII-D investigated the effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from proposed ITER test blanket modules (TBMs) containing ferromagnetic material. Studied were effects on: plasma rotation and locking, confinement, L-H transition, the H-mode pedestal, edge localized modes (ELMs) and ELM suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations, energetic particle losses, and more. The experiments used a purpose-built three-coil mock-up of two magnetized ITER TBMs in one ITER equatorial port. The largest effect was a reduction in plasma toroidal rotation velocity v across the entire radial profile by as much as Δv/v ~ 60% via non-resonant braking. Changes to global Δn/n, Δβ/β and ΔH98/H98 were ~3 times smaller. These effects are stronger at higher β. Other effects were smaller. The TBM field increased sensitivity to locking by an applied known n = 1 test field in both L- and H-mode plasmas. Locked mode tolerance was completely restored in L-mode by re-adjusting the DIII-D n = 1 error field compensation system. Numerical modelling by IPEC reproduces the rotation braking and locking semi-quantitatively, and identifies plasma amplification of a few n = 1 Fourier harmonics as the main cause of braking. IPEC predicts that TBM braking in H-mode may be reduced by n = 1 control. Although extrapolation from DIII-D to ITER is still an open issue, these experiments suggest that a TBM-like error field will produce only a few potentially troublesome problems, and that they might be made acceptably small.

  6. A path to stable low-torque plasma operation in ITER with test blanket modules

    SciTech Connect

    Lanctot, Matthew J.; Snipes, J. A.; Reimerdes, H.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Logan, N.; Hanson, J. M.; Buttery, R. J.; deGrassie, J. S.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gray, T. K.; Grierson, B. A.; King, J. D.; Kramer, G. J.; La Haye, R. J.; Pace, D. C.; Park, J. -K.; Salmi, A.; Shiraki, D.; Strait, E. J.; Solomon, W. M.; Tala, T.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2016-12-12

    New experiments in the low-torque ITER Q = 10 scenario on DIII-D demonstrate that n = 1 magnetic fields from a single row of ex-vessel control coils enable operation at ITER performance metrics in the presence of applied non-axisymmetric magnetic fields from a test blanket module (TBM) mock-up coil. With n = 1 compensation, operation below the ITER-equivalent injected torque is successful at three times the ITER equivalent toroidal magnetic field ripple for a pair of TBMs in one equatorial port, whereas the uncompensated TBM field leads to rotation collapse, loss of H-mode and plasma current disruption. In companion experiments at high plasma beta, where the n = 1 plasma response is enhanced, uncorrected TBM fields degrade energy confinement and the plasma angular momentum while increasing fast ion losses; however, disruptions are not routinely encountered owing to increased levels of injected neutral beam torque. In this regime, n = 1 field compensation leads to recovery of a dominant fraction of the TBM-induced plasma pressure and rotation degradation, and an 80% reduction in the heat load to the first wall. These results show that the n = 1 plasma response plays a dominant role in determining plasma stability, and that n = 1 field compensation alone not only recovers most of the impact on plasma performance of the TBM, but also protects the first wall from potentially damaging heat flux. Despite these benefits, plasma rotation braking from the TBM fields cannot be fully recovered using standard error field control. Lastly, given the uncertainty in extrapolation of these results to the ITER configuration, it is prudent to design the TBMs with as low a ferromagnetic mass as possible without jeopardizing the TBM mission.

  7. ITER Test Blanket Module Error Field Simulation Experiments at DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, M. J.; Testa, D.; Snipes, J. A.; Gohil, P.; De Vries, P.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Gao, X.; Garofalo, A.; Gates, D.A.; Greenfield, C. M.; Heidbrink, W.; La Haye, R.; Liu, S.; Loarte, A.; Nave, M. F. F.; Oyama, N.; Osakabe, M.; Park, J. K.; Ramasubramanian, N.; Reimerdes, H.; Saibene, G.; Saimi, A.; Shinohara, K.; Spong, Donald A; Solomon, W. M.; Tala, T.; Zhu, Y. B.; Zhai, K.; Boedo, J.; Chuyanov, V.; Doyle, E. J.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Jhang, H.; Nazikian, Raffi; Pustovitov, V. D.; Schmitz, O.; Sanchez, Raul; Srinivasan, R.; Taylor, T. S.; Wade, M.; You, K. I.; Zeng, L.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments at DIII-D investigated the effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from proposed ITER test blanket modules (TBMs) containing ferromagnetic material. Studied were effects on: plasma rotation and locking, confinement, L-H transition, the H-mode pedestal, edge localized modes (ELMs) and ELM suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations, energetic particle losses, and more. The experiments used a purpose-built three-coil mock-up of two magnetized ITER TBMs in one ITER equatorial port. The largest effect was a reduction in plasma toroidal rotation velocity v across the entire radial profile by as much as Delta upsilon/upsilon similar to 60% via non-resonant braking. Changes to global Delta n/n, Delta beta/beta and Delta H(98)/H(98) were similar to 3 times smaller. These effects are stronger at higher beta. Other effects were smaller. The TBM field increased sensitivity to locking by an applied known n = 1 test field in both L-and H-mode plasmas. Locked mode tolerance was completely restored in L-mode by re-adjusting the DIII-D n = 1 error field compensation system. Numerical modelling by IPEC reproduces the rotation braking and locking semi-quantitatively, and identifies plasma amplification of a few n = 1 Fourier harmonics as the main cause of braking. IPEC predicts that TBM braking in H-mode may be reduced by n = 1 control. Although extrapolation from DIII-D to ITER is still an open issue, these experiments suggest that a TBM-like error field will produce only a few potentially troublesome problems, and that they might be made acceptably small.

  8. Flow characteristics of the Cascade granular blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.H.; Walton, O.R.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of a single granule on a rotating cone shows that for the 35/sup 0/ half-angle, double-cone-shaped Cascade chamber, blanket granules will stay against the chamber wall if the rotational speed is 50 rpm or greater. The granules move axially down the wall with a slight (5-mm or less) sinusoidal oscillation in the circumferential direction. Granule chute-flow experiments confirm that two-layered flow can be obtained when the chute is inclined slightly above the granular material angle of repose. The top surface layer is thin and fast moving (supercritical flow). A thick bottom layer moves more slowly (subcritical flow controlled at the exit) with a velocity that increases with distance from the bottom of the chute. This is a desirable velocity profile because in the Cascade chamber about one-third of the fusion energy is deposited in the form of x rays and fusion-fuel-pellet debris in the top surface (inner-radius) layer.

  9. Flow characteristics of the Cascade granular blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.H.; Walton, O.R.

    1985-04-15

    Analysis of a single granule on a rotating cone shows that for the 35/sup 0/ half-angle, double-cone-shaped Cascade chamber, blanket granules will stay against the chamber wall if the rotational speed is 50 rpm or greater. The granules move axially down the wall with a slight (5-mm or less) sinusoidal oscillation in the circumferential direction. Granule chute-flow experiments confirm that two-layered flow can be obtained when the chute is inclined slightly above the granular material angle of repose. The top surface layer is thin and fast moving (supercritical flow). A thick bottom layer moves more slowly (subcritical flow controlled at the exit) with a velocity that increases with distance from the bottom of the chute. This is a desirable velocity profile because in the Cascade chamber about one-third of the fusion energy is deposited in the form of x rays and fusion-fuel-pellet debris in the top surface (inner-radius) layer.

  10. Blanket of Snow Covers Salt Lake City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On December 23, 2001, less than two months before the start of the 2002 Winter Olympics, snow blankets Salt Lake City and the surrounding area. The Great Salt Lake, on the left hand side of the image above, often contributes to the region's snowfall through the 'lake-effect.' As cold air passes over a large body of water it both warms and absorbs moisture. The warm air then rises (like a hot air balloon) and cools again. As it cools, the water vapor condenses out, resulting in snowfall. Just to the east (right) of the Great Salt Lake the mountains of the Wasatch Range lift air from the lake even higher, enhancing the lake-effect, resulting in an average snowfall of 64 inches a year in Salt Lake City and 140 inches in Park City, which is located at the foot of the Wasatch Front. For more information about the lake-effect, read Lake-Effect Snowfalls. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  11. Blanket of Snow Covers Salt Lake City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On December 23, 2001, less than two months before the start of the 2002 Winter Olympics, snow blankets Salt Lake City and the surrounding area. The Great Salt Lake, on the left hand side of the image above, often contributes to the region's snowfall through the 'lake-effect.' As cold air passes over a large body of water it both warms and absorbs moisture. The warm air then rises (like a hot air balloon) and cools again. As it cools, the water vapor condenses out, resulting in snowfall. Just to the east (right) of the Great Salt Lake the mountains of the Wasatch Range lift air from the lake even higher, enhancing the lake-effect, resulting in an average snowfall of 64 inches a year in Salt Lake City and 140 inches in Park City, which is located at the foot of the Wasatch Front. For more information about the lake-effect, read Lake-Effect Snowfalls. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  12. Status report. Characterization of Weld Residual Stresses on a Full-Diameter SNF Interim Storage Canister Mockup.

    SciTech Connect

    Enos, David; Bryan, Charles R.

    2015-08-01

    This report documents the mockup specifications and manufacturing processes; the initial cutting of the mockup into three cylindrical pieces for testing and the measured strain changes that occurred during the cutting process; and the planned weld residual stress characterization activities and the status of those activities.

  13. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Helium-Gas Accident Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Helium Supply Rupture into Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    The model results are used to determine if beam power shutdown is necessary (or not) as a result of the LOHGA accident to maintain the blanket system well below any of the thermal-hydraulic constraints imposed on the design. The results also provide boundary conditions to the detailed bin model to study the detailed temperature response of the hot blanket module structure. The results for these two cases are documented in the report.

  14. Accelerator breeder nuclear fuel production: concept evaluation of a modified design for ORNL's proposed TME-ENFP

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.O.; Gabriel, T.A.; Bartine, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    Recent advances in accelerator beam technology have made it possible to improve the target/blanket design of the Ternary Metal Fueled Electronuclear Fuel Producer (TMF-ENFP), an accelerator-breeder design concept proposed by Burnss et al. for subcritical breeding of the fissile isotope /sup 233/U. In the original TMF-ENFP the 300-mA, 1100-MeV proton beam was limited to a small diameter whose power density was so high that a solid metal target could not be used for producing the spallation neutrons needed to drive the breeding process. Instead the target was a central column of circulating liquid sodium, which was surrounded by an inner multiplying region of ternary fuel rods (/sup 239/Pu, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U) and an outer blanket region of /sup 232/Th rods, with the entire system cooled by circulating sodium. In the modified design proposed here, the proton beam is sufficiently spread out to allow the ternary fuel to reside directly in the beam and to be preceded by a thin (nonstructural) V-Ti steel firThe spread beam mandated a change in the design configuration (from a cylindrical shape to an Erlenmeyer flask shape), which, in turn, required that the fuel rods (and blanket rods) be replaced by fuel pebbles. The fuel residence time in both systems was assumed to be 90 full power days. A series of parameter optimization calculations for the modified TMF-ENFP led to a semioptimized system in which the initial /sup 239/Pu inventory of the ternary fuel was 6% and the fuel pebble diameter was 0.5 cm. With this system the /sup 233/Pu production rate of 5.8 kg/day reported for the original TMF-ENFP was increased to 9.3 kg/day, and the thermal power production at beginning of cycle was increased from 3300 MW(t) to 5240 MW(t). 31 refs., 32 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Mars and the Amazing Technicolor Ejecta Blanket

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-12

    This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows the exposed bedrock of an ejecta blanket of an unnamed crater in the Mare Serpentis region of Mars. Ejecta, when exposed, are truly an eye-opening feature, as they reveal the sometimes exotic subsurface, and materials created by impacts (close-up view). This ejecta shares similarities to others found elsewhere on Mars, which are of particular scientific interest for the extent of exposure and diverse colors. (For example, the Hargraves Crater ejecta, in the Nili Fossae trough region, was once considered as a candidate landing site for the next NASA Mars rover 2020.) The colors observed in this picture represent different rocks and minerals, now exposed on the surface. Blue in HiRISE infrared color images generally depicts iron-rich minerals, like olivine and pyroxene. Lighter colors, such as yellow, indicate the presence of altered rocks. The possible sources of the ejecta is most likely from two unnamed craters. How do we determine which crater deposited the ejecta? A full-scale image shows numerous linear features that are observed trending in an east-west direction. These linear features indicate the flow direction of the ejecta from its unnamed host crater. Therefore, if we follow them, we find that they emanate from the bottom of the two unnamed craters. If the ejecta had originated from the top crater, then we would expect the linear features at the location of our picture to trend northwest to southeast. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21782

  16. Payload specialists in training for STS 51-L in mockup and integration lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Payload specialists in training for STS 51-L take a break in Shuttle emergency egress training at JSC's mockup and integration laboratory. Left to right are Gregory Jarvis of Hughes, Sharon Christa McAuliffe and Barbara Morgan of the Teacher in Space Project.

  17. Seeing is Believing: Video Mock-Ups to Evaluate and Demonstrate Multimedia Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadde, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    A video mock-up is a "design story", described by Patrick Parrish in a recent "TechTrends" article as "imagining the journey of a learner's experience in engaging with a finished design". A design story allows designers to show their design vision to others and to observe features and benefits of the program as a learner would experience it. The…

  18. REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA635. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. MOCKUP AND PRESSURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR SERVICES BUILDING, TRA-635. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. MOCK-UP AND PRESSURE TEST AREAS. ISSUE ROOM, LAUNDRY, STORAGE. IDO MTR-635-IDO-5-A, 6/1953. INL INDEX NO. 531-0635-00-396-110588, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. STS-125 Crew during Post Insertion/Deorbit Prep training in CCT II mockup.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-29

    JSC2008-E-008451 (29 Jan. 2008) --- Astronaut Gregory C. Johnson, STS-125 pilot, dons a training version of his shuttle launch and entry suit in preparation for a training session in the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at Johnson Space Center. United Space Alliance (USA) suit technician Toni Cost-Davis assisted Johnson.

  20. STS-125 Crew during Post Insertion/Deorbit Prep training in CCT II mockup.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-29

    JSC2008-E-008454 (29 Jan. 2008) --- Astronaut Gregory C. Johnson, STS-125 pilot, dons a training version of his shuttle launch and entry suit in preparation for a training session in the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility at Johnson Space Center. United Space Alliance (USA) suit technician Toni Cost-Davis assisted Johnson.

  1. STS-134 post insertion/deorbit prep training in building 9NW's FFT mockup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-12

    JSC2010-E-051959 (12 April 2010) --- NASA astronaut Andrew Feustel, STS-134 mission specialist, dons a training version of his shuttle launch and entry suit in preparation for a post insertion/de-orbit training session in the Space Vehicle Mock-up Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center. United Space Alliance suit technicians Toni Cost-Davis and Jim Cheatham assisted Feustel.

  2. STS-29 MS Bagian during post landing egress exercises in JSC FFT mockup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-01-19

    S89-25704 (Feb 1989) --- Astronaut James P. Bagian, STS-29 mission specialist, works his way down to "safety" using a Sky-genie device during emergency egress training for his five-member crew. Three other crewmembers watch in the background and await their turns with the rehearsal. The training took place in the Johnson Space Center's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  3. Structural-hydraulic test of the liquid metal EURISOL target mock-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milenković, Rade Ž.; Dementjevs, Sergejs; Samec, Karel; Platacis, Ernests; Zik, Anatolij; Flerov, Aleksej; Manfrin, Enzo; Thomsen, Knud

    2009-08-01

    Structural-hydraulic tests of the European Isotope Separation On-Line (EURISOL) neutron converter target mock-up, named MErcury Target EXperiment 1 (METEX 1), have been conducted by Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI, Switzerland) in cooperation with Institute of Physics of the University of Latvia (IPUL, Latvia). PSI proceeded with extensive thermal-hydraulic and structural computational studies, followed by the target mock-up tests carried out on the mercury loop at IPUL. One of the main goals of the METEX 1 test is to investigate the hydraulic and structural behaviour of the EURISOL target mock-up for various inlet flow conditions (i.e. mass flow rates) and, in particular, for nominal operating flow rate and pressure in the system. The experimental results were analysed by advanced time-frequency methods such as Short-Time Fourier Transform in order to check the vibration characteristics of the mock-up and the resonance risk. The experimental results (obtained in METEX 1), which include inlet flow rate, pressure of the cover gas, total pressure loss, structural acceleration, sound and strain data, were jointly analysed together with numerical data obtained from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD).

  4. REACTOR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA635. CROWDED MOCKUP AREA. CAMERA FACES EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REACTOR SERVICE BUILDING, TRA-635. CROWDED MOCK-UP AREA. CAMERA FACES EAST. PHOTOGRAPHER'S NOTE SAYS "PICTURE REQUESTED BY IDO IN SUPPORT OF FY '58 BUILDING PROJECTS." INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3025. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 9/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. High heat flux performance of brazed tungsten macro-brush test mock-up for divertors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Yashashri; Khirwadkar, S. S.; Krishnan, D.; Patel, A.; Tripathi, S.; Singh, K. P.; Belsare, S. M.

    2013-06-01

    Plasma facing components (PFCs) of divertor will be exposed to steady state and transient heat loads up to 20 MW/m2, during operation of ITER-like plasma fusion device. The critical task in fusion research is to design, fabricate and test of PFCs. To withstand high heat loads, PFCs are designed and fabricated in flat tile, mono-block type geometries using tungsten as plasma facing material and CuCrZr alloy is used as a heat sink. These fabricated mock-ups are tested under thermal cyclic heat loads using intense electron beam in pulsed mode. Tungsten macro-brush type of mock-up has been developed by vacuum furnace brazing route. Mock-up was tested to the absorbed heat flux in the range of 0.5-9 MW/m2. Simulation of high heat flux (HHF) test under steady state and cyclic heat loads has been done using ANSYS12 finite element analysis (FEA) software. HHF tests have been successfully performed on the tungsten mock-up.

  6. Development of joining processes and fabrication of US first wall qualification mockups for ITER.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Roger M.; Puskar, Joseph David; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew; Goods, Steven Howard

    2009-04-01

    We report here the fabrication processes used to manufacture US Party Team First Wall Qualification Mockups along with the detailed microstructural characterization and mechanical properties of the Be/CuCrZr/316L HIP bonds. A companion submission to this conference describes details of the PMTF heat flux testing and the performance of the first US FWQM.

  7. Mercury capsule mock-up suspended from ship during water egress training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-04-26

    S61-03941 (26 April 1961) --- A mock-up of the Mercury space capsule is held suspended above the water aboard the ship that is taking astronauts Grissom and Glenn to their emergency water egress training. Photo credit: NASA

  8. Millimeter wave experiment of ITER equatorial EC launcher mock-up

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, K.; Oda, Y.; Kajiwara, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Isozaki, M.; Sakamoto, K.; Omori, T.; Henderson, M.

    2014-02-12

    The full-scale mock-up of the equatorial launcher was fabricated in basis of the baseline design to investigate the mm-wave propagation properties of the launcher, the manufacturability, the cooling line management, how to assemble the components and so on. The mock-up consists of one of three mm-wave transmission sets and one of eight waveguide lines can deliver the mm-wave power. The mock-up was connected to the ITER compatible transmission line and the 170GHz gyrotron and the high power experiment was carried out. The measured radiation pattern of the beam at the location of 2.5m away from the EL mock-up shows the successful steering capability of 20°∼40°. It was also revealed that the radiated profile at both steering and fixed focusing mirror agreed with the calculation. The result also suggests that some unwanted modes are included in the radiated beam. Transmission of 0.5MW-0.4sec and of 0.12MW-50sec were also demonstrated.

  9. HT-9 duct cutting - IEM cell and mock-up testing experience at FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, P.W.; Greenwell, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes experience gained during remote cutting of the HT-9 alloy duct from an advanced fuel assembly in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) cell at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Also describes is a test program performed on mock-up equipment to develop successful cutting parameters.

  10. Design and fabrication of the NASA HL-20 support cradle and interior mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exum, Thurman

    1991-01-01

    An extensive test program involving analysis in both the horizontal and vertical attitudes of the HL-20 will be conducted by NASA-Langley. This necessitated the fabrication of a steel support cradle for the composite Personnel Launch System (PLS) model and an internal mockup to simulate the pilot and passenger compartments.

  11. STS-41 MS Akers looks up at mockup prior to egress training in JSC's MAIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-41 Mission Specialist (MS) Thomas D. Akers, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), looks up at crew compartment trainer (CCT) prior to emergency egress training exercises. The exercises were conducted in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A.

  12. STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, MS Brown dons LES in JSC Mockup and Integration Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-28 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Mission Specialist (MS) Mark N. Brown, wearing communications carrier assembly (CCA) and launch and entry suit (LES), prepares to don launch and entry helmet (LEH). Brown suits up for shuttle emergency egress (bailout) procedures in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A.

  13. Seeing is Believing: Video Mock-Ups to Evaluate and Demonstrate Multimedia Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadde, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    A video mock-up is a "design story", described by Patrick Parrish in a recent "TechTrends" article as "imagining the journey of a learner's experience in engaging with a finished design". A design story allows designers to show their design vision to others and to observe features and benefits of the program as a learner would experience it. The…

  14. STS-46 Payload Specialist Malerba sits at the pilots station in JSC mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Italian Payload Specialist Franco Malerba sits at the pilots station on the forward flight deck of the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9. Malerba, wearing a flight suit, is participating in a hardware familiarity training session.

  15. Payload specialists in training for STS 51-L in mockup and integration lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Payload specialists in training for STS 51-L take a break in Shuttle emergency egress training at JSC's mockup and integration laboratory. Left to right are Gregory Jarvis of Hughes, Sharon Christa McAuliffe and Barbara Morgan of the Teacher in Space Project.

  16. Validation Work to Support the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Calculational Burnup Methodology Using Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Spent Fuel Assay Data

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Sterbentz

    1999-08-01

    Six uranium isotopes and fourteen fission product isotopes were calculated on a mass basis at end-of-life (EOL) conditions for three fuel rods from different Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) measurements. The three fuel rods evaluated here were taken from an LWBR seed module, a standard blanket module, and a reflector (Type IV) module. The calculated results were derived using a depletion methodology previously employed to evaluate many of the radionuclide inventories for spent nuclear fuels at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The primary goal of the calculational task was to further support the validation of this particular calculational methodology and its application to diverse reactor types and fuels. Result comparisons between the calculated and measured mass concentrations in the three rods indicate good agreement for the three major uranium isotopes (U-233, U-234, U-235) with differences of less than 20%. For the seed and standard blanket rod, the U-233 and U-234 differences were within 5% of the measured values (these two isotopes alone represent greater than 97% of the EOL total uranium mass). For the major krypton and xenon fission product isotopes, differences of less than 20% and less than 30% were observed, respectively. In general, good agreement was obtained for nearly all the measured isotopes. For these isotopes exhibiting significant differences, possible explanations are discussed in terms of measurement uncertainty, complex transmutations, etc.

  17. Fuel Summary Report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor - Rev. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Gail Lynn; Mc Cardell, Richard Keith; Illum, Douglas Brent

    2002-09-01

    The Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was developed by Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory to demonstrate the potential of a water-cooled, thorium oxide fuel cycle breeder reactor. The LWBR core operated from 1977-82 without major incident. The fuel and fuel components suffered minimal damage during operation, and the reactor testing was deemed successful. Extensive destructive and nondestructive postirradiation examinations confirmed that the fuel was in good condition with minimal amounts of cladding deformities and fuel pellet cracks. Fuel was placed in wet storage upon arrival at the Expended Core Facility, then dried and sent to the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center for underground dry storage. It is likely that the fuel remains in good condition at its current underground dry storage location at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Reports show no indication of damage to the core associated with shipping, loading, or storage.

  18. Feasibility study on the thorium fueled boiling water breeder reactor

    SciTech Connect

    PetrusTakaki, N.

    2012-07-01

    The feasibility of (Th,U)O 2 fueled, boiling water breeder reactor based on conventional BWR technology has been studied. In order to determine the potential use of water cooled thorium reactor as a competitive breeder, this study evaluated criticality, breeding and void reactivity coefficient in response to changes made in MFR and fissile enrichments. The result of the study shows that while using light water as moderator, low moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR=0.5), it was possible to breed fissile fuel in negative void reactivity condition. However the burnup value was lower than the value of the current LWR. On the other hand, heavy water cooled reactor shows relatively wider feasible breeding region, which lead into possibility of designing a core having better neutronic and economic performance than light water with negative void reactivity coefficient. (authors)

  19. Role of the breeder in long-term energy economics

    SciTech Connect

    Kosobud, R.F.; Daly, T.A.; Chang, Y.I.

    1982-01-01

    Private and public decisions affecting the use of nuclear and other energy technologies over a long-run time horizon were studied using the ETA-MACRO model which provides for economic- and energy-sector interactions. The impact on the use of competing energy technologies of a public decision to apply benefit-cost analysis to the production of carbon dioxide that enters the atmosphere is considered. Assuming the public choice is to impose an appropriate penalty tax on those technologies which generate CO/sub 2/ and to allow decentralized private decisions to choose the optimal mix of energy technologies that maximize a nonlinear objective function subject to constraints, the study showed that breeder technology provides a much-larger share of domestically consumed energy. Having the breeder technology available as a substitute permits control of CO/sub 2/ without significant reductions in consumption or gross national product growth paths.

  20. Charge breeder for the SPIRAL1 upgrade: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Maunoury, L. Delahaye, P.; Dubois, M.; Bajeat, O.; Frigot, R.; Jeanne, A.; Jardin, P.; Kamalou, O.; Lecomte, P.; Osmond, B.; Peschard, G.; Savalle, A.; Angot, J.; Sole, P.; Lamy, T.

    2016-02-15

    In the framework of the SPIRAL1 upgrade under progress at the GANIL lab, the charge breeder based on a LPSC Phoenix ECRIS, first tested at ISOLDE has been modified to benefit of the last enhancements of this device from the 1+/n+ community. The modifications mainly concern the 1 + optics, vacuum techniques, and the RF—buffer gas injection into the charge breeder. Prior to its installation in the midst of the low energy beam line of the SPIRAL1 facility, it has been decided to qualify its performances and several operation modes at the test bench of LPSC lab. This contribution shall present preliminary results of experiments conducted at LPSC concerning the 1 + to n+ conversion efficiencies for noble gases as well as for alkali elements and the corresponding transformation times.

  1. Mechanical properties of irradiated fast breeder reactor cladding and ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.; Hunter, C.W.

    1983-02-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are being used for various core components in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors. Twenty percent cold worked Type 316 stainless steel is being used for both fuel pin cladding and ducts in the Fast Flux Test Facility. Safe and reliable operation of breeder reactors requires a characterization of the effects of fast neutron irradiation and environment on the mechanical properties of the cladding and duct material. Nearly 1400 tests have been conducted on unirradiated and irradiated cladding and duct samples under conditions relevant to reactor operational and transient events. Six different types of tests conducted on cladding and duct samples are described and the effects of irradiation on the properties are discussed.

  2. Steam generator for liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Garner, Daniel C.; Wineman, Arthur L.; Robey, Robert M.

    1985-01-01

    Improvements in the design of internal components of J-shaped steam generators for liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Complex design improvements have been made to the internals of J-shaped steam generators which improvements are intended to reduce tube vibration, tube jamming, flow problems in the upper portion of the steam generator, manufacturing complexities in tube spacer attachments, thermal stripping potentials and difficulties in the weld fabrication of certain components.

  3. Protein and sulfur amino acid requirements of broiler breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Harms, R H; Wilson, H R

    1980-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted with Cobb color-sexed broiler breeder hens to determine their protein and sulfur amino acid requirement. A daily intake between 400 and 478 mg of methionine and between 722 and 839 mg of total sulfur amino acids was necessary for maximum egg production, the latter in a diet of 13.07% protein. Slightly lower levels supported maximum body weights. Hens laying at the highest rate consumed 23.4 g of protein per day.

  4. Breeder age influences embryogenesis in broiler hatching eggs.

    PubMed

    Peebles, E D; Doyle, S M; Zumwalt, C D; Gerard, P D; Latour, M A; Boyle, C R; Smith, T W

    2001-03-01

    The effects of dietary fat and broiler breeder age on egg and embryo characteristics during incubation were investigated. Breeders were fed diets containing no added fat or 3.0% added poultry fat (PF) for peak energy intakes of 430 and 467 kcal/hen day (pC/d), or 1.5% PF or 3.0% corn oil at 449 pC/d. Feeding of diets was initiated at 22 wk, and eggs were collected for incubation at 27 and 36 wk of age. Percentage incubational egg weight loss was determined between day of set and Days 6, 12, and 18. Percentage wet and dry embryo weights, embryo moisture content, and eggshell weights were determined at 6, 12, and 18 d of incubation. Percentage yolk sac weight and wet and dry liver weights and moisture content were determined on Days 12 and 18. Percentage gall bladder weight was determined on Day 18. There were no observed effects due to breeder diet. However, eggshell weight at Days 6, 12, and 18 was higher in 27-wk-old hens compared with 36-wk-old hens. Conversely, egg weight loss between Day 0 and Days 6, 12, and 18 and yolk sac weight across Days 12 and 18 of incubation were lower in eggs at 27 wk of age compared with 36 wk. At Day 18, dry embryo weight was higher and wet liver weight was lower at 27 wk compared with 36 wk. A slower rate of DM accumulation in embryos at Week 36 compared to Week 27 was associated with increased incubational water loss and decreased embryo moisture content, eggshell percentage, and yolk sac absorption rate. These data demonstrate that changes in eggshell characteristics with broiler breeder age can alone impact yolk uptake, growth, and body composition in subsequent embryos.

  5. Structural materials for breeder reactor cores and coolant circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.

    1984-02-01

    The structural components of principal interest in LMFBR cores and cooling circuits include the reactor vessel, primary and secondary piping, intermediate heat exchanger (IHX), and steam generator. Load-bearing components inside the vessel, among these the fuel cladding and duct, are also included. The operating conditions present in a fast-breeder nuclear reactor impose a number of requirements on the mechanical, physical, and neutronic properties of the materials used to construct these components.

  6. Parameters for quantification of hunger in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Ingrid C; van Voorst, A Sander; Blokhuis, Harry J

    2003-04-01

    The commercial restricted feeding programme of broiler breeders has a major negative effect on welfare, as the birds are continuously hungry. Objective parameters of hunger are needed to evaluate new management or feeding systems that may alleviate hunger and thus improve broiler breeder welfare. The aim of this experiment was to develop such parameters. Female broiler breeders (Hybro G), n=10 per treatment, were subjected to different levels of feed restriction and we assumed that we thus induced different levels of hunger. Treatment groups were fed ad libitum and at 90%, 70%, 50%, 35% and 25% of ad libitum. In addition, female broiler breeders that were less intensively selected on growth and food conversion (JA57, n=10 per treatment) were fed ad libitum and at 70% of ad libitum. At 6-7 weeks of age, home pen behaviour, behaviour in the open field and baseline plasma corticosterone, glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were determined. Thereafter, birds were subjected to the feed intake motivation (FIM) test that measures compensatory feed intake. Linear relationships between the level of restriction and the compensatory feed intake on the first days of the FIM test and the glucose/NEFA ratio were found which indicate that these parameters can be used to quantify the level of hunger. Curvilinear relationships between sitting and standing in the home pen, walking in the open field and level of restriction were found. A third-grade hyperbolic relationship between the level of restriction and the baseline plasma corticosterone concentration was found. Thus, these parameters do not seem to represent a straightforward relation with the level of hunger. Intensive selection on growth and food conversion seems to have affected the behaviour but not the physiological responses to feed restriction, because the JA57 birds responded behaviourally, but not physiologically, different to feed restriction as compared with the Hybro birds.

  7. Assessment of alkali metal coolants for the ITER blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C.B.; Mattas, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    The blanket system is one of the most important components of a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The Blanket Comparison and Selection Study, conducted earlier, described the overall comparative performance of different blanket concepts, including liquid metal, molten salt, water, and helium. This paper will discuss the ITER requirements for a self-cooled blanket concept with liquid lithium and for indirectly cooled concepts that use other alkali metals such as NaK. The paper will address the thermodynamics of interactions between the liquid metals (i.e., lithium and NaK) and structural materials (e.g., V-base alloys), together with associated corrosion/compatibility issues. Available experimental data will be used to assess the long-term performance of the first wall in a liquid metal environment.

  8. Thin blanket designs for the Elongated Tokamak Commercial Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.P.C.; Bourque, R.F.; Cheng, E.T.; Creedon, R.L.; Schultz, K.R.

    1986-11-01

    The Elongated Tokamak (ET)* is an innovative concept that uses as highly elongated plasma (plasma height-to-width ratio of 6-10) to allow high plasma current and high toroidal betas. ET has the potential for the development of small-size, high-power density, low-cost fusion reactors using normal conducting coils. The elongated plasma shape is achieved by use of a continuous stack of PF coils parallel to the plasma surface on both inbound and outbound sides. To achieve plasma stability, these coil stacks must be located no further than one plasma minor radius from the plasma edge, greatly restricting the space available for blankets. In order to assess the potential of a small reactor, the authors evaluated and designed blankets 30 to 40 cm thick. Three different thin blanket designs were found to be acceptable: FLiBe self-cooled, helium-cooled lithium, and helium-cooled 17Li83Pb blanket designs. A lithium-cooled integrated blanket-coil design (BLITZ-coil) was also found to be suitable for the ET commercial reactors.

  9. X-15 mock-up with test pilot Milt Thompson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA research pilot Milt Thompson is seen here with the mock-up of X-15 #3 that was later installed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Milton 0. Thompson was a research pilot, Chief Engineer and Director of Research Projects during a long career at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Thompson was hired as an engineer at the flight research facility on 19 March 1956, when it was still under the auspices of NACA. He became a research pilot on 25 May 1958. Thompson was one of the 12 NASA, Air Force, and Navy pilots to fly the X-15 rocket-powered research aircraft between 1959 and 1968. He began flying X-15s on 29 October 1963. He flew the aircraft 14 times during the following two years, reaching a maximum speed of 3723 mph (Mach 5.42) and a peak altitude of 214,100 feet on separate flights. (On a different flight, he reached a Mach number of 5.48 but his mph was only 3712.) Thompson concluded his active flying career in 1968, becoming Director of Research Projects. In 1975 he was appointed Chief Engineer and retained the position until his death on 8 August 1993. The X-15 was a rocket powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of thrust. North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense

  10. X-15 mock-up with test pilot Milt Thompson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA research pilot Milt Thompson stands next to a mock-up of X-15 number 3 that was later installed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Milton 0. Thompson was a research pilot, Chief Engineer and Director of Research Projects during a long career at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Thompson was hired as an engineer at the flight research facility on 19 March 1956, when it was still under the auspices of NACA. He became a research pilot on 25 May 1958. Thompson was one of the 12 NASA, Air Force, and Navy pilots to fly the X-15 rocket-powered research aircraft between 1959 and 1968. He began flying X-15s on 29 October 1963. He flew the aircraft 14 times during the following two years, reaching a maximum speed of 3723 mph (Mach 5.42) and a peak altitude of 214,100 feet on separate flights. Thompson concluded his active flying career in 1968, becoming Director of Research Projects. In 1975 he was appointed Chief Engineer and retained the position until his death on 8 August 1993. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of thrust. North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as

  11. Chemical reactivity of SiC fibre-reinforced SiC with beryllium and lithium ceramic breeder materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleykamp, H.

    2000-12-01

    SiC fibre-reinforced SiC fabrics (f-SiC/SiC) are considered for structural materials of advanced fusion blanket concepts. Priority tasks are compatibility studies of SiC with Li breeder ceramics and the Be neutron multiplier. Isothermal and anisothermal powder reactions by DTA up to 1220°C were examined between Li 4SiO 4, Li 2ZrO 3 and Li 2TiO 3, respectively, and SiC and SiC/SiO 2 mixtures, respectively. The SiC/SiO 2 mixture simulated the chemical state of Nicalon fibres. Solid state reactions between SiC and Be pellets were studied by capsule experiments. The reaction products Be 2C and Si were observed between the initial phases after annealing at 800°C and 900°C. A parabolic time law with a chemical diffusion coefficient D˜=2.6×10 -15 m 2/s of Be in the products was deduced at 900°C. Additional oxygen released from SiO 2 as a component of the simulated fibres oxidised the reaction products via the gas phase by formation of a Be 2SiO 4 layer. All reactions are kinetically hindered below 700°C.

  12. Gas core reactors for actinide transmutation and breeder applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    This work consists of design power plant studies for four types of reactor systems: uranium plasma core breeder, uranium plasma core actinide transmuter, UF6 breeder and UF6 actinide transmuter. The plasma core systems can be coupled to MHD generators to obtain high efficiency electrical power generation. A 1074 MWt UF6 breeder reactor was designed with a breeding ratio of 1.002 to guard against diversion of fuel. Using molten salt technology and a superheated steam cycle, an efficiency of 39.2% was obtained for the plant and the U233 inventory in the core and heat exchangers was limited to 105 Kg. It was found that the UF6 reactor can produce high fluxes (10 to the 14th power n/sq cm-sec) necessary for efficient burnup of actinide. However, the buildup of fissile isotopes posed severe heat transfer problems. Therefore, the flux in the actinide region must be decreased with time. Consequently, only beginning-of-life conditions were considered for the power plant design. A 577 MWt UF6 actinide transmutation reactor power plant was designed to operate with 39.3% efficiency and 102 Kg of U233 in the core and heat exchanger for beginning-of-life conditions.

  13. Reproduction responses of broiler-breeders to anticoccidial agents.

    PubMed

    Jones, J E; Solis, J; Hughes, B L; Castaldo, D J; Toler, J E

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of anticoccidial agents on production and reproduction of broiler breeders. In Experiment 1, nicarbazin (NCZ) was fed at 20, 50, and 100 ppm. There was no depression in egg production, egg weight, or fertility from feeding these levels. As level of NCZ increased, there was a linear decrease in hatchability. The amount of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) in the egg yolks increased linearly as the levels of NCZ went up; the degree of egg-shell depigmentation was directly related to the level of NCZ fed starting at 50 ppm. Experiment 2 utilized a different strain of broiler breeders. Halofuginone (3 ppm), maduramicin (5 ppm), monensin (100 ppm), narasin (70 ppm), NCZ (125 ppm), robenidine (33 ppm), and salinomycin (60 ppm) were fed to broiler breeders at the levels listed. Only NCZ reduced egg production. Narasin induced a reduction in egg weight. Both narasin and salinomycin caused a significant drop in hatchability. Feeding NCZ also induced a rapid and more severe decrease in hatchability. Monensin was the only anticoccidial agent that reduced fertility. Halofuginone, maduramicin, and robenidine had no biologically significant effect on henday production, egg weight, hatch of fertile eggs, or shell depigmentation. Feeding NCZ at 125 ppm caused a complete bleaching of brown-shell eggs by the 3rd consecutive day of treatment; but 7 days after NCZ was withdrawn from the feed, pigmentation returned to the pretreatment level.

  14. Breeding nuclear fuels with accelerators: replacement for breeder reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Grand, P.; Takahashi, H.

    1984-01-01

    One application of high energy particle accelerators has been, and still is, the production of nuclear fuel for the nuclear energy industry; tantalizing because it would create a whole new industry. This approach to producing fissile from fertile material was first considered in the early 1950's in the context of the nuclear weapons program. A considerable development effort was expended before discovery of uranium ore in New Mexico put an end to the project. Later, US commitment to the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR) killed any further interest in pursuing accelerator breeder technology. Interest in the application of accelerators to breed nuclear fuels, and possibly burn nuclear wastes, revived in the late 1970's, when the LMFBR came under attack during the Carter administration. This period gave the opportunity to revisit the concept in view of the present state of the technology. This evaluation and the extensive calculational modeling of target designs that have been carried out are promising. In fact, a nuclear fuel cycle of Light Water Reactors and Accelerator Breeders is competitive to that of the LMFBR. At this time, however, the relative abundance of uranium reserves vs electricity demand and projected growth rate render this study purely academic. It will be for the next generation of accelerator builders to demonstate the competitiveness of this technology versus that of other nuclear fuel cycles, such as LMFBR's or Fusion Hybrid systems. 22 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  15. Direct Lit Electrolysis In A Metallic Lithium Fusion Blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Colon-Mercado, H.; Babineau, D.; Elvington, M.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Teprovich, J.; Vaquer, A.

    2015-10-13

    A process that simplifies the extraction of tritium from molten lithium based breeding blankets was developed.  The process is based on the direct electrolysis of lithium tritide using a ceramic Li ion conductor that replaces the molten salt extraction step. Extraction of tritium in the form of lithium tritide in the blankets/targets of fission/fusion reactors is critical in order to maintained low concentrations.  This is needed to decrease the potential tritium permeation to the surroundings and large releases from unforeseen accident scenarios. Because of the high affinity of tritium for the blanket, extraction is complicated at the required low levels. This work identified, developed and tested the use of ceramic lithium ion conductors capable of recovering the hydrogen and deuterium thru an electrolysis step at high temperatures. 

  16. Direct LiT Electrolysis in a Metallic Fusion Blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Luke

    2016-09-30

    A process that simplifies the extraction of tritium from molten lithium-based breeding blankets was developed. The process is based on the direct electrolysis of lithium tritide using a ceramic Li ion conductor that replaces the molten salt extraction step. Extraction of tritium in the form of lithium tritide in the blankets/targets of fusion/fission reactors is critical in order to maintain low concentrations. This is needed to decrease the potential tritium permeation to the surroundings and large releases from unforeseen accident scenarios. Extraction is complicated due to required low tritium concentration limits and because of the high affinity of tritium for the blanket. This work identified, developed and tested the use of ceramic lithium ion conductors capable of recovering hydrogen and deuterium through an electrolysis step at high temperatures.

  17. Operational experience with the Argonne National Laboratory Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade facility and electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondrasek, R.; Clark, J.; Levand, A.; Palchan, T.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R.

    2014-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility provides low-energy and accelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams to address key nuclear physics and astrophysics questions. A 350 mCi 252Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The ECR charge breeder has achieved stable beam charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for 23Na7+, 17.9% for 39K10+, 15.6% for 84Kr17+, and 12.4% for 133Cs27+. For the radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for 143Cs27+ and 14.7% for 143Ba27+. The typical breeding times are 10 ms/charge state, but the source can be tuned such that this value increases to 100 ms/charge state with the best breeding efficiency corresponding to the longest breeding times—the variation of efficiencies with breeding time will be discussed. Efforts have been made to characterize and reduce the background contaminants present in the ion beam through judicious choice of q/m combinations. Methods of background reduction are being investigated based upon plasma chamber cleaning and vacuum practices.

  18. Operational experience with the Argonne National Laboratory Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade facility and electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder.

    PubMed

    Vondrasek, R; Clark, J; Levand, A; Palchan, T; Pardo, R; Savard, G; Scott, R

    2014-02-01

    The Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) of the Argonne National Laboratory Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility provides low-energy and accelerated neutron-rich radioactive beams to address key nuclear physics and astrophysics questions. A 350 mCi (252)Cf source produces fission fragments which are thermalized and collected by a helium gas catcher into a low-energy particle beam with a charge of 1+ or 2+. An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source functions as a charge breeder in order to raise the ion charge sufficiently for acceleration in the ATLAS linac. The ECR charge breeder has achieved stable beam charge breeding efficiencies of 10.1% for (23)Na(7+), 17.9% for (39)K(10+), 15.6% for (84)Kr(17+), and 12.4% for (133)Cs(27+). For the radioactive beams, a charge breeding efficiency of 11.7% has been achieved for (143)Cs(27+) and 14.7% for (143)Ba(27+). The typical breeding times are 10 ms/charge state, but the source can be tuned such that this value increases to 100 ms/charge state with the best breeding efficiency corresponding to the longest breeding times-the variation of efficiencies with breeding time will be discussed. Efforts have been made to characterize and reduce the background contaminants present in the ion beam through judicious choice of q/m combinations. Methods of background reduction are being investigated based upon plasma chamber cleaning and vacuum practices.

  19. Experimental impacts into Teflon targets and LDEF thermal blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, F.; Cintala, M. J.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bernhard, R. P.; See, T. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) exposed approximately 20 sq m of identical thermal protective blankets, predominantly on the Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE). Approximately 700 penetration holes greater than 300 micron in diameter were individually documented, while thousands of smaller penetrations and craters occurred in these blankets. As a result of their 5.7 year exposure and because they pointed into a variety of different directions relative to the orbital motion of the nonspinning LDEF platform, these blankets can reveal important dynamic aspects of the hypervelocity particle environment in near-earth orbit. The blankets were composed of an outer teflon layer (approximately 125 micron thick), followed by a vapor-deposited rear mirror of silver (less than 1000 A thick) that was backed with an organic binder and a thermal protective paint (approximately 50 to 75 micron thick), resulting in a cumulative thickness (T) of approximately 175 to 200 microns for the entire blanket. Many penetrations resulted in highly variable delaminations of the teflon/metal or metal/organic binder interfaces that manifest themselves as 'dark' halos or rings, because of subsequent oxidation of the exposed silver mirror. The variety of these dark albedo features is bewildering, ranging from totally absent, to broad halos, to sharp single or multiple rings. Over the past year experiments were conducted over a wide range of velocities (i.e., 1 to 7 km/s) to address velocity dependent aspects of cratering and penetrations of teflon targets. In addition, experiments were performed with real LDEF thermal blankets to duplicate the LDEF delaminations and to investigate a possible relationship of initial impact conditions on the wide variety of dark halo and ring features.

  20. Study of Automated Module Fabrication for Lightweight Solar Blanket Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    Cost-effective automated techniques for accomplishing the titled purpose; based on existing in-house capability are described. As a measure of the considered automation, the production of a 50 kilowatt solar array blanket, exclusive of support and deployment structure, within an eight-month fabrication period was used. Solar cells considered for this blanket were 2 x 4 x .02 cm wrap-around cells, 2 x 2 x .005 cm and 3 x 3 x .005 cm standard bar contact thin cells, all welded contacts. Existing fabrication processes are described, the rationale for each process is discussed, and the capability for further automation is discussed.

  1. 77 FR 12281 - Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 15, 2012, Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company (Williston Basin), 1250 West Century Avenue, Bismarck, North Dakota 58503, pursuant to its blanket...

  2. Spray-on technique simplifies fabrication of complex thermal insulation blanket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, W. E. G.; Raymond, R.

    1966-01-01

    Spray-on process constructs molds used in forming sections of thermal insulation blankets. The process simplifies the fabrication of blankets by eliminating much of the equipment formerly required and decreasing the time involved.

  3. Feeding practices of dog breeders in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Kevin M; Heinze, Cailin R; Freeman, Lisa M

    2014-09-15

    To determine the proportion of dog breeders who fed diets meeting the Association of American Feed Control Officials regulations for nutritional adequacy for reproduction and growth and to investigate factors that influenced feeding practices of breeders. Web-based cross-sectional survey. 2,067 dog breeders from the United States and Canada. A self-administered, anonymous, Web-based questionnaire was used to collect information on breeder demographics and feeding practices during 3 life stages of dogs: adult maintenance for nonpregnant dogs, gestation-lactation, and puppy growth. Appropriateness of commercial diets for each life stage was determined by respondent-reported nutritional adequacy statements on product labels. Data were also collected regarding breeder criteria for diet selection and sources of nutrition information. A substantial number of breeders reported feeding commercial diets not intended for that life stage during gestation-lactation (126/746 [16.9%]) and puppy growth (57/652 [8.7%]). Additionally, approximately one-seventh of breeders reported feeding home-prepared diets for ≥ 1 life stage. Unsubstantiated health and marketing information influenced diet selection of many breeders. Veterinarians, although generally viewed as a trusted source of nutrition information, were consulted by only 823 of 1,669 (49.3%) breeders and were viewed less favorably by breeders feeding home-prepared diets, compared with the opinion of breeders feeding commercial diets. Veterinarians should consider taking a more proactive role in directing dog breeders and other pet owners toward scientifically substantiated sources of diet information and in explaining the importance of current nutritional standards for reproduction and early development of dogs.

  4. Selection of Breeding Stock among Australian Purebred Dog Breeders, with Particular Emphasis on the Dam.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, Veronika; McArthur, Michelle; Smith, Bradley; Hynd, Philip; Hazel, Susan

    2016-11-16

    Every year, thousands of purebred domestic dogs are bred by registered dog breeders. Yet, little is known about the rearing environment of these dogs, or the attitudes and priorities surrounding breeding practices of these dog breeders. The objective of this study was to explore some of the factors that dog breeders consider important for stock selection, with a particular emphasis on issues relating to the dam. Two-hundred and seventy-four Australian purebred dog breeders, covering 91 breeds across all Australian National Kennel Club breed groups, completed an online survey relating to breeding practices. Most breeders surveyed (76%) reported specialising in one breed of dog, the median number of dogs and bitches per breeder was two and three respectively, and most breeders bred two litters or less a year. We identified four components, relating to the dam, that were considered important to breeders. These were defined as Maternal Care, Offspring Potential, Dam Temperament, and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, differences were observed in attitudes and beliefs across these components, showing that there is variation according to breed/breed groups. In particular, the importance of Maternal Care varied according to dog breed group. Breeders of brachycephalic breeds tended to differ the most in relation to Offspring Potential and Dam Genetics and Health. The number of breeding dogs/bitches influenced breeding priority, especially in relation to Dam Temperament, however no effect was found relating to the number of puppies bred each year. Only 24% of breeders used their own sire for breeding. The finding that some breeders did not test for diseases relevant to their breed, such as hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherds, provides important information on the need to educate some breeders, and also buyers of purebred puppies, that screening for significant diseases should occur. Further research into the selection of breeding dams and sires will

  5. 75 FR 50991 - Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Woven Electric Blankets From the People's Republic of China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... accommodate either the electric blanket's wiring or a subassembly containing the electric blanket's wiring (e... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Woven Electric Blankets From the People's...

  6. Measurements of /sup 10/B(n,He) reaction rates in a mockup control rod in ZPPR

    SciTech Connect

    Brumbach, S.B.; Collins, P.J.; Oliver, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports the first direct measurement of /sup 10/B capture rate in a mockup control rod in a critical assembly. The experiment used the helium accumulation fluence monitor (HAFM) technique. 13 refs.

  7. Safety divers prepare HST mockup in the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator at MSFC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-06-01

    Safety divers in the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) prepare a mockup of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for one of 32 separate training sessions conducted by four of the STS-61 crew members in June. The three-week process allowed mission trainers to refine the timelines for the five separate spacewalks scheduled to be conducted on the actual mission scheduled for December 1993. The HST is separated into two pieces since the water tank depth cannot support the entire structure in one piece. The full length payload bay mockup shows the Solar Array Carrier in the foreground and the various containers that will house replacement hardware that will be carried on the mission.

  8. Shuttle to Space Station. Heart assist implant. Hubble update. X-30 mock-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-08-01

    Shuttle to Space Station, Heart Assist Implant, Hubble Update, and X-30 Mockup are the four parts that are discussed in this video. The first part, Shuttle to Space Station, is focussed on the construction and function of the Space Station Freedom. While part two, Heart Assist Implant, discusses a newly developed electromechanical device that helps to reduce heart attack by using electric shocks. Interviews with the co-inventor and patients are also included. Brief introduction to Hubble Telescope, problem behind its poor image quality (mirror aberration), and the plan to correct this problem are the three issues that are discussed in part three, Hubble Update. The last part, part four, reviews the X-30 Mockup designed by the staff and students of Mississippi State University.

  9. Shuttle to Space Station. Heart Assist Implant. Hubble Update. X-30 Mock-Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Shuttle to Space Station, Heart Assist Implant, Hubble Update, and X-30 Mockup are the four parts that are discussed in this video. The first part, Shuttle to Space Station, is focussed on the construction and function of the Space Station Freedom. While part two, Heart Assist Implant, discusses a newly developed electromechanical device that helps to reduce heart attack by using electric shocks. Interviews with the co-inventor and patients are also included. Brief introduction to Hubble Telescope, problem behind its poor image quality (mirror aberration), and the plan to correct this problem are the three issues that are discussed in part three, Hubble Update. The last part, part four, reviews the X-30 Mockup designed by the staff and students of Mississippi State University.

  10. Safety divers prepare HST mockup in the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Safety divers in the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) prepare a mockup of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for one of 32 separate training sessions conducted by four of the STS-61 crew members in June. The three-week process allowed mission trainers to refine the timelines for the five separate spacewalks scheduled to be conducted on the actual mission scheduled for December 1993. The HST is separated into two pieces since the water tank depth cannot support the entire structure in one piece. The full length payload bay mockup shows the Solar Array Carrier in the foreground and the various containers that will house replacement hardware that will be carried on the mission.

  11. Simulation and Design of an Automatic Controller for a Fast Breeder Nuclear Reactor Power Plant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    BREEDER REACTORS, *REACTOR CONTROL, *REACTOR REACTIVITY, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, NEUTRON TRANSPORT THEORY, REACTOR FUELS, REACTOR FUEL CLADDING , HEAT TRANSFER, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, LOGIC CIRCUITS, THESES.

  12. First-wall/blanket materials selection for STARFIRE tokamak reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.F.; Clemmer, R.G.; Davis, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the reference STARFIRE first-wall/blanket design involved numerous trade-offs in the materials selection process for the breeding material, coolant structure, neutron multiplier, and reflector. The major parameters and properties that impact materials selection and design criteria are reviewed.

  13. Nitrogen sparging and blanketing of water storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Jonas, O.

    2000-04-01

    In many industrial processes, including most utility and industrial steam systems, good deaerated makeup and condensate water is stored in open-to-air storage tanks where it is contaminated by oxygen, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and dirt before it is used. This contamination can be prevented by nitrogen sparging and blanketing of storage tanks.

  14. Unified first wall - blanket structure for plasma device applications

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.

    A plasma device is described for use in controlling nuclear reactions within the plasma including a first wall and blanket formed in a one-piece structure composed of a solid solution containing copper and lithium and melting above about 500/sup 0/C.

  15. Summary of the target-blanket breakout group

    SciTech Connect

    Capiello, M.; Bell, C.; Barthold, W.

    1995-10-01

    This breakout group discussed a number of topics and issues pertaining to target and blanket concepts for accelerator-driven systems. This major component area is one marked by a broad spectrum of technical approaches. It is therefore less defined than other major component areas such as the accelerator and is at an earlier stage of technical needs and task specification. The working group did reach a number of general conclusions and recommendations that are summarized. The Conference and the Target/Blanket Breakout Group provided a first opportunity for people working on a variety of missions and concepts to get together and exchange information. A number of subcritical systems applicable for a spectrum of missions were proposed at the Conference and discussed in the Breakout Group. Missions included plutonium disposition, energy production, waste destruction, isotope production, and neutron scattering. The Target/Blanket Breakout Group also defined areas where parameters and data should be addressed as target/blanket design activities become more detailed and sophisticated.

  16. Measuring High Temperatures In Ceramic-Fiber Blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermocouple assemblies devised specifically for measuring temperatures at fixed locations within insulating blankets made of such ceramic fibers as alumina, silicon carbide, and/or aluminoborosilicate. Thermocouples measure temperatures from 100 to 3,200 degrees F in oxidizing atmospheres. Wires enclosed in alumina sheath for protection against hot oxidation and mechanical damage.

  17. 48 CFR 313.303 - Blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements. 313.303 Section 313.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods...

  18. Warm Ocean Temperatures Blanket the Far-Western Pacific

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-28

    Data taken during a 10-day collection cycle ending March 9, 2001, show that above-normal sea-surface heights and warmer ocean temp. red and white areas still blanket the far-western tropical Pacific and much of the north and south mid-Pacific.

  19. Unified first wall-blanket structure for plasma device applications

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1987-01-01

    A plasma device for use in controlling nuclear reactions within the plasma including a first wall and blanket formed in a one-piece structure composed of a solid solution containing copper and lithium and melting above about 500.degree. C.

  20. 18 CFR 284.303 - OCS blanket certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... open-access, nondiscriminatory transportation service pursuant to a blanket transportation certificate... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978...

  1. 18 CFR 152.1 - Exemption applications and blanket certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exemption applications and blanket certificates. 152.1 Section 152.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... certificates of public convenience and necessity are issued pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act to...

  2. 18 CFR 152.1 - Exemption applications and blanket certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption applications and blanket certificates. 152.1 Section 152.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... certificates of public convenience and necessity are issued pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act to...

  3. 18 CFR 152.1 - Exemption applications and blanket certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATION FOR EXEMPTION FROM THE PROVISIONS OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT PURSUANT TO SECTION 1(C) THEREOF AND ISSUANCE OF BLANKET...) Application for exemption from the provisions of the Natural Gas Act and the rules and regulations of...

  4. SEAL Studies of Variant Blanket Concepts and Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, I.; Taylor, N. P.; Forty, C. B. A.; Han, W. E.

    1997-09-01

    Within the European SEAL ( Safety and Environmental Assessment of fusion power, Long-term) program, safety and environmental assessments have been performed which extend the results of the earlier SEAFP (Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power) program to a wider range of blanket designs and material choices. The four blanket designs analysed were those which had been developed within the Blanket program of the European Fusion Programme. All four are based on martensitic steel as structural material, and otherwise may be summarized as: water-cooled lithium-lead; dual-cooled lithium-lead; helium-cooled lithium silicate (BOT geometry); helium-cooled lithium aluminate (or zirconate) (BIT geometry). The results reveal that all the blankets show the favorable S&E characteristics of fusion, though there are interesting and significant differences between them. The key results are described. Assessments have also been performed of a wider range of materials than was considered in SEAFP. These were: an alternative vanadium alloy, an alternative low-activation martensitic steel, titanium-aluminum intermetallic, and SiC composite. Assessed impurities were included in the compositions, and these had very important effects upon some of the results. Key results impacting upon accident characteristics, recycling, and waste management are described.

  5. Campylobacter epidemiology from breeders to their progeny in Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Ingresa-Capaccioni, S; Jiménez-Trigos, E; Marco-Jiménez, F; Catalá, P; Vega, S; Marin, C

    2016-03-01

    While horizontal transmission is a route clearly linked to the spread of Campylobacter at the farm level, few studies support the transmission of Campylobacter spp. from breeder flocks to their offspring. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of vertical transmission. Breeders were monitored from the time of housing day-old chicks, then throughout the laying period (0 to 60 wk) and throughout their progeny (broiler fattening, 1 to 42 d) until slaughter. All samples were analyzed according with official method ISO 10272:2006. Results revealed that on breeder farms, Campylobacter isolation started from wk 16 and reached its peak at wk 26, with 57.0% and 93.2% of positive birds, respectively. After this point, the rate of positive birds decreased slightly to 86.0% at 60 wk. However, in broiler production all day-old chicks were found negative for Campylobacter spp, and the bacteria was first isolated at d 14 of age (5.0%), with a significant increase in detection during the fattening period with 62% of Campylobacter positive animals at the end of the production cycle. Moreover, non-positive sample was determined from environmental sources. These results could be explained because Campylobacter may be in a low concentration or in a non-culturable form, as there were several studies that successfully detected Campylobacter DNA, but failed to culture. This form can survive in the environment and infect successive flocks; consequently, further studies are needed to develop more modern, practical, cost-effective and suitable techniques for routine diagnosis. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. STS-40 Payload Specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford trains in JSC's SLS mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    STS-40 Payload Specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford conducts Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1) Experiment No. 198, Pulmonary Function During Weightlessness, in JSC's Life Sciences Project Division (LSPD) SLS mockup located in the Bioengineering and Test Support Facility Bldg 36. Hughes-Fulford monitors instruments and settings on Rack 8's panels. Behind her in the center aisle are the body mass measurement device (foreground) and the stowed bicycle ergometer.

  7. STS-40 Payload Specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford trains in JSC's SLS mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    STS-40 Payload Specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford conducts Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1) Experiment No. 198, Pulmonary Function During Weightlessness, in JSC's Life Sciences Project Division (LSPD) SLS mockup located in the Bioengineering and Test Support Facility Bldg 36. Hughes-Fulford sets switches on Rack 8. Behind her in the center aisle are the stowed bicycle ergometer (foreground) and the body restraint system.

  8. Clinically based diagnostic wax-up for optimal esthetics: the diagnostic mock-up.

    PubMed

    Simon, Harel; Magne, Pascal

    2008-05-01

    A diagnostic wax-up can enhance the predictability of treatment by modeling the desired result in wax prior to treatment. It is critical to correlate the wax-up to the patient to avoid a result that appears optimal on the casts but does not correspond to the patient's smile. This article reviews the applications and techniques for clinically based diagnostic wax-up, and focuses on the diagnostic mock-up philosophy as a means to obtain predictable esthetics and function.

  9. Soft tissue waxup and mock-up as key factors in a treatment plan: case presentation.

    PubMed

    Viana, Pedro Couto; Correia, André; Neves, Manuel; Kovacs, Zsolt; Neugbauer, Rudiger

    2012-01-01

    Rehabilitation of edentulous spaces in esthetic areas is a challenge to the clinician due to the loss of soft tissues. In these clinical situations, it would be desirable to evaluate and predict the gingival architecture to recover in the oral rehabilitation. To fulfill this need, the diagnostic wax should anticipate the final rehabilitation with the integration of hard and soft tissue. Thus, it is essential to produce a diagnostic waxup that integrates these two components that are simultaneously seeking to recreate the harmony of white and pink esthetic. This diagnostic waxup will be the basis for the creation of the provisional prosthesis and a soft tissue mock-up. After placing the provisional prosthesis in the mouth, the soft tissue mock-up can be applied to assess its esthetic impact at facial and intraoral level. Dentist and patient should objectively assess the appearance of the final result. After approval of this rehabilitation concept, the virtual surgical planning can be performed and the surgical guide can be designed, allowing the treatment to take place. This protocol allows the development of a rigorous treatment plan based on the integration of teeth and gingiva component. The waxup and the soft tissue mock-up play a significant role, since they allow an earlier evaluation of the esthetic result, better prosthetic and surgical planning, and it allows us to anticipate the need for gingiva-colored ceramics use. The authors present a clinical case report of the importance of the wax-up and soft tissue mock-up in the treatment plan.

  10. Irradiation capabilities of LR-0 reactor with VVER-1000 Mock-Up core.

    PubMed

    Košťál, Michal; Rypar, Vojtěch; Svadlenková, Marie; Cvachovec, František; Jánský, Bohumil; Milčák, Ján

    2013-12-01

    Even low power reactors, such as zero power reactors, are sufficient for semiconductor radiation hardness effect investigation. This reflects the fact that fluxes necessary for affecting semiconductor electrical resistance are much lower than fluxes necessary to affect material parameters. The paper aims to describe the irradiation possibilities of the LR-0 reactor with a special core arrangement corresponding to VVER-1000 dosimetry Mock-Up.

  11. STS-40 Payload Specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford trains in JSC's SLS mockup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1987-03-10

    STS-40 Payload Specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford conducts Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1) Experiment No. 198, Pulmonary Function During Weightlessness, in JSC's Life Sciences Project Division (LSPD) SLS mockup located in the Bioengineering and Test Support Facility Bldg 36. Hughes-Fulford sets switches on Rack 8. Behind her in the center aisle are the stowed bicycle ergometer (foreground) and the body restraint system.

  12. Skylab 4 astronauts during an 'open house' press day in Skylab mock-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    These three men make up the crew of the Skylab 4 mission. They are, left to right, Scientist-Astronaut Edward G. Gibson, science pilot; Astronaut Gerald P. Carr, commander; and Astronaut William R. Pogue, pilot. They were photographed and interviewed during an 'open house' press day in the realistic atmosphere of Skylab mock-up and trainers in the Mission Simulation and Training facility at the Manned Spacecraft Center.

  13. Astronaut Bruce McCandless shows mockup of occulting disc for Skylab exp.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Bruce McCandless II, left, shows off a mockup of the occulting disc for the T025 Coronagraph Contamination Measurement Engineering and Technology Experiment to be used by the crewmen of the third manned Skylab mission, now into their eighth day in Earth orbit. On the right is Flight Director Neil B. Hutchinson. The men are in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) of the Mission Control Center (MCC) at JSC.

  14. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 - MOCKUP - ADAPTER EQUIPMENT SECTION - FUEL CELL - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-03-01

    S66-22686 (March 1966) --- Mock-up of the adapter equipment section to be used on the Gemini-9 spaceflight. This section provides volume and attach points for several system modules, including Orbit Attitude Maneuver System, Environmental Control System primary oxygen supply, batteries, coolant, and electrical and electric components. This section will also hold the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU) backpack (center). Photo credit: NASA

  15. Tanker Avionics/Aircrew Complement Evaluation (TAACE). Phase 0. Analysis and Mockup. Volume I. Results.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    AIRCREW COMPLEMENT EVALUATION (TAACE) PHASE 0 - ANALYSIS AND MOCKUP C) VOLUME I: RESULTS !x The Bunker Ramo Corporation - Electronic Systems Division...data, is not to be re- garded by implication or otherwise as in any manner licensing the holder or any other person or corporation , or conveying any...adro Iftj William Ret randt - A./Sexton ( 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT.P E T. TASK Bunker Ramo, Corporation 4130 Linden Ave. 112 Dayton, Ohio 45432

  16. STS-26 MS Nelson during training exercise in JSC Mockup and Integration Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson, wearing navy blue launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), is seated in his launch and entry position on crew compartment trainer (CCT) middeck during a training exercise in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Visible in the background are the airlock, stowed treadmill, and sleep restraints. NOTE: Photo was taken by William H. Bowers, crew photo instructor, with wide angle lens.

  17. STS-26 Pilot Covey, wearing launch and entry suit, trains in JSC mockup area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Pilot Richard O. Covey, wearing the orange launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), pauses during a training exercise in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A crew compartment trainer (CCT). LES, a partial pressure suit to be worn during launch and entry phases of the space shuttle flight, was evaluated and checked out.

  18. ESA MS Nicollier extends mockup tetherline prior to JSC WETF simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier, turning a crank, extends a tetherline from a reel mounted on a mockup of the forward payload bay (PLB) bulkhead. Nicollier familiarizes himself with the operation of the safety tether system prior to donning an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and participating in an underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) simu- lation in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool.

  19. STS-46 Payload Specialist Malerba sits at the pilots station in JSC mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Italian Payload Specialist Franco Malerba sits at the pilots station on the forward flight deck of the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9. Malerba, wearing a flight suit, operates the control stick and enters data on the C2 panel keypad. He is participating in a hardware familiarity training session.

  20. STS-46 Payload Specialist Malerba at aft flight deck controls in JSC mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Italian Payload Specialist Franco Malerba, wearing flight suit, operates controls on the aft flight deck of the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9. During the training session, Malerba adjusts a control on the A3 panel closed circuit television (CCTV). Onorbit station panels appear in front of Malerba and payload station controls behind him.

  1. Astronauts McMonagle and Brown on flight deck mockup during training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts Donald R. McMonagle, STS-66 mission commander, left, and Curtis L. Brown, STS-66 pilot, man the commander's and pilot's stations, respectively, during a rehearsal of procedures to be followed during the launch and entry phases of their scheduled November 1994 flight. This rehearsal, held in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) of JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory, was followed by a training session on emergency egress procedures.

  2. The design, fabrication and delivery of a manipulator foot restraint mockup for space telescope development testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollingsworth, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) is a subsystem of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) which plays a major role in servicing the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in orbit. Flight drawings were used to construct the MFR to guarantee that the mockup components were functionally equivalent to the flight MFR. Material surface finishes and tolerances that were compatible to the Neutral Buoyance Simulator (NBS) environment were used. Recommendation for improvements are discussed.

  3. STS-40 Payload Specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford trains in JSC's SLS mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    STS-40 Payload Specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford conducts Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1) Experiment No. 198, Pulmonary Function During Weightlessness, in JSC's Life Sciences Project Division (LSPD) SLS mockup located in the Bioengineering and Test Support Facility Bldg 36. Hughes-Fulford monitors instruments and settings on Rack 8's panels. Behind her in the center aisle are the body mass measurement device (foreground) and the stowed bicycle ergometer.

  4. STS-26 crewmembers, wearing launch and entry suits, train in JSC mockup area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck (left) and Pilot Richard O. Covey, wearing the orange launch and entry suits (LESs), discuss training exercise with technicians in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. During the exercise, the LES, a partial pressure suit to be worn during launch and entry phases of the space shuttle flight, was evaluated and checked out.

  5. STS-40 Payload Specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford trains in JSC's SLS mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    STS-40 Payload Specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford conducts Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1) Experiment No. 198, Pulmonary Function During Weightlessness, in JSC's Life Sciences Project Division (LSPD) SLS mockup located in the Bioengineering and Test Support Facility Bldg 36. Hughes-Fulford sets switches on Rack 8. Behind her in the center aisle are the stowed bicycle ergometer (foreground) and the body restraint system.

  6. STS-34 crewmembers train with the IMAX camera in JSC's Bldg 9B mockup area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-34 crewmembers participate in IMAX camera training session held in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9B. The crew is briefed on the operation and handling of the IMAX camera scheduled to fly aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Standing behind the IMAX camera is Mission Specialist (MS) Franklin R. Chang-Diaz with IMAX instructors Grant Ferguson and David Douglas on his left. Commander Donald E. Williams (looking at IMAX lens) is at the right edge of the photo.

  7. STS-26 Commander Hauck, wearing launch and entry suit, trains in JSC mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck, wearing the orange launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), gets assistance from a suit technician prior to participating in a training exercise in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A crew compartment trainer (CCT). During the exercise, the LES, a partial pressure suit to be worn during launch and entry phases of the space shuttle flight, was evaluated and checked out.

  8. STS-26 crewmembers, wearing launch and entry suits, train in JSC mockup area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck (right) and Pilot Richard O. Covey, wearing orange launch and entry suits (LESs), stand in front of the open crew compartment trainer (CCT) side hatch in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. During the exercise, the LES, a partial pressure suit to be worn during launch and entry phases of the space shuttle flight, was evaluated and checked out.

  9. Instrumentation and control improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, L.J.; Planchon, H.P.

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe instrumentation and control (I&C) system improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor 11 (EBR-11). The improvements are focused on three objectives; to keep the reactor and balance of plant (BOP) I&C systems at a high level of reliability, to provide diagnostic systems that can provide accurate information needed for analysis of fuel performance, and to provide systems that will be prototypic of I&C systems of the next generation of liquid metal reactor (LMR) plants.

  10. Instrumentation and control improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, L.J.; Planchon, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe instrumentation and control (I C) system improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor 11 (EBR-11). The improvements are focused on three objectives; to keep the reactor and balance of plant (BOP) I C systems at a high level of reliability, to provide diagnostic systems that can provide accurate information needed for analysis of fuel performance, and to provide systems that will be prototypic of I C systems of the next generation of liquid metal reactor (LMR) plants.

  11. Breeder design for enhanced performance and safety characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, G J; Atefi, B; Yang, J W; Galperin, A; Segev, M

    1980-01-01

    A fast breeder reactor design has been created which offers a considerably extended fuel cycle and excellent performance characteristics. An example of a core designed to operate on a ten-year fuel cycle is described in some detail. Use of metal fuel along with a moderator such as beryllium oxide dispersed throughout the core provides both design flexibility and safety advantages such as a strong Doppler feedback and limited sodium void reactivity gain. Local power variations are small for the entire cycle; control requirements are also modest, and fuel cycle costs are low.

  12. Selection for early response to photostimulation in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Tyler, N C; Gous, R M

    2011-08-01

    1. To determine if selection for early response to photostimulation could be successful, 150 male broiler breeders were photostimulated at 8 weeks of age. The first 20 to produce a semen sample and have a reddened comb with an area > 10 cm2 were selected as responders (R) and 20 birds that did not show these signs of sexual development were chosen as non-responders (NR). Once sexually mature, 8 birds from each group that consistently produced a semen sample were mated with both egg-type hybrids and broiler breeder females to observe the response to 8-week photostimulation in the as-hatched offspring. 2. The AFE of the F1 females with NR or R paternity and egg-type hybrid layer maternity (F1L) were similar, but AFE was advanced in birds from R relative to NR paternity when they had broiler breeder maternity (F1B). 3. Date following a normal distribution of AFE were extracted from the overall data set. This group included offspring from both NR and R paternity, but AFE in F1L and F1B females with R paternity was advanced compared to those with NR paternity. 4. Mean testis weights, or age at most rapid testis growth predicted using parameters from Tyler and Gous (2009), of F1 males were not significantly different in birds with NR or R paternity. A strong correlation was found between predicted age at most rapid growth and AFE of full sibs and so it is likely that an advance in AFE in female offspring would also result in an advance in age of testis development of males. 5. There was no significant difference in 21-d body weight of F1B females of NR or R paternity, but the 21-d body weights of F1L females were higher from R than from NR sires, suggesting that although fertility and meat-type traits are often negatively correlated, there was no adverse effect of selection for responsiveness to early photostimulation and broiler growth rates to 21 d. 6. These findings showed that the response to early stimulation is heritable, and should be useful to the broiler breeder

  13. Results with the electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder for the 252Cf fission source project (Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade) at Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System.

    PubMed

    Vondrasek, R; Kondrashev, S; Pardo, R; Scott, R; Zinkann, G P

    2010-02-01

    The construction of the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade, a new radioactive beam facility for the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), is nearing completion. The facility will use fission fragments from a 1 Ci (252)Cf source; thermalized and collected into a low-energy particle beam by a helium gas catcher. In order to reaccelerate these beams, an existing ATLAS electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source was redesigned to function as an ECR charge breeder. Thus far, the charge breeder has been tested with stable beams of rubidium and cesium achieving charge breeding efficiencies of 9.7% into (85)Rb(17+) and 2.9% into (133)Cs(20+).

  14. Assessment of alkali metal coolants for the ITER blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C.B.; Mattas, R.F.

    1994-06-01

    The blanket system is one of the most important components of a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The Blanket Comparison and Selection Study, conducted earlier, described the overall comparative performance of different blanket concepts, including liquid metal, molten salt, water and helium. This paper will discuss the ITER requirements for a self-cooled blanket concept with liquid lithium and for indirectly cooled concepts that use other alkali metals such as NaK. The paper addresses the thermodynamics of interactions between the liquid metals (e.g., lithium and NaK) and structural materials (e.g., V-base alloys), together with associated corrosion/compatibility issues. Available experimental data are used to assess the long-term performance of the first wall in a liquid metal environment. Other key issues include development of electrical insulator coatings on the first-wall structural material to MHD pressure drop, and tritium permeation/inventory in self-cooled and indirectly cooled concepts. Acceptable types of coatings (based on their chemical compatibility and physical properties) are identified, and surface-modification avenues to achieve these coatings on the first wall are discussed. The assessment examines the extent of our knowledge on structural materials performance in liquid metals and identifies needed research and development in several of the areas in order to establish performance envelopes for the first wall in a liquid-metal environment.

  15. Experimental reproduction of enterococcal spondylitis in male broiler breeder chickens.

    PubMed

    Martin, Leslie T; Martin, Michael P; Barnes, H John

    2011-06-01

    There has been a recent emergence of epidemic spinal infections with necrosis causing lameness and mortality in male broilers and broiler breeders. Mortality in affected flocks may be as high as 15%. The disease has been called enterococcal spondylitis (ES), based on the frequent isolation of Enterococcus cecorum from the lesions and necrosis and inflammation observed in the free thoracic vertebrae (FTV) of affected birds. Male broiler breeders in an experimental setting were challenged with pure E. cecorum isolates obtained from ES-affected commercial flocks. Challenge routes included oral gavage (10(8)), intravenous (i.v.; 10(3)), and air sac (AS; 10(3)). Half the study birds in each group were chemically immunosuppressed with dexamethasone. Spinal lesions were observed grossly in birds challenged intravenously (2.9%) and birds challenged orally (6.1%). Microscopic spinal lesions consistent with ES were more frequently identified compared with gross lesions in the orally challenged group (30.3%). Chemical immunosuppression with dexamethasone was not associated with a greater incidence of ES in this study. By recreating the disease experimentally, the study design reported here may help in the further development of an experimental challenge model for future studies on risk factors, prevention, and therapeutic intervention of ES.

  16. Humans are not cooperative breeders but practice biocultural reproduction.

    PubMed

    Bogin, Barry; Bragg, Jared; Kuzawa, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Alloparental care and feeding of young is often called "cooperative breeding" and humans are increasingly described as being a cooperative breeding species. To critically evaluate whether the human offspring care system is best grouped with that of other cooperative breeders. (1) Review of the human system of offspring care in the light of definitions of cooperative, communal and social breeding; (2) re-analysis of human lifetime reproductive effort. Human reproduction and offspring care are distinct from other species because alloparental behaviour is defined culturally rather than by genetic kinship alone. This system allows local flexibility in provisioning strategies and ensures that care and resources often flow between unrelated individuals. This review proposes the term "biocultural reproduction" to describe this unique human reproductive system. In a re-analysis of human life history data, it is estimated that the intense alloparenting typical of human societies lowers the lifetime reproductive effort of individual women by 14-29% compared to expectations based upon other mammals. Humans are not cooperative breeders as classically defined; one effect of the unique strategy of human biocultural reproduction is a lowering of human lifetime reproductive effort, which could help explain lifespan extension.

  17. Group size adjustment to ecological demand in a cooperative breeder.

    PubMed

    Zöttl, Markus; Frommen, Joachim G; Taborsky, Michael

    2013-04-07

    Environmental factors can determine which group size will maximize the fitness of group members. This is particularly important in cooperative breeders, where group members often serve different purposes. Experimental studies are yet lacking to check whether ecologically mediated need for help will change the propensity of dominant group members to accept immigrants. Here, we manipulated the perceived risk of predation for dominant breeders of the cooperatively breeding cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher to test their response to unrelated and previously unknown immigrants. Potential immigrants were more readily accepted if groups were exposed to fish predators or egg predators than to herbivorous fish or control situations lacking predation risk. Our data are consistent with both risk dilution and helping effects. Egg predators were presented before spawning, which might suggest that the fish adjust acceptance rates also to a potential future threat. Dominant group members of N. pulcher apparently consider both present and future need of help based on ecological demand. This suggests that acceptance of immigrants and, more generally, tolerance of group members on demand could be a widespread response to ecological conditions in cooperatively breeding animals.

  18. Group size adjustment to ecological demand in a cooperative breeder

    PubMed Central

    Zöttl, Markus; Frommen, Joachim G.; Taborsky, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Environmental factors can determine which group size will maximize the fitness of group members. This is particularly important in cooperative breeders, where group members often serve different purposes. Experimental studies are yet lacking to check whether ecologically mediated need for help will change the propensity of dominant group members to accept immigrants. Here, we manipulated the perceived risk of predation for dominant breeders of the cooperatively breeding cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher to test their response to unrelated and previously unknown immigrants. Potential immigrants were more readily accepted if groups were exposed to fish predators or egg predators than to herbivorous fish or control situations lacking predation risk. Our data are consistent with both risk dilution and helping effects. Egg predators were presented before spawning, which might suggest that the fish adjust acceptance rates also to a potential future threat. Dominant group members of N. pulcher apparently consider both present and future need of help based on ecological demand. This suggests that acceptance of immigrants and, more generally, tolerance of group members on demand could be a widespread response to ecological conditions in cooperatively breeding animals. PMID:23390105

  19. A temporal study of Salmonella serovars from fluff samples from poultry breeder hatcheries in Ontario between 1998 and 2008

    PubMed Central

    Sivaramalingam, Theva; Pearl, David L.; McEwen, Scott A.; Ojkic, Davor; Guerin, Michele T.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Salmonella, trends, major serovars, and their clusters from fluff samples, in poultry hatcheries in Ontario between 1998 and 2008. Multi-level logistic regression modelling with random effects for hatchery and sampling visit (day on which samples were collected from a hatchery) was used to identify factors [poultry breeder type, year (trend), and season] associated with the prevalence of Salmonella and a cluster detection test was used to identify clusters of common serovars. The period prevalence of Salmonella in fluff samples was 8.7% in broiler-breeders, 3.1% in layer-breeders, 13.2% in turkey-breeders, and 11.9% in other-breeder birds, such as ducks, geese, quail, partridges, and pheasants. There was an overall increasing trend in Salmonella prevalence in broiler-breeders and other-breeder birds, and a decreasing trend in layer-breeders. The 4 most common serovars identified were Salmonella Kentucky, Heidelberg, Enteritidis, and Senftenberg in broiler-breeders; Salmonella Heidelberg, Senftenberg, Braenderup, and Typhimurium in layer-breeders; Salmonella Senftenberg, Heidelberg, Saintpaul, and Montevideo in turkey-breeders; and Salmonella Enteritidis, Thompson, Typhimurium, and Heidelberg in other-breeder birds. Temporal clusters were identified for 12 of 13 serovars examined in broiler-breeders, and 4 of 4 serovars in all other poultry-breeders. The seasonal effects varied by year with the highest probability of Salmonella most often occurring in the summer, followed by the fall season. Variance components suggested that control measures should be directed at the hatchery and the sampling visit levels. Further studies are needed to identify risk factors for Salmonella in broiler-breeder, turkey-breeder, and other-breeder bird hatcheries in order to implement necessary control measures. PMID:23814352

  20. Educating the Next Generation of Plant Breeders: The Need and the Challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant breeding is critical to the future of productive agriculture, food security, and economic prosperity. Increasingly, many plant breeders are working in industry or governmental agencies that do not include education of the next generation of plant breeders as part of their mission. At the sam...

  1. APT target/blanket design and thermal hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Cappiello, M.; Pitcher, E.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

    1999-04-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Target/Blanket (T/B) system is comprised of an assembly of tritium producing modules supported by control, heat removal, shielding and retargeting systems. The T/B assembly produces tritium using a high-energy proton beam, a tungsten/lead spallation neutron source and {sup 3}He gas as the tritium producing feedstock. For the nominal production mode, protons are accelerated to an energy of 1030 MeV at a current of 100 mA and are directed onto the T/B assembly. The protons are expanded using a raster/expansion system to illuminate a 0.19m by 1.9m beam spot on the front face of a centrally located tungsten neutron source. A surrounding lead blanket produces additional neutrons from scattered high-energy particles. The tungsten neutron source consists of nested, Inconel-718 clad tungsten cylinders assembled in horizontal Inconel-718 tubes. Each tube contains up to 6 cylinders with annular flow channel gaps of 0.102 cm. These horizontal tubes are manifolded into larger diameter vertical inlet and outlet pipes, which provide coolant. The horizontal and vertical tubes make up a structure similar to that of rungs on a ladder. The entire tungsten neutron source consists of 11 such ladders separated into two modules, one containing five ladders and the other six. Ladders are separated by a 0.3 m void region to increase nucleon leakage. The peak thermal-hydraulic conditions in the tungsten neutron source occur in the second ladder from the front. Because tungsten neutron source design has a significant number of parallel flow channels, the limiting thermal-hydraulic parameter is the onset of significant void (OSV) rather than critical heat flux (CHF). A blanket region surrounds the tungsten neutron source. The lateral blanket region is approximately 120 cm thick and 400 cm high. Blanket material consists of lead, {sup 3}He gas, aluminum, and light-water coolant. The blanket region is subdivided into rows based on the local power

  2. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia viruses detected from breeder and broiler chickens in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-R; Kwon, Y-K; Bae, Y-C; Oem, J-K; Lee, O-S

    2010-11-01

    In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms.

  3. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 5 Report: Generation IV Reactor Virtual Mockup Proof-of-Principle Study

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 5 report is part of a 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Created a virtual mockup of PBMR reactor cavity and discussed applications of virtual mockup technology to improve Gen IV design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning.

  4. NASA Dryden technicians take measurements inside a fit-check mockup for prior to systems installation on a boilerplate Orion launch abort test crew capsule.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-24

    NASA Dryden technicians take measurements inside a fit-check mockup for prior to systems installation on a boilerplate Orion launch abort test crew capsule. A mockup Orion crew module has been constructed by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's Fabrication Branch. The mockup is being used to develop integration procedures for avionics and instrumentation in advance of the arrival of the first abort flight test article.

  5. NASA Dryden technicians work on a fit-check mockup in preparation for systems installation work on an Orion boilerplate crew capsule for launch abort testing.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-24

    NASA Dryden technicians work on a fit-check mockup in preparation for systems installation work on an Orion boilerplate crew capsule for launch abort testing. A mockup Orion crew module has been constructed by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's Fabrication Branch. The mockup is being used to develop integration procedures for avionics and instrumentation in advance of the arrival of the first abort flight test article.

  6. Impacts of breeder loss on social structure, reproduction and population growth in a social canid.

    PubMed

    Borg, Bridget L; Brainerd, Scott M; Meier, Thomas J; Prugh, Laura R

    2015-01-01

    The importance of individuals to the dynamics of populations may depend on reproductive status, especially for species with complex social structure. Loss of reproductive individuals in socially complex species could disproportionately affect population dynamics by destabilizing social structure and reducing population growth. Alternatively, compensatory mechanisms such as rapid replacement of breeders may result in little disruption. The impact of breeder loss on the population dynamics of social species remains poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of breeder loss on social stability, recruitment and population growth of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska using a 26-year dataset of 387 radiocollared wolves. Harvest of breeding wolves is a highly contentious conservation and management issue worldwide, with unknown population-level consequences. Breeder loss preceded 77% of cases (n = 53) of pack dissolution from 1986 to 2012. Packs were more likely to dissolve if a female or both breeders were lost and pack size was small. Harvest of breeders increased the probability of pack dissolution, likely because the timing of harvest coincided with the breeding season of wolves. Rates of denning and successful recruitment were uniformly high for packs that did not experience breeder loss; however, packs that lost breeders exhibited lower denning and recruitment rates. Breeder mortality and pack dissolution had no significant effects on immediate or longer term population dynamics. Our results indicate the importance of breeding individuals is context dependent. The impact of breeder loss on social group persistence, reproduction and population growth may be greatest when average group sizes are small and mortality occurs during the breeding season. This study highlights the importance of reproductive individuals in maintaining group cohesion in social species, but at the population level socially complex species may be resilient

  7. Respiratory diseases and allergic sensitization in swine breeders: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Galli, Luigina; Facchetti, Susanna; Raffetti, Elena; Donato, Francesco; D'Anna, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    The daily occupation as a swine breeder involves exposure to several bacterial components and organic dusts and inhalation of a large amount of allergens. To investigate the risk of respiratory diseases and atopy in swine breeders compared with the general population living in the same area. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in an agricultural area of northern Italy that enrolled a random sample of resident male breeders and non-breeders. Demographic features, comorbidities, and presence of allergic respiratory disease were retrieved through interview. Prick tests for common allergens were performed. An evaluation of pollen and mold in air samples taken inside and outside some swine confinement buildings also was performed. One hundred one male breeders (78 native-born, mean age ± SD 43.0 ± 11.1 years) and 82 non-breeders (43.0 ± 11.1 years) were enrolled. When restricting the analysis to native-born subjects, breeders vs non-breeders showed a lower prevalence of respiratory allergy (12.8% vs 31.1%, respectively, P = .002), asthma (6.4% vs 15.8%, P = .059), rhinitis (16.7% vs 51.2%, P < .001), persistent cough (5.1% vs 15.9%, P = .028), and sensitization to grass (7.7% vs 25.6%, P = .002). There was no difference in prick test positivity, polysensitization, nasal cytologic pattern, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity between breeders and non-breeders. Air concentration of molds and pollens was lower inside than outside the swine buildings investigated, particularly when the pigs were inside vs outside the buildings. This study suggests that swine breeding does not increase, and might decrease, the risk of pollen sensitization and allergic disease. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neutronic design of the APT Target/Blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Pitcher, E.J.; Russell, G.J.; Kidman, R.B.; Ferguson, P.D.

    1997-12-01

    The primary function of the Accelerator Production of Tritium Target/Blanket assembly is the safe and efficient production of tritium. The T/B accepts a 1.7-GeV, 100-mA proton beam and produces neutrons via the spallation process. These neutrons then react with {sup 3}He to produce tritium. Neutronic optimization of the T/B is achieved by efficiently using the proton beam to produce neutrons and then, once produced, assuring that they are captured mostly by {sup 3}He. This optimization must occur within the constraints imposed by engineering considerations such as heat flux limits, structural integrity, fabricability, and safe and reliable operation. The target/blanket achieves these goals with a neutron production rate that is 75% of that achievable with an ideal target, and a neutronic efficiency of 84%, leading to an overall tritium production rate that is 63% of the theoretical maximum.

  9. APT {sup 3}He target/blanket. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The {sup 3}He target/blanket (T/B) preconceptual design for the 3/8-Goal facility is based on a 1000-MeV, 200-mA accelerator to produce a high-intensity proton beam that is expanded and then strikes one of two T/B modules. Each module consists of a centralized neutron source made of tungsten and lead, a proton beam backstop region made of zirconium and lead, and a moderator made of D{sub 2}O. Helium-3 gas is circulated through the neutron source region and the blanket to create tritium through neutron capture. The gas is continually processed to extract the tritium with an online separation process.

  10. Helium-3 blankets for tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiner, Don; Embrechts, Mark; Varsamis, Georgios; Vesey, Roger; Gierszewski, Paul

    1988-01-01

    It is concluded that He-3 blankets offers considerable promise for tritium breeding in fusion reactors: good breeding potential, low operational risk, and attractive safety features. The availability of He-3 resources is the key issue for this concept. There is sufficient He-3 from decay of military stockpiles to meet the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor needs. Extraterrestrial sources of He-3 would be required for a fusion power economy.

  11. Heat Loads Due to Small Penetrations in Multilayer Insulation Blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. L.; Heckle, K. W.; Fesmire, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    The main penetrations (supports and piping) through multilayer insulation systems for cryogenic tanks have been previously addressed by heat flow measurements. Smaller penetrations due to fasteners and attachments are now experimentally investigated. The use of small pins or plastic garment tag fasteners to each the handling and construction of multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets goes back many years. While it has long been understood that penetrations and other discontinuities degrade the performance of the MLI blanket, quantification of this degradation has generally been lumped into gross performance multipliers (often called degradation factors or scale factors). Small penetrations contribute both solid conduction and radiation heat transfer paths through the blanket. The conduction is down the stem of the structural element itself while the radiation is through the hole formed during installation of the pin or fastener. Analytical models were developed in conjunction with MLI perforation theory and Fouriers Law. Results of the analytical models are compared to experimental testing performed on a 10 layer MLI blanket with approximately 50 small plastic pins penetrating the test specimen. The pins were installed at 76-mm spacing inches in both directions to minimize the compounding of thermal effects due to localized compression or lateral heat transfer. The testing was performed using a liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimeter (Cryostat-100) with the standard boundary temperatures of 293 K and 78 K. Results show that the added radiation through the holes is much more significant than the conduction down the fastener. The results are shown to be in agreement with radiation theory for perforated films.

  12. Efficacy of the blizzard blanket or blizzard blanket plus thermal angel in preventing hypothermia in a hemorrhagic shock victim (Sus scrofa) under operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Elizabeth; Schmelz, Joseph; Evers, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The prevention of hypothermia in military casualties under field conditions is challenging. The efficacy of a baffled reflective Blanket (Blizzard Blanket), a portable intravenous fluid warmer (Thermal Angel), and wool Blankets (control) in preventing hypothermia was tested under military field conditions in a swine hemorrhagic shock model. Fifteen pigs were bled at 10 degrees C. After 45 minutes, Hextend was administered (groups 1 and 3, at 10 degrees C; group 2, via Thermal Angel); groups 2 and 3 were encircled with a Blizzard Blanket. After 120 minutes, the pigs were moved to 21 degrees C to simulate a field hospital; group 1 was covered with Blankets. Blood was administered (groups 1 and 3, at 4 degrees C; group 2, via Thermal Angel) with 180 minutes of monitoring. The core temperature was <35 degrees C in five of five control pigs, four of five Blizzard-only pigs, and one of five Thermal Angel plus Blizzard Blanket pigs. The Blizzard Blanket limited but did not prevent hypothermia. The Thermal Angel plus Blizzard Blanket combination prevented hypothermia. The Thermal Angel is useful for bolus administration when electricity is limited; its military field use is constrained by battery weight and battery life.

  13. NOEL: a no-leak fusion blanket concept

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J R; Yu, W S; Fillo, J A; Horn, F L; Makowitz, H

    1980-01-01

    Analysis and tests of a no-leak fusion blanket concept (NOEL-NO External Leak) are described. Coolant cannot leak into the plasma chamber even if large through-cracks develop in the first wall. Blanket modules contain a two-phase material, A, that is solid (several cm thick) on the inside of the module shell, and liquid in the interior. The solid layer is maintained by imbedded tubes carrying a coolant, B, below the freezing point of A. Most of the 14-MeV neutron energy is deposited as heat in the module interior. The thermal energy flow from the module interior to the shell keeps the interior liquid. Pressure on the liquid A interior is greater than the pressure on B, so that B cannot leak out if failures occur in coolant tubes. Liquid A cannot leak into the plasma chamber through first wall cracks because of the intervening frozen layer. The thermal hydraulics and neutronics of NOEL blankets have been investigated for various metallic (e.g., Li, Pb/sub 2/, LiPb, Pb) and fused salt choices for material A.

  14. Space environment durability of beta cloth in LDEF thermal blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, Roger C.; Whitaker, Ann F.; Finckenor, Miria M.

    1993-01-01

    Beta cloth performance for use on long-term space vehicles such as Space Station Freedom (S.S. Freedom) requires resistance to the degrading effects of the space environment. The major issues are retention of thermal insulating properties through maintaining optical properties, preserving mechanical integrity, and generating minimal particulates for contamination-sensitive spacecraft surfaces and payloads. The longest in-flight test of beta cloth's durability was on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), where it was exposed to the space environment for 68 months. The LDEF contained 57 experiments which further defined the space environment and its effects on spacecraft materials. It was deployed into low-Earth orbit (LEO) in Apr. 1984 and retrieved Jan. 1990 by the space shuttle. Among the 10,000 plus material constituents and samples onboard were thermal control blankets of multilayer insulation with a beta cloth outer cover and Velcro attachments. These blankets were exposed to hard vacuum, thermal cycling, charged particles, meteoroid/debris impacts, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO). Of these space environmental exposure elements, AO appears to have had the greatest effect on the beta cloth. The beta cloth analyzed in this report came from the MSFC Experiment S1005 (Transverse Flat-Plate Heat Pipe) tray oriented approximately 22 deg from the leading edge vector of the LDEF satellite. The location of the tray on LDEF and the placement of the beta cloth thermal blankets are shown. The specific space environment exposure conditions for this material are listed.

  15. Low cost, high yield IFE reactors: Revisiting Velikhov's vaporizing blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1992-03-06

    The performance (efficiency and cost) of IFE reactors using MHD conversion is explored for target blanket shells of various materials vaporized and ionized by high fusion yields (5 to 500 GJ). A magnetized, prestressed reactor chamber concept is modeled together with previously developed models for the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine II (CFARII) MHD Balance-of-Plant (BoP). Using conservative 1-D neutronics models, high fusion yields (20 to 80 GJ) are found necessary to heat Flibe, lithium, and lead-lithium blankets to MHD plasma temperatures, at initial solid thicknesses sufficient to capture most of the fusion yield. Advanced drivers/targets would need to be developed to achieve a Bang per Buck'' figure-of-merit {approx gt} 20 to 40 joules yield per driver $ for this scheme to be competitive with these blanket materials. Alternatively, more realistic neutronics models and better materials such as lithium hydride may lower the minimum required yields substantially. The very low CFARII BoP costs (contributing only 3 mills/kWehr to CoE) allows this type of reactor, given sufficient advances that non-driver costs dominate, to ultimately produce electricity at a much lower cost than any current nuclear plant.

  16. Enhanced plasma current collection from weakly conducting solar array blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. Barry

    1993-01-01

    Among the solar cell technologies to be tested in space as part of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) will be the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA). Several prototype twelve cell coupons were built for NASA using different blanket materials and mounting techniques. The first conforms to the baseline design for APSA which calls for the cells to be mounted on a carbon loaded Kapton blanket to control charging in GEO. When deployed, this design has a flexible blanket supported around the edges. A second coupon was built with the cells mounted on Kapton-H, which was in turn cemented to a solid aluminum substrate. A final coupon was identical to the latter but used germanium coated Kapton to control atomic oxygen attack in LEO. Ground testing of these coupons in a plasma chamber showed considerable differences in plasma current collection. The Kapton-H coupon demonstrated current collection consistent with exposed interconnects and some degree of cell snapover. The other two coupons experienced anomalously large collection currents. This behavior is believed to be a consequence of enhanced plasma sheaths supported by the weakly conducting carbon and germanium used in these coupons. The results reported here are the first experimental evidence that the use of such materials can result in power losses to high voltage space power systems.

  17. Thermal conductivities for sintered and sphere-pac Li/sub 2/O and. gamma. /sup -/LiAlO/sub 2/ solid breeders with and without irradiation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.Y.; Tam, S.W.

    1984-07-01

    Thermal conductivities (k, k/sub eff/) have been estimated for sintered and sphere-pac Li/sub 2/O and ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/ with and without neutron irradiation effects. The estimation is based on (1) data from unirradiated UO/sub 2/, Li/sub 2/O, and ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/; (2) data from irradiated dielectric insulator materials; and (3) relatively simple physical models. Comparison of model predictions with limited ex- and in-reactor data found reasonable agreement, thus lending credence for their use in design applications. The impact of thermal conductivities on tritium breeding and power generation in fusion solid-breeder blankets is briefly highlighted.

  18. Seeking lower costs in small breeder recycle plants

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Burch, W.D.; Peishel, F.L.; Yarbro, O.O. )

    1992-01-01

    For the past l5 yr., design concepts for small oxide breeder reprocessing plants have been studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP). These studies largely unpublished because of restrictions on such information, have sought through several major conceptual design studies to improve and reduce costs for these facilities. Recently, a brief study reassessed prior concepts and identified areas where further cost reductions might be possible using some innovative ideas as well as evaluating improvements on conventional concepts. This paper provides information on the size of these facilities and some of the latest ideas for further cost reductions. This may prove useful as other studies examine and compare alternative fuel cycles with this more conventional cycle.

  19. SPARC EBIT — a charge breeder for the HITRAP project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, A.; Herfurth, F.; Kester, O.; Stoehlker, Th; Thorn, A.; Vorobjev, G.; Zschornack, G.

    2010-11-01

    Charge breeding of externally injected, singly-charged ions in an electron beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T) extends the range of elements from which highly-charged ions can be produced with these machines, which is important for numerous atomic and nuclear physics experiments. Existing EBIS/T charge breeders feature electron guns producing intense beams and superconducting magnets generating strong fields to achieve high efficiencies and high ion charge states. We show an alternative possibility to inject, capture, charge-breed and extract ions using a compact room-temperature EBIT based on permanent magnet technology. Singly-charged potassium and rubidium ions injected over the barrier were charge bred and extracted as bare and neon-like ions, respectively. Simulations of injection and capture of singly-charged ions in this EBIT show the challenges and help understanding the results.

  20. On the composition of gastroliths from broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Martín-Ramos, P; Carrión-Prieto, P; Sánchez-Báscones, M; Ruiz-Potosme, N M; Martín-Gil, J

    2017-10-06

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the composition and origin of certain gastroliths or gizzard stones from broiler breeders (Gallus gallus domesticus). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray powder diffraction techniques were used as analysis tools. The main components resulted to be organic fibre and minerals referred to a pegmatite rock (quartz, feldspar albite and haematite) used as grit. Although the generally accepted purpose of gastroliths in chicken is the crushing and grinding of foodstuff in the ventriculus, the importance of mineral uptake from grit of iron and other essential elements such as Al, Ca, K, Cl, P, Ti, Mn, Mg, Cu, Zn and Zr (in ppm) as a secondary effect of the abrasion and dissolution of gastroliths should not be disregarded. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Optimization of fast breeder reactors employing innovative liquid metal coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Pilarski, Stevan

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we propose a comparative assessment of fast breeder reactor core concepts employing Pb, Pb- Mg and Pb-{sup 7}Li as primary coolants and oxide and nitride fuels. Starting from a common reference core to make the comparison relevant, each coolant candidate is associated to an optimized design that takes into account its specific physical properties. For each core, we perform a neutronic analysis and an assessment of its safety potential. In comparison with the case of Pb, the use of Pb-Mg and Pb-{sup 7}Li increases the void reactivity effect. On the other hand, the breeding gain also increases, and the Doppler effect is enhanced, leading to a favorable behaviour concerning safety. (author)

  2. Designing a SCADA system simulator for fast breeder reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraha, E.; Abdullah, A. G.; Hakim, D. L.

    2016-04-01

    SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system simulator is a Human Machine Interface-based software that is able to visualize the process of a plant. This study describes the results of the process of designing a SCADA system simulator that aims to facilitate the operator in monitoring, controlling, handling the alarm, accessing historical data and historical trend in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) type Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). This research used simulation to simulate NPP type FBR Kalpakkam in India. This simulator was developed using Wonderware Intouch software 10 and is equipped with main menu, plant overview, area graphics, control display, set point display, alarm system, real-time trending, historical trending and security system. This simulator can properly simulate the principle of energy flow and energy conversion process on NPP type FBR. This SCADA system simulator can be used as training media for NPP type FBR prospective operators.

  3. Fuel Summary Report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Illum, D.B.; Olson, G.L.; McCardell, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    The Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was a small water cooled, U-233/Th-232 cycle breeder reactor developed by the Pittsburgh Naval Reactors to improve utilization of the nation's nuclear fuel resources in light water reactors. The LWBR was operated at Shippingport Atomic Power Station (APS), which was a Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly Atomic Energy Commission)-owned reactor plant. Shippingport APS was the first large-scale, central-station nuclear power plant in the United States and the first plant of such size in the world operated solely to produce electric power. The Shippingport LWBR was operated successfully from 1977 to 1982 at the APS. During the five years of operation, the LWBR generated more than 29,000 effective full power hours (EFPH) of energy. After final shutdown, the 39 core modules of the LWBR were shipped to the Expended Core Facility (ECF) at Naval Reactors Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). At ECF, 12 of the 39 modules were dismantled and about 1000 of more than 17,000 rods were removed from the modules of proof-of-breeding and fuel performance testing. Some of the removed rods were kept at ECF, some were sent to Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho and some to ANL-East in Chicago for a variety of physical, chemical and radiological examinations. All rods and rod sections remaining after the experiments were shipped back to ECF, where modules and loose rods were repackaged in liners for dry storage. In a series of shipments, the liners were transported from ECF to Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The 47 liners containing the fully-rodded and partially-derodded core modules, the loose rods, and the rod scraps, are now stored in underground dry wells at CPP-749.

  4. STS-34 crewmembers train with the IMAX camera in JSC's Bldg 9B mockup area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-06-22

    STS-34 crewmembers participate in IMAX camera training session held in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9B. The crew is briefed on the operation and handling of the IMAX camera scheduled to fly aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Left to right in the foreground are Mission Specialist (MS) Shannon W. Lucid, MS Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Commander Donald E. Williams (looking through IMAX eye piece), Pilot Michael J. McCulley, and IMAX instructor Grant Ferguson. David Douglas of IMAX is at right edge of photo.

  5. Design and test of a short mockup magnet for the superconducting undulator at the SSRF

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jieping Ding, Yi; Cui, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hongfei; Yin, Lixin

    2016-07-27

    A superconducting planar undulator is under development at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) to provide the SSRF users with higher photon fluxes at higher photon energies. A 5-period magnet was designed and built for feasibility study. The short mockup magnet is composed of NbTi/Cu winding and low carbon steel former and was tested in a vertical cryocooler-cooled cryostat. The nominal current of 387 A was reached after 2 quenches and the maximum current of 433.2 A was achieved. The magnetic field profile was measured and a peak field of 0.93 T was obtained when stably operating at 400 A.

  6. Close-up view of descent vehicle of Soyuz spacecraft training mock-up

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-06-01

    S74-24677 (June 1974) --- A close-up view of the descent vehicle of the Soyuz spacecraft training mock-up on display at the Cosmonuat Training Center (Star City) near Moscow. The open hatch reveals the interior arrangement of the middle section of the Soviet spacecraft. The first (fore) section of the Soyuz is called the orbital module; and the third (aft) section is the instrument-assembly module. The joint U.S.-USSR Apollo-Soyuz docking mission in Earth orbit is scheduled for the summer of 1975.

  7. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson trains in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Nelson, wearing new (navy blue) partial pressure suit (launch and entry suit (LES)) and helmet, is strapped into his launch and entry station on the CCT middeck. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  8. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson trains in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Nelson, wearing new (navy blue) partial pressure suit (launch and entry suit (LES)) and helmet, peers out the open CCT side hatch and prepares to deploy inflatable slide. Technicians observe the activity from scaffolding on either side of the hatch. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  9. STS-26 crew in JSC Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers model the new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (launch and entry suits (LESs)) for entry and launch phases before a training exercise in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Pictured (left to right) are Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers, Commander Frederick H. Hauck, Pilot Richard O. Covey, MS John M. Lounge, and MS George D. Nelson. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew is scheduled to check out the new partial pressure suits and crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  10. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck tests cushion outside the crew compartment trainer (CCT) side hatch. Hauck, wearing new (navy blue) partial pressure suit (launch and entry suit (LES)) and helmet, tumbles out CCT side hatch onto cushion as technicians look on. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. CCT is located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A.

  11. Astronauts McMonagle and Brown on flight deck mockup during training

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-06-23

    S94-40090 (23 June 1994) --- Astronauts Donald R. McMonagle, left, and Curtis L. Brown man the commander's and pilot's stations, respectively, during a rehearsal of ascent and entry phases of their scheduled November 1994 flight aboard Atlantis. Three other NASA astronauts and a European mission specialist joined the two for this training exercise in the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT) at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory and will join them aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis in November. The flight is manifest to support the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) mission.

  12. Astronaut Bruce McCandless shows mockup of occulting disc for Skylab exp.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-11-23

    S73-37251 (23 November 1973) --- Astronaut Bruce McCandless II, left, shows off a mock-up of the occulting disc for the T025 Coronagraph Contamination Measurement Engineering and Technology Experiment to be used by the crewmen of the third manned Skylab mission (Skylab 4), now into their eighth day in Earth orbit. On the right is flight director Neil B. Hutchinson. The men are in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) of the Mission Control Center (MCC) at Johnson Space Center. Photo credit: NASA

  13. STS-65 PLC Hieb at mockup side hatch prepares to egress via an inflated slide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Mission Specialist and Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), sits at the top of the inflated slide at the crew compartment trainer (CCT) side hatch and listens to a crew training staffer's instructions. Hieb practiced post landing emergency escape procedures along with his six STS-65 crewmates. The CCT is located in the Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE. Hieb will join five NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist for the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) mission aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, later this year.

  14. APOLLO SOYUZ TEST PROJECT [ASTP] CREW POSE IN FRONT OF FULL- SCALE MOCKUP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    American and Soviet crewmen for the Apollo Soyuz Test Project visited KSC today as part of a familiarization tour for the Soviet cosmonauts. During their tour, they inspected a full- scale mockup of the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft in a docked configuration in the transfer aisle of the Vehicle Assembly Building. From left are Astronauts Vance Brand and Thomas P. Stafford, Cosmonauts Aleksey Leonov and Valeriy Kubasov, and Astronaut Donald K. Slayton. Launch of history's first international manned space mission is scheduled for July 15, 1975.

  15. STS-65 PLC Hieb at mockup side hatch prepares to egress via an inflated slide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Mission Specialist and Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), sits at the top of the inflated slide at the crew compartment trainer (CCT) side hatch and listens to a crew training staffer's instructions. Hieb practiced post landing emergency escape procedures along with his six STS-65 crewmates. The CCT is located in the Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE. Hieb will join five NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist for the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) mission aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, later this year.

  16. STS-34 crewmembers train with the IMAX camera in JSC's Bldg 9B mockup area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-34 crewmembers participate in IMAX camera training session held in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9B. The crew is briefed on the operation and handling of the IMAX camera scheduled to fly aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Left to right in the foreground are Mission Specialist (MS) Shannon W. Lucid, MS Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Commander Donald E. Williams (looking through IMAX eye piece), Pilot Michael J. McCulley, and IMAX instructor Grant Ferguson. David Douglas of IMAX is at right edge of photo.

  17. STS-45 payload specialists with crew escape system (CES) mockup at JSC's MAIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-45 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Payload Specialist Dirk D. Frimout (European Space Agency (ESA) Belgian crewmember) (left), backup Payload Specialist Charles R. Chappell (center), and Payload Specialist Byron K. Lichtenberg (right) listen to technician explain the operation of the crew escape system (CES) pole. Frimout is engaging the handle which extends the CES pole out the side hatch. The payload specialists along with the other STS-45 crewmembers are participating in side hatch emergency egress exercises in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A.

  18. STS-29 MS Bagian during post landing egress exercises in JSC FFT mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) James P. Bagian practices post landing egress via overhead window W8 in JSC full fuselage trainer (FFT) located in the Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Bagian, wearing navy blue launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), lowers himself using the sky genie down FFT side. Technicians watch Bagian's progress from outside FFT and inside FFT at open side hatch. Visible on Bagian's right side is the personal egress air pack (PEAP). Bagian along with the engineers are evaluating egress using the new crew escape system (CES) equipment (including parachute harness).

  19. STS-31 MS Sullivan exits airlock mockup during JSC WETF underwater simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-31 Mission Specialist (MS) Kathryn D. Sullivan, fully suited in an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and holding a semirigid tether (SRT) and ratchet caddy assembly, egresses the airlock (AL) mockup during an underwater simulation in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. The open AL extravehicular (EV) hatch appears in the foreground as Sullivan backs out into the payload bay (PLB). Though no extravehicular activity (EVA) is planned for STS-31, two crewmembers train for contingencies that would necessitate leaving the shirt sleeve environment of Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, cabin and performing chores with their Hubble Space Telescope (HST) payload or related hardware in the PLB.

  20. Experimental study on corrosion and precipitation in non-isothermal Pb-17Li system for development of liquid breeder blanket of fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Ishii, Masaomi; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Muroga, Takeo

    2017-07-01

    The corrosion characteristics of RAFM steel JLF-1 in a non-isothermal Pb-17Li flowing system were investigated by means of the corrosion test using a non-isothermal mixing pot. The corrosion test was performed at 739K with a temperature gradient of 14K for 500 hours. The corrosion tests at a static and a flowing conditions in an isothermal Pb-17Li system were also performed at the same temperature for the same duration with the non-isothermal test. Then, the effect of mass transfer both by the flow and the temperature gradient on the corrosion behaviors was featured by the comparison of these results. The corrosion was caused by the dissolution of Fe and Cr from the steel surface into the flowing Pb-17Li. The specimen surface revealed a fine granular microstructure after the corrosion tests. A large number of pebbleshaped protrusions were observed on the specimen surface. This microstructure was different from the original martensite microstructure of the steel, and might be formed by the influence of the reaction with Li component in the alloy. The formation of the granular microstructure was accelerated by the flow and the temperature gradient. Some pebble-shaped protrusions had gaps at their bases. The removal of these pebble-shaped granules by the flowing Pb-17Li might cause a small-scale corrosion-erosion. The results of metallurgical analysis indicated that a large-scale corrosion-erosion was also caused by their destruction of the corroded layer on the surface. The non-isothermal mixing pot equipped a cold trap by a metal mesh in the low temperature region. The metal elements of Fe and Cr were recovered as they precipitated on the surface of the metal mesh. It was found that a Fe-Cr binary intermetallic compound was formed in the precipitation procedure. The overall mass transfer coefficient for the dissolution type corrosion in the non-isothermal system was much bigger than that in the isothermal system. This model evaluation indicated that the temperature gradient accelerated the corrosion.