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Sample records for brewers spent grain

  1. Brewer's spent grain: a valuable feedstock for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Mussatto, Solange I

    2014-05-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG) is the most abundant by-product generated from the beer-brewing process, representing approximately 85% of the total by-products obtained. This material is basically constituted by the barley grain husks obtained as solid residue after the wort production. Since BSG is rich in sugars and proteins, the main and quickest alternative for elimination of this industrial by-product has been as animal feed. However, BSG is a raw material of interest for application in different areas because of its low cost, large availability throughout the year and valuable chemical composition. In the last decade, many efforts have been directed towards the reuse of BSG, taking into account the incentive that has been given to recycle the wastes and by-products generated by industrial activities. Currently, many interesting and advantageous methods for application of BSG in foods, in energy production and in chemical and biotechnological processes have been reported. The present study presents and discusses the most recent perspectives for BSG application in such areas.

  2. Activated carbon from pyrolysis of brewer's spent grain: Production and adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Vanreppelen, Kenny; Vanderheyden, Sara; Kuppens, Tom; Schreurs, Sonja; Yperman, Jan; Carleer, Robert

    2014-06-20

    Brewer's spent grain is a low cost residue generated by the brewing industry. Its chemical composition (high nitrogen content 4.35 wt.%, fibres, etc.) makes it very useful for the production of added value in situ nitrogenised activated carbon. The composition of brewer's spent grain revealed high amounts of cellulose (20.8 wt.%), hemicellulose (48.78 wt.%) and lignin (11.3 wt.%). The fat, ethanol extractives and ash accounted for 8.17 wt.%, 4.7 wt.% and 3.2 wt.%, respectively. Different activated carbons were produced in a lab-scale pyrolysis/activation reactor by applying several heat and steam activation profiles on brewer's spent grain. Activated carbon yields from 16.1 to 23.6 wt.% with high N-contents (> 2 wt.%) were obtained. The efficiency of the prepared activated carbons for phenol adsorption was studied as a function of different parameters: pH, contact time and carbon dosage relative to two commercial activated carbons. The equilibrium isotherms were described by the non-linear Langmuir and Freundlich models, and the kinetic results were fitted using the pseudo-first-order model and the pseudo-second-order model. The feasibility of an activated carbon production facility (onsite and offsite) that processes brewer's spent grain for different input feeds is evaluated based on a techno-economic model for estimating the net present value. Even though the model assumptions start from a rather pessimistic scenario, encouraging results for a profitable production of activated carbon using brewer's spent grain are obtained. PMID:25012859

  3. Activated carbon from pyrolysis of brewer's spent grain: Production and adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Vanreppelen, Kenny; Vanderheyden, Sara; Kuppens, Tom; Schreurs, Sonja; Yperman, Jan; Carleer, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Brewer's spent grain is a low cost residue generated by the brewing industry. Its chemical composition (high nitrogen content 4.35 wt.%, fibres, etc.) makes it very useful for the production of added value in situ nitrogenised activated carbon. The composition of brewer's spent grain revealed high amounts of cellulose (20.8 wt.%), hemicellulose (48.78 wt.%) and lignin (11.3 wt.%). The fat, ethanol extractives and ash accounted for 8.17 wt.%, 4.7 wt.% and 3.2 wt.%, respectively. Different activated carbons were produced in a lab-scale pyrolysis/activation reactor by applying several heat and steam activation profiles on brewer's spent grain. Activated carbon yields from 16.1 to 23.6 wt.% with high N-contents (> 2 wt.%) were obtained. The efficiency of the prepared activated carbons for phenol adsorption was studied as a function of different parameters: pH, contact time and carbon dosage relative to two commercial activated carbons. The equilibrium isotherms were described by the non-linear Langmuir and Freundlich models, and the kinetic results were fitted using the pseudo-first-order model and the pseudo-second-order model. The feasibility of an activated carbon production facility (onsite and offsite) that processes brewer's spent grain for different input feeds is evaluated based on a techno-economic model for estimating the net present value. Even though the model assumptions start from a rather pessimistic scenario, encouraging results for a profitable production of activated carbon using brewer's spent grain are obtained.

  4. Characterization of biocoals and dissolved organic matter phases obtained upon hydrothermal carbonization of brewer's spent grain.

    PubMed

    Poerschmann, J; Weiner, B; Wedwitschka, H; Baskyr, I; Koehler, R; Kopinke, F-D

    2014-07-01

    The wet biomass brewer's spent grain was subjected to hydrothermal carbonization to produce biocoal. Mass balance considerations indicate for about two thirds of the organic carbon of the input biomass to be transferred into the biocoal. The van Krevelen plot refers to a high degree of defunctionalization with decarboxylation prevailing over dehydration. Calorific data revealed a significant energy densification of biocoals as compared to the input substrate. Sorption coefficients of organic analytes covering a wide range of hydrophobicities and polarities on biocoal were similar to those for dissolved humic acids. Data from GC/MS analysis indicated that phenols and benzenediols along with fatty acids released from bound lipids during the hydrothermal process constituted abundant products. Our findings demonstrate that the brewer's spent grain by-product is a good feedstock for hydrothermal carbonization to produce biocoal, the latter offering good prospects for energetic and soil-improving application fields.

  5. Enzymatic and chemical treatment limits on the controlled solubilization of brewers' spent grain.

    PubMed

    Robertson, James A; Castro-Mariñas, Luis; Collins, Samuel R A; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2011-10-26

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of brewers' spent grain (BSG) has been investigated through treatment with commercial carbohydrases and proteases. Resultant residues were then chemically fractionated and delignified. Enzymatic treatments released 25-30% of the BSG mass and yielded precursors suitable for subsequent conversion to potentially value-added products. Controlled chemical fractionation selectively solubilized arabinoxylan but with no differences apparent due to prior enzyme treatment. The loss of non-polysaccharide components during alkali treatment suggests the presence of a high proportion of alkali-soluble lignin. Further delignification of the alkali-insoluble residues and further chemical fractionation released the remaining hemicellulose, to yield a residue which was >90% cellulose. Further knowledge of the properties and interaction between BSG polymers will facilitate an improved enzyme-assisted total deconstruction of BSG and hence the exploitation of its biomass. PMID:21894957

  6. Enhancement of biohydrogen production from brewers' spent grain by calcined-red mud pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jishi; Zang, Lihua

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigated the utilization of calcined-red mud (CRM) pretreatment to enhance fermentative hydrogen yields from brewers' spent grain (BSG). The BSG samples were treated with different concentrations (0.0-20g/L) of CRM at 55°C for 48h, before the biohydrogen process with heat-treated anaerobic sludge inoculum. The highest specific hydrogen production of 198.62ml/g-VS was obtained from the BSG treated with 10g/L CRM, with the corresponding lag time of 10.60h. Hydrogen yield increments increased by 67.74%, compared to the control tests without CRM. The results demonstrated that the CRM could hydrolyze more cellulose and further provided adequate broth and suitable pH value for efficient fermentative hydrogen. The model-based analysis showed that the modified Gompertz model presented a better fit for the experimental data than the first-order model.

  7. Pre-hydrolysis with carbohydrases facilitates the release of protein from brewer's spent grain.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Piritta; Martins, Duarte; Buchert, Johanna; Faulds, Craig B

    2013-05-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG) is the most abundant side-stream from brewing. It is food-grade being rich in dietary fibre and protein and thus having potential as their source for both food and non-food applications. Initial treatment of milled BSG with a carbohydrase cocktail from Humicola insolens significantly enhanced the subsequent solubilisation of protein from the residual biomass. When treated with an alkaline protease, 76% of BSG protein was solubilized, whereas the yields were significantly lower with neutral or acidic proteases. In alkaline conditions significant amount of protein (53%) as predominantly low molecular weight protein was solubilized even without any protease addition. The degree of protein solubilisation was influenced by the time of exposure of modified BSG to the alkaline environment. The non-enzymatic protein solubilisation was, however, only observed when BSG had been initially treated with the carbohydrase, suggesting the protein is surrounded by cell wall polysaccharides restricting its initial release.

  8. Enzymatic hydrolysis of beer brewers' spent grain and the influence of pretreatments

    SciTech Connect

    Beldman, G.; Hennekam, J.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1987-01-01

    The enzymatic saccharification of plant material has been shown to be of interest in various fields, such as the production of fruit juices and the utilization of biomass. A combination of cellulase, pectinase, and hemicellulases is usually used because of the chemical composition of the matrix of plant cell walls. For apples, beet pulp, and potato fiber, almost a complete hydrolysis of polysaccharides is obtained by combining cellulase and pectinase. For nonparenchymatic tissue, the situation is somewhat different: pectin is a minor component and the hemicellulose content is much higher. Enzyme action is restricted by the lignin barrier and by the high crystallinity of cellulose in this material. For such materials, mechanical, thermal, or chemical pretreatments are necessary to achieve efficient hydrolysis. This communication describes various enzymatic treatments and chemical and physical pretreatment, using brewers' spent grain as substrate. Spent grain is the residue of malt and grain which remains in the mash-kettle after the liquefied and saccharified starch has been removed by filtration. (Refs. 15).

  9. Techno-economic analysis for brewer's spent grains use on a biorefinery concept: the Brazilian case.

    PubMed

    Mussatto, Solange I; Moncada, Jonathan; Roberto, Inês C; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-11-01

    A techno-economic analysis for use of brewer's spent grains (BSG) on a biorefinery concept for the Brazilian case is presented. Four scenarios based on different levels of heat and mass integration for the production of xylitol, lactic acid, activated carbon and phenolic acids are shown. A simulation procedure using the software Aspen Plus and experimental yields was used. Such procedure served as basis for the techno-economic and environmental assessment according to the Brazilian conditions. Full mass integration on water and full energy integration was the configuration with the best economic and environmental performance. For this case, the obtained economic margin was 62.25%, the potential environmental impact was 0.012 PEI/kg products, and the carbon footprint of the processing stage represented 0.96 kg CO2-e/kg of BSG. This result served as basis to draw recommendations on the technological, economic and environmental feasibility for implementation of such type of biorefinery in Brazil.

  10. Biomethanation from enzymatically hydrolyzed brewer's spent grain: Impact of rapid increase in loadings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoyu; Tao, Yu; Temudo, Margarida; Bijl, Henk; Kloek, Joris; Ren, Nanqi; van Lier, Jules B; de Kreuk, Merle

    2015-08-01

    Enzymatically hydrolyzed brewer's spent grain (BSG) was digested in two expanded granular sludge beds (EGSBs, named BSG1 and BSG2, respectively). Both reactors were operated with the same organic loading rate (OLR) from 1 to 10kgCODm(-3)d(-1) during the first 45days. Hereafter a rapid OLR increase was applied to BSG2 from 10 to 16kgCODm(-3)d(-1) within three weeks, while the OLR of BSG1 was increased by less than 2kgCODm(-3)d(-1) in the same period. Results showed that a 30% decrease in COD removal and 70% decrease in methane yield appeared in BSG2 after the rapid OLR increase, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulated more than thirty times compared to BSG1. The biomass structure deteriorated and 15% of the biomass was lost from the BSG2 reactor. 454-PyroTag and qPCR analysis revealed a rapid growth of acidifiers (i.e., Bacteroides) and a unique microbial community in BSG2 following the rapid increase in OLR. PMID:25941758

  11. Antioxidant, functional and rheological properties of optimized composite flour, consisting wheat and amaranth seed, brewers' spent grain and apple pomace.

    PubMed

    Awolu, Olugbenga Olufemi; Osemeke, Richard Onyemaechi; Ifesan, Beatrice O Temilade

    2016-02-01

    Consumer's interest in functional food has continued to increase due to its potential health benefits. This study therefore is aimed at developing a functional wheat based flour comprising, amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) seed, brewers' spent grain and apple pomace. The statistical analyses were carried out using response surface methodology (RSM). For the experimental design, the composite flour components were the variables while the proximate and mineral compositions were the responses. After the statistical optimisation process, the best three blends were chosen for further analyses; determination of antioxidant, functional and rheological properties. From the results, the best blends were Runs 11, 13 and 19, with percentages composition of wheat, amaranth seed, brewers, spent grain and apple pomace of 65 %, 30 %, 2 %, 3 %; 60.43 %, 29.68 %, 4.1 %, 5.79 % and 81.94 %, 6.75 %, 3.39 %, 7.92 % respectively. The ANOVA, R(2) and R(2) adjusted values for the proximate and mineral compositions showed that the composite flours were statistically satisfactory. The results also indicated that the antioxidant, functional and rheological properties of the three best blends showed good and acceptable nutritional and rheological properties. Composite flours with acceptable and excellent nutritional composition, functional properties and rheological behaviour can be obtained from composite blends consisting wheat, amaranth seed, brewers, spent grain and apple pomace flours. PMID:27162395

  12. Application of a new xylanase activity from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens XR44A in brewer's spent grain saccharification

    PubMed Central

    Amore, Antonella; Parameswaran, Binod; Kumar, Ramesh; Birolo, Leila; Vinciguerra, Roberto; Marcolongo, Loredana; Ionata, Elena; La Cara, Francesco; Pandey, Ashok; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Background Cellulases and xylanases are the key enzymes involved in the conversion of lignocelluloses into fermentable sugars. Western Ghat region (India) has been recognized as an active hot spot for the isolation of new microorganisms. The aim of this work was to isolate new microorganisms producing cellulases and xylanases to be applied in brewer's spent grain saccharification. Results 93 microorganisms were isolated from Western Ghat and screened for the production of cellulase and xylanase activities. Fourteen cellulolytic and seven xylanolytic microorganisms were further screened in liquid culture. Particular attention was focused on the new isolate Bacillus amyloliquefaciens XR44A, producing xylanase activity up to 10.5 U mL−1. A novel endo-1,4-beta xylanase was identified combining zymography and proteomics and recognized as the main enzyme responsible for B. amyloliquefaciens XR44A xylanase activity. The new xylanase activity was partially characterized and its application in saccharification of brewer's spent grain, pretreated by aqueous ammonia soaking, was investigated. Conclusion The culture supernatant of B. amyloliquefaciens XR44A with xylanase activity allowed a recovery of around 43% xylose during brewer's spent grain saccharification, similar to the value obtained with a commercial xylanase from Trichoderma viride, and a maximum arabinose yield of 92%, around 2-fold higher than that achieved with the commercial xylanase. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25866429

  13. The biotransformation of brewer's spent grain into biogas by anaerobic microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Malakhova, Dina V; Egorova, Maria A; Prokudina, Ljuba I; Netrusov, Alexander I; Tsavkelova, Elena A

    2015-12-01

    The present study reports on the biotransformation of the brewer's spent grain (BSG) in co-digestion with Jerusalem artichoke (JA, Helianthus tuberosus L.) phytomass by thermophilic (+55 °C) and mesophilic (+30 °C) anaerobic methanogenic communities. BSG is a by-product of the beer-brewing process generated in large amounts, in which utilization provokes a negative effect on the environment. In this study, we will show an effective conversion of BSG into biogas by selected microbial communities, obtained from different sources (animal manure and previously isolated microbial consortia). The stimulation of methanogenesis was reached by the co-digestion of JA's phytomass (stem and leaves). The optimized conditions for microbial stable cultivation included the use of nutrient medium, containing yeast extract and trace element solution. The optimal BSG concentration in biogas production was 50 and 100 g L(-1). Under thermophilic conditions, the maximum total methane production reached 64%, and it comprised around 6-8 and 9-11 of L CH4 per 100 g of fermented BSG without and with co-digested JA, respectively, when the fresh inoculum was added. Although, after a year of re-cultivation, the values reduced to around 6-7, and 6-10 L CH4/100 g BSG, correspondingly, the selected microbial communities showed effective biotransformation of BSG. The supplementation of soil with the residual fermented BSG (10%, w/w) resulted in the promotion of lettuce (Lepidium sativum L.) growth. The results obtained demonstrate a potential for complete BSG utilization via biogas production and application as a soil additive.

  14. The biotransformation of brewer's spent grain into biogas by anaerobic microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Malakhova, Dina V; Egorova, Maria A; Prokudina, Ljuba I; Netrusov, Alexander I; Tsavkelova, Elena A

    2015-12-01

    The present study reports on the biotransformation of the brewer's spent grain (BSG) in co-digestion with Jerusalem artichoke (JA, Helianthus tuberosus L.) phytomass by thermophilic (+55 °C) and mesophilic (+30 °C) anaerobic methanogenic communities. BSG is a by-product of the beer-brewing process generated in large amounts, in which utilization provokes a negative effect on the environment. In this study, we will show an effective conversion of BSG into biogas by selected microbial communities, obtained from different sources (animal manure and previously isolated microbial consortia). The stimulation of methanogenesis was reached by the co-digestion of JA's phytomass (stem and leaves). The optimized conditions for microbial stable cultivation included the use of nutrient medium, containing yeast extract and trace element solution. The optimal BSG concentration in biogas production was 50 and 100 g L(-1). Under thermophilic conditions, the maximum total methane production reached 64%, and it comprised around 6-8 and 9-11 of L CH4 per 100 g of fermented BSG without and with co-digested JA, respectively, when the fresh inoculum was added. Although, after a year of re-cultivation, the values reduced to around 6-7, and 6-10 L CH4/100 g BSG, correspondingly, the selected microbial communities showed effective biotransformation of BSG. The supplementation of soil with the residual fermented BSG (10%, w/w) resulted in the promotion of lettuce (Lepidium sativum L.) growth. The results obtained demonstrate a potential for complete BSG utilization via biogas production and application as a soil additive. PMID:26399858

  15. Effect of a milling pre-treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates in brewer's spent grain.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Piritta; Faulds, Craig B; Sibakov, Juhani; Holopainen, Ulla; Poutanen, Kaisa; Buchert, Johanna

    2012-07-01

    Millions of tonnes of brewer's spent grain (BSG) are annually produced worldwide as a by-product of the brewing industry. BSG has the potential to be a valuable source of food, chemicals and energy if cost-efficient fractionation methods can be developed. A 2-fold improvement in carbohydrate solubilisation could be achieved through the introduction of a milling step prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. Course and fine milled fractions were characterized by particle size distribution and light microscopy. Fine milling decreased particle size down to the micron level and this in turn improved the carbohydrate solubility yield by a multi-enzyme mixture from 23% up to 45%. Carbohydrate solubilisation could be further increased through the supplementation of this enzyme preparation with additional cellulases. The physical degradation caused by the milling also liberated soluble carbohydrates without the requirement of any enzymatic treatment.

  16. Fermentation efficiency of cells immobilized on delignified brewers' spent grains after low- and high-temperature thin layer thermal drying.

    PubMed

    Tsaousi, Konstantina; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Bekatorou, Argyro; Loukatos, Paul

    2010-09-01

    Low-cost dried yeasts immobilized on delignified brewers' spent grains for use in wine making and brewing were produced by simple thermal drying techniques. To optimize the thermal drying process, vacuum and air stream conditions were examined. Drying of thin layers of the biocatalysts was performed at low (30-38 degrees C) and high temperatures (40-70 degrees C). The fermentation efficiency of the thermally dried biocatalysts was acceptable, with immobilized cells showing a significantly higher thermotolerance compared with free cells. Immobilized cells dried at high temperatures presented slightly improved glucose fermentation efficiency compared with the low-temperature dried biocatalysts. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of aroma volatiles of the fermented products revealed an increase of esters, lower higher alcohol formation, and significantly lower concentration of carbonylic compounds.

  17. A novel application of microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenols from brewer's spent grain with HPLC-DAD-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Manuela M; Morais, Simone; Barros, Aquiles A; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Guido, Luís F

    2012-05-01

    This paper reports a novel application of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polyphenols from brewer's spent grains (BSG). A 2(4) orthogonal composite design was used to obtain the optimal conditions of MAE. The influence of the MAE operational parameters (extraction time, temperature, solvent volume and stirring speed) on the extraction yield of ferulic acid was investigated through response surface methodology. The results showed that the optimal conditions were 15 min extraction time, 100 °C extraction temperature, 20 mL of solvent, and maximum stirring speed. Under these conditions, the yield of ferulic acid was 1.31 ± 0.04% (w/w), which was fivefold higher than that obtained with conventional solid-liquid extraction techniques. The developed new extraction method considerably reduces extraction time, energy and solvent consumption, while generating fewer wastes. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis indicated that other hydroxycinnamic acids and several ferulic acid dehydrodimers, as well as one dehydrotrimer were also present, confirming that BSG is a valuable source of antioxidant compounds.

  18. Steam explosion of Brewer's spent grain improves enzymatic digestibility of carbohydrates and affects solubility and stability of proteins.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, K; Rommi, K; Holopainen, U; Kruus, K

    2016-09-01

    Steam explosion was studied as a means to improve the enzymatic digestibility of carbohydrates in Brewer's spent grain, a protein and lipid-rich lignocellulosic by-product of the brewing industry. Having temperature, treatment time and the presence of acid catalyst as variables, a treatment at 200 °C for 10 min without an acid catalyst was found to be the most efficient, dissolving 12.1 % of the dry matter. Mainly oligomeric non-cellulosic glucan and arabinoxylan were dissolved, and the remaining insoluble carbohydrates could be efficiently hydrolysed by an enzyme cocktail (75 % hydrolysis yield). The process also caused partial protein degradation and dissolved over a third of the total nitrogen. Meanwhile, the insoluble protein appeared to become more strongly associated with acid-insoluble lignin. Compositional changes observed in the proteins and carbohydrates were supported by the results of epifluorescence microscopy. The process yielded three chemically different fractions which could serve as biorefinery products or intermediates. PMID:27085356

  19. Isolation and structural characterization of the milled wood lignin, dioxane lignin, and cellulolytic lignin preparations from brewer's spent grain.

    PubMed

    Rencoret, Jorge; Prinsen, Pepijn; Gutiérrez, Ana; Martínez, Ángel T; Del Río, José C

    2015-01-21

    The structure of the lignin from brewer's spent grain (BSG) has been studied in detail. Three different lignin preparations, the so-called "milled-wood" lignin (MWL), dioxane lignin (DL), and cellulolytic lignin (CEL), were isolated from BSG and then thoroughly characterized by pyrolysis GC/MS, 2D-NMR, and derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC). The data indicated that BSG lignin presents a predominance of guaiacyl units (syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of 0.4-0.5) with significant amounts of associated p-coumarates and ferulates. The flavone tricin was also present in the lignin from BSG, as also occurred in other grasses. 2D-NMR (HSQC) revealed that the main substructures present are β-O-4' alkyl-aryl ethers (77-79%) followed by β-5' phenylcoumarans (11-13%) and lower amounts of β-β' resinols (5-6%) and 5-5' dibenzodioxocins (3-5%). The results from 2D-NMR (HMBC) and DFRC indicated that p-coumarates are acylating the γ-carbon of lignin side chains and are mostly involved in condensed structures. DFRC analyses also indicated a minor degree of γ-acylation with acetate groups, which takes place preferentially on S lignin (6% of S units are acetylated) over G lignin (only 1% of G units are acetylated).

  20. Effect of storage conditions on the microbial ecology and biochemical stability of cell wall components in brewers' spent grain.

    PubMed

    Robertson, James A; I'Anson, Kerry J A; Brocklehurst, Tim F; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2010-06-23

    The composition of brewers' spent grain (BSG) makes it susceptible to microbial attack and chemical deterioration. This can constrain its appeal as an industrial feedstock. The current study has monitored the effects of BSG storage as fresh material (20 degrees C), refrigerated and autoclaved, measured against frozen material in relation to microbial proliferation and modification to plant cell wall polysaccharides and component phenolic acids. At 20 degrees C there was a rapid colonization by microbes and an associated loss of components from BSG. Refrigeration gave a similar but lower level response. When stored frozen, BSG showed no changes in composition but autoclaving resulted in a solubilization of polysaccharides and associated phenolics. Changes were associated with the temperature profile determined during autoclaving and were also partially due to the breakdown of residual starch. Losses of highly branched arabinoxylan (AX) and the related decrease in ferulic acid cross-linking were also found. The results confirm the need for storage stabilization of BSG and demonstrate that the methods selected for stabilization can themselves lead to a substantial modification to BSG.

  1. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers' Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Rossana; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Ionata, Elena; Marcolongo, Loredana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers' spent grain (BSG) into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours) when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT) or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46%) glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g), 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L) obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source. PMID:26640784

  2. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers' Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Rossana; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Ionata, Elena; Marcolongo, Loredana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers' spent grain (BSG) into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours) when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT) or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46%) glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g), 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L) obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source.

  3. Discarded oranges and brewer's spent grains as promoting ingredients for microbial growth by submerged and solid state fermentation of agro-industrial waste mixtures.

    PubMed

    Aggelopoulos, Theodoros; Bekatorou, Argyro; Pandey, Ashok; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2013-08-01

    The exploitation of various agro-industrial wastes for microbial cell mass production of Kluyveromyces marxianus, kefir, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reported in the present investigation. Specifically, the promotional effect of whole orange pulp on cell growth in mixtures consisting of cheese whey, molasses, and potato pulp in submerged fermentation processes was examined. A 2- to 3-fold increase of cell mass was observed in the presence of orange pulp. Likewise, the promotional effect of brewer's spent grains on cell growth in solid state fermentation of mixtures of whey, molasses, potato pulp, malt spent rootlets, and orange pulp was examined. The cell mass was increased by 3-fold for K. marxianus and 2-fold for S. cerevisiae in the presence of these substrates, proving their suitability for single-cell protein production without the need for extra nutrients. Cell growth kinetics were also studied by measurements of cell counts at various time intervals at different concentrations of added orange pulp. The protein content of the fermented substrates was increased substantially, indicating potential use of mixed agro-industrial wastes of negligible cost, as protein-enriched livestock feed, achieving at the same time creation of added value and waste minimization. PMID:23780341

  4. Excretion and degradation of dietary fiber constituents in ileostomy subjects consuming a low fiber diet with and without brewer's spent grain.

    PubMed

    Aman, P; Zhang, J X; Hallmans, G; Lundin, E

    1994-03-01

    Excretion of total dietary fiber and dietary fiber components was studied in 10 human subjects with ileostomies, consuming in a crossover design a low fiber diet (15 g total dietary fiber/d) or this diet supplemented with 62 g/d of brewer's spent grain. Food and excreta were collected and analyzed on d 2, 3 and 7 of each dietary period. No significant differences in excretion of total dietary fiber or dietary fiber components were found on the three days. Excreta from subjects consuming the low fiber diet contained significantly more total dietary fiber than was ingested (20%, P < 0.01), indicating the importance of endogenous and microbial material, contributing to the total dietary fiber value, in ileostomy effluents. Analysis of specific dietary fiber components showed that this increased excretion was mainly due to fucose, mannose, galactose and uronic acid residues. When the high-fiber diet was consumed, there was a significantly greater excretion of the same non-starch polysaccharide residues as for consumption of the low fiber diet, but with a simultaneous decrease in excretion of arabinose, xylose and glucose residues (12%, P < 0.01), which were the major fiber components in the diet.

  5. Wet brewers grains for lactating dairy cows during hot, humid weather.

    PubMed

    West, J W; Ely, L O; Martin, S A

    1994-01-01

    Twenty lactating Jersey cows were offered diets containing 0, 15, or 30% wet brewers grains or 30% wet brewers grains plus liquid brewers' yeast during hot, humid weather. The DMI was not different, even though diets with 30% wet brewers grains contained only 35.5% DM and approximately 50 versus 36.8% NDF for the control diet. Yields of milk and FCM did not differ for cows offered the control diet versus wet brewers grains or diets with 15 versus 30% wet brewers grains, but milk yield for diets with 30% wet brewers grains was greater with added liquid brewers' yeast than without it. Milk fat percentage was not different, but milk protein percentage was lower, for diets with wet brewers grains than for controls and for 30% wet brewers grains than for 15% wet brewers grains. Serum urea N was lower for control cows than for cows receiving the diets with wet brewers grains. Feed cost per cow was lower for wet brewers grains versus the control diet, and income over feed cost was greater for diets with 30 versus 15% wet brewers grains. Large quantities of wet brewers grains can be added to the diet during hot weather without depressing DMI.

  6. Microbial numbers, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen utilization of steers fed wet or dried brewers' grains.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J A; Conrad, H R; Dehority, B A; Grubb, J A

    1986-03-01

    Holstein steers were fed corn silage supplemented with either wet or dried brewers' grains to determine effects of heat drying commercial brewers' grains. Four rumen-fistulated steers were fed a 12.5% crude protein diet in a single reversal design experiment. Brewers' grains supplied 45% of the protein of the diet. Bacterial numbers, concentration of ciliated protozoa, and ammonia concentration in the rumen were higher, and rumen pH was lower, for steers fed wet brewers' grains. Concentrations of rumen volatile fatty acids were similar for both diets. Ruminal digestibility of dry matter decreased when wet versus dried brewers' grains were fed (56.9 versus 39.3%). The rate of dry matter passage from the rumen was faster with wet brewers' grains. In Experiment 2, 12 steers were in a 2 X 2 factorial design. Diets contained wet or dried brewers' grains supplemented at 22 or 40% of the diet dry matter (12.5 and 14.5% crude protein). Nitrogen retention was increased in steers fed the higher crude protein diet. Apparent digestible nitrogen, acid detergent fiber nitrogen, and nitrogen retention were higher with wet versus dried brewers' grains. Plasma essential and nonessential amino acids were also higher in steers fed wet brewers' grains. Alteration in microbial numbers, fermentation measurements, and nitrogen utilization were associated with more soluble nitrogen with wet (13.4%) versus dried (3.3%) brewers' grains.

  7. Valuation of brewers spent yeast polysaccharides: a structural characterization approach.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Mariana; Coelho, Elisabete; Nunes, Alexandra; Brandão, Tiago; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2015-02-13

    Brewers spent yeast (BSY) is a by-product from beer industry that can be exploited as source of glucans and mannoproteins, with potential biological activities. In order to solubilize these carbohydrate-rich polymeric materials, a sequential extraction with hot water and alkaline solutions (0.1-8 M KOH) was performed. Mannoproteins were mainly (85%) extracted with 4 M KOH whereas glucans were extracted with 8 M KOH and in an amount that accounted only for 34% of total glucose. Final residue still accounted for 34% of the initial glucans and contained 98% of glucose. Cellulase and α-amylase treatments showed the presence of both α- and β-(1→4)-Glc linkages. To promote total solubilization of these insoluble glucans, the final residue was submitted to a partial acid hydrolysis. This work is the first report showing that the most abundant polysaccharides in BSY are polymers that contain structural features similar to cellulose, thus justifying their resistance to alkaline extractions, acid hydrolysis, and insolubility in water.

  8. Evaluating biochemical methane production from brewer's spent yeast.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Hernández, Ornella; Parameswaran, Prathap; Alemán-Nava, Gibrán Sidney; Torres, César I; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion treatment of brewer's spent yeast (SY) is a viable option for bioenergy capture. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay was performed with three different samples (SY1, SY2, and SY3) and SY1 dilutions (75, 50, and 25 % on a v/v basis). Gompertz-equation parameters denoted slow degradability of SY1 with methane production rates of 14.59-4.63 mL/day and lag phases of 10.72-19.7 days. Performance and kinetic parameters were obtained with the Gompertz equation and the first-order hydrolysis model with SY2 and SY3 diluted 25 % and SY1 50 %. A SY2 25 % gave a 17 % of TCOD conversion to methane as well as shorter lag phase (<1 day). Average estimated hydrolysis constant for SY was 0.0141 (±0.003) day(-1), and SY2 25 % was more appropriate for faster methane production. Methane capture and biogas composition were dependent upon the SY source, and co-digestion (or dilution) can be advantageous.

  9. Evaluating biochemical methane production from brewer's spent yeast.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Hernández, Ornella; Parameswaran, Prathap; Alemán-Nava, Gibrán Sidney; Torres, César I; Parra-Saldívar, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion treatment of brewer's spent yeast (SY) is a viable option for bioenergy capture. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) assay was performed with three different samples (SY1, SY2, and SY3) and SY1 dilutions (75, 50, and 25 % on a v/v basis). Gompertz-equation parameters denoted slow degradability of SY1 with methane production rates of 14.59-4.63 mL/day and lag phases of 10.72-19.7 days. Performance and kinetic parameters were obtained with the Gompertz equation and the first-order hydrolysis model with SY2 and SY3 diluted 25 % and SY1 50 %. A SY2 25 % gave a 17 % of TCOD conversion to methane as well as shorter lag phase (<1 day). Average estimated hydrolysis constant for SY was 0.0141 (±0.003) day(-1), and SY2 25 % was more appropriate for faster methane production. Methane capture and biogas composition were dependent upon the SY source, and co-digestion (or dilution) can be advantageous. PMID:27276935

  10. Economic Viability of Brewery Spent Grain as a Biofuel

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, Charles

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes an investigation into the technical feasibility and economic viability of use grain wastes from the beer brewing process as fuel to generate the heat needed in subsequent brewing process. The study finds that while use of spent grain as a biofuel is technically feasible, the economics are not attractive. Economic viability is limited by the underuse of capital equipment. The investment in heating equipment requires a higher utilization that the client brewer currently anticipates. It may be possible in the future that changing factors may swing the decision to a more positive one.

  11. Spent brewer's yeast extract as an ingredient in cooked hams.

    PubMed

    Pancrazio, Gaston; Cunha, Sara C; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Loureiro, Mónica; Meireles, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia

    2016-11-01

    This work describes the effect of the incorporation of 1% spent yeast extract into cooked hams. Physical/chemical/sensorial characteristics and changes during 12 and 90days storage were evaluated on control and treated cooked hams processed for 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3h. Spent yeast extract addition increased hardness, chewiness, ash, protein and free amino acid content. Similar volatile profiles were obtained, although there were some quantitative differences. No advantages were observed for increased cooking time. No significant differences were observed for physical and sensorial parameters of cooked hams with spent yeast extract at 12 and 90days post production, but His, aldehydes and esters increased at the end of storage. This behaviour was similar to that observed for control hams. The higher hardness of cooked ham with 1% yeast extract was due to the stronger gel formed during cooking and was maintained during storage. This additive acts as gel stabilizer for cooked ham production and could potentially improve other processing characteristics. PMID:27449232

  12. Spent brewer's yeast extract as an ingredient in cooked hams.

    PubMed

    Pancrazio, Gaston; Cunha, Sara C; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Loureiro, Mónica; Meireles, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia

    2016-11-01

    This work describes the effect of the incorporation of 1% spent yeast extract into cooked hams. Physical/chemical/sensorial characteristics and changes during 12 and 90days storage were evaluated on control and treated cooked hams processed for 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3h. Spent yeast extract addition increased hardness, chewiness, ash, protein and free amino acid content. Similar volatile profiles were obtained, although there were some quantitative differences. No advantages were observed for increased cooking time. No significant differences were observed for physical and sensorial parameters of cooked hams with spent yeast extract at 12 and 90days post production, but His, aldehydes and esters increased at the end of storage. This behaviour was similar to that observed for control hams. The higher hardness of cooked ham with 1% yeast extract was due to the stronger gel formed during cooking and was maintained during storage. This additive acts as gel stabilizer for cooked ham production and could potentially improve other processing characteristics.

  13. Evaluation of Brewer's spent yeast to produce flavor enhancer nucleotides: influence of serial repitching.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Elsa; Brandão, Tiago; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2013-09-18

    The present work evaluates the influence of serial yeast repitching on nucleotide composition of brewer's spent yeast extracts produced without addition of exogenous enzymes. Two procedures for disrupting cell walls were compared, and the conditions for low-cost and efficient RNA hydrolysis were selected. A HILIC methodology was validated for the quantification of nucleotides and nucleosides in yeast extracts. Thirty-seven samples of brewer's spent yeast ( Saccharomyces pastorianus ) organized according to the number of serial repitchings were analyzed. Nucleotides accounted for 71.1-88.2% of the RNA products; 2'AMP was the most abundant (ranging between 0.08 and 2.89 g/100 g dry yeast). 5'GMP content ranged between 0.082 and 0.907 g/100 g dry yeast. The sum of 5'GMP, 5'IMP, and 5'AMP represented between 25 and 32% of total nucleotides. This works highlights for the first time that although serial repitching influences the content of monophosphate nucleotides and nucleosides, the profiles of these RNA hydrolysis products are not affected.

  14. Harvesting freshwater Chlorella vulgaris with flocculant derived from spent brewer's yeast.

    PubMed

    Prochazkova, Gita; Kastanek, Petr; Branyik, Tomas

    2015-02-01

    One of the key bottlenecks of the economically viable production of low added value microalgal products (food supplements, feed, biofuels) is the harvesting of cells from diluted culture medium. The main goals of this work were to prepare a novel flocculation agent based on spent brewer's yeast, a brewery by-product, and to test its harvesting efficiency on freshwater Chlorella vulgaris in different environments. The yeast was first autolyzed/hydrolyzed and subsequently chemically modified with 2-chloro-N,N-diethylethylamine hydrochloride (DEAE). Second, optimal dosage of modified spent yeast (MSY) flocculant for harvesting C. vulgaris was determined in culture media of various compositions. It was found that the absence of phosphorus ions decreased (0.4 mg MSY/g biomass), while the presence of algogenic organic matter (AOM) increased (51 mg MSY/g biomass) the required dosage of flocculant as compared to complete mineral medium with phosphorus and without AOM (12 mg MSY/g biomass). PMID:25479390

  15. Production response of lactating cows fed dried versus wet brewers' grain in diets with similar dry matter content.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, T R; Bingham, H R; Radloff, H D

    2003-09-01

    Twenty-four Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (20 intact and 4 fitted with rumen cannula) during early lactation (56 +/- 25.3 d in milk) were assigned to two treatments to determine intake and production responses to feeding dried and wet brewers' grain. There were two cows fitted with a rumen cannula in each treatment. Cows were fed a total mixed ration twice daily containing either dried or wet brewers' grain at 15% of the dietary dry matter (DM). The diet contained 47% forage and 53% concentrate. The experimental design was a replicated 2 x 2 Latin square with two periods of 5 wk each. First 2 wk in each period were considered as adaptation to diets and data from the last 3 wk were used for treatment comparisons. Dried and wet brewers' diets contained 68.0 and 66.5% DM, respectively. Feeding brewers' grain dry or wet to dairy cows had no influence on feed intake (25.6 vs. 25.1 kg/d), fat corrected milk yield (40.1 vs. 40.7 kg/d), milk composition and feed consumption. The pH, ammonia, total volatile fatty acids and molar ratios of volatile fatty acids in the rumen fluid were not different between treatments. Fatty acid composition of milk fat from cows fed diets containing dry or wet brewers' grain was identical, except C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids were lower in milk fat from cows fed wet brewers' grain compared with dried brewers' grain. The results from the present study suggest that the performance of cows fed either dried or wet brewers' grain at 15% of dietary DM was similar when diets had the same DM. The average price for dried and wet brewers' grain in the United States from July 2001 to June 2002 was dollars 145.3 and dollars 96.9/metric tonne DM, respectively. Using wet instead of dried brewers' grain will save dollars 49/metric tonne minus the difference in storage costs. Wet brewers' grain can be fed to dairy cows in areas that are close to the brewery and provides nutritive value similar to the dried brewers' grain.

  16. Hydrolysis and fermentation of brewer's spent grain by Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Xiros, Charilaos; Topakas, Evangelos; Katapodis, Petros; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2008-09-01

    In this study, the ethanol production by the mesophilic fungus Neurospora crassa from BG was studied and optimized concerning the induction of lignocellulose degrading enzymes and the production phase as well. The production of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes was studied under solid-state cultivation (SSC). SSC in a laboratory horizontal bioreactor using the optimized medium, WS and BG in the ratio 1:1 and initial moisture level 61.5%, allowed the large scale production of the multienzymatic system. Similar yields with those from flasks experiments, as high as 1073,56,4.2,1.6,3.1,5.7 and 0.52 U g(-1) carbon source of xylanase, endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase, acetyl esterase and feruloyl esterase, respectively, were obtained. Chromogenic (fluorogenic) 4-methylumbelliferyl substrates were used to characterize the major activities of the multienzyme component, after the separation by isoelectric focusing (IEF) electrophoresis. Alkali pre-treated BG was used for ethanol production. A yield of about 74 g of ethanol kg(-1) dry BG (5,6 g L(-1)) was obtained under optimum conditions (aeration 0.1 vvm, pre-treatment with 1g NaOH 10 g(-1)dry BG).

  17. Surveillance of Aflatoxin and Microbiota Related to Brewer's Grain Destined for Swine Feed in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gerbaldo, Gisela A.; Pereyra, Carina M.; Cavaglieri, Lilia R.; Ruiz, Francisco; Pascual, Liliana; Dalcero, Ana M.; Barberis, Isabel L.

    2011-01-01

    Córdoba province in the center of Argentina is an important area of swine production. The use of industry by-product (brewer's grain) as feedstuff for swine is a regular practice and increases animal performance on these animals production. The occurrence of aflatoxin contamination is global, causing severe problems especially in developing countries. No reports on aflatoxin B1 production, micoflora, and potential aflatoxin B1 producing microorganism from brewer's grain are available. The aims of this study were (1) to isolate the microbiota species from brewer's grain, (2) to determine aflatoxin B1 natural contamination levels, and (3) to determine the ability of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates to produce aflatoxins in vitro. Physical properties, total fungal counts, lactic acid bacteria, and fungal genera distribution were determined on this substrate. In 65% of the samples, fungal counts were higher than recommended by GMP, and lactic bacterium counts ranged from 1.9 × 105 to 4.4 × 109 CFU g−1. Aspergillus spp. prevailed over other fungal genera. Aspergillus flavus was the prevalent species followed by A. fumigatus. Aflatoxin B1 levels in the samples were higher than the recommended limits (20 ng g−1) for complementary feedstuffs. Several Aspergillus section Flavi strains were able to produce aflatoxin B1  in vitro. Inadequate storage conditions promote the proliferation of mycotoxin-producing fungal species. Regular monitoring of feeds is required in order to prevent chronic and acute toxic syndromes related to this kind of contamination. PMID:21547231

  18. Evaluation of corn distillers dried grains with solubles and brewers yeast in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to examine the use of distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), ethanol extracted DDGS (EDDGS), and brewers yeast in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets. Diets containing these ingredients were compared with all-plant and fish meal control diets. Juvenile channel catfish ...

  19. Fungi and Mycotoxins from Pre- and Poststorage Brewer's Grain Intended for Bovine Intensive Rearing

    PubMed Central

    Keller, L. A. M.; Pereyra, C. M.; Cavaglieri, L. R.; Dalcero, A. M.; Rosa, C. A. R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the mycobiota and natural levels of mycotoxins such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), and deoxynivalenol (DON) present in brewers grains pre- and poststored intended for bovine intensive rearing. Poststored (80%) samples had counts higher than 1 × 104 colony-forming units (CFU/g). Cladosporium spp. and Aspergillus spp. were isolated at high frequencies. Aspergillus flavus was the prevalent isolated species. Prestored (70%) and poststored (100%) samples showed AFB1 levels over the recommended limits (20 μg/Kg), and OTA levels were below the recommended limits (50 μg/Kg) while pre- and poststored samples did not show FB1 and DON natural contamination levels. The presence of mycotoxins in this substrate indicates the existence of contamination. Regular monitoring of feeds is required in order to prevent chronic and acute toxic syndromes related to this kind of contamination. PMID:23762582

  20. [Reduced performance and high somatic cell counts in a dairy herd fed high amounts of brewers' grain].

    PubMed

    Wenzinger, B

    2013-09-01

    The present case report describes a herd problem on a Holstein Friesian dairy farm in Switzerland, which could be attributed to the feeding of high amounts of wet brewers' grain over several months. Apathy and reduced general appearance, reduced feed intake as well as a decline in milk yield could be observed. A strong increase in milk somatic cell counts as well as an increase in the incidence of mastitis could be found. The milk fat content was highly elevated in all cows, whereas the milk protein content was reduced. The exclusion of wet brewers' grain from the partial mixed ration resulted in a considerable improvement of the general appearance of the cows and a decrease of the milk somatic cell counts. Feed that is easily spoiled could be a health risk for animals, particularly under hot and humid weather conditions and if fed in high amounts.

  1. Evaluation of total mixed ration silage with brewers grains for dairy buffalo in Tarai, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Takashi; Devkota, Naba R; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effects of total mixed ration (TMR) silage, which contained brewers grain and rice straw as a substitute for conventional concentrate on feed intake and milk production in middle-to-late lactation buffaloes, four multiparous Murrah buffaloes were assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment. The TMR silage, which had higher neutral and acid detergent fiber contents and digestibility than concentrate (P < 0.05) and similar crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) contents with concentrate were used for the lactation experiment. The treatments were control (CTL) fed concentrate at 0.6% of body weight (BW), and T1 and T2 fed the TMR silage at 0.6 and 1.2% of BW on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively, with rice straw ad libitum. Daily intakes of DM, CP and TDN, and BW change were higher in T2 than in CTL and T1 (P < 0.05). Although milk composition did not differ among the treatments, milk yield (MY) was higher in T2 (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in MY/DM intake and MY/TDN intake among the treatments. The increase of BW and MY in middle-to-late lactation buffaloes might have been due to high TDN intake from supplementary TMR silage. PMID:25780944

  2. [Incidence of Clostridium botulinum in the rumen contents and faeces of cattle fed brewers' grains naturally contaminated with Clostridium botulinum (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Notermans, S; Breukink, H J; Wensing, T; Wagenaar, G

    1978-12-15

    The number of Clostridium botulinum type B organisms excreted by cattle fed brewers' grains in which these organisms were found to be present and the period for which they were excreted, were studied. Large numbers (10(5) - 10(7) per gramme) of these organisms were detected in the rumen contents and faeces of the animals. When feeding brewers' grains was discontinued, Cl. botulinum type B was still detectable in the faeces for a considerable period (greater than eight weeks). There was evidence to suggest that the number of Cl. botulinum organisms multiplies in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle.

  3. Methane emissions from two breeds of beef cows offered diets containing barley straw with either grass silage or brewers' grains.

    PubMed

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Hyslop, J J; Waterhouse, A

    2015-10-01

    Increasing the concentration of dietary lipid is a promising strategy for reducing methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. This study investigated the effect of replacing grass silage with brewers' grains on CH4 emissions of pregnant, non-lactating beef cows of two breeds. The experiment was a two×two factorial design comprising two breeds (LIMx, crossbred Limousin; and LUI, purebred Luing) and two diets consisting of (g/kg diet dry matter (DM)) barley straw (687) and grass silage (301, GS), or barley straw (763) and brewers' grains (226, BG), which were offered ad libitum. Replacing GS with BG increased the acid-hydrolysed ether extract concentration from 21 to 37 g/kg diet DM. Cows (n=48) were group-housed in equal numbers of each breed across two pens and each diet was allocated to one pen. Before measurements of CH4, individual dry matter intake (DMI), weekly BW and weekly body condition score were measured for a minimum of 3 weeks, following a 4-week period to acclimatise to the diets. CH4 emissions were subsequently measured on one occasion from each cow using individual respiration chambers. Due to occasional equipment failures, CH4 measurements were run over 9 weeks giving 10 observations for each breed×treatment combination (total n=40). There were no differences between diets for daily DMI measured in the chambers (9.92 v. 9.86 kg/day for BG and GS, respectively; P>0.05). Cows offered the BG diet produced less daily CH4 than GS-fed cows (131 v. 156 g/day: P0.05). However, when expressed as a proportion of metabolic BW (BW0.75), LUI cows had greater DMI than LIMx cows (84.5 v. 75.7 g DMI/kg BW0.75, P<0.05) and produced more CH4 per kg BW0.75 than LIMx cows (1.30 v. 1.05 g CH4/kg BW0.75; P<0.01). Molar proportions of acetate were higher (P<0.001) and propionate and butyrate lower (P<0.01) in rumen fluid samples from BG-fed compared with GS-fed cows. This study demonstrated that replacing GS with BG in barley straw-based diets can effectively reduce CH4

  4. Effect of Lactobacillus mucosae on In vitro Rumen Fermentation Characteristics of Dried Brewers Grain, Methane Production and Bacterial Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, Alvin P.; Mamuad, Lovelia L.; Kim, Seon-Ho; Choi, Yeon Jae; Jeong, Chang Dae; Bae, Gui Seck; Chang, Moon Baek; Lee, S. Suk

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Lactobacillus mucosae (L. mucosae), a potential direct fed microbial previously isolated from the rumen of Korean native goat, on the rumen fermentation profile of brewers grain were evaluated. Fermentation was conducted in serum bottles each containing 1% dry matter (DM) of the test substrate and either no L. mucosae (control), 1% 24 h broth culture of L. mucosae (T1), or 1% inoculation with the cell-free culture supernatant (T2). Each serum bottle was filled anaerobically with 100 mL of buffered rumen fluid and sealed prior to incubation for 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h from which fermentation parameters were monitored and the microbial diversity was evaluated. The results revealed that T1 had higher total gas production (65.00 mL) than the control (61.33 mL) and T2 (62.00 mL) (p<0.05) at 48 h. Consequently, T1 had significantly lower pH values (p<0.05) than the other groups at 48 h. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), individual and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and acetate:propionate ratio were higher in T1 and T2 than the control, but T1 and T2 were comparable for these parameters. Total methane (CH4) production and carbon dioxide (CO2) were highest in T1. The percent DM and organic matter digestibilities were comparable between all groups at all times of incubation. The total bacterial population was significantly higher in T1 (p<0.05) at 24 h, but then decreased to levels comparable to the control and T2 at 48 h. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile of the total bacterial 16s rRNA showed higher similarity between T1 and T2 at 24 h and between the control and T1 at 48 h. Overall, these results suggest that addition of L. mucosae and cell-free supernatant during the in vitro fermentation of dried brewers grain increases the VFA production, but has no effect on digestibility. The addition of L. mucosae can also increase the total bacterial population, but has no significant effect on the total microbial diversity. However

  5. Statistical model for grain boundary and grain volume oxidation kinetics in UO{sub 2} spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, R.B.; Shaw, H.F.; Einziger, R.E.

    1989-09-01

    This paper addresses statistical characteristics for the simplest case of grain boundary/grain volume oxidation kinetics of UO{sub 2} to U{sub 3}O{sub 7} for a fragment of a spent fuel pellet. It also presents a limited discussion of future extensions to this simple case to represent the more complex cases of oxidation kinetics in spent fuels. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery's Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Luís C.; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Ines; Gírio, Francisco M.

    Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h-1, 0.61 g g-1, and 0.56 g 1-1 h-1, respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids.

  7. Fast esterification of spent grain for enhanced heavy metal ions adsorption.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingzhu; Chai, Liyuan; Wang, Qingwei; Yang, Zhihui; Yan, Huxiang; Wang, Yunyan

    2010-05-01

    This work describes a novel method for fast esterification of spent grain to enhance its cationic adsorption capacity. The esterification of spent grain with citric acid was achieved by using sodium hypophosphite monohydrate (NaH(2)PO(2).H(2)O) as a catalyst in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis revealed the formation of ester groups after esterification, demonstrating that spent grain was successfully esterified with citric acid. The adsorption capacity of esterified spent grain (ESG) for each metal ion was greatly improved as compared with that of raw spent grain (RSG). Typically, Pb(2+) adsorption capacity increased from 125.84mg g(-1) of RSG to 293.30mg g(-1) of ESG. This increase can be attributed to both the formation of ester linkage and the grafting of carboxyl groups on spent grain. The results suggest that a fast process for esterification of spent grain has been realized and ESG has strong ability to adsorb heavy metal ions.

  8. Spent fuel waste form characteristics: Grain and fragment size statistical dependence for dissolution response

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, R.B.; Leider, H.; Weed, H.; Nguyen, S.; McKenzie, W.; Prussin, S.; Wilson, C.N.; Gray, W.J.

    1991-04-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project of the US Department of Energy is investigating the suitability of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, NV, for a high-level nuclear waste repository. All of the nuclear waste will be enclosed in a container package. Most of the nuclear waste will be in the form of fractured UO{sub 2} spent fuel pellets in Zircaloy-clad rods from electric power reactors. If failure of both the container and its enclosed clad rods occurs, then the fragments of the fractured UO{sub 2} spent fuel will be exposed to their surroundings. Even though the surroundings are an unsaturated zone, a possibility of water transport exists, and consequently, UO{sub 2} spent fuel dissolution may occur. A repository requirement imposes a limit on the nuclide release per year during a 10,000 year period; thus the short term dissolution response from fragmented fuel pellet surfaces in any given year must be understood. This requirement necessitates that both experimental and analytical activities be directed toward predicting the relatively short term dissolution response of UO{sub 2} spent fuel. The short term dissolution response involves gap nuclides, grain boundary nuclides, and grain volume nuclides. Analytical expressions are developed that describe the combined geometrical influences of grain boundary nuclides and grain volume nuclides on the dissolution rate of spent fuel. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Protein enrichment of brewery spent grain from Rhizopus oligosporus by solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Canedo, Marianny Silva; de Paula, Fernanda Gomes; da Silva, Flávio Alves; Vendruscolo, Francielo

    2016-07-01

    Brewery spent grain represents approximately 85 % of total by-products generated in a brewery. Consisting of carbohydrates, fiber, minerals and low amounts of protein, the use of brewery spent grain is limited to the feeding of ruminants; however, its potential use should be investigated. The reuse of this by-product using microorganisms by solid-state fermentation process as the case of protein enrichment by single-cell protein incorporation is an alternative to ensure sustainability and generate commercially interesting products. In this context, the aim of this study was to grow Rhizopus oligosporus in brewery spent grain under different initial moisture contents and nitrogen sources to increase the protein content of the fermented material. After 7 days of fermentation, increase of 2-4 times in the crude protein and soluble protein content was verified, respectively, compared to unfermented brewery spent grain. The kinetics of protein enrichment demonstrated the possibility of application of this technique, which can be a great alternative for use in diets for animals. PMID:26984742

  10. Effects of Storage Duration and Temperature on the Chemical Composition, Microorganism Density, and In vitro Rumen Fermentation of Wet Brewers Grains.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Luo, Y; Myung, K H; Liu, J X

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of storage duration and temperature on the characteristics of wet brewers grains (WBG) as feeds for ruminant animals. Four storage temperatures (5°C, 15°C, 25°C, and 35°C) and four durations (0, 1, 2, and 3 d) were arranged in a 4×4 factorial design. Surface spoilage, chemical composition and microorganism density were analyzed. An in vitro gas test was also conducted to determine the pH, ammonia-nitrogen and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations after 24 h incubation. Surface spoilage was apparent at higher temperatures such as 25°C and 35°C. Nutrients contents decreased concomitantly with prolonged storage times (p<0.01) and increasing temperatures (p<0.01). The amount of yeast and mold increased (p<0.05) with increasing storage times and temperatures. As storage temperature increased, gas production, in vitro disappearance of organic matter, pH, ammonia nitrogen and total VFA from the WBG in the rumen decreased (p<0.01). Our results indicate that lower storage temperature promotes longer beneficial use period. However, when storage temperature exceeds 35°C, WBG should be used within a day to prevent impairment of rumen fermentation in the subtropics such as Southeast China, where the temperature is typically above 35°C during summer.

  11. Effects of Storage Duration and Temperature on the Chemical Composition, Microorganism Density, and In vitro Rumen Fermentation of Wet Brewers Grains

    PubMed Central

    Wang, B.; Luo, Y.; Myung, K. H.; Liu, J. X.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of storage duration and temperature on the characteristics of wet brewers grains (WBG) as feeds for ruminant animals. Four storage temperatures (5°C, 15°C, 25°C, and 35°C) and four durations (0, 1, 2, and 3 d) were arranged in a 4×4 factorial design. Surface spoilage, chemical composition and microorganism density were analyzed. An in vitro gas test was also conducted to determine the pH, ammonia-nitrogen and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations after 24 h incubation. Surface spoilage was apparent at higher temperatures such as 25°C and 35°C. Nutrients contents decreased concomitantly with prolonged storage times (p<0.01) and increasing temperatures (p<0.01). The amount of yeast and mold increased (p<0.05) with increasing storage times and temperatures. As storage temperature increased, gas production, in vitro disappearance of organic matter, pH, ammonia nitrogen and total VFA from the WBG in the rumen decreased (p<0.01). Our results indicate that lower storage temperature promotes longer beneficial use period. However, when storage temperature exceeds 35°C, WBG should be used within a day to prevent impairment of rumen fermentation in the subtropics such as Southeast China, where the temperature is typically above 35°C during summer. PMID:25050021

  12. Evaluation of potential food applications of dried distillers spent grain (DSG). Final research report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-06

    Results from experimental test bakes indicate that dried distillers spent grain (DSG) can be used to replace up to 15% of the flour for the production of an acceptable variety bread, provided that the DSG is processed under optimum conditions for a satisfactory flavor and color development. The raw materials used for the mash bill may also affect the taste of the finished product. (MHR)

  13. Frequency of wet brewers grains supplementation during late gestation of beef cows and its effects on offspring postnatal growth and immunity.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Artioli, L F A; Piccolo, M B; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate postnatal growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of beef calves born to dams fed wet brewers grains (WBG) daily or 3 times weekly during late gestation. On d 0 (approximately 60 d before calving), 28 multiparous, spring-calving Angus cows (BW = 578 ± 19 kg; age = 4.7 ± 0.65 yr; BCS = 7.0 ± 0.18) were stratified by sire, age, BW, and BCS and then randomly allocated into 1 of 14 drylot pens (2 cows/pen; 18 by 3 m; 27 m/cow). Cows were offered ground tall fescue hay ad libitum and received similar weekly WBG supplementation (DMI = 0.5% of BW multiplied by 7 d). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (7 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows receiving WBG supplementation daily (S7; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 7 d) or 3 times weekly (S3; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 3 d; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) from d 0 until calving. Cow-calf pairs were managed as a single group on tall fescue pastures from calving to weaning (d 226). Calves were immediately submitted to a preconditioning period from d 226 to 266 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, , and on d 231 and 245. Decreasing the frequency of WBG supplementation did not impact ( ≥ 0.21) precalving intake of total DM, CP, and TDN; BW and BCS change; overall plasma cortisol concentrations; and postcalving growth and pregnancy rate of cows. Overall plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin did not differ ( ≥ 0.28) between S3 and S7 cows, whereas S3 cows had greater ( = 0.002) plasma glucose concentrations and tended ( = 0.06) to have greater plasma insulin concentrations on days they were not fed WBG vs. days of WBG supplementation. Calf plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth but not serum IgG ( = 0.63) tended ( = 0.10) to be greater for S3 vs. S7 calves. However, additional calf growth and immunity variables obtained during pre- and postweaning phases did not differ between S3 and S7 calves

  14. Decreasing the frequency and rate of wet brewers grains supplementation did not impact growth but reduced humoral immune response of preconditioning beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Piccolo, M B; Artioli, L F A; Poore, M H; Marques, R S; Cooke, R F

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of preconditioning beef heifers supplemented with wet brewers grains (WBG) at 2 supplementation rates and frequencies. At 14 d after weaning (d 0), Angus heifers ( = 36; 213 ± 2 kg BW and 254 ± 7 d of age) were stratified by BW and age and randomly assigned to 1 of 12 drylot pens (3 heifers/pen). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens, in a 2 × 2 factorial design, and consisted of heifers provided ground tall fescue hay ad libitum (55% TDN and 12% CP of DM) and supplemented with WBG (75% TDN and 36% CP of DM) either daily (7X) or 3 times weekly (3X; Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) at 0.5 or 1.0% of BW (DM basis) for 42 d. Heifers were vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mannheimia haemolytica, and Clostridium on d 14 and 28. Individual BW was measured before feeding on d 0 and 42 following 12 h of feed and water withdrawal. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture 4 h after WBG supplementation on d 14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 28, 29, 30, 31, 35, and 42. Heifers fed WBG 3X had less hay DMI (2.6 ± 0.16 vs. 3.2 ± 0.16 kg/d; < 0.0001) but greater total DMI (5.6 ± 0.16 vs. 3.8 ± 0.16 kg/d; < 0.0001) than 7X heifers on days that all heifers received WBG supplementation. However, overall hay and total DMI was not affected ( ≥ 0.40) by supplementation frequency. Therefore, ADG, BW, and G:F from d 0 to 42 did not differ among treatments ( ≥ 0.29). Plasma concentrations of haptoglobin on d 15 and cortisol on d 14 were greater for 3X heifers vs. 7X heifers ( ≤ 0.04). Heifers fed WBG at 0.5% of BW tended to have greater plasma cortisol concentrations on d 15, 17, and 35 ( ≤ 0.09) than heifers fed at 1.0% of BW. Serum BVDV-1a titers were greater ( = 0.04) for 7X heifers vs. 3X heifers on d 42 (4.2 ± 0.28 vs. 3.3 ± 0.28 log), whereas serum titers against BVDV-2 and IBR were greater for heifers fed WBG at 1.0% of BW vs

  15. The effects on cow performance and calf birth and weaning weight of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in a barley straw diet offered to pregnant beef cows of two different breeds.

    PubMed

    Rooke, J A; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Morgan, C A; Waterhouse, T

    2016-08-01

    The effects on cow and calf performance of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in diets based on barley straw and fed to pregnant beef cows are reported. Using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of breed and diet, cows pregnant by artificial insemination (n = 34) of two breeds (cross-bred Limousin, n = 19 and pure-bred Luing, n = 15) were fed diets ad libitum which consisted of either (g/kg dry matter) barley straw (664) and grass silage (325; GS) or barley straw (783) and brewers grains (206, BG) and offered as total mixed rations. From gestation day (GD) 168 until 266, individual daily feed intakes were recorded and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) measured weekly. Calving date, calf sex, birth and weaning BW, and calf age at weaning were also recorded. Between GD 168 and 266, cross-bred Limousin cows gained more weight than Luing cows (p < 0.05) and cows offered BG gained more weight than cows offered GS (p < 0.001). Luing cows lost more BCS than cross-bred Limousin cows (p < 0.05), but diet did not affect BCS. There were no differences in dry matter intake as a result of breed or diet. Calf birth BW, however, was greater for cows fed BG than GS (44 vs. 38 kg, SEM 1.0, p < 0.001) with no difference between breeds. At weaning, calves born to BG-fed cows were heavier than those born to GS-fed cows (330 vs. 286 kg, SEM 9.3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, replacement of grass silage with brewers grains improved the performance of beef cows and increased calf birth and weaning BW. Further analysis indicated that the superior performance of cows offered the BG diet was most likely due to increases in protein supply which may have improved both energy and protein supply to the foetus.

  16. Biogas production from brewery spent grain enhanced by bioaugmentation with hydrolytic anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Čater, Maša; Fanedl, Lijana; Malovrh, Špela; Logar, Romana Marinšek

    2015-06-01

    Lignocellulosic substrates are widely available but not easily applied in biogas production due to their poor anaerobic degradation. The effect of bioaugmentation by anaerobic hydrolytic bacteria on biogas production was determined by the biochemical methane potential assay. Microbial biomass from full scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating brewery wastewater was a source of active microorganisms and brewery spent grain a model lignocellulosic substrate. Ruminococcus flavefaciens 007C, Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans Mz5(T), Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 and Clostridium cellulovorans as pure and mixed cultures were used to enhance the lignocellulose degradation and elevate the biogas production. P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) was the most successful in elevating methane production (+17.8%), followed by the coculture of P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) and F. succinogenes S85 (+6.9%) and the coculture of C. cellulovorans and F. succinogenes S85 (+4.9%). Changes in microbial community structure were detected by fingerprinting techniques.

  17. Biogas production from brewery spent grain enhanced by bioaugmentation with hydrolytic anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Čater, Maša; Fanedl, Lijana; Malovrh, Špela; Logar, Romana Marinšek

    2015-06-01

    Lignocellulosic substrates are widely available but not easily applied in biogas production due to their poor anaerobic degradation. The effect of bioaugmentation by anaerobic hydrolytic bacteria on biogas production was determined by the biochemical methane potential assay. Microbial biomass from full scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating brewery wastewater was a source of active microorganisms and brewery spent grain a model lignocellulosic substrate. Ruminococcus flavefaciens 007C, Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans Mz5(T), Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 and Clostridium cellulovorans as pure and mixed cultures were used to enhance the lignocellulose degradation and elevate the biogas production. P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) was the most successful in elevating methane production (+17.8%), followed by the coculture of P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) and F. succinogenes S85 (+6.9%) and the coculture of C. cellulovorans and F. succinogenes S85 (+4.9%). Changes in microbial community structure were detected by fingerprinting techniques. PMID:25836034

  18. The Brewer reference triad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioletov, V. E.; Kerr, J. B.; McElroy, C. T.; Wardle, D. I.; Savastiouk, V.; Grajnar, T. S.

    2005-10-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the Brewer reference triad was established by Environment Canada at Toronto. The triad serves as a reference for traveling standard instruments that are used to calibrate Brewer spectrophotometers around the world. The members of the triad are calibrated on a regular basis at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Regular tests made with an internal quartz halogen lamp make it possible to track the instrument response between the calibrations. A new analysis of available column ozone data records indicates that the uncertainty in the daily values derived from each instrument is approximately 0.6%. The random errors of individual observations are within +/-1% for 90% of all measurements. Sources of potential errors in the individual Brewer measurements as well as quality control tools are also discussed.

  19. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Raw and Pre-treated Brewery Spent Grain Utilizing Solid State Anaerobic Digestion.

    PubMed

    Panjičko, Mario; Zupančič, Gregor Drago; Zelić, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The brewery spent grain (BSG) represents approximately 85% of the total quantity of by-products from the brewing industry. The biogas production from the BSG has been the subject of several studies in recent years, due to relatively high energy consumption in the brewing process and due to the increasing energy costs. The biodegradability of raw and pre-treated BSG in a single-stage and two-stage solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) system was determined in this study. The results show that the BSG have a biogas potential of 120 L/kg(-1). In the single-stage system, the biogas yield obtained from raw BSG (87.4 L/kg(-1)) was almost equal to the yield obtained from the pre-treated BSG (89.1 L/kg(-1)), while the methane yield was 51.9 and 55.3 L/kg(-1) and the biodegradation was 62.0% and 62.2% for raw and pre-treated BSG, respectively. In two-stage SS-AD the pre-treated BSG showed better results, with the biogas yield of 103.2 L/kg(-1) and the biodegradation of 73.6%, while the biogas yield obtained from raw BSG was 89.1 L/kg(-1), with the biodegradation of 63.5%. In two-stage process the obtained methane yields from raw and pre-treated BSG were identical (58.7 L/kg(-1)). PMID:26680709

  20. 27 CFR 28.148 - Brewer's report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brewer's report. 28.148... § 28.148 Brewer's report. The brewer's records shall reflect the quantity of beer or beer concentrate.... L. 85-859, 72 Stat. 1334, as amended (26 U.S.C. 5053))...

  1. Brewer Umkehr ozone profile retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Disterhoft, P.; Lantz, K. O.; Bhartia, P. K.; McPeters, R. D.; Flynn, L. E.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Stanek, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Dobson Umkehr network has been a key data set for stratospheric ozone trend calculations (WMO Ozone assessments) and has earned its place as a benchmark network for stratospheric ozone profile observations. The Umkehr data has also been used to provide a long-term reference to the merging of the satellite ozone records (MOD), estimate the seasonal influence of an 11-year solar signal in the vertical distribution of stratospheric ozone, and to assess the ability of several remote and in-situ sensing systems in capturing ozone variability. It was found that Dobson Umkehr measurement errors were often comparable to errors derived for satellite and ozone-sounding methods. The Umkehr measurements are also available from the Brewer spectrophotometers [McElroy et al., 1995]. In 2005, the Dobson Umkehr algorithm (UMK04) was modified to retrieve ozone profile data from Brewer Umkehr measurements taken at two spectral channels [Petropavlovskikh et al, 2011]. The PC version of the Brewer algorithm was developed by M. Stanek (IOC, Canada and Czech Republic Meteorological Institute) in close collaboration with I. Petropavlovskikh. It was implemented at the NEUBrew network for operational processing of Umkehr data retrieved daily for all operational sites. The most recently developed Brewer ozone retrieval algorithm (MSBU) utilizes measurements that are currently available from the operational Brewer instruments. Umkehr measurements at multiple wavelength channels (similar to the satellite BUV method) and significantly reduced range of solar zenith angle are used for the twice a day operational ozone profile retrievals. Intercomparisons against ozone climatology, sounding, satellite overpasses and Dobson ozone datasets for NOASA/Goddard, Boulder, CO and MLO, HI sites are presented in this paper. The MSBU algorithm reduces noise in the intra-annual variability of the Brewer retrieved ozone as compared to the single pair ozone retrieval. Tropospheric ozone retrievals also

  2. Closure of the Brewer Gold Mine by pit backfilling

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis-Russ, A.; Lupo, J.F.; Bronson, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Brewer Gold Mine, located in north-central South Carolina, is implementing an innovative reclamation plan that includes backfilling the main Brewer open pit with mine waste. The primary goals of the closure are to reduce acid rock drainage and minimize or eliminate long-term operation and maintenance requirements by restoring the site property to approximate pre-mining topography. The plan calls for consolidation of approximately 200 acres of waste into approximately 20 hectares (50 acres). Much of the material to be backfilled into the pit, including spent heap leach material and waste rock, has acid-generating potential. Therefore, the backfill design integrated geochemical properties of the backfill materials with expected post-closure conditions. A prime consideration was the final position of the water table. Since mining at the site started in the early 1800`s, no records exist of the original groundwater levels. Therefore, the design incorporates a large anoxic limestone drain to control the final groundwater level. Additional amendments are to be placed in targeted areas of the backfill to maximize their utilization. A low-permeability cap system that includes a GEOSYNTHETIC clay liner has been designed to limit infiltration into the backfill.

  3. 27 CFR 25.222 - Notice of brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to destroy at a location other than at any of the brewer's breweries, the brewer shall give written... desires to destroy the beer and the reason for not returning the beer to the brewery. (Sec. 201, Pub....

  4. 27 CFR 25.222 - Notice of brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to destroy at a location other than at any of the brewer's breweries, the brewer shall give written... desires to destroy the beer and the reason for not returning the beer to the brewery. (Sec. 201, Pub....

  5. 27 CFR 25.222 - Notice of brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to destroy at a location other than at any of the brewer's breweries, the brewer shall give written... desires to destroy the beer and the reason for not returning the beer to the brewery. (Sec. 201, Pub....

  6. 27 CFR 25.222 - Notice of brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to destroy at a location other than at any of the brewer's breweries, the brewer shall give written... desires to destroy the beer and the reason for not returning the beer to the brewery. (Sec. 201, Pub....

  7. 27 CFR 25.222 - Notice of brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to destroy at a location other than at any of the brewer's breweries, the brewer shall give written... desires to destroy the beer and the reason for not returning the beer to the brewery. (Sec. 201, Pub....

  8. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from...

  9. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from...

  10. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from...

  11. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from...

  12. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from...

  13. 27 CFR 25.173 - Brewer in default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.173 Brewer in default. (a) When a remittance in payment of taxes on beer is not paid upon presentment of check or money order tendered, or when the brewer is otherwise in default in payment of tax under § 25.164, beer may not be removed...

  14. 27 CFR 25.173 - Brewer in default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.173 Brewer in default. (a) When a remittance in payment of taxes on beer is not paid upon presentment of check or money order tendered, or when the brewer is otherwise in default in payment of tax under § 25.164, beer may not be removed...

  15. 27 CFR 25.173 - Brewer in default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.173 Brewer in default. (a) When a remittance in payment of taxes on beer is not paid upon presentment of check or money order tendered, or when the brewer is otherwise in default in payment of tax under § 25.164, beer may not be removed...

  16. 27 CFR 25.173 - Brewer in default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.173 Brewer in default. (a) When a remittance in payment of taxes on beer is not paid upon presentment of check or money order tendered, or when the brewer is otherwise in default in payment of tax under § 25.164, beer may not be removed...

  17. 27 CFR 25.173 - Brewer in default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.173 Brewer in default. (a) When a remittance in payment of taxes on beer is not paid upon presentment of check or money order tendered, or when the brewer is otherwise in default in payment of tax under § 25.164, beer may not be removed...

  18. Pseudoporphyria associated with consumption of brewers' yeast.

    PubMed

    Lim, C K; Rideout, J M; Peters, T J

    1984-06-01

    A case of pseudoporphyria associated with excessive consumption of brewers ' yeast was studied. Detailed analysis of the yeast tablets by high performance liquid chromatography showed the presence of dicarboxylic deuteroporphyrin , mesoporphyrin, and protoporphyrin; coproporphyrin I and III isomers; and uroporphyrin I and III isomers. The faecal porphyrin concentration of the patient taking yeast tablets was significantly increased, resembling the excretion pattern in variegate porphyria. Any patient showing an unusual porphyrin excretion pattern on high performance liquid chromatography should be investigated for a possible dietary cause.

  19. 27 CFR 28.227 - Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Removals of beer by... ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.227 Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer. Where there is a removal of taxpaid beer by a...

  20. 27 CFR 28.227 - Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Removals of beer by... ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.227 Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer. Where there is a removal of taxpaid beer by a...

  1. 27 CFR 28.227 - Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Removals of beer by... ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.227 Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer. Where there is a removal of taxpaid beer by a...

  2. 27 CFR 28.227 - Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Removals of beer by... ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.227 Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer. Where there is a removal of taxpaid beer by a...

  3. 27 CFR 28.227 - Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by... ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.227 Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer. Where there is a removal of taxpaid beer by a...

  4. Spikes in Brewer spectroradiometer UV spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinander, O.; Josefsson, W.; Kaurola, J.; Koskela, T.; Lakkala, K.

    2003-04-01

    The occurrence of spikes in Brewer UV spectra has been studied. By a spike we mean an anomalous number of counts recorded in one wavelength channel causing an abrupt upwards or downwards change in value that does not originate from the true radiation signal. We have recorded downward spikes in lamp scans measured in the darkroom, and spikes occur in sky measurements as well. We analyzed continuous measurement data over several years, with more than 90 000 spectra, from one single monochromator and two double monochromator Brewers. We found that especially the double monochromators may suffer from more than 200 spikes per ~5000 annual spectra. The spikes were not always randomly distributed over the wavelength range. The single monochromator was found to have a significant number of spikes at wavelengths below 300 nm, indicating possible bias in the stray light correction unless taken into consideration. The error caused by non-corrected spikes varied greatly from case to case. For example, the effect of one moderate-size spiked was found to be more than 5 % on a DNA action dose rate and close to 1 % on a DNA action daily dose. When high accuracy of the in situ UV measurements is required, our results suggest a need to remove spikes from the spectra. We used a simple statistical approach. Other slightly different approaches exist as well. Our data showed that ancillary radiation measurements may be necessary to interpret the data correctly. Under rapidly-changing cloudiness it can be difficult to distinguish between noise spikes and the variation in irradiance due to changes in the state of the sky.

  5. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article announces the 2007 recipient of the Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Baron Perlman. A brief biography, highlighting areas of special focus in Perlman's work, is provided.

  6. Charles L. Brewer award for distinguished teaching of psychology.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2012 recipient of the Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology is Richard L. Miller. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 120th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 3, 2012, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2012 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; Charles L. Brewer, vice president/secretary; Gerald Koocher, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; Brian N. Baird; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Connie Chan; William Howell; Anthony Jackson; Ronald F. Levant; Aurelio Prifitera; Sandra Shullman; Archie L. Turner; and Kurt Geisinger, APA Board of Directors liaison.

  7. UV-observations with a Brewer spectrophotometer at Hohenpeissenberg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandersee, Winfried; Koehler, U.

    1994-01-01

    Regular spectral UV-B measurements with a Brewer spectrophotometer have been performed at Hohenpeissenberg since 1990. Intercomparison of the Brewer instrument with other UV-B monitoring devices have shown agreement to within plus or minus 10 percent. Comparisons of UV-B spectra measured on fair weather days reveal the well known increasing influence of ozone on UV-B irradiance with decreasing wavelengths. The integral amplification factor the erythemal irradiance reaches values up to 2.8, which can be diminished by increasing turbidity. The influence of cirrus cloud on the UV-B is also shown.

  8. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2009 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is William Buskist. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Teaching Award at the 117th…

  9. Brewer spectrometer total ozone column measurements in Sodankylä

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karppinen, Tomi; Lakkala, Kaisa; Karhu, Juha M.; Heikkinen, Pauli; Kivi, Rigel; Kyrö, Esko

    2016-06-01

    Brewer total ozone column measurements started in Sodankylä in May 1988, 9 months after the signing of The Montreal Protocol. The Brewer instrument has been well maintained and frequently calibrated since then to produce a high-quality ozone time series now spanning more than 25 years. The data have now been uniformly reprocessed between 1988 and 2014. The quality of the data has been assured by automatic data rejection rules as well as by manual checking. Daily mean values calculated from the highest-quality direct sun measurements are available 77 % of time with up to 75 measurements per day on clear days. Zenith sky measurements fill another 14 % of the time series and winter months are sparsely covered by moon measurements. The time series provides information to survey the evolution of Arctic ozone layer and can be used as a reference point for assessing other total ozone column measurement practices.

  10. Charles L. Brewer award for distinguished teaching of psychology.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2009 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is William Buskist. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Teaching Award at the 117th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 7, 2009, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2009 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; William Howell, vice president/secretary; Archie L. Turner, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Charles L. Brewer; Anthony Jackson; Steven E. James; Ronald F. Levant; Gerald Koocher; Sandra Shullman; and Rosie Phillips Bingham, APA Board of Directors liaison.

  11. Temperature dependence of Brewer UV measurements at Rome station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siani, Anna M.; Benevento, Giuseppe; Casale, Giuseppe R.

    2003-11-01

    Decreasing trends of total ozone affect mainly solar ultraviolet (UV) levels at ground level with adverse effects on the biosphere. Highly accurate measurements of solar UV irradiance have become an important issue to assess UV trends. To detect these trends stations with well calibrated instruments, with long-term stability and Quality Assurance (QA)/ Quality Control (QC) carefully followed procedures, are necessary. The Solar Radiometry Observatory of Rome, University "La Sapienza" (city center) is one of the stations regularly measuring UV irradiance in Italy. Measurements of UV spectral (290-325 nm) irradiance started in 1992, using Brewer MKIV 067. Measurements of total irradiance contained in the 280 - 320 nm waveband begun in 2000 with the YES UVB-1 broad-band radiometer. An investigation of the internal temperature dependence of the spectral responsivity to improve the quality of the Brewer UV data was carried out. The study was based on the analysis of responsivity files recorded during the years 2000-2002. Responsivities are provided by specific tests through a set of five 50 W quartz tungsten-halogen lamps, traceable to the standards of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The lamp tests allow to measure any changes in the instrument response over time. It was observed that a decrease in the instrument's responsivity resulted from an increase of the internal temperature. A methodology based on a family of responsivity files at different temperature intervals is proposed to allow correction of UV irradiances using the responsivity file at the corresponding temperatures. The mean percentage differnce between temperature corrected and non-corrected Brewer data varies from 0.8% to 1.5% over an internal temperature of 8°C-42°C. In addition the results of a field evaluation in Rome between Brewer 067 and two temperature stabilized instruments, a broad-band radiometer (YES UVB-1) and a moderate bandwidth multichannel radiometer

  12. 27 CFR 25.167 - Notice of brewer to pay reduced rate of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Preparation and Remittance of.... Every brewer who desires to pay the reduced rate of tax on beer authorized by 26 U.S.C. 5051(a)(2) by... return period (or prepayment return) during which the brewer pays tax on beer at the reduced rate....

  13. 27 CFR 25.167 - Notice of brewer to pay reduced rate of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Preparation and Remittance of.... Every brewer who desires to pay the reduced rate of tax on beer authorized by 26 U.S.C. 5051(a)(2) by... return period (or prepayment return) during which the brewer pays tax on beer at the reduced rate....

  14. 27 CFR 25.167 - Notice of brewer to pay reduced rate of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Preparation and Remittance of.... Every brewer who desires to pay the reduced rate of tax on beer authorized by 26 U.S.C. 5051(a)(2) by... return period (or prepayment return) during which the brewer pays tax on beer at the reduced rate....

  15. 27 CFR 25.167 - Notice of brewer to pay reduced rate of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Preparation and Remittance of.... Every brewer who desires to pay the reduced rate of tax on beer authorized by 26 U.S.C. 5051(a)(2) by... return period (or prepayment return) during which the brewer pays tax on beer at the reduced rate....

  16. From theory to practice: caring science according to Watson and Brewer.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Pamela N; Watson, Jean; Brewer, Barbara B

    2009-10-01

    Caring science is presented by Jean Watson and Barbara Brewer through an interview and dialogue format. Jean Watson presents caring science and its philosophy and evolution and the impact of her model on nursing and other disciplines. Barbara Brewer addresses the implementation of the model in a Magnet hospital setting and describes how her leadership facilitated implementation.

  17. 27 CFR 25.167 - Notice of brewer to pay reduced rate of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Preparation and Remittance of.... Every brewer who desires to pay the reduced rate of tax on beer authorized by 26 U.S.C. 5051(a)(2) by... return period (or prepayment return) during which the brewer pays tax on beer at the reduced rate....

  18. 27 CFR 25.297 - Brewer's Report of Operations, Form 5130.9.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... whether a quarterly report may be filed, the brewer will determine annual production of beer by adding up... in the “Remarks” section of its initial monthly Form 5130.9 that the annual production of beer is not... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.297 Brewer's...

  19. Resolution of brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase into two isozymes.

    PubMed

    Kuo, D J; Dikdan, G; Jordan, F

    1986-03-01

    A novel purification method was developed for brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) that for the first time resolved the enzyme into two isozymes on DEAE-Sephadex chromatography. The isozymes were found to be distinct according to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: the first one to be eluted gave rise to one band, the second to two bands. The isozymes were virtually the same so far as specific activity, KM, inhibition kinetics and irreversible binding properties by the mechanism-based inhibitor (E)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-oxo-3-butenoic acid are concerned. This finding resolves a longstanding controversy concerning the quaternary structure of this enzyme.

  20. Effects of brewers` condensed solubles (BCS) on the production of ethanol from low-grade starch materials

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, C.H.; Chung, D.S.; Seib, P.A.

    1995-02-01

    Yeast fermentation was performed on grain and bakery byproducts with and without adding the same volume of brewers` condensed solubles (BCS). Starch material in the grain and bakery byproducts effectively was converted to fermentable sugars with conversion ratios of 93-97% by successive treatments of samples with bacterial {alpha}-amylase and fungal glucoamylase. The yeast fermentation of these enzyme-digested byproducts alone showed that ethanol concentrations of 16.4-42.7 mL/100 g dry solid in the broth were achieved with fermentation efficiencies of 87-96%. Addition of BCS to the grain byproducts increased ethanol concentration by 10-86% by increasing the potential glucose content of the broth. The rates of fermentation measured by CO{sub 2} gas production demonstrated that BCS addition to bakery byproducts reduced the fermentation time from 62-72 h to 34-35 h. In bakery byproducts that were low in amino nitrogen, exhaustion of nitrogenous compounds in substrates was found to be a limiting factor for yeast growth. Because BCS is a rich source of nitrogen, adding BCS to these substrates markedly increased the fermentation rate. 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Aerosol Optical Depth: A study using Thailand based Brewer Spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumharn, Wilawan; Sudhibrabha, Sumridh; Hanprasert, Kesrin

    2015-12-01

    The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) was retrieved from the direct-sun Brewer observation by the application of the Beer's law for the years 1997-2011 at two monitoring sites in Thailand (Bangkok and Songkhla). AOD values measured in Bangkok exhibited higher values than Songkhla. In addition, AOD values were higher in the morning and evening in Bangkok. In contrast, the AOD values in Songkhla were slightly lower during the mornings and late afternoons. The variation of AOD was seasonal in Bangkok, with the higher values found in summer (from Mid-February to Mid-May) compared with rainy season (Mid-May to Mid-October), whilst there was no clear seasonal pattern of AOD in Songkhla.

  2. Genome annotation of a Saccharomyces sp. lager brewer's yeast.

    PubMed

    De León-Medina, Patricia Marcela; Elizondo-González, Ramiro; Damas-Buenrostro, Luis Cástulo; Geertman, Jan-Maarten; Van den Broek, Marcel; Galán-Wong, Luis Jesús; Ortiz-López, Rocío; Pereyra-Alférez, Benito

    2016-09-01

    The genome of lager brewer's yeast is a hybrid, with Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as sub-genomes. Due to their specific use in the beer industry, relatively little information is available. The genome of brewing yeast was sequenced and annotated in this study. We obtained a genome size of 22.7 Mbp that consisted of 133 scaffolds, with 65 scaffolds larger than 10 kbp. With respect to the annotation, 9939 genes were obtained, and when they were submitted to a local alignment, we found that 53.93% of these genes corresponded to S. cerevisiae, while another 42.86% originated from S. eubayanus. Our results confirm that our strain is a hybrid of at least two different genomes.

  3. Genome annotation of a Saccharomyces sp. lager brewer's yeast.

    PubMed

    De León-Medina, Patricia Marcela; Elizondo-González, Ramiro; Damas-Buenrostro, Luis Cástulo; Geertman, Jan-Maarten; Van den Broek, Marcel; Galán-Wong, Luis Jesús; Ortiz-López, Rocío; Pereyra-Alférez, Benito

    2016-09-01

    The genome of lager brewer's yeast is a hybrid, with Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as sub-genomes. Due to their specific use in the beer industry, relatively little information is available. The genome of brewing yeast was sequenced and annotated in this study. We obtained a genome size of 22.7 Mbp that consisted of 133 scaffolds, with 65 scaffolds larger than 10 kbp. With respect to the annotation, 9939 genes were obtained, and when they were submitted to a local alignment, we found that 53.93% of these genes corresponded to S. cerevisiae, while another 42.86% originated from S. eubayanus. Our results confirm that our strain is a hybrid of at least two different genomes. PMID:27330999

  4. Solar UVB measurements with the double- and single-monochromator Brewer ozone spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bais, A. F.; Zerefos, C. S.; McElroy, C. T.

    In this work, the new double-monochromator version of the Brewer Ozone Spectrophotometer, especially designed for spectral UV measurements, is briefly described and its measurements are compared with those obtained by a conventional, single-monochromator Brewer instrument. The comparison shows that the performance of the new instrument is much superior in the low UVB wavelengths (λ<305 nm), because of the much higher stray-light rejection capability of the instrument. The conventional Brewer spectrophotometer is capable of recording accurately solar UVB spectra at wavelengths greater than about 300 nm. The error in UVB dose calculations made using data from the conventional Brewer is estimated to be of the order of +1%, while the absolute irradiances at wavelengths below 300 nm may be overestimated by more than 10%, depending on the measured wavelength and the solar zenith angle.

  5. Lyman A. Brewer III (1907-1988): surgeon-scientist, inspirational teacher, and humanist.

    PubMed

    Carter, R

    1998-12-01

    Dr. Lyman Augustus Brewer III, a distinguished, colorful thoracic surgeon and among the first to practice that specialty in the West, died on June 25, 1988, in Los Angeles, California, after a courageous battle with lymphoma. Dr. Brewer was a great humanist, innovative clinical surgeon, charismatic teacher, and surgical leader. In World War II, Lieutenant Colonel Brewer served in the Second Auxiliary Surgical Group in the Mediterranean and European theaters and helped define criteria that became the standard for the management of thoracic war injuries. Out of this experience he authored the classic paper, "The Wet Lung in War Casualties." Dr. Brewer's scientific contributions embraced the broad spectrum of thoracic surgical topics, including treatment of tuberculosis, classification of lung cancer, bronchial stump buttressing using the pericardial fat pad (Brewer fat pad), and management of esophageal perforation. Dr Brewer wrote seven books and more than 100 papers, and served as First Vice President of The American College of Surgeons and as President of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and The Pacific Coast Surgical Association.

  6. The Brewer-Dobson circulation and higher latitude ozone changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budde, Martin; Weber, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The Brewer-Dobson Circulation (BDC) plays a major role in ozone transport from the tropics to the poles and by that it governs the global distribution of total column ozone. Climate models predict a strengthening of the BDC in times of climate change. This would lead to an accelerated recovery of ozone abundance in higher latitudes. However so far there is no clear evidence of this strengthening. The strength of the BDC is dependent on wave forcing which slows the meridional winds and by that disturbs the geostrophic balance of Coriolis force and pressure gradient force. A good measure for the wave forcing is the eddy heat flux in 100hPa. It is highly correlated with changes in the total ozone columns of the polar regions and the tropic. Another major driver of the global ozone distribution is the photochemical destruction of ozone, due to ozone depleting substances (ODS) such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). A special case of this is the rapid depletion of ozone in the presence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). These clouds build up inside the polar vortices, are highly temperature dependent and strengthen the efficiency of ODS. In order to analyse the evolution of the higher latitude ozone abundance as a function of dynamical changes and the change in the abundance of ODS it is necessary to quantify both effects separately. This work focusses on the influence of the mid-latitude 100hpa eddy heat flux on changes in ozone in higher latitudes.

  7. Is the Brewer-Dobson circulation increasing or moving upward?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberländer-Hayn, Sophie; Gerber, Edwin P.; Abalichin, Janna; Akiyoshi, Hideharu; Kerschbaumer, Andreas; Kubin, Anne; Kunze, Markus; Langematz, Ulrike; Meul, Stefanie; Michou, Martine; Morgenstern, Olaf; Oman, Luke D.

    2016-02-01

    The meridional circulation of the stratosphere, or Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), is projected to accelerate with increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. The acceleration is typically quantified by changes in the tropical upward mass flux (Ftrop) across a given pressure surface. Simultaneously, models project a lifting of the entire atmospheric circulation in response to GHGs; notably, the tropopause rises about a kilometer over this century. In this study, it is shown that most of the BDC trend is associated with the rise in the circulation. Using a chemistry-climate model (CCM), Ftrop trends across 100 hPa are contrasted with those across the tropopause: while Ftrop at 100 hPa increases 1-2 %/decade, the mass flux entering the atmosphere above the tropopause actually decreases. Similar results are found for other CCMs, suggesting that changes in the BDC may better be described as an upward shift of the circulation, as opposed to an increase, with implications for the mechanism and stratosphere-troposphere exchange.

  8. Subunit structure of 6-phosphofructokinase from brewers' yeast.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, N; Hess, B

    1975-11-01

    An analysis of 6-phosphofructokinase from brewers' yeast in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate reveals the occurrence of four components with the following molecular weights: alpha = 140000, beta = 130000, and alpha' = 92000, beta' = 87000. It was found that the alpha- and beta-components can be converted to the alpha' and beta' components by treatment of the native preparation with hyaluronidase. A comparison of the molecular weight obtained by ultracentrifugation and gel filtration with the results obtained by dodecylsulfate electrophoresis after treatment with hyaluronidase reveals that the alpha' and beta' components are the smallest molecular structures obtained upon dissociation of the native enzyme. The mechanism of action of hyaluronidase suggests a desensitization of the alpha and beta components of the enzyme towards dodecylsulfate. Thus, in the absence of hyaluronidase treatment; only an apparent molecular weight for the alpha and beta component is obtained. The analysis indicates that the native enzyme might be composed of four different subunits with an alpha, beta, alpha' and beta' configuration. It is not excluded that the native enzyme consists only of alpha- and beta-chains.

  9. Brewers' rice attenuated aberrant crypt foci developing in colon of azoxymethane-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bee Ling; Norhaizan, Mohd Esa; Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar; Hazilawati, Hamzah; Roselina, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Brewers' rice is one of abundant agricultural waste products in the rice industry. The present study is designed to investigate the potential of brewers' rice to inhibit the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in colon of azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rats. The effects on the attenuation of hepatic toxicity and kidney function enzymes were also evaluated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: (G1) normal; (G2) AOM alone; and (G3), (G4), and (G5), which were AOM fed with 10%, 20%, and 40% (w/w) of brewers' rice, respectively. The rats in group 2-5 were injected intraperitoneally with AOM (15 mg/kg body weight) once weekly for two weeks. After 8 weeks of treatment,the total number of ACF/colon and the number of ACF in the distal and middle colon were significantly reduced in all treatment groups compared to G2 (p<0.05). Brewers' rice decreased the number of ACF with dysplastic morphology in a dose-dependent manner. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level in G5 was significantly lower compared to the G2 (p<0.05). In conclusion, this study found the potential value of brewers' rice in reducing the risk of cancer susceptibility in colon. PMID:26826813

  10. Beer brewing using a fusant between a sake yeast and a brewer's yeast.

    PubMed

    Mukai, N; Nishimori, C; Fujishige, I W; Mizuno, A; Takahashi, T; Sato, K

    2001-01-01

    Beer brewing using a fusant between a sake yeast (a lysine auxotrophic mutant of sake yeast K-14) and a brewer's yeast (a respiratory-deficient mutant of the top fermentation yeast NCYC1333) was performed to take advantage of the beneficial characteristics of sake yeasts, i.e., the high productivity of esters, high tolerance to ethanol, and high osmotolerance. The fusant (F-32) obtained was different from the parental yeasts regarding, for example, the assimilation of carbon sources and tolerance to ethanol. A brewing trial with the fusant was carried out using a 100-l pilot-scale plant. The fusant fermented wort more rapidly than the parental brewer's yeast. However, the sedimentation capacity of the fusant was relatively low. The beer brewed using the fusant contained more ethanol and esters compared to that brewed using the parental brewer's yeast. The fusant also obtained osmotolerance in the fermentation of maltose and fermented high-gravity wort well.

  11. Brewer-Dobson circulation diagnosed from JRA-55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Chiaki; Iwasaki, Toshiki

    2016-02-01

    We examine the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) in the lower stratosphere diagnosed from the Japanese 55 year Reanalysis (JRA-55) data set and compare it with the BDCs diagnosed from the other reanalyses (i.e., ERA-Interim and JRA-25), and JRA-55-related data sets (i.e., JRA-55C, created by assimilating only in situ observations, and JRA-55AMIP, a simulation by a prediction model). The climatological mean seasonal change of the BDC in JRA-55 is similar to that in ERA-Interim but considerably different from that in JRA-25. Dynamical and thermodynamical consistencies among the variables are greatly improved in the JRA-55 data set. The interannual variations of the annual mean tropical upwellings in JRA-55 are almost coincident with those in JRA-55C. It suggests that the weakly increasing trend of the BDC found in JRA-55 does not have anything to do with changes in the satellite observing system. The climatological mean tropical upwelling diagnosed from JRA-55 is stronger than that from JRA-55AMIP. This difference is presumed to partly link to the model's inability to simulate the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). The JRA-55AMIP data set, a simple simulation performed without data assimilation, does not simulate the QBO, whereas the JRA-55 data set represents the QBO with the aid of data assimilation. The climatological mean zonal mean states of JRA-55AMIP considerably deviate from those of JRA-55 in the lower stratosphere. The deviation of JRA-55AMIP is similar to the modulation pattern by the QBO in specific phase regions in which the BDC is rather weak. The simulated QBO might enhance the BDC and reduce the model biases in the tropical lower stratosphere.

  12. Temperature and slant path effects in Dobson and Brewer total ozone measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarnato, B.; Staehelin, J.; Peter, T.; GröBner, J.; Stübi, R.

    2009-12-01

    There is a worldwide tendency to replace Dobson spectrophotometers in ground-based total ozone (TOZ) measurements by more advanced Brewer spectrophotometers. Ensuring the homogeneity of these data sets is of utmost importance if changes in TOZ of a few percent over long time periods are to be diagnosed accurately. Previous studies have identified a seasonal bias of a few percent between midlatitude Brewer and Dobson measurements. At Arosa (Switzerland), two Dobson and three Brewer instruments have been colocated since 1998, providing a unique data set of quasi-simultaneous observations, invaluable to study systematic differences between these measurements. The differences are partially attributed to the seasonal variability in atmospheric temperatures and ozone slant paths (OSP). The sensitivity to the temperature dependence of the ozone absorption cross section is calculated for each operational Brewer spectrophotometers at Arosa by using different high- and low-resolution reference spectra appropriately weighted with the instruments' slit functions, whereas the information on the primary standard instruments is used for all the Dobson instruments. The Brewer retrieval algorithm reveals a higher sensitivity to the reference spectra applied than the Dobson. When adopting the Bass and Paur (1985) or Malicet et al. (1995) ozone absorption spectra with their specific temperature dependence, and correcting for the OSP effect, the seasonal bias between Dobson and Brewer TOZ measurements is reduced to 0.6%. Conversely, these differences increase when using the spectral data of Burrows et al. (1999). This finding illustrates that the accuracy of ground-based spectrophotometric TOZ measurements is limited by the uncertainty in the ozone cross sections measured by different internationally leading laboratories.

  13. Temperature and Slant Path Effects in Dobson and Brewer Total Ozone Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarnato, B.; Staehelin, J.; Peter, T.; Groebner, J.; Stuebi, R.

    2009-12-01

    There is a worldwide tendency to replace Dobson spectrophotometers in ground-based total ozone (TOZ) measurements by more advanced Brewer spectrophotometers. Ensuring the homogeneity of these datasets is of utmost importance if changes in TOZ of few percent over long time periods are to be diagnosed accurately. Previous studies have identified a seasonal bias of few percent between mid-latitude Brewer and Dobson measurements. At Arosa (Switzerland), two Dobson and three Brewer instruments are co-located since 1998, providing a unique dataset of quasi-simultaneous observations, invaluable to study systematic differences between these measurements. The differences are partially attributed to the seasonal variability in atmospheric temperatures and ozone slant paths (OSP). The sensitivity to the temperature dependence of the ozone absorption cross-section are calculated for each operational Brewer spectrophotometers at Arosa by using different high and low resolution reference spectra appropriately weighted with the instruments' slit functions, whereas the information of the primary standard instruments are used for all the Dobson instruments. The Brewer retrieval algorithm reveals a higher sensitivity to the reference spectra applied than the Dobson. When adopting the Bass and Paur (1985) or Malicet et al. (1995) ozone absorption spectra with their specific temperature dependence, and correcting for the OSP effect, the seasonal bias between Dobson and Brewer TOZ measurements is reduced to 0.6%. Conversely these differences increase using the spectral data of Burrows (1999). This finding illustrates, that the accuracy of ground-based spectrophotometric TOZ measurements is limited by the uncertainty in the ozone cross-sections measured by different internationally leading laboratories.

  14. Influence of the ozone profile above Madrid (Spain) on Brewer estimation of ozone air mass factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, M.; López, M.; Costa, M. J.; Serrano, A.; Bortoli, D.; Bañón, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Silva, A. M.

    2009-08-01

    The methodology used by Brewer spectroradiometers to estimate the ozone column is based on differential absorption spectroscopy. This methodology employs the ozone air mass factor (AMF) to derive the total ozone column from the slant path ozone amount. For the calculating the ozone AMF, the Brewer algorithm assumes that the ozone layer is located at a fixed height of 22 km. However, for a real specific site the ozone presents a certain profile, which varies spatially and temporally depending on the latitude, altitude and dynamical conditions of the atmosphere above the site of measurements. In this sense, this work address the reliability of the mentioned assumption and analyses the influence of the ozone profiles measured above Madrid (Spain) in the ozone AMF calculations. The approximated ozone AMF used by the Brewer algorithm is compared with simulations obtained using the libRadtran radiative transfer model code. The results show an excellent agreement between the simulated and the approximated AMF values for solar zenith angle lower than 75°. In addition, the relative differences remain lower than 2% at 85°. These good results are mainly due to the fact that the altitude of the ozone layer assumed constant by the Brewer algorithm for all latitudes notably can be considered representative of the real profile of ozone above Madrid (average value of 21.7±1.8 km). The operational ozone AMF calculations for Brewer instruments are limited, in general, to SZA below 80°. Extending the usable SZA range is especially relevant for Brewer instruments located at high mid-latitudes.

  15. Retrieval of aerosol optical depth in the visible range with a Brewer spectrophotometer in Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diémoz, Henri; Eleftheratos, Kostas; Kazadzis, Stelios; Amiridis, Vassilis; Zerefos, Christos S.

    2016-04-01

    A MkIV Brewer spectrophotometer has been operating in Athens since 2004. Direct-sun measurements originally scheduled for nitrogen dioxide retrievals were reprocessed to provide aerosol optical depths (AODs) at a wavelength of about 440 nm. A novel retrieval algorithm was specifically developed and the resulting AODs were compared to those obtained from a collocated Cimel filter radiometer belonging to the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The series are perfectly correlated, with Pearson's correlation coefficients being as large as 0.996 and with 90 % of AOD deviations between the two instruments being within the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) traceability limits. In order to reach such a high agreement, several instrumental factors impacting the quality of the Brewer retrievals must be taken into account, including sensitivity to the internal temperature, and the state of the external optics and pointing accuracy must be carefully checked. Furthermore, the long-term radiometric stability of the Brewer was investigated and the performances of in situ Langley extrapolations as a way to track the absolute calibration of the Brewer were assessed. Other sources of error, such as slight shifts of the wavelength scale, are discussed and some recommendations to Brewer operators are drawn. Although MkIV Brewers are rarely employed to retrieve AODs in the visible range, they represent a key source of information about aerosol changes in the past three decades and a potential worldwide network for present and future coordinated AOD measurements. Moreover, a better understanding of the AOD retrieval at visible wavelengths will also contribute in improving similar techniques in the more challenging UV range.

  16. Inactivation of MET10 in brewer's yeast specifically increases SO2 formation during beer production.

    PubMed

    Hansen, J; Kielland-Brandt, M C

    1996-11-01

    Sulfite is widely used as an antioxidant in food production. In beer brewing, sulfite has the additional role of stabilizing the flavor by forming adducts with aldehydes. Inadequate amounts of sulfite are sometimes produced by brewer's yeasts, so means of controlling the sulfite production are desired. In Saccharomyces yeasts, MET10 encodes a subunit of sulfite reductase. Partial or full elimination of MET10 gene activity in a brewer's yeast resulted in increased sulfite accumulation. Beer produced with such yeasts was quite satisfactory and showed increased flavor stability.

  17. Improved entrance optic for global irradiance measurements with a Brewer spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Gröbner, Julian

    2003-06-20

    A new entrance optic for a Brewer spectrophotometer has been designed and tested both in the laboratory and during solar measurements. The integrated cosine response deviates by 2.4% from the ideal, with an uncertainty of +/- 1%. The systematic uncertainties of global solar irradiance measurements with this new entrance optic are considerably reduced compared with measurements with the traditional design. Simultaneous solar irradiance measurements between the Brewer spectrophotometer and a spectroradiometer equipped with a state-of-the-art shaped diffuser agreed to within +/- 2% during a five-day measurement period. PMID:12833953

  18. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Neil Lutsky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Neil Lutsky. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Distinguished Teaching Award…

  19. 27 CFR 25.152 - Reduced rate of tax for certain brewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Liability for Tax § 25.152 Reduced... reduced rate of tax on the first 60,000 barrels of beer removed for consumption or sale by a brewer during... the beer at a qualified brewery in the United States; (2) May not produce more than 2,000,000...

  20. 27 CFR 25.152 - Reduced rate of tax for certain brewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Liability for Tax § 25.152 Reduced... reduced rate of tax on the first 60,000 barrels of beer removed for consumption or sale by a brewer during... the beer at a qualified brewery in the United States; (2) May not produce more than 2,000,000...

  1. 27 CFR 25.152 - Reduced rate of tax for certain brewers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Liability for Tax § 25.152 Reduced... reduced rate of tax on the first 60,000 barrels of beer removed for consumption or sale by a brewer during... the beer at a qualified brewery in the United States; (2) May not produce more than 2,000,000...

  2. An "Alms-Basket" of "Bric-a-Brac": "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development and history of "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable," a reference source first published in 1870 that includes the etymology of phrases, allusions and words. Discusses reviews that reflected and shaped its status as a standard reference book, describes the current edition, and considers its enduring value. (LRW)

  3. 27 CFR 25.297 - Brewer's Report of Operations, Form 5130.9.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... this section, each brewer shall prepare and submit a monthly report of brewery operations on Form 5130... brewery operations quarterly. The report will be filed on Form 5130.9. For the purpose of establishing... breweries and from pilot brewing plants for all months of the previous calendar year. (2) To begin...

  4. 27 CFR 25.297 - Brewer's Report of Operations, Form 5130.9.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this section, each brewer shall prepare and submit a monthly report of brewery operations on Form 5130... brewery operations quarterly. The report will be filed on Form 5130.9. For the purpose of establishing... breweries and from pilot brewing plants for all months of the previous calendar year. (2) To begin...

  5. 27 CFR 25.297 - Brewer's Report of Operations, Form 5130.9.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... this section, each brewer shall prepare and submit a monthly report of brewery operations on Form 5130... brewery operations quarterly. The report will be filed on Form 5130.9. For the purpose of establishing... breweries and from pilot brewing plants for all months of the previous calendar year. (2) To begin...

  6. 27 CFR 25.297 - Brewer's Report of Operations, Form 5130.9.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... this section, each brewer shall prepare and submit a monthly report of brewery operations on Form 5130... brewery operations quarterly. The report will be filed on Form 5130.9. For the purpose of establishing... breweries and from pilot brewing plants for all months of the previous calendar year. (2) To begin...

  7. Beer and Fast Cars: How Brewers Target Blue-collar Youth through Motor Sport Sponsorships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, David R.; Lev, Jane

    This study explored how motor sports sponsorships complement and amplify the brewers' media campaigns by joining masculinity, risk, excitement, and beer in the actual "lived" experiences of potential consumers. To document industry expenditures and justifications for motor sports sponsorship, trade journals and newsletters (N=25) and other public…

  8. Grain boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished to date during the second year of our four-year grant (February 15, 1990--February 14, 1994) to study grain boundaries. The research was focused on the following three major efforts: Study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; study of short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of a Thin-film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals.

  9. Cometary grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, William A.; Kreidl, Tobias J.; Schleicher, David G.

    1992-01-01

    CCD observations of cometary comas in the spectral continuum are reported. Radial brightness profiles of 14 comets and isophotal maps of three are presented. For 10 of the 14, the azimuthally averaged brightness in the vicinity of the nucleus falls off faster than rho exp -1, where rho is the projected radial distance from the nucleus in the plane of the sky. Simple modeling is used to show that radiation pressure alone cannot account for the observed departures from rho exp -1; it is postulated that the grains fade, i.e., decrease in albedo or size, while they glow outward. For only three of the comets no evidence was found of any grain fading at all. Cases with the most rapid grain fading occurred at small heliocentric distances, but so did some of the cases with no fading, from which large intrinsic differences from comet to comet in the nature of the grain population are inferred.

  10. Interstellar grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, T. P.

    1986-01-01

    There are few aspects of interstellar grains that can be unambiguously defined. Very little can be said that is independent of models or presuppositions; hence issues are raised and questions categorized, rather than providing definitive answers. The questions are issues fall into three general areas; the general physical and chemical nature of the grains; the processes by which they are formed and destroyed; and future observational approaches.

  11. Effect of Helium Accumulation on the Spent Fuel Microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ferry, Cecile; Piron, Jean-Paul; Stout, Ray

    2007-07-01

    In a nuclear spent fuel repository, the aqueous rapid release of radio-activity from exposed spent fuel surfaces will depend on the pellet microstructure at the arrival time of water into the disposal container. Research performed on spent fuel evolution in a closed system has shown that the evolution of microstructure under disposal conditions should be governed by the cumulated {alpha}-decay damage and the subsequent helium behavior. The evolution of fission gas bubble characteristics under repository conditions has to be assessed. In UO{sub 2} fuels with a burnup of 47.5 GWd/t, the pressure in fission gas bubbles, including the pressure increase from {alpha}-decay helium atoms, is not expected to reach the critical bubble pressure that will cause failure, thus micro-cracking in UO{sub 2} spent fuel grains is not expected. (authors)

  12. Brewers' Rice: A By-Product from Rice Processing Provides Natural Hepatorenal Protection in Azoxymethane-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bee Ling; Norhaizan, Mohd Esa; Hairuszah, Ithnin; Hazilawati, Hamzah; Roselina, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Brewers' rice, which is known locally as temukut, is a mixture of broken rice, rice bran, and rice germ. Our present study was designed to identify the effect of brewers' rice on the attenuation of liver and kidney damage induced by azoxymethane (AOM). Alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), creatinine, and urea were evaluated to understand potential hepatoprotective effects and the ability of brewers' rice to attenuate kidney pathology induced by AOM treatment. Liver and kidney tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Overall analyses revealed that brewers' rice improved the levels of serum markers in a manner associated with better histopathological outcomes, which indicated that brewers' rice could enhance recovery from hepatocyte and kidney damage. Taken together, these results suggest that brewers' rice could be used in future applications to combat liver and kidney disease. PMID:26257841

  13. Spent fuel storage. Facts booklet

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    In October 1977, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced a spent nuclear fuel policy where the Government would, under certain conditions, take title to and store spent nuclear fuel from commercial power reactors. The policy is intended to provide spent fuel storage until final disposition is available. DOE has programs for providing safe, long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The spent fuel storage program is one element of waste management and compliments the disposal program. The costs for spent fuel services are to be fully recovered by the Government from the utilities. This will allow the utilities to confidently consider the costs for disposition of spent fuel in their rate structure. The United States would also store limited amounts of foreign spent fuel to meet nonproliferation objectives. This booklet summarizes information on many aspects of spent fuel storage.

  14. Extraction of brewer's yeasts using different methods of cell disruption for practical biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Matoulková, Dagmar; Kolouchová, Irena; Masák, Jan; Viden, Ivan; Sigler, Karel

    2015-05-01

    The methods of preparation of fatty acids from brewer's yeast and its use in production of biofuels and in different branches of industry are described. Isolation of fatty acids from cell lipids includes cell disintegration (e.g., with liquid nitrogen, KOH, NaOH, petroleum ether, nitrogenous basic compounds, etc.) and subsequent processing of extracted lipids, including analysis of fatty acid and computing of biodiesel properties such as viscosity, density, cloud point, and cetane number. Methyl esters obtained from brewer's waste yeast are well suited for the production of biodiesel. All 49 samples (7 breweries and 7 methods) meet the requirements for biodiesel quality in both the composition of fatty acids and the properties of the biofuel required by the US and EU standards.

  15. Charles L. Brewer Award for distinguished teaching of psychology: Neil Lutsky.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Neil Lutsky. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Distinguished Teaching Award at the 119th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 5, 2011, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2011 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; William Howell, vice president/secretary; Gerald Koocher, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; David H. Barlow, Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Charles L. Brewer; Connie Chan; Anthony Jackson; Ronald F. Levant; Sandra Shullman; Archie L. Turner; and Kurt Geisinger, APA Board of Directors liaison.

  16. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section... § 148.275 Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. (a) Before spent iron oxide or spent iron sponge is... been cooled and weathered for at least eight weeks. (b) Both spent iron oxide and spent iron sponge...

  17. Total ozone measurements made with the Brewer ozone spectrophotometer during STOIC 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, J. B.; McElroy, C. T.

    1995-05-01

    The Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service participated in the Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison Campaign (STOIC) by operating a Brewer ozone spectrophotometer at the Table Mountain Observatory from July 19 to August 2, 1989. Frequent direct Sun measurements of total column ozone were made throughout most days during the 2 weeks of the intercomparison. Results of the Brewer instrument total ozone measurements are given. They show that there is a diurnal variation of total ozone with values increasing on average by 6.6±2.4 Dobson units between early morning and late afternoon. Comparing the total ozone measurements with ozone concentration measurements made at ground level suggests that the daytime increase is a result of a buildup of surface ozone during the day. The total ozone measurements made by the Brewer instrument during STOIC are compared with total ozone measurements made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Dobson instrument, the NASA/Wallops electrochemical concentration cell ozonesondes and the total ozone mapping spectrometer satellite instrument.

  18. Modeling of Spent Fuel Oxidation at Low Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Poulesquen, Arnaud; Ferry, Cecile; Desgranges, Lionel

    2007-07-01

    During dry storage, the oxidation of the spent fuel in case of cladding and container failure (accidental scenario) could be detrimental for further handling of the spent fuel rod and for the safety of the facilities. Depending on whether the uranium dioxide is under the form of powder or pellet, irradiated or unirradiated, the weight gain curves do not present the same shape. To account for these different behaviours, two models have been developed. Firstly, the oxidation of unirradiated powders has been modelled based on the coexistence, during the oxidation, of two intermediate products, U{sub 4}O{sub 9} and U{sub 3}O{sub 7}. The comparison between the calculation and the literature data is good in terms of weight gain curves and chemical diffusion coefficient of oxygen within the two phases. Secondly, the oxidation of spent fuel fragments is approached by a convolution procedure between a grain oxidation model and an empirical parameter which represents the linear oxidation speed of grain boundary or an average distance able to cover the entire spent fuel fragment. This procedure of calculation allows in one hand to account for the incubation period noticed on unirradiated pellets or spent fuel and in another hand to link the empirical parameter to physical as porosity, cracks or linear power, or operational parameters such as fission gas release (FGR) respectively. A comparison of this new modelling with experimental data will be proposed. (authors)

  19. Interstellar grains within interstellar grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.; Amari, Sachiko; Zinner, Ernst K.; Lewis, Roy S.

    1991-01-01

    Five interstellar graphite spherules extracted from the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite are studied. The isotopic and elemental compositions of individual particles are investigated with the help of an ion microprobe, and this analysis is augmented with structural studies of ultrathin sections of the grain interiors by transmission electron microscopy. As a result, the following procedure for the formation of the interstellar graphite spherule bearing TiC crystals is inferred: (1) high-temperature nucleation and rapid growth of the graphitic carbon spherule in the atmosphere of a carbon-rich star, (2) nucleation and growth of TiC crystals during continued growth of the graphitic spherule and the accretion of TiC onto the spherule, (3) quenching of the graphite growth process by depletion of C or by isolation of the spherule before other grain types could condense.

  20. Total ozone column derived from GOME and SCIAMACHY using KNMI retrieval algorithms: Validation against Brewer measurements at the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, M.; Kroon, M.; López, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Bañón, M.; van der A, R.; Veefkind, J. P.; Stammes, P.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2011-11-01

    This article focuses on the validation of the total ozone column (TOC) data set acquired by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) satellite remote sensing instruments using the Total Ozone Retrieval Scheme for the GOME Instrument Based on the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOGOMI) and Total Ozone Retrieval Scheme for the SCIAMACHY Instrument Based on the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (TOSOMI) retrieval algorithms developed by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. In this analysis, spatially colocated, daily averaged ground-based observations performed by five well-calibrated Brewer spectrophotometers at the Iberian Peninsula are used. The period of study runs from January 2004 to December 2009. The agreement between satellite and ground-based TOC data is excellent (R2 higher than 0.94). Nevertheless, the TOC data derived from both satellite instruments underestimate the ground-based data. On average, this underestimation is 1.1% for GOME and 1.3% for SCIAMACHY. The SCIAMACHY-Brewer TOC differences show a significant solar zenith angle (SZA) dependence which causes a systematic seasonal dependence. By contrast, GOME-Brewer TOC differences show no significant SZA dependence and hence no seasonality although processed with exactly the same algorithm. The satellite-Brewer TOC differences for the two satellite instruments show a clear and similar dependence on the viewing zenith angle under cloudy conditions. In addition, both the GOME-Brewer and SCIAMACHY-Brewer TOC differences reveal a very similar behavior with respect to the satellite cloud properties, being cloud fraction and cloud top pressure, which originate from the same cloud algorithm (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-Band (FRESCO+)) in both the TOSOMI and TOGOMI retrieval algorithms.

  1. Study of ozone and sulfur dioxide using Thailand based Brewer Spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumharn, Wilawan; Sudhibrabha, Sumrid

    2014-03-01

    Ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a vertical column of the atmosphere in Thailand were obtained from the Brewers#121 and #120. There are similarities between the O3 patterns obtained from the two sites, which are higher in the summer and rainy season compared with winter, although the magnitude of the change in Bangkok is greater than that in Songkhla. SO2 values showed the summer months provide the higher SO2 values in Bangkok, in contrast to Songkhla where the summer months give lower SO2 values.

  2. Comparison of UV-B measurements performed with a Brewer spectrophotometer and a new UVB-1 broad band detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bais, Alkiviadis F.; Zerefos, Christos S.; Meleti, Charicleia; Ziomas, Ioannis C.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of the UV-B erythemal dose, based on solar spectra acquired with a Brewer spectrophotometer at Thessaloniki, Greece, are compared to measurements performed with the recently introduced, by the Yankee Environmental Systems, (Robertson type) broad band solar UV-B detector. The spectral response function of this detector, when applied to the Brewer spectral UV-B measurements, results in remarkably comparable estimates of the erythemal UV-B dose. The two instruments provide similar information on the UV-B dose when they are cross-examined under a variety of meteorological and atmospheric conditions and over the a large range of solar zenith angles and total ozone.

  3. Metabolic flux and nodes control analysis of brewer's yeasts under different fermentation temperature during beer brewing.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhimin; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhao, Mouming; Lei, Hongjie; Li, Huiping

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to further investigate the glycolysis performance of lager and ale brewer's yeasts under different fermentation temperature using a combined analysis of metabolic flux, glycolytic enzyme activities, and flux control. The results indicated that the fluxes through glycolytic pathway decreased with the change of the fermentation temperature from 15 °C to 10 °C, which resulted in the prolonged fermentation times. The maximum activities (V (max)) of hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) at key nodes of glycolytic pathway decreased with decreasing fermentation temperature, which was estimated to have different control extent (22-84 %) on the glycolytic fluxes in exponential or flocculent phase. Moreover, the decrease of V (max) of PFK or PK displayed the crucial role in down-regulation of flux in flocculent phase. In addition, the metabolic state of ale strain was more sensitive to the variation of temperature than that of lager strain. The results of the metabolic flux and nodes control analysis in brewer's yeasts under different fermentation temperature may provide an alternative approach to regulate glycolytic flux by changing V (max) and improve the production efficiency and beer quality.

  4. Observations and Interpretation of Descent and Mixing in the Northern Hemisphere Brewer Dobson Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gille, J. C.; Karol, S.; Kinnison, D. E.; Yudin, V.; Nardi, B.

    2012-12-01

    In 1929 Brewer proposed that the motions now known as the Brewer-Dobson (BD) circulation were responsible for the observed high values of ozone at high latitudes, far from their low-latitude region of formation. Here data from the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) instrument, with 1 km vertical resolution and 100 km along track spacing, are used examine how this circulation creates that distribution and its seasonal variation through the interactions between the overturning motions of the BD circulation and isentropic mixing in the lower and lowermost stratosphere (350-450K). Isopleths of ozone in equivalent latitude-potential temperature coordinates illustrate the high-latitude descent, controlled by diabatic cooling, from September to the lowest altitudes in January and February. This descent creates large gradients along isentropic surfaces, where mixing above ~ 360K is weak at this time. The strength of mixing is taken to be the effective diffusivity Deff as formulated by Nakamura [1996]. By late winter into spring the BD circulation weakens, as does the transport barrier near 35° associated with the sub-tropical jet. These processes allow strong equator-ward mixing, leading to progressively smaller latitudinal ozone gradients on the isentropes, and the rising and flattening of the ozone isopleths. By the end of the summer the isopleths show only small slopes, preparatory for the next cycle. These results for the ozone dynamics are similar, but not identical, to those obtained with NCAR's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) Version 4.

  5. 27 CFR 25.160 - Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. 25.160 Section 25.160 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.160 Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer....

  6. 27 CFR 25.160 - Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. 25.160 Section 25.160 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.160 Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer....

  7. 27 CFR 25.160 - Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. 25.160 Section 25.160 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.160 Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer....

  8. 27 CFR 25.160 - Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. 25.160 Section 25.160 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.160 Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer....

  9. 27 CFR 25.160 - Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. 25.160 Section 25.160 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.160 Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer....

  10. Validation of OMI-TOMS and OMI-DOAS total ozone column using five Brewer spectroradiometers at the Iberian peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, M.; López, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Kroon, M.; McPeters, R.; Bañón, M.; Serrano, A.

    2009-07-01

    This article focuses on the comparison of the total ozone column data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flying aboard the NASA EOS-Aura satellite platform with ground-based measurement recorded by Brewer spectroradiometers located at five Spanish remote sensing ground stations between January 2005 and December 2007. The satellite data are derived from two algorithms: OMI Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (OMI-TOMS) and OMI Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (OMI-DOAS). The largest relative differences between these OMI total ozone column estimates reach 5% with a significant seasonal dependence. The agreement between OMI ozone data and Brewer measurements is excellent. Total ozone columns from OMI-TOMS are on average a mere 2.0% lower than Brewer data. For OMI-DOAS data the bias is a mere 1.4%. However, the relative difference between OMI-TOMS and Brewer measurements shows a notably lower seasonal dependence and variability than the differences between OMI-DOAS and ground-based data. For both OMI ozone data products these relative differences show significant dependence on the satellite ground pixel solar zenith angle for cloud-free cases as well as for cloudy conditions. However, the OMI ozone data products are shown to reveal opposite behavior with respect to the two antagonistic sky conditions. No significant dependency of the ground-based to satellite-based differences with respect to the satellite cross-track position is seen for either OMI retrieval algorithm.

  11. An improved algorithm for the determination of aerosol optical depth in the ultraviolet spectral range from Brewer spectrophotometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellitto, P.; di Sarra, A.; Siani, A. M.

    2006-10-01

    Methods to derive aerosol optical depth in the UV spectral range from ground-based remote-sensing stations equipped with Brewer spectrophotometers have been recently developed. In this study a modified Langley plot method has been implemented to retrieve aerosol optical depth from direct sun Brewer measurements. The method uses measurements over an extended range of atmospheric airmasses obtained with two different neutral density filters, and accounts for short-term variations of total ozone, derived from the same direct sun observations. The improved algorithm has been applied to data collected with a Brewer mark IV, operational in Rome, Italy, and with a Brewer mark III, operational in Lampedusa, Italy, in the Mediterranean. The efficiency of the improved algorithm has been tested comparing the number of determinations of the extraterrestrial constant against those obtained with a standard Langley plot procedure. The improved method produces a larger number of reliable Langley plots, allowing for a better statistical characterization of the extraterrestrial constant and a better study of its temporal variability. The values of aerosol optical depth calculated in Rome and Lampedusa compare well with simultaneous determinations in the 416-440 nm interval derived from MFRSR and CIMEL measurements.

  12. Assessment of spent fuel cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, J.G.; Jones, W.R.; Lanik, G.F.

    1997-02-01

    The paper presents the methodology, the findings, and the conclusions of a study that was done by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) on loss of spent fuel pool cooling. The study involved an examination of spent fuel pool designs, operating experience, operating practices, and procedures. AEOD`s work was augmented in the area of statistics and probabilistic risk assessment by experts from the Idaho Nuclear Engineering Laboratory. Operating experience was integrated into a probabilistic risk assessment to gain insight on the risks from spent fuel pools.

  13. Validation of OMI total ozone retrievals from the SAO ozone profile algorithm and three operational algorithms with Brewer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, J.; Liu, X.; Kim, J. H.; Chance, K.; Haffner, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of total ozone computed from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) optimal estimation (OE) ozone profile algorithm (SOE) applied to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is assessed through comparisons with ground-based Brewer spectrometer measurements from 2005 to 2008. We also compare the three OMI operational ozone products, derived from the NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) algorithm, the KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute) differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm, and KNMI's Optimal Estimation (KOE) algorithm. The best agreement is observed between SAO and Brewer, with a mean difference of within 1% at most individual stations. The KNMI OE algorithm systematically overestimates Brewer total ozone by 2% at low and mid-latitudes and 5% at high latitudes while the TOMS and DOAS algorithms underestimate it by ~1.65% on average. Standard deviations of ~1.8% are calculated for both SOE and TOMS, but DOAS and KOE have higher values of 2.2% and 2.6%, respectively. The stability of the SOE algorithm is found to have insignificant dependence on viewing geometry, cloud parameters, or total ozone column. In comparison, the KOE-Brewer differences are significantly correlated with solar and viewing zenith angles and show significant deviations depending on cloud parameters and total ozone amount. The TOMS algorithm exhibits similar stability to SOE with respect to viewing geometry and total column ozone, but has stronger cloud parameter dependence. The dependence of DOAS on observational geometry and geophysical conditions is marginal compared to KOE, but is distinct compared to the SOE and TOMS algorithms. Comparisons of all four OMI products with Brewer show no apparent long-term drift, but seasonal features are evident, especially for KOE and TOMS. The substantial differences in the KOE vs. SOE algorithm performance cannot be sufficiently explained by the use of soft calibration (in SOE) and the use of

  14. Arctic total ozone trend and variability during 2004 - 2012 based on Brewer revised data, Ozonesonde and satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeini, Omid; Vaziri, Zahra; McElroy, Tom; Tarasick, David; Savastiouk, Vladimir; Barton, David

    2015-04-01

    It is now known that Single-Monochromator Brewer Spectrophotometer ozone measurements suffer from non-linearity due to the presence of instrumental stray light caused by scattering from the optics within the instrument. Stray light is unwanted radiation from different wavelengths that arrives at the detector during the measurements. Since the gradient of ozone absorption is large in the ultraviolet spectral region, the stray light contribution becomes significant between 300 and 325 nm where the Brewer measures, especially when the amount of ozone in the light path becomes more than 1000 Dobson Units (D.U.). Stray light results in an underestimated ozone column at larger air masses. As the light path (air mass) increases, stray-light effects in the measurements also increase. An ozone column of 600 D.U. with at an air mass factor of 3 (1800 D.U.) can measure as much as 8% lower than the ozone actual amount. These are conditions commonly seen during the Arctic spring. A new method to account for stray light effects is being developed for the Brewer ozone measurements. This method is based on a mathematical model of the instrument response and a non-linear retrieval which calculates the best values for the model parameters. The parameterization used is validated by an instrument physical model simulation. Using the mathematical model in reverse provides correct ozone values. This paper presents the method and the results of a trend analysis based of the re-evaluated data of three Brewers which are located in the Arctic (Alert Lat. 82.44, Lon. -62.55, Eureka Lat. 79.96, Lon. -86.45 and Resolute Lat. 74.69, and Lon. -95.01) from 2004 to 2012. Gaps in the Brewer data are filled with ozonesonde reanalysis data obtained from WOUDC (World Ozone and Ultraviolet radiation Data Centre) and the results will be compared with MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) satellite data.

  15. Intermodal transportation of spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, H.K.

    1983-09-01

    Concepts for transportation of spent fuel in rail casks from nuclear power plant sites with no rail service are under consideration by the US Department of Energy in the Commercial Spent Fuel Management program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report identifies and evaluates three alternative systems for intermodal transfer of spent fuel: heavy-haul truck to rail, barge to rail, and barge to heavy-haul truck. This report concludes that, with some modifications and provisions for new equipment, existing rail and marine systems can provide a transportation base for the intermodal transfer of spent fuel to federal interim storage facilities. Some needed land transportation support and loading and unloading equipment does not currently exist. There are insufficient shipping casks available at this time, but the industrial capability to meet projected needs appears adequate.

  16. Active Interrogation for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Dougan, Arden

    2015-11-05

    The DDA instrument for nuclear safeguards is a fast, non-destructive assay, active neutron interrogation technique using an external 14 MeV DT neutron generator for characterization and verification of spent nuclear fuel assemblies.

  17. Transportation of spent MTR fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Raisonnier, D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various aspects of MTR spent fuel transportation and provides in particular information about the on-going shipment of 4 spent fuel casks to the United States. Transnucleaire is a transport and Engineering Company created in 1963 at the request of the French Atomic Energy Commission. The company followed the growth of the world nuclear industry and has now six subsidiaries and affiliated companies established in countries with major nuclear programs.

  18. Dead time effect on the Brewer measurements: correction and estimated uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountoulakis, Ilias; Redondas, Alberto; Bais, Alkiviadis F.; José Rodriguez-Franco, Juan; Fragkos, Konstantinos; Cede, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Brewer spectrophotometers are widely used instruments which perform spectral measurements of the direct, the scattered and the global solar UV irradiance. By processing these measurements a variety of secondary products can be derived such as the total columns of ozone (TOC), sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide and aerosol optical properties. Estimating and limiting the uncertainties of the final products is of critical importance. High-quality data have a lot of applications and can provide accurate estimations of trends.The dead time is specific for each instrument and improper correction of the raw data for its effect may lead to important errors in the final products. The dead time value may change with time and, with the currently used methodology, it cannot always be determined accurately. For specific cases, such as for low ozone slant columns and high intensities of the direct solar irradiance, the error in the retrieved TOC, due to a 10 ns change in the dead time from its value in use, is found to be up to 5 %. The error in the calculation of UV irradiance can be as high as 12 % near the maximum operational limit of light intensities. While in the existing documentation it is indicated that the dead time effects are important when the error in the used value is greater than 2 ns, we found that for single-monochromator Brewers a 2 ns error in the dead time may lead to errors above the limit of 1 % in the calculation of TOC; thus the tolerance limit should be lowered. A new routine for the determination of the dead time from direct solar irradiance measurements has been created and tested and a validation of the operational algorithm has been performed. Additionally, new methods for the estimation and the validation of the dead time have been developed and are analytically described. Therefore, the present study, in addition to highlighting the importance of the dead time for the processing of Brewer data sets, also provides useful information for their

  19. Validation of OMPS Ozone Profile Data with Expanded Dataset from Brewer and Automated Dobson Network.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropavlovskikh, I.; Weatherhead, E.; Cede, A.; Oltmans, S. J.; Kireev, S.; Maillard, E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Flynn, L. E.

    2005-12-01

    The first NPOESS satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2010 and will carry the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) instruments for ozone monitoring. Prior this, the OMPS instruments and algorithms will be tested by flight on the NPOESS/NPP satellite, scheduled for launch in 2008. Pre-launch planning for validation, post launch data validation and verification of the nadir and limb profile algorithm are key components for insuring that the NPOESS will produce a high quality, reliable ozone profile data set. The heritage of satellite instrument validation (TOMS, SBUV, GOME, SCIAMACHY, SAGE, HALOE, ATMOS, etc) has always relied upon surface-based observations. While the global coverage of satellite observations is appealing for validating another satellite, there is no substitute for the hard reference point of a ground-based system such as the Dobson or Brewer network, whose instruments are routinely calibrated and intercompared to standard references. The standard solar occultation instruments, SAGE II and HALOE are well beyond their planned lifetimes and might be inoperative during the OMPS period. The Umkehr network has been one of the key data sets for stratospheric ozone trend calculations and has earned its place as a benchmark network for stratospheric ozone profile observations. The normalization of measurements at different solar zenith angle (SZAs) to the measurement at the smallest SZA cancels out many calibration parameters, including the extra-terrestrial solar flux and instrumental constant, thus providing a "self-calibrating" technique in the same manner relied upon by the occultation sensors on satellites. Moreover, the ground-based Umkehr measurement is the only technique that provides data with the same altitude resolution and in the same units (DU) as do the UV-nadir instruments (SBUV-2, GOME-2, OMPS-nadir), i.e., as ozone amount in pressure layers, whereas, occultation instruments measure ozone density with height. A new Umkehr algorithm

  20. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-10-15

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems` Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.

  1. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-10-15

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.

  2. Whole Grains and Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... fiber. Some examples of refined grains are wheat flour, enriched bread and white rice. Most refined grains are enriched , which means that ... grains. Some examples of enriched grains are wheat flour, enriched bread and white rice. Eating whole grains provides important health benefits: Many ...

  3. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Sue Frantz.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2016 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Sue Frantz. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the Distinguished Teaching Award at the 124th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 5, 2016, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2016 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; David H. Barlow, vice president; Melba J. T. Vasquez, secretary; Richard C. McCarty, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Cynthia Belar; Camilla Benbow; Rosie Phillips Bingham; Connie S. Chan; Anthony Jackson; Terence M. Keane; Archie L. Turner; W. Bruce Walsh; and Bonnie Markham and Rick McGraw, APA Board of Directors liaisons. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Climate change reduces warming potential of nitrous oxide by an enhanced Brewer-Dobson circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracher, Daniela; Reick, Christian H.; Manzini, Elisa; Schultz, Martin G.; Stein, Olaf

    2016-06-01

    The Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), which is an important driver of the stratosphere-troposphere exchange, is expected to accelerate with climate change. One particular consequence of this acceleration is the enhanced transport of nitrous oxide (N2O) from its sources at the Earth's surface toward its main sink region in the stratosphere, thus inducing a reduction in its lifetime. N2O is a potent greenhouse gas and the most relevant currently emitted ozone-depleting substance. Here we examine the implications of a reduced N2O lifetime in the context of climate change. We find a decrease in its global warming potential (GWP) and, due to a decline in the atmospheric N2O burden, also a reduction in its total radiative forcing. From the idealized transient global warming simulation we can identify linear regressions for N2O sink, lifetime, and GWP with temperature rise. Our findings are thus not restricted to a particular scenario.

  5. Dynamical forcing of sub-seasonal variability in the tropical Brewer-Dobson circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalos, Marta; Randel, William; Serrano, Encarna

    2014-05-01

    Upwelling across the tropical tropopause exhibits strong sub-seasonal variability superimposed on the well-known annual cycle, and these variations directly affect temperature and tracers in the tropical lower stratosphere. The dynamical forcing of tropical upwelling on sub-seasonal timescales is investigated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis for 1979-2011. Momentum balance diagnostics reveal that transience is linked to the effects of extratropical wave forcing, with centers of action in the extratropical winter stratosphere and in the subtropical upper troposphere of both hemispheres. From a diagnostic point of view, the zonal-mean wind transient response is important for communicating the remote wave forcing to the tropical stratosphere. Dynamical patterns reflect distinctive forcing of the shallow versus deep branches of the Brewer-Dobson circulation.

  6. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Sue Frantz.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2016 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Sue Frantz. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the Distinguished Teaching Award at the 124th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 5, 2016, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2016 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; David H. Barlow, vice president; Melba J. T. Vasquez, secretary; Richard C. McCarty, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Cynthia Belar; Camilla Benbow; Rosie Phillips Bingham; Connie S. Chan; Anthony Jackson; Terence M. Keane; Archie L. Turner; W. Bruce Walsh; and Bonnie Markham and Rick McGraw, APA Board of Directors liaisons. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504572

  7. Preliminary crystallographic data for the thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase from brewers' yeast.

    PubMed

    Dyda, F; Furey, W; Swaminathan, S; Sax, M; Farrenkopf, B; Jordan, F

    1990-10-15

    Single crystals of the thiamin diphosphate (the vitamin B1 coenzyme)-dependent enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) from brewers' yeast have been grown using polyethylene glycol as a precipitating agent. Crystals of the homotetrameric version alpha 4 of the holoenzyme are triclinic, space group P1, with cell constants a = 81.0, b = 82.4, c = 116.6 A, alpha = 69.5 beta = 72.6, gamma = 62.4 degrees. The crystals are reasonably stable in a rotating anode x-ray beam and diffract to at least 2.5 A resolution. The Vm value of 2.55 A/dalton is consistent with a unit cell containing four subunits with mass of approximately 60 kDa each. Rotation function results with native data indicate strong non-crystallographic 222 symmetry relating the four identical subunits, thus density averaging methods are likely to play a role in the structure determination.

  8. Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fuquay, B.J.

    1995-10-25

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

  9. Isolation and characterization of brewer's yeast variants with improved fermentation performance under high-gravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Blieck, Lies; Toye, Geert; Dumortier, Françoise; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delvaux, Freddy R; Thevelein, Johan M; Van Dijck, Patrick

    2007-02-01

    To save energy, space, and time, today's breweries make use of high-gravity brewing in which concentrated medium (wort) is fermented, resulting in a product with higher ethanol content. After fermentation, the product is diluted to obtain beer with the desired alcohol content. While economically desirable, the use of wort with an even higher sugar concentration is limited by the inability of brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) to efficiently ferment such concentrated medium. Here, we describe a successful strategy to obtain yeast variants with significantly improved fermentation capacity under high-gravity conditions. We isolated better-performing variants of the industrial lager strain CMBS33 by subjecting a pool of UV-induced variants to consecutive rounds of fermentation in very-high-gravity wort (>22 degrees Plato). Two variants (GT336 and GT344) showing faster fermentation rates and/or more-complete attenuation as well as improved viability under high ethanol conditions were identified. The variants displayed the same advantages in a pilot-scale stirred fermenter under high-gravity conditions at 11 degrees C. Microarray analysis identified several genes whose altered expression may be responsible for the superior performance of the variants. The role of some of these candidate genes was confirmed by genetic transformation. Our study shows that proper selection conditions allow the isolation of variants of commercial brewer's yeast with superior fermentation characteristics. Moreover, it is the first study to identify genes that affect fermentation performance under high-gravity conditions. The results are of interest to the beer and bioethanol industries, where the use of more-concentrated medium is economically advantageous.

  10. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K. S.; Weiner, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handier exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. A study of the movement of spent fuel casks through ports, including the loading and unloading of containers from cargo vessels, afforded an opportunity to estimate the radiation doses to those individuals handling the spent fuels with doses to the public along subsequent transportation routes of the fuel. A number of states require redundant inspections and for escorts over long distances on highways; thus handlers, inspectors, escort personnel, and others who are not normally classified as radiation workers may sustain doses high enough to warrant concern about occupational safety. This paper addresses the question of radiation safety for these workers. Data were obtained during, observation of the offloading of reactor spent fuel (research reactor spent fuel, in this instance) which included estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Exposure times and distance were also for other workers, including crane operators, scale operators, security personnel and truck drivers. RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values then facilitated estimation of the dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel.

  11. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  12. Spent graphite fuel element processing

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, N.D.; Olsen, C.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Department of Energy currently sponsors two programs to demonstrate the processing of spent graphite fuel elements. General Atomic in San Diego operates a cold pilot plant to demonstrate the processing of both US and German high-temperature reactor fuel. Exxon Nuclear Idaho Company is demonstrating the processing of spent graphite fuel elements from Rover reactors operated for the Nuclear Rocket Propulsion Program. This work is done at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, where a hot facility is being constructed to complete processing of the Rover fuel. This paper focuses on the graphite combustion process common to both programs.

  13. Effects of wort gravity and nitrogen level on fermentation performance of brewer's yeast and the formation of flavor volatiles.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hongjie; Zhao, Haifeng; Yu, Zhimin; Zhao, Mouming

    2012-03-01

    Normal gravity wort and high gravity wort with different nitrogen levels were used to examine their effects on the fermentation performance of brewer's yeast and the formation of flavor volatiles. Results showed that both the wort gravity and nitrogen level had significant impacts on the growth rate, viability, flocculation, and gene expression of brewer's yeast and the levels of flavor volatiles. The sugar (glucose, maltose, and maltotriose) consumption rates and net cell growth decreased when high gravity worts were used, while these increased with increasing nitrogen level. Moreover, high gravity resulted in lower expression levels of ATF1, BAP2, BAT1, HSP12, and TDH, whereas the higher nitrogen level caused higher expression levels for these genes. Furthermore, the lower nitrogen level resulted in increases in the levels of higher alcohols and esters at high wort gravity. All these results demonstrated that yeast physiology and flavor balance during beer brewing were significantly affected by the wort gravity and nitrogen level.

  14. Test plan for thermogravimetric analyses of BWR spent fuel oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Einziger, R.E.

    1988-12-01

    Preliminary studies indicated the need for additional low-temperature spent fuel oxidation data to determine the behavior of spent fuel as a waste form for a tuffy repository. Short-term thermogravimetric analysis tests were recommended in a comprehensive technical approach as the method for providing scoping data that could be used to (1) evaluate the effects of variables such as moisture and burnup on the oxidation rate, (2) determine operative mechanisms, and (3) guide long-term, low-temperature oxidation testing. The initial test series studied the temperature and moisture effects on pressurized water reactor fuel as a function of particle and grain size. This document presents the test matrix for studying the oxidation behavior of boiling water reactor fuel in the temperature range of 140 to 225{degree}C. 17 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Contradictory Evidence on Wave Forcing of Tropical Upwelling in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation - A Suggested Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Tiehan; Geller, Marvin A.; Lin, Wuyin

    2011-01-01

    ERA-40 data are analyzed to demonstrate that wave forcing at lower latitudes plays a crucial role in driving the tropical upwelling portion of the Brewer-Dobson circulation. It is shown that subtropical wave forcing is correlated with tropical upwelling on both intraseasonal and interannual time scales when transient waves are taken into account, and that tropical wave forcing exerts its influence on tropical upwelling via its body force on the zonal mean flow.

  16. Comparison of GOME-2/MetOp total ozone data with Brewer spectroradiometer data over the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, M.; Loyola, D.; López, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Bañón, M.; Zimmer, W.; Serrano, A.

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of this article is to compare the total ozone data from the new Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment instrument (GOME-2/MetOp) with reliable ground-based measurement recorded by five Brewer spectroradiometers in the Iberian Peninsula. In addition, a similar comparison for the predecessor instrument GOME/ERS-2 is described. The period of study is a whole year from May 2007 to April 2008. The results show that GOME-2/MetOp ozone data already has a very good quality, total ozone columns are on average 3.05% lower than Brewer measurements. This underestimation is higher than that obtained for GOME/ERS-2 (1.46%). However, the relative differences between GOME-2/MetOp and Brewer measurements show significantly lower variability than the differences between GOME/ERS-2 and Brewer data. Dependencies of these relative differences with respect to the satellite solar zenith angle (SZA), the satellite scan angle, the satellite cloud cover fraction (CF), and the ground-based total ozone measurements are analyzed. For both GOME instruments, differences show no significant dependence on SZA. However, GOME-2/MetOp data show a significant dependence on the satellite scan angle (+1.5%). In addition, GOME/ERS-2 differences present a clear dependence with respect to the CF and ground-based total ozone; such differences are minimized for GOME-2/MetOp. The comparison between the daily total ozone values provided by both GOME instruments shows that GOME-2/MetOp ozone data are on average 1.46% lower than GOME/ERS-2 data without any seasonal dependence. Finally, deviations of a priori climatological ozone profile used by the satellite retrieval algorithm from the true ozone profile are analyzed. Although excellent agreement between a priori climatological and measured partial ozone values is found for the middle and high stratosphere, relative differences greater than 15% are common for the troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  17. Grain Handling and Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  18. Grain Grading and Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  19. Effects of chromium brewer's yeast supplementation on body mass, blood carbohydrates, and lipids and minerals in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Król, Ewelina; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Byks, Hanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta

    2011-11-01

    Chromium(III) is considered as an essential element for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of Cr brewer's yeast supplementation on body mass, carbohydrate, lipids and mineral indices in type 2 diabetic patients. Twenty adult type 2 diabetic subjects (11 males and 9 females aged 37-63) were supplemented with Cr brewer's yeast in dosages of 500 μg Cr/person/day or placebo for 8 weeks in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. It was found that supplemental Cr did not affect body mass, blood lipid profile, resistin levels, and the serum and hair Zn, Fe, and Cu levels, but increased serum Cr (by 116%) and hair Cr (by 20.6%) concentrations and improved some blood carbohydrate indices (significant increase in the β cell function index by 18.8%) in type 2 diabetic patients. In conclusion, Cr brewer's yeast has a weak hypoglycemic potential, but does not affect body mass, blood biochemical profile, and microelement levels in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  20. Panax Ginseng in combination with brewers' yeast (Gerivet) as a stimulant for geriatric dogs: a controlled-randomized blinded study.

    PubMed

    Hielm-Björkman, A; Reunanen, V; Meri, P; Tulamo, R-M

    2007-08-01

    The study was performed on two groups of dogs, one (n = 41) given Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) together with brewers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) and the other (n = 39) given only brewers' yeast (control group, but not a true placebo), for 8 weeks. Using a questionnaire and three visual analogue scales, the blinded owners evaluated the dogs before the trial, weekly for the 8 weeks of the trial and twice, at 12th and 16th weeks, after the trial (follow-up). At 8th, 12th and 16th weeks the owners also answered questions concerning what treatment their dogs likely had been getting, willingness to continue medication and the dogs' general status. The changes from baseline to the end of the treatment period in the variable scores were calculated for each dog and used in statistics. Panax Ginseng plus yeast significantly improved all evaluated variables within the group. Four of the seven primary (mentally) outcome measures were significant when comparing the changes in the Ginseng group with the control group, and six of the seven were significant when compared to an external group. As the secondary (physical) outcome measures were significantly better in both the Ginseng and the control group compared to the external group, it indicates that brewers' yeast is the ingredient that has impact on physical performance. No significant changes in blood- or urine analyses and no side effects were seen.

  1. Characteristics of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Notz, K.J.

    1988-04-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will, or may, eventually be disposed of in a geological repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. This report deals with spent fuels, but for completeness, the other sources are described briefly. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characteristics include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. In addition, the present inventories and projected quantities of the various wastes are needed. This information has been assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Brewers dried yeast as a source of mannan oligosaccharides for weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    White, L A; Newman, M C; Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D

    2002-10-01

    Brewers dried yeast, a source of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), was assessed as an alternative to an antimicrobial agent (carbadox) for young pigs in two experiments. The yeast contained 5.2% MOS. Agglutination tests confirmed adsorption of several serovars of E. coli and Salmonella spp. onto the yeast product. In Exp. 1, seven replicates (five pigs per pen) of 22-d-old pigs were fed a nonmedicated basal diet or the basal diet with carbadox (55 mg/kg), yeast (3%), or a combination of 3% yeast and 2% citric acid for 28 d. Carbadox did not improve growth performance. Growth rate and feed intake were depressed (P < 0.05) in pigs fed yeast alone or in combination with acid. Log counts of total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens in feces were not affected by diet, but Bifidobacteria spp. counts were lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the yeast + acid diet and lactobacilli counts were higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed yeast. Fecal pH and VFA concentrations and intestinal morphological traits were not consistently affected by diet. Serum IgG levels were elevated in the yeast + acid (P < 0.01) group. In Exp. 2, the effects of yeast and carbadox additions to the diet on enteric microbial populations in young pigs housed in isolation units were evaluated. Pigs (n = 24) were weaned at 11 d of age (4.1 kg BW) and placed in isolation chambers (two pigs per chamber) equipped with individual air filtering systems and excrement containers. Treatments were a nonmedicated basal diet and the basal diet with 55 mg/kg of carbadox or with 3% yeast. Diets were fed for 29 d, then each pig was orally dosed with approximately 9.5 x 10(8) CFU of E. coli K88. Daily fecal E. coli K88 counts were not different (P > 0.05) among treatments, but fecal shedding of carbadox-resistant coliforms was higher (P < 0.01) during the 9-d period in pigs fed carbadox. Total fecal coliforms were consistently lower throughout the postinoculation period in pigs fed yeast (P < 0.05). Yeast reduced

  3. The advective Brewer-Dobson circulation in three reanalyses (1979-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalos, Marta; Legras, Bernard; Ploeger, Felix; Randel, William

    2015-04-01

    Most chemistry-climate models predict an intensification of the Brewer-Dobson circulation in the stratosphere in the last decades, but this trend remains to be confirmed in observational data. In this work the evolution of the advective BDC for the period 1979-2012 is evaluated and compared in three modern reanalyses (ERA-Interim, MERRA and JRA-55). Three different estimates of the BDC are computed for each reanalysis, one based on the definition of the residual circulation and two indirect estimates derived from momentum and thermodynamic balance. The comparison among the nine estimates shows substantial uncertainty in the mean magnitude but significant common variability. The trend analysis suggests an intensification in tropical upwelling throughout the layer 100-10 hPa. Globally, an acceleration of the circulation is observed in both hemispheres, with qualitative agreement among the estimates. The global BDC trends are mainly due to changes in the DJF circulation and can be tracked to changes in the resolved wave drag in both hemispheres, which are highly consistent in the three reanalyses.

  4. Evaluating the advective Brewer-Dobson circulation in three reanalyses for the period 1979-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abalos, Marta; Legras, Bernard; Ploeger, Felix; Randel, William J.

    2015-08-01

    Most chemistry-climate models show an intensification of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) in the stratosphere associated with increasing greenhouse gas emissions and ozone depletion in the last decades, but this trend remains to be confirmed in observational data. In this work the evolution of the advective BDC for the period 1979-2012 is evaluated and compared in three modern reanalyses (ERA-Interim, MERRA, and JRA-55). Three different estimates of the BDC are computed for each reanalysis, one based on the definition of the residual circulation and two indirect estimates derived from momentum and thermodynamic balances. The comparison among the nine estimates shows substantial uncertainty in the mean magnitude (˜40%) but significant common variability. The tropical upwelling series show variability linked to the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation and to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and also reflect extreme events such as major sudden stratospheric warmings and volcanic eruptions. The trend analysis suggests a strengthening of tropical upwelling of around 2-5%/decade throughout the layer 100-10 hPa. The global spatial structure of the BDC trends provides evidence of an overall acceleration of the circulation in both hemispheres, with qualitative agreement among the estimates. The global BDC trends are mainly linked to changes in the boreal winter season and can be tracked to long-term increases in the resolved wave drag in both hemispheres.

  5. Improved retrieval of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column densities by means of MKIV Brewer spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diémoz, H.; Siani, A. M.; Redondas, A.; Savastiouk, V.; McElroy, C. T.

    2014-07-01

    A new algorithm to retrieve nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column densities using MKIV Brewer spectrophotometers is described. The method includes several improvements, such as a more recent spectroscopic dataset, the reduction of the measurement noise and interferences by other atmospheric species and instrumental settings, and a better determination of the air mass enhancement factors. The technique was tested during an ad-hoc calibration campaign at the high-altitude site of Izaña (Tenerife, Spain) and provided results compatible to those obtained from a spectrometer associated to the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), with deviations of less than 0.02 DU. To determine the extraterrestrial constant, an easily implementable generalisation of the standard Langley technique was developed which takes into account the daytime linear drift of nitrogen dioxide due to the photochemistry. Estimates obtained from different observation geometries, by collecting the light from either the sun or the zenith sky, were found to be comparable within the measurement uncertainty. The latter was thoroughly determined by using a Monte Carlo technique. Finally, a method to retrieve additional products such as the degree of linear polarisation of the zenith sky and the oxygen dimer optical depth is presented. The new algorithm is backward-compatible, thus allowing for the reprocessing of historical datasets.

  6. Enhanced Brewer Dobson circulation reduces N2O warming potential under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracher, Daniela; Reick, Christian; Manzini, Elisa; Schultz, Martin; Stein, Olaf

    2016-04-01

    One implication of climate change is an enhancement of the Brewer Dobson circulation (BDC) triggering the exchange between troposphere and stratosphere. This change in atmospheric dynamics will have effects on atmospheric constituents, especially those with stratospheric sinks such as ozone depleting substances (ODS) including nitrous oxide (N2O). N2O is the most important currently emitted ODS, and the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Under enhanced BDC, more N2O is transported from the troposphere into the stratosphere, reaching higher altitudes, resulting in an increased N2O sink and a decrease in N2O lifetime. Some aspects of the effect of an enhanced BDC on lifetimes of ODS have already been examined with focus on its implications for ozone. In this study, we examine the effect of a decreasing N2O lifetime in light of climate change. To this end we conduct idealized transient global warming simulations with ECHAM, the atmosphere component of the MPI Earth System Model. As we prescribe surface flux boundary conditions for N2O, we are able to examine further implications of an enhanced N2O sink on atmospheric abundance, which is an important factor for e.g. generating concentration scenarios. Due the idealized simulation setup, we derive findings that are scenario-independent and can easily be extended to other global warming scenarios.

  7. RELEASE OF INTROGENOUS SUBSTANCES BY BREWER'S YEAST. 3. SHOCK EXCRETION OF AMINO ACIDS.

    PubMed

    LEWIS, M J; PHAFF, H J

    1964-06-01

    Lewis, M. J. (University of California, Davis), and H. J. Phaff. Release of nitrogenous substances by brewers' yeast. III. Shock excretion of amino acids. J. Bacteriol. 87:1389-1396. 1964.-When Saccharomyces carlsbergensis (two strains) and S. cerevisiae (one strain) were grown in static culture and the harvested, washed cells were suspended in a solution of glucose, amino acids were suddenly released and then rapidly reabsorbed in a space of about 2 hr. The phenomenon of amino acid release, which was termed shock excretion, varied in intensity with the strain of yeast and was shown to be dependent on the size of the pool of free amino acids within the cells. Shock excretion was independent of osmotic pressure of the suspending medium, but required the presence of a fermentable sugar. d-Galactose and maltose caused shock excretion only when yeast was previously adapted to these sugars. Limiting glucose concentrations prevented reabsorption of amino acids, and a further decrease in glucose concentration also limited excretion. Shock excretion was strikingly reduced when the temperature of the suspending medium was lowered.

  8. Spent fuel data for waste storage programs

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, E M

    1980-09-01

    Data on LWR spent fuel were compiled for dissemination to participants in DOE-sponsored waste storage programs. Included are mechanical descriptions of the existing major types of LWR fuel assemblies, spent LWR fuel fission product inventories and decay heat data, and inventories of LWR spent fuel currently in storage, with projections of future quantities.

  9. Trace element depth profiles in presolar silicon carbide grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ashley J.; Henkel, Torsten; Rost, Detlef; Lyon, Ian C.

    2012-10-01

    We have analyzed eleven presolar SiC grains from the Murchison meteorite using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The Si isotopic compositions of the grains indicate that they are probably of an AGB star origin. The average abundances of Mg, Fe, Ca, Al, Ti, and V are strongly influenced by their condensation behavior into SiC in circumstellar environments. Depth profiles of Li, B, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, and Fe in the SiC grains show that trace elements are not always homogenously distributed. In approximately half of the SiC grains studied here, the trace element distributions can be explained by condensation processes around the grains' parent stars. These grains appear to have experienced only minimal processing before their arrival in the presolar molecular cloud, possibly due to short residence times in the interstellar medium. The remaining SiC grains contained elevated abundances of several elements within their outer 200 nm, which is attributed to the implantation of energetic ions accelerated by shockwaves in the interstellar medium. These grains may have spent a longer period of time in this region, hence increasing the probability of them passing through a shockfront. Distinct groups of presolar SiC grains whose residence times in the interstellar medium differ are consistent with previous findings based on noble gas studies, although some grains may also have been shielded from secondary alteration by protective outer mantles.

  10. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; Von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Brummond, William A.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  11. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  12. Spent fuel receipt scenarios study

    SciTech Connect

    Ballou, L.B.; Montan, D.N.; Revelli, M.A.

    1990-09-01

    This study reports on the results of an assignment from the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to evaluate of the effects of different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel on the potential performance of the waste packages in the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository. The initial evaluations were performed and an interim letter report was prepared during the fall of 1988. Subsequently, the scope of work was expanded and additional analyses were conducted in 1989. This report combines the results of the two phases of the activity. This study is a part of a broader effort to investigate the options available to the DOE and the nuclear utilities for selection of spent fuel for acceptance into the Federal Waste Management System for disposal. Each major element of the system has evaluated the effects of various options on its own operations, with the objective of providing the basis for performing system-wide trade-offs and determining an optimum acceptance scenario. Therefore, this study considers different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel by the repository only from the narrow perspective of their effect on the very-near-field temperatures in the repository following permanent closure. This report is organized into three main sections. The balance of this section is devoted to a statement of the study objective, a summary of the assumptions. The second section of the report contains a discussion of the major elements of the study. The third section summarizes the results of the study and draws some conclusions from them. The appendices include copies of the waste acceptance schedule and the existing and projected spent fuel inventory that were used in the study. 10 refs., 27 figs.

  13. Criticality of spent reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The storage capacity of spent reactor fuel pools can be greatly increased by consolidation. In this process, the fuel rods are removed from reactor fuel assemblies and are stored in close-packed arrays in a canister or skeleton. An earlier study examined criticality consideration for consolidation of Westinghouse fuel, assumed to be fresh, in canisters at the Millstone-2 spent-fuel pool and in the General Electric IF-300 shipping cask. The conclusions were that the fuel rods in the canister are so deficient in water that they are adequately subcritical, both in normal and in off-normal conditions. One potential accident, the water spill event, remained unresolved in the earlier study. A methodology is developed here for spent-fuel criticality and is applied to the water spill event. The methodology utilizes LEOPARD to compute few-group cross sections for the diffusion code PDQ7, which then is used to compute reactivity. These codes give results for fresh fuel that are in good agreement with KENO IV-NITAWL Monte Carlo results, which themselves are in good agreement with continuous energy Monte Carlo calculations. These methodologies are in reasonable agreement with critical measurements for undepleted fuel.

  14. Marketing Farm Grain Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, Harlan E.

    This vocational agriculture curriculum on grain marketing contains three parts: teacher guide, student manual, and student workbook. All three are coordinated and cross-referenced. The course is designed to give students of grain marketing a thorough background in the subject and provide practical help in developing grain marketing strategies for…

  15. Modified calibration procedures for a Yankee Environmental System UVB-1 biometer based on spectral measurements with a brewer spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana, José M; Cachorro, Victoria E; Sorribas, Mar; Luccini, Eduardo; de Frutos, Angel M; Berjón, Alberto; de la Morena, Benito

    2006-01-01

    The calibration of the erythemal irradiance measured by a Yankee Environmental System (YES) UVB-1 biometer is presented using two methods of calibration with a wide range of experimental solar zenith angles (SZAs) and ozone values. The calibration is performed through simultaneous spectral measurements by a calibrated double-monochromator Brewer MK-III spectrophotometer at "El Arenosillo" station, located in southwestern Spain. Because the range of spectral measurements of the Brewer spectrophotometer is 290-363 nm, a previously validated radiative transfer model was used to account for the erythemal contribution between 363 and 400 nm. Both methods are recommended by the World Meteorological Organization and we present and discuss here a wide range of results and features given by modified procedures applied to these two general methods. As is well established, the calibration factor for this type of radiometric system is dependent on atmospheric conditions, the most important of which are the ozone content and the SZA. Although the first method is insensitive to these two factors, we analyze this behavior in terms of the range used for the SZA and the use of two different mathematical approaches for its determination. The second method shows the dependence on SZA and ozone content and, thus, a polynomial as a function of SZA or a matrix including SZA and ozone content were determined as general calibration factors for the UV radiometric system. We must note that the angular responses of the YES radiometer and Brewer spectroradiometer have not been considered, because of the difficulty in correcting them. The results show in detail the advantages and drawbacks (and the corresponding associated error) given by the different approaches used for the determination of these calibration coefficients.

  16. Methane as a Diagnostic Tracer of Changes in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation of the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, E. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study makes use of time series of methane (CH4/ data from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) to detect whether there were any statistically significant changes of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) within the stratosphere during 1992-2005. The HALOE CH4 profiles are in terms of mixing ratio versus pressure altitude and are binned into latitude zones within the Southern Hemisphere and the Northern Hemisphere. Their separate time series are then analyzed using multiple linear regression (MLR) techniques. The CH4 trend terms for the Northern Hemisphere are significant and positive at 10 N from 50 to 7 hPa and larger than the tropospheric CH4 trends of about 3%decade(exp -1) from 20 to 7 hPa. At 60 N the trends are clearly negative from 20 to 7 hPa. Their combined trends indicate an acceleration of the BDC in the middle stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere during those years, most likely due to changes from the effects of wave activity. No similar significant BDC acceleration is found for the Southern Hemisphere. Trends from HALOE H2O are analyzed for consistency. Their mutual trends with CH4 are anti-correlated qualitatively in the middle and upper stratosphere, where CH4 is chemically oxidized to H2O. Conversely, their mutual trends in the lower stratosphere are dominated by their trends upon entry to the tropical stratosphere. Time series residuals for CH4 in the lower mesosphere also exhibit structures that are anti-correlated in some instances with those of the tracer-like species HCl. Their occasional aperiodic structures indicate the effects of transport following episodic, wintertime wave activity. It is concluded that observed multi-year, zonally averaged distributions of CH4 can be used to diagnose major instances of wave-induced transport in the middle atmosphere and to detect changes in the stratospheric BDC.

  17. Measurements of Nitrogen Dioxide Total Column Amounts using a Brewer Double Spectrophotometer in Direct Sun Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cede, Alexander; Herman, Jay; Richter, Andreas; Krotkov, Nickolay; Burrows, John

    2006-01-01

    NO2 column amounts were measured for the past 2 years at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, using a Brewer spectrometer in direct Sun mode. A new bootstrap method to calibrate the instrument is introduced and described. This technique selects the cleanest days from the database to obtain the solar reference spectrum. The main advantage for direct Sun measurements is that the conversion uncertainty from slant column to vertical column is negligible compared to the standard scattered light observations where it is typically on the order of 100% (2sigma) at polluted sites. The total 2sigma errors of the direct Sun retrieved column amounts decrease with solar zenith angle and are estimated at 0.2 to 0.6 Dobson units (DU, 1 DU approx. equal to 2.7 10(exp 16) molecules cm(exp -2)), which is more accurate than scattered light measurements for high NO2 amounts. Measured NO2 column amounts, ranging from 0 to 3 DU with a mean of 0.7 DU, show a pronounced daily course and a strong variability from day to day. The NO2 concentration typically increases from sunrise to noon. In the afternoon it decreases in summer and stays constant in winter. As expected from the anthropogenic nature of its source, NO2 amounts on weekends are significantly reduced. The measurements were compared to satellite retrievals from Scanning Image Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY). Satellite data give the same average NO2 column and show a seasonal cycle that is similar to the ground data in the afternoon. We show that NO2 must be considered when retrieving aerosol absorption properties, especially for situations with low aerosol optical depth.

  18. Variability in the Speed of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation as Observed by Aura/MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flury, Thomas; Wu, Dong L.; Read, W. G.

    2013-01-01

    We use Aura/MLS stratospheric water vapour (H2O) measurements as tracer for dynamics and infer interannual variations in the speed of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) from 2004 to 2011. We correlate one-year time series of H2O in the lower stratosphere at two subsequent pressure levels (68 hPa, approx.18.8 km and 56 hPa, approx 19.9 km at the Equator) and determine the time lag for best correlation. The same calculation is made on the horizontal on the 100 hPa (approx 16.6 km) level by correlating the H2O time series at the Equator with the ones at 40 N and 40 S. From these lag coefficients we derive the vertical and horizontal speeds of the BDC in the tropics and extra-tropics, respectively. We observe a clear interannual variability of the vertical and horizontal branch. The variability reflects signatures of the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO). Our measurements confirm the QBO meridional circulation anomalies and show that the speed variations in the two branches of the BDC are out of phase and fairly well anti-correlated. Maximum ascent rates are found during the QBO easterly phase. We also find that transport of H2O towards the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is on the average two times faster than to the Southern Hemisphere (SH) with a mean speed of 1.15m/s at 100 hPa. Furthermore, the speed towards the NH shows much more interannual variability with an amplitude of about 21% whilst the speed towards the SH varies by only 10 %. An amplitude of 21% is also observed in the variability of the ascent rate at the Equator which is on the average 0.2mm/s.

  19. [Organizational stress and noise exposure in workers at the packing plant of a brewer factory].

    PubMed

    Chacín-Almarza, Betulio; Corzo-Alvarez, Gilbert; Rojas-González, Liliana; Rodríguez-Chacín, Elvia; Corzo-Ríos, Gilberto

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and to evaluate the psychosocial factors that produce organizational stress in workers at the packing plant of a brewering industry, and to determine the influence of industrial noise in the occurrence of stress at work. The Questionnaire of Organizational Stress of the ILO/WHO was applied to 163 workers to evaluate psychosocial factors at work, and the socio-demographic characteristics were explored on an individual basis. The equivalent continuous sound level (Leq) was determined and the octave band were determined with a sonometer according to the COVENIN guidelines. Total stress was found in 55 workers (33.74%). Of those, 42 workers were in an intermediate level (25.76%) and 13 workers (7.98%) were in the stress level (p < 0.0001). The occurrence of pondered stress was 100%, classified as: influences of the leader (14.00 +/- 7.27; 87.7%), organizational structures (12.36 +/- 5.14; 93.3%) and organizational climate (11.83 +/- 5.09; 95.1%). The mean of total and pondered stress showed an upward tendency as age and labor antiquity increased (p < 0.05). Leq was in a range of 87.9-100 dB(A), which exceeds the threshold value limit. There was no association between Leq was stress. The level of total stress that these workers perceive is similar to that described in other studies. The pondered stress becomes a highly sensitive variable to determine which psychosocial factors produce stress. This can be used for implementing control and preventive measures of organizational stress. PMID:12521000

  20. Unraveling impact factors for future changes in the Brewer-Dobson circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberländer, Sophie; Langematz, Ulrike; Meul, Stefanie

    2013-09-01

    Climate models project an increase in the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) with increasing future greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. This study identifies the causes of future changes in the BDC from sensitivity simulations with the EMAC chemistry-climate model, by changing the external forcings, like GHG concentrations, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) together with sea ice concentrations, and ozone-depleting substances (ODS), separately. The particular influence of rising tropical SSTs is assessed. Contributions of different waves to changes in the residual circulation are calculated as well as changes in mean age of stratospheric air (AoA) to account for the effect of mixing processes. We find that in boreal winter the tropical upward mass flux increases by about 1%/dec in the upper and 2%/dec in the lower stratosphere until the end of the 21st century. Mean AoA decreases by up to 60 and 30 days/dec, respectively. Changes in transient planetary and synoptic waves account for the strengthening of the BDC in the lower stratosphere, whereas upper stratospheric changes are due to improved propagation properties for gravity waves in future climate. Regarding the external forcings, the radiative impact of rising GHG concentrations is detected to affect upper stratospheric layers only, whereas lower stratospheric signals are almost entirely due to rising SSTs. Changes in tropical SSTs influence not only the shallow but also the deep branch of the BDC as confirmed from both changes in residual circulation and mixing. Declining ODS will slightly counteract the BDC increase in the Southern Hemisphere.

  1. A chemistry-climate model study of past changes in the Brewer-Dobson circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberländer-Hayn, Sophie; Meul, Stefanie; Langematz, Ulrike; Abalichin, Janna; Haenel, Florian

    2015-07-01

    Model simulations indicate an acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) in the past with a direct impact on the exchange of air masses between the troposphere and the stratosphere. However, most observational data sets do not confirm the model results. Bönisch et al. (2011) and Ray et al. (2010) indicate a strengthening of the BDC in its shallow branch and a weakening in its deep branch. In contrast, balloon-borne measurements and Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding satellite observations show no significant acceleration of the BDC at Northern Hemisphere (NH) midlatitudes. In our study, the change of the BDC in the recent past is analyzed from simulations with the chemistry-climate model ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry. As the sign of change considerably depends on the underlying forcings, namely, changes in concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), as well as their interactions, we separate their contributions by using sensitivity simulations. The changes in tropical upward mass flux indicate a strengthening of the BDC between 1960 and 2000 in NH winter season in the lower and a weakening in the upper stratosphere with a change in sign at 10 hPa. While the lower stratospheric increase of about 2%/decade is caused by equal contributions from rising GHGs and ODSs, rising ODS concentrations counteract the GHG effect in the middle and upper stratosphere with a total decrease of about 0.5%/decade. Changes in mean age of air show a decrease of about 0.13 yr/decade in the lower and middle stratosphere and a slight increase in the Arctic upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere, which is induced by interactions between the forcings.

  2. Disruption of Brewers' yeast by hydrodynamic cavitation: Process variables and their influence on selective release.

    PubMed

    Balasundaram, B; Harrison, S T L

    2006-06-01

    Intracellular products, not secreted from the microbial cell, are released by breaking the cell envelope consisting of cytoplasmic membrane and an outer cell wall. Hydrodynamic cavitation has been reported to cause microbial cell disruption. By manipulating the operating variables involved, a wide range of intensity of cavitation can be achieved resulting in a varying extent of disruption. The effect of the process variables including cavitation number, initial cell concentration of the suspension and the number of passes across the cavitation zone on the release of enzymes from various locations of the Brewers' yeast was studied. The release profile of the enzymes studied include alpha-glucosidase (periplasmic), invertase (cell wall bound), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; cytoplasmic) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH; cytoplasmic). An optimum cavitation number Cv of 0.13 for maximum disruption was observed across the range Cv 0.09-0.99. The optimum cell concentration was found to be 0.5% (w/v, wet wt) when varying over the range 0.1%-5%. The sustained effect of cavitation on the yeast cell wall when re-circulating the suspension across the cavitation zone was found to release the cell wall bound enzyme invertase (86%) to a greater extent than the enzymes from other locations of the cell (e.g. periplasmic alpha-glucosidase at 17%). Localised damage to the cell wall could be observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of cells subjected to less intense cavitation conditions. Absence of the release of cytoplasmic enzymes to a significant extent, absence of micronisation as observed by TEM and presence of a lower number of proteins bands in the culture supernatant on SDS-PAGE analysis following hydrodynamic cavitation compared to disruption by high-pressure homogenisation confirmed the selective release offered by hydrodynamic cavitation.

  3. [Certain properties of "biosynthetic" L-threonine dehydratase from subcellular structures of brewers' yeast Saccharomyces carlsbergensis].

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, S V; Korozhko, A I; Beliaeva, N F; Kagan, Z S

    1981-01-01

    The paper is concerned with kinetic properties of the "biosynthetic" L-threonine dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.16) solubilized from subcellular structures of brewers' yeast Saccharomyces carlsbergensis in the absence and presence of the allosteric inhibitor, L-isoleucine, at three pH-values (pH 6.5, 7.8 and 9.5). The curve of the initial reaction rate versus initial substrate concentration in the absence of L-isoleucine at pH 6.5 was of hyperbolic character (Km = 5.5.10(-2) M), and at pH 7.8 and 9.5 the kinetic curve had a weakly sigmoidal pattern with a sharp going into the saturation plateaux; the values of [S] 0.5 are 1.10(-2) and 8.7.10(-3) M, respectively. An addition of L-isoleucine to the reaction mixture led to the appearance (at pH 6.5) or to an increase (at pH 7.8 and 9.5) of the sigmoidality of these kinetic curves and to a decrease in values of the maximum reaction rate V. The enzyme sensibility to the inhibitory effect of L-isoleucine decreased with an increase in pH values. Low L-isoleucine concentrations at low substrate concentrations activated the enzyme. The pH optimum for L-threonine dehydratase under study was 9.5-10.0. The enzyme molecular weight is about 300 000.

  4. Towards diacetyl-less brewers' yeast. Influence of ilv2 and ilv5 mutations.

    PubMed

    Gjermansen, C; Nilsson-Tillgren, T; Petersen, J G; Kielland-Brandt, M C; Sigsgaard, P; Holmberg, S

    1988-01-01

    During alcoholic fermentations, the off-flavour compound diacetyl is formed non-enzymatically from acetolactate leaking out from the cells. Acetolactate is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of valine. In beer fermentation, the amount of diacetyl is reduced to acceptable levels during maturation. A reduction of the time needed for maturation may be achieved by the use of a brewing yeast that produces less diacetyl. Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strains with an inactive ilv2 gene can not form acetolactate, while ilv5 strains, blocked in the subsequent step, leak acetolactate in high amounts. Induction of recessive mutations in production strains of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis has not yet been achieved, as the yeast is polyploid and possibly a hybrid between S. cerevisiae and another Saccharomyces species. Thus, all chromosomes investigated so far are present in at least two genetically different versions. Genetic and molecular analysis has shown that the brewing yeast is structurally heterozygous for ILV2 and ILV5. Genetic modification of brewers' yeast to reduce diacetyl formation is being carried out by mutation of ILV2. Deletion mutations in both ILV2 alleles have been constructed in vitro to be used for gene replacement in the brewing strain. In addition, partial inactivation of the ILV2 function is carried out by selecting spontaneous dominant mutations resistant to the herbicide sulfometuron methyl. Among these mutants some produce only half the amount of diacetyl compared to the parental strain. An alternative way to reduce diacetyl production might be to increase the activity of the ILV5 gene product. Model experiments in S. cerevisiae show that the presence of the ILV5 gene on a 2-micron based multi-copy vector can reduce the diacetyl production by half.

  5. Encapsulation of brewers yeast in chitosan coated carrageenan microspheres by emulsification/thermal gelation.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Marie-Christine; Neufeld, Ronald J; Poncelet, Denis

    2004-05-01

    Brewers yeast was encapsulated in kappa-carrageenan microspheres using an emulsification-thermal gelation approach. Due to heat sensitivity of the yeast at temperatures in excess of 36 degrees C, mixtures of low and high gelation temperature carrageenans were tested to obtain a blend yielding a gelation temperature under 40 degrees C. A 20:80 dispersion of 2% carrageenan sol containing cells, in warm canola oil, produced microspheres upon cooling, with a mean diameter of 450 microm and narrow size dispersion (span of 1.2). Application of a chitosan membrane coat to minimize cell release, increased the mean microsphere diameter to 700 microm, due to the coat thickness and swelling of the microspheres. This diameter was designed so as to minimize mass transfer limitations. Batch fermentations were carried out in a 3 L reactor on a commercial wort medium. Cell loading was 10(7) cells mL(-1) microspheres, and cell "burst" release was observed upon inoculation into fresh medium, whether microspheres were coated or not. The kinetics of intra- and extracapsular cell growth were determined. Increased concentrations of extracapsular free cells could be accounted for by growth in the wort medium, and by ongoing release from the gel microspheres, whether coated or not. Cell release from chitosan-coated carrageenan microspheres was less than that from uncoated microspheres, likely due to retention by the membrane coat. Growth kinetics and alpha-amino nitrogen consumption of encapsulated yeast were higher than that of free cells, and differences in alcohol and ester profiles were also observed, likely due to modified metabolism of the encapsulated yeast.

  6. Substrate activation of brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase is abolished by mutation of cysteine 221 to serine.

    PubMed

    Baburina, I; Gao, Y; Hu, Z; Jordan, F; Hohmann, S; Furey, W

    1994-05-10

    Brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1), a thiamin diphosphate and Mg(II)-dependent enzyme, isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses four cysteines/subunit at positions 69, 152, 221, and 222. Earlier studies conducted on a variant of the enzyme with a single Cys at position 221 (derived from a gene that was the product of spontaneous fusion) showed that this enzyme is still subject to substrate activation [Zeng, X., Farrenkopf, B., Hohmann, S., Jordan, F., Dyda, F., & Furey, W. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 2704-2709], indicating that if Cys was responsible for this activation, it had to be C221. To further test the hypothesis, the C221S and C222S single and the C221S-C222S double mutants were constructed. It is clearly shown that the mutation at C221, but not at C222, leads to abolished substrate activation according to a number of kinetic criteria, both steady state and pre steady state. On the basis of the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme [Dyda, F., Furey, W., Swaminathan, S., Sax, M., Farrenkopf, B., Jordan, F. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 6165-6170], it is obvious that while C221 is located on the beta domain, whereas thiamin diphosphate is wedged at the interface of the alpha and gamma domains, addition of pyruvate or pyruvamide as a hemiketal adduct to the sulfur of C221 can easily bridge the gap between the beta and alpha domains. In fact, residues in one or both domains must be dislocated by this adduct formation. It is very likely that regulation as expressed in substrate activation is transmitted via this direct contact made between the two domains in the presence of the activator.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Spent nuclear fuel sampling strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, D.W.

    1995-02-08

    This report proposes a strategy for sampling the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored in the 105-K Basins (105-K East and 105-K West). This strategy will support decisions concerning the path forward SNF disposition efforts in the following areas: (1) SNF isolation activities such as repackaging/overpacking to a newly constructed staging facility; (2) conditioning processes for fuel stabilization; and (3) interim storage options. This strategy was developed without following the Data Quality Objective (DQO) methodology. It is, however, intended to augment the SNF project DQOS. The SNF sampling is derived by evaluating the current storage condition of the SNF and the factors that effected SNF corrosion/degradation.

  8. Transportation accident scenarios for commercial spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmot, E L

    1981-02-01

    A spectrum of high severity, low probability, transportation accident scenarios involving commercial spent fuel is presented together with mechanisms, pathways and quantities of material that might be released from spent fuel to the environment. These scenarios are based on conclusions from a workshop, conducted in May 1980 to discuss transportation accident scenarios, in which a group of experts reviewed and critiqued available literature relating to spent fuel behavior and cask response in accidents.

  9. Identification of Sc-type ILV6 as a target to reduce diacetyl formation in lager brewers' yeast.

    PubMed

    Duong, C T; Strack, L; Futschik, M; Katou, Y; Nakao, Y; Fujimura, T; Shirahige, K; Kodama, Y; Nevoigt, E

    2011-11-01

    Diacetyl causes an unwanted buttery off-flavor in lager beer. It is spontaneously generated from α-acetolactate, an intermediate of yeast's valine biosynthesis released during the main beer fermentation. Green lager beer has to undergo a maturation process lasting two to three weeks in order to reduce the diacetyl level below its taste-threshold. Therefore, a reduction of yeast's α-acetolactate/diacetyl formation without negatively affecting other brewing relevant traits has been a long-term demand of brewing industry. Previous attempts to reduce diacetyl production by either traditional approaches or rational genetic engineering had different shortcomings. Here, three lager yeast strains with marked differences in diacetyl production were studied with regard to gene copy numbers as well as mRNA abundances under conditions relevant to industrial brewing. Evaluation of data for the genes directly involved in the valine biosynthetic pathway revealed a low expression level of Sc-ILV6 as a potential molecular determinant for low diacetyl formation. This hypothesis was verified by disrupting the two copies of Sc-ILV6 in a commercially used lager brewers' yeast strain, which resulted in 65% reduction of diacetyl concentration in green beer. The Sc-ILV6 deletions did not have any perceptible impact on beer taste. To our knowledge, this has been the first study exploiting natural diversity of lager brewers' yeast strains for strain optimization.

  10. Brewer's yeast and Saccharomyces boulardii both attenuate Clostridium difficile-induced colonic secretion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Izadnia, F; Wong, C T; Kocoshis, S A

    1998-09-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb), a nonpathogenic yeast, has been used to prevent recurrences of Clostridium difficile (C.diff) -associated diarrhea. A single report suggested that treatment with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc), commonly called brewer's yeast (BY), facilitates treatment of persistent C.diff infection. We conducted this experiment to determine whether C.diff toxin A-induced colonic secretion in the rat is blunted by pretreatment with either Sb or BY. We employed closed cecal pouches in two groups of five adult male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with standard chow for five days prior to the experiment, another group whose water was supplemented with 20 x 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU) of Sb per day for five days, and another group whose water was supplemented with 20 x 10(9) CFU of Sc per day for five days. Cecal pouches were infused for 3 hr with one of the following: (1) normal saline alone for a control group, or (2) normal saline plus 5 microg of C.diff toxin A (for the other control group and for the two experimental groups). Water movement was measured by a nonabsorbable marker technique. Sodium movement and permeability to mannitol were also measured. Prior to the infusion, cecal contents were quantitatively cultured. In the three animals whose ceca were colonized with less than 10(6) CFU of either yeast per gram wet cecal content, toxin A-induced secretion could not be attenuated. In contrast, animals whose ceca were colonized with more than 10(6) CFU of either yeast per gram of wet cecal content showed significantly less secretion after toxin A application than those which were not fed yeast. S. cerevisiae reduced secretion by half (N = 5, P = 0.039 for water, 0.044 for sodium) and Sb by 75% (N = 4, P = 0.015 for water, 0.034 for sodium). Toxin-induced increases in permeability to [3H]mannitol from systemic circulation to cecum could not be blunted by either yeast. We conclude that rat ceca can be colonized by either organism and that both organisms

  11. Origins of GEMS Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth s stratosphere contain high abundances of submicrometer amorphous silicates known as GEMS grains. From their birth as condensates in the outflows of oxygen-rich evolved stars, processing in interstellar space, and incorporation into disks around new stars, amorphous silicates predominate in most astrophysical environments. Amorphous silicates were a major building block of our Solar System and are prominent in infrared spectra of comets. Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) thought to derive from comets contain abundant amorphous silicates known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains. GEMS grains have been proposed to be isotopically and chemically homogenized interstellar amorphous silicate dust. We evaluated this hypothesis through coordinated chemical and isotopic analyses of GEMS grains in a suite of IDPs to constrain their origins. GEMS grains show order of magnitude variations in Mg, Fe, Ca, and S abundances. GEMS grains do not match the average element abundances inferred for ISM dust containing on average, too little Mg, Fe, and Ca, and too much S. GEMS grains have complementary compositions to the crystalline components in IDPs suggesting that they formed from the same reservoir. We did not observe any unequivocal microstructural or chemical evidence that GEMS grains experienced prolonged exposure to radiation. We identified four GEMS grains having O isotopic compositions that point to origins in red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae. Based on their O isotopic compositions, we estimate that 1-6% of GEMS grains are surviving circumstellar grains. The remaining 94-99% of GEMS grains have O isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from terrestrial materials and carbonaceous chondrites. These isotopically solar GEMS grains either formed in the Solar System or were completely homogenized in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the

  12. 7 CFR 868.313 - Grades and grade requirements for the class Brewers Milled Rice. (See also § 868.315.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Milled Rice. (See also § 868.315.) 868.313 Section 868.313 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.313 Grades and grade requirements for the class Brewers Milled Rice. (See also § 868.315.) Grades,...

  13. 7 CFR 868.313 - Grades and grade requirements for the class Brewers Milled Rice. (See also § 868.315.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Milled Rice. (See also § 868.315.) 868.313 Section 868.313 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.313 Grades and grade requirements for the class Brewers Milled Rice. (See also § 868.315.) Grades,...

  14. 7 CFR 868.313 - Grades and grade requirements for the class Brewers Milled Rice. (See also § 868.315.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Milled Rice. (See also § 868.315.) 868.313 Section 868.313 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.313 Grades and grade requirements for the class Brewers Milled Rice. (See also § 868.315.) Grades,...

  15. 7 CFR 868.313 - Grades and grade requirements for the class Brewers Milled Rice. (See also § 868.315.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Milled Rice. (See also § 868.315.) 868.313 Section 868.313 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.313 Grades and grade requirements for the class Brewers Milled Rice. (See also § 868.315.) Grades,...

  16. 7 CFR 868.313 - Grades and grade requirements for the class Brewers Milled Rice. (See also § 868.315.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Milled Rice. (See also § 868.315.) 868.313 Section 868.313 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... United States Standards for Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.313 Grades and grade requirements for the class Brewers Milled Rice. (See also § 868.315.) Grades,...

  17. A preliminary in vitro assessment of GroBiotic-A, brewer's yeast and fructooligosaccharide as prebiotics for the red drum Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Burr, Gary; Hume, Michael; Ricke, Steven; Nisbet, David; Gatlin, Delbert

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of brewers yeast, fructooligosaccharide (FOS), and GroBiotic-A, a mixture of partially autolyzed brewers yeast, dairy components and dried fermentation products, on the intestinal microbial community of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Gastrointestinal (GI) tracts were aseptically removed from three sub-adult red drum previously maintained on a commercial diet and placed in an anaerobic chamber. Intestinal contents were removed, diluted and incubated in vitro in one of four liquid media: normal diet alone, diet + 2% (w/w) GroBiotic-A, diet + 2% brewers yeast, and diet + 2% FOS. After 24 and 48 h of incubation at 25 degrees C, supernatants were removed for volatile fatty acid (VFA) analysis and DNA was extracted for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on a highly conserved region of M 16S rDNA and the amplicons were subjected to DGGE. The microbial community (MC) fingerprint was used to distinguish microbial populations. The intestinal contents incubated with GroBiotic-A had significantly (P<0.05) higher acetate and total VFA concentrations at 48 h compared to the other treatments. DGGE analysis demonstrated that the microbial community was significantly altered by Grobiotic-A and brewers yeast. PMID:18368546

  18. Growth performance and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets supplemented with GroBiotic - A and Brewtech Dried Brewers Yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of Brewtech® dried brewers yeast (BY) and GroBiotic®-A (GB) on growth performance, proximate body composition, immune response and resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. A practical basal (control) diet ...

  19. A preliminary in vitro assessment of GroBiotic-A, brewer's yeast and fructooligosaccharide as prebiotics for the red drum Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Burr, Gary; Hume, Michael; Ricke, Steven; Nisbet, David; Gatlin, Delbert

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of brewers yeast, fructooligosaccharide (FOS), and GroBiotic-A, a mixture of partially autolyzed brewers yeast, dairy components and dried fermentation products, on the intestinal microbial community of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Gastrointestinal (GI) tracts were aseptically removed from three sub-adult red drum previously maintained on a commercial diet and placed in an anaerobic chamber. Intestinal contents were removed, diluted and incubated in vitro in one of four liquid media: normal diet alone, diet + 2% (w/w) GroBiotic-A, diet + 2% brewers yeast, and diet + 2% FOS. After 24 and 48 h of incubation at 25 degrees C, supernatants were removed for volatile fatty acid (VFA) analysis and DNA was extracted for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on a highly conserved region of M 16S rDNA and the amplicons were subjected to DGGE. The microbial community (MC) fingerprint was used to distinguish microbial populations. The intestinal contents incubated with GroBiotic-A had significantly (P<0.05) higher acetate and total VFA concentrations at 48 h compared to the other treatments. DGGE analysis demonstrated that the microbial community was significantly altered by Grobiotic-A and brewers yeast.

  20. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-11-03

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities.

  1. Interstellar Dust Grain Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B.-G.; Lazarian, A.; Vaillancourt, John E.

    2015-08-01

    Interstellar polarization at optical-to-infrared wavelengths is known to arise from asymmetric dust grains aligned with the magnetic field. This effect provides a potentially powerful probe of magnetic field structure and strength if the details of the grain alignment can be reliably understood. Theory and observations have recently converged on a quantitative, predictive description of interstellar grain alignment based on radiative processes. The development of a general, analytical model for this radiative alignment torque (RAT) theory has allowed specific, testable predictions for realistic interstellar conditions. We outline the theoretical and observational arguments in favor of RAT alignment, as well as reasons the "classical" paramagnetic alignment mechanism is unlikely to work, except possibly for the very smallest grains. With further detailed characterization of the RAT mechanism, grain alignment and polarimetry promise to not only better constrain the interstellar magnetic field but also provide new information on the dust characteristics.

  2. A new technique for retrieval of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone profiles using sky radiance measurements at multiple view angles: Application to a Brewer spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzortziou, Maria; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Cede, Alexander; Herman, Jay R.; Vasilkov, Alexander

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes and applies a new technique for retrieving diurnal variability in tropospheric ozone vertical distribution using ground-based measurements of ultraviolet sky radiances. The measured radiances are obtained by a polarization-insensitive modified Brewer double spectrometer located at Goddard Space Flight Center, in Greenbelt, Maryland, USA. Results demonstrate that the Brewer angular (0-72° viewing zenith angle) and spectral (303-320 nm) measurements of sky radiance in the solar principal plane provide sufficient information to derive tropospheric ozone diurnal variability. In addition, the Brewer measurements provide stratospheric ozone vertical distributions at least twice per day near sunrise and sunset. Frequent measurements of total column ozone amounts from direct-sun observations are used as constraints in the retrieval. The vertical ozone profile resolution is shown in terms of averaging kernels to yield at least four points in the troposphere-low stratosphere, including good information in Umkehr layer 0 (0-5 km). The focus of this paper is on the derivation of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone profiles using both simulated and measured radiances. We briefly discuss the necessary modifications of the Brewer spectrometer that were used to eliminate instrumental polarization sensitivity so that accurate sky radiances can be obtained in the presence of strong Rayleigh scattering and aerosols. The results demonstrate that including a site-specific and time-dependent aerosol correction, based on Brewer direct-sun observations of aerosol optical thickness, is critical to minimize the sky radiance residuals as a function of observing angle in the optimal estimation inversion algorithm and improve the accuracy of the retrieved ozone profile.

  3. U.S. EPA Brewer spectrophotometer network and the USDA UVB monitoring and research program: data comparison from co-located instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, Michael G.; Slusser, James R.; Schallhorn, Kathryn A.; Meltzer, Richard S.

    2003-11-01

    Several ground based ultraviolet (UV) monitoring networks exist in the United States, each of which is unique in the instrumentation employed for measurements. Two of these UV networks are the US EPA"s Brewer Spectrophotometer network and the USDA"s UVB Monitoring network, with a combined instrument total of 52 sites throughout the mainland USA, US territories and some overseas locations. The Brewer records full sky spectra from 287-363nm with 0.5nm resolution whereas the USDA instrument is a broadband device that measures broadband erythemally weighted UV data over a number of bands in the UV. To date, limited comparisons of data collected from these networks have been analyzed for comparative and quality assurance (QA) purposes. The data used in this paper is taken from sites where instruments from each program are co-located, namely, BigBend National Park, Texas and Everglades National Park, Florida. In order to reduce the contribution of errors in the Brewer-based instruments, the raw data has been corrected for stray light rejection, the angular response of the full sky diffuser, the temperature dependence of the instruments and the temporal variation. This reduces the estimated errors of the absolute irradiance values of each Brewer spectral measurement to approximately +/-5%. The estimated uncertainty of the USDA instruments is also +/-5%. Uncertainty is comprised of (1) standard lamp measurement errors, (2) spectral response determination and (3) the angular response of the diffuser. In this paper, we perform spectrally resolved comparisons between the Brewer UV irradiance measurements and the data collected by the broadband erythemal UV meters at co-located sites between 1997 through to 2002.

  4. Folding of Pollen Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katifori, Eleni; Alben, Silas; Cerda, Enrique; Nelson, David; Dumais, Jacques

    2008-03-01

    At dehiscence, which occurs when the anther reaches maturity and opens, pollen grains dehydrate and their volume is reduced. The pollen wall deforms to accommodate the volume loss, and the deformation pathway depends on the initial turgid pollen grain geometry and the mechanical properties of the pollen wall. We demonstrate, using both experimental and theoretical approaches, that the design of the apertures (areas on the pollen wall where the stretching and the bending modulus are reduced) is critical for controlling the folding pattern, and ensures the pollen grain viability. An excellent fit to the experiments is obtained using a discretized version of the theory of thin elastic shells.

  5. Convection in grain refining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.; Szekely, J.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between fluid flow phenomena, nucleation, and grain refinement in solidifying metals both in the presence and in the absence of a gravitational field was investigated. The reduction of grain size in hard-to-process melts; the effects of undercooling on structure in solidification processes, including rapid solidification processing; and control of this undercooling to improve structures of solidified melts are considered. Grain refining and supercooling thermal modeling of the solidification process, and heat and fluid flow phenomena in the levitated metal droplets are described.

  6. Kansas Agents Study Grain Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeff, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    Author is an extension specialist in feed and grain marketing for Kansas State University. He describes a tour set up to educate members of the Kansas Grain and Feed Dealers' Association in the area of grain marketing and exporting. (GB)

  7. Cloning and expression of the gene encoding alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase from Acetobacter aceti ssp. xylinum in brewer's yeast.

    PubMed

    Yamano, S; Tanaka, J; Inoue, T

    1994-02-14

    Acetobacter aceti ssp. xylinum genomic library was constructed using cosmid pJB8 in Escherichia coli. The gene encoding alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (ALDC) was isolated from the library by direct measurement of ALDC activity. The ALDC gene was expressed by its own promoter in E. coli. The nucleotide sequence was determined, and an open reading frame which may encode a protein composed of 304 amino acids with a molecular weight of 33,747 was found. A brewer's yeast was transformed with the YEp-type plasmid containing the ALDC gene placed under the control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. The laboratory-scale growth test confirmed that the total diacetyl concentration was considerably reduced by the transformant. The analysis of the wort indicates that the Acetobacter ALDC reduces the concentration of diacetyl more effectively than that of 2,3-pentanedione.

  8. Construction of a brewer's yeast having alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase gene from Acetobacter aceti ssp. xylinum integrated in the genome.

    PubMed

    Yamano, S; Kondo, K; Tanaka, J; Inoue, T

    1994-02-14

    alpha-Acetolactate decarboxylase (ALDC) gene from Acetobacter aceti ssp. xylinum has several possible initiation codons in the N-terminus. To determine the initiation codon of the ALDC giving the highest expression levels, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) promoter was linked just upstream of each possible initiation codon. The ALDC whose translation starts 130 bp downstream from the first ATG codon had the highest activity in yeast cells. When expression levels of the ALDC gene were compared using three strong yeast promoters of glycolytic genes, alcohol dehydrogenase I (ADC1), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and GPD, the GPD promoter was the strongest. The ALDC gene was integrated in a ribosomal RNA gene of a brewer's yeast by co-transformation with an expression plasmid of G418-resistance gene. The laboratory-scale growth test confirmed that the total diacetyl concentration was reduced in wort.

  9. The primary structure of tRNAIIArg from brewers' yeast. 1. Complete digestions with pancreatic and T1 ribonucleases.

    PubMed

    Weissenbach, J; Martin, R; Dirheimer, G

    1975-08-15

    tRNAIIArg purified from bulk brewers' yeast tRNA by countercurrent distribution followed by two column-chromatographic steps was completely digested with pancreatic and T1 ribonucleases. Isolations of the products have been carried out either by column chromatography or by high-voltage electrophoresis. Analyses of the isolated nucleotides and olignoucleotides were in good agreement and indicate that this tRNA is composed of 76 nucltotide residues including 13 minor nucleotides. Overlaps resulting from the end-products of the two complementary digests led to a sequence of 25 residues. The primary structure of tRNAIIArg has been determined after partial digestion with T1 ribonuclease as described in the following paper.

  10. Biochar characteristics produced from malt spent rootlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.

    2013-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich material produced by heating biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar is mainly used as an additive to soils to sequester carbon and improve soil fertility as well as a sorbent for environmental remediation processes. Surface properties such as point of zero charge, surface area and pore volume, surface topography, surface functional groups and acid-base behavior are important factors, which affect sorption efficiency. Understanding the surface alteration of biochars increases our understanding of the pollutant-sorbent interaction. Malt spent rootlets (MSR) is a by-product formed during beer production, is inexpensive and is produced in high quantities. The objective of the present study was to characterize the surface properties of biochar produced from MSR, and to investigate the effect of thermal treatment conditions on key characteristics that affect sorptive properties. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of the biochars were determined using gas (N2) adsorption-desorption cycles using the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) equation. Isotherms with 30 adsorption and 20 desorption points were conducted at liquid nitrogen temperature (77K). Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using t-plot method and Harkins & Jura equation. Total organic carbon was also determined because it is an important factor that affects sorption. Raw MSR demonstrates low surface area that increases by 1 order of magnitude by thermal treatment up to 750oC. At temperatures from 750 up to 900oC, pyrolysis results to biochars with surface areas 210-340 m2/g. For the same temperature range, a high percentage (46-73%) of the pore volume of the biochars is due to micropores. Similar results were observed for all the grain size fractions of the raw MSR. The up-scaling of the biochar production was easily performed by using increased biomass analogous to the bigger vessels used each time. Positive results were obtained

  11. Relict grains in chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaldi, E. R.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is given to the fact that a significant fraction of the chondrules from ordinary chondrites contain silicate grains that survived the chondrule formation process without melting. Typically, these grains consist of coarse olivine, rarely orthopyroxene, crystals located in the core of chondrules and displaying a zoning that is inconsistent with crystallization from a silicate melt. It is noted that the relict grains still preserve the imprint of processes that occurred in the solar nebula and, in some cases, may include the isotopic record of interstellar grains. Information is presented on the chondrule precursor materials and the process of chondrule formation which was acquired by a compositional and textural study of three of the most unequilibrated type 3 ordinary chondrites.

  12. Microbial recovery of metals from spent catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    This project was initiated on October 1, 1989, for the purpose of recovering metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Two catalyst types are the subject of the contract. The first is a Ni-Mo catalyst supported on alumina (Shell 324) as is used in a pilot scale coal liquefaction facility at Wilsonville, Alabama. The object of the contract is to treat these spent catalysts with microorganisms, especially Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, but also other Thiobacillus sp., to leach and remove the metals (Ni and Mo) from the spent catalysts into a form which can be readily recovered by conventional techniques.

  13. Grains in galactic haloes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, A.; Barsella, B.; Ferrini, F.; Greenberg, J. M.; Aiello, S.

    1989-12-01

    The authors considered the effect of extensive forces on dust grains subjected to the light and matter distribution of the spiral galaxy NGC 3198. They have shown that the combined force on a small particle located above the plane of a galactic disk may be either attractive or repulsive depending on a variety of parameters. The authors present here the preliminary results of the study of the motion of a dust grain for NGC 3198.

  14. Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tretyakova, S.; Shmidt, O.; Podymova, T.; Shadrin, A.; Tkachenko, V.; Makeyeva, I.; Tkachenko, V.; Verbitskaya, O.; Schultz, O.; Peshkichev, I.

    2013-07-01

    The long-term wide development of nuclear power requires new approaches towards the realization of nuclear fuel cycle, namely, closed nuclear fuel cycle (CNFC) with respect to fission materials. Plant nuclear fuel cycle (PNFC), which is in fact the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel unloaded from the reactor and the production of new nuclear fuel (NF) at the same place together with reactor plant, can be one variant of CNFC. Developing and projecting of PNFC is a complicated high-technology innovative process that requires modern information support. One of the components of this information support is developed by the authors. This component is the programme conducting calculations for various variants of process flow sheets for reprocessing SNF and production of NF. Central in this programme is the blocks library, where the blocks contain mathematical description of separate processes and operations. The calculating programme itself has such a structure that one can configure the complex of blocks and correlations between blocks, appropriate for any given flow sheet. For the ready sequence of operations balance calculations are made of all flows, i.e. expenses, element and substance makeup, heat emission and radiation rate are determined. The programme is open and the block library can be updated. This means that more complicated and detailed models of technological processes will be added to the library basing on the results of testing processes using real equipment, in test operating mode. The development of the model for the realization of technical-economic analysis of various variants of technologic PNFC schemes and the organization of 'operator's advisor' is expected. (authors)

  15. Treatment of spent metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Christina; Phipps, David; Alkhaddar, Rafid M

    2005-10-01

    Metalworking fluids (MWFs) are widely used for cooling and lubricating during the machining process. The worldwide annual usage is estimated to exceed 2 x 10(9)l and the waste could be more than ten times the usage, as the MWFs have to be diluted prior to use. For UK industry the disposal cost is estimated to be up to pound16 million per year. Used MWFs cause high levels of contamination and rancid odours due to the presence of complex chemicals, biocides, etc., so that their treatment and final disposal must be handled carefully. Conventionally this has been done by combined physical and chemical methods but, with tightened legislation, these routes are no longer acceptable. Now, biological treatment is being increasingly adopted as it seems to offer an alternative with the potential for significant cost saving. However, there are significant difficulties in operating bioreactors, such as maintenance of the stability of the microbial communities present in activated sludge plants (ASP). In order to resolve these problems, four major areas need to be considered: (1) the composition of the spent MWF and its inherent biodegradability, (2) the recalcitrant compounds existing in waste MWFs and their impact on microbes, (3) the nature of the microbial consortia and means of optimising it, e.g, temperature and the practical design of the bioreactor and (4) the requirements for nutrient supplements and optimal control conditions. The potential importance of understanding the microbial community has been studied by the use of molecular biological techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The application of attached biofilm bioreactors and thermophilic aerobic technology (TAT) has also been studied. This review describes recent advances in each of these areas. PMID:16112709

  16. Depression Common After Time Spent in ICU

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160482.html Depression Common After Time Spent in ICU About one-third of ICU ... among former ICU patients are three to four times higher than in the general population, according to ...

  17. Spent fuel transportation in the United States: commercial spent fuel shipments through December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    This report has been prepared to provide updated transportation information on light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel in the United States. Historical data are presented on the quantities of spent fuel shipped from individual reactors on an annual basis and their shipping destinations. Specifically, a tabulation is provided for each present-fuel shipment that lists utility and plant of origin, destination and number of spent-fuel assemblies shipped. For all annual shipping campaigns between 1980 and 1984, the actual numbers of spent-fuel shipments are defined. The shipments are tabulated by year, and the mode of shipment and the casks utilized in shipment are included. The data consist of the current spent-fuel inventories at each of the operating reactors as of December 31, 1984. This report presents historical data on all commercial spent-fuel transportation shipments have occurred in the United States through December 31, 1984.

  18. Combustion of Australian spent shales compared

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The combustion kinetics of spent oil shales from seven major Australian deposits have been examined using a fluidized bed batch technique. Chemical rate constants were shown to vary between the shales and to be less than extrapolations of data from American spent oil shales. The effective diffusivity also varies widely among the shales. The seven oil shales were from the Condor, Duaringa, Lowmead, Nagoorin, Nagoorin South, Rundle and Stuart deposits in Queensland. Results are briefly described. 1 figure, 1 table.

  19. Rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Rubinstein, Herbert J.; Clark, Philip M.; Gilcrest, James D.

    1978-06-20

    A rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements in which a plurality of aligned rows of upright enclosures of generally square cross-sectional areas contain vertically disposed fuel elements. The enclosures are fixed at the lower ends thereof to a base. Pockets are formed between confronting walls of adjacent enclosures for receiving high absorption neutron absorbers, such as Boral, cadmium, borated stainless steel and the like for the closer spacing of spent fuel elements.

  20. Fingering phenomena during grain-grain displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Nathália M. P.; Paiva, Humberto A.; Combe, G.; Atman, A. P. F.

    2016-05-01

    Spontaneous formation of fingered patterns during the displacement of dense granular assemblies was experimentally reported few years ago, in a radial Hele-Shaw cell. Here, by means of discrete element simulations, we have recovered the experimental findings and extended the original study to explore the control parameters space. In particular, using assemblies of grains with different geometries (monodisperse, bidisperse, or polydisperse), we measured the macroscopic stress tensor in the samples in order to confirm some conjectures proposed in analogy with Saffman-Taylor viscous fingering phenomena for immiscible fluids. Considering an axial setup which allows to control the discharge of grains and to follow the trajectory and the pressure gradient along the displacing interface, we have applied the Darcy law for laminar flow in fluids in order to measure an "effective viscosity" for each assembly combination, in an attempt to mimic variation of the viscosity ratio between the injected/displaced fluids in the Saffman-Taylor experiment. The results corroborate the analogy with the viscous fluids displacement, with the bidisperse assembly corresponding to the less viscous geometry. But, differently to fluid case, granular fingers only develop for a specific combination of displaced/injected geometries, and we have demonstrated that it is always related with the formation of a force chain network along the finger direction.

  1. Microscopic evidence of grain boundary moisture during granular salt reconsolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, M. M.; Hansen, F.; Bauer, S. J.; Stormont, J.

    2015-12-01

    Very low permeability is a principal reason salt formations are considered viable hosts for disposal of nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. Granular salt is likely to be used as back-fill material and a seal system component. Salt formation pressures will promote reconsolidation of granular salt, eventually resulting in low permeabilities, comparable to native salt. Understanding the consolidation processes, dependent on the stress state, moisture availability and temperature, is important for demonstrating sealing functions and long-term repository performance. As granular salt consolidates, initial void reduction is achieved by brittle processes of grain rearrangement and cataclastic flow. At porosities less than 10%, grain boundary processes and crystal-plastic mechanisms govern further porosity reduction. When present, fluid assists in grain boundary processes and recrystallization. Fluid inclusions are typically found in abundance within bedded salt crystal structure and along grain boundaries, but are rarely observed internal to domal salt grains. We have observed fluid canals and evidence of moisture along grain boundaries in domal salt. In this research, we investigate grain boundary moisture in granular salt that has been reconsolidated under high temperatures to relatively low porosity. Mine-run salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Avery Island was used to create cylindrical samples, vented and unvented, which were reconsolidated at 250°C and stresses to 20 MPa. Unvented reconsolidation retains essentially all the grain boundary moisture as found ubiquitously on scanning electron photomicrographs of consolidated samples which revealed an inhomogeneous distribution of canals from residual moisture. This contrasts significantly with the vented samples, which had virtually no grain boundary moisture after consolidation. Microstructural techniques include scanning electron, stereo-dynascopic, and optical microscopy. The observations will be used

  2. Narrowing of the Upwelling Branch of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation and Hadley Cell in Chemistry-Climate Model Simulations of the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feng; Stolarski, Richard S.; Pawson, Steven; Newman, Paul A.; Waugh, Darryn

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the width of the upwelling branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation and Hadley cell in the 21st Century are investigated using simulations from a coupled chemistry-climate model. In these model simulations the tropical upwelling region narrows in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The narrowing of the Brewer-Dobson circulation is caused by an equatorward shift of Rossby wave critical latitudes and Eliassen-Palm flux convergence in the subtropical lower stratosphere. In the troposphere, the model projects an expansion of the Hadley cell's poleward boundary, but a narrowing of the Hadley rising branch. Model results suggest that the narrowing of the Hadley cell ascent is also eddy-driven.

  3. Grains in galactic haloes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrara, Andrea; Barsella, Bruno; Ferrini, F.; Greenberg, J. Mayo; Aiello, Santi

    1989-01-01

    Researchers considered the effect of extensive forces on dust grains subjected to the light and matter distribution of a spiral galaxy (Greenberg et al. (1987), Ferrini et al. (1987), Barsella et al (1988). Researchers showed that the combined force on a small particle located above the plane of a galactic disk may be either attractive or repulsive depending on a variety of parameters. They found, for example, that graphite grains from 20 nm to 250 nm radius are expelled from a typical galaxy, while silicates and other forms of dielectrics, after initial expulsion, may settle in potential minimum within the halo. They discuss only the statistical behavior of the forces for 17 galaxies whose luminosity and matter distribution in the disk, bulge and halo components are reasonably well known. The preliminary results of the study of the motion of a dust grain for NGC 3198 are given.

  4. Composite circumstellar dust grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ranjan; Vaidya, Dipak B.; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5-25 μm. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18 μm. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-type and asymptotic giant branch stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes, shape, composition and dust temperature.

  5. Grain quality inspection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, C. A., Jr.; Singletow, D. P.; James, S. N.

    1979-01-01

    A review of grain quality indicators and measurement methods was conducted in order to assess the feasibility of using remote sensing technology to develop a continuous monitoring system for use during grain transfer operations. Most detection methods were found to be too slow or too expensive to be incorporated into the normal inspection procedure of a grain elevator on a continuous basis. Two indicators, moisture content and broken corn and foreign material, show potential for automation and are of an economic value. A microprocessor based system which utilizes commercially available electronic moisture meter was developed and tested. A method for automating BCFM measurement is described. A complete system description is presented along with performance test results.

  6. Charging of interplanetary grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baragiola, R. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Newcomb, John L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this program is to quantify, by laboratory experiments, the charging of ices and other insulators subject to irradiation with electrons, ions and ultraviolet photons and to model special conditions based on the data. The system and conditions to be studied are those relevant for charging of dust in magnetospheric plasmas. The measurements are supplemented by computer simulations of charging or grains under a variety of conditions. Our work for this period involved experiments on water ice, improved models of charging of ice grains for Saturn's E-ring, and the construction of apparatus for electron impact studies and measurements of electron energy distributions.

  7. Radiative Grain Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B. G.

    2015-12-01

    Polarization due to aligned dust grains was discovered in the interstellar medium more than 60 years ago. A quantitative, observationally well tested theory of the phenomenon has finally emerged in the last decade, promising not only an improved understanding of interstellar magnetic fields, but new tools for studying the dust environments and grain characteristics. This Radiative Alignment Torque (RAT) theory also has many potential applications in solar system physics, including for comet dust characteristics. I will review the main aspects of the theory and the observational tests performed to date, as well as some of the new possibilities for using polarization as a tool to study dust and its environment, with RAT alignment.

  8. Grain optical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanner, Martha

    1988-01-01

    The optical properties of small grains provide the link between the infrared observations presented in Chapter 1 and the dust composition described in Chapter 3. In this session, the optical properties were discussed from the viewpoint of modeling the emission from the dust coma and the scattering in order to draw inference about the dust size distribution and composition. The optical properties are applied to the analysis of the infrared data in several ways, and these different uses should be kept in mind when judging the validity of the methods for applying optical constants to real grains.

  9. Grain boundary curvature and grain growth kinetics with particle pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahandeh, Sina; Militzer, Matthias

    2013-08-01

    Second-phase particles are used extensively in design of polycrystalline materials to control the grain size. According to Zener's theory, a distribution of particles creates a pinning pressure on a moving grain boundary. As a result, a limiting grain size is observed, but the effect of pinning on the detail of grain growth kinetics is less known. The influence of the particles on the microstructure occurs in multiple length scales, established by particle radius and the grain size. In this article, we use a meso-scale phase-field model that simulates grain growth in the presence of a uniform pinning pressure. The curvature of the grain boundary network is measured to determine the driving pressure of grain growth in 2D and 3D systems. It was observed that the grain growth continues, even under conditions where the average driving pressure is smaller than the pinning pressure. The limiting grain size is reached when the maximum of driving pressure distribution in the structure is equal to the pinning pressure. This results in a limiting grain size, larger than the one predicted by conventional models, and further analysis shows consistency with experimental observations. A physical model is proposed for the kinetics of grain growth using parameters based on the curvature analysis of the grain boundaries. This model can describe the simulated grain growth kinetics.

  10. Beta-glucan-depleted, glycopeptide-rich extracts from Brewer's and Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) lower interferon-gamma production by stimulated human blood cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Williams, Roderick; Dias, Daniel A; Jayasinghe, Nirupama; Roessner, Ute; Bennett, Louise E

    2016-04-15

    Regulation of the human immune system requires controlled pro- and anti-inflammatory responses for host defence against infection and disease states. Yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), as used in brewing and baking, are mostly known for ability to stimulate the human immune-system predominantly reflecting the pro-inflammatory cell wall β-glucans. However, in this study, using food-compatible processing methods, glycopeptide-enriched and β-glucan-depleted products were each prepared from Brewer's and Baker's yeasts, which suppressed production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in human whole blood cell assay, signifying that anti-inflammatory factors are also present in yeast. Anti-inflammatory bioactivities of products prepared from Brewer's and Baker's yeast were compared with the commercial yeast product, Epicor®. While unfractionated Epicor was inactive, the C18 resin-binding fractions of Brewer's and Baker's yeast products and Epicor dose-dependently lowered IFN-γ, demonstrating that Epicor also contained both pro-inflammatory (β-glucans) and anti-inflammatory components. Anti-inflammatory activity was attributed to C18 resin-binding species glyco-peptides in Epicor and experimental yeast products. This study demonstrated that pro- and anti-inflammatory factors could be resolved and enriched in yeasts by suitable processing, with potential to improve specific activities.

  11. Investigations of the effects of air quality on surface UV solar radiation using measurements from the NOAA-EPA Brewer UV Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, K. O.; Kiedron, P.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Lichtenberger, A.

    2009-12-01

    Effects of air quality on the variability of erythemally-weighted solar irradiance and ultraviolet spectral solar irradiance is explored at five sites of the NOAA-EPA Brewer UV network (NEUBrew). NEUBrew site locations include Table Mountain near Boulder, CO, Bondville, IL, Fort Peck, MT, Raleigh, NC, and Houston, TX. The NEUBrew UV Network consists of Mark IV Brewer spectrophotometers and provides UV spectral solar irradiance, total ozone, and ozone profiles. Tropospheric ozone column is calculated from Umkehr retrievals from the Brewer spectrophotometer and is compared with NOAA ozone-sondes at the Boulder, CO. The NEUBrew locations were chosen because of proximity to sites from the SURFRAD Network and the USDA UV Network to provide cloud and aerosol optical properties in the ultraviolet and visible regions. A cloud screening algorithm is used to limit analysis to cloud free days. Using model calculations from the Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible Radiative Transfer Model (TUV-RTM) and ground-based UV solar irradiance measurements, UV spectral “transmittance factors” are computed. The sensitivity of UV solar radiation is investigated statistically as a function of solar zenith angle, total ozone, tropospheric ozone column, and aerosol optical depth.

  12. Beta-glucan-depleted, glycopeptide-rich extracts from Brewer's and Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) lower interferon-gamma production by stimulated human blood cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Williams, Roderick; Dias, Daniel A; Jayasinghe, Nirupama; Roessner, Ute; Bennett, Louise E

    2016-04-15

    Regulation of the human immune system requires controlled pro- and anti-inflammatory responses for host defence against infection and disease states. Yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), as used in brewing and baking, are mostly known for ability to stimulate the human immune-system predominantly reflecting the pro-inflammatory cell wall β-glucans. However, in this study, using food-compatible processing methods, glycopeptide-enriched and β-glucan-depleted products were each prepared from Brewer's and Baker's yeasts, which suppressed production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in human whole blood cell assay, signifying that anti-inflammatory factors are also present in yeast. Anti-inflammatory bioactivities of products prepared from Brewer's and Baker's yeast were compared with the commercial yeast product, Epicor®. While unfractionated Epicor was inactive, the C18 resin-binding fractions of Brewer's and Baker's yeast products and Epicor dose-dependently lowered IFN-γ, demonstrating that Epicor also contained both pro-inflammatory (β-glucans) and anti-inflammatory components. Anti-inflammatory activity was attributed to C18 resin-binding species glyco-peptides in Epicor and experimental yeast products. This study demonstrated that pro- and anti-inflammatory factors could be resolved and enriched in yeasts by suitable processing, with potential to improve specific activities. PMID:26617014

  13. 78 FR 3853 - Retrievability, Cladding Integrity and Safe Handling of Spent Fuel at an Independent Spent Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 71 and 72 Retrievability, Cladding Integrity and Safe Handling of Spent Fuel at an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation and During Transportation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... transport of spent nuclear fuel are separate from requirements for storage of spent nuclear fuel....

  14. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section 148.275 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE... be transported on open hold all-steel barges after exposure to air for a period of at least ten days....

  15. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section 148.275 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE... be transported on open hold all-steel barges after exposure to air for a period of at least ten days....

  16. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section 148.275 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE... be transported on open hold all-steel barges after exposure to air for a period of at least ten days....

  17. Chemical and physical characterization of electrode materials of spent sealed Ni-Cd batteries.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C A; Margarido, F

    2007-01-01

    The present work aimed at the chemical and physical characterization of spent sealed MONO-type Ni-Cd batteries, contributing to a better definition of the recycling process of these spent products. The electrode material containing essentially nickel, cadmium and some cobalt corresponds to approximately 49% of the weight of the batteries. The remaining components are the steel parts from the external case and the supporting grids (40%) containing Fe and Ni, the electrolyte (9%) and the plastic components (2%). Elemental quantitative analysis showed that the electrodes are highly concentrated in metals. The phase identification achieved by X-ray powder diffraction combined with chemical analysis and leaching tests allowed the authors to proceed with the composition of the electrode materials as following: cathode: 28.7% metallic Ni, 53.3% Ni(OH)2, 6.8% Cd(OH)2 and 2.8% Co(OH)2; anode: 39.4% metallic Ni and 57.0% Cd(OH)2. The morphology of the electrodes was studied by microscopic techniques and two phases were observed in the electrodes: (1) a bright metallic phase constituted of small nickel grains that acts as conductor, and (2) the main hydroxide phase of the active electrodes into which the nickel grains are dispersed. The disaggregation of the electrode particles from the supporting plates was easily obtained during the dismantling procedures, indicating that a substantial percentage of the electrodes can be efficiently separated by wet sieving after shredding the spent batteries.

  18. Chemical and physical characterization of electrode materials of spent sealed Ni-Cd batteries.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C A; Margarido, F

    2007-01-01

    The present work aimed at the chemical and physical characterization of spent sealed MONO-type Ni-Cd batteries, contributing to a better definition of the recycling process of these spent products. The electrode material containing essentially nickel, cadmium and some cobalt corresponds to approximately 49% of the weight of the batteries. The remaining components are the steel parts from the external case and the supporting grids (40%) containing Fe and Ni, the electrolyte (9%) and the plastic components (2%). Elemental quantitative analysis showed that the electrodes are highly concentrated in metals. The phase identification achieved by X-ray powder diffraction combined with chemical analysis and leaching tests allowed the authors to proceed with the composition of the electrode materials as following: cathode: 28.7% metallic Ni, 53.3% Ni(OH)2, 6.8% Cd(OH)2 and 2.8% Co(OH)2; anode: 39.4% metallic Ni and 57.0% Cd(OH)2. The morphology of the electrodes was studied by microscopic techniques and two phases were observed in the electrodes: (1) a bright metallic phase constituted of small nickel grains that acts as conductor, and (2) the main hydroxide phase of the active electrodes into which the nickel grains are dispersed. The disaggregation of the electrode particles from the supporting plates was easily obtained during the dismantling procedures, indicating that a substantial percentage of the electrodes can be efficiently separated by wet sieving after shredding the spent batteries. PMID:17166709

  19. Edible grain legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible grain legumes including dry bean, dry pea, chickpeas, and lentils, have served as important sources of protein for human diets for thousands of years. In the US, these crops are predominately produced for export markets. The objective of this study was to examine yield gains in these crops ov...

  20. Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation - spent-fuel-characterization program - October-December revised quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, R.J.

    1981-02-14

    The Waste Form Assessment task is evaluating the relative in-repository performance of five waste forms, especially their ability to retard the release of radionuclides. In order to reduce these basic waste form variations to a series of well-defined cases, a matrix was developed incorporating all significant variables. Construction of this matrix produced a total of 13 combinations of system variables. These 13 combinations are under evaluation for prebreach and post-breach performance relative to criteria for support aginst lithostatic pressure, long-term stability for radionuclide retention, minimization of cladding degradation, breach of the canister by possible gas pressurization, heat transfer, and criticality. Performance of each of the 13 waste form/stabilizer combinations for four temperature ranges is also being evaluated. Spent fuel characterization and degradation studies initiated this quarter have identified surface area, surface structure, grain boundary conditions, fission product positions, fuel phases, and valence states as important fuel characteristics which might significantly influence the dissolution and leaching rates of radionuclides. An analysis of prepressurization gas and fission gas release from spent fuel during geologic disposal was completed. Based on a typical proposed canister and repository design, even under worst case, highly improbable release scenarios, gas pressurization presents no harmful effects to the waste form, package or repository. Fuel assembly structural and fracture mechanics analyses of spent fuel under disposal cycle dynamic loading conditions were completed. Results show negligible damage to spent fuel assemblies because the resulting stresses are low under normal expected transportation and disposal cycle conditions.

  1. Geomechanics of the Spent Fuel Test: Climax

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, D.G.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1987-07-01

    Three years of geomechanical measurements were made at the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) 1400 feet underground in fractured granitic rock. Heating of the rock mass resulted from emplacement of spent fuel as well as the heating by electrical heaters. Cooldown of the rock occurred after the spent fuel was removed and the heaters were turned off. The measurements program examines both gross and localized responses of the rock mass to thermal loading, to evaluate the thermomechanical response of sheared and fractured rock with that of relatively unfractured rock, to compare the magnitudes of displacements during mining with those induced by extensive heating of the rock mass, and to check assumptions regarding symmetry and damaged zones made in numerical modeling of the SFT-C. 28 refs., 113 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  3. Laser surveillance system for spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S; Zucker, M S; Bieber, Jr, A M

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a laser system and have used it with a simulated BWR assembly. The reflected signal from the zircaloy rods depends on the position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of background with no assembly.

  4. Laser Surveillance System for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M. S.; Bieber, Jr., A. M.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools (SFSP's) will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a full size laser system operating in air and have used an array of 6 zircaloy BWR tubes to simulate an assembly. The reflective signal from the zircaloy rods is a strong function of position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of the background with no assembly. A design for a SFSP laser surveillance system incorporating laser ranging is discussed. 10 figures.

  5. Dust grain charging in a wake of other grains

    SciTech Connect

    Miloch, W. J.; Block, D.

    2012-12-15

    The charging of dust grain in the wake of another grains in sonic and supersonic collisionless plasma flows is studied by numerical simulations. We consider two grains aligned with the flow, as well as dust chains and multiple grain arrangements. It is found that the dust charge depends significantly on the flow speed, distance between the grains, and the grain arrangement. For two and three grains aligned, the charges on downstream grains depend linearly on the flow velocity and intergrain distance. The simulations are carried out with DiP3D, a three dimensional particle-in-cell code with both electrons and ions represented as numerical particles [W. J. Miloch et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 103703 (2010)].

  6. Contribution of energetically reactive surface features to the dissolution of CeO2 and ThO2 analogues for spent nuclear fuel microstructures.

    PubMed

    Corkhill, Claire L; Myllykylä, Emmi; Bailey, Daniel J; Thornber, Stephanie M; Qi, Jiahui; Maldonado, Pablo; Stennett, Martin C; Hamilton, Andrea; Hyatt, Neil C

    2014-08-13

    In the safety case for the geological disposal of nuclear waste, the release of radioactivity from the repository is controlled by the dissolution of the spent fuel in groundwater. There remain several uncertainties associated with understanding spent fuel dissolution, including the contribution of energetically reactive surface sites to the dissolution rate. In this study, we investigate how surface features influence the dissolution rate of synthetic CeO2 and ThO2, spent nuclear fuel analogues that approximate as closely as possible the microstructure characteristics of fuel-grade UO2 but are not sensitive to changes in oxidation state of the cation. The morphology of grain boundaries (natural features) and surface facets (specimen preparation-induced features) was investigated during dissolution. The effects of surface polishing on dissolution rate were also investigated. We show that preferential dissolution occurs at grain boundaries, resulting in grain boundary decohesion and enhanced dissolution rates. A strong crystallographic control was exerted, with high misorientation angle grain boundaries retreating more rapidly than those with low misorientation angles, which may be due to the accommodation of defects in the grain boundary structure. The data from these simplified analogue systems support the hypothesis that grain boundaries play a role in the so-called "instant release fraction" of spent fuel, and should be carefully considered, in conjunction with other chemical effects, in safety performance assessements for the geological disposal of spent fuel. Surface facets formed during the sample annealing process also exhibited a strong crystallographic control and were found to dissolve rapidly on initial contact with dissolution medium. Defects and strain induced during sample polishing caused an overestimation of the dissolution rate, by up to 3 orders of magnitude.

  7. Spent Fuel Background Report Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, D.

    1994-03-01

    This report is an overview of current spent nuclear fuel management in the DOE complex. Sources of information include published literature, internal DOE documents, interviews with site personnel, and information provided by individual sites. Much of the specific information on facilities and fuels was provided by the DOE sites in response to the questionnaire for data for spent fuels and facilities data bases. This information is as accurate as is currently available, but is subject to revision pending results of further data calls. Spent fuel is broadly classified into three categories: (a) production fuels, (b) special fuels, and (c) naval fuels. Production fuels, comprising about 80% of the total inventory, are those used at Hanford and Savannah River to produce nuclear materials for defense. Special fuels are those used in a wide variety of research, development, and testing activities. Special fuels include fuel from DOE and commercial reactors used in research activities at DOE sites. Naval fuels are those developed and used for nuclear-powered naval vessels and for related research and development. Given the recent DOE decision to curtail reprocessing, the topic of main concern in the management of spent fuel is its storage. Of the DOE sites that have spent nuclear fuel, the vast majority is located at three sites-Hanford, INEL, and Savannah River. Other sites with spent fuel include Oak Ridge, West Valley, Brookhaven, Argonne, Los Alamos, and Sandia. B&W NESI Lynchburg Technology Center and General Atomics are commercial facilities with DOE fuel. DOE may also receive fuel from foreign research reactors, university reactors, and other commercial and government research reactors. Most DOE spent fuel is stored in water-filled pools at the reactor facilities. Currently an engineering study is being performed to determine the feasibility of using dry storage for DOE-owned spent fuel currently stored at various facilities. Delays in opening the deep geologic

  8. Apparatus for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Weil, Bradley S.; Metz, III, Curtis F.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies of the type comprising an array of fuel pins disposed within an outer metal shell or shroud. A spent fuel assembly is first compacted in a known manner and then incrementally sheared using fixed and movable shear blades having matched laterally projecting teeth which slidably intermesh to provide the desired shearing action. Incremental advancement of the fuel assembly after each shear cycle is limited to a distance corresponding to the lateral projection of the teeth to ensure fuel assembly breakup into small uniform segments which are amenable to remote chemical processing.

  9. Method for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Weil, Bradley S.; Watson, Clyde D.

    1977-01-01

    A method is disclosed for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies of the type wherein a plurality of long metal tubes packed with ceramic fuel are supported in a spaced apart relationship within an outer metal shell or shroud which provides structural support to the assembly. Spent nuclear fuel assemblies are first compacted in a stepwise manner between specially designed gag-compactors and then sheared into short segments amenable to chemical processing by shear blades contoured to mate with the compacted surface of the fuel assembly.

  10. Spent Nuclear Fuel Transport Reliability Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    This conference paper was orignated and shorten from the following publisehd PTS documents: 1. Jy-An Wang, Hao Jiang, and Hong Wang, Dynamic Deformation Simulation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assembly and CIRFT Deformation Sensor Stability Investigation, ORNL/SPR-2015/662, November 2015. 2. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High-Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications, NUREG/CR-7198, ORNL/TM-2014/214, May 2015. 3. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Hao Jiang, Yong Yan, Bruce Bevard, Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study 16332, WM2016 Conference, March 6 10, 2016, Phoenix, Arizona.

  11. Fabrication Characteristics of Large Grain DUPIC Fuel Using SIMFUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Geun IL; Lee, Jung Won; Lee, Jae Won; Yang, Myung Seung; Song, Kee Chan

    2007-07-01

    Fabrication characteristics to improve the density and grain size of DUPIC fuel with relation to its fuel performance were experimentally evaluated using SIMFUEL as a surrogate for an actual spent PWR fuel due to the high radioactivity of a spent fuel. Hence, SIMFUELs with a burn-up of 35,000 MWd/tU and 60,000 MWd/tU were used to investigate the influence of fission products contents as an impurity on the fuel powder properties and on the density and grain size of a simulated DUPIC pellet. In order to improve the densification and grain growth of the simulated DUPIC fuel, the effect of the addition of sintering aids was investigated. The specific surface area of the OREOX powders was increased with an increase of the impurities by the dissolved oxides in UO{sub 2} among the impurity groups. The specific surface area of the powders milled after the OXREOX treatment was slightly higher than the UO{sub 2} powder used for a nuclear power plant, thus resulting in sintered pellets with a higher than 95% T.D. (theoretical density). The grain size of the sintered pellets was significantly decreased with increasing amount of the metallic and oxide precipitates. However, on adding the sintering aids such as TiO{sub 2} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the grain size of the sintering aids-doped pellets was greatly improved by up to around 3 times that of the raw pellets and their sintered density was also increased by up to 2%. (authors)

  12. Oxidation of spent fuel in air at 175{degree} to 195{degree}C

    SciTech Connect

    Einziger, R.E.; Buchanan, H.C.; Thomas, L.E.; Stout, R.B.

    1992-04-01

    Oxidation tests in dry air were conducted on four LWR spent fuels at 175{degrees} and 195{degrees}C to determine the effect of the fuel characteristics on the oxidation state likely to exist at the time leaching occurs in a potential repository. Weight changes were measured and samples were examined by XRD, ceramography, TEM, and TGA. Despite local variations in the grain boundary susceptibility to oxidation, all four fuels progressed toward an apparent endpoint at an oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio of 2.4. The sole oxidation product was U{sub 4}O{sub 9+x,} a cubic phase structurally related to UO{sub 2} but with a slightly smaller lattice constant. The growth of the U{sub 4}O{sub 9+x} from the grain boundaries into the UO{sub 2} grains followed parabolic kinetics and had an activation energy of 26.6 kcal/mol. Based on the kinetics, the time required at 95{degrees}C to completely oxidize LWR spent fuel to U{sub 4}O{sub 9+x} would be at least 2000 yr. The next oxidation product to form after the U{sub 4}O{sub 9+x} phase may be U{sub 3}O{sub 8,} but no U{sub 3}O{sub 8} or other dilatational oxidation product has been detected in these accelerated tests conducted up to 25,000 h.

  13. Oxidation of spent fuel in air at 175 degree to 195 degree C

    SciTech Connect

    Einziger, R.E.; Buchanan, H.C.; Thomas, L.E. ); Stout, R.B. )

    1992-04-01

    Oxidation tests in dry air were conducted on four LWR spent fuels at 175{degrees} and 195{degrees}C to determine the effect of the fuel characteristics on the oxidation state likely to exist at the time leaching occurs in a potential repository. Weight changes were measured and samples were examined by XRD, ceramography, TEM, and TGA. Despite local variations in the grain boundary susceptibility to oxidation, all four fuels progressed toward an apparent endpoint at an oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio of 2.4. The sole oxidation product was U{sub 4}O{sub 9+x,} a cubic phase structurally related to UO{sub 2} but with a slightly smaller lattice constant. The growth of the U{sub 4}O{sub 9+x} from the grain boundaries into the UO{sub 2} grains followed parabolic kinetics and had an activation energy of 26.6 kcal/mol. Based on the kinetics, the time required at 95{degrees}C to completely oxidize LWR spent fuel to U{sub 4}O{sub 9+x} would be at least 2000 yr. The next oxidation product to form after the U{sub 4}O{sub 9+x} phase may be U{sub 3}O{sub 8,} but no U{sub 3}O{sub 8} or other dilatational oxidation product has been detected in these accelerated tests conducted up to 25,000 h.

  14. Grain rotation mediated by grain boundary dislocations in nanocrystalline platinum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihua; Teng, Jiao; Liu, Pan; Hirata, Akihiko; Ma, En; Zhang, Ze; Chen, Mingwei; Han, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Grain rotation is a well-known phenomenon during high (homologous) temperature deformation and recrystallization of polycrystalline materials. In recent years, grain rotation has also been proposed as a plasticity mechanism at low temperatures (for example, room temperature for metals), especially for nanocrystalline grains with diameter d less than ~15 nm. Here, in tensile-loaded Pt thin films under a high-resolution transmission electron microscope, we show that the plasticity mechanism transitions from cross-grain dislocation glide in larger grains (d>6 nm) to a mode of coordinated rotation of multiple grains for grains with d<6 nm. The mechanism underlying the grain rotation is dislocation climb at the grain boundary, rather than grain boundary sliding or diffusional creep. Our atomic-scale images demonstrate directly that the evolution of the misorientation angle between neighbouring grains can be quantitatively accounted for by the change of the Frank–Bilby dislocation content in the grain boundary. PMID:25030380

  15. History of Presolar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Papers on the History of Presolar Grains. This has been a very productive period in which much of the laboratory work conducted in the previous year and during this funding cycle were brought to completion. In the last year we have published or submitted for peer review 4 research papers, 4 review papers, and 11 abstracts in research areas supported under this grant. Brief synopses of the results of the research papers are presented, followed by short summaries of the topics discussed in the review papers. Several areas of research are of course being actively pursued, and the appended list of abstracts gives citations to this ongoing work. In a paper submitted to the Astrophysical Journal, the results of an investigation into the physical conditions in the mass outflows of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) carbon stars that are required for the formation of micron-sized presolar graphite grains, with and without previously formed internal crystals of titanium carbide (TIC) are reported.

  16. FINE GRAIN NUCLEAR EMULSION

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, A.J.

    1962-04-24

    A method of preparing nuclear track emulsions having mean grain sizes less than 0.1 microns is described. The method comprises adding silver nitrate to potassium bromide at a rate at which there is always a constant, critical excess of silver ions. For minimum size grains, the silver ion concentration is maintained at the critical level of about pAg 2.0 to 5.0 during prectpitation, pAg being defined as the negative logarithm of the silver ion concentration. It is preferred to eliminate the excess silver at the conclusion of the precipitation steps. The emulsion is processed by methods in all other respects generally similar to the methods of the prior art. (AEC)

  17. Isotropic Monte Carlo Grain Growth

    2013-04-25

    IMCGG performs Monte Carlo simulations of normal grain growth in metals on a hexagonal grid in two dimensions with periodic boundary conditions. This may be performed with either an isotropic or a misorientation - and incliantion-dependent grain boundary energy.

  18. Development and engineering plan for graphite spent fuels conditioning program

    SciTech Connect

    Bendixsen, C.L.; Fillmore, D.L.; Kirkham, R.J.; Lord, D.L.; Phillips, M.B.; Pinto, A.P.; Staiger, M.D.

    1993-09-01

    Irradiated (or spent) graphite fuel stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) includes Fort St. Vrain (FSV) reactor and Peach Bottom reactor spent fuels. Conditioning and disposal of spent graphite fuels presently includes three broad alternatives: (1) direct disposal with minimum fuel packaging or conditioning, (2) mechanical disassembly of spent fuel into high-level waste and low-level waste portions to minimize geologic repository requirements, and (3) waste-volume reduction via burning of bulk graphite and other spent fuel chemical processing of the spent fuel. A multi-year program for the engineering development and demonstration of conditioning processes is described. Program costs, schedules, and facility requirements are estimated.

  19. How Time Is Spent in Elementary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenshine, Barak V.

    2015-01-01

    The Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study (BTES) provides valuable information on how time is spent in elementary classrooms. Some of the major topics are: the average minutes per day which students spend engaged in reading and math activities, student engagement rates in different settings (that is, teacher-led settings versus seatwork) and…

  20. Temperature for Spent Fuel Dry Storage

    1992-07-13

    DATING (Determining Allowable Temperatures in Inert and Nitrogen Gases) calculates allowable initial temperatures for dry storage of light-water-reactor spent fuel and the cumulative damage fraction of Zircaloy cladding for specified initial storage temperature and stress and cooling histories. It is made available to ensure compliance with NUREG 10CFR Part 72, Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Although the program''s principal purpose is to calculate estimatesmore » of allowable temperature limits, estimates for creep strain, annealing fraction, and life fraction as a function of storage time are also provided. Equations for the temperature of spent fuel in inert and nitrogen gas storage are included explicitly in the code; in addition, an option is included for a user-specified cooling history in tabular form, and tables of the temperature and stress dependencies of creep-strain rate and creep-rupture time for Zircaloy at constant temperature and constant stress or constant ratio of stress/modulus can be created. DATING includes the GEAR package for the numerical solution of the rate equations and DPLOT for plotting the time-dependence of the calculated cumulative damage-fraction, creep strain, radiation damage recovery, and temperature decay.« less

  1. Corrosion of spent Advanced Test Reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, L.B.; Croson, M.L.

    1994-11-01

    The results of a study of the condition of spent nuclear fuel elements from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) currently being stored underwater at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are presented. This study was motivated by a need to estimate the corrosion behavior of dried, spent ATR fuel elements during dry storage for periods up to 50 years. The study indicated that the condition of spent ATR fuel elements currently stored underwater at the INEL is not very well known. Based on the limited data and observed corrosion behavior in the reactor and in underwater storage, it was concluded that many of the fuel elements currently stored under water in the facility called ICPP-603 FSF are in a degraded condition, and it is probable that many have breached cladding. The anticipated dehydration behavior of corroded spent ATR fuel elements was also studied, and a list of issues to be addressed by fuel element characterization before and after forced drying of the fuel elements and during dry storage is presented.

  2. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    SciTech Connect

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-20

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  3. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  4. Grain-grain interaction in stationary dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lampe, Martin; Joyce, Glenn

    2015-02-15

    We present a particle-in-cell simulation study of the steady-state interaction between two stationary dust grains in uniform stationary plasma. Both the electrostatic force and the shadowing force on the grains are calculated explicitly. The electrostatic force is always repulsive. For two grains of the same size, the electrostatic force is very nearly equal to the shielded electric field due to a single isolated grain, acting on the charge of the other grain. For two grains of unequal size, the electrostatic force on the smaller grain is smaller than the isolated-grain field, and the force on the larger grain is larger than the isolated-grain field. In all cases, the attractive shadowing force exceeds the repulsive electrostatic force when the grain separation d is greater than an equilibrium separation d{sub 0}. d{sub 0} is found to be between 6λ{sub D} and 9λ{sub D} in all cases. The binding energy is estimated to be between 19 eV and 900 eV for various cases.

  5. Special Grain Boundaries in Ultrafine-Grained Tungsten.

    PubMed

    Dudka, O V; Ksenofontov, V A; Sadanov, E V; Starchenko, I V; Mazilova, T I; Mikhailovskij, I M

    2016-12-01

    Field ion microscopy and computer simulation were used for the study of an atomic structure high-angle grain boundary in hard-drawn ultrafine-grained tungsten wire. These boundaries with special misorientations are beyond the scope of the coincident site lattice model. It was demonstrated that the special non-coincident grain boundaries are the plane-matching boundaries, and rigid-body displacements of adjacent nanograins are normal to the <110> misorientation axis. The vectors of rigid-body translations of grains are described by broad asymmetric statistical distribution. Mathematical modeling showed that special incommensurate boundaries with one grain oriented along the {211} plane have comparatively high cohesive energies. The grain-boundary dislocations ½<110> were revealed and studied at the line of local mismatch of {110} atomic planes of adjacent grains. PMID:27416905

  6. Special Grain Boundaries in Ultrafine-Grained Tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudka, O. V.; Ksenofontov, V. A.; Sadanov, E. V.; Starchenko, I. V.; Mazilova, T. I.; Mikhailovskij, I. M.

    2016-07-01

    Field ion microscopy and computer simulation were used for the study of an atomic structure high-angle grain boundary in hard-drawn ultrafine-grained tungsten wire. These boundaries with special misorientations are beyond the scope of the coincident site lattice model. It was demonstrated that the special non-coincident grain boundaries are the plane-matching boundaries, and rigid-body displacements of adjacent nanograins are normal to the <110> misorientation axis. The vectors of rigid-body translations of grains are described by broad asymmetric statistical distribution. Mathematical modeling showed that special incommensurate boundaries with one grain oriented along the {211} plane have comparatively high cohesive energies. The grain-boundary dislocations ½<110> were revealed and studied at the line of local mismatch of {110} atomic planes of adjacent grains.

  7. Numerical Estimation of the Spent Fuel Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Durbin, Samuel; Wilke, Jason; Margraf, J.; Dunn, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Sabotage of spent nuclear fuel casks remains a concern nearly forty years after attacks against shipment casks were first analyzed and has a renewed relevance in the post-9/11 environment. A limited number of full-scale tests and supporting efforts using surrogate materials, typically depleted uranium dioxide (DUO 2 ), have been conducted in the interim to more definitively determine the source term from these postulated events. However, the validity of these large- scale results remain in question due to the lack of a defensible spent fuel ratio (SFR), defined as the amount of respirable aerosol generated by an attack on a mass of spent fuel compared to that of an otherwise identical surrogate. Previous attempts to define the SFR in the 1980's have resulted in estimates ranging from 0.42 to 12 and include suboptimal experimental techniques and data comparisons. Because of the large uncertainty surrounding the SFR, estimates of releases from security-related events may be unnecessarily conservative. Credible arguments exist that the SFR does not exceed a value of unity. A defensible determination of the SFR in this lower range would greatly reduce the calculated risk associated with the transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask systems. In the present work, the shock physics codes CTH and ALE3D were used to simulate spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and DUO 2 targets impacted by a high-velocity jet at an ambient temperature condition. These preliminary results are used to illustrate an approach to estimate the respirable release fraction for each type of material and ultimately, an estimate of the SFR. This page intentionally blank

  8. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Spent Fuel Casks

    1997-10-08

    COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) is a code for thermal-hydraulic analysis of multi-assembly spent fuel storage and transportation systems. It uses a lumped parameter finite difference approach to predict flow and temperature distributions in spent fuel storage systems and fuel assemblies, under forced and natural convection heat transfer conditions. Derived from the COBRA family of codes, which have been extensively evaluated against in-pile and out-of-pile data, COBRA-SFS retains all the important features of the COBRA codesmore » for single phase fluid analysis, and extends the range application to include problems with two-dimensional radiative and three-dimensional conductive heat transfer. COBRA-SFS has been used to analyze various single- and multi-assembly spent fuel storage systems containing unconsolidated and consolidated fuel rods, with a variety of fill media, including air, helium and vacuum. Cycle 0 of COBRA-SFS was released in 1986. Subsequent applications of the code led to development of additional capabilities, which resulted in the release of Cycle 1 in February 1989. Since then, the code has undergone an independent technical review as part of a submittal to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a generic license to apply the code to spent fuel storage system analysis. Modifications and improvements to the code have been combined to form Cycle 2. Cycle 3., the newest version of COBRA-SFS, has been validated and verified for transient applications, such as a storage cask thermal response to a pool fire.« less

  9. Spent fuel dissolution rates as a function of burnup and water chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, W.J.

    1998-06-01

    To help provide a source term for performance-assessment calculations, dissolution studies on light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuel have been conducted over the past few years at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This report describes that work for fiscal years 1996 through mid-1998 and includes summaries of some results from previous years for completeness. The following conclusions were based on the results of various flowthrough dissolution rate tests and on tests designed to measure the inventories of {sup 129}I located within the fuel/cladding gap region of different spent fuels: (1) Spent fuels with burnups in the range 30 to 50 MWd/kgM all dissolved at about the same rate over the conditions tested. To help determine whether the lack of burnup dependence extends to higher and lower values, tests are in progress or planned for spent fuels with burnups of 13 and {approximately} 65 MWd/kgM. (2) Oxidation of spent fuel up to the U{sub 4}O{sub 9+x} stage does not have a large effect on intrinsic dissolution rates. However, this degree of oxidation could increase the dissolution rates of relatively intact fuel by opening the grain boundaries, thereby increasing the effective surface area that is available for contact by water. From a disposal viewpoint, this is a potentially more important consideration than the effect on intrinsic rates. (3) The gap inventories of {sup 129}I were found to be smaller than the fission gas release (FGR) for the same fuel rod with the exception of the rod with the highest FGR. Several additional fuels would have to be tested to determine whether a generalized relationship exists between FGR and {sup 129}I gap inventory for US LWR fuels.

  10. Swash mark and grain flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H.

    1981-01-01

    Swash marks composed entirely of coarse sand are commonly found on coarse-sand beaches. These swash marks are 10 to 30 centimeters in width and a few millimeters to one centimeter in height. Previous observations, mostly on finer-sand beaches, indicate swash marks are seldom over a few millimeters in height and are commonly composed of material readily floated by surface tension (e.g., mica flakes and shell fragments). Swash marks composed of coarse sand have both fining seaward and fining with depth trends in grain size. Apparently, the leading margin of a wave upwash drives a highly concentrated flow of grains in which both grain size and grain velocity decrease with depth. Therefore, large grains are transported at greater velocities than are smaller grains. Thus, at the maximum advance of an upwash, a swash mark is deposited which has the observed fining seaward and fining with depth trends in grain size.

  11. Report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel discusses the technical, regulatory, and economic aspects of spent-fuel storage at nuclear reactors. The report is intended to provide legislators state officials and citizens in the Midwest with information on spent-fuel inventories, current and projected additional storage requirements, licensing, storage technologies, and actions taken by various utilities in the Midwest to augment their capacity to store spent nuclear fuel on site.

  12. Energy concentration and phosphorus digestibility in yeast products produced from the ethanol industry, and in brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, B G; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2014-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the DE, ME, and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in 2 novel sources of yeast (C-yeast and S-yeast) and in brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal fed to growing pigs. The 2 new sources of yeast are coproducts from the dry-grind ethanol industry. The concentrations of DM, GE, and P were 94.8%, 5,103 kcal/kg, and 1.07% in C-yeast; 94.4%, 4,926 kcal/kg, and 2.01% in S-yeast; 93.6%, 4,524 kcal/kg, and 1.40% in brewers' yeast; 91.4%, 4,461 kcal/kg, and 3.26% in fish meal; and 87.7%, 4,136 kcal/kg, and 0.70% in soybean meal, respectively. The DE and ME in each of the ingredients were determined using 42 growing barrows (28.9±2.18 kg BW). A corn-based basal diet and 5 diets containing corn and 24% to 40% of each test ingredient were formulated. The total collection method was used to collect feces and urine, and the difference procedure was used to calculate values for DE and ME in each ingredient. The concentrations of DE in corn, C-yeast, S-yeast, brewers' yeast, fish meal, and soybean meal were 4,004, 4,344, 4,537, 4,290, 4,544, and 4,362 kcal/kg DM (SEM=57), respectively, and the ME values were 3,879, 3,952, 4,255, 3,771, 4,224, and 4,007 kcal/kg DM (SEM=76), respectively. The ME in S-yeast and fish meal were greater (P<0.05) than the ME in corn and brewers' yeast, whereas the ME in C-yeast and soybean meal were not different from those of any of the other ingredients. The STTD of P in the 5 ingredients was determined using 42 barrows (28.3±7.21 kg BW) that were placed in metabolism cages. Five diets were formulated to contain each test ingredient as the sole source of P, and a P-free diet was used to estimate the basal endogenous loss of P. Feces were collected for 5 d using the marker to marker method after a 5-d adaptation period. The STTD of P in brewers' yeast (85.2%) was greater (P<0.05) than the STTD of P in all the other ingredients except S-yeast (75.7%). The STTD of P in C-yeast (73.9%) was

  13. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551... Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling. (a) Time spent traveling shall be considered hours of work if: (1... who is permitted to use an alternative mode of transportation, or an employee who travels at a...

  14. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551... Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling. (a) Time spent traveling shall be considered hours of work if: (1... who is permitted to use an alternative mode of transportation, or an employee who travels at a...

  15. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention... Relation to Other Activities § 551.425 Time spent receiving medical attention. (a) Time spent waiting for and receiving medical attention for illness or injury shall be considered hours of work if: (1)...

  16. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551... Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling. (a) Time spent traveling shall be considered hours of work if: (1... who is permitted to use an alternative mode of transportation, or an employee who travels at a...

  17. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551... Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling. (a) Time spent traveling shall be considered hours of work if: (1... who is permitted to use an alternative mode of transportation, or an employee who travels at a...

  18. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551... Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling. (a) Time spent traveling shall be considered hours of work if: (1... who is permitted to use an alternative mode of transportation, or an employee who travels at a...

  19. Beneficial effect of brewers' yeast extract on daily activity in a murine model of chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Takashi; Yu, Fei; Zhu, Shi-Jie; Moriya, Junji; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Shigeto; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Kanda, Tsugiyasu

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Brewers' yeast extract (BYE) on daily activity in a mouse model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). CFS was induced by repeated injection of Brucella abortus (BA) antigen every 2 weeks. BYE was orally administered to mice in a dose of 2 g per kg per day for 2 weeks before injecting BA and for 4 weeks thereafter. We evaluated daily running activity in mice receiving BYE as compared with that in untreated mice. Weekly variation of body weight (BW) and survival in both groups was monitored during the observation period. Spleen weight (SW), SW/BW ratio, percent splenic follicular area and expression levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA in spleen were determined in both groups at the time of sacrifice. The daily activity during 2 weeks after the second BA injection was significantly higher in the treated group than in the control. There was no difference in BW between both groups through the experimental course. Two mice in the control died 2 and 7 days after the second injection, whereas no mice in the treated group died. Significantly decreased SW and SW/BW ratio were observed in the treated mice together with elevation of splenic follicular area. There were suppressed IFN-gamma and IL-10 mRNA levels in spleens from the treated mice. Our results suggest that BYE might have a protective effect on the marked reduction in activity following repeated BA injection via normalization of host immune responses.

  20. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Presolar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Presolar Silicate Grains; Presolar Silicates from Primitivr Chondrites; Oxygen and Magnesium Isotopic Ratios of Presolar Spinel Grains; Study of Two New Presolar Grains from Bishunpur Ordinary Chondrite; Extinct Technetium in Presolar Grains; etc.

  1. Spent Sealed Sources Management in Switzerland - 12011

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, H.F.

    2012-07-01

    Information is provided about the international recommendations for the safe management of disused and spent sealed radioactive sources wherein the return to the supplier or manufacturer is encouraged for large radioactive sources. The legal situation in Switzerland is described mentioning the demand of minimization of radioactive waste as well as the situation with respect to the interim storage facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Based on this information and on the market situation with a shortage of some medical radionuclides the management of spent sealed sources is provided. The sources are sorted according to their activity in relation to the nuclide-specific A2-value and either recycled as in the case of high active sources or conditioned as in the case for sources with lower activity. The results are presented as comparison between recycled and conditioned activity for three selected nuclides, i.e. Cs-137, Co-60 and Am-241. (author)

  2. Historical overview of domestic spent fuel shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.B.; Wankerl, M.W. ); Armstrong, S.; Hamberger, C., Schmid, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide available historical data on most commercial and research reactor spent fuel shipments that have been completed in the United States between 1964 and 1989. This information includes data on the sources of spent fuel that has been shipped, the types of shipping casks used, the number of fuel assemblies that have been shipped, and the number of shipments that have been made. The data are updated periodically to keep abreast of changes. Information on shipments is provided for planning purposes; to support program decisions of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM); and to inform interested members of the public, federal, state, and local government, Indian tribes, and the transportation community. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    SciTech Connect

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1998-01-30

    Product specifications are limits and controls established for each significant parameter that potentially affects safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for transport to dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the spent fuel packaged in MultiCanister Overpacks (MCOs) to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The SNF includes N Reactor fuel and single-pass reactor fuel. The FRS removes the SNF from the storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The MCO loading system places the baskets into MCO/Cask assembly packages. These packages are then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the MCO cask packages are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCOs are removed from the casks, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The key criteria necessary to achieve these goals are documented in this specification.

  4. Spent fuel container alignment device and method

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Stewart D.; Chapek, George V.

    1996-01-01

    An alignment device is used with a spent fuel shipping container including a plurality of fuel pockets for spent fuel arranged in an annular array and having a rotatable cover including an access opening therein. The alignment device includes a lightweight plate which is installed over the access opening of the cover. A laser device is mounted on the plate so as to emit a laser beam through a laser admittance window in the cover into the container in the direction of a pre-established target associated with a particular fuel pocket. An indexing arrangement on the container provides an indication of the angular position of the rotatable cover when the laser beam produced by the laser is brought into alignment with the target of the associated fuel pocket.

  5. Code System for Spent Fuel Heating Analysis.

    1999-05-24

    Version 00 SFHA calculates steady-state fuel rod temperatures for hexagon and square-fuel bundles. The code is used to perform sensitivity studies and confirmatory analyses of results submitted by applicants for spent fuel storage licenses. All three modes of heat transfer are considered; radiation, convection, and conduction. Each is modeled separately. SFHA benchmark calculations were made with test data to validate the use of a simple one-dimensional heat transfer model for estimating fuel rod temperatures. Benchmarkmore » results show that SFHA is capable of calculating spent fuel rod temperatures for square and hexagonal fuel bundles under various environments for the consolidated or unconsolidated condition. The program is menu-driven and executes automatically after all required information is entered.« less

  6. Good Grains Gone Bad: How Grain to Grain Interactions Complicate the Onset of Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, E.; Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Predictions of the onset of sediment motion are integral components of bed stability and bedload flux estimates. Mechanistic equations for initial motion employ a balance between driving and resisting forces. Driving forces are modeled as functions of the magnitude and duration of turbulence events whereas resisting forces are simply approximated by the grain weight and a static friction angle. Such resistance approximations do not include the effects of grain packing and dynamic interactions with surrounding sediment. To better understand and quantify grain resistance, we used a Discrete Element Method (DEM) model for a single test grain surrounded by a bed of smaller grains. We applied a constant external force on the test grain in each run and progressively increased the force between runs until the test grain moved out of its resting pocket. The DEM model calculated the test grain velocity, position and net force (sum of applied external force and forces from other grains) at time steps of 1×10-7 s. Despite applying a constant external force, the net force on the test grain fluctuated by three to six orders of magnitude, depending on the run. These fluctuations were driven by the creation and destruction of force chains, and the rearrangement of the positions of surrounding bed sediment. Stick-slip behavior, which has been observed in shear tests of granular material, occurred during test-grain motion. The frequency of stick-slip behavior generally declined with higher applied external forces. Therefore, the onset of grain motion was not continuous, as is often assumed even in the presence of fluctuating applied fluid forces. The duration and magnitude of turbulence fluctuations have received considerable attention but our results suggest that grain resistance oscillations are also important. Whether turbulence and resistance fluctuations are synchronous will likely dictate if grain movement occurs, and we are currently conducting model runs to better

  7. Spent fuel pool analysis using TRACE code

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Saez, F.; Carlos, S.; Villanueva, J. F.; Martorell, S.

    2012-07-01

    The storage requirements of Spent Fuel Pools have been analyzed with the purpose to increase their rack capacities. In the past, the thermal limits have been mainly evaluated with conservative codes developed for this purpose, although some works can be found in which a best estimate code is used. The use of best estimate codes is interesting as they provide more realistic calculations and they have the capability of analyzing a wide range of transients that could affect the Spent Fuel Pool. Two of the most representative thermal-hydraulic codes are RELAP-5 and TRAC. Nowadays, TRACE code is being developed to make use of the more favorable characteristics of RELAP-5 and TRAC codes. Among the components coded in TRACE that can be used to construct the model, it is interesting to use the VESSEL component, which has the capacity of reproducing three dimensional phenomena. In this work, a thermal-hydraulic model of the Maine Yankee spent fuel pool using the TRACE code is developed. Such model has been used to perform a licensing calculation and the results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements made at the pool, showing a good agreement between the calculations predicted by TRACE and the experimental data. (authors)

  8. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Perella, V.F.

    1999-11-29

    A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment.

  9. Spent Fuel Working Group Report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    O`Toole, T.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy is storing large amounts of spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials (herein referred to as RINM). In the past, the Department reprocessed RINM to recover plutonium, tritium, and other isotopes. However, the Department has ceased or is phasing out reprocessing operations. As a consequence, Department facilities designed, constructed, and operated to store RINM for relatively short periods of time now store RINM, pending decisions on the disposition of these materials. The extended use of the facilities, combined with their known degradation and that of their stored materials, has led to uncertainties about safety. To ensure that extended storage is safe (i.e., that protection exists for workers, the public, and the environment), the conditions of these storage facilities had to be assessed. The compelling need for such an assessment led to the Secretary`s initiative on spent fuel, which is the subject of this report. This report comprises three volumes: Volume I; Summary Results of the Spent Fuel Working Group Evaluation; Volume II, Working Group Assessment Team Reports and Protocol; Volume III; Operating Contractor Site Team Reports. This volume presents the overall results of the Working Group`s Evaluation. The group assessed 66 facilities spread across 11 sites. It identified: (1) facilities that should be considered for priority attention. (2) programmatic issues to be considered in decision making about interim storage plans and (3) specific vulnerabilities for some of these facilities.

  10. Dehumidification Grain Dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Lula, J.W.; Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-05-13

    A new technique developed during this project dries grain with mildly heated, dehumidified air in a closed-loop process. This proposed technique uses about one-tenth the energy and dries grain at a lower temperature, producing less damage to the kernels.Approximately 250 million automotive and truck tires are discarded each year in the U.S. The very properties that ensure a safe ride and long service life make the disposal of these scrap tires difficult. In spite of this, scrap tire recycling/reuse has rapidly grown from 10% in 1985 to over 90% today. The majority of scrap tires that are recycled/reused are burned for fuel in power plants and cement kilns. Since tires have somewhat higher heating value than coal, this would at first seem to be an acceptable option. But burning scrap tires recovers only 25% of the energy originally used to manufacture the rubber. An alternative is to use the scrap tires in the form of crumb rubber, by which 98% of the original energy is recovered. This project sought to explore potential formulations of crumb rubber with various thermoplastic binders, with one goal being developing a material for a low-cost, high-performance roofing composition. What was the state-of-the-art of the product/process prior to initiation of the project? Why was the project needed (e.g., performance, quality, cost, time to market)? Describe the strengths and interests of each party and how they are complementary with respect to the project. What KCP expertise was needed and how did it complement the partner's capabilities?

  11. Fuel requirements for grain shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Hurburgh, C.R.; Baumel, C.P.

    1985-01-01

    Fuel requirements to move grain from Iowa to export destinations were determined, based on actual fuel measurements and transportation company records. Tractor trailer trucks, barges, unit grain trains and ocean vessels were included. Generally the most fuel-efficient grain route to the Far East is through West Coast ports served by unit trains from Iowa. This route generates a 2-8 cent-per-bushel fuel cost savings from Central Iowa, relative to a routing through the Gulf of Mexico.

  12. Grain Flow at High Stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSaveney, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The transport mechanism of rapid long-runout rock avalanches was a hotly debated topic when I came on the scene in 1967. So how come it is still debated today? My explanation is that it is the expected outcome of peer review, poor comprehension, and technological advances outpacing intellectual advances. Why think about the problem when we can model it! So let us think about the problem. Shreve thought that rock avalanches fell upon and trapped a layer of air. What physics was he thinking about? It is how feathers and tissue papers fall. When my rock avalanches fly, they fly like unlubricated bricks using the physics of projectiles and ballistics. But the main transport mechanism is not flight. The dominant impression from watching a rock avalanche in motion is of fluid flow, as Heim described it in 1882. A rock avalanche is a very large grain flow. Bagnold studied dispersive grain flows, but why should one assume that rock avalanches are dispersive grain flows as many do. The more common grain flow type is a dense grain flow and rock avalanches are dense grain flows in which the weight can and does generate very high stresses at grain contacts. Brittle rock deforms elastically up to its compressive strength, whereupon it breaks, releasing elastic strain as transient elastic strain (seismic energy to a seismologist, acoustic energy to a physicist). Melosh and others have shown that acoustic energy can fluidize a grain mass. There is no exotic physics behind grain flow at high stress. When grains break, the released elastic strain has to go somewhere, and it goes somewhere principally by transmission though grain contacts. Depending on the state of stress at the grain contact, the contact will pass the stress or will slip at conventional values of Coulomb friction. Enough thinking! A physical model of the entire process is too big for any laboratory. So whose numerical model will do it?

  13. Grain refinement in undercooled metals

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, J.Z.; Yang, H.; Kui, H.W.

    1998-12-31

    Recently, it was demonstrated that grain refinement in metals can take place through two mechanisms, namely, dynamic nucleation and remelting of initially formed dendrites. In this study, it was found that Ni{sub 99.45}B{sub 0.55} undergoes grain refinement, both by dynamic nucleation or by remelting, depending on the initial bulk undercooling just before crystallization. The nature of the grain refinement process is confirmed by microstructural analysis of the undercooled specimens.

  14. Grain dust and the lungs.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Ashley, M. J.; Grzybowski, S.

    1978-01-01

    Grain dust is composed of a large number of materials, including various types of grain and their disintegration products, silica, fungi, insects and mites. The clinical syndromes described in relation to exposure to grain dust are chronic bronchitis, grain dust asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, grain fever and silo-filler's lung. Rhinitis and conjunctivitis are also common in grain workers. While the concentration and the quality of dust influence the frequency and the type of clinical syndrome in grain workers, host factors are also important. Of the latter, smoking is the most important factor influencing the frequency of chronic bronchitis. The role of atopy and of bronchial hyperreactivity in grain dust asthma has yet to be assessed. Several well designed studies are currently being carried out in North America not only to delineate the frequency of the respiratory abnormalities, the pathogenetic mechanisms and the host factors, but also to establish a meaningful threshold limit concentration for grain dust. Images p1272-a PMID:348288

  15. Grain Size and Morphological Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macmahan, J.; Gallagher, E.; Reniers, A.; Thornton, E.

    2008-12-01

    Grain size on natural beaches has traditionally been assumed to be uniform and modeling efforts assume a single mean grain size for an entire beach environment. Many recent studies contradict this assumption and suggest that sediment grain size on a beach is not homogeneous and that variations in sediment size and supply are important in sediment transport and morphodynamics at all scales. Unfortunately, measuring grain size is difficult, tedious and time consuming. Therefore, in spite of the evidence pointing to the importance of grain size in sediment transport and morphodynamics, many previous studies have been based on only a few field samples. Rubin (2004) introduced a technique for measuring surface grain size in situ in rivers and deeper coastal waters, using a digital camera and auto-correlation of digital images. Using this technique, information about the surface grain size distribution can be obtained quickly and inexpensively. Following Rubin (2004), we have developed a mobile digital imaging system (DIS) for surveying grain size on beaches. The DIS was used during two experiments: RCEX, a rip current experiment in Monterey, CA in April 2007 and Truc Vert '08, a multi-institutional, international experiment, on the Atlantic coast of France in March 2008. Preliminary results suggest that grain size varies spatially with the morphology of beach features and temporally with changes in tide level, wave energy, and morphodynamics. These data are being used to examine the relationship between morphological, sedimentological and hydrodynamic variability.

  16. Comparisons of corrected daily integrated erythemal UVR data from the U.S. EPA/UGA network of Brewer spectroradiometers with model and TOMS-inferred data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabburg, J.; Rives, J. E.; Meltzer, R. S.; Taylor, T.; Schmalzle, G.; Zheng, S.; Huang, N.; Wilson, A.; Udelhofen, P. M.

    2002-12-01

    A network of 21 Brewer spectroradiometers, owned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and operated by the University of Georgia (UGA), is measuring ultraviolet (UV) spectral irradiances throughout the United States. Corrections to the raw data for 4 of the 21 Brewers have now been implemented. These corrections include (1) the stray light rejection, (2) the cosine errors associated with the full sky diffuser, (3) the temperature dependence of the response of the instruments, and (4) the temporal variation in the instrument response due to changes in the optical characteristics of the instruments. While for many sites the total corrections amount to less than 10%, for certain sites they are much larger, in some cases amounting to more than 25%. It is estimated that application of these corrections brings the uncertainty of the absolute irradiance of individual spectral scans to approximately 6% for all known major sources of error for all solar zenith angles. A comparison is presented of corrected daily integrated erythemal UV doses on clear days to both model and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) UV values. The TOMS retrievals show a positive bias with respect to the measured values that falls in the range of 12.5-1.4% with an average value of 5% for the four sites studied.

  17. Grain Size and Morphological Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, E. L.; Reniers, A. J.; Macmahan, J. H.; Thornton, E. B.

    2009-12-01

    Grain size on natural beaches has traditionally been assumed to be uniform and modeling efforts assume a single mean grain size for an entire beach environment. Many recent studies contradict this assumption and suggest that sediment grain size on a beach is not homogeneous and that variations in sediment size and supply are important in sediment transport and morphodynamics at all scales. Unfortunately, measuring grain size is tedious and time consuming. Therefore, in spite of the evidence pointing to the importance of grain size in sediment transport and morphodynamics, many previous studies have been based on only a few field samples. Rubin (2004) introduced a technique for measuring surface grain size in situ in rivers and deeper coastal waters, using a digital camera and auto-correlation of digital images. Using this technique, information about the surface grain size distribution can be obtained quickly and inexpensively. Following Rubin (2004), we have developed a mobile digital imaging system (DIS) for surveying grain size on beaches. The DIS was used during three experiments: RCEX and REX, both rip current experiments in Monterey, CA (April 2007 and April 2009) and Truc Vert ’08, a multi-institutional, international experiment, on the Atlantic coast of France in March 2008. In 2007 and 2008 spatial surveys of surface grain size were completed every few days over large (~500x500m) intertidal areas. The 2009 experiment focused on twice-daily sampling of two cross shore lines to examine temporal grain size variability of the intertidal beach. Preliminary results suggest that grain size varies spatially with the morphology of beach features (eg, rip channels and shoals) and temporally with changes in tide level, wave energy, and morphodynamics. These data are being used to examine the relationship between morphological, sedimentological and hydrodynamic variability.

  18. CO2 Sequestration within Spent Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, H.; Worrall, F.; Gluyas, J.; Morgan, C.; Fraser, J.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and of high quality, and could represent 100 billion barrels of oil, leading to much interest and activity in the development of these deposits. The exploitation of oil shales has raised a number of environmental concerns including: land use, waste disposal, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The dry retorting of oil shales can overcome a number of the environmental impacts, but this leaves concerns over management of spent oil shale and CO2 production. In this study we propose that the spent oil shale can be used to sequester CO2 from the retorting process. Here we show that by conducting experiments using high pressure reaction facilities, we can achieve successful carbonation of spent oil shale. High pressure reactor facilities in the Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, are capable of reacting solids with a range of fluids up to 15 MPa and 350°C, being specially designed for research with supercritical fluids. Jordanian spent oil shale was reacted with high pressure CO2 in order to assess whether there is potential for sequestration. Fresh and reacted materials were then examined by: Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Jordanian spent oil shale was found to sequester up to 5.8 wt % CO2, on reacting under supercritical conditions, which is 90% of the theoretical carbonation. Jordanian spent oil shale is composed of a large proportion of CaCO3, which on retorting decomposes, forming CaSO4 and Ca-oxides which are the focus of carbonation reactions. A factorially designed experiment was used to test different factors on the extent of carbonation, including: pressure; temperature; duration; and the water content. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques were then used to determine the significance of

  19. Identification of regulatory elements in the AGT1 promoter of ale and lager strains of brewer's yeast.

    PubMed

    Vidgren, Virve; Kankainen, Matti; Londesborough, John; Ruohonen, Laura

    2011-08-01

    Agt1 is an interesting α-glucoside transporter for the brewing industry, as it efficiently transports maltotriose, a sugar often remaining partly unused during beer fermentation. It has been shown that on maltose the expression level of AGT1 is much higher in ale strains than in lager strains, and that glucose represses the expression, particularly in the ale strains. In the present study the regulatory elements of the AGT1 promoter of one ale and two lager strains were identified by computational methods. Promoter regions up to 1.9 kbp upstream of the AGT1 gene were sequenced from the three brewer's yeast strains and the laboratory yeast strain CEN.PK-1D. The promoter sequence of the laboratory strain was identical to the AGT1 promoter of strain S288c of the Saccharomyces Genome Database, whereas the promoter sequences of the industrial strains diverged markedly from the S288c strain. The AGT1 promoter regions of the ale and lager strains were for the most part identical to each other, except for one 22 bp deletion and two 94 and 95 bp insertions in the ale strain. Computational analyses of promoter elements revealed that the promoter sequences contained several Mig1- and MAL-activator binding sites, as was expected. However, some of the Mig1 and MAL-activator binding sites were located on the two insertions of the ale strain, and thus offered a plausible explanation for the different expression pattern of the AGT1 gene in the ale strains. Accordingly, functional analysis of A60 ale and A15 lager strain AGT1 promoters fused to GFP (encoding the green fluorescent protein) showed a significant difference in the ability of these two promoters to drive GFP expression. Under the control of the AGT1 promoter of the ale strain the emergence of GFP was strongly induced by maltose, whereas only a low level of GFP was detected with the construct carrying the AGT1 promoter of the lager strain. Thus, the extra MAL-activator binding element, present in the AGT1 promoter of

  20. Detrital Mineral Grains in Tektites.

    PubMed

    Bairnes, V E

    1963-12-27

    Abundant detrital crystalline mineral grains have been found in layered Muong Nong-type indochinite tektites from Nong Sapong, northeastern Thailand. These grains are an integral part of some tektite layers, and their presence furnishes strong presumptive evidence that indochinites, as well as other tektite groups in which layered specimens occur, formed from surficial earth materials.

  1. Grain alignment by ferromagnetic impurities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    The observed wavelength dependence of linear polarization, and its variation from region to region can be explained by the following assumptions. Interstellar grains resemble interplanetary grains, in that they are composed of collections of small particles coagulated together into elongated masses. A fraction of the small particles are ferromagnetic. Presumably these are either metallic Fe or magnetite, Fe3O4. If and only if a large grain contains one or more magnetic particles is the grain aligned in the galactic magnetic field. The magnetic particles stick only to silicate grains because of chemical similarities, or (equivalently) any pure carbon grains in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) are too spherical to produce polarization. Grains in dense regions, such as the outer parts of molecular clouds, are larger than those in the diffuse ISM because of coagulation of the grains rather than accretion of icy mantles. These regions are known to have larger than normal values of lambda (max), the wavelength of the maximum of linear polarization. The above assumptions are sufficient to allow the calculation of the wavelength dependence of the polarization.

  2. Detrital Mineral Grains in Tektites.

    PubMed

    Bairnes, V E

    1963-12-27

    Abundant detrital crystalline mineral grains have been found in layered Muong Nong-type indochinite tektites from Nong Sapong, northeastern Thailand. These grains are an integral part of some tektite layers, and their presence furnishes strong presumptive evidence that indochinites, as well as other tektite groups in which layered specimens occur, formed from surficial earth materials. PMID:17834370

  3. Pyrochemical Treatment of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    K. M. Goff; K. L. Howden; G. M. Teske; T. A. Johnson

    2005-10-01

    Over the last 10 years, pyrochemical treatment of spent nuclear fuel has progressed from demonstration activities to engineering-scale production operations. As part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative within the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology, pyrochemical treatment operations are being performed as part of the treatment of fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II at the Idaho National Laboratory. Integral to these treatment operations are research and development activities that are focused on scaling further the technology, developing and implementing process improvements, qualifying the resulting high-level waste forms, and demonstrating the overall pyrochemical fuel cycle.

  4. Electrometallurgical treatment of oxide spent fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Karell, E. J.

    1999-06-08

    The Department of Energy (DOE) inventory of spent nuclear fuel contains a wide variety of oxide fuel types that may be unsuitable for direct repository disposal in their current form. The molten-salt electrometallurgical treatment technique developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has the potential to simplify preparing and qualifying these fuels for disposal by converting them into three uniform product streams: uranium metal, a metal waste form, and a ceramic waste form. This paper describes the major steps in the electrometallurgical treatment process for oxide fuels and provides the results of recent experiments performed to develop and scale up the process.

  5. Surrogate Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L

    2014-01-01

    Transportation packages for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) must meet safety requirements under normal and accident conditions as specified by federal regulations. During transportation, SNF experiences unique conditions and challenges to cladding integrity due to the vibrational and impact loading encountered during road or rail shipment. ORNL has been developing testing capabilities that can be used to improve our understanding of the impacts of vibration loading on SNF integrity, especially for high burn-up SNF in normal transportation operation conditions. This information can be used to meet nuclear industry and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission needs in the area of safety of SNF storage and transportation operations.

  6. DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    F. Habashi

    1998-06-26

    The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container (SNF DC) supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access mains, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container provides long term confinement of DOE SNF waste, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The DOE SNF Disposal Containers provide containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limit radionuclide release thereafter. The disposal containers maintain the waste in a designated configuration, withstand maximum handling and rockfall loads, limit the individual waste canister temperatures after emplacement. The disposal containers also limit the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resist corrosion in the expected repository environment, and provide complete or limited containment of waste in the event of an accident. Multiple disposal container designs may be needed to accommodate the expected range of DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel. The disposal container will include outer and inner barrier walls and outer and inner barrier lids. Exterior labels will identify the disposal container and contents. Differing metal barriers will support the design philosophy of defense in depth. The use of materials with different failure mechanisms prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The corrosion-resistant inner barrier and inner barrier lid will be constructed of a high-nickel alloy and the corrosion-allowance outer barrier and outer barrier lid will be made of carbon steel. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Containers interface with the emplacement drift environment by transferring heat from the waste to the external environment and by protecting

  7. Overview of spent fuel burnup measurements

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, N.B. Associates, Inc., Oakton, VA )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the principal factors that influence burnup measurement accuracy, and the manner in which different combinations of these factors in any particular application influence the achievable accuracy in that application. The principal focus of the paper is on the passive measurement of various burnup indicators. This paper also provides a general background for four subsequent papers which discuss burnup measurement in two particular applications: for burnup credit in spent fuel shipping casks; and for safeguards purposes. This paper provides a basis for comparing these two applications in terms that directly relate to the measurement process.

  8. Grain and legume allergy.

    PubMed

    Ito, Komei

    2015-01-01

    Among grains and legumes, wheat and soybean are the most frequent and well-characterized allergenic foods. Wheat proteins are divided into water/salt-soluble and water/salt-insoluble (gluten) fractions. The most dominant allergen in the former is α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor, which acts as an inhaled allergen causing baker's asthma. Gluten allergens, including ω-5 gliadin and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenins, contribute to wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis in adults and immediate-type wheat allergies, including anaphylaxis, in children. Recently, wheat allergies exclusively caused by hydrolyzed wheat proteins or deamidated glutens have been reported, and the presence of unique IgE-binding epitopes has been suggested. Soybean allergens contributing to immediate-type allergic reactions in children are present in seed storage proteins, namely Gly m 5, Gly m 6 and Gly m 8. However, pollen-related soybean allergy in adults is caused by the Bet v 1 homolog of soybeans, Gly m 4. Taken together, the varying clinical manifestations of wheat and soybean allergies are predominantly caused by their different allergen components.

  9. Autonomous grain combine control system

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  10. Solar Ion Processing of Itokawa Grains: Constraints on Surface Exposure Times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical TEM observations obtained to date reveal that a significant sub-population of grains returned from the surface of asteroid Itokawa have had their outer 30-100 nm processed by space weathering effects. Although the effects include some surface deposition of condensed impact vapor and isolated impact melt splashes, much of the width of the space weathered outer margins or "rims" on grains is derived from solar wind processing of the original host grain. Similar to what has long been reported for some lunar grains, the ion-processed rims on Itokawa grains exhibit varing degrees and depths of penetration of atomic-displacement ion damage, resulting in complete amorphization for some rims (particularly in plagioclase), or formation of highly defective but still crystalline structures in others (particularly in pyroxene and olivine). Possibly different from lunar grains, however, is the presence of isolated internal cavities or voids in Itokawa grain rims, which may be implantation "bubbles" due to accumulating implanted solar wind H and/or He. For a given mineral exposed at a particular set of long term solar wind conditions, the level of ion damage in a given grain rim, the depth of damage penetration represented by the rim width, and the formation or lack of formation of implantation bubbles can all be linked to the time spent by the grain in an uncovered state on the topmost, space-exposed, regolith surface. For the lunar case, we have previously shown that with reasonable assumptions about solar wind characteristics over time, a model can be developed to estimate this exposure time based on the width of amorphous rims on lunar grains. Here we report on an expansion of the model to cover exposure time information contained in the array of solar ion-induced features in Itokawa grains.

  11. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables.

  12. Mescalero spent fuel storage facility regulation approach

    SciTech Connect

    Browser, R.C.; Silberg, J.; Phares, R.

    1995-12-01

    The Mescalero Apache Tribe was the first entity to respond to the United States Government`s invitation to study the feasibility of voluntarily hosting a Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility. Through its studies, the Mescalero Apache Tribe became convinced that such a facility could be built and operated safely. When the government`s voluntary siting initiative stalled, the Mescalero Apache Tribe began discussions with Northern States Power Company and several other utilities regarding hosting a private spent fuel storage facility. It was clear that such a facility could be licensed in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 72 (10 CFR 72). However, a broader regulatory assessment approach was necessary for two reasons. First, other than General Electric`s (GE) Morris Facility, no other away-from-reactor spent fuel storage facility had been licensed in the United States. Additionally, the effect of the Mescalero Apache Tribe`s sovereign status had to be considered and evaluated. This paper describes both the approach that the Mescalero/Utility Regulatory Planning Group used to develop the facility licensing strategy, and the preliminary assessments.

  13. Buckling analysis of spent fuel basket

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.S.; Bumpas, S.E.

    1995-05-01

    The basket for a spent fuel shipping cask is subjected to compressive stresses that may cause global instability of the basket assemblies or local buckling of the individual members. Adopting the common buckling design practice in which the stability capacity of the entire structure is based on the performance of the individual members of the assemblies, the typical spent fuel basket, which is composed of plates and tubular structural members, can be idealized as an assemblage of columns, beam-columns and plates. This report presents the flexural buckling formulas for five load cases that are common in the basket buckling analysis: column under axial loads, column under axial and bending loads, plate under uniaxial loads, plate under biaxial loadings, and plate under biaxial loads and lateral pressure. The acceptance criteria from the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code are used to determine the adequacy of the basket components. Special acceptance criteria are proposed to address the unique material characteristics of austenitic stainless steel, a material which is frequently used in the basket assemblies.

  14. Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Hao; Yan, Yong; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to collect dynamic experimental data on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under simulated transportation environments using the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT), the hot-cell testing technology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The collected CIRFT data will be utilized to support ongoing spent fuel modeling activities, and support SNF transportation related licensing issues. Recent testing to understand the effects of hydride reorientation on SNF vibration integrity is also being evaluated. CIRFT results have provided insight into the fuel/clad system response to transportation related loads. The major findings of CIRFT on the HBU SNF are as follows: SNF system interface bonding plays an important role in SNF vibration performance, Fuel structure contributes to the SNF system stiffness, There are significant variations in stress and curvature of SNF systems during vibration cycles resulting from segment pellets and clad interaction, and SNF failure initiates at the pellet-pellet interface region and appears to be spontaneous. Because of the non-homogeneous composite structure of the SNF system, finite element analyses (FEA) are needed to translate the global moment-curvature measurement into local stress-strain profiles. The detailed mechanisms of the pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interactions and the stress concentration effects at the pellet-pellet interface cannot be readily obtained directly from a CIRFT system measurement. Therefore, detailed FEA is used to understand the global test response, and that data will also be presented.

  15. Pyroprocess for processing spent nuclear fuel

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    2002-01-01

    This is a pyroprocess for processing spent nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel is chopped into pieces and placed in a basket which is lowered in to a liquid salt solution. The salt is rich in ZrF.sub.4 and containing alkali or alkaline earth fluorides, and in particular, the salt chosen was LiF-50 mol % ZrF.sub.4 with a eutectic melting point of 500.degree. C. Prior to lowering the basket, the salt is heated to a temperature of between 550.degree. C. and 700.degree. C. in order to obtain a molten solution. After dissolution the oxides of U, Th, rare earth and other like oxides, the salt bath solution is subject to hydro-fluorination to remove the oxygen and then to a fluorination step to remove U as gaseous UF.sub.6. In addition, after dissolution, the basket contains PuO.sub.2 and undissolved parts of the fuel rods, and the basket and its contents are processed to remove the Pu.

  16. Investigation of the condition of spent-fuel pool components

    SciTech Connect

    Kustas, F.M.; Bates, S.O.; Opitz, B.E.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1981-09-01

    It is currently projected that spent nuclear fuel, which is discharged from the reactor and then stored in water pools, may remain in those pools for several decades. Other studies have addressed the expected integrity of the spent fuel during extended water storage; this study assesses the integrity of metallic spent fuel pool components. Results from metallurgical examinations of specimens taken from stainless steel and aluminum components exposed in spent fuel pools are presented. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) relating to problems with spent fuel components were assessed and are summarized to define the types of operational problems that have occurred. The major conclusions of this study are: aluminum and stainless steel spent fuel pool components have a good history of performance in both deionized and borated water pools. Although some operational problems involving pool components have occurred, these problems have had minimal impacts.

  17. Spent fuel management fee methodology and computer code user's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, R.L.; White, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    The methodology and computer model described here were developed to analyze the cash flows for the federal government taking title to and managing spent nuclear fuel. The methodology has been used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate the spent fuel disposal fee that will provide full cost recovery. Although the methodology was designed to analyze interim storage followed by spent fuel disposal, it could be used to calculate a fee for reprocessing spent fuel and disposing of the waste. The methodology consists of two phases. The first phase estimates government expenditures for spent fuel management. The second phase determines the fees that will result in revenues such that the government attains full cost recovery assuming various revenue collection philosophies. These two phases are discussed in detail in subsequent sections of this report. Each of the two phases constitute a computer module, called SPADE (SPent fuel Analysis and Disposal Economics) and FEAN (FEe ANalysis), respectively.

  18. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.M.; Romeo, P.A.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1986-04-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies.

  19. Durable titania films for solar treatment of biomethanated spent wash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarzadeh, Rokhsareh; S. Ghole, Vikram; Javadpour, Sirus

    2016-10-01

    The use of TiO2 films for treatment of biomethanated spent wash is reported. The films of TiO2 were formed and photocatalytic performance of the prepared films in degradation of methylene blue and biomethanated spent wash were studied. Photocatalytic use of these films was found to be effective for degradation of biomethanated spent wash. The photocatalyst was used up for 20 cycles without significant reduction in activities showing long life of the catalyst.

  20. Quantitative characterisation of sedimentary grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunwal, Mohit; Mulchrone, Kieran F.; Meere, Patrick A.

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of sedimentary texture helps in determining the formation, transportation and deposition processes of sedimentary rocks. Grain size analysis is traditionally quantitative, whereas grain shape analysis is largely qualitative. A semi-automated approach to quantitatively analyse shape and size of sand sized sedimentary grains is presented. Grain boundaries are manually traced from thin section microphotographs in the case of lithified samples and are automatically identified in the case of loose sediments. Shape and size paramters can then be estimated using a software package written on the Mathematica platform. While automated methodology already exists for loose sediment analysis, the available techniques for the case of lithified samples are limited to cases of high definition thin section microphotographs showing clear contrast between framework grains and matrix. Along with the size of grain, shape parameters such as roundness, angularity, circularity, irregularity and fractal dimension are measured. A new grain shape parameter developed using Fourier descriptors has also been developed. To test this new approach theoretical examples were analysed and produce high quality results supporting the accuracy of the algorithm. Furthermore sandstone samples from known aeolian and fluvial environments from the Dingle Basin, County Kerry, Ireland were collected and analysed. Modern loose sediments from glacial till from County Cork, Ireland and aeolian sediments from Rajasthan, India have also been collected and analysed. A graphical summary of the data is presented and allows for quantitative distinction between samples extracted from different sedimentary environments.

  1. Fluctuation effects in grain growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Gyoon; Park, Yong Bum

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we attempted to clarify the roles of fluctuation effects in grain growth. To capture the persistent nature in both space and time of fluctuations due to variations in the local surroundings of individual grains, we developed a local mean-field model. The fluctuation strength in this model is arbitrarily controlled by employing an artificial number, n , of nearest neighbor grains. Large-scale numerical computations of the model for various n values and initial GSDs were carried out to follow transient behaviors and determine the steady states. This study reveals that, in the classical mean-field model with no fluctuation effects, the steady state is not unique but is strongly dependent upon the initial GSD. However, a small fluctuation drives the mean-field model to reach the Hillert solution, independent of the fluctuation strength and initial GSD, as long as the fluctuation strength is sufficiently small. On the other hand, when the fluctuation is sufficiently strong, the fluctuation pushes the steady state of the mean-field model out of the Hillert solution, and its strength determines a unique steady state independent of the initial GSD. The strong fluctuation makes the GSD more symmetric than the Hillert distribution. Computations designed to mimic actual 2 and 3D grain growth were carried out by taking the number of nearest neighbors of each grain as a function of the scaled grain size. The resultant GSDs in two and three dimensions were compared with the direct simulations of ideal grain growth.

  2. Comparison of ultraviolet data from colocated instruments from the U.S. EPA Brewer Spectrophotometer Network and the U.S. Department of Agriculture UV-B Monitoring and Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, Michael G.; Slusser, James R.; Schallhorn, Kathryn A.; Lantz, Kathleen O.; Meltzer, Richard S.

    2005-04-01

    Several ground-based ultraviolet (UV) monitoring networks exist in the United States, each of which is unique in the instrumentation employed for measurements. Two of these UV networks are the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Brewer Spectrophotometer Network and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) UV-B monitoring network, with a combined instrument total of 52 sites, with 32 sites located in the mainland United States. The Brewer records full sky spectra from 287 to 363 nm with 0.55-nm resolution, whereas the USDA instrument is a broadband device that measures broadband erythemally weighted UV data. To date, limited comparisons of data collected from these networks have been analyzed for comparative and quality assurance (QA) purposes. The data we use is taken from sites where instruments from each program are colocated, namely, Big Bend National Park, Texas, and Everglades National Park, Florida. To reduce the contribution of errors in the Brewer-based instruments, the raw data is corrected for stray light rejection, the angular response of the full sky diffuser, the temperature dependence of the instruments, and the temporal variation. This reduces the estimated errors of the absolute irradiance values of each Brewer spectral measurement to approximately +/-5%. The estimated uncertainty of the USDA instruments is approximately +/-6% with a systematic bias of (-13 to 5% depending on the total ozone) and is comprised of (1) standard lamp measurement errors, (2) spectral response determination, and (3) the angular response of the diffuser. We perform comparisons between the Brewer spectrally integrated and erythemally weighted UV irradiance measurements and the data collected by the broadband erythemal UV meters at colocated sites between 1997 through to 2002.

  3. Grain mantles: The impact on grain evolution and selective extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, Charles L.

    1989-01-01

    Depletion studies are used to infer the presence of mantles and to constrain grain evolutionary models in the diffuse interstellar medium. The presence of these mantles appears to be important in the evolution of the grains inside diffuse as well as dense clouds. In dense clouds where the element-to-element abundances sometimes differ from those found in diffuse clouds, empirical relationships are starting to emerge between gas abundances and various types of peculiar selective extinction. These peculiar extinction curves may be the results of nonvolatile mantle formation on grain cores or may reflect chemical differences due to variations in the intrinsic metalicity from one cloud to another. A simple model of the time evolution of a parcel of gas and dust as observed by the depletion of two elements is presented. Different studies of grain evolution and selective extinction are discussed and compared.

  4. Why Is It Important to Eat Grains, Especially Whole Grains?

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods or supplements. This reduces the risk of neural tube defects, spina bifida, and anencephaly during fetal ... with folate before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects during fetal development. Grains All About ...

  5. Transportation capabilities study of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.L.; Johnson, R.A.; Smith, R.W.; Abbott, D.G.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1994-10-01

    This study evaluates current capabilities for transporting spent nuclear fuel owned by the US Department of Energy. Currently licensed irradiated fuel shipping packages that have the potential for shipping the spent nuclear fuel are identified and then matched against the various spent nuclear fuel types. Also included are the results of a limited investigation into other certified packages and new packages currently under development. This study is intended to support top-level planning for the disposition of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel inventory.

  6. Interstellar Grains: 50 Years On

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, N. Chandra

    2011-12-01

    Our understanding of the nature of interstellar grains has evolved considerably over the past half century with the present author and Fred Hoyle being intimately involved at several key stages of progress. The currently fashionable graphite-silicate-organic grain model has all its essential aspects unequivocally traceable to original peer-reviewedpublicationsbytheauthorand/orFredHoyle. Theprevailingreluctancetoaccepttheseclear-cut priorities may be linked to our further work that argued for interstellar grains and organics to have a biological provenance - a position perceived as heretical. The biological model, however, continues to provide a powerful unifying hypothesis for a vast amount of otherwise disconnected and disparate astronomical data.

  7. Theory of grain alignment in molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Wayne G.

    1993-01-01

    Research accomplishments are presented and include the following: (1) mathematical theory of grain alignment; (2) super-paramagnetic alignment of molecular cloud grains; and (3) theory of grain alignment by ambipolar diffusion.

  8. Modeling brewers' yeast flocculation

    PubMed

    van Hamersveld EH; van der Lans RG; Caulet; Luyben

    1998-02-01

    Flocculation of yeast cells occurs during the fermentation of beer. Partway through the fermentation the cells become flocculent and start to form flocs. If the environmental conditions, such as medium composition and fluid velocities in the tank, are optimal, the flocs will grow in size large enough to settle. After settling of the main part of the yeast the green beer is left, containing only a small amount of yeast necessary for rest conversions during the next process step, the lagering. The physical process of flocculation is a dynamic equilibrium of floc formation and floc breakup resulting in a bimodal size distribution containing single cells and flocs. The floc size distribution and the single cell amount were measured under the different conditions that occur during full scale fermentation. Influences on flocculation such as floc strength, specific power input, and total number of yeast cells in suspension were studied. A flocculation model was developed, and the measured data used for validation. Yeast floc formation can be described with the collision theory assuming a constant collision efficiency. The breakup of flocs appears to occur mainly via two mechanisms, the splitting of flocs and the erosion of yeast cells from the floc surface. The splitting rate determines the average floc size and the erosion rate determines the number of single cells. Regarding the size of the flocs with respect to the scale of turbulence, only the viscous subrange needs to be considered. With the model, the floc size distribution and the number of single cells can be predicted at a certain point during the fermentation. For this, the bond strength between the cells, the fractal dimension of the yeast, the specific power input in the tank and the number of yeast cells that are in suspension in the tank have to be known. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Pichia anomala in grain biopreservation.

    PubMed

    Olstorpe, Matilda; Passoth, Volkmar

    2011-01-01

    Cereal grain is a major component of food and feed in large parts of the world. The microbial flora on cereal grains may interfere with hygiene and storage stability, palatability and bioavailability of minerals and proteins may depend on the composition of the microbial population. Therefore, it is of primary interest to control the microbial species present on cereal grain. Inoculation of the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala to cereal feed grain improved feed hygiene by reduction of moulds and Enterobacteriaceae, and enhanced the nutritional value by increasing the protein content and reducing the concentration of the antinutritional compound phytate. P. anomala strains showed a high phytase activity, for some strains also considerable extracellular phytase activity was observed. A certain maximum in biomass concentration was never exceeded indicating cell density induced growth inhibition of P. anomala.

  10. Balancing green and grain trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiping; Wang, Kaibo; Lin, Yishan; Shi, Weiyu; Song, Yi; He, Xinhua

    2015-10-01

    Since 1999, China's Grain for Green project has greatly increased the vegetation cover on the Loess Plateau. Now that erosion levels have returned to historic values, vegetation should be maintained but not expanded further as planned.

  11. All About the Grains Group

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips to Help You Eat Vegetables Beans and Peas Are Unique Foods Food Gallery Grains All About ... Tips to Help You Eat Vegetables Beans and Peas Are Unique Foods Food Gallery Protein Foods All ...

  12. Characterization plan for Hanford spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Abrefah, J.; Thornton, T.A.; Thomas, L.E.; Berting, F.M.; Marschman, S.C.

    1994-12-01

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Hanford Site Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) was terminated in 1972. Since that time a significant quantity of N Reactor and Single-Pass Reactor SNF has been stored in the 100 Area K-East (KE) and K-West (KW) reactor basins. Approximately 80% of all US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned SNF resides at Hanford, the largest portion of which is in the water-filled KE and KW reactor basins. The basins were not designed for long-term storage of the SNF and it has become a priority to move the SNF to a more suitable location. As part of the project plan, SNF inventories will be chemically and physically characterized to provide information that will be used to resolve safety and technical issues for development of an environmentally benign and efficient extended interim storage and final disposition strategy for this defense production-reactor SNF.

  13. Storage assembly for spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lapides, M.E.

    1982-04-27

    A technique for storing spent fuel rods from a nuclear reactor is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a housing including a closed inner chamber for containing the fuel rods and a thermally conductive member located partially within the housing chamber and partially outside the housing for transferring heat generated by the fuel rods from the chamber to the ambient surroundings. Particulate material is located within the chamber and surrounds the fuel rods contained therein. This material is selected to serve as a heat transfer media between the contained cells and the heat transferring member and, at the same time, stand ready to fuse into a solid mass around the contained cells if the heat transferring member malfunctions or otherwise fails to transfer the generated heat out of the housing chamber in a predetermined way.

  14. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  15. Dense, finely, grained composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Holt, Joseph B.; Kingman, Donald D.; Munir, Zuhair A.

    1990-01-01

    Dense, finely grained composite materials comprising one or more ceramic phase or phase and one or more metallic and/or intermetallic phase or phases are produced by combustion synthesis. Spherical ceramic grains are homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Methods are provided, which include the step of applying mechanical pressure during or immediately after ignition, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected.

  16. Electron-microscopic and chemical identification of an individual grain in the newly formed cementite in spheroidized pearlitic 12Kh1MF steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    The microstructure of pearlitic 12Kh1MF steel having spent its service life is studied with a Neophot-32 optical microscope. A cementite grain is identified and its elemental composition is determined using a multipurpose EVO-50 scanning electron microscope equipped with an EDS/WDS X-ray spectrometer. A newly formed grain of alloyed cementite is detected at a triple junction. The diffusion processes that occur in loaded steel are refined.

  17. Stability of grain boundary texture during isothermal grain growth in UO2 considering anisotropic grain boundary properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallberg, Håkan; Zhu, Yaochan

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, mesoscale simulations of grain growth in UO2 are performed using a 2D level set representation of the polycrystal grain boundary network, employed in a finite element setting. Anisotropic grain boundary properties are considered by evaluating how grain boundary energy and mobility varies with local grain boundary character. This is achieved by considering different formulations of the anisotropy of grain boundary properties, for example in terms of coincidence site lattice (CSL) correspondence. Such modeling approaches allow tracing of the stability of a number of characteristic low-Σ boundaries in the material during grain growth. The present simulations indicate that anisotropic grain boundary properties have negligible influence on the grain growth rate. However, considering the evolution of grain boundary character distribution and the grain size distribution, it is found that neglecting anisotropic boundary properties will strongly bias predictions obtained from numerical simulations.

  18. YUCCA Mountain Project - Argonne National Laboratory, Annual Progress Report, FY 1997 for activity WP 1221 unsaturated drip condition testing of spent fuel and unsaturated dissolution tests of glass.

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J. K.; Buck, E. C.; Emery, J. W.; Finch, R. J.; Finn, P. A.; Fortner, J.; Hoh, J. C.; Mertz, C.; Neimark, L. A.; Wolf, S. F.; Wronkiewicz, D. J.

    1998-09-18

    This document reports on the work done by the Nuclear Waste Management Section of the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory in the period of October 1996 through September 1997. Studies have been performed to evaluate the behavior of nuclear waste glass and spent fuel samples under the unsaturated conditions (low-volume water contact) that are likely to exist in the Yucca Mountain environment being considered as a potential site for a high-level waste repository. Tests with actinide-doped waste glasses, in progress for over 11 years, indicate that the transuranic element release is dominated by colloids that continuously form and span from the glass surface. The nature of the colloids that form in the glass and spent fuel testing programs is being investigated by dynamic light scattering to determine the size distribution, by autoradiography to determine the chemistry, and by zeta potential to measure the electrical properties of the colloids. Tests with UO{sub 2} have been ongoing for 12 years. They show that the oxidation of UO{sub 2} occurs rapidly, and the resulting paragenetic sequence of secondary phases forming on the sample surface is similar to that observed for uranium found in natural oxidizing environments. The reaction of spent fuel samples in conditions similar to those used with UO{sub 2} have been in progress for over six years, and the results suggest that spent fuel forms many of the same alteration products as UO{sub 2}. With spent fuel, the bulk of the reaction occurs via a through-grain reaction process, although grain boundary attack is sufficient to have reacted all of the grain boundary regions in the samples. New test methods are under development to evaluate the behavior of spent fuel samples with intact cladding: the rate at which alteration and radionuclide release occurs when water penetrates fuel sections and whether the reaction causes the cladding to split. Alteration phases have been formed on fine grains of UO

  19. Miller, Mulberry, Brewer, and Evered nominations. Hearing before Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Four presidential nominees were questioned by members of the committee and by 11 witnesses, who also made statements pertinent to the nomination: Daniel N. Miller, Jr., to be Ass't. Secy. of Interior for Energy and Minerals; Richard Mulberry, to be Inspector General, Dept. of Interior; Shelby T. Brewer to be Ass't. Secy. for Nuclear Energy; and J. Erich Evered, to be Administrator of the Energy Information Administration, Department of Energy. The statements and responses are followed by additional material submitted for the record and informational statements and responses of the nominees. The nominees were questioned about past activities and their policy goals as well as their plans for conducting their respective offices. (DCK)

  20. Three Agt1 transporters from brewer's yeasts exhibit different temperature dependencies for maltose transport over the range of brewery temperatures (0–20 °C).

    PubMed

    Vidgren, Virve; Viljanen, Kaarina; Mattinen, Laura; Rautio, Jari; Londesborough, John

    2014-06-01

    Zero-trans rates of maltose transport by brewer's yeasts exert strong control over fermentation rates and are strongly temperature-dependent over the temperature range (20–0 °C) of brewery fermentations. Three α-glucoside transporters, ScAgt1(A60) (a Saccharomyces cerevisiae version of Agt1 from an ale strain), ScAgt1-A548V (a variant of ScAgt1(A60) with a single amino acid change in a transmembrane domain), and SbAgt1 (a Saccharomyces (eu)bayanus version from a lager strain), were compared. When expressed in the same laboratory yeast, grown at 24 °C and assayed at 0, 10, and 20 °C, SbAgt1 had the lowest absolute maltose uptake activity at 20 °C but smallest temperature dependence, ScAgt1-A548V had the highest activity but greatest temperature dependence, and ScAgt1(A60) had intermediate properties. ScAgt1(A60) exhibited higher absolute rates and smaller temperature dependencies when expressed in laboratory rather than brewer's strains. Absolute rates closely reflected the amounts of GFP-tagged ScAgt1(A60) transporter in each host's plasma membrane. Growth at 15 °C instead of 24 °C decreased the absolute activities of strains expressing ScAgt1(A60) by two- to threefold. Evidently, the kinetic characteristics of at least ScAgt1(A60) depended on the nature of the host plasma membrane. However, no consistent correlation was observed between transport activities and fatty acid or ergosterol compositions. PMID:25035870

  1. Hemispheric asymmetries and seasonality of mean age of air in the lower stratosphere: Deep versus shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopka, Paul; Ploeger, Felix; Tao, Mengchu; Birner, Thomas; Riese, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Based on multiannual simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere, (CLaMS) driven by ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis, we discuss hemispheric asymmetries and the seasonality of the mean age of air (AoA) in the lower stratosphere. First, the planetary wave forcing of the Brewer-Dobson circulation is quantified in terms of Eliassen Palm flux divergence calculated by using the isentropic coordinate θ. While the forcing of the deep branch at θ = 1000 K (around 10 hPa) has a clear maximum in each hemisphere during the respective winter, the shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation, i.e., between 100 and 70 hPa (380 < θ < 420 K), shows almost opposite seasonality in both hemispheres with a pronounced minimum between June and September in the Southern Hemisphere. Second, we decompose the time-tendency of AoA into the contributions of the residual circulation and of eddy mixing by analyzing the zonally averaged tracer continuity equation. In the tropical lower stratosphere between ±30°, the air becomes younger during boreal winter and older during boreal summer. During boreal winter, the decrease of AoA due to tropical upwelling outweighs aging by isentropic mixing. In contrast, weaker isentropic mixing outweighs an even weaker upwelling in boreal summer and fall making the air older during these seasons. Poleward of 60°, the deep branch locally increases AoA and eddy mixing locally decreases AoA with the strongest net decrease during spring. Eddy mixing in the Northern Hemisphere outweighs that in the Southern Hemisphere throughout the year.

  2. An approach to meeting the spent fuel standard

    SciTech Connect

    Makhijani, A.

    1996-05-01

    The idea of the spent fuel standard is that there should be a high surface gamma radiation to prevent theft. For purposes of preventing theft, containers should be massive, and the plutonium should be difficult to extract. This report discusses issues associated with the spent fuel standard.

  3. HTGR Spent Fuel Treatment Program. HTGR Spent Fuel Treatment Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    The spent fuel treatment (SFT) program plan addresses spent fuel volume reduction, packaging, storage, transportation, fuel recovery, and disposal to meet the needs of the HTGR Lead Plant and follow-on plants. In the near term, fuel refabrication will be addressed by following developments in fresh fuel fabrication and will be developed in the long term as decisions on the alternatives dictate. The formulation of this revised program plan considered the implications of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) which, for the first time, established a definitive national policy for management and disposal of nuclear wastes. Although the primary intent of the program is to address technical issues, the divergence between commercial and government interests, which arises as a result of certain provisions of the NWPA, must be addressed in the economic assessment of technically feasible alternative paths in the management of spent HTGR fuel and waste. This new SFT program plan also incorporates a significant cooperative research and development program between the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany. The major objective of this international program is to reduce costs by avoiding duplicate efforts.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTROCHEMICAL REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY FOR SPENT OXIDE FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Jin-Mok; Seo, Chung-Seok; Kim, Ik-Soo; Hong, Sun-Seok; Kang, Dae-Seung; Park, Seong-Won

    2003-02-27

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) has been under development at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since 1997. The concept is to convert spent oxide fuel into metallic form and to remove high heat-load fission products such as Cs and Sr from the spent fuel. The heat power, volume, and radioactivity of spent fuel can decrease by a factor of a quarter via this process. For the realization of ACP, a concept of electrochemical reduction of spent oxide fuel in Li2O-LiCl molten salt was proposed and several cold tests using fresh uranium oxides have been carried out. In this new electrochemical reduction process, electrolysis of Li2O and reduction of uranium oxide are taking place simultaneously at the cathode part of electrolysis cell. The conversion of uranium oxide to uranium metal can reach more than 99% ensuring the feasibility of this process.

  5. Arrival condition of spent fuel after storage, handling, and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Langstaff, D.C.; Gilbert, E.R.; Rising, K.H.; Schreiber, R.E.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to determine the probable arrival condition of spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel after handling and interim storage in spent fuel storage pools and subsequent handling and accident-free transport operations under normal or slightly abnormal conditions. The objective of this study was to provide information on the expected condition of spent LWR fuel upon arrival at interim storage or fuel reprocessing facilities or at disposal facilities if the fuel is declared a waste. Results of a literature survey and data evaluation effort are discussed. Preliminary threshold limits for storing, handling, and transporting unconsolidated spent LWR fuel are presented. The difficulty in trying to anticipate the amount of corrosion products (crud) that may be on spent fuel in future shipments is also discussed, and potential areas for future work are listed. 95 references, 3 figures, 17 tables.

  6. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. 3D grain boundary migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J. K.; Bons, P. D.

    2009-04-01

    Microstructures of rocks play an important role in determining rheological properties and help to reveal the processes that lead to their formation. Some of these processes change the microstructure significantly and may thus have the opposite effect in obliterating any fabrics indicative of the previous history of the rocks. One of these processes is grain boundary migration (GBM). During static recrystallisation, GBM may produce a foam texture that completely overprints a pre-existing grain boundary network and GBM actively influences the rheology of a rock, via its influence on grain size and lattice defect concentration. We here present a new numerical simulation software that is capable of simulating a whole range of processes on the grain scale (it is not limited to grain boundary migration). The software is polyhedron-based, meaning that each grain (or phase) is represented by a polyhedron that has discrete boundaries. The boundary (the shell) of the polyhedron is defined by a set of facets which in turn is defined by a set of vertices. Each structural entity (polyhedron, facets and vertices) can have an unlimited number of parameters (depending on the process to be modeled) such as surface energy, concentration, etc. which can be used to calculate changes of the microstructre. We use the processes of grain boundary migration of a "regular" and a partially molten rock to demonstrate the software. Since this software is 3D, the formation of melt networks in a partially molten rock can also be studied. The interconnected melt network is of fundamental importance for melt segregation and migration in the crust and mantle and can help to understand the core-mantle differentiation of large terrestrial planets.

  8. The History of Presolar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Below we summarize the results of our investigations into the history of presolar grains that were conducted in the last year. During this time we have expended much of our effort in the development of experimental techniques and sample preparation methods that are needed to laboratory in December, 2000. Specific information on this instrument is contained in the Full Proposal of PI Ernst Zinner and will not be repeated here. Our general strategy in the past year has been in large measure to explore novel sample handling methods for the very small (sub-micron), but more representative, presolar grains that can now be characterized isotopically in the NanoSIMS. We have developed experimental techniques that will permit NanoSIMS analyses of the very same ultramicrotome sections studied in the TEM, and we have developed grain dispersion, handling and mounting techniques that permit NanoSIMS isotopic analysis as well as field emission SEM, high energy TEM, and atomic force microscopy of pristine presolar grains. Although much of this has been slow and very difficult work that has no immediate payoff in terms of publishable results, we considered it absolutely necessary groundwork for future discoveries, especially in the realm of individual presolar grains that have been inaccessible to past studies due to size constraints. As discussed below, we have been largely successful in these endeavors, and expect to reap the benefits of this work in the next year. We also report on our continued morphologic studies of pristine presolar grains, on our investigations of presolar graphite grains from supernovae as well as on rarer types of presotar SIC, on the search for presolar silicates, and on our efforts to obtain direct size-distribution information on presolar SiC through X-ray mapping techniques.

  9. Sculpting sandcastles grain by grain: Self-assembled sand towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F.; Moreau, F.; Vandewalle, N.; Dorbolo, S.

    2012-11-01

    We study the spontaneous formation of granular towers produced when dry sand is poured on a wet sand bed. When the liquid content of the bed exceeds a threshold value W, the impacting grains have a nonzero probability to stick on the wet grains due to instantaneous liquid bridges created during the impact. The trapped grains become wet by the capillary ascension of water and the process continues, giving rise to stable narrow towers. The growth velocity is determined by the surface liquid content which decreases exponentially as the tower height augments. This self-assembly mechanism (only observed in the funicular and capillary regimes) could theoretically last while the capillary rise of water is possible; however, the structure collapses before reaching this limit. The collapse occurs when the weight of the tower surpasses the cohesive stress at its base. The cohesive stress increases as the liquid content of the bed is reduced. Consequently, the highest towers are found just above W.

  10. BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrity Research and Development Survey for UKABWR Spent Fuel Interim Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Mertyurek, Ugur; Belles, Randy; Scaglione, John M.

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this report is to identify issues and support documentation and identify and detail existing research on spent fuel dry storage; provide information to support potential R&D for the UKABWR (United Kingdom Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) Spent Fuel Interim Storage (SFIS) Pre-Construction Safety Report; and support development of answers to questions developed by the regulator. Where there are gaps or insufficient data, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has summarized the research planned to provide the necessary data along with the schedule for the research, if known. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear power plants has historically been stored on site (wet) in spent fuel pools pending ultimate disposition. Nuclear power users (countries, utilities, vendors) are developing a suite of options and set of supporting analyses that will enable future informed choices about how best to manage these materials. As part of that effort, they are beginning to lay the groundwork for implementing longer-term interim storage of the SNF and the Greater Than Class C (CTCC) waste (dry). Deploying dry storage will require a number of technical issues to be addressed. For the past 4-5 years, ORNL has been supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in identifying these key technical issues, managing the collection of data to be used in issue resolution, and identifying gaps in the needed data. During this effort, ORNL subject matter experts (SMEs) have become expert in understanding what information is publicly available and what gaps in data remain. To ensure the safety of the spent fuel under normal and frequent conditions of wet and subsequent dry storage, intact fuel must be shown to: 1.Maintain fuel cladding integrity; 2.Maintain its geometry for cooling, shielding, and subcriticality; 3.Maintain retrievability, and damaged fuel with pinhole or hairline cracks must be shown not to degrade further. Where PWR (pressurized water reactor) information is

  11. Simultaneous Grain Growth and Grain Refinement in Bulk Ultrafine-Grained Copper under Tensile Deformation at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hailiang; Lu, Cheng; Tieu, Anh Kiet; Li, Huijun; Godbole, Ajit; Kong, Charlie; Zhao, Xing

    2016-08-01

    Grain growth and grain refinement behavior during deformation determine the strength and ductility of ultrafine-grained materials. We used asymmetric cryorolling to fabricate ultrafine-grained copper sheets with an average grain width of 230 nm and having a laminate structure. The sheets show a high-true failure strain of 1.5. Observation of the microstructure at the fracture surface reveals that ultrafine laminate-structured grains were simultaneously transformed into both equiaxed nanograins and coarse grains under tensile deformation at room temperature.

  12. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air: Volume 1: Design and operation of a spent fuel oxidation test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, C.K.; Campbell, T.K.; Thornhill, R.E.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the design and operation and technical accomplishments of a spent-fuel oxidation test facility at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of the experiments conducted in this facility was to develop a data base for determining spent-fuel dry storage temperature limits by characterizing the oxidation behavior of light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuels in air. These data are needed to support licensing of dry storage in air as an alternative to spent-fuel storage in water pools. They are to be used to develop and validate predictive models of spent-fuel behavior during dry air storage in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). The present licensed alternative to pool storage of spent fuel is dry storage in an inert gas environment, which is called inerted dry storage (IDS). Licensed air storage, however, would not require monitoring for maintenance of an inert-gas environment (which IDS requires) but does require the development of allowable temperature limits below which UO/sub 2/ oxidation in breached fuel rods would not become a problem. Scoping tests at PNL with nonirradiated UO/sub 2/ pellets and spent-fuel fragment specimens identified the need for a statistically designed test matrix with test temperatures bounding anticipated maximum acceptable air-storage temperatures. This facility was designed and operated to satisfy that need. 7 refs.

  13. DECONTAMINATION OF ZIRCALOY SPENT FUEL CLADDING HULLS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T; John Mickalonis, J

    2006-09-27

    The reprocessing of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) generates a Zircaloy cladding hull waste which requires disposal as a high level waste in the geologic repository. The hulls are primarily contaminated with fission products and actinides from the fuel. During fuel irradiation, these contaminants are deposited in a thin layer of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) which forms on the cladding surface at the elevated temperatures present in a nuclear reactor. Therefore, if the hulls are treated to remove the ZrO{sub 2} layer, a majority of the contamination will be removed and the hulls could potentially meet acceptance criteria for disposal as a low level waste (LLW). Discard of the hulls as a LLW would result in significant savings due to the high costs associated with geologic disposal. To assess the feasibility of decontaminating spent fuel cladding hulls, two treatment processes developed for dissolving fuels containing zirconium (Zr) metal or alloys were evaluated. Small-scale dissolution experiments were performed using the ZIRFLEX process which employs a boiling ammonium fluoride (NH{sub 4}F)/ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) solution to dissolve Zr or Zircaloy cladding and a hydrofluoric acid (HF) process developed for complete dissolution of Zr-containing fuels. The feasibility experiments were performed using Zircaloy-4 metal coupons which were electrochemically oxidized to produce a thin ZrO{sub 2} layer on the surface. Once the oxide layer was in place, the ease of removing the layer using methods based on the two processes was evaluated. The ZIRFLEX and HF dissolution processes were both successful in removing a 0.2 mm (thick) oxide layer from Zircaloy-4 coupons. Although the ZIRFLEX process was effective in removing the oxide layer, two potential shortcomings were identified. The formation of ammonium hexafluorozirconate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}) on the metal surface prior to dissolution in the bulk solution could hinder the decontamination

  14. [Cereal grain preference of rats].

    PubMed

    Wang, P Y

    1990-07-01

    Cereal grains are usually used as the main material for preparing rodenticide baits. However, the preferences for different grains varies according to species and habitats of rats, and locations. A formula accepted at one location may not be suitable in other places, where rats are accustomed to different types of food. It is therefore important to understand the feeding habits of local rat species before implementing a control program. Seven kinds of grains, including hulled rice, corn, barley, wheat, sorghum, pranuts, and sweet potatoes were tested to study the preferences of rats in the laboratory. The results revealed that Bandicota nemorivaga, Rattus losea and R. norvegicus prefer hulled rice; Apodemus agrarius and Mus musculus prefer peanuts, and R. rattus prefers corn. The influence of quality and nutrient contents of baits on the consumption of the rats is also discussed. PMID:2402029

  15. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F.; Peng, R. D.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Ye, M. F.; Wang, L.

    2012-09-15

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  16. Interstellar Grains: 50 Years on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    Our understanding of the nature of interstellar grains has evolved considerably over the past half century with the present author and Fred Hoyle being intimately involved at several key stages of progress. The currently fashionable graphite-silicate-organic grain model has all its essential aspects unequivocally traceable to original peer-reviewed publications by the author and/or Fred Hoyle. The prevailing reluctance to accept these clear-cut priorities may be linked to our further work that argued for interstellar grains and organics to have a biological provenance -- a position perceived as heretical. The biological model, however, continues to provide a powerful unifying hypothesis for a vast amount of otherwise disconnected and disparate astronomical data.

  17. [Cereal grain preference of rats].

    PubMed

    Wang, P Y

    1990-07-01

    Cereal grains are usually used as the main material for preparing rodenticide baits. However, the preferences for different grains varies according to species and habitats of rats, and locations. A formula accepted at one location may not be suitable in other places, where rats are accustomed to different types of food. It is therefore important to understand the feeding habits of local rat species before implementing a control program. Seven kinds of grains, including hulled rice, corn, barley, wheat, sorghum, pranuts, and sweet potatoes were tested to study the preferences of rats in the laboratory. The results revealed that Bandicota nemorivaga, Rattus losea and R. norvegicus prefer hulled rice; Apodemus agrarius and Mus musculus prefer peanuts, and R. rattus prefers corn. The influence of quality and nutrient contents of baits on the consumption of the rats is also discussed.

  18. Safeguards instrument to monitor spent reactor fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, N.; Dowdy, E. J.; Holt, D. M.; Stump, C.

    1981-10-01

    A hand held instrument for monitoring irradiated nuclear fuel inventories located in water filled storage ponds has been developed. This instrument provides sufficient precise qualitative and quantitative information to be useful as a confirmatory technique to International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors, and is believed to be of potential use to nuclear fuel managers and to operators of spent fuel storage facilities, both at reactor and away from reactor, and to operators of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Because the Cerenkov radiation glow can barely be seen by the unaided eye under darkened conditions, a night vision device is incorporated to aid the operator in locating the fuel assembly to be measured. Beam splitting optics placed in front of the image intensifier and a preset aperture select a predetermined portion of the observed scene for measurement of the light intensity using a photomultiplier (PM) tube and digital readout. The PM tube gain is adjusted by use of an internal optical reference source, providing long term repeatability and instrument to instrument consistency. Interchangeable lenses accommodate various viewing and measuring conditions.

  19. Radiation degradation of spent butyl rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnov, A. V.; Zavyalov, N. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Sitnikov, N. P.; Smetanin, M. L.; Tarantasov, V. P.; Shadrin, D. N.; Shorikov, I. V.; Liakumovich, A. L.; Miryasova, F. K.

    2002-03-01

    Radiation methods of materials modification applied in technological chains can have significant economical and ecological advantages as compared to the established chemical, thermal and mechanical methods. Each year the problems of nature resources economy through the use of production and consumption wastes acquire a more significant value, as it allows to solve also ecological issues along with economical ones. This is mostly acute in relation to polymeric systems based on saturated rubbers, for example butyl rubber (BR) used in the tyre industry, as due to their high resistance to the action of oxygen, ozone, solar radiation and bacteria, they contaminate the environment for rather a long period. At VNIIEF and KSPU experiments were carried out on application of electron beams with energy from 6 to 10 MeV for radiation destruction of spent rubber based on BR. The radiation-degraded material was tested for re-use in the formulation of initial diaphragm mixture, rubber mixture for producing rubberized fabric and roofing.

  20. Mercury Sorption onto Malt Spent Rootlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manariotis, I. D.; Anagnostopoulos, V.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Chrysikopoulos, C.

    2011-12-01

    Mercury is a metal of particular concern due to its toxicity even at relatively low concentrations. The maximum permissible level for mercury in drinking water set by the European Union is 0.001 mg/L. Mercury is released into the environment via four principal pathways: (1) natural processes; i.e. a volcanic eruption, (2) incidental to some other activity; i.e. coal burning power plants, (3) accidentally during the manufacture, breakage or disposal of products that have mercury put into them deliberately, and (4) direct use in industrial settings. The present study focuses on the removal of mercury (II) from aqueous solutions via sorption onto Malt Spent Rootlets (MSR). Batch experiments were conducted employing MSR with size ranging from 0.18 to 1 mm. The effects of pH, mercury concentration, contact time, and solid to liquid ratio on mercury sorption onto MSR were investigated. The highest mercury removal from the aqueous phase, of 41%, was observed at pH of 5.

  1. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project operational staffing plan

    SciTech Connect

    Debban, B.L.

    1996-03-01

    Using the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project`s current process flow concepts and knowledge from cognizant engineering and operational personnel, an initial assessment of the SNF Project radiological exposure and resource requirements was completed. A small project team completed a step by step analysis of fuel movement in the K Basins to the new interim storage location, the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This analysis looked at fuel retrieval, conditioning of the fuel, and transportation of the fuel. This plan describes the staffing structure for fuel processing, fuel movement, and the maintenance and operation (M&O) staffing requirements of the facilities. This initial draft does not identify the support function resources required for M&O, i.e., administrative and engineering (technical support). These will be included in future revisions to the plan. This plan looks at the resource requirements for the SNF subprojects, specifically, the operations of the facilities, balances resources where applicable, rotates crews where applicable, and attempts to use individuals in multi-task assignments. This plan does not apply to the construction phase of planned projects that affect staffing levels of K Basins.

  2. Regeneration of ammonia borane spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, Andrew David; Davis, Benjamin L; Gordon, John C

    2009-01-01

    A necessary target in realizing a hydrogen (H{sub 2}) economy, especially for the transportation sector, is its storage for controlled delivery, presumably to an energy producing fuel cell. In this vein, the U.S. Department of Energy's Centers of Excellence (CoE) in Hydrogen Storage have pursued different methodologies, including metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and sorbents, for the expressed purpose of supplanting gasoline's current > 300 mile driving range. Chemical H{sub 2} storage has been dominated by one appealing material, ammonia borane (H{sub 3}N-BH{sub 3}, AB), due to its high gravimetric capacity of H{sub 2} (19.6 wt %) and low molecular weight (30.7 g mol{sup -1}). In addition, AB has both hydridic and protic moieties, yielding a material from which H{sub 2} can be readily released in contrast to the loss of H{sub 2} from C{sub 2}H{sub 6} which is substantially endothermic. As such, a number of publications have described H{sub 2} release from amine boranes, yielding various rates depending on the method applied. The viability of any chemical H{sub 2} storage system is critically dependent on efficient recyclability, but reports on the latter subject are sparse, invoke the use of high energy reducing agents, and suffer from low yields. Our group is currently engaged in trying to find and fully demonstrate an energy efficient regeneration process for the spent fuel from H{sub 2} depleted AB with a minimum number of steps. Although spent fuel composition depends on the dehydrogenation method, we have focused our efforts on the spent fuel resulting from metal-based catalysis, which has thus far shown the most promise. Metal-based catalysts have produced the fastest rates for a single equivalent of H{sub 2} released from AB and up to 2.5 equiv. of H{sub 2} can be produced within 2 hours. While ongoing work is being carried out to tailor the composition of spent AB fuel, a method has been developed for regenerating the predominant product, polyborazylene

  3. Disposition of ORNL's Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D. W.; DeMonia, B. C.; Horton, L. L.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the process of retrieving, repackaging, and preparing Oak Ridge spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for off-site disposition. The objective of the Oak Ridge SNF Project is to safely, reliably, and efficiently manage SNF that is stored on the Oak Ridge Reservation until it can be shipped off-site. The project required development of several unique processes and the design and fabrication of special equipment to enable the successful retrieval, transfer, and repackaging of Oak Ridge SNF. SNF was retrieved and transferred to a hot cell for repackaging. After retrieval of SNF packages, the storage positions were decontaminated and stainless steel liners were installed to resolve the vulnerability of water infiltration. Each repackaged SNF canister has been transferred from the hot cell back to dry storage until off-site shipments can be made. Three shipments of aluminum-clad SNF were made to the Savannah River Site (SRS), and five shipments of non-aluminum-clad SNF are planned to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Through the integrated cooperation of several organizations including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and various subcontractors, preparations for the disposition of SNF in Oak Ridge have been performed in a safe and successful manner.

  4. Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

    1996-09-01

    This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}. Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible.

  5. RSRM Propellant Grain Geometry Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schorr, Andrew A.; Endicott, Joni B.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is composed of viewgraphs about the RSRM propellant grain geometry modification project, which hopes to improve personnel and system safety by modifying propellant grain geometry to improve structural factors of safety. Using techniques such as Finite Element Analysis to determine blend radii required to reduce localized stresses, and ballistic predictions to ensure that the ballistics, ignition transient and Block Model have not been adversely affected, the project hopes to build and test FSM-10 with a new design, and determine flight effectivity pending successful test evaluation.

  6. Spent fuel test project, Climax granitic stock, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1980-10-24

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is a test of dry geologic storage of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The SFT-C is located at a depth of 420 m in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site. Eleven canisters of spent commercial PWR fuel assemblies are to be stored for 3 to 5 years. Additional heat is supplied by electrical heaters, and more than 800 channels of technical information are being recorded. The measurements include rock temperature, rock displacement and stress, joint motion, and monitoring of the ventilation air volume, temperature, and dewpoint.

  7. INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.

    1980-04-01

    A process for making hydraulic cements from spent oil shale is described in this paper. Inexpensive cement is needed to grout abandoned in-situ retorts of spent shale for subsidence control, mitigation of leaching, and strengthening the retorted mass in order to recover oil from adjacent pillars of raw shale. A hydraulic cement was produced by heating a 1:1 mixture of Lurgi spent shale and CaCO{sub 3} at 1000 C for one hour. This cement would be less expensive than ordinary portland cement and is expected to fulfill the above requirements.

  8. Choosing Whole-Grain Foods: 10 Tips for Purchasing and Storing Whole-Grain Foods

    MedlinePlus

    ... whole-grain ingredients include whole oats, whole-wheat flour, whole-grain corn, whole-grain brown rice, and whole rye. Foods that say “multi-grain,” “ ... the shelf life varies too. Most whole-grain flours keep well in the ... for 6 to 8 months. Cooked brown rice can be refrigerated 3 to 5 days and ...

  9. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: thermal evaluation of sealed storage cask containing spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitten, P.F.; Wright, J.B.

    1980-08-01

    A PWR spent fuel assembly was encapsulated inside the E-MAD Hot Bay and placed in a instrumented above surface storage cell during December 1978 for thermal testing. Instrumentation provided to measure canister, liner and concrete temperatures consisted of thermocouples which were inserted into tubes on the outside of the canister and liner and in three radial positions in the concrete. Temperatures from the SSC test assembly have been recorded throughout the past 16 months. Canister and liner temperatures have reached their peak values of 200{sup 0}F and 140{sup 0}F, respectively. Computer predictions of the transient and steady-state temperatures show good agreement with the test data.

  10. Grain production for alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lockeretz, W.

    1980-05-01

    This report provides primarily an assessment of the resource base for producing alcohol fuel from grain. The effect of different levels of alcohol production are discussed with respect to farm income, land conservation practices, food prices, and exports. The economics of ethanol production from the standpoint of feedstock availability and price are comprehensively examined.

  11. Grain refinement in undercooled nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.K.; Chiu, C.P.; Kui, H.W.

    1995-05-15

    In this paper, the microstructures of undercooled Ni that solidified at various initial bulk undercoolings are examined in detail in order to understand the mechanism of grain refinement in metallic systems. Molten Ni contracts on solidification. In the experiment, since it was covered by molten glass flux, upon crystallization cavities had to form to accommodate the rapid volume change if the undercooled specimen remained in contact with the glass flux, which could not flow so readily. The adhesiveness between Ni and glass flux was confirmed by removing them from a furnace after the whole system had been cooled down to room temperature. Furthermore, it was clear from the micrographs that after a cavity had formed, it did not collapse. It can therefore be concluded that smaller grains are found to concentrate near the void along the minor axis. At still higher undercoolings, the effect was so violent that the voids took irregular shapes. Again, the grains near the cavity are somewhat smaller than those further away. Accordingly, the authors conclude that grain refinement in undercooled Ni was brought about by dynamic nucleation as the cavities formed.

  12. 77 FR 76452 - Grain Inspection Advisory Committee Reestablishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Grain Inspection Advisory Committee Reestablishment AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Notice to... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) Grain Inspection Advisory...

  13. 75 FR 81965 - Grain Inspection Advisory Committee Reestablishment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Grain Inspection Advisory Committee Reestablishment AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION... reestablished the Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) Grain Inspection...

  14. What Controls Ooid Grain Size?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trower, L.; Lamb, M. P.; Fischer, W. W.

    2015-12-01

    Ooids are subspherical chemical sand grains composed of concentric layers of CaCO₃ surrounding a central nucleus. These grains represent a common mode of carbonate sedimentation, making them potentially powerful proxies for paleoenvironmental conditions, provided a mechanistic understanding of the physical, chemical, and perhaps biological conditions necessary for their formation. At a basic level, growth of an ooid reflects that precipitation has outpaced abrasion over the ooid's lifetime. We can describe change in ooid size over time (net growth rate) mechanistically as the sum of a growth rate (the rate of carbonate precipitation on the ooid surface) and an abrasion rate (the rate of removal of material through grain-grain and grain-bed collisions). Previous studies have addressed the growth rate, investigating the extent to which microbial activity affects and/or controls carbonate precipitation on ooid surfaces, and the net growth rate, using stepwise acid digestion and radiocarbon dating to determine the ages of cortical layers. We focused on the abrasion rate and designed an experimental study to measure abrasion rates of ooids as a function of grain size and sediment transport stage. Preliminary experiments with medium-sand-sized ooids at a Rouse number of ~1.2 yielded an abrasion rate of 0.04 g/hr (or ~40 ng/ooid/hr), which is four orders of magnitude greater than the fastest net growth rates reported in the recent high resolution ooid cortex radiocarbon dating study by Beaupre et al. (2015). This result requires that either: 1) ooids are essentially not moving and therefore not being abraded or 2) precipitation rates are also much more rapid than the net growth rates estimated by incremental radiocarbon dating. The former constraint is inconsistent with field observations that most marine ooids occur in high energy shoal environments, both in modern examples and in the rock record. Precipitation rates must therefore also be relatively rapid compared

  15. Cereal grains, legumes and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Venn, B J; Mann, J I

    2004-11-01

    This review examines the evidence for the role of whole grain foods and legumes in the aetiology and management of diabetes. MedLine and SilverPlatter ('Nutrition' and 'Food Science FSTA') databases were searched to identify epidemiological and experimental studies relating to the effects of whole grain foods and legumes on indicators of carbohydrate metabolism. Epidemiological studies strongly support the suggestion that high intakes of whole grain foods protect against the development of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). People who consume approximately 3 servings per day of whole grain foods are less likely to develop T2DM than low consumers (<3 servings per week) with a risk reduction in the order of 20-30%. The role of legumes in the prevention of diabetes is less clear, possibly because of the relatively low intake of leguminous foods in the populations studied. However, legumes share several qualities with whole grains of potential benefit to glycaemic control including slow release carbohydrate and a high fibre content. A substantial increase in dietary intake of legumes as replacement food for more rapidly digested carbohydrate might therefore be expected to improve glycaemic control and thus reduce incident diabetes. This is consistent with the results of dietary intervention studies that have found improvements in glycaemic control after increasing the dietary intake of whole grain foods, legumes, vegetables and fruit. The benefit has been attributed to an increase in soluble fibre intake. However, prospective studies have found that soluble fibre intake is not associated with a lower incidence of T2DM. On the contrary, it is cereal fibre that is largely insoluble that is associated with a reduced risk of developing T2DM. Despite this, the addition of wheat bran to the diets of diabetic people has not improved indicators of glycaemic control. These apparently contradictory findings might be explained by metabolic studies that have indicated improvement

  16. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â...) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  17. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â...) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  18. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â...) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  19. Microbiology of spent nuclear fuel storage basins.

    PubMed

    Santo Domingo, J W; Berry, C J; Summer, M; Fliermans, C B

    1998-12-01

    Microbiological studies of spent nuclear fuel storage basins at Savannah River Site (SRS) were performed as a preliminary step to elucidate the potential for microbial-influenced corrosion (MIC) in these facilities. Total direct counts and culturable counts performed during a 2-year period indicated microbial densities of 10(4) to 10(7) cells/ml in water samples and on submerged metal coupons collected from these basins. Bacterial communities present in the basin transformed between 15% and 89% of the compounds present in Biologtrade mark plates. Additionally, the presence of several biocorrosion-relevant microbial groups (i.e., sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria) was detected with commercially available test kits. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectra analysis of osmium tetroxide-stained coupons demonstrated the development of microbial biofilm communities on some metal coupons submerged for 3 weeks in storage basins. After 12 months, coupons were fully covered by biofilms, with some deterioration of the coupon surface evident at the microscopical level. These results suggest that, despite the oligotrophic and radiological environment of the SRS storage basins and the active water deionization treatments commonly applied to prevent electrochemical corrosion in these facilities, these conditions do not prevent microbial colonization and survival. Such microbial densities and wide diversity of carbon source utilization reflect the ability of the microbial populations to adapt to these environments. The presumptive presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria and the development of biofilms on submerged coupons indicated that an environment for MIC of metal components in the storage basins may occur. However, to date, there has been no indication or evidence of MIC in the basins. Basin chemistry control and corrosion surveillance programs instituted several years ago have substantially abated all corrosion mechanisms.

  20. Neutron Generators for Spent Fuel Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A

    2010-12-30

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). The 14 NDA techniques being studied include several that require an external neutron source: Delayed Neutrons (DN), Differential Die-Away (DDA), Delayed Gammas (DG), and Lead Slowing-Down Spectroscopy (LSDS). This report provides a survey of currently available neutron sources and their underlying technology that may be suitable for NDA of SNF assemblies. The neutron sources considered here fall into two broad categories. The term 'neutron generator' is commonly used for sealed devices that operate at relatively low acceleration voltages of less than 150 kV. Systems that employ an acceleration structure to produce ion beam energies from hundreds of keV to several MeV, and that are pumped down to vacuum during operation, rather than being sealed units, are usually referred to as 'accelerator-driven neutron sources.' Currently available neutron sources and future options are evaluated within the parameter space of the neutron generator/source requirements as currently understood and summarized in section 2. Applicable neutron source technologies are described in section 3. Commercially available neutron generators and other source options that could be made available in the near future with some further development and customization are discussed in sections 4 and 5, respectively. The pros and cons of the various options and possible ways forward are discussed in section 6. Selection of the best approach must take a number of parameters into account including cost, size, lifetime, and power consumption, as well as neutron flux, neutron energy spectrum, and pulse structure that satisfy the requirements of the NDA instrument to be built.

  1. Shippingport Spent Fuel Canister System Description

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-03-27

    In 1978 and 1979, a total of 72 blanket fuel assemblies (BFAs), irradiated during the operating cycles of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station's Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Core 2 from April 1965 to February 1974, were transferred to the Hanford Site and stored in underwater storage racks in Cell 2R at the 221-T Canyon (T-Plant). The initial objective was to recover the produced plutonium in the BFAs, but this never occurred and the fuel assemblies have remained within the water storage pool to the present time. The Shippingport Spent Fuel Canister (SSFC) is a confinement system that provides safe transport functions (in conjunction with the TN-WHC cask) and storage for the BFAs at the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The current plan is for these BFAs to be retrieved from wet storage and loaded into SSFCs for dry storage. The sealed SSFCs containing BFAs will be vacuum dried, internally backfilled with helium, and leak tested to provide suitable confinement for the BFAs during transport and storage. Following completion of the drying and inerting process, the SSFCs are to be delivered to the CSB for closure welding and long-term interim storage. The CSB will provide safe handling and dry storage for the SSFCs containing the BFAs. The purpose of this document is to describe the SSFC system and interface equipment, including the technical basis for the system, design descriptions, and operations requirements. It is intended that this document will be periodically updated as more equipment design and performance specification information becomes available.

  2. Impact fracture experiments simulating interstellar grain-grain collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; Chang, Sherwood; Dickinson, J. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Oxide and silicate grains condensing during the early phases of the formation of the solar system or in the outflow of stars are exposed to high partial pressures of the low-z elements H, C, N and O and their simple gaseous compounds. Though refractory minerals are nominally anhydrous and non-carbonate, if they crystallize in the presence of H2O, N2 and CO or CO2 gases, they dissolve traces of the gaseous components. The question arises: How does the presence of dissolved gases or gas components manifest itself when grain-grain collisions occur. What are the gases emitted when grains are shattered during a collision event. Researchers report on fracture experiments in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV, approximately less than 10 to the -8th power mbar) designed to measure (by means of a quadrupole mass spectrometer, QMS, with microns to ms time resolution) the emission of gases and vapors during and after impact (up to 1.5 sec). Two terrestrial materials were chosen which represent structural and compositional extremes: olivine (San Carlos, AZ), a densely packed Mg-Fe(2+) silicate from the upper mantle, available as 6 to 12 mm single crystals, and obsidian (Oregon), a structurally open, alkaline-SiO2-rich volcanic glass. In the olivine crystals OH- groups have been identified spectroscopically, as well as H2 molecules. Obsidian is a water-rich glass containing OH- besides H2O molecules. Olivine from the mantle often contains CO2, either as CO2-rich fluid in fluid inclusions or structurally dissolved or both. By analogy to synthetic glasses CO2 in the obsidian may be present in form of CO2 molecules in voids of molecular dimensions, or as carbonate anions, CO3(2-). No organic molecules have been detected spectroscopically in either material. Results indicate that refractory oxide/silicates which contain dissolved traces of the H2O and CO/CO2 components but no spectroscopically detectable traces of organics may release complex H-C-O (possibly H-C-N-O) molecules upon fracture

  3. AGB stars and presolar grains

    SciTech Connect

    Busso, M.; Trippella, O.; Maiorca, E.; Palmerini, S.

    2014-05-09

    Among presolar materials recovered in meteorites, abundant SiC and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains of AGB origins were found. They showed records of C, N, O, {sup 26}Al and s-element isotopic ratios that proved invaluable in constraining the nucleosynthesis models for AGB stars [1, 2]. In particular, when these ratios are measured in SiC grains, they clearly reveal their prevalent origin in cool AGB circumstellar envelopes and provide information on both the local physics and the conditions at the nucleosynthesis site (the H- and He-burning layers deep inside the structure). Among the properties ascertained for the main part of the SiC data (the so-called mainstream ones), we mention a large range of {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratios, extending below the solar value [3], and {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios ≳ 30. Other classes of grains, instead, display low carbon isotopic ratios (≳ 10) and a huge dispersion for N isotopes, with cases of large {sup 15}N excess. In the same grains, isotopes currently feeded by slow neutron captures reveal the characteristic pattern expected from this process at an efficiency slightly lower than necessary to explain the solar main s-process component. Complementary constraints can be found in oxide grains, especially Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals. Here, the oxygen isotopes and the content in {sup 26}Al are of a special importance for clarifying the partial mixing processes that are known to affect evolved low-mass stars. Successes in modeling the data, as well as problems in explaining some of the mentioned isotopic ratios through current nucleosynthesis models are briefly outlined.

  4. Grain Refinement of Deoxidized Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balart, María José; Patel, Jayesh B.; Gao, Feng; Fan, Zhongyun

    2016-08-01

    This study reports the current status of grain refinement of copper accompanied in particular by a critical appraisal of grain refinement of phosphorus-deoxidized, high residual P (DHP) copper microalloyed with 150 ppm Ag. Some deviations exist in terms of the growth restriction factor (Q) framework, on the basis of empirical evidence reported in the literature for grain size measurements of copper with individual additions of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 wt pct of Mo, In, Sn, Bi, Sb, Pb, and Se, cast under a protective atmosphere of pure Ar and water quenching. The columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) has been observed in copper, with an individual addition of 0.4B and with combined additions of 0.4Zr-0.04P and 0.4Zr-0.04P-0.015Ag and, in a previous study, with combined additions of 0.1Ag-0.069P (in wt pct). CETs in these B- and Zr-treated casts have been ascribed to changes in the morphology and chemistry of particles, concurrently in association with free solute type and availability. No further grain-refining action was observed due to microalloying additions of B, Mg, Ca, Zr, Ti, Mn, In, Fe, and Zn (~0.1 wt pct) with respect to DHP-Cu microalloyed with Ag, and therefore are no longer relevant for the casting conditions studied. The critical microalloying element for grain size control in deoxidized copper and in particular DHP-Cu is Ag.

  5. Grain Refinement of Deoxidized Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balart, María José; Patel, Jayesh B.; Gao, Feng; Fan, Zhongyun

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the current status of grain refinement of copper accompanied in particular by a critical appraisal of grain refinement of phosphorus-deoxidized, high residual P (DHP) copper microalloyed with 150 ppm Ag. Some deviations exist in terms of the growth restriction factor ( Q) framework, on the basis of empirical evidence reported in the literature for grain size measurements of copper with individual additions of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 wt pct of Mo, In, Sn, Bi, Sb, Pb, and Se, cast under a protective atmosphere of pure Ar and water quenching. The columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) has been observed in copper, with an individual addition of 0.4B and with combined additions of 0.4Zr-0.04P and 0.4Zr-0.04P-0.015Ag and, in a previous study, with combined additions of 0.1Ag-0.069P (in wt pct). CETs in these B- and Zr-treated casts have been ascribed to changes in the morphology and chemistry of particles, concurrently in association with free solute type and availability. No further grain-refining action was observed due to microalloying additions of B, Mg, Ca, Zr, Ti, Mn, In, Fe, and Zn (~0.1 wt pct) with respect to DHP-Cu microalloyed with Ag, and therefore are no longer relevant for the casting conditions studied. The critical microalloying element for grain size control in deoxidized copper and in particular DHP-Cu is Ag.

  6. Concepts on Low Temperature Mechanical Grain Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon, John Anthony; Boyce, Brad Lee

    2013-11-01

    In metals, as grain size is reduced below 100nm, conventional dislocation plasticity is suppressed resulting in improvements in strength, hardness, and wears resistance. Existing and emerging components use fine grained metals for these beneficial attributes. However, these benefits can be lost in service if the grains undergo growth during the component’s lifespan. While grain growth is traditionally viewed as a purely thermal process that requires elevated temperature exposure, recent evidence shows that some metals, especially those with nanocrystalline grain structure, can undergo grain growth even at room temperature or below due to mechanical loading. This report has been assembled to survey the key concepts regarding how mechanical loads can drive grain coarsening at room temperature and below. Topics outlined include the atomic level mechanisms that facilitate grain growth, grain boundary mobility, and the impact of boundary structure, loading scheme, and temperature.

  7. Total ozone mapping spectrometer retrievals of noon erythemal-CIE ultraviolet irradiance compared with Brewer ground-based measurements at El Arenosillo (southwestern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, M.; Cachorro, V. E.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Krotkov, N. A.; Serrano, A.; Toledano, C.; de La Morena, B.; Herman, J. R.

    2007-06-01

    During the last decade, methods have been developed for estimating ultraviolet (UV) irradiance reaching the Earth's surface using satellite-measured backscattered UV radiances. The aim of this work is to compare UV products (version 8), noon erythemal Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE)-UV irradiance (and daily CIE UV doses) from NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), with ground-based measurements from a well-calibrated Brewer spectrophotometer. This system is installed at the ESAt-"El Arenosillo" (Huelva) station, located in southwest Spain, near the Gulf of Cadiz, an area that is exposed to terrestrial Atlantic-Mediterranean air masses, with a high frequency (about 50%) of cloud-free days. The period analyzed was from 2000 to 2004, separated into two periods, 2000-2002 and 2003-2004, for comparative analysis. The reason for the two periods is the known calibration problem of Earth Probe-TOMS that became more pronounced by the end of 2002. The calibration errors are most important in the reflectivity and Aerosol Index TOMS data. Although the comparison results are slightly better for the first period, we do not observe major discrepancies during the second period; thus both periods were combined for final conclusions. Four different atmospheric conditions are tested in order to analyze the effects of clouds and aerosols on the differences between TOMS and Brewer data: all-sky, cloud-free with any aerosols, as well as with low and high aerosol loads. In general, under all sky conditions, TOMS overestimates the noon CIE irradiance by 7.5 ± 0.7% (daily CIE doses 8.3 ± 0.6%), but the most relevant is that the bias becomes negative for high values of TOMS reflectivity (thick clouds or high cloud optical depth) with a significant noise increase. Therefore the TOMS bias is higher for cloud-free days, 11.8 ± 0.2%, increasing with the aerosol optical depth, as measured by a colocated Cimel-AERONET Sun photometer. A high correlation between TOMS and

  8. Method for storing spent nuclear fuel in repositories

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, Donald G.; Sastre, Cesar; Winsche, Warren

    1981-01-01

    A method for storing radioactive spent fuel in repositories containing sulfur as the storage medium is disclosed. Sulfur is non-corrosive and not subject to radiation damage. Thus, storage periods of up to 100 years are possible.

  9. Scientists warn of 'trillion-dollar' spent-fuel risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-07-01

    A study by two Princeton University physicists suggests that a major fire in the spent nuclear fuel stored on the sites of US nuclear reactors could “dwarf the horrific consequences of the Fukushima accident”.

  10. Application of ALARA principles to shipment of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Greenborg, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Murphy, D.W. Burnett, R.A.; Lewis, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The public exposure from spent fuel shipment is very low. In view of this low exposure and the perfect safety record for spent fuel shipment, existing systems can be considered satisfactory. On the other hand, occupational exposure reduction merits consideration and technology improvement to decrease dose should concentrate on this exposure. Practices that affect the age of spent fuel in shipment and the number of times the fuel must be shipped prior to disposal have the largest impact. A policy to encourage a 5-year spent fuel cooling period prior to shipment coupled with appropriate cask redesign to accommodate larger loads would be consistent with ALARA and economic principles. And finally, bypassing high population density areas will not in general reduce shipment dose.

  11. Spent fuel storage at Prairie Island: January 1995 status

    SciTech Connect

    Closs, J.; Kress, L.

    1995-12-31

    The disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been an issue for the US since the inception of the commercial nuclear power industry. In the past decade, it has become a critical factor in the continued operation of some nuclear power plants, including the two units at Prairie Island. As the struggles and litigation over storage alternatives wage on, spent fuel pools continue to fill and plants edge closer to premature shutdown. Due to the delays in the construction of a federal repository, many nuclear power plants have had to seek interim storage alternatives. In the case of Prairie Island, the safest and most feasible option is dry cask storage. This paper discusses the current status of the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) Project at Prairie Island. It provides a historical background to the project, discusses the notable developments over the past year, and presents the projected plans of the Northern States Power Company (NSP) in regards to spent fuel storage.

  12. FENTON-DRIVEN CHEMICAL REGENERATION OF MTBE-SPENT GAC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-spent granular activated carbon (GAC) was chemically regenerated utilizing the Fenton mechanism. Two successive GAC regeneration cycles were performed involving iterative adsorption and oxidation processes: MTBE was adsorbed to the GAC, oxidized, r...

  13. Method for storing spent nuclear fuel in repositories

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Sastre, C.; Winsche, W.

    A method for storing radioactive spent fuel in repositories containing sulfur as the storage medium is disclosed. Sulfur is non-corrosive and not subject to radiation damage. Thus, storage periods of up to 100 years are possible.

  14. Microbial recovery of metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    This project was initiated on October 1, 1989, for the purpose of recovering metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Two catalyst types are the subject of the contract. The first is a Ni-Mo catalyst supported on alumina (Shell 324) as is used in a pilot scale coal liquefaction facility at Wilsonville, Alabama. A large sample of spent catalyst has been obtained. The second material is an unsupported ammonium molybdate catalyst used in a pilot process by the Department of energy at the Pittsburgh energy Technology Center. The object of the contract is to treat these spent catalysts with microorganisms, especially Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, but also other Thiobacillus sp. and possibly Sulfolobus, to leach and remove the metals (Ni and Mo) from the spent catalysts into a form which can be readily recovered by conventional techniques.

  15. Equipment designs for the spent LWR fuel dry storage demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, R.J.; Kurasch, D.H.; Hardin, R.T.; Schmitten, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    In conjunction with the Spent Fuel Handling and Packaging Program (SFHPP) equipment has been designed, fabricated and successfully utilized to demonstrate the packaging and interim dry storage of spent LWR fuel. Surface and near surface storage configurations containing PWR fuel assemblies are currently on test and generating baseline data. Specific areas of hardware design focused upon include storage cell components and the support related equipment associated with encapsulation, leak testing, lag storage, and emplacement operations.

  16. Thermal Cooling Limits of Sbotaged Spent Fuel Pools

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Thomas G. Hughes; Dr. Thomas F. Lin

    2010-09-10

    To develop the understanding and predictive measures of the post “loss of water inventory” hazardous conditions as a result of the natural and/or terrorist acts to the spent fuel pool of a nuclear plant. This includes the thermal cooling limits to the spent fuel assembly (before the onset of the zircaloy ignition and combustion), and the ignition, combustion, and the subsequent propagation of zircaloy fire from one fuel assembly to others

  17. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from U.S. reactors 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel Discharges from US Reactors 1994 provides current statistical data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the US. This year`s report provides data on the current inventories and storage capacities at these reactors. Detailed statistics on the data are presented in four chapters that highlight 1994 spent fuel discharges, storage capacities and inventories, canister and nonfuel component data, and assembly characteristics. Five appendices, a glossary, and bibliography are also included. 10 figs., 34 tabs.

  18. Spent nuclear fuel Canister Storage Building CDR Review Committee report

    SciTech Connect

    Dana, W.P.

    1995-12-01

    The Canister Storage Building (CSB) is a subproject under the Spent Nuclear Fuels Major System Acquisition. This subproject is necessary to design and construct a facility capable of providing dry storage of repackaged spent fuels received from K Basins. The CSB project completed a Conceptual Design Report (CDR) implementing current project requirements. A Design Review Committee was established to review the CDR. This document is the final report summarizing that review

  19. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat.

    PubMed

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L

    2015-11-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)×spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulation, and grain dimensions interacted strongly with each other. Furthermore, larger carpels, a faster grain filling rate, earlier and longer grain filling, more grain water, faster grain water absorption and loss rates, and larger grain dimensions were associated with higher grain weight. Frequent quantitative trait locus (QTL) coincidences between these traits were observed, particularly those on chromosomes 2A, 3B, 4A, 5A, 5DL, and 7B, each of which harboured 16-49 QTLs associated with >12 traits. Analysis of the allelic effects of coincident QTLs confirmed their physiological relationships, indicating that the complex but orderly grain filling processes result mainly from pleiotropy or the tight linkages of functionally related genes. After grain filling, distal grains within spikelets were smaller than basal grains, primarily due to later grain filling and a slower initial grain filling rate, followed by synchronous maturation among different grains. Distal grain weight was improved by increased assimilate availability from anthesis. These findings provide deeper insight into grain weight determination in wheat, and the high level of QTL coincidences allows simultaneous improvement of multiple grain filling traits in breeding.

  20. Carpel size, grain filling, and morphology determine individual grain weight in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Quan; Mayes, Sean; Sparkes, Debbie L.

    2015-01-01

    Individual grain weight is a major yield component in wheat. To provide a comprehensive understanding of grain weight determination, the carpel size at anthesis, grain dry matter accumulation, grain water uptake and loss, grain morphological expansion, and final grain weight at different positions within spikelets were investigated in a recombinant inbred line mapping population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)×spelt (Triticum spelta L.). Carpel size, grain dry matter and water accumulation, and grain dimensions interacted strongly with each other. Furthermore, larger carpels, a faster grain filling rate, earlier and longer grain filling, more grain water, faster grain water absorption and loss rates, and larger grain dimensions were associated with higher grain weight. Frequent quantitative trait locus (QTL) coincidences between these traits were observed, particularly those on chromosomes 2A, 3B, 4A, 5A, 5DL, and 7B, each of which harboured 16−49 QTLs associated with >12 traits. Analysis of the allelic effects of coincident QTLs confirmed their physiological relationships, indicating that the complex but orderly grain filling processes result mainly from pleiotropy or the tight linkages of functionally related genes. After grain filling, distal grains within spikelets were smaller than basal grains, primarily due to later grain filling and a slower initial grain filling rate, followed by synchronous maturation among different grains. Distal grain weight was improved by increased assimilate availability from anthesis. These findings provide deeper insight into grain weight determination in wheat, and the high level of QTL coincidences allows simultaneous improvement of multiple grain filling traits in breeding. PMID:26246614

  1. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1987-2020

    SciTech Connect

    Walling, R.C.; Heeb, C.M.; Purcell, W.L.

    1988-03-01

    The creation of five reactor-specific spent fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from U.S. commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water eactors (BWR), and one existing high temperature gas reactor (HTGR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the U.S. reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Administration (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: No New Orders (assumes increasing burnup), No New Orders with No Increased Burnup, Upper Reference (assumes increasing burnup), Upper Reference with No Increased Burnup, and Lower Reference (assumes increasing burnup). Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel. 8 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections: 1985 to 2020

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.; Libby, R.A.; Walling, R.C.; Purcell, W.L.

    1986-09-01

    The creation of four spent-fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from US commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent-fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the US reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Agency (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: (1) No New Orders with Extended Burnup, (2) No New Orders with Constant Burnup, (3) Middle Case with Extended Burnup, and (4) Middle Case with Constant Burnup. Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel.

  3. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections: 1986 to 2020

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.; Walling, R.C.; Purcell, W.L.

    1987-03-01

    The creation of five reactor-specific spent fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from US commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent-fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the US reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Agency (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: (1) No new orders with extended burnup, (2) No new orders with constant burnup, (3) Upper reference (which assumes extended burnup), (4) Upper reference with constant burnup, and (5) Lower reference (which assumes extended burnup). Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel. 6 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. West Valley facility spent fuel handling, storage, and shipping experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-11-01

    The result of a study on handling and shipping experience with spent fuel are described in this report. The study was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The purpose of the study was to document the experience with handling and shipping of relatively old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel that has been in pool storage at the West Valley facility, which is at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center at West Valley, New York and operated by DOE. A subject of particular interest in the study was the behavior of corrosion product deposits (i.e., crud) deposits on spent LWR fuel after long-term pool storage; some evidence of crud loosening has been observed with fuel that was stored for extended periods at the West Valley facility and at other sites. Conclusions associated with the experience to date with old spent fuel that has been stored at the West Valley facility are presented. The conclusions are drawn from these subject areas: a general overview of the West Valley experience, handling of spent fuel, storing of spent fuel, rod consolidation, shipping of spent fuel, crud loosening, and visual inspection. A list of recommendations is provided. 61 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. EDI as a Treatment Module in Recycling Spent Rinse Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, Robert P.; Morrison, Dennis J.

    1999-08-11

    Recycling of the spent rinse water discharged from the wet benches commonly used in semiconductor processing is one tactic for responding to the targets for water usage published in the 1997 National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (NTRS). Not only does the NTRS list a target that dramatically reduces total water usage/unit area of silicon manufactured by the industry in the future but for the years 2003 and beyond, the NTRS actually touts goals which would have semiconductor manufacturers drawing less water from a regional water supply per unit area of silicon manufactured than the quantity of ultrapure water (UPW) used in the production of that same silicon. Achieving this latter NTRS target strongly implies more widespread recycling of spent rinse waters at semiconductor manufacturing sites. In spite of the fact that, by most metrics, spent rinse waters are of much higher purity than incoming municipal waters, recycling of these spent rinse waters back into the UPW production plant is not a simple, straightforward task. The rub is that certain of the chemicals used in semiconductor manufacturing, and thus potentially present in trace concentrations (or more) in spent rinse waters, are not found in municipal water supplies and are not necessarily removed by the conventional UPW production sequence used by semiconductor manufacturers. Some of these contaminants, unique to spent rinse waters, may actually foul the resins and membranes of the UPW system, posing a threat to UPW production and potentially even causing a shutdown.

  6. Sculpting sandcastles grain by grain: self-assembled sand towers.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F; Moreau, F; Vandewalle, N; Dorbolo, S

    2012-11-01

    We study the spontaneous formation of granular towers produced when dry sand is poured on a wet sand bed. When the liquid content of the bed exceeds a threshold value W*, the impacting grains have a nonzero probability to stick on the wet grains due to instantaneous liquid bridges created during the impact. The trapped grains become wet by the capillary ascension of water and the process continues, giving rise to stable narrow towers. The growth velocity is determined by the surface liquid content which decreases exponentially as the tower height augments. This self-assembly mechanism (only observed in the funicular and capillary regimes) could theoretically last while the capillary rise of water is possible; however, the structure collapses before reaching this limit. The collapse occurs when the weight of the tower surpasses the cohesive stress at its base. The cohesive stress increases as the liquid content of the bed is reduced. Consequently, the highest towers are found just above W*. PMID:23214775

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    SciTech Connect

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-12-07

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major

  8. Grain Growth in Cerium Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, Jason; Katz, Martha; Mielke, Charles; Montalvo, Joel

    We report on grain growth in forged and rolled cerium plate for temperatures from 350 to 700 degrees C and times from 30 to 120 minutes. The cerium was made by arc-melting into a 25 mm deep by 80 mm diameter copper mold. The resulting disk was forged at room temperature to a 25% reduction of thickness four times with a 350 degree C strain relief heat treatment for 60 minutes between forging steps. The resulting 8 mm thick plate was clock rolled at room temperature to a 25% reduction of thickness three times with a 350 C strain relief heat treatment between steps resulting in a plate approximately 3 mm thick. 5 x 10 mm coupons were cut from the plate for the grain growth study.

  9. Grain Alignment in Starless Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M.; Krejny, M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Bastien, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to {{A}V}˜ 48. We find that {{P}K}/{{τ }K} continues to decline with increasing AV with a power law slope of roughly -0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by {{A}V}≳ 20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ˜-1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than {{A}V}˜ 20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  10. Conducting Grains in Dusty Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Truell; Matthews, Lorin; Carmona-Reyes, Jorge

    The existence of dusty plasma environments in space is common, with the dust originating from a variety of sources. Such environments include protostellar and protoplanetary systems during their formation and evolution. In addition, iron rich meteors, which contain remnants of primordial solar system material, are also a source for micron-sized metallic dust particles that interact with the surrounding plasma. Although research has been conducted on nonconducting grains within a complex plasma environment, very little experimental data exists on conducting grains within complex plasmas. This study will compare and contrast the dynamics of non-conducting (Melamine Formaldehyde) and conducting particles (Gold-coated Melamine Formaldehyde particles) immersed in a capacitively coupled RF plasma maintained within a GEC reference cell. The resulting experimental data will be related to the fundamental physics behind the charging mechanism for such micron-size particles.

  11. Positron trapping at grain boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Dupasquier, A. ); Romero, R.; Somoza, A. )

    1993-10-01

    The standard positron trapping model has often been applied, as a simple approximation, to the interpretation of positron lifetime spectra in situations of diffusion-controlled trapping. This paper shows that this approximation is not sufficiently accurate, and presents a model based on the correct solution of the diffusion equation, in the version appropriate for studying positron trapping at grain boundaries. The model is used for the analysis of new experimental data on positron lifetime spectra in a fine-grained Al-Ca-Zn alloy. Previous results on similar systems are also discussed and reinterpreted. The analysis yields effective diffusion coefficients not far from the values known for the base metals of the alloys.

  12. Isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial grains.

    PubMed

    Ireland, T R

    1996-03-01

    Isotopic compositions are referred to as anomalous if the isotopic ratios measured cannot be related to the terrestrial (solar) composition of a given element. While small effects close to the resolution of mass spectrometric techniques can have ambiguous origins, the discovery of large isotopic anomalies in inclusions and grains from primitive meteorites suggests that material from distinct sites of stellar nucleosynthesis has been preserved. Refractory inclusions, which are predominantly composed of the refractory oxides of Al, Ca, Ti, and Mg, in chondritic meteorites commonly have excesses in the heaviest isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr which are inferred to have been produced in a supernova. Refractory inclusions also contain excess 26Mg from short lived 26Al decay. However, despite the isotopic anomalies indicating the preservation of distinct nucleosynthetic sites, refractory inclusions have been processed in the solar system and are not interstellar grains. Carbon (graphite and diamond) and silicon carbide grains from the same meteorites also have large isotopic anomalies but these phases are not stable in the oxidized solar nebula which suggests that they are presolar and formed in the circumstellar atmospheres of carbon-rich stars. Diamond has a characteristic signature enriched in the lightest and heaviest isotopes of Xe, and graphite shows a wide range in C isotopic compositions. SiC commonly has C and N isotopic signatures which are characteristic of H-burning in the C-N-O cycle in low-mass stars. Heavier elements such as Si, Ti, Xe, Ba, and Nd, carry an isotopic signature of the s-process. A minor population of SiC (known as Grains X, ca. 1%) are distinct in having decay products of short lived isotopes 26Al (now 26Mg), 44Ti (now 44Ca), and 49V (now 49Ti), as well as 28Si excesses which are characteristic of supernova nucleosynthesis. The preservation of these isotopic anomalies allows the examination of detailed nucleosynthetic pathways in stars. PMID

  13. Isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial grains.

    PubMed

    Ireland, T R

    1996-03-01

    Isotopic compositions are referred to as anomalous if the isotopic ratios measured cannot be related to the terrestrial (solar) composition of a given element. While small effects close to the resolution of mass spectrometric techniques can have ambiguous origins, the discovery of large isotopic anomalies in inclusions and grains from primitive meteorites suggests that material from distinct sites of stellar nucleosynthesis has been preserved. Refractory inclusions, which are predominantly composed of the refractory oxides of Al, Ca, Ti, and Mg, in chondritic meteorites commonly have excesses in the heaviest isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr which are inferred to have been produced in a supernova. Refractory inclusions also contain excess 26Mg from short lived 26Al decay. However, despite the isotopic anomalies indicating the preservation of distinct nucleosynthetic sites, refractory inclusions have been processed in the solar system and are not interstellar grains. Carbon (graphite and diamond) and silicon carbide grains from the same meteorites also have large isotopic anomalies but these phases are not stable in the oxidized solar nebula which suggests that they are presolar and formed in the circumstellar atmospheres of carbon-rich stars. Diamond has a characteristic signature enriched in the lightest and heaviest isotopes of Xe, and graphite shows a wide range in C isotopic compositions. SiC commonly has C and N isotopic signatures which are characteristic of H-burning in the C-N-O cycle in low-mass stars. Heavier elements such as Si, Ti, Xe, Ba, and Nd, carry an isotopic signature of the s-process. A minor population of SiC (known as Grains X, ca. 1%) are distinct in having decay products of short lived isotopes 26Al (now 26Mg), 44Ti (now 44Ca), and 49V (now 49Ti), as well as 28Si excesses which are characteristic of supernova nucleosynthesis. The preservation of these isotopic anomalies allows the examination of detailed nucleosynthetic pathways in stars.

  14. Lunar soils grain size catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John C.

    1993-01-01

    This catalog compiles every available grain size distribution for Apollo surface soils, trench samples, cores, and Luna 24 soils. Original laboratory data are tabled, and cumulative weight distribution curves and histograms are plotted. Standard statistical parameters are calculated using the method of moments. Photos and location comments describe the sample environment and geological setting. This catalog can help researchers describe the geotechnical conditions and site variability of the lunar surface essential to the design of a lunar base.

  15. Grain-Scale Supercharging on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Hartzell, C. M.; Wang, X.; Horanyi, M.; Hurley, D. M.; Hibbits, K.

    2016-11-01

    Under lunar solar wind bombardment and photoemission levels, accumulated electric charge can produce grain-to-grain electric field strengths exceeding the dielectric breakdown limit, even away from the cold, relatively non-conductive lunar poles.

  16. Mechanical Behavior of Grain Boundary Engineered Copper

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S B; Hodge, A M

    2006-08-08

    A grain boundary engineered copper sample previously characterized by Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) has been selected for nanoindentation tests. Given the fact that grain boundaries have thicknesses in the order of 1 micron or less, it is essential to use nanomechanics to test the properties of individual grain boundaries. The Hysitron nanoindenter was selected over the MTS nanoindenter due to its superior optical capabilities that aid the selection and identification of the areas to be tested. An area of 2mm by 2mm with an average grain size of 50 microns has been selected for the study. Given the EBSD mapping, grains and grain boundaries with similar orientations are tested and the hardness and modulus are compared. These results will give a relationship between the mechanical properties and the engineered grain boundaries. This will provide for the first time a correlation between grain boundary orientation and the mechanical behavior of the sample at the nanoscale.

  17. Grain boundaries and surfaces in polycrystalline photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Paul; Yoon, Heayoung; Zhitenev, Nikolai

    Despite the fact that polycrystalline photovoltaics materials such as CdTe and CIGS are an established commercial technology, the precise role of grain boundaries in their performance remains poorly understood. The high defect density at grain boundaries is generally detrimental to carrier lifetime, however the electric fields surrounding charged grain boundaries may separate electrons and holes, effectively passivating the grain boundary. One difficulty in ascertaining the properties of grain boundaries is that high spatial resolution experimental techniques needed to probe individual grain boundaries are generally surface sensitive. For this reason, extracting quantitative grain boundary and other material properties from this data requires a quantitatively accurate model of the exposed surface. Motivated by these considerations, we present a theoretical analysis of the response of a polycrystalline semiconductor to a localized excitation near a grain boundary, and near the surface. We use our analytical results to interpret electron beam induced current (EBIC) data on polycrystalline CdTe solar cells.

  18. Solid Propellant Grain Structural Integrity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The structural properties of solid propellant rocket grains were studied to determine the propellant resistance to stresses. Grain geometry, thermal properties, mechanical properties, and failure modes are discussed along with design criteria and recommended practices.

  19. Phenomenology of Abnormal Grain Growth in Systems with Nonuniform Grain Boundary Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCost, Brian L.; Holm, Elizabeth A.

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the potential for nonuniform grain boundary mobility to act as a persistence mechanism for abnormal grain growth (AGG) using Monte Carlo Potts model simulations. The model system consists of a single initially large candidate grain embedded in a matrix of equiaxed grains, corresponding to the abnormal growth regime before impingement occurs. We assign a mobility advantage to grain boundaries between the candidate grain and a randomly selected subset of the matrix grains. We observe AGG in systems with physically reasonable fractions of fast boundaries; the probability of abnormal growth increases as the density of fast boundaries increases. This abnormal growth occurs by a series of fast, localized growth events that counteract the tendency of abnormally large grains to grow more slowly than the surrounding matrix grains. Resulting abnormal grains are morphologically similar to experimentally observed abnormal grains.

  20. Thermal properties of heterogeneous grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Cometary dust is not spherical nor homogeneous, yet these are the assumptions used to model its thermal, optical, and dynamical properties. To better understand the effects of heterogeneity on the thermal and optical properties of dust grains, the effective dielectric constant for an admixture of magnetite and a silicate were calculated using two different effective medium theories: the Maxwell-Garnett theory and the Bruggeman theory. In concept, the MG theory describes the effective dielectric constant of a matrix material into which is embedded a large number of very small inclusions of a second material. The Bruggeman theory describes the dielectric constant of a well mixed aggregate of two or more types of materials. Both theories assume that the individual particles are much smaller than the wavelength of the incident radiation. The refractivity for a heterogeneous grain using the MG theory is very similar to the refractivity of the matrix material, even for large volume fractions of the inclusion. The equilibrium grain temperature for spherical particles sized from .001 to 100 microns in radius at 1 astronomical unit from the sun was calculated. Further explanation is given.

  1. Grain boundary wetness of partially molten dunite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, S.; Faul, U.

    2013-12-01

    The grain scale melt distribution plays a key role for physical properties of partially molten regions in Earth's upper mantle, but our current understanding of the distribution of basaltic melt at the grain scale is still incomplete. A recent experimental study shows that wetted two-grain boundaries are a common feature of partially molten dunite at small melt fractions (Garapic et al., G3, 2013). In early ideal models which assume isotropic surface energy, the grain scale melt distribution is uniquely determined by knowing the melt fraction and the dihedral angle between two crystalline grains and the melt (von Bargen and Waff, JGR, 1986). Olivine is anisotropic in surface energy, hence the grain scale melt distribution at given melt fraction cannot be characterized by the dihedral angle alone. The grain boundary wetness, which is defined as the ratio of solid-liquid boundary area over the total interfacial area (Takei, JGR, 1998), is a more objective measure of the grain scale melt distribution. The aim of this study is to quantify the relationship between grain size, melt fraction, temperature and grain boundary wetness of partially molten dunite under dry conditions. We annealed olivine-basalt aggregates with melt fractions from 0.03% to 6% at a range of temperatures and 1 GPa in a piston cylinder for 1 to 336 hours, with resulting mean grain sizes of 10 to 60 μm. The samples were sectioned, polished and imaged at high resolution by using a field emission SEM. Each image had a size of 2048 x 1536 pixels with a resolution of 0.014 to 0.029 μm/pixel, depending on magnification. For each sample, depending on grain sizes, we made mosaics of 3 x 3 or 6 x 6 overlapping images. Measurements of melt fraction, grain boundary wetness and grain size were carried out on these high resolution mosaics by using ImageJ software. Analyses of mosaics show that grain boundary wetness increases with increasing melt fraction at constant grain size to values well above those

  2. Safety Aspects of Dry Spent Fuel Storage and Spent Fuel Management - 13559

    SciTech Connect

    Botsch, W.; Smalian, S.; Hinterding, P.

    2013-07-01

    Dry storage systems are characterized by passive and inherent safety systems ensuring safety even in case of severe incidents or accidents. After the events of Fukushima, the advantages of such passively and inherently safe dry storage systems have become more and more obvious. As with the storage of all radioactive materials, the storage of spent nuclear fuel (SF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) must conform to safety requirements. Following safety aspects must be achieved throughout the storage period: - safe enclosure of radioactive materials, - safe removal of decay heat, - securing nuclear criticality safety, - avoidance of unnecessary radiation exposure. The implementation of these safety requirements can be achieved by dry storage of SF and HLW in casks as well as in other systems such as dry vault storage systems or spent fuel pools, where the latter is neither a dry nor a passive system. Furthermore, transport capability must be guaranteed during and after storage as well as limitation and control of radiation exposure. The safe enclosure of radioactive materials in dry storage casks can be achieved by a double-lid sealing system with surveillance of the sealing system. The safe removal of decay heat must be ensured by the design of the storage containers and the storage facility. The safe confinement of radioactive inventory has to be ensured by mechanical integrity of fuel assembly structures. This is guaranteed, e.g. by maintaining the mechanical integrity of the fuel rods or by additional safety measures for defective fuel rods. In order to ensure nuclear critically safety, possible effects of accidents have also to be taken into consideration. In case of dry storage it might be necessary to exclude the re-positioning of fissile material inside the container and/or neutron moderator exclusion might be taken into account. Unnecessary radiation exposure can be avoided by the cask or canister vault system itself. In Germany dry storage of SF in

  3. Comparisons of corrected daily integrated erythemal UVR from the U.S. EPA/UGA network of Brewer spectroradiometers with model and satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabburg, Jeff; Kimlin, Michael G.; Rives, John E.; Meltzer, Richard S.; Taylor, Thomas E.; Schmalzle, Gina; Zheng, Sherry; Huang, Nancy; Wilson, Andrew R.; Udelhofen, Petra M.

    2002-01-01

    A network of 21 Brewer spectroradiometers, owned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and operated by the University of Georgia, is measuring UV spectral irradiances throughout the United States. Corrections to the raw data have now been implemented. These corrections include (1) stray light rejection, (2) the cosine errors associated with the full sky diffuser, (3) the temperature dependence of the response of the instruments and (4) the temporal variation in the instrument response due to optical changes in the characteristics of the instruments. While for many sites the total corrections amount to less than 10%, for certain sites they are much larger, in some cases amounting to more than 25%. Application of these corrections brings the errors of the absolute irradiance values to approximately +/- 5 to 7% for all sources of error. Comparisons of corrected daily integrated erythemal UVR data (DUV) to model and TOMS- inferred values are performed for sites at Acadia National Park, Bigbend National Park, Everglades National Park and the Virgin Islands. All sites show very good agreement with the TUVSPEC model but comparison with TOMS-inferred DUV values indicate a 10-20% overestimate by TOMS for the four sites.

  4. Effects of colupulone, a component of hops and brewers yeast, and chromium on glucose tolerance and hepatic cytochrome P450 in nondiabetic and spontaneously diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Mannering, G J; Shoeman, J A; Shoeman, D W

    1994-05-16

    Brewers yeast contains factors that increase and decrease glucose tolerance. Hop components (lupulones) that adhere to yeast during the brewing process elicit a variety of biological effects including the induction of hepatic cytochrome P4503A. Colupulone was tested for its effects on glucose tolerance and cytochrome P450. Serum glucose levels 30 min after the injection of glucose were lowered by colupulone in nondiabetic Swiss-Webster mice, elevated in diabetic C57B1/KSJ-db/db mice, and unaffected in nondiabetic C57B1/KSJ+m/+m mice. Colupulone lowered hemoglobin glycation slightly in +m/+m mice but not in db/db mice. The cytochrome P450 system was highly induced by colupulone in both db/db and +m/+m mice. Chromium, which acts in concert with the factor in yeast that enhances glucose tolerance, had little or no effect on the plasma glucose level or the cytochrome P450 system in either +m/+m or db/db mice.

  5. Brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase produces acetoin from acetaldehyde: a novel tool to study the mechanism of steps subsequent to carbon dioxide loss.

    PubMed

    Chen, G C; Jordan, F

    1984-07-31

    A gas-liquid chromatographic technique was developed for the determination of both acetaldehyde and the 3-4% acetoin side product that results from the brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) catalyzed reaction of pyruvic acid. Employing this method enabled the demonstration of the catalysis of acetaldehyde condensation to acetoin by the enzyme. It was found that the acetoin produced enzymatically from pyruvic acid or from acetaldehyde was optically active, thus providing stereochemical information about the reaction. Deuterium kinetic isotope effects (employing CH3CHO and CH3CDO) were determined on the steady-state kinetic parameters to be 4.5 (Vmax) and 3.2 (Vmax/Kappm), respectively. This enabled, for the first time, the estimation of relative kinetic barriers for steps past decarboxylation. It could be concluded that (a) C-H bond scission was part of rate limitation in the enzyme-catalyzed condensation of acetaldehyde to acetoin and that (b) among the steps leading to the release of acetaldehyde, protonation of the key enamine intermediate was part of rate limitation. This latter finding is also directly applicable to the mechanism of pyruvate decarboxylation.

  6. Ancient whole grain gluten-free flatbreads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA food guide recommends that at least ½ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains. The FDA allows food Health Claim labels for food containing 51% whole gains and 11 g of dietary fiber. This is the only report demonstrating innovative ancient whole grain gluten-free (no yeast or chemical...

  7. Whole grain gluten-free flat breads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA food guide recommends that at least ½ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains. The FDA allows food health claim labels for food containing 51% whole gains and 11 g of dietary fiber. This is the only report demonstrating innovative whole grain gluten free (without yeast or chemicals) ...

  8. Single grain heating due to inelasltic cotunneling.

    SciTech Connect

    Glatz, A.; Beloborodov, I. S.; Materials Science Division; Cal State Univ. at Northridge

    2010-01-25

    We study heating effects of a single metallic quantum dot weakly coupled to two leads. The dominant mechanism for heating at low temperatures is due to inelastic electron cotunneling processes. We calculate the grain temperature profile as a function of grain parameters, bias voltage, and time and show that for nanoscale size grains the heating effects are pronounced and easily measurable in experiments.

  9. Weighing in on whole grains: A review of evidence linking whole grains to body weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. dietary guidelines support the consumption of whole grains in lieu of refined grains. On January 31, 2011, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) were released and the recommendations with respect to grains were for individuals to “Consume at least half of all grains as whole grains” a...

  10. 75 FR 76254 - Official Performance and Procedural Requirements for Grain Weighing Equipment and Related Grain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration 7 CFR Part 802 RIN 0580-AB19 Official Performance and Procedural Requirements for Grain Weighing Equipment and Related Grain Handling Systems AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY:...

  11. Spent nuclear fuel assembly inspection using neutron computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Chad Lee

    The research presented here focuses on spent nuclear fuel assembly inspection using neutron computed tomography. Experimental measurements involving neutron beam transmission through a spent nuclear fuel assembly serve as benchmark measurements for an MCNP simulation model. Comparison of measured results to simulation results shows good agreement. Generation of tomography images from MCNP tally results was accomplished using adapted versions of built in MATLAB algorithms. Multiple fuel assembly models were examined to provide a broad set of conclusions. Tomography images revealing assembly geometric information including the fuel element lattice structure and missing elements can be obtained using high energy neutrons. A projection difference technique was developed which reveals the substitution of unirradiated fuel elements for irradiated fuel elements, using high energy neutrons. More subtle material differences such as altering the burnup of individual elements can be identified with lower energy neutrons provided the scattered neutron contribution to the image is limited. The research results show that neutron computed tomography can be used to inspect spent nuclear fuel assemblies for the purpose of identifying anomalies such as missing elements or substituted elements. The ability to identify anomalies in spent fuel assemblies can be used to deter diversion of material by increasing the risk of early detection as well as improve reprocessing facility operations by confirming the spent fuel configuration is as expected or allowing segregation if anomalies are detected.

  12. Historical overview of domestic spent fuel shipments: Update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This report presents available historic data on most commercial and research reactor spent fuel shipments in the United States from 1964 through 1989. Data include sources of the spent fuel shipped, types of shipping casks used, number of fuel assemblies shipped, and number of shipments made. This report also addresses the shipment of spent research reactor fuel. These shipments have not been documented as well as commercial power reactor spent fuel shipment activity. Available data indicate that the greatest number of research reactor fuel shipments occurred in 1986. The largest campaigns in 1986 were from the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Brooklyn, New York, to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in Tennessee and the Rockwell International Reactor in California to the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. For all years addressed in this report, DOE facilities in Idaho Falls and Savannah River were the major recipients of research reactor spent fuel. In 1989, 10 shipments were received at the Idaho facilities. These originated from universities in California, Michigan, and Missouri. 9 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Microbial Biofilm Growth on Irradiated, Spent Nuclear Fuel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Frank

    2009-02-01

    A fundamental criticism regarding the potential for microbial influenced corrosion in spent nuclear fuel cladding or storage containers concerns whether the required microorganisms can, in fact, survive radiation fields inherent in these materials. This study was performed to unequivocally answer this critique by addressing the potential for biofilm formation, the precursor to microbial-influenced corrosion, in radiation fields representative of spent nuclear fuel storage environments. This study involved the formation of a microbial biofilm on irradiated spent nuclear fuel cladding within a hot cell environment. This was accomplished by introducing 22 species of bacteria, in nutrient-rich media, to test vessels containing irradiated cladding sections and that was then surrounded by radioactive source material. The overall dose rate exceeded 2 Gy/h gamma/beta radiation with the total dose received by some of the bacteria reaching 5 × 103 Gy. This study provides evidence for the formation of biofilms on spent-fuel materials, and the implication of microbial influenced corrosion in the storage and permanent deposition of spent nuclear fuel in repository environments.

  14. Separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel: A review.

    PubMed

    Veliscek-Carolan, Jessica

    2016-11-15

    This review summarises the methods currently available to extract radioactive actinide elements from solutions of spent nuclear fuel. This separation of actinides reduces the hazards associated with spent nuclear fuel, such as its radiotoxicity, volume and the amount of time required for its' radioactivity to return to naturally occurring levels. Separation of actinides from environmental water systems is also briefly discussed. The actinide elements typically found in spent nuclear fuel include uranium, plutonium and the minor actinides (americium, neptunium and curium). Separation methods for uranium and plutonium are reasonably well established. On the other hand separation of the minor actinides from lanthanide fission products also present in spent nuclear fuel is an ongoing challenge and an area of active research. Several separation methods for selective removal of these actinides from spent nuclear fuel will be described. These separation methods include solvent extraction, which is the most commonly used method for radiochemical separations, as well as the less developed but promising use of adsorption and ion-exchange materials. PMID:27427893

  15. Spent fuel in geologic repositories: Swedish aspects of safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Ekenstam, G.; Larsson, S.E.; Forsstroem, H.

    1996-12-31

    When the safeguards system was defined and established, spent fuel was destined for reprocessing. The deposition without reprocessing represents a conceptual change for the back end of the fuel cycle in that nuclear material is not intended for further use in any nuclear application. Much effort has been devoted to finding a solution whereby the spent fuel can be left unattended forever. The disposal of spent fuel, and specifically the need to protect humans and the environment in the distant future, is given particular attention in all countries engaged in nuclear generation. The system considered for spent-fuel disposal in Sweden includes the encapsulation of the spent fuel elements in a corrosion-resistant tight canister and disposal of the canister at {approx}500m depth in Swedish bedrock. The canister will be made of thick copper (for corrosion resistance) and will have an internal steel container (for mechanical strength). The encapsulation is planned to be performed in a new facility to be built adjacent to the central interim storage facility, CLAB.

  16. Foreign experience in extended dry storage of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1992-06-01

    Most countries with nuclear power are planning for spent nuclear fuel (or high-level waste from reprocessing of spent fuel) to be disposed of in national deep geological repositories starting in the time period of about 2010 to 2050. While spent fuel has been stored in water basins for the early years after discharge from the reactors, interim dry storage for extended periods (i.e., several tens of years) is being implemented or considered in an increasing number of countries. Dry storage technology is generally considered to be developed on a world-wide basis, and is being initiated and/ or expanded in a number of countries. This paper presents a summary of status and experience in dry storage of spent fuel in other countries, with emphasis on zirconium-clad fuels. Past activities, current status, future plans, research and development, and experience in dry storage are summarized for Argentina, Canada, France, former West Germany, former East Germany, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. Conclusions from their experience are presented. Their experience to date supports the expectations that proper dry storage should provide for safe extended dry storage of spent fuel.

  17. Integrated approach to trailer design for spent fuel casks

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, D.M.; Burgoyne, R.M.; Grenier, R.M.; Meyer, R.J.

    1989-02-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing the GA-4 and GA-9 spent fuel transportation systems. The scope of our contract includes spent fuel casks, legal weight trailers, and ancillary equipment. Recent structural failures of spent fuel trailers have focused attention on trailer design. As a major element of spent fuel transportation systems, the concerns address the adequacy of trailer performance requirements, structural design and analysis, and in-service inspection and maintenance procedures. In response to these concerns, GA has applied an integrated approach to the design of the GA-4 and GA-9 transportation systems. The objectives are to design reliable, high-integrity trailers and to demonstrate their performance by test. Once the design is complete, a prototype trailer will be fabricated and a performance test program conducted in accordance with a comprehensive test program. GA`s trailer test program will include both design and operations elements, and will be used to optimize the operations and maintenance plan. The results of this program will provide positive public and regulatory perception of trailer durability and will support the development of industry standards for both legal weight and overweight trailers for spent fuel applications. 2 figs.

  18. Status of spent-fuel shipping cask development

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, I.K.; Hinschberger, T.S.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Cask Systems Development Program is to develop a variety of cask systems that can safely and economically transport commercial spent fuel and high-level waste from the generating sites to a federal geologic repository or monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. This paper is limited to a discussion of the status of from-reactor spent-fuel cask development; future cask development plans include MRS-to-repository casks, specialty casks for nonstandard spent fuel and nonfuel materials, and defense high-level waste casks. Spent-fuel casks must be available in the late 1990s to support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) shipments from utilities. DOE-Idaho, with the support of EG G Idaho, Inc., Sandia National Laboratories, and selected cask developing contractors, has been assigned the responsibility for developing a new generation of cask systems. Four categories of spent fuel casks were initially proposed: (1) legal weight truck (LWT) casks (2) overweight truck (OWT) casks (3) rail/barge (R/B) casks (4) dual purpose (DP) storage/transport casks. Casks are being designed for reduced occupational radiation exposure at the receiving facility by facilitating the use of remote handling equipment. Automation of remote handling systems may be used to reduce cask turnaround time. Reducing turnaround time promotes reduced radiation exposure to occupational workers and improves cask utilization efficiency.

  19. Integrated approach to trailer design for spent fuel casks

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, D.M.; Burgoyne, R.M.; Grenier, R.M.; Meyer, R.J.

    1989-02-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing the GA-4 and GA-9 spent fuel transportation systems. The scope of our contract includes spent fuel casks, legal weight trailers, and ancillary equipment. Recent structural failures of spent fuel trailers have focused attention on trailer design. As a major element of spent fuel transportation systems, the concerns address the adequacy of trailer performance requirements, structural design and analysis, and in-service inspection and maintenance procedures. In response to these concerns, GA has applied an integrated approach to the design of the GA-4 and GA-9 transportation systems. The objectives are to design reliable, high-integrity trailers and to demonstrate their performance by test. Once the design is complete, a prototype trailer will be fabricated and a performance test program conducted in accordance with a comprehensive test program. GA's trailer test program will include both design and operations elements, and will be used to optimize the operations and maintenance plan. The results of this program will provide positive public and regulatory perception of trailer durability and will support the development of industry standards for both legal weight and overweight trailers for spent fuel applications. 2 figs.

  20. Separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel: A review.

    PubMed

    Veliscek-Carolan, Jessica

    2016-11-15

    This review summarises the methods currently available to extract radioactive actinide elements from solutions of spent nuclear fuel. This separation of actinides reduces the hazards associated with spent nuclear fuel, such as its radiotoxicity, volume and the amount of time required for its' radioactivity to return to naturally occurring levels. Separation of actinides from environmental water systems is also briefly discussed. The actinide elements typically found in spent nuclear fuel include uranium, plutonium and the minor actinides (americium, neptunium and curium). Separation methods for uranium and plutonium are reasonably well established. On the other hand separation of the minor actinides from lanthanide fission products also present in spent nuclear fuel is an ongoing challenge and an area of active research. Several separation methods for selective removal of these actinides from spent nuclear fuel will be described. These separation methods include solvent extraction, which is the most commonly used method for radiochemical separations, as well as the less developed but promising use of adsorption and ion-exchange materials.

  1. Experimental Study of Dust Grain Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F; Venturini, Catherine C.; Comfort, Richard H.; Mian, Abbas M.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the charging mechanisms of micron size dust grains are presented. Individual dust grains are electrodynamically suspended and exposed to an electron beam of known energy and flux, and to far ultraviolet radiation of known wavelength and intensity. Changes in the charge-to-mass ratio of the grain are directly measured as a function of incident beam (electron and/or photon), grain size and composition. Comparisons of our results to theoretical models that predict the grain response are presented.

  2. Mechanism for diffusion induced grain boundary migration

    SciTech Connect

    Balluffi, R.W.; Cahn, J.W.

    1980-08-01

    Grain boundaries are found to migrate under certain conditions when solute atoms are diffused along them. This phenomenon, termed diffusion induced grain boundary migration (DIGM), has now been found in six systems. The observed phenomenon and empirical data are used to discard certain concepts for the driving force and the mechanism. A mechanism is proposed in which differences in the diffusion coefficients of the diffusing species along the grain boundary cause a self-sustaining climb of grain boundary dislocations and motion of their associated grain boundary steps.

  3. Grain size control of rhenium strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, Gary B.

    1991-01-01

    Ensuring the desired grain size in the pure Re strip employed by the SP-100 space nuclear reactor design entails the establishment of an initial grain size in the as-received strip and the avoidance of excessive grain growth during subsequent fabrication. Pure Re tapered tensile specimens have been fabricated and tested in order to quantify the effects of grain-boundary migration. Grain size could be rendered fine and uniform by means of a rolling procedure that uses rather large reductions between short intermediate anneals. The critical strain regime varies inversely with annealing temperature.

  4. Grain growth systematics for forsterite + enstatite aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraga, T.; Tachibana, C.; Ohashi, N.; Sano, S.

    2009-12-01

    Grain growth kinetics of forsterite (Fo) and enstatite (En) in fine grain aggregates of Fo + En are examined as a function of volume fraction of En (fEn = 0.00 to 0.42). Growth rates fit the equation, d^n-d0^n =k*(t-t0) (d: mean grain diameter; d0: initial grain diameter; n: grain growth exponent; k: growth constant; t: time), where n ~5 for both Fo and En grains, and a negative correlation between kFo and fEn can be expressed as kFo = 0.06*EXP(30*fEn*(fEn-1.1)). In addition, the ratio of dFo/dEn is almost constant during grain growth and its value becomes smaller with increasing fEn, such that, dFo/dEn =0.74/fEn^0.59. Based on our results and published diffusion kinetics for olivine, the rate-controlling process for grain growth is grain boundary diffusion of Si through grain boundaries of forsterite. Extrapolation of our results to the pressure and temperature conditions of the earth’s mantle allows us to determine the relative contribution of the various mineral phases to grain size sensitive creep mechanisms and the stability of localized shear zones.

  5. Spin-related magnetism of interstellar grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srnka, L. J.; De, B. R.

    1978-01-01

    The magnetic dipole moments and internal magnetic fields due to the spin of electrically charged elongated nonmagnetic interstellar grains in kinetic equilibrium with their surroundings are computed for the grain-size range from 0.01 to 1.0 micron. It is shown that the induced magnetic moments and internal magnetic fields of charged spinning nonmagnetic grains of arbitrary composition and prolate spheroidal shape can be appreciable, possibly even exceeding 0.01 emu/cu cm for 0.01-micron grains. The results indicate that virtually all grains smaller than 0.1 micron in mean diameter, and all elongated grains smaller than about 1 micron in length, are immersed in local magnetic fields due to spin that are much larger than the ambient galactic field. Some implications of this effect are discussed in relation to the polarization of starlight by aligned dust grains and the primordial remanent magnetization found in primitive carbonaceous chondrites.

  6. Effect of anisotropic interfacial energy on grain boundary distributions during grain growth

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, J. A.; George, D. C.; Kuprat, A. P.; Rohrer, Gregory S.; Rollett, A. D.

    2004-01-01

    Through simulations with the moving finite element program GRAIN3D, we have studied the effect of anisotropic grain boundary energy on the distribution of boundary types in a polycrystal during normal grain growth. An energy function similar to that hypothesized for magnesia was used, and the simulated grain boundary distributions were found to agree well with measured distributions. The simulated results suggest that initially random microstructures develop nearly steady state grain boundary distributions that have local maxima and minima corresponding to local minima and maxima, respectively, of the energy function. It is well known that the properties and area fractions of various grain boundary types in polycrystals have a dramatic effect on macroscopic materials properties. The goal of the present study is to examine the quantitative relation between grain boundary energies and the distribution of grain boundary types that result from grain growth. In keeping with the prior work, we parameterize the five-dimensional space of grain boundary types using three parameters to describe the lattice misorientation and two parameters to describe the orientation of the grain boundary plane. Of particular interest is the observation that at fixed misorientations, there is significant texture in the distribution of the grain boundary planes and planes with low surface energies appear more frequently. Here we use simulation to test the idea that the observed distributions arise because of the grain boundary energy anisotropy. In comparison to the experiments, the simulations are advantageous because they make it possible to monitor the time evolution of the distribution and to independently determine the influence of different grain boundary properties on the development of the distribution. A moving finite element program, GRAIN3D, has been developed with the capability to incorporate anisotropic grain boundary energy and mobility functions into grain growth simulations

  7. Investigation of radioactivity concentration in spent technetium generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idriss, Hajo; Salih, Isam; Alaamer, Abdulaziz S.; Eisa, M. H.; Sam, A. K.

    2014-04-01

    This study was carried out to survey and measure radioactivity concentration and estimate radiation dose level at the surface of spent technetium generator columns for the safe final disposal of radioactive waste. High resolution γ-spectrometry with the aid of handheld radiation survey meters has been used. The radioactivity measurements has shown that 238U, 40K and 137Cs were only measurable in one sample whereas 125Sb was found in 14 samples out of total of 20 samples with an activity concentration which ranged from 21 to 7404 with an average value of 1095 Bq/kg. The activity concentration of 125Sb is highly variable indicating that the spent 99mTc generator columns are of different origin. This investigation highlighted the importance of radiation monitoring of spent technetium generators in the country in order to protect workers, and the public from the dangers posed by radioactive waste.

  8. Information handbook on independent spent fuel storage installations

    SciTech Connect

    Raddatz, M.G.; Waters, M.D.

    1996-12-01

    In this information handbook, the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes (1) background information regarding the licensing and history of independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), (2) a discussion of the licensing process, (3) a description of all currently approved or certified models of dry cask storage systems (DCSSs), and (4) a description of sites currently storing spent fuel in an ISFSI. Storage of spent fuel at ISFSIs must be in accordance with the provisions of 10 CFR Part 72. The staff has provided this handbook for information purposes only. The accuracy of any information herein is not guaranteed. For verification or for more details, the reader should refer to the respective docket files for each DCSS and ISFSI site. The information in this handbook is current as of September 1, 1996.

  9. Spent fuel burnup estimation by Cerenkov glow intensity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kuribara, Masayuki . Communication and Information Research Lab.)

    1994-10-01

    The Cerenkov glow images from irradiated fuel assemblies of boiling-water reactors (BWR) and pressurized-water reactors (PWR) are generally used for inspections. For this purpose, a new UV-I.I. CVD (ultra-violet light image intensifier Cerenkov viewing device), has been developed. This new device can measure the intensity of the Cerenkov glow from a spent fuel assembly, thus making it possible to estimate the burnup of the fuel assembly by comparing the Cerenkov glow intensity to the reference intensity. The experiment was carried out on BWR spent fuel assemblies and the results show that burnups are estimated within 20% accuracy compared to the declared burnups for the tested spent fuel assemblies for cooling times ranging from 900--2.000 d.

  10. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from US reactors 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Nuclear Fuel Data Survey, Form RW-859. This form is used to collect data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the United States, and the current inventories and storage capacities of those reactors. These data are important to the design and operation of the equipment and facilities that DOE will use for the future acceptance, transportation, and disposal of spent fuels. The data collected and presented identifies trends in burnup, enrichment, and spent nuclear fuel discharged form commercial light-water reactor as of December 31, 1993. The document covers not only spent nuclear fuel discharges; but also site capacities and inventories; canisters and nonfuel components; and assembly type characteristics.

  11. Status of Proposed Repository for Latin-American Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2004-10-04

    This report compiles preliminary information that supports the premise that a repository is needed in Latin America and analyzes the nuclear situation (mainly in Argentina and Brazil) in terms of nuclear capabilities, inventories, and regional spent-fuel repositories. The report is based on several sources and summarizes (1) the nuclear capabilities in Latin America and establishes the framework for the need of a permanent repository, (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approach for a regional spent-fuel repository and describes the support that international institutions are lending to this issue, (3) the current situation in Argentina in order to analyze the Argentinean willingness to find a location for a deep geological repository, and (4) the issues involved in selecting a location for the repository and identifies a potential location. This report then draws conclusions based on an analysis of this information. The focus of this report is mainly on spent fuel and does not elaborate on other radiological waste sources.

  12. Whole grains and health: from theory to practice--highlights of The Grains for Health Foundation's Whole Grains Summit 2012.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Nicola M; Jacques, Paul F; Seal, Chris J; de Vries, Jan; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Clemens, Roger; Webb, Densie; Murphy, Lee Anne; van Klinken, Jan-Willem; Topping, David; Murray, Robyn; Degeneffe, Dennis; Marquart, Leonard F

    2013-05-01

    The Grains for Health Foundation's Whole Grains Summit, held May 19-22, 2012 in Minneapolis, was the first meeting of its kind to convene >300 scientists, educators, food technologists, grain breeders, food manufacturers, marketers, health professionals, and regulators from around the world. Its goals were to identify potential avenues for collaborative efforts and formulate new approaches to whole-grains research and health communications that support global public health and business. This paper summarizes some of the challenges and opportunities that researchers and nutrition educators face in expanding the knowledge base on whole grains and health and in translating and disseminating that knowledge to consumers. The consensus of the summit was that effective, long-term, public-private partnerships are needed to reach across the globe and galvanize the whole-grains community to collaborate effectively in translating whole-grains science into strategies that increase the availability and affordability of more healthful, grain-based food products. A prerequisite of that is the need to build trust among diverse multidisciplinary professionals involved in the growing, producing, marketing, and regulating of whole-grain products and between the grain and public health communities.

  13. Whole grains and health: from theory to practice--highlights of The Grains for Health Foundation's Whole Grains Summit 2012.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Nicola M; Jacques, Paul F; Seal, Chris J; de Vries, Jan; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Clemens, Roger; Webb, Densie; Murphy, Lee Anne; van Klinken, Jan-Willem; Topping, David; Murray, Robyn; Degeneffe, Dennis; Marquart, Leonard F

    2013-05-01

    The Grains for Health Foundation's Whole Grains Summit, held May 19-22, 2012 in Minneapolis, was the first meeting of its kind to convene >300 scientists, educators, food technologists, grain breeders, food manufacturers, marketers, health professionals, and regulators from around the world. Its goals were to identify potential avenues for collaborative efforts and formulate new approaches to whole-grains research and health communications that support global public health and business. This paper summarizes some of the challenges and opportunities that researchers and nutrition educators face in expanding the knowledge base on whole grains and health and in translating and disseminating that knowledge to consumers. The consensus of the summit was that effective, long-term, public-private partnerships are needed to reach across the globe and galvanize the whole-grains community to collaborate effectively in translating whole-grains science into strategies that increase the availability and affordability of more healthful, grain-based food products. A prerequisite of that is the need to build trust among diverse multidisciplinary professionals involved in the growing, producing, marketing, and regulating of whole-grain products and between the grain and public health communities. PMID:23514771

  14. Systems for the Intermodal Routing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Steven K; Liu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The safe and secure movement of spent nuclear fuel from shutdown and active reactor facilities to intermediate or long term storage sites may, in some instances, require the use of several modes of transportation to accomplish the move. To that end, a fully operable multi-modal routing system is being developed within Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System). This study aims to provide an overview of multi-modal routing, the existing state of the TRAGIS networks, the source data needs, and the requirements for developing structural relationships between various modes to create a suitable system for modeling the transport of spent nuclear fuel via a multimodal network. Modern transportation systems are comprised of interconnected, yet separate, modal networks. Efficient transportation networks rely upon the smooth transfer of cargoes at junction points that serve as connectors between modes. A key logistical impediment to the shipment of spent nuclear fuel is the absence of identified or designated transfer locations between transport modes. Understanding the potential network impacts on intermodal transportation of spent nuclear fuel is vital for planning transportation routes from origin to destination. By identifying key locations where modes intersect, routing decisions can be made to prioritize cost savings, optimize transport times and minimize potential risks to the population and environment. In order to facilitate such a process, ORNL began the development of a base intermodal network and associated routing code. The network was developed using previous intermodal networks and information from publicly available data sources to construct a database of potential intermodal transfer locations with likely capability to handle spent nuclear fuel casks. The coding development focused on modifying the existing WebTRAGIS routing code to accommodate intermodal transfers and the selection of

  15. Spent fuel dissolution studies FY 1991 to 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, W.J.; Wilson, C.N.

    1995-12-01

    Dissolution and transport as a result of groundwater flow are generally accepted as the primary mechanisms by which radionuclides from spent fuel placed in a geologic repository could be released to the biosphere. To help provide a source term for performance assessment calculations, dissolution studies on spent fuel and unirradiated uranium oxides have been conducted over the past few years at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This report describes work for fiscal years 1991 through 1994. The objectives of these studies and the associated conclusions, which were based on the limited number of tests conducted so far, are described in the following subsections.

  16. Automated shielding analysis sequences for spent fuel casks

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, J.S.; Parks, C.V.; Hermann, O.W.

    1987-01-01

    Two important Shielding Analysis Sequences (SAS) have recently been developed within the SCALE computational system. These sequences significantly enhance the existing SCALE system capabilities for evaluating radiation doses exterior to spent fuel casks. These new control module sequences (SAS1 and SAS4) and their capabilities are discussed and demonstrated, together with the existing SAS2 sequence that is used to generate radiation sources for spent fuel. Particular attention is given to the new SAS4 sequence which provides an automated scheme for generating and using biasing parameters in a subsequent Monte Carlo analysis of a cask.

  17. NUHOMS modular spent-fuel storage system: Performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Strope, L.A.; McKinnon, M.A. ); Dyksterhouse, D.J.; McLean, J.C. )

    1990-09-01

    This report documents the results of a heat transfer and shielding performance evaluation of the NUTECH HOrizontal MOdular Storage (NUHOMS{reg sign}) System utilized by the Carolina Power and Light Co. (CP L) in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The ISFSI is located at CP L's H. B. Robinson Nuclear Plant (HBR) near Hartsville, South Carolina. The demonstration included testing of three modules, first with electric heaters and then with spent fuel. The results indicated that the system was conservatively designed, with all heat transfer and shielding design criteria easily met. 5 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. The burnup dependence of light water reactor spent fuel oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, B.D.

    1998-07-01

    Over the temperature range of interest for dry storage or for placement of spent fuel in a permanent repository under the conditions now being considered, UO{sub 2} is thermodynamically unstable with respect to oxidation to higher oxides. The multiple valence states of uranium allow for the accommodation of interstitial oxygen atoms in the fuel matrix. A variety of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric phases is therefore possible as the fuel oxidizers from UO{sub 2} to higher oxides. The oxidation of UO{sub 2} has been studied extensively for over 40 years. It has been shown that spent fuel and unirradiated UO{sub 2} oxidize via different mechanisms and at different rates. The oxidation of LWR spent fuel from UO{sub 2} to UO{sub 2.4} was studied previously and is reasonably well understood. The study presented here was initiated to determine the mechanism and rate of oxidation from UO{sub 2.4} to higher oxides. During the early stages of this work, a large variability in the oxidation behavior of samples oxidized under nearly identical conditions was found. Based on previous work on the effect of dopants on UO{sub 2} oxidation and this initial variability, it was hypothesized that the substitution of fission product and actinide impurities for uranium atoms in the spent fuel matrix was the cause of the variable oxidation behavior. Since the impurity concentration is roughly proportional to the burnup of a specimen, the oxidation behavior of spent fuel was expected to be a function of both temperature and burnup. This report (1) summarizes the previous oxidation work for both unirradiated UO{sub 2} and spent fuel (Section 2.2) and presents the theoretical basis for the burnup (i.e., impurity concentration) dependence of the rate of oxidation (Sections 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5), (2) describes the experimental approach (Section 3) and results (Section 4) for the current oxidation tests on spent fuel, and (3) establishes a simple model to determine the activation energies

  19. Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Rosenhoover, William A.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

  20. Characterization and recovery of mercury from spent fluorescent lamps.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min; Hong, Seung Mo; Park, Jae K

    2005-01-01

    Fluorescent lamps rely on mercury as the source of ultraviolet radiation for the production of visible light. Partitioning of mercury among vapor phase, loose phosphor powders produced during breaking and washing steps, glass matrices, phosphor powders attached on the glass and aluminum end caps was examined from simulated laboratory lamp recycling tests for different types of spent and new fluorescent lamps. Mercury concentrations in lamp glasses taken from commercial lamp recyclers were also analyzed for comparison with the simulated results of spent and new lamps of different types. The mercury content of the glass from spent lamps was highly variable depending on the lamp type and manufacturer; the median values of the mercury concentration in glasses for spent 26- (T8) and 38-mm (T12) diameter fluorescent lamps were approximately 30 and 45 microg/g, respectively. The average mercury concentration of samples taken from recycler A was 29.6 microg/g, which was about 64% of median value measured from the spent T12 lamps. Over 94% of total mercury in lamps remained either as a component of phosphor powders attached inside the lamp or in glass matrices. New T12 lamps had a higher partitioning percentage of elemental mercury in the vapor phase (0.17%) than spent T12 lamps (0.04%), while spent lamps had higher partitioning percentages of mercury resided on end-caps and phosphor powders detached from the breaking and washing steps. The TCLP values of simulated all lamp-glasses and samples obtained from recyclers were higher than the limit of LDR standard (0.025 mg/L). After investigating acid treatment and high temperature treatment as mercury reclamation techniques, it was found that heating provided the most effective mercury capture. Although the initial mercury concentrations of individual sample were different, the mercury concentrations after 1 h exposure at 100 degrees C were below 4 mug/g for all samples (i.e., <1% remaining). Therefore, it is recommended that

  1. Grain alignment in starless cores

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M.; Krejny, M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Bastien, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to A{sub V}∼48. We find that P{sub K}/τ{sub K} continues to decline with increasing A{sub V} with a power law slope of roughly −0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by A{sub V}≳20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ∼−1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than A{sub V}∼20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  2. Grain Growth in Collapsing Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, S. C. F.; Benevides-Soares, P.; Barbuy, B.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se ha considerado un proceso de coagulaci6n de granos en nubes colapsantes de diferentes metalicidades. Se aplicaron los calculos al intervalo de densidades n = lO to , forrespondiendo a la fase isotermica de contracci6n de nubes. A lo largo de esta fase en el colap- so, la temperatura es por lo tanto constante, en donde se alcanza T Q lOKpara nubes de metalicidad solar y T 100 K para nubes de baja metalicidad. El tamano final del grano es mayor para las mayores metali- cidades. ABSTRACT. A process of grain coagulation in collapsing clouds of different metallicities is considered. The calculations are applied to the density range n = 1O to , corresponding to the isothermal phase of cloud contraction. Along this phase in the collapse, the temperature is thus a constant, where T % 10 K for solar-metallicity clouds, and T % 100 K for low metallicity clouds is reached. The final grain size is larger for the higher metallicities. Keq : INTERSTELLAR-CLOUDS - INTERSTELLAR-CRAINS

  3. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: thermal evaluation of isolated drywells containing spent fuel (1 kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect

    Unterzuber, R; Wright, J B

    1980-09-01

    A spent fuel Isolated Drywell Test was conducted at the Engine-Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site. Two PWR spent fuel assemblies having a decay heat level of approximately 1.1 kW were encapsulated inside the E-MAD Hot Bay and placed in instrumented near-surface drywell storage cells. Temperatures from the two isolated drywells and the adjacent soil have been recorded throughout the 19 month Isolated Drywell Test. Canister and drywell liner temperatures reached their peak values (254{sup 0}F and 203{sup 0}F, respectively) during August 1979. Thereafter, all temperatures decreased and showed a cycling pattern which responded to seasonal atmospheric temperature changes. A computer model was utilized to predict the thermal response of the drywell. Computer predictions of the drywell temperatures and the temperatures of the surrounding soil are presented and show good agreement with the test data.

  4. Triple junction motion and grain microstructure evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Gottstein, G. . E-mail: gottstein@imm.rwth-aachen.de; Ma, Y.; Shvindlerman, L.S.

    2005-03-01

    The classical concepts of grain growth in polycrystals are based on the dominant role of grain boundaries. This is reflected by the well known von Neumann-Mullins relation. According to this approach triple junctions do not affect grain boundary motion, and their role in grain growth is reduced to maintaining the thermodynamically prescribed equilibrium angles at the lines where boundaries meet. In the current study the experimental data of triple junction mobility are considered with respect to the process of grain growth in 2D systems, in particular with regard to the controlling kinetics. When boundary kinetics prevails grain growth in a polycrystal complies with the von Neumann-Mullins relation. When grain growth is governed by the mobility of triple junctions the kinetics change, and the von Neumann-Mullins relation does not hold anymore. This is the more pronounced the smaller the triple junction mobility. We present a generalized theory of 2D grain growth including a limited triple junction mobility. In this concept the criterion {lambda} plays a central role. It reflects the ratio of boundary to triple junction mobility but is proportional to the grain size as well. The generalized von Neumann-Mullins relation can be expressed in terms of {lambda}. For small values of {lambda}, conspicuous changes of microstructure evolution during grain growth and of microstructural stability are predicted. The theoretical predictions are compared to results of computer simulations by a virtual vertex model.

  5. Survival of carbon grains in shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seab, C. Gregory

    1990-01-01

    Supernova shocks play a significant part in the life of an interstellar grain. In a typical 10 to the 9th power year lifetime, a grain will be hit by an average of 10 shocks of 100 km s(sup -1) or greater velocity, and even more shocks of lower velocity. Evaluation of the results of this frequent shock processing is complicated by a number of uncertainties, but seems to give about 10 percent destruction of silicate grains and about half that for graphite grains. Because of the frequency of shocking, the mineralogy and sizes of the grain population is predominately determined by shock processing effects, and not by the initial grain nucleation and growth environment. One consequence of the significant role played by interstellar shocks is that a certain fraction (up to 5 percent) of the carbon should be transformed into the diamond phase. Diamond transformation is observed in the laboratory at threshold shock pressures easily obtainable in grain-grain collisions in supernova shocks. Yields for transforming graphite, amorphous carbon, glassy carbon, and other nearly pure carbon solids into diamond are quite high. Impurities up to at least the 10 percent level (for oxygen) are tolerated in the process. The typical size diamond expected from shock transformation agrees well with the observed sizes in the Lewis et al. findings in meteoritic material. Isotropic anomalies already contained in the grain are likely to be retained through the conversion process, while others may be implanted by the shock if the grain is close to the supernova. The meteoritic diamonds are likely to be the results of transformation of carbon grains in grain-grain collisions in supernova shock waves.

  6. Wastes from bioethanol and beer productions as substrates for l(+) lactic acid production - A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Pejin, Jelena; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2016-02-01

    Waste substrates from bioethanol and beer productions are cheap, abundant and renewable substrates for biorefinery production of lactic acid (LA) and variability in their chemical composition presents a challenge in their valorisation. Three types of waste substrates, wasted bread and wasted potato stillage from bioethanol production and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate from beer production were studied as substrates for the production of l(+) LA and probiotic biomass by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The correlation of the content of free alpha amino nitrogen and the production of LA was determined as a critical characteristic of the waste media for efficient LA production by L. rhamnosus on the substrates which contained equal amount of fermentable sugars. A maximal LA productivity of 1.54gL(-1)h(-1) was obtained on wasted bread stillage media, whilst maximal productivities achieved on the potato stillage and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media were 1.28gL(-1)h(-1)and 0.48gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. A highest LA yield of 0.91gg(-1) was achieved on wasted bread stillage media, followed by the yield of 0.81gg(-1) on wasted potato stillage and 0.34gg(-1) on brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media. The kinetics of sugar consumption in the two stillage substrates were similar while the sugar conversion in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate was slower and less efficient due to significantly lower content of free alpha amino nitrogen. The lignocellulosic hydrolysate from beer production required additional supplementation with nitrogen.

  7. Wastes from bioethanol and beer productions as substrates for l(+) lactic acid production - A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Pejin, Jelena; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2016-02-01

    Waste substrates from bioethanol and beer productions are cheap, abundant and renewable substrates for biorefinery production of lactic acid (LA) and variability in their chemical composition presents a challenge in their valorisation. Three types of waste substrates, wasted bread and wasted potato stillage from bioethanol production and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate from beer production were studied as substrates for the production of l(+) LA and probiotic biomass by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The correlation of the content of free alpha amino nitrogen and the production of LA was determined as a critical characteristic of the waste media for efficient LA production by L. rhamnosus on the substrates which contained equal amount of fermentable sugars. A maximal LA productivity of 1.54gL(-1)h(-1) was obtained on wasted bread stillage media, whilst maximal productivities achieved on the potato stillage and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media were 1.28gL(-1)h(-1)and 0.48gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. A highest LA yield of 0.91gg(-1) was achieved on wasted bread stillage media, followed by the yield of 0.81gg(-1) on wasted potato stillage and 0.34gg(-1) on brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media. The kinetics of sugar consumption in the two stillage substrates were similar while the sugar conversion in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate was slower and less efficient due to significantly lower content of free alpha amino nitrogen. The lignocellulosic hydrolysate from beer production required additional supplementation with nitrogen. PMID:26639411

  8. High Precision, Absolute Total Column Ozone Measurements from the Pandora Spectrometer System: Comparisons with Data from a Brewer Double Monochromator and Aura OMI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzortziou, Maria A.; Herman, Jay R.; Cede, Alexander; Abuhassan, Nader

    2012-01-01

    We present new, high precision, high temporal resolution measurements of total column ozone (TCO) amounts derived from ground-based direct-sun irradiance measurements using our recently deployed Pandora single-grating spectrometers. Pandora's small size and portability allow deployment at multiple sites within an urban air-shed and development of a ground-based monitoring network for studying small-scale atmospheric dynamics, spatial heterogeneities in trace gas distribution, local pollution conditions, photochemical processes and interdependencies of ozone and its major precursors. Results are shown for four mid- to high-latitude sites where different Pandora instruments were used. Comparisons with a well calibrated double-grating Brewer spectrometer over a period of more than a year in Greenbelt MD showed excellent agreement and a small bias of approximately 2 DU (or, 0.6%). This was constant with slant column ozone amount over the full range of observed solar zenith angles (15-80), indicating adequate Pandora stray light correction. A small (1-2%) seasonal difference was found, consistent with sensitivity studies showing that the Pandora spectral fitting TCO retrieval has a temperature dependence of 1% per 3K, with an underestimation in temperature (e.g., during summer) resulting in an underestimation of TCO. Pandora agreed well with Aura-OMI (Ozone Measuring Instrument) satellite data, with average residuals of <1% at the different sites when the OMI view was within 50 km from the Pandora location and OMI-measured cloud fraction was <0.2. The frequent and continuous measurements by Pandora revealed significant short-term (hourly) temporal changes in TCO, not possible to capture by sun-synchronous satellites, such as OMI, alone.

  9. The upward branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation quantified by tropical stratospheric water vapor and carbon monoxide measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minschwaner, K.; Su, H.; Jiang, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    The vertical distributions of water vapor (H2O) and carbon monoxide (CO) in the tropical lower stratosphere are controlled largely by their mixing ratios near the tropopause and by ascending motions as part of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC). The upward propagation of seasonal variations imprinted on H2O and CO vertical profiles, often referred to as the tropical "tape recorder," can be used to derive the mean vertical velocity, w*>¯, in this region of the lower stratosphere where quasi-horizontal mixing is not strong enough to erase the seasonal tape recorder signals. We used Aura Microwave Limb Sounder observations of the tropical tape recorders from 2004 to 2014 to derive values of w*>¯ at pressures between 90 and 16 hPa (about 18 to 28 km altitude). Mean vertical profiles of w*>¯ are consistent with calculated velocities derived from net radiative heating rates based on observed temperature, humidity, cloud, and trace gas amounts. Temporal variations in w*>¯ are dominated by a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and seasonal cycles, with maximum upwelling coinciding with easterly phases of the QBO in zonal wind shear and during the November-December period of the seasonal cycle. Both the QBO and annual modes emphasize the importance of wave phenomena in modulating the strength of tropical upwelling in the BDC. Interannual anomalies in w*>¯ are correlated with variations in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), with enhanced stratospheric upwelling during El Niño phases and reduced upwelling during La Niña. A small decreasing linear trend (~6%/decade) in w*>¯ is observed from 2005 to 2014, although confidence is low in identifying such a trend as part of a long-term change due to the influence of ENSO over this period.

  10. An extraordinary example of photokarren in a sandstone cave, Cueva Charles Brewer, Chimantá Plateau, Venezuela: Biogeomorphology on a small scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, J.; McFarlane, D. A.; Brewer-Carias, C.

    2010-09-01

    A distinctive suite of small-scale erosional forms that are oriented towards the light occur close to the entrance of Cueva Charles Brewer, a large cave in a sandstone tepui, in SE Venezuela. These are the third example of photokarren ever studied in the world, the other two being from Borneo and Ireland. They are the only photokarren ever described from sandstone, and the only example from a non-carbonate environment. The host rock is a poorly-lithified unit of the Precambrian quartz arenite of the Roraima Supergroup. The forms are all oriented towards the light at 30° regardless of rock surface orientation. The primary (negative) erosional form is the tube. Coalescence of tubes results in the positive remnant forms of rods, pinnacles, and cones. The final stage is a bumpy, wavy surface of degraded cones. The size of the features varies with erosion rate, and details of the form vary with development stage. The main population averages 4.4 cm in depth, with 55% of the surface eroded. This is divided into 10% tubes, 70% rods, 10% cones, 5% linear valley and 5% wavy lowland. The micro-ecosystem includes many bacteria, diatoms, red algae, green algae, liverworts, and oribatid mites, but, surprisingly, no cyanobacteria. The presence of a surface biofilm inside the forms but not on the remnant rock surface and, in the non-degraded forms, the direct relationship of biomass with depth suggests that biological activity is the dominant control on development. In addition, direct bacterial corrosion was noted. These same features occur to varying extents in the photokarren of Borneo and Ireland, and the model for development that we present provides a unifying theory for all photokarren. (This study also includes the first published petrographic analysis of uppermost unit of the Mataui Formation).

  11. The Role of Gravity Waves from Severe US Convection in Driving the Brewer-Dobson Circulation Using a Model with Realistic Thermodynamic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, C. C.; Alexander, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    An inter-model comparison of the annual-mean upward mass flux at 70 hPa in comprehensive chemistry-climate models shows reasonably good agreement on the total strength of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) and its trend in the 21st century, but there is large variability in terms of the relative contributions by parameterized gravity waves (GWs) versus resolved Rossby waves. This model dependency presents a major weakness in our current understanding of the BDC and can partly be attributed to deficiencies in non-orographic GW drag parameterizations. We quantify the contribution of small-scale GWs from summer US storm systems to the BDC using a high-resolution, GW-resolving modeling approach. A nonlinear idealized dry version of the WRF model is forced with high-resolution latent heating/cooling derived from precipitation observations. For several case studies, it is shown that this model produces an excellent quantitative comparison to waves observed by satellite and captures the intermittency associated with convective sources of strong GW events. We model the entire month of June 2014 over the continental US. The contribution of GWs from summer US storm systems to the BDC is quantified and compared to MERRA reanalysis data and the CAM5 model. Non-orographic GW drag parameterizations used in large-scale models are poorly constrained by observational validation and commonly have tuning parameters with large uncertainties. In particular, capturing the high intermittency of the GW field presents an ongoing important challenge, as a given averaged momentum flux carried by a large number of small-amplitude GWs will produce a drag at much higher altitudes than that produced by the same averaged flux carried by a small number of high-amplitude GWs. In studying the relationship between precipitation strength, GW momentum flux amplitude and magnitude of the stratospheric GW drag, we highlight the potential for improving gravity wave drag parameterizations in global models.

  12. High precision, absolute total column ozone measurements from the Pandora spectrometer system: Comparisons with data from a Brewer double monochromator and Aura OMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzortziou, Maria; Herman, Jay R.; Cede, Alexander; Abuhassan, Nader

    2012-08-01

    We present new, high precision, high temporal resolution measurements of total column ozone (TCO) amounts derived from ground-based direct-sun irradiance measurements using our recently deployed Pandora single-grating spectrometers. Pandora's small size and portability allow deployment at multiple sites within an urban air-shed and development of a ground-based monitoring network for studying small-scale atmospheric dynamics, spatial heterogeneities in trace gas distribution, local pollution conditions, photochemical processes and interdependencies of ozone and its major precursors. Results are shown for four mid- to high-latitude sites where different Pandora instruments were used. Comparisons with a well calibrated double-grating Brewer spectrometer over a period of more than a year in Greenbelt MD showed excellent agreement and a small bias of approximately 2 DU (or, 0.6%). This was constant with slant column ozone amount over the full range of observed solar zenith angles (15-80°), indicating adequate Pandora stray light correction. A small (1-2%) seasonal difference was found, consistent with sensitivity studies showing that the Pandora spectral fitting TCO retrieval has a temperature dependence of 1% per 3°K, with an underestimation in temperature (e.g., during summer) resulting in an underestimation of TCO. Pandora agreed well with Aura-OMI (Ozone Measuring Instrument) satellite data, with average residuals of <1% at the different sites when the OMI view was within 50 km from the Pandora location and OMI-measured cloud fraction was <0.2. The frequent and continuous measurements by Pandora revealed significant short-term (hourly) temporal changes in TCO, not possible to capture by sun-synchronous satellites, such as OMI, alone.

  13. Comparison of column ozone retrievals by use of an UV multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer with those from Brewer and Dobson spectrophotometers.

    PubMed

    Slusser, J; Gibson, J; Bigelow, D; Kolinski, D; Mou, W; Koenig, G; Beaubien, A

    1999-03-20

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture UV-B Monitoring Program measures ultraviolet light at seven wavelengths from 300 to 368 nm with an ultraviolet multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer (UV-MFRSR) at 25 sites across the United States, including Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Column ozone has been retrieved under all-sky conditions near Boulder, Colorado (40.177 degrees N, 105.276 degrees W), from global irradiances of the UV-MFRSR 332- and 305-nm channels (2 nm FWHM) using lookup tables generated from a multiple-scattering radiative transfer code suitable for solar zenith angles (SZA's) up to 90 degrees. The most significant sources of error for UV-MFRSR column ozone retrievals at SZA's less than 75 degrees are the spectral characterizations of the filters and the absolute calibration uncertainty, which together yield an estimated uncertainty in ozone retrievals of +/-4.0%. Using model sensitivity studies, we determined that the retrieved column ozone is relatively insensitive (<+/-2%) to typical variations in aerosol optical depth, cloud cover, surface pressure, stratospheric temperature, and surface albedo. For 5 months in 1996-1997 the mean ratio of column ozone retrieved by the UV-MFRSR divided by that retrieved by the collocated Brewer was 1.024 and for the UV-MFRSR divided by those from a nearby Dobson was 1.025. The accuracy of the retrieval becomes unreliable at large SZA's of more than 75 degrees as the detection limit of the 305-nm channel is reached and because of overall angular response errors. The UV-MFRSR advantages of relatively low cost, unattended operation, automated calibration stability checks using Langley plots, and minimal maintenance make it a unique instrument for column ozone measurement. PMID:18305778

  14. Role of cysteines in the activation and inactivation of brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase investigated with a PDC1-PDC6 fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Zeng, X; Farrenkopf, B; Hohmann, S; Dyda, F; Furey, W; Jordan, F

    1993-03-16

    Possible roles of the Cys side chains in the activation and inactivation mechanisms of brewers' yeast pyruvate decarboxylase were investigated by comparing the behavior of the tetrameric enzyme pdc1 containing four cysteines/subunit (positions 69, 152, 221, and 222) with that of a fusion enzyme (pdc1-6, a result of spontaneous gene fusion between PDC1 and PDC6 genes) that is 84% identical in sequence with pdc1 and has only Cys221 (the other three Cys being replaced by aliphatic side chains). The two forms of the enzyme are rather similar so far as steady-state kinetic parameters and substrate activation are considered, as tested for activation by the substrate surrogate pyruvamide. Therefore, if a cysteine is responsible for substrate activation, it must be Cys221. The inactivation of the two enzymes was tested with several inhibitors. Methylmethanethiol sulfonate, a broad spectrum sulfhydryl reagent, could substantially inactivate both enzymes, but was slightly less effective toward the fusion enzyme. (p-Nitrobenzoyl)formic acid is an excellent alternate substrate, whose decarboxylation product p-nitrobenzaldehyde inhibited both enzymes possibly at a Cys221, the only one still present in the fusion enzyme. Exposure of the fusion enzyme, just as of pdc1, to (E)-2-oxo-4-phenyl-3-butenoic acid type inhibitors/alternate substrates enabled detection of the enzyme-bound enamine intermediate at 440 nm. However, unlike pdc1, the fusion enzyme was not irreversibly inactivated by these substrates. These substrates are now known to cause inactivation of pdc1 with concomitant modification of one Cys of the four [Zeng, X.; Chung, A.; Haran, M.; Jordan, F. (1991) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 5842-49].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Interstellar Silicate Dust: Modeling and Grain Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Indrajit

    We examine some aspects of the alignment of silicate dust grains with respect to the interstellar magnetic field. First, we consider possible observational constraints on the magnetic properties of the grains. Second, we investigate the role of collisions with gas atoms and the production of H2 molecules on the grain surface in the alignment process when the grain is drifting in the gaseous medium. Paramagnetism associated with Fe content in the dust is thought to play a critical role in alignment. Min et al (2007) claimed that the Fe content of the silicate dust can be constrained by the shape of the 10 μm extinction feature. They found low Fe abundances, potentially posing problems for grain alignment theories. We revisit this analysis modeling the grains with irregularly shaped Gaussian Random Sphere (GRS). We give a comprehensive review of all the relevant constraints researchers apply and discuss their effects on the inferred mineralogy. Also, we extend this analysis to examine whether constraints can be placed on the presence of Fe-rich inclusions which could yield "super-paramagnetism". This possibility has long been speculated, but so far observational constraints are lacking. Every time a gas atom collides with a grain, the grain's angular momentum is slightly modified. Likewise when an H2 molecule forms on the surface and is ejected. Here also we model the grain with GRS shape and considered various scenarios about how the colliding gas particles depart the grain. We develop theoretical and computational tools to estimate the torques associated with these aforementioned events for a range of grain drift speeds---from low subsonic to high supersonic speeds. Code results were verified with spherical grain for which analytical results were available. Finally, the above torque results were used to study the grain rotational dynamics. Solving dynamical equations we examine how these torques influence the grain alignment process. Our analysis suggests that

  16. Grain boundary segregation and intergranular failure

    SciTech Connect

    White, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    Trace elements and impurities often segregate strongly to grain boundaries in metals and alloys. Concentrations of these elements at grain boundaries are often 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 5/ times as great as their overall concentration in the alloy. Because of such segregation, certain trace elements can exert a disproportionate influence on material properties. One frequently observed consequence of trace element segregation to grain boundaries is the occurrence of grain boundary failure and low ductility. Less well known are incidences of improved ductility and inhibition of grain boundary fracture resulting from trace element segregation to grain boundaries in certain systems. An overview of trace element segregation and intergranular failure in a variety of alloy systems as well as preliminary results from studies on Al 3% Li will be presented.

  17. Whole grain for whom and why?

    PubMed Central

    Frølich, Wenche; Åman, Per

    2010-01-01

    A definition of whole grain is a critical first step in investigating health claims for whole grain and its products. Today, there is no internationally accepted definition of whole grain. Some existing definitions are broad and commodity-based, including grains with similar end uses, while others are more restricted. Scientific knowledge must be the basis for inclusion of certain grains. It is better to start with a restricted list of grains (a precautionary principle) and extend this as more knowledge becomes available. An exact definition of the raw materials (milled, cracked, crushed, rolled, or flaked) and knowledge of the components providing health effects would appear to be crucial issues for the European authorities when approving health claims. It is important that health claims are evidence-based, sustainable, and officially validated. PMID:20300475

  18. Jamming of Cylindrical Grains in Vertical Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, G. William; Spier, Gregory; Barr, Nicholas; Steel, Fiona

    2012-02-01

    We study jamming of low aspect-ratio cylindrical Delrin grains in a vertical channel. These cylindrical grains resemble antacid tablets, poker chips, or coins since their height is less than their diameter. Grains are allowed to fall through a vertical channel with a square cross section where the channel width is greater than the diameter of a grain and constant throughout the length of the channel with no obstructions or constrictions. Within this channel, grains are sometimes observed to form jams, stable structures supported by the channel walls with no support beneath them. The probability of jam occurrence and the strength or robustness of a jam is effected by the grain dimensions and channel size. We will present experimental measurements of the jamming probability and jam strength in this system and discuss the relationship of these results to other experiments and theories.

  19. Direct observation of grain rotation-induced grain coalescence in two-dimensional colloidal crystals.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lee J; Dear, Richard D; Summers, Michael D; Dullens, Roel P A; Ritchie, Grant A D

    2010-10-13

    A spatially modulated laser is used to produce multiple localized thermal gradients in a colloidal sample placed above a gold surface. We use an optical microscope to observe real time dynamics of the resulting two-dimensional colloidal crystal grains and find that grain rotation-induced grain coalescence (GRIGC) occurs with the rotation of both grains before coalescence. Control over the grain size shows that the time scale for grain boundary annealing in our system is in good agreement with theoretical expressions formulated for nanocrystal growth.

  20. WASTE TREATABILITY TESTS OF SPENT SOLVENT AND OTHER ORGANIC WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some commercial and industrial facilities treat RCRA spent solvent wastewaters by steam stripping, carbon adsorption, and/or biological processes. Thirteen facilities were visited by EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) from June 1985 to September 1986, to conduct sampl...