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Sample records for bridge deck reliability

  1. Plans: Poop Deck, Boat Deck, Housetop, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plans: Poop Deck, Boat Deck, Housetop, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge Deck, Navigating Bridge, Forecastle Deck, Upper Deck, Second Deck and Hold - Saugatuck, James River Reserve Fleet, Newport News, Newport News, VA

  2. Boat Deck, Cabin Deck, Bridge Deck, Flat House Top, Stage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Boat Deck, Cabin Deck, Bridge Deck, Flat House Top, Stage Top, Mast House Top, Upper Deck, Flat House Tops, Forecastle Deck, Main Deck - American Racer, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  3. Radar tomography of bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Nigel C.; Chase, Steven B.

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents the development of ground-penetrating radar bridge deck inspection systems sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration. Two radar systems have been designed and built by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The HERMES bridge inspector (High-speed Electromagnetic Roadway Mapping and Evaluation System) is designed to survey the deck condition during normal traffic flow. Thus the need for traffic control during inspection is eliminated. This system employs a 64 channel antenna array covering 1.9 m in width with a sampling density of 3 cm. To investigate areas of a bridge deck that are of particular interest and require detailed inspection a slower, cart mounted radar has been produced. This system is named PERES (Precision Electromagnetic Roadway Evaluation System). The density of data coverage with PERES is 1 cm and an average or 100 samples is taken at each location to improve the signal to noise ratio. Images of the deck interior are reconstructed from the original data using synthetic aperture tomography. The target of these systems is the location of steel reinforcement, corrosion related delaminations, voids and disbonds. The final objective is for these, and other non-destructive technologies, to provide information on the condition of the nation's bridges so that funds will be spent on the structures in most need of repair.

  4. Dog Bridge, view of the deck of the bridge and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dog Bridge, view of the deck of the bridge and rails looking from Linden Lane - National Park Seminary, Bounded by Capitol Beltway (I-495), Linden Lane, Woodstove Avenue, & Smith Drive, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  5. 2. Elkmont, deck view of corrugated arched bridge. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Elkmont, deck view of corrugated arched bridge. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Little River at Elkmont Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. Epoxy coated reinforcement in bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, J.

    A review was conducted of methods relating to the use of epoxy coated reinforcing bars for bridge decks and their potential for use in the United Kingdom. A survey of work carried out in the USA was carried out and the analysis used in a preliminary cost study. The options of having either a hot rolled asphalt surfacing or a permanently exposed concrete wearing surface were considered. It was concluded that epoxy coating of the top steel in addition to current waterproofing practice would provide, at relatively little extra cost, additional assurance that the reinforcement would be adequately protected throughout the life of a bridge. Current design rules do not permit decks with permanently exposed concrete wearing surface without waterproofing. Epoxy coating may afford a means of introducing such decks but before a positive recommendation to delete waterproofing can be made further studies would have to be undertaken.

  7. Improved ground-penetrating radar, bridge decks

    SciTech Connect

    Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M.; Nelson, S.D.

    1993-11-29

    Inspection of high-value structures, like bridges and buildings, using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an application of a technology that is growing in importance. In a typical inspection application, inspectors use GPR to locate structural components, like embedded reinforcing bars, to avoid weakening the structure while collecting core samples for detailed inspection. Advanced GPR, integrated with imaging technologies for use as an NDE tool, can provide the capability to quickly locate and characterize construction flaws and wear- or age-induced damage in these structures without resorting to destructive methods. In this paper, we discuss an important inspection application, namely, concrete bridge deck inspection. We describe an advanced bridge deck inspection system concept (Ground Penetrating Imaging Radar, GPIR) and present results from experiments designed to simulate the concept.

  8. Cracking behavior of structural slab bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baah, Prince

    Bridge deck cracking is a common problem throughout the United States, and it affects the durability and service life of concrete bridges. Several departments of transportation (DOTs) in the United States prefer using continuous three-span solid structural slab bridges without stringers over typical four-lane highways. Recent inspections of such bridges in Ohio revealed cracks as wide as 0.125 in. These measured crack widths are more than ten times the maximum limit recommended in ACI 224R-01 for bridge decks exposed to de-icing salts. Measurements using digital image correlation revealed that the cracks widened under truck loading, and in some cases, the cracks did not fully close after unloading. This dissertation includes details of an experimental investigation of the cracking behavior of structural concrete. Prism tests revealed that the concrete with epoxy-coated bars (ECB) develops the first crack at smaller loads, and develops larger crack widths compared to the corresponding specimens with uncoated (black) bars. Slab tests revealed that the slabs with longitudinal ECB developed first crack at smaller loads, exhibited wider cracks and a larger number of cracks, and failed at smaller ultimate loads compared to the corresponding test slabs with black bars. To develop a preventive measure, slabs with basalt and polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete were also included in the test program. These test slabs exhibited higher cracking loads, smaller crack widths, and higher ultimate loads at failure compared to the corresponding slab specimens without fibers. Merely satisfying the reinforcement spacing requirements given in AASHTO or ACI 318-11 is not adequate to limit cracking below the ACI 224R-01 recommended maximum limit, even though all the relevant design requirements are otherwise met. Addition of fiber to concrete without changing any steel reinforcing details is expected to reduce the severity and extent of cracking in reinforced concrete bridge decks.

  9. 2. Deck view of bridge to Smokemont Campground. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Deck view of bridge to Smokemont Campground. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Smokemont Bridge, Spanning Oconaluftee River at entrance to Smokemont Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. Sonic inspection of concrete bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costley, R. Daniel; Boudreaux, Gary; Ramsey, William Gene

    2003-10-01

    One technique for determining the integrity of concrete structures, such as bridge decks, involves dragging a chain across it and listening to the audible response. A distinctive, hollow sound is produced when a chain is dragged over a section of concrete containing a delamination. This technique has been automated by recording the sound produced by a dragging chain with a suitable microphone and processing these signals with a minicomputer to distinguish between ``good'' and ``bad'' sections of concrete. The equipment is mounted on a hand-pushed cart with chains attached so that they drag along the surface of the deck. In addition, the microphone is mounted in such a way, using standard noise control techniques, so that external noise is minimized. Traffic noise is filtered electronically. These improvements make the technique operator independent and allow inspections to be made in noisy environments. Another advantage is that this approach produces an objective record of the inspection, available both electronically and in hardcopy. These records can be compared to past and future inspections, allowing the inspectors to monitor the health of the structure. Results from bridge deck inspections will be presented, along with a description of the device and the signal processing techniques.

  11. Development of a nondestructive evaluation method for FRP bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jeff; Fox, Terra

    2010-05-01

    Open steel grids are typically used on bridges to minimize the weight of the bridge deck and wearing surface. These grids, however, require frequent maintenance and exhibit other durability concerns related to fatigue cracking and corrosion. Bridge decks constructed from composite materials, such as a Fiber-reinforced Polymer (FRP), are strong and lightweight; they also offer improved rideability, reduced noise levels, less maintenance, and are relatively easy to install compared to steel grids. This research is aimed at developing an inspection protocol for FRP bridge decks using Infrared thermography. The finite element method was used to simulate the heat transfer process and determine optimal heating and data acquisition parameters that will be used to inspect FRP bridge decks in the field. It was demonstrated that thermal imaging could successfully identify features of the FRP bridge deck to depths of 1.7 cm using a phase analysis process.

  12. 6. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING TOP LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING TOP LATERAL BRACING, MAIN TIE AND COUNTERS, SWAY STRUTS AND BRACING, AND INTERMEDIATE POSTS - Hart County Bridge, State Route 181, spanning Savannah River, Hartwell, Hart County, GA

  13. 8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern end looking toward north-northwest. - Bridge No. 4800, Spanning Minnesota River on Trunk Highway 4 between Brown & Nicollet Counties, Sleepy Eye, Brown County, MN

  14. 11. DETAIL OF BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING UPPER CHORDS, VERTICALS, DIAGONALS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL OF BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING UPPER CHORDS, VERTICALS, DIAGONALS AND GUARDRAILS. VIEW TO WEST. - Whispering Pines Bridge, Spanning East Verde River at Forest Service Control Road, Payson, Gila County, AZ

  15. 10. AN IMAGE, LOOKING DUE NORTH OF THE BRIDGE DECK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. AN IMAGE, LOOKING DUE NORTH OF THE BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING LAYERS OF GRAVEL, ASPHALT AND TIMBER. - Wells County Bridge No. 74, Spanning Rock Creek Ditch at County Road 400, Bluffton, Wells County, IN

  16. DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE DECK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION BETWEEN VERTICAL AND UPPER CHORD MEMBER - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  17. 11. DETAIL VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE SHOWING DECK SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE SHOWING DECK SUPPORT SYSTEM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Springfield-Des Arc Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Cadron Creek at Old Springfield-Des Arc Road (County Road 222), Springfield, Conway County, AR

  18. Ground-penetrating radar evaluation of bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juranty, M. W.

    1995-05-01

    Radar has emerged as a valuable non-destructive test method for evaluating the condition of New Hampshire bridge decks. It allows the inspector to 'see' the top surface of the portland cement concrete deck which is typically covered with asphalt pavement. Radar is also very 'customer friendly' in that it allows inspectors to evaluate the bridge decks without closing travel lanes or otherwise impeding traffic flow in any way. This paper discusses the inspection needs of the New Hampshire Department of Transportation which necessitated the use of radar, as well as a history of its selection, development, and incorporation into New Hampshire's bridge management system.

  19. Finite Element Modeling for Infrared Thermography of Gfrp Bridge Decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hing, Cheng L.; Halabe, Udaya B.

    2008-02-01

    Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composite bridge decks are increasingly being used as replacements for old concrete decks and for new construction. The service performance of the GFRP bridge decks can be adversely affected by the formation of debonds between the wearing surface and the underlying bridge deck. Past experimental studies by the authors have shown the usefulness of the infrared thermography technique in detecting the subsurface debonds prior to maintenance and rehabilitation work. This paper investigates the use of finite element (FE) heat transfer modeling to predict infrared thermography images from GFRP bridge decks with subsurface debonds. The paper includes measurement of thermal properties of the GFRP bridge deck and the wearing surface, and heat transfer FE modeling of decks with debonds of different thicknesses. The results show that FE modeling can be a useful tool for predicting surface temperature profile under different heating conditions and debond sizes. Such predictions can help determine the required heat intensity and detectable debond sizes prior to experimental data acquisition in the field using an infrared camera.

  20. Investigation of Aerodynamic Interference of Double Deck Bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Sitek, M. A.; Bojanowski, C.; Lottes, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    Construction of a twin bridge can be a cost effective and minimally disruptive way to increase capacity when an existing bridge is not near the end of its service life. With ever growing vehicular traffic, when demand approaches the capacity of many existing roads and bridges. Remodeling a structure with an insufficient number of lanes can be a good solution in case of smaller and less busy bridges. Closing down or reducing traffic on crossings of greater importance for the construction period, however, can result in major delays and revenue loss for commerce and transportation as well as increasing the traffic load on alternate route bridges. Multiple-deck bridges may be the answer to this issue. A parallel deck can be built next to the existing one, without reducing the flow. Additionally, a new bridge can be designed as a twin or multi-deck structure. Several such structures have been built throughout the United States, among them: - The New NY Bridge Project - the Tappan Zee Hudson River Crossing, - SR-182 Columbia River Bridge, - The Thaddeus Kosciusko Bridge (I-87), - The Allegheny River Bridge, Pennsylvania, which carries I76, - Fred Hartman Bridge, TX, see Figure 1.2. With a growing number of double deck bridges, additional, more detailed, studies on the interaction of such bridge pairs in windy conditions appears appropriate. Aerodynamic interference effects should be examined to assure the aerodynamic stability of both bridges. There are many studies on aerodynamic response of single deck bridges, but the literature on double-deck structures is not extensive. The experimental results from wind tunnels are still limited in number, as a parametric study is required, they can be very time consuming. Literature review shows that some investigation of the effects of gap-width and angle of wind incidence has been done. Most of the CFD computational studies that have been done were limited to 2D simulations. Therefore, it is desirable to investigate twin decks

  1. 10. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE, WITH WEST DECK TRUSS APPROACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. OVERALL VIEW OF BRIDGE, WITH WEST DECK TRUSS APPROACH SPAN AND PIER NO. 1 IN FOREGROUND, FROM WEST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  2. Bridge deck condition assessment using destructive and nondestructive methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Brandon Tyler

    This study investigates two bridge decks in the state of Missouri using both nondestructive and destructive testing methods. The Missouri Department of Transportation (MoDOT) is responsible for the monitoring and maintenance of over 10,000 bridges. Currently monitoring of these bridges includes a comprehensive visual inspection. In this study, ground-coupled ground penetrating radar (GPR) is used to estimate deterioration, along with other traditional methods, including visual inspection, and core evaluation. Extracted core samples were carefully examined, and the volume of permeable pore space was determined for each core. After the initial investigation, the two bridges underwent rehabilitation using hydrodemolition as a method to remove loose or deteriorated concrete. Depths and locations of material removal were determined using light detection and ranging (lidar). Data sets were compared to determine the accuracy of GPR to predict deterioration for condition monitoring and rehabilitation planning of bridge decks. As shown by the lidar survey of the material removed during rehabilitation, the GPR top reinforcement reflection amplitude accurately predicted regions of deterioration within the bridge decks. In general, regions with lower reflection amplitudes, indicating more evidence of deterioration, corresponded to regions with greater depths of material removal during the rehabilitation. Also, the GPR top reinforcement reflection amplitude indicated deterioration in areas where visual deterioration was noticed from the top surface of the deck. The majority of cores with delaminations were extracted from sections where the GPR top reinforcement reflection amplitude indicated greater evidence of deterioration based on lower amplitude values.

  3. Quantifying reinforced concrete bridge deck deterioration using ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martino, Nicole Marie

    Bridge decks are deteriorating at an alarming rate due to corrosion of the reinforcing steel, requiring billions of dollars to repair and replace them. Furthermore, the techniques used to assess the decks don't provide enough quantitative information. In recent years, ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been used to quantify deterioration by comparing the rebar reflection amplitudes to technologies serving as ground truth, because there is not an available amplitude threshold to distinguish healthy from corroded areas using only GPR. The goal of this research is to understand the relationship between GPR and deck deterioration, and develop a model to determine deterioration quantities with GPR alone. The beginning of this research determines that not only is the relationship between GPR and rebar corrosion stronger than the relationship between GPR and delaminations, but that the two are exceptionally correlated (90.2% and 86.6%). Next, multiple bridge decks were assessed with GPR and half-cell potential (HCP). Statistical parameters like the mean and skewness were computed for the GPR amplitudes of each deck, and coupled with actual corrosion quantities based on the HCP measurements to form a future bridge deck model that can be used to assess any deck with GPR alone. Finally, in order to understand exactly which component of rebar corrosion (rust, cracking or chloride) attenuates the GPR data, computational modeling was carried out to isolate each variable. The results indicate that chloride is the major contributor to the rebar reflection attenuation, and that computational modeling can be used to accurately simulate GPR attenuation due to chloride.

  4. Comparison of aerodynamic characteristics of pentagonal and hexagonal shaped bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Md. Naimul; Katsuchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Hitoshi; Nishio, Mayuko

    2016-07-01

    Aerodynamics of the long-span bridge deck should be well understood for an efficient design of the bridge system. For practical bridges various deck shapes are being recommended and adopted, yet not all of their aerodynamic behaviors are well interpreted. In the present study, a numerical investigation was carried out to explore the aerodynamic characteristics of pentagonal and hexagonal shaped bridge decks. A relative comparison of steady state aerodynamic responses was made and the flow field was critically analyzed for better understanding the aerodynamic responses. It was found that the hexagonal shaped bridge deck has better aerodynamic characteristics as compared to the pentagonal shaped bridge deck.

  5. Western deck plate girder span of Bridge No. 1413, Sixth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Western deck plate girder span of Bridge No. 1413, Sixth Potomac Crossing, passing over MD 51, with "WESTERN MARYLAND RAILWAY" painted on the girder panels, looking northwest. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  6. Using emissivity-corrected thermal maps to locate deep structural defects in concrete bridge decks

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.

    1995-04-05

    Dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermal imaging is a promising, non-contact, nondestructive evaluation tool to evaluate the amount of deteriorated concrete on asphalt-covered bridge decks. We conducted proof-of-principle demonstrations to characterize defects in concrete structures which could be detected with DBIR thermal imaging. We constructed two identical concrete slabs with synthetic delaminations, e.g., 1/8-in. thick styrofoam squares, implanted just above the 2-in.-deep steel reinforcement bars. We covered one of the slabs with a 2-in. layer of asphalt. We mounted the DBIR cameras on a tower platform, to simulate the optics needed to conduct bridge-deck inspections from a moving vehicle. We detected 4-in. implants embedded in concrete and 9-in. implants embedded in asphalt-covered concrete. The midday (above-ambient) and predawn (below-ambient) delamination-site temperatures correlated with the implant sizes. Using DBIR image ratios, we enhanced thermal-contrast and removed emissivity-noise, e.g., from concrete compositional variations and clutter. Using the LLNL/VIEW code, we removed the asphalt thermal-gradient mask, to depict the 4-in. deep, 9-in. square, concrete implant size. We plan to image bridge deck defects, from a moving vehicle, for accurate estimations of the amount of deteriorated concrete impairing the deck integrity. Potential longterm benefits are affordable and reliable rehabilitation for asphalt-covered decks.

  7. Concrete bridge deck early problem detection and mitigation using robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gucunski, Nenad; Yi, Jingang; Basily, Basily; Duong, Trung; Kim, Jinyoung; Balaguru, Perumalsamy; Parvardeh, Hooman; Maher, Ali; Najm, Husam

    2015-04-01

    More economical management of bridges can be achieved through early problem detection and mitigation. The paper describes development and implementation of two fully automated (robotic) systems for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and minimally invasive rehabilitation of concrete bridge decks. The NDE system named RABIT was developed with the support from Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). It implements multiple NDE technologies, namely: electrical resistivity (ER), impact echo (IE), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and ultrasonic surface waves (USW). In addition, the system utilizes advanced vision to substitute traditional visual inspection. The RABIT system collects data at significantly higher speeds than it is done using traditional NDE equipment. The associated platform for the enhanced interpretation of condition assessment in concrete bridge decks utilizes data integration, fusion, and deterioration and defect visualization. The interpretation and visualization platform specifically addresses data integration and fusion from the four NDE technologies. The data visualization platform facilitates an intuitive presentation of the main deterioration due to: corrosion, delamination, and concrete degradation, by integrating NDE survey results and high resolution deck surface imaging. The rehabilitation robotic system was developed with the support from National Institute of Standards and Technology-Technology Innovation Program (NIST-TIP). The system utilizes advanced robotics and novel materials to repair problems in concrete decks, primarily early stage delamination and internal cracking, using a minimally invasive approach. Since both systems use global positioning systems for navigation, some of the current efforts concentrate on their coordination for the most effective joint evaluation and rehabilitation.

  8. Dual-band infrared imaging for concrete bridge deck inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, P.; Del Grande, N.

    1994-02-01

    Dual-band infrared (DBIR) imaging methods and unique image-correction algorithms used successfully for underground and obscured object imaging and detection (of buried mines, archaeological structures, geothermal aquifers and airframe defects) are adapted for inspection of concrete highways and bridge decks to provide early warnings of subsurface defects. To this end, we prepared small concrete test slabs with defects (embedded plastic layers). We used selective DBIR (3--5 {mu}m and 8--12 {mu}m) image ratios to depict the defect sites and remove the effects of surface clutter. We distinguish true temperature-difference signals (at surrogate delamination sites) from emissivity noise (at sites with oil stains, sand, gravel, metal parts and roughness differences) towards improved concrete bridge deck inspections.

  9. Polymer concrete overlay on SH-51, bridge deck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, T. M.

    1982-06-01

    A thin resinous overlay was placed on a sound bridge deck in Oklahoma to evaluate its performance over one year using various physical tests. The evaluation shows how well the overlay protects the reinforcing steel from corrosion due to deicing salts. The steps leading to the construction of the overlay are detailed as well as the actual placing of the overlay. The results of various physical tests are reported for both before and after the overlay.

  10. Vertical impedance measurements on concrete bridge decks for assessing susceptibility of reinforcing steel to corrosion.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Paul D; Guthrie, W Spencer; Mazzeo, Brian A

    2012-08-01

    Corrosion is a pressing problem for aging concrete infrastructure, especially bridge decks. Because of its sensitivity to factors that affect corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete, resistivity is an important structural health indicator for reinforced concrete structures. In this research, an instrument was developed to measure vertical impedance on concrete bridge decks. Measurements of vertical impedance on slabs prepared in the laboratory, on slabs removed from decommissioned bridge decks, and on an in-service bridge deck in the field demonstrate the utility of the new apparatus.

  11. Vertical impedance measurements on concrete bridge decks for assessing susceptibility of reinforcing steel to corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomew, Paul D.; Guthrie, W. Spencer; Mazzeo, Brian A.

    2012-08-01

    Corrosion is a pressing problem for aging concrete infrastructure, especially bridge decks. Because of its sensitivity to factors that affect corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete, resistivity is an important structural health indicator for reinforced concrete structures. In this research, an instrument was developed to measure vertical impedance on concrete bridge decks. Measurements of vertical impedance on slabs prepared in the laboratory, on slabs removed from decommissioned bridge decks, and on an in-service bridge deck in the field demonstrate the utility of the new apparatus.

  12. Torsional stiffness degradation and aerostatic divergence of suspension bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. T.; Ge, Y. J.; Yang, Y. X.

    2013-07-01

    The mechanism of aerostatic torsional divergence (ATD) of long-span suspension bridges is investigated. A theoretical analysis on the basis of a generalized model is presented, showing that the vertical motion of a bridge deck is crucial to the torsional stiffness of the whole suspended system, and that the vertical motion of either cable with a magnitude beyond a certain threshold could result in a sudden degradation of the torsional stiffness of the system. This vertical motion-induced degradation of stiffness is recognized as the main reason for the ATD. Long-span suspension bridges are susceptible to such a type of divergence, especially when they are immersed in turbulent wind fields. The divergences that occur in turbulent wind fields differ significantly from those in smooth wind fields, and the difference is well explained by the generalized model that the loosening of any one cable could result in the vanishing of the part of stiffness provided by the whole cable system. The mechanism revealed in this paper leads to a definition of the critical wind speed of the ATD in a turbulent flow; that is, the one resulting in a vertical motion so large as to loosen either cable to a stressless state. Numerical results from the nonlinear finite-element (FE) analysis of the Xihoumen suspension bridge, in conjunction with observations from wind tunnel tests on an aero-elastic full bridge model, are in support of the viewpoint presented in this study.

  13. Linear and Non-linear Analysis of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Bridge Deck due to Vehicle Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Chaitali; Mandal, Bibekananda

    2015-06-01

    The present work deals with linear and nonlinear static analysis of fibre reinforced plastics composite bridge deck structures using the finite element method. The nonlinear static analysis has been carried out considering geometric nonlinearity. The analysis of bridge deck has been carried out under vehicle load as specified by IRC Class B wheel load classification. The formulation has been carried out using the finite element software package ANSYS 14.0 and the SHELL281 element is used to model the bridge deck. The bridge deck has also been modeled as a plate stiffened with closely spaced hollow box sections and a computer code is developed based on this formulation. The results obtained from the present formulation are compared with those available in the published literature. A parametric study on the stiffened bridge deck has also been carried out with varying dimensions of the stiffeners under vehicle loads.

  14. Research on tensile strength characteristics of bridge deck pavement bonding layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shaopeng; Han, Jun

    2010-03-01

    As the development of the traffic in the world, the bridge deck pavement is playing a more and more important role in the whole traffic system. Big span bridge has become more and more especially cement concrete bridge, therefore the bridge deck pavement bonding layers are emphasized as an important part of bridge traffic system, which can mitigate travel impact to bridge and magnify stationary or traffic amenity. The quality and durability of deck pavement bonding layer has directly effect on traffic safety, comfort, durability and investment of bridge. It represents the first line of defence against the ingress of water, road de-icing salts and aggressive chemicals. In real project, many early age damage of bridge deck pavement has become serious disease that affecting the function of bridge. During the construction of the bridge deck, many types of asphalt binders were used, such as styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified asphalt, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) modified asphalt, neoprene latex asphalt, etc. In this paper UTM-25 was used to test the tensile strength of different bridge deck pavement bonding layers with the different treatment methods to inter-surface.

  15. Research on tensile strength characteristics of bridge deck pavement bonding layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shaopeng; Han, Jun

    2009-12-01

    As the development of the traffic in the world, the bridge deck pavement is playing a more and more important role in the whole traffic system. Big span bridge has become more and more especially cement concrete bridge, therefore the bridge deck pavement bonding layers are emphasized as an important part of bridge traffic system, which can mitigate travel impact to bridge and magnify stationary or traffic amenity. The quality and durability of deck pavement bonding layer has directly effect on traffic safety, comfort, durability and investment of bridge. It represents the first line of defence against the ingress of water, road de-icing salts and aggressive chemicals. In real project, many early age damage of bridge deck pavement has become serious disease that affecting the function of bridge. During the construction of the bridge deck, many types of asphalt binders were used, such as styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified asphalt, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) modified asphalt, neoprene latex asphalt, etc. In this paper UTM-25 was used to test the tensile strength of different bridge deck pavement bonding layers with the different treatment methods to inter-surface.

  16. Wind Tunnel Measurements for Flutter of a Long-Afterbody Bridge Deck.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zeng-Shun; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Xu; Ma, Cun-Ming

    2017-02-09

    Bridges are an important component of transportation. Flutter is a self-excited, large amplitude vibration, which may lead to collapse of bridges. It must be understood and avoided. This paper takes the Jianghai Channel Bridge, which is a significant part of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, as an example to investigate the flutter of the bridge deck. Firstly, aerodynamic force models for flutter of bridges were introduced. Then, wind tunnel tests of the bridge deck during the construction and the operation stages, under different wind attack angles and wind velocities, were carried out using a high frequency base balance (HFBB) system and laser displacement sensors. From the tests, the static aerodynamic forces and flutter derivatives of the bridge deck were observed. Correspondingly, the critical flutter wind speeds of the bridge deck were determined based on the derivatives, and they are compared with the directly measured flutter speeds. Results show that the observed derivatives are reasonable and applicable. Furthermore, the critical wind speeds in the operation stage is smaller than those in the construction stage. Besides, the flutter instabilities of the bridge in the construction and the operation stages are good. This study helps guarantee the design and the construction of the Jianghai Channel Bridge, and advances the understanding of flutter of long afterbody bridge decks.

  17. Wind Tunnel Measurements for Flutter of a Long-Afterbody Bridge Deck

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zeng-Shun; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Xu; Ma, Cun-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Bridges are an important component of transportation. Flutter is a self-excited, large amplitude vibration, which may lead to collapse of bridges. It must be understood and avoided. This paper takes the Jianghai Channel Bridge, which is a significant part of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, as an example to investigate the flutter of the bridge deck. Firstly, aerodynamic force models for flutter of bridges were introduced. Then, wind tunnel tests of the bridge deck during the construction and the operation stages, under different wind attack angles and wind velocities, were carried out using a high frequency base balance (HFBB) system and laser displacement sensors. From the tests, the static aerodynamic forces and flutter derivatives of the bridge deck were observed. Correspondingly, the critical flutter wind speeds of the bridge deck were determined based on the derivatives, and they are compared with the directly measured flutter speeds. Results show that the observed derivatives are reasonable and applicable. Furthermore, the critical wind speeds in the operation stage is smaller than those in the construction stage. Besides, the flutter instabilities of the bridge in the construction and the operation stages are good. This study helps guarantee the design and the construction of the Jianghai Channel Bridge, and advances the understanding of flutter of long afterbody bridge decks. PMID:28208773

  18. ANDERS: future of concrete bridge deck evaluation and rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gucunski, Nenad; Moon, Franklin

    2011-04-01

    The Automated Nondestructive Evaluation and Rehabilitation System (ANDERS) aims to provide a uniquely comprehensive tool that will transform the manner in which bridge decks are assessed and rehabilitated. It is going to be achieved through: 1) much higher evaluation detail and comprehensiveness of detection at an early stage deterioration, 2) comprehensive condition and structural assessment at all stages of deterioration, and 3) integrated assessment and rehabilitation that will be minimally invasive, rapid and cost effective. ANDERS is composed of four systems. that merge novel imaging and NDE techniques, together with novel intervention approaches to arrest the deterioration processes. These technologies are incorporated within a series of human-operated and robotic vehicles. To perform assessments, ANDERS will be equipped with two complimentary nondestructive approaches. The first, Multi-Modal Nondestructive Evaluation (MM-NDE) System aims to identify and characterize localized deterioration with a high degree of resolution. The second, Global Structural Assessment (GSA) System aims to capture global structural characteristics and identify any appreciable effects of deterioration on a bridge structure. Output from these two approaches will be merged through a novel Automated Structural Identification (Auto St-Id) approach that will construct, calibrate, and utilize simulation models to assess overall structural vulnerability and capacity. These three systems comprise the assessment suite of ANDERS and will directly inform the Nondestructive Rehabilitation (NDR) System. The NDR System leverages robotics for the precision and rapid delivery of novel materials capable of halting the early-stage deterioration identified.

  19. Health monitoring of precast bridge deck panels reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, James Mcdaniel

    The Beaver Creek Bridge on US highway 6 is the pilot project for Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bridge decks and posttensioned bridge decks in the state of Utah. The bridge was built in 2009, using accelerated bridge construction practices, including the use of precast prestressed girders, as well as precast decking. The westbound bridge decking was composed of 12 precast panels each measuring 41'-5" long, 6'-10" wide, and 9¼" thick, and weighing approximately 33 kips. At the time, these panels were the longest GFRP panels in the United States. The Utah Department of Transportation has decided to evaluate GFRP reinforcing bars as an alternative to steel rebar in this bridge deck. The hope is to increase the lifespan of bridge decks to match the service life of the entire bridge. Due to the nature of the GFRP bars, the panels were lifted at four points using straps instead of imbedded anchors. During the four-point lifting, the panels exhibited small deflections and strains; furthermore, no cracks larger than hairline cracks were found in the panels after lifting. The Beaver Creek Bridge deck is the first precast deck in the state of Utah to be posttensioned in the direction of traffic. Posttensioning bridge decks is expected to become the norm in the state of Utah. The posttensioning resulted in increased continuity between panels. In order to quantify the expected performance of the bridge during its service life, a truck load test was performed. The truck load test was comprised of a static and dynamic test. During the truck load test, the bridge experienced deflections in the panels which were 93% below design values. Girder deflections were also small. The use of GFRP bars has the potential to extend the life of bridge decks exposed to deicing salts from 45 years to 100 years, while only requiring an increased capital cost in the bridge of 8%. Furthermore, the use of GFRP bars in conjunction with accelerated building practices has the potential to

  20. Crack mitigation in concrete bridge decks through experimental analysis and computer modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Douglas M.

    Bridge deck cracking can cause deterioration of bridge decks, leading to a shorter life span and poor performance. Throughout the US, cracking has been identified as a problem, with transverse cracking along the deck at regular spacings being the most prominent type. This problem is usually caused by drying shrinkage within the concrete. The material properties, restraint, and distances without expansion joints all affect the crack pattern within the deck. This study will delve into the reasons that bridge decks crack, the strains that are associated with drying shrinkage, and possible methods for abating its effects. The research is divided into two parts, the first being laboratory experimentation, which was conducted through the use of two 7 ft. x 10 ft. experimental concrete bridge bays. Each bay was instrumented with strain and temperature gages throughout the deck and girders, which collected data for six months. The first deck was poured with a control concrete mix used currently in Illinois. The second deck was poured with a type K expansive concrete, which could battle the effects of shrinkage. For both decks, the results suggest a compressive strain throughout the rebar and along the top surface of the concrete, except for the locations where cracks are found (at these locations the strain slopes upward into tension). The strain in the type K deck, though, was notably less than that in the control deck and the onset of cracking was delayed by three weeks, giving the indication of an improvement over the current mix design. The second portion of the research was focused on using a finite element model to replicate the bridge bay and study the results. Equivalent temperature loading was used to apply the shrinkage loads recorded during the experimental portion of the research. The model was then expanded to encompass a full-scale bridge and in order to provide some insight into shrinkage strain in the real world. The end goal is to help alleviate cracking

  1. Analysis, prediction, and case studies of early-age cracking in bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElSafty, Adel; Graeff, Matthew K.; El-Gharib, Georges; Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Mike Jackson, N.

    2016-06-01

    Early-age cracking can adversely affect strength, serviceability, and durability of concrete bridge decks. Early age is defined as the period after final setting, during which concrete properties change rapidly. Many factors can cause early-age bridge deck cracking including temperature change, hydration, plastic shrinkage, autogenous shrinkage, and drying shrinkage. The cracking may also increase the effect of freeze and thaw cycles and may lead to corrosion of reinforcement. This research paper presents an analysis of causes and factors affecting early-age cracking. It also provides a tool developed to predict the likelihood and initiation of early-age cracking of concrete bridge decks. Understanding the concrete properties is essential so that the developed tool can accurately model the mechanisms contributing to the cracking of concrete bridge decks. The user interface of the implemented computer Excel program enables the user to input the properties of the concrete being monitored. The research study and the developed spreadsheet were used to comprehensively investigate the issue of concrete deck cracking. The spreadsheet is designed to be a user-friendly calculation tool for concrete mixture proportioning, temperature prediction, thermal analysis, and tensile cracking prediction. The study also provides review and makes recommendations on the deck cracking based mainly on the Florida Department of Transportation specifications and Structures Design Guidelines, and Bridge Design Manuals of other states. The results were also compared with that of other commercially available software programs that predict early-age cracking in concrete slabs, concrete pavement, and reinforced concrete bridge decks. The outcome of this study can identify a set of recommendations to limit the deck cracking problem and maintain a longer service life of bridges.

  2. The interaction between the atmosphere and curing concrete bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Gary S.

    The long-term durability of concrete can be compromised by excessive concrete temperatures or temperature gradients and lack of moisture during the first few days after placement. Because the concrete binder components undergo temperature-dependent hydration reactions during this period, atmospheric and construction conditions influence the ultimate concrete quality. To understand this interaction, curing concrete bridge energy balances were estimated with meteorological techniques and calorimetry and model experiments were performed. The agreement of concrete hydration heat estimates from the energy balances, calorimetry experiments, and model simulations validates our methodology and results. In Chapter 2, we estimate from meteorological measurements and techniques the energy balances of four curing concrete bridge decks. One challenge is to determine fluxes from small surfaces (largest horizontal dimension <50 m) in a heterogeneous landscape with methods that are best suited for larger, more homogeneous areas. Estimating the concrete heat generation provides the means to successfully meet this challenge. The energy balance and calorimetry estimates of 24 h concrete heat generation agree within 20%. Between 70--85% of the concrete's heat transfer occurs at its top surface and heat transfer through steel support beams can be significant. A new parameterization for computing bulk exchange coefficients for small areas is developed. Chapter 3, we improve with calorimetry experiments a simple bimolecular heat generation expression for hydrating binder. We show that this expression, with a new parameterization accounting for retarder effects on hydration rates, simulates temperatures to within 2°C and 72 h heat generation (˜265 kJ kg-1) to within 10% of the observed. In Chapter 4, we present models developed with the field and laboratory work and show that the highest concrete temperatures occur at high initial concrete temperatures and air temperatures and

  3. 12. ANNISQUAM BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST ALONG DECK, C.1885. Photocopy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. ANNISQUAM BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST ALONG DECK, C.1885. Photocopy of photograph (original glass plate negative #T14 in the collection of the Annisquam Historical Society, Annisquam, Massachusetts). Photographer: Martha Harvey (1862-1949). - Annisquam Bridge, Spanning Lobster Cove between Washington & River Streets, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  4. Rapid multichannel impact-echo scanning of concrete bridge decks from a continuously moving platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzeo, Brian A.; Larsen, Jacob; McElderry, Joseph; Guthrie, W. Spencer

    2017-02-01

    Impact-echo testing is a non-destructive evaluation technique for determining the presence of defects in reinforced concrete bridge decks based on the acoustic response of the bridge deck when struck by an impactor. In this work, we build on our prior research with a single-channel impactor to demonstrate a seven-channel impact-echo scanning system with independent control of the impactors. This system is towed by a vehicle and integrated with distance measurement for registering the locations of the impacts along a bridge deck. The entire impact and recording system is computer-controlled. Because of a winch system and hinged frame construction of the apparatus, setup, measurement, and take-down of the apparatus can be achieved in a matter of minutes. Signal processing of the impact responses is performed on site and can produce a map of delaminations immediately after data acquisition. This map can then be used to guide other testing and/or can be referenced with the results of other testing techniques to facilitate comprehensive condition assessments of concrete bridge decks. This work demonstrates how impact-echo testing can be performed in a manner that makes complete bridge deck scanning for delaminations rapid and practical.

  5. Unmanned Ground Vehicle for Autonomous Non-Destructive Testing of FRP Bridge Decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkhachorn, P.; Mercer, A. Scott; Halabe, Udaya B.; GangaRao, Hota V. S.

    2007-03-01

    Current non-destructive techniques for defect analysis of FRP bridge decks have a narrow scope. These techniques are very good at detecting certain types of defects but are not robust enough to detect all defects by themselves. For example, infrared thermography (IRT) can detect air filled defects and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is good at detecting water filled ones. These technologies can be combined to create a more robust defect detection scheme. To accomplish this, an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) has been designed that incorporates both IR and GPR analysis to create a comprehensive defect map of a bridge deck. The UGV autonomously surveys the deck surface and acquires data. The UGV has two 1.5 GHz ground coupled GPR antennas that are mounted on the front of the UGV to collect GPR data. It also incorporates an active heating source and a radiometric IR camera to capture IR images of the deck, even in less than ideal weather scenarios such as cold cloudy days. The UGV is designed so that it can collect data in an assembly line fashion. It moves in 1 foot increments. When moving, it collects GPR data from the two antennas. When it stops it heats a section of the deck. The next time it stops to heat a section, the IR camera is analyzing the preheated deck section while preparing for the next section. Because the data is being continually collected using this method, the UGV can survey the entire deck in an efficient and timely manner.

  6. First application of second-generation steel-free deck slabs for bridge rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Ruth; Klowak, Chad; Mufti, Aftab A.; Tadros, Gamil; Bakht, Baidar; Loewen, Eric

    2004-07-01

    The arching action in concrete deck slabs for girder bridges is utilized fully in steel-free deck slabs. These concrete slabs, requiring no tensile reinforcement, are confined longitudinally by making them composite with the girders, and transversely by external steel straps connecting the top flanges of external girders. Between 1995 and 1999, five steel-free deck slabs without any tensile reinforcement were cast on Canadian bridges. All these slabs developed fairly wide full-depth cracks roughly midway between the girders. While extensive fatigue testing done in the past three years has confirmed that the presence of even wide cracks does not pose any danger to the safety of the structures, wide cracks are generally not acceptable to bridge engineers. The developers of the steel-free deck slabs have now conceded that these slabs should be reinforced with a crack-control mesh of nominal glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars. Steel-free deck slabs with crack-control meshes are being referred as the second generation slabs. With the help of testing on full-scale models, it has been found that deck slabs with GFRP bars have the best fatigue resistance and those with steel bars the worst.

  7. Application of seismic surface-waves in concrete bridge-deck evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetrat, Farhad

    Accurate and timely condition assessment of bridge decks is essential for economic management of aging highway bridges. The ability to evaluate concrete modulus profile in a bridge deck can help the detection of early signs of deterioration and optimize the bridge maintenance procedures. This study presents a new method for modulus profiling of concrete bridge decks. The stiffness matrix method is used to simulate wave propagation in a layered media. The results are compared to numerical finite element models. Dispersion analysis is done using the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and phase-shift methods. The characteristics of dispersion surface are analyzed and the effects of model parameters on dispersion surface are examined through a series of parametric studies. An inversion technique is proposed for a fast inversion of surface-wave data collected on bridge decks. This technique utilizes a database of pre-calculated dispersion surfaces and takes advantage of the observed patterns in the parametric study as a priori information for the inversion process.

  8. Development of early age shrinkage stresses in reinforced concrete bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    William, Gergis W.; Shoukry, Samir N.; Riad, Mourad Y.

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes the instrumentation and data analysis of a reinforced concrete bridge deck constructed on 3-span continuous steel girders in Evansville, West Virginia. An instrumentation system consisting of 232 sensors is developed and implemented specifically to measure strains and temperature in concrete deck, strains in longitudinal and transverse rebars, the overall contraction and expansion of concrete deck, and crack openings. Data from all sensors are automatically collected every 30 minutes starting at the time of placing the concrete deck. Measured strain and temperature time-histories were used to calculate the stresses, which were processed to attenuate the thermal effects due to daily temperature changes and isolate the drying shrinkage component. The results indicated that most of concrete shrinkage occurs during the first three days. Under the constraining effects from stay-in-place forms and reinforcement, early age shrinkage leads to elevated longitudinal stress, which is the main factor responsible for crack initiation.

  9. Characterization of stormwater runoff from bridges in North Carolina and the effects of bridge deck runoff on receiving streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Chad R.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; Sherrell, Roy D.; Harned, Douglas A.; Staub, Erik L.; Pointer, Brian H.; Wehmeyer, Loren L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the North Carolina General Assembly passed House Bill 2436 that required the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) to study the water-quality effects of bridges on receiving streams. In response, the NCDOT and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated on a study to provide information necessary to address the requirements of the Bill. To better understand the effects of stormwater runoff from bridges on receiving streams, the following tasks were performed: (1) characterize stormwater runoff quality and quantity from a representative selection of bridges in North Carolina; (2) measure stream water quality upstream from selected bridges to compare bridge deck stormwater concentrations and loads to stream constituent concentrations and loads; and (3) determine if the chemistry of bed sediments upstream and downstream from selected bridges differs substantially based on presence or absence of a best management practice for bridge runoff.

  10. Research on construction technology for orthotropic steel deck pavement of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y. C.; Qian, Z. D.; Zhang, M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to ensure the good service quality of orthotropic steel deck pavement of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge in Tianjin, and to reduce the occurrence of pavement diseases like lateral and longitudinal cracks, the key working procedures such as steel deck cleaning, anticorrosive coating, bonding layer spraying, seam cutting, epoxy asphalt concrete’s mixing, transportation, paving and compaction were studied. The study was based on the main features of epoxy asphalt concrete which is the pavement materials of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge, and combined with the basic characteristics and construction conditions of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge. Furthermore, some processing measures like controlling time and temperature, continuous paving with two pavers, lateral feeding, and improving the compaction method were proposed. The project example shows that the processing measures can effectively solve the technical difficulties in the construction of orthotropic steel deck pavement of Haihe River Chunyi Bridge, can greatly improve the construction speed and quality, and can provide reference for the same kinds of orthotropic steel deck pavement construction.

  11. A comprehensive evaluation of high friction overlay systems on bridge decks in cold climate regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostick, Robert D.

    In recent history the Minnesota Department of Transportation has looked to improve the safety of bridge decks by installing high friction overlays (HFO). A comprehensive study researched four different proprietary HFO systems placed on fourteen bridge decks throughout Minnesota. Research was split into three separate tasks: (1) laboratory testing of aggregate properties, (2) field observations and testing, and (3) a comprehensive analysis of crash data investigated crash rates on bridges with HFO systems. Field observations and testing revealed that the use of snowplows quickly abrades HFO systems. Abrasion, among other factors, causes a reduction in surface friction values, and reduces the life of HFO systems. Furthermore, improving crash rate trends cannot be directly correlated to the installation of HFO systems. Research concludes that HFO systems should not be used in Minnesota. Other cold climate transportation agencies should conduct research emulated after this study to assess HFO systems in their jurisdiction.

  12. Fabry-Perot sensors for the monitoring of FRP reinforced bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmokrane, Brahim; Quirion, Marco; El-Salakawy, Ehab; Debaiky, Ahmed S.; Lackey, Tom

    2004-07-01

    The extensive use of deicing salts in Canada during winter times is identified as the main reason behind the deterioration of highway bridges and parking garages. To fight this infrastructure crisis, Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP) has become a very attractive alternative to traditional reinforcing steel due to their non-corrosive nature and light weight. The replacement of steel with Glass FRP bars in bridge deck slabs has been extensively researched in the last few years. This paper presents the first efforts to implement these bars in two highway bridges in Quebec, Canada, and Vermont, USA. These projects are aimed to prove the feasibility of using GFRP bars in bridge construction. GFRP bars were used as reinforcement for parts of the deck slabs in the two bridges while traditional steel was used in the remaining parts. Fibre Optic Sensors (FOS) were used to measure strains in the concrete, reinforcing bars and steel girders. The sensors were surface mounted on the bars or steel girders using standard glue, or embedded in concrete. Static and dynamic testing of the bridges was done using loaded trucks placed for maximum stresses. The design, construction, testing, and results obtained from the bridges are briefly outlined in this paper. The results indicated the accuracy of the sensors and their feasibility for bridge construction and remote monitoring.

  13. State of the Art Reinforcement for Concrete Bridge Decks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    have expected 75+ years service life Courtesy MMFX Engineer Research and Development Center US Army Corps of Engineers Nuovinox NX-SCR • 316L Stainless...Compatible with 316L Stainless Steel • High service life (>100 years) – Epoxy coated rebar corrosion life between 20 and 40 years – Based on bridge

  14. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements of steel and ice impacts on concrete for acoustic interrogation of delaminations in bridge decks

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzeo, Brian A.; Patil, Anjali N.; Klis, Jeffrey M.; Hurd, Randy C.; Truscott, Tadd T.; Guthrie, W. Spencer

    2014-02-18

    Delaminations in bridge decks typically result from corrosion of the top mat of reinforcing steel, which leads to a localized separation of the concrete cover from the underlying concrete. Because delaminations cannot be detected using visual inspection, rapid, large-area interrogation methods are desired to characterize bridge decks without disruption to traffic, without the subjectivity inherent in existing methods, and with increased inspector safety. To this end, disposable impactors such as water droplets or ice chips can be dropped using automatic dispensers onto concrete surfaces to excite mechanical vibrations while acoustic responses can be recorded using air-coupled microphones. In this work, numerical simulations are used to characterize the flexural response of a model concrete bridge deck subject to both steel and ice impactors, and the results are compared with similar experiments performed in the laboratory on a partially delaminated concrete bridge deck slab. The simulations offer greater understanding of the kinetics of impacts and the responses of materials.

  15. Smart Pebble: wireless sensors for structural health monitoring of bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watters, David G.; Jayaweera, Palitha; Bahr, Alfred J.; Huestis, David L.; Priyantha, Namal; Meline, Robert; Reis, Robert; Parks, Douglas

    2003-08-01

    SRI International is developing a wireless sensor for monitoring the level of chloride ingress into concrete bridge decks. We call this device a Smart Pebble since it has roughly the size and weight of a typical piece of the rock aggregate that is used in such structures. It is "smart" in that it contains a chloride sensor and a radio-frequency identification (RFID) chip that can be queried remotely both to identify it and to indicate chloride concentration levels. The Smart Pebble is also powered remotely, thus precluding the need for any lifetime-limiting batteries. It is designed to be inserted in the bridge deck either during the initial construction (or during refurbishment) or in a back-filled core hole. This paper will discuss the Smart Pebble design, operation, and status.

  16. Study of concrete drilling for automated non-destructive evaluation and rehabilitation system for bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trkov, Mitja; Liu, Fei; Yi, Jingang; Baruh, Haim

    2011-04-01

    Robotic drilling is the basic process for the non-destructive rehabilitation (NDR) system in the Automated Non-destructive Evaluation and Rehabilitation System (ANDERS) for bridge decks. In this paper, we present a study and testing of a concrete drilling process that is used for robotic drilling process for bridge decks repair. We first review the ANDERS and NDR design. Then we present the experimental setup for the drilling process study. A set of testing experiments are performed considering drilling process parameters such as drill bit size, drill rotating speed, drill thrust force and types of concrete composites. Based on the experiments and analysis, we identify and find that the optimal set of drilling process parameters for the ANDERS application is 1/4-inch bit size, drill rotational speed of 1500 rpm and thrust force around 35 lbs. We also demonstrate that the monitoring of drill feeding displacement and thrust force cannot be used to detect and identify the cracks in bridge decks.

  17. Research on steel bridge deck pavement mechanical response of Urumqi express way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Qian, Z. D.; Xue, Y. C.; Huang, Q. B.

    2017-01-01

    The cold climate of Urumqi influences the pavement performance of steel bridge. Mechanical response and suitable pavement system of Urumqi express way steel bridge deck pavement were studied in this paper. ABAQUS was utilized to build a model of steel bridge deck pavement. Maximum tension stress, maximum tension strain, maximum vertical displacement and maximum inter-laminar shearing stress of “double EA” pavement structure and “lower EA+upper SMA” pavement structure under different pavement thicknesses and different ambient temperatures were calculated. Results indicate that when both the pavement materials of upper layer and lower layer of pavement structure are same, the maximum tension stress, the maximum tension strain, the maximum vertical displacement and the maximum inter-laminar shearing stress of “lower 3cm+upper 4cm” pavement structure are smaller than both “lower 2.5cm+upper 3.5cm” pavement structure and “lower 3cm+upper 3.5cm” pavement structure; at the range of -45°C ~ 70°C, when the pavement materials of upper layer and lower layer of pavement structure is different, the increase of temperature will lead to the decrease of maximum tension stress and maximum inter-laminar shearing stress and will also lead to the increase of the maximum tension strain and the maximum vertical displacement; the maximum tension stress of “double EA” pavement structure is larger than “lower EA+upper SMA” pavement structure; the maximum tension strain, the maximum vertical displacement and the maximum inter-laminar shearing stress of “double EA” pavement structure are close to “lower EA+upper SMA” pavement structure; the “lower 3cm EA+upper 4cm SMA” pavement structure is recommended for the steel bridge deck pavement of Urumqi expressway.

  18. Biaxial Behavior of Ultra-High Performance Concrete and Untreated UHPC Waffle Slab Bridge Deck Design and Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Kacie Caple

    Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) was evaluated as a potential material for future bridge deck designs. Material characterization tests took place to identify potential challenges in mixing, placing, and curing UHPC. Biaxial testing was performed to evaluate behavior of UHPC in combined tension and compression stress states. A UHPC bridge deck was designed to perform similarly to a conventional concrete bridge deck, and a single unit bridge deck section was tested to evaluate the design methods used for untreated UHPC. Material tests identified challenges with placing UHPC. A specified compressive strength was determined for structural design using untreated UHPC, which was identified as a cost-effective alternative to steam treated UHPC. UHPC was tested in biaxial tension-compression stress states. A biaxial test method was developed for UHPC to directly apply tension and compression. The influence of both curing method and fiber orientation were evaluated. The failure envelope developed for untreated UHPC with random fiber orientation was suggested as a conservative estimate for future analysis of UHPC. Digital image correlation was also evaluated as a means to estimate surface strains of UHPC, and recommendations are provided to improve consistency in future tests using DIC methods. A preliminary bridge deck design was completed for untreated UHPC and using established material models. Prestressing steel was used as primary reinforcement in the transverse direction. Preliminary testing was used to evaluate three different placement scenarios, and results showed that fiber settling was a potential placement problem resulting in reduced tensile strength. The UHPC bridge deck was redesigned to incorporate preliminary test results, and two single unit bridge deck sections were tested to evaluate the incorporated design methods for both upside down and right-side up placement techniques. Test results showed that the applied design methods would be conservative

  19. Real Time Detection of Defects in GFRP Bridge Decks Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkhachorn, P.; Lonkar, G. M.; Halabe, Udaya B.; GangaRao, Hota V. S.

    2006-03-01

    This work is aimed at building a real time system to detect subsurface defects in GFRP bridge decks using infrared thermography. The issues addressed are: (a) development of a real time defect detection system, and (b) image mosaicking to build a composite image map. In the tests conducted, a turn key system was built in Matlab environment using the FLIR SDK to acquire image from the ThermaCAM S60 infrared camera. The images were then analyzed by defect detection algorithms. Efforts were made to minimize the time to detect defects in a captured image. In the second phase, image mosaicking was used to build a "composite image" that combines all the infrared images to form a single image. The location of defects in the "composite image" leads to a system that will be able to point out defects in the bridge as a whole. The study creates a base that can be used for real time defect detection in GFRP bridge decks.

  20. Deck and Cable Dynamic Testing of a Single-span Bridge Using Radar Interferometry and Videometry Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piniotis, George; Gikas, Vassilis; Mpimis, Thanassis; Perakis, Harris

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the dynamic testing of a roadway, single-span, cable-stayed bridge for a sequence of static load and ambient vibration monitoring scenarios. Deck movements were captured along both sideways of the bridge using a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and a Ground-based Microwave Interfererometer (GBMI) system. Cable vibrations were measured at a single point location on each of the six cables using the GBMI technique. Dynamic testing involves three types of analyses; firstly, vibration analysis and modal parameter estimation (i. e., natural frequencies and modal shapes) of the deck using the combined DIC and GBMI measurements. Secondly, dynamic testing of the cables is performed through vibration analysis and experimental computation of their tension forces. Thirdly, the mechanism of cable-deck dynamic interaction is studied through their Power Spectra Density (PSD) and the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) analyses. Thereby, the global (deck and cable) and local (either deck or cable) bridge modes are identified, serving a concrete benchmark of the current state of the bridge for studying the evolution of its structural performance in the future. The level of synergy and complementarity between the GBMI and DIC techniques for bridge monitoring is also examined and assessed.

  1. The detection and thermal characterization of the inner structure of the ‘Musmeci’ bridge deck by infrared thermography monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, Jean; Crinière, Antoine; Averty, Rodolphe

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the thermal monitoring of a bridge deck is carried out over several days thanks to an adapted infrared measurement system. This system does not just operate a single uncooled infrared camera but also other sensors (i.e., a weather station and a global positioning system (GPS). The detection of the inner structure of the deck is achieved by pulse phase thermography and principal component thermography approaches. A first characterization of the inner structure of the deck is proposed thanks to an original thermal modelling approach. The results obtained are discussed and analysed.

  2. Vertical impedance measurements of concrete bridge deck cover condition without a direct electrical connection to the reinforcing steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzeo, Brian A.; Baxter, Jared; Barton, Jeffrey; Guthrie, W. Spencer

    2017-02-01

    Vertical impedance measurements provide significant quantitative information about the ability of concrete cover to slow the penetration of chloride ions that can corrode steel reinforcement in a bridge deck. The primary limitations preventing the widespread adoption of vertical impedance for assessment of concrete bridge decks are (1) the necessity to have a direct electrical connection to the embedded steel reinforcement and (2) the low speeds of data acquisition. This work presents solutions to both limitations. A method using a large-area electrode as a reference electrode for vertical impedance testing is validated using both simulations and measurements in the field.

  3. Initial testing of advanced ground-penetrating radar technology for the inspection of bridge decks: the HERMES and PERES Bridge Inspectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Nigel C.; Chase, Steven B.

    1999-02-01

    Since early 1995 the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has been sponsoring the development of ground-penetrating radar technology to produce a tool for the non-destructive evaluation of bridge decks. Under contract with the FHWA, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory designed and built a system capable of recording data over a 2 meter width during normal traffic flow. The derived system is called `The HERMES Bridge Inspector' (High-speed Electromagnetic Roadway Measurement and Evaluation System) and includes a 64 channel antenna array within a 30 ft trailer. For detailed investigation of portions of a bridge deck, a robotic cart mounted radar has been developed. This cart system is named `The PERES Bridge Inspector' (Precision Electromagnetic Roadway Evaluation System). PERES records data over the chosen area by rastering a single transceiver over the road. Images of the deck interior are reconstructed from the original synthetic aperture data using diffraction tomography. The work presented herein describes the findings of initial experiments conducted to determine the inspection capabilities of these systems. Internal defects such as delaminations, voids and disbonds; and construction details including deck thickness, asphalt overlay thickness and reinforcement layout were the features targeted. The final goal is for these systems, and other non-destructive technologies, to provide information on the condition of the nation's bridges for input to bridge management systems.

  4. Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, Boat Deck, House Top, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge Deck, Navigating Bridge, Forecastle Deck, Gun Platform, Upper Deck, Second Deck and Hold Plan - Mission Santa Ynez, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  5. Multi-mode traffic-induced vibrations in composite ladder-deck bridges under heavy moving vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camara, A.; Ruiz-Teran, A. M.

    2015-10-01

    Composite (steel-concrete) ladder-decks represent one of the most common solutions in road bridges nowadays. In these structures the Serviceability Limit State (SLS) of vibrations is traditionally ignored or roughly addressed by means of simple static deflection-based approaches, inherently assuming that the vibrations are controlled by the fundamental longitudinal mode. This work demonstrates that a wide range of high-order vibrational modes, involving the transverse flexure of the slab between longitudinal girders, govern the accelerations recorded in the deck and inside the vehicles. In addition, a new methodology for analysing the Vehicle-Bridge Interaction is proposed, including the approaching platforms, the transition slabs, and the bridge joints. The results suggest that the riding comfort for vehicle users is specially affected by direct effects on the wheels, like the road roughness and possible construction misalignments at the bridge joints, as well as low-frequency vibrations coming from the deck in short or slender bridges. The filtering effects resulting from the average of the response in time and in space when calculating the root mean square acceleration are also explored, and new design parameters are provided. In addition, several structural features (such as the depth and spacing of the longitudinal and transverse steel beams, the thickness of the concrete slab, and the stiffness of the cantilever cross beams at the diaphragm sections) have been studied, and a set of new design criteria has been established. It has been demonstrated that the transverse flexibility of the deck (specially influenced by the support conditions and the slab thickness) is critically important for the users' (pedestrians and vehicle passengers) comfort, as it controls the aforementioned high-order vibrational modes which govern the dynamic response.

  6. Application of Noise Cancelling and Damage Detection Algorithms in NDE of Concrete Bridge Decks Using Impact Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Gang; Harichandran, Ronald S.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2011-09-13

    Delamination is a commonly observed distress in concrete bridge decks. Among all the delamination detection methods, acoustic methods have the advantages of being fast and inexpensive. In traditional acoustic inspection methods, the inspector drags a chain along or hammers on the bridge deck and detects delamination from the 'hollowness' of the sounds. The signals are often contaminated by ambient traffic noise and the detection of delamination is highly subjective. This paper describes the performance of an impact-bases acoustic NDE method where the traffic noise was filtered by employing a noise cancelling algorithm and where subjectivity was eliminated by introducing feature extraction and pattern recognition algorithms. Different algorithms were compared and the best one was selected in each category. The comparison showed that the modified independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm was most effective in cancelling the traffic noise and features consisting of mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) had the best performance in terms of repeatability and separabillty. The condition of the bridge deck was then detected by a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. The performance of the system was evaluated using both experimental and field data. The results show that the selected algorithms increase the noise robustness of acoustic methods and perform satisfactorily if the training data is representative.

  7. Evaluation of undersized bioretention stormwater control measures for treatment of highway bridge deck runoff.

    PubMed

    Luell, S K; Hunt, W F; Winston, R J

    2011-01-01

    Two grassed bioretention cells were constructed in the easement of a bridge deck in Knightdale, North Carolina, USA, in October, 2009. One was intentionally undersized ('small'), while the other was full sized ('large') per current North Carolina standards. The large and small cells captured runoff from the 25- and 8-mm events, respectively. Both bioretention cells employed average fill media depths of 0.65 m and internal water storage (IWS) zones of 0.6 m. Flow-proportional, composite water quality samples were collected and analyzed for nitrogen species, phosphorus species, and TSS. During 13 months of data collection, the large cell's median effluent concentrations and loads were less than those from the small cell. The small cell's TN and TSS load reductions were 84 and 50%, respectively, of those achieved by the large cell, with both cells significantly reducing TN and TSS. TP loads were not significantly reduced by either cell, likely due to low TP concentrations in the highway runoff which may have approached irreducible levels. Outflow pollutant loads from the large and small cell were not significantly different from one another for any of the examined pollutants. The small cell's relative performance provides support for retrofitting undersized systems in urbanized areas where there is insufficient space available for conventional full-sized stormwater treatment systems.

  8. Modeling of Multi-Layered Protection Systems for Chloride Penetration in Concrete Bridge Decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harajli, Ali A.

    Modeling of Multi-Layered Protection Systems for Chloride Penetration in Concrete Bridge Decks. This paper covers the development of a new methodology for predicting the chloride concentration and corrosion initiation times for a multi-layer protection overlay system. The first topic will be presenting an innovative method to predict the chloride concentrations using different diffusion coefficients for each protective layer. The new method covers the cases where the applied surface chloride concentrations are either a constant or linear functions with time. The second topic will implement the results from field data about the chloride variations due to the presence of applied topical layers for comparison with the theoretical models. This section will also apply damage factors that are time-dependent to simulate external factors such as traffic loading or vibrations. The third topic will investigate the sensitivity of the single and multi-layer systems due to diffusivity parameter changes. The fourth topic will analyze the random variation of the diffusivity values to predict the mean and standard deviation of chloride concentrations. The diffusivity values are selected from published values by NIST and are based on certain water cement (w/c) ratios.

  9. Performance of epoxy-coated reinforced steel in the deck of the Perley Bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Dahlin, Cheryl L.; Tinnea, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Perley Bridge spanned the Ottawa River between the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec from 1931 to 1999. Epoxy-coated steel reinforcing bar (ECR) was used in 1979 in an effort to extend the service life of span 17. Patches were needed to repair corrosion of the west lane as little as 7 to 11 years later. No patches were needed for the east lane which had twice the cover concrete of the west lane. Examinations showed that the original concrete in both lanes and the patch concrete in the west lane were of good quality. Epoxy adhesion to the steel reinforcing bar was good to fair over much of the reinforcing bar, but poor to failed in isolated areas. Analytical scanning electron microscopy (ASEM) identified voids, rust, cracked epoxy, and cracked concrete at some ECR locations. Chloride profiling of the concrete in both lanes, coupled with the corrosion threshold level of chloride, indicated that the time required for corrosion to cause visible damage of the deck was 6.2 years for the west lane and 18.9 years for the east lane.

  10. Laboratory and field performance of FOS sensors in static and dynamic strain monitoring in concrete bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmokrane, B.; Debaiky, A.; El-Ragaby, A.; Roy, R.; El-Gamal, S.; El-Salakawy, E.

    2006-03-01

    There is a growing need for designing and constructing innovative concrete bridges using FRP reinforcing bars as internal reinforcement to avoid the corrosion problems and high costs of maintenance and repair. For efficient use and to increase the lifetime of these bridges, it is important to develop efficient monitoring systems for such innovative structures. Fabry-Perot and Bragg fibre optic sensors (FOS) that can measure the strains and temperature are promising candidates for life-long health monitoring of these structures. This article reports laboratory and field performance of Fabry-Perot and Bragg FOS sensors as well as electrical strain gauges in static and dynamic strain monitoring in concrete bridge decks. The laboratory tests include tensile testing of glass FRP bars and testing of full-scale concrete bridge deck slabs reinforced with glass and carbon FRP bars under static and cyclic concentrated loads. The field tests include static and dynamic testing of two bridges reinforced with steel and glass FRP bars. The obtained strain results showed satisfactory agreement between the different gauges.

  11. Plans: 3'/50 Cal. Gun Platform, Boat Deck House Top & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plans: 3'/50 Cal. Gun Platform, Boat Deck House Top & Fidley Top, Boat Deck, Radar Platform Lower, Pilot House Top, Navigation Bridge, Upper Bridge Deck, Poop Deck, Cargo Deck, Motor Boat Platform, Bridge Deck, Forecastle Deck, Upper Deck - Taluga, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  12. Ground penetrating radar and microwave tomography 3D applications for the deck evaluation of the Musmeci bridge in Potenza, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavusi, Massimo; Soldovieri, Francesco; Di Napoli, Rosario; Loperte, Antonio; Di Cesare, Antonio; Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Lapenna, Vincenzo

    2011-09-01

    An extensive experimental and numerical investigation has been carried out to assess the status of the 'Ponte sul Basento' (1967-1976), in the town of Potenza (Basilicata region, southern Italy), better known as the Musmeci bridge. Architecturally, the bridge is a considerable reinforced 20th century concrete structure that was designed and built by the Italian architect Sergio Musmeci (1926-1981). Moreover, the bridge represents an important element of the infrastructural network, linking the city centre to the Potenza-Sicignano highway, crossing the Basento river and the railway close to the main train station of the city. Recently, due to ageing and continuous and significant traffic, the bridge started to be affected by several problems such as water infiltration. Within the presented study, a widespread ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey has been designed to investigate the geometrical characteristics of the bridge deck (Gerber saddles, internal stiffening walls, pillar supports) and detect the presence of defects or damage due to water infiltration and traffic fatigue. Concerning this, a 900 MHz 3D GPR survey has been performed along a zone of one of the lanes on the road surface. Moreover, a second 1500 MHz 3D survey has been carried out at the bottom of the bridge deck in order to gain detailed information about an important structural element of the bridge, the Gerber saddle. Both results have been processed following two approaches: the first a classical time-domain processing session based on commercial software and the use of migration; the second in microwave tomography, an advanced frequency domain automatic PC-based inversion algorithm. In this paper, we present a comparative interpretation of both kinds of processed results, and provide considerations about the investigated structures.

  13. Detection of Air and Water-Filled Subsurface Defects in GFRP Composite Bridge Decks Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabe, Udaya B.; Roy, M.; Klinkhachorn, P.; GangaRao, Hota V. S.

    2006-03-01

    Any discontinuity within a structural component influences the transmission of thermal energy through its thickness, which leads to differences in surface temperatures just above the defective and defect-free areas. The variation in the surface temperatures are recorded using a digital infrared camera and the thermal images (thermograms) are analyzed to locate the presence of subsurface defects such as debonds and delaminations within the structure. While past studies focused on detection of air-filled subsurface defects (debonds and delaminations) in fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite bridge decks using infrared thermography, this paper includes the detection of fully and partially water-filled defects as well. Simulated water-filled defects were embedded within the flange-to-flange junction of adjacent GFRP bridge deck modules to create delaminations. The deck specimens were then tested before and after the application of a 3/8″ (9.5 mm) thick polymer concrete wearing surface. It was found that water-filled delaminations as small as 2″ × 2″ × 1/16″ (51 mm × 51 mm × 1.6 mm) could be detected in case of specimens without wearing surface, but this was not possible after application of the wearing surface. The heating source considered included heater and solar radiation. Use of cooling sources such as cold water and liquid carbon dioxide were also explored. These results helped establish the limits of detection for fully and partially water-filled delaminations using Infrared Thermograpy. Additional studies included the detection of debond between 2″ (51mm) thick asphalt overlay and the underlying composite deck and it was found that air-filled debonds as small as 4″ × 4″ × 1/16″ (102 mm × 102 mm × 1.6 mm) could be detected using heater as well as solar radiation as heat sources.

  14. Examination of Single- and Multi-Channel GPR Bridge Deck Condition Assessment Methods with Comparison to Complementary NDE Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Francisco A.; Manacorda, Guido; Simi, Alessandro; Gucunski, Nenad; Parvardeh, Hooman

    2013-04-01

    A sixteen-channel GPR system which houses both longitudinally- and transversely-polarized, 2.0 GHz antenna elements within a single housing was compared with a single-channel GPR system that was separately using both 1.5GHz and 2.6GHz antennas oriented in the transverse polarization, for the purpose of determining effectiveness of bridge deck condition assessment. The multi-channel system has obvious benefits which include closely-spaced GPR antennas (channels) that provide better lateral resolution, as well as combined data sets from co-linear antennas oriented in both the transverse and longitudinal polarizations, which has benefits for imaging within the deck's internal structure. However, the primary objective was to determine whether the multi-channel system would perform in a similar manner to proven single-channel GPR technology during an attenuation-based GPR condition assessment on an older, partially deteriorated deck in northwestern New Jersey that is annually exposed to freeze-thaw conditions as well as de-icing salts. These assessments were made by focusing on identifying the strongest reflections from the upper mat of transversely-oriented rebars within the deck and comparing reflection strength, or conversely, attenuation of the GPR signal, from each of the 'picked' GPR rebar responses. Coordinates for each of the GPR picks, along with amplitude or attenuation measurements, were gridded and contour-plotted for the purpose of identifying areas identified as either relatively deteriorated or sound. Initially, results were compared for data with no applied correction that takes into account GPR signal attenuation with increasing depth within the concrete deck. Final GPR maps were produced incorporating a depth-correction technique similar to what is described by Barnes, et. al., Romero, et. al, and Gucunski, et. al., a process which has been clearly demonstrated to better correlate GPR results with not only ground truth (cores, sounding) but also with

  15. Development and construction of low-cracking high-performance concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks: Free shrinkage tests, restrained ring tests, construction experience, and crack survey results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiqiu

    2011-12-01

    The development, construction, and evaluation of low-cracking high-performance concrete (LC-HPC) bridge decks are described based on laboratory test results and experiences gained during the construction of 13 LC-HPC bridge decks in Kansas, along with another deck bid under the LC-HPC specifications but for which the owner did not enforce the specification. This study is divided into four parts covering (1) an evaluation of the free shrinkage properties of LC-HPC candidate mixtures, (2) an investigation of the relationship between the evaporable water content in the cement paste and the free shrinkage of concrete, (3) a study of the restrained shrinkage performance of concrete using restrained ring tests, and (4) a description of the construction and preliminary evaluation of LC-HPC and control bridge decks constructed in Kansas. The first portion of the study involves evaluating the effects of the duration of curing, fly ash, and a shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA) on the free-shrinkage characteristics of concrete mixtures. The results indicate that an increase of curing period reduces free shrinkage. With 7 days of curing, concretes containing fly ash as a partial replacement for cement exhibit higher free shrinkage than concretes with 100% portland cement. When the curing period is increased to 14, 28, and 56 days, the adverse effect of adding fly ash on free shrinkage is minimized and finally reversed. The addition of an SRA significantly reduces free shrinkage for both the 100% portland cement mixture and the mixture containing fly ash. The second portion of the study investigates the relationship between the evaporable water content in the cement paste and the free shrinkage of concrete. A linear relationship between free shrinkage and evaporable water content in the cement paste is observed. For a given mixture, specimens cured for a longer period contain less evaporable water and exhibit lower free shrinkage and less weight loss in the free shrinkage

  16. Reflected Deck Plan, Reflected Roof Plan, Deck Plan Bridgeport ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Deck Plan, Reflected Roof Plan, Deck Plan - Bridgeport Covered Bridge, Spanning South Fork of Yuba River at bypassed section of Pleasant Valley Road (originally Virginia Turnpike) in South Yuba River State Park , Bridgeport, Nevada County, CA

  17. Reliability-based lifetime maintenance of aging highway bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enright, Michael P.; Frangopol, Dan M.

    2000-06-01

    As the nation's infrastructure continues to age, the cost of maintaining it at an acceptable safety level continues to increase. In the United States, about one of every three bridges is rated structurally deficient and/or functionally obsolete. It will require about 80 billion to eliminate the current backlog of bridge deficiencies and maintain repair levels. Unfortunately, the financial resources allocated for these activities fall extremely short of the demand. Although several existing and emerging NDT techniques are available to gather inspection data, current maintenance planning decisions for deficient bridges are based on data from subjective condition assessments and do not consider the reliability of bridge components and systems. Recently, reliability-based optimum maintenance planning strategies have been developed. They can be used to predict inspection and repair times to achieve minimum life-cycle cost of deteriorating structural systems. In this study, a reliability-based methodology which takes into account loading randomness and history, and randomness in strength and degradation resulting from aggressive environmental factors, is used to predict the time- dependent reliability of aging highway bridges. A methodology for incorporating inspection data into reliability predictions is also presented. Finally, optimal lifetime maintenance strategies are identified, in which optimal inspection/repair times are found based on minimum expected life-cycle cost under prescribed reliability constraints. The influence of discount rate on optimum solutions is evaluated.

  18. Bridging Resilience Engineering and Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring

    2010-06-01

    There has been strong interest in the new and emerging field called resilience engineering. This field has been quick to align itself with many existing safety disciplines, but it has also distanced itself from the field of human reliability analysis. To date, the discussion has been somewhat one-sided, with much discussion about the new insights afforded by resilience engineering. This paper presents an attempt to address resilience engineering from the perspective of human reliability analysis (HRA). It is argued that HRA shares much in common with resilience engineering and that, in fact, it can help strengthen nascent ideas in resilience engineering. This paper seeks to clarify and ultimately refute the arguments that have served to divide HRA and resilience engineering.

  19. Bridge deck surface temperature monitoring by infrared thermography and inner structure identification using PPT and PCT analysis methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, Jean

    2013-04-01

    One of the objectives of ISTIMES project was to evaluate the potentialities offered by the integration of different electromagnetic techniques able to perform non-invasive diagnostics for surveillance and monitoring of transport infrastructures. Among the EM methods investigated, we focused our research and development efforts on uncooled infrared camera techniques due to their promising potential level of dissemination linked to their relative low cost on the market. On the other hand, works were also carried out to identify well adapted implementation protocols and key limits of Pulse Phase Thermography (PPT) and Principal Component Thermography (PCT) processing methods to analyse thermal image sequence and retrieve information about the inner structure. So the first part of this research works addresses infrared thermography measurement when it is used in quantitative mode (not in laboratory conditions) and not in qualitative mode (vision applied to survey). In such context, it requires to process in real time thermal radiative corrections on raw data acquired to take into account influences of natural environment evolution with time, thanks to additional measurements. But, camera sensor has to be enough smart to apply in real time calibration law and radiometric corrections in a varying atmosphere. So, a complete measurement system was studied and developed [1] with low cost infrared cameras available on the market. In the system developed, infrared camera is coupled with other sensors to feed simplified radiative models running, in real time, on GPU available on small PC. The whole measurement system was implemented on the "Musmeci" bridge located in Potenza (Italy). No traffic interruption was required during the mounting of our measurement system. The infrared camera was fixed on top of a mast at 6 m elevation from the surface of the bridge deck. A small weather station was added on the same mast at 1 m under the camera. A GPS antenna was also fixed at the

  20. Some considerations on the effects of the P-derivatives on bridge deck flutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Brownjohn, James Mark William

    2005-05-01

    Using two degrees of freedom (dof) experimental flutter derivatives to perform three-dimensional flutter analysis for a cable-supported bridge is a widely practiced method. It is important to consider the P-derivatives effect to have more accurate analysis for a long-span bridge. Through a case example, this paper studied some of the issues relating to the P-derivatives effects on flutter. The operational condition in two-dof experiments was discussed. It was suggested that due to the strong aeroelastic coupling effect of the sectional model studied in this research, there was an inherent weakness of two-dof experiments. The effect of the P-derivatives was studied for an example bridge by comparing the flutter analysis results using two-dof and three-dof experimental flutter derivatives.

  1. Reliability assessment of long span bridges based on structural health monitoring: application to Yonghe Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shunlong; Li, Hui; Ou, Jinping; Li, Hongwei

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the reliability estimation studies based on structural health monitoring data for long span cable stayed bridges. The data collected by structural health monitoring system can be used to update the assumptions or probability models of random load effects, which would give potential for accurate reliability estimation. The reliability analysis is based on the estimated distribution for Dead, Live, Wind and Temperature Load effects. For the components with FBG strain sensors, the Dead, Live and unit Temperature Load effects can be determined by the strain measurements. For components without FBG strain sensors, the Dead and unit Temperature Load and Wind Load effects of the bridge can be evaluated by the finite element model, updated and calibrated by monitoring data. By applying measured truck loads and axle spacing data from weight in motion (WIM) system to the calibrated finite element model, the Live Load effects of components without FBG sensors can be generated. The stochastic process of Live Load effects can be described approximately by a Filtered Poisson Process and the extreme value distribution of Live Load effects can be calculated by Filtered Poisson Process theory. Then first order reliability method (FORM) is employed to estimate the reliability index of main components of the bridge (i.e. stiffening girder).

  2. HERMES: a high-speed radar imaging system for inspection of bridge decks

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, S.G.

    1996-10-26

    Corrosion of rebar in concrete bridges causes subsurface cracks and is a major cause of structural degradation that necessitates repair or replacement. Early detection of corrosion effects can limit the location and extent of necessary repairs, while providing long-term information about the infrastructure status. Most current detection methods, however, are destructive of the road surface and require closing or restricting traffic while the tests are performed. A ground-penetrating radar imaging system has been designed and developed that will perform the nondestructive evaluation of road-bed cracking at traffic speeds; i.e., without the need to restrict traffic flow. The first-generation system (called the HERMES bridge inspector), consists of an offset-linear array of 64 impulse radar transceivers and associated electronics housed in a trailer. Computers in the trailer and in the towing vehicle control the data acquisition, processing, and display. Cross-road resolution is three centimeters at up to 30 cm in depth, while down-road resolution depends on speed; 3 cm below 20 mph up to 8 cm at 50 mph. A two-meter- wide path is inspected on each pass over the roadway. This paper, describes the design of this system, shows preliminary results, and lays out its deployment schedule.

  3. Demonstration of dual-band infrared thermal imaging at Grass Valley Creek bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N. K.; Durbin, P.F.; Logan, C.M.; Perkins, D.E.; Schich, P.C.

    1996-11-01

    We demonstrated dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermal imaging at the Grass Valley Creek Bridges near Redding CA. DBIR thermal imaging is an enabling technology for rapid, reliable, bridge deck inspections while minimizing lane closures. bridge-deck inspections were conducted from a mobile DBIR bridge inspection laboratory during November 2-3, 1995. We drove this self-contained unit at limited highway speeds over 0.4 lane miles of bridge deck. Using two thermal IR bands, we distinguished delaminations from clutter. Clutter, or unwanted thermal detail, occurs from foreign materials or uneven shade on the bridge deck surface. By mapping the DBIR spectral- response differences at 3-5 {mu}m and 8-12 {mu}m, we removed foreign material clutter. By mapping the deck diurnal thermal inertia variations, we removed clutter from uneven shade. Thermal inertia is a bulk deck property, the square root of thermal conductivity x density x heat capacity. Delaminated decks have below-average thermal inertias, or above-average day-night temperature excursions. Compared to normal decks areas, delaminated deck areas were typically 2 or 3 {degrees}C warmer at noon, and 0.5{degrees}C cooler at night. The mobile DBIR bridge inspection laboratory is currently undergoing extensive testing to examine bridges by the Federal Highway Administration.

  4. Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2010 - Gilpin's Falls Covered Bridge, Spanning North East Creek at Former (Bypassed) Section of North East Road (SR 272), North East, Cecil County, MD

  5. Preliminary Investigation of the Systematic Approach to the Repair Versus Replacement Decision-Making Process for Deteriorated Concrete Bridge Decks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-26

    Developing State Transportation Programs.............. 161 6.3 Bridge Management System ................... 163 6.4 Components of the Systematic Decision...144 Figure 6-1 Schematic of State Transportation Management and Bridge Management System .................................... 160 Figure 6-2...briefly highlights the general concepts associated with an overall bridge management system . Specifically, the chap- ter identifies the components or the

  6. 51. View below deck superstructure of Manhattan side span showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View below deck superstructure of Manhattan side span showing connection between main center cable and deck superstructure. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  7. 37. HANGAR FROM RAILROAD DECK TELESCOPED IN COLUMN & SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. HANGAR FROM RAILROAD DECK TELESCOPED IN COLUMN & SHOWING PIN WHICH TRANSFERS LOAD FROM RAILROAD DECK TO TRUSS WHEN IN DOWN POSITION - Armour, Swift, Burlington Bridge, Kansas City, Jackson County, MO

  8. 15. DETAIL, UNDERSIDE OF DECK, FROM BELOW AND WEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL, UNDERSIDE OF DECK, FROM BELOW AND WEST, SHOWING STRUCTURAL CONFIGURATION, INCLUDING FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS, BRACING, AND STEEL MESH DECK - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  9. 10. OBLIQUE VIEW, PORTION OF EAST TRUSS AND TIMBER DECK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. OBLIQUE VIEW, PORTION OF EAST TRUSS AND TIMBER DECK, FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING TOP CHORD, VERTICALS, METAL RAILING, AND TRANSVERSE DECK PLANKS - River Road Bridge, Crossing Casselman River on Casselman River Road, Grantsville, Garrett County, MD

  10. 9. OBLIQUE VIEW, NORTH PORTAL AND TIMBER DECK, FROM NORTHWEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. OBLIQUE VIEW, NORTH PORTAL AND TIMBER DECK, FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING INCLINED ENDPOSTS, OVERHEAD BRACING, VERTICALS OF EASTTRUSS PANELS, EAST RAILING, AND TRANSVERSE DECK PLANKS - River Road Bridge, Crossing Casselman River on Casselman River Road, Grantsville, Garrett County, MD

  11. Bridge reliability assessment based on the PDF of long-term monitored extreme strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Meiju; Sun, Limin

    2011-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems can provide valuable information for the evaluation of bridge performance. As the development and implementation of SHM technology in recent years, the data mining and use has received increasingly attention and interests in civil engineering. Based on the principle of probabilistic and statistics, a reliability approach provides a rational basis for analysis of the randomness in loads and their effects on structures. A novel approach combined SHM systems with reliability method to evaluate the reliability of a cable-stayed bridge instrumented with SHM systems was presented in this paper. In this study, the reliability of the steel girder of the cable-stayed bridge was denoted by failure probability directly instead of reliability index as commonly used. Under the assumption that the probability distributions of the resistance are independent to the responses of structures, a formulation of failure probability was deduced. Then, as a main factor in the formulation, the probability density function (PDF) of the strain at sensor locations based on the monitoring data was evaluated and verified. That Donghai Bridge was taken as an example for the application of the proposed approach followed. In the case study, 4 years' monitoring data since the operation of the SHM systems was processed, and the reliability assessment results were discussed. Finally, the sensitivity and accuracy of the novel approach compared with FORM was discussed.

  12. SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN vSHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN - Snake River Bridge at Lyons' Ferry, State Route 261 spanning Snake River, Starbuck, Columbia County, WA

  13. Structural improvement of strengthened deck panels with externally bonded plates

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, Jongsung; Oh, Hongseob . E-mail: opera69@chollian.net

    2005-07-01

    Concrete bridge decks require eventual replacement and rehabilitation due to decreasing load-carrying capacity. This paper compares different strengthening design procedures that improve the usability and structural performance of bridge decks. The failure characteristics of bridge decks strengthened with various materials such as carbon fiber sheet, glass fiber sheet, steel plate, and grid CFRP and GFRP are analyzed, and the theoretical load-carrying capacities are evaluated using traditional beam and yield line theory, and punching shear analysis. The strengthening materials increase the punching shear strength of the deck and change the failure mode of the strengthened panel.

  14. 11. Standing on westerly fender at edge of bridge looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Standing on westerly fender at edge of bridge looking easterly, showing horizontal beams for deck and cross beams (reflection of steel grating on deck). Also shows bridge guardrail. - Colusa Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River, Colusa, Colusa County, CA

  15. 29. VIEW EAST FROM DECKING ON NORTHWEST CORNER OF PIVOT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW EAST FROM DECKING ON NORTHWEST CORNER OF PIVOT PIER, DRIVE SYSTEM FOR SWING-SPAN INCLUDES: (from left to right) BULL WHEEL, GEARING AND DRIVE SHAFTS, INCLUDING MANUAL DRIVE ACCESSED THROUGH BRIDGE DECK, ELECTRIC LINES FROM SHORE, AND TRACK AND RAIL ON CONCRETE PIER - Tipers Bridge, Spanning Great Wicomico River at State Route 200, Kilmarnock, Lancaster County, VA

  16. Demonstration of dual-band infrared thermal imaging for bridge inspection. Phase II, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, P.F.; Del Grande, N.K.; Schaich, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    Developing and implementing methods of effective bridge rehabilitation is a major issue for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The nation spends $5 billion annually to replace, rehabilitate or construct new bridges. According to the National Bridge Inventory, over 100,000 U.S. bridges are structurally deficient. About 40,000 of these bridges have advanced deck deterioration. The most common causes of serious deck deterioration is delamination. Delaminations result when steel reinforcements within the bridge deck corrode, creating gaps that separate the concrete into layers. A reliable inspection technology, capable of identifying delaminations, would represent a power new tool in bridge maintenance. To date, most bridge inspections rely on human interpretation of surface visual features of chain dragging. These methods are slow, disruptive, unreliable and raise serious safety concerns. Infrared thermal imaging detects subsurface delaminations and surface clutter, which is introduced by foreign material on the roadway. Typically, foreign material which is not always evident on a video tape image, produces a unique IR reflectance background unlike the thermal response of a subsurface delamination. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermal imaging to identify and remove nonthermal IR reflectance backgrounds from foreign material on the roadway. DBIR methods improve the performance of IR thermal imaging by a factor of ten, compared to single-band infrared (SBIR) methods. DBIR thermal imaging allows precise temperature measurement to reliably locate bridge deck delaminations and remove wavelength-dependent emissivity variations due to foreign material on the roadway.

  17. Long-term gage reliability for structural health monitoring of steel bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaras, Vasilis A.; Fasl, Jeremiah; Reichenbach, Matt; Helwig, Todd; Wood, Sharon; Frank, Karl

    2012-04-01

    Real-time monitoring of fracture critical steel bridges can potentially enhance inspection practices by tracking the behavior of the bridge. Significant advances have occurred in recent years on the development of robust hardware for field monitoring applications. These systems can monitor, process, and store data from a variety of sensors (e.g. strain gages, crack propagation gages etc.) to track changes in the behavior of the bridge. Thus, for a long-term monitoring system to be successful, the reliability of gages that are to be monitored for several years is very important. This paper focuses on the results of a research study focused on developing a wireless monitoring system with a useful life of more than 10 years. An important aspect of the study is to identify strain gages and installation procedures that result in long lives as well as characterizing the effect of temperature fluctuations and other environmental factors on the sensor drift and noise. In long-term monitoring applications, slight sensor drift and noise can build up over time to produce misleading results. Thus, a wide variety of gages that can be used to monitor bridges have been tested for over a year through environmental tests. The environmental tests were developed to determine the durability of the gages and their protective coatings (e.g. zinc-based spray, wax and silicon, etc.) against humidity, sun exposure and other environmental effects that are expected in long-term bridge monitoring applications. Moreover, fatigue tests were performed to determine the fatigue category of the weldable gages and to reveal any debonding issues of the bondable gages. This paper focuses on the results of laboratory tests on gage durability that were conducted as part of a research project sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  18. South portal and deck view from south, showing inclined endposts, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South portal and deck view from south, showing inclined endposts, Pratt through trusses, south portal strut, overhead bracing, pipe rails and posts, and concrete deck with bituminous wearing surface - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  19. North portal and deck view, from north, showing inclined endposts, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North portal and deck view, from north, showing inclined endposts, Pratt through trusses, north portal strut, overhead bracing, pipe rails and posts, and concrete deck with bituminous wearing surface - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  20. 114. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK OFF-RAMP AND LOWER DECK ON-RAMP FROM TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP, WITH SAN FRANCISCO VIADUCT IN BACKGROUND AT RIGHT, FACING EAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 113. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK OFF-RAMP WITH LOWER DECK ON-RAMP FROM TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP IN FOREGROUND, FACING WEST-NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 7. Underside of span, details of deck, stringers, floor beams, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Underside of span, details of deck, stringers, floor beams, bottom-lateral bracing, and north abutment; looking north - Bridge No. 92101, Spanning Pike River at County Highway 373, Embarrass, St. Louis County, MN

  3. 19. VERTICAL VIEW, FROM DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION OF CENTER TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VERTICAL VIEW, FROM DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION OF CENTER TRUSS TENSION BARS, DIAGONAL TENSION RODS, AND LATTICE-JOINED VERTICAL CHANNELS - Lenox Bridge, Spanning Obion River, Rural Road S8025, Lenox, Dyer County, TN

  4. VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST. FRETWORK RAILINGS ON THE DECK REFLECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST. FRETWORK RAILINGS ON THE DECK REFLECT THE DECORATIVE AND UTILITARIAN ASPECTS OF THE ARCHITECTURE. - Keller Memorial Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River at U.S. Highway 31, Decatur, Morgan County, AL

  5. 4. LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT LATTICED GUARDRAIL, DIAGONALS, ASPHALT DECK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT LATTICED GUARDRAIL, DIAGONALS, ASPHALT DECK AND LACED ANGLES ON VERTICALS - Wayne County Bridge No. 122, Spanning West Fork Whitewater River at Main Street, Milton, Wayne County, IN

  6. 6. DETAIL OF STEEL GUARDRAIL, CONCRETE CURB AND DECK EXPANSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF STEEL GUARDRAIL, CONCRETE CURB AND DECK EXPANSION JOINT, WITH DRY BED OF RIO PUERCO IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO EAST. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  7. 20. DETAIL VIEW OF DECK SOFFIT AND EXPANSION JOINT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL VIEW OF DECK SOFFIT AND EXPANSION JOINT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM NORTH ABUTMENT - Chili Bar Bridge, Spanning South Fork of American River at State Highway 193, Placerville, El Dorado County, CA

  8. 9. VIEW SHOWING TRUSSES FROM DECK WITH 4' RANGE POLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING TRUSSES FROM DECK WITH 4' RANGE POLE AT SECOND VERTICAL POST ON SOUTH SIDE, LOOKING WEST - White River Bridge, Spanning White River at U.S. Highway 70, De Valls Bluff, Prairie County, AR

  9. BELOW DECK DETAIL FROM EAST BANK. NOTE WROUGHT IRON LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BELOW DECK DETAIL FROM EAST BANK. NOTE WROUGHT IRON LOWER CHORD TENSION MEMBERS - Honey Run Bridge, Spanning Butte Creek, bypassed section of Honey Run Road (originally Carr Hill Road), Paradise, Butte County, CA

  10. 56. View below deck of Manhattan side span showing ramps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View below deck of Manhattan side span showing ramps to East Side Expressway. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  11. 8. EAST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EAST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM EAST, SHOWING PORTAL CONFIGURATION AND LATERAL BRACING, STEEL MESH FLOOR, METAL RAILINGS, AND PORTION OF EAST APPROACH - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  12. 7. WEST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM WEST, SHOWING PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WEST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM WEST, SHOWING PORTAL CONFIGURATION AND LATERAL BRACING, STEEL MESH FLOOR, AND METAL RAILINGS - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  13. 2. GENERAL VIEW, FROM DECK, SHOWING THREE OF FOUR TOWERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW, FROM DECK, SHOWING THREE OF FOUR TOWERS - Jones Beach State Parkway Channel Bascule Bridge MP-3, Route 908 E, spanning Sloop Channel Southeast of East Bay, Hempstead, Nassau County, NY

  14. 122. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK OFF-RAMP AND TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP, SOUTHWEST OF FIRST STREET, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 123. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK OFF-RAMP DESCENDING TO FREMONT STREET, WITH TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP BEHIND, FACING NORTH. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. Deck view, west approach; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Deck view, west approach; former Western Pacific (now Union Pacific) Railroad at left; wind turbine generators atop hill in background; view to northeast; 90mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

  17. 233. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF LOWER DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    233. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF LOWER DECK AND KEY SYSTEM STATION CANOPY, YERBA BUENA EAST VIADUCT, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 45. UPPER CHORD / END POST DETAIL OF WEST DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. UPPER CHORD / END POST DETAIL OF WEST DECK TRUSS APPROACH SPAN, SHOWING FLOOR STRUCTURE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  19. 25. DETAIL OF PIER NO. 2, SHOWING THROUGH AND DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL OF PIER NO. 2, SHOWING THROUGH AND DECK TRUSS BEARING SHOES. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  20. 18. WEST DECK TRUSS APPROACH SPAN AND PIERS NO. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. WEST DECK TRUSS APPROACH SPAN AND PIERS NO. 1 AND 2, FROM WEST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  1. 29. DECK / WEB / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF CANTILEVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DECK / WEB / LATERAL BRACING DETAIL OF CANTILEVER ARM OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO WEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  2. 15. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL CYLINDER PIERS, FROM EAST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  3. 16. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF EAST DECK GIRDER APPROACH SPANS AND STEEL CYLINDER PIERS, FROM EAST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO WEST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  4. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF SIDE STEEL RAIL, DECK, AND SHELF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF SIDE STEEL RAIL, DECK, AND SHELF FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER - Price River Bridge, Spanning Price River, 760 North Street in Carbonville, 1 mile northwest of Price, Carbonville, Carbon County, UT

  5. 63. View aft along starboard side of hurricane deck from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. View aft along starboard side of hurricane deck from starboard bridge, short stack beyond lifeboat at left of image is donkey boiler stack. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  6. 20. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY UNDER GRID DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN MACHINERY UNDER GRID DECK AT CENTRAL CONCRETE SUPPORT PEDESTAL, SHOWING DRIVE GEARS, ELECTRIC MOTOR AND STEEL BEAMS (taken in January 1984) - Sharptown Bridge, Spanning Nanticoke River, State Route 313, Sharptown, Wicomico County, MD

  7. 17. UPPER DECK, VIEW OF SUPPORTING STRUCTURE AND ROOF OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. UPPER DECK, VIEW OF SUPPORTING STRUCTURE AND ROOF OF FERRY SHED. LOOKING WEST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad & Ferry Terminal, Ferry Slips & Bridges, Bounded by Observer, Newark & River Streets, Hudson River, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  8. Development and Validation of a Fatigue Reliability Method for Bridging Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallops, Sarah

    Toughened ceramics, or bridging ceramics, are being developed in an attempt to widen the application base of traditional ceramics, which are brittle and have low resistance to crack extension. The crack growth resistance of these extrinsically toughened ceramics has been shown to increase with crack length, and unlike traditional ceramics, toughened ceramics are susceptible to fatigue failure (failure below fracture strength after repeated loading and unloading). Many ceramic applications, especially those in the aerospace or automotive industries, require components to be designed for infinite life since fatigue crack growth can lead rapid failure. The current methods for predicting and preventing fatigue failures are unsuitable; most were developed for metal alloys, which behave very differently than toughened ceramics. Damage tolerant design takes into account that most engineering structures are inherently flawed, thus a method is needed that ensures an existing flaw will not propagate to failure within foreseen in-service lifetimes. Such a method has been proposed for making fatigue reliability predictions in bridging ceramics. Fatigue crack growth experiments were performed on 99.5% pure polycrystalline alumina. The fatigue behavior was characterized as a function of crack size using a fatigue threshold R-curve, similar in principal to a fracture toughness R-curve. A bridging stress profile, the relevant material property, was both calculated using the R-curve and measured directly with fluorescence spectroscopy. The fatigue threshold R-curve was used to make predictions of fatigue endurance strength based on an initial minimum detectable flaw size. These endurance strength predictions were validated with small crack fatigue failure experiments.

  9. 28. VIEW EAST FROM DECKING ON SOUTHWEST CORNER OF PIVOT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW EAST FROM DECKING ON SOUTHWEST CORNER OF PIVOT PIER, DRIVE SYSTEM FOR SWING-SPAN INCLUDES: (from left to right) ELECTRIC LINE FROM SHORE (bottom left), TRACK AND RAIL ON CONCRETE PIER, ELECTRIC MOTOR, GASOLINE MOTOR, SHAFTS TO WEDGE DRIVE CRANKS, WEDGE DRIVE DRIVE SHAFT, WEDGE DRIVE GEAR BOX, AND (on right) GEARING FOR MANUAL WEDGE DRIVE ACCESSED THROUGH BRIDGE DECK - Tipers Bridge, Spanning Great Wicomico River at State Route 200, Kilmarnock, Lancaster County, VA

  10. Weather network computer to control deck-heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, A.

    1997-04-07

    A ground-source heating system for bridge deicing is briefly described in this article. The deck heating system will be controlled by the Oklahoma state weather network. Warm ground air will be pumped from more than 100 boreholes at least 200 feet deep. The heat transfer fluid, possibly propylene glycol, will be circulated through a sealed tube system in the bridge deck. Costs are estimated at $200,000 for the heating system and $840,000 for the total redecking project.

  11. 21. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing west. Looking at bridge deck, guard rail, juncture of two bridge spans. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  12. 11. Short subways led to the lower deck of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Short subways led to the lower deck of the Detroit-Superior Bridge. Street cars entered the subways through open wells located in the center of the roadways. This undated photograph shows the Superior Avenue entrance. The view is looking west. Photograph courtesy Office of the Cuyahoga County Engineer in Cleveland, Ohio. - Detroit Superior High Level Bridge, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  13. Future Flight Decks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Abbott, Kathy H.; Abbott, Terence S.; Schutte, Paul C.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of commercial transport flight deck configurations over the past 20-30 years and expected future developments are described. Key factors in the aviation environment are identified that the authors expect will significantly affect flight deck designers. One of these is the requirement for commercial aviation accident rate reduction, which is probably required if global commercial aviation is to grow as projected. Other factors include the growing incrementalism in flight deck implementation, definition of future airspace operations, and expectations of a future pilot corps that will have grown up with computers. Future flight deck developments are extrapolated from observable factors in the aviation environment, recent research results in the area of pilot-centered flight deck systems, and by considering expected advances in technology that are being driven by other than aviation requirements. The authors hypothesize that revolutionary flight deck configuration changes will be possible with development of human-centered flight deck design methodologies that take full advantage of commercial and/or entertainment-driven technologies.

  14. Fatigue performance of welded aluminum deck structures

    SciTech Connect

    Haagensen, P.J.; Ranes, M.; Kluken, A.O.; Kvale, I.

    1996-12-01

    Aluminum alloys are used increasingly in load carrying structures where low weight and low maintenance costs are at a premium. Helicopter decks, structures for living quarters and personnel transfer bridges between platforms are examples of offshore applications. While these structures are not usually subjected to high fatigue loads, the increasing use of aluminum in high speed ships, and more recently in highway bridge structures, makes the question of fatigue performance more important. In this paper the fatigue properties of small scale weldments in an AA6005 alloy are compared with the results of fatigue tests on full scale sections of welded extrusions in the same material, which were used in an aluminum bridge deck structure. The fatigue performance is also compared with the fatigue clauses in the new British design code BS8118 for aluminium structures and the proposed Eurocode 9. The prospects of using a new joining technique, friction stir welding (FSW), in the production of large scale panels for deck and ship hull structures is discussed. The FSW process is described briefly, and some fatigue test data are presented.

  15. 12. MAIN DECK, VIEW FROM NEAR POOP DECK. VIEW FORWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. MAIN DECK, VIEW FROM NEAR POOP DECK. VIEW FORWARD OF MIDSHIP AREA WITH MASTS AND FIVE PORT OIL TANK HATCHES SEEN AT LEFT. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Boeing flight deck design philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoll, Harty

    1990-01-01

    Information relative to Boeing flight deck design philosophy is given in viewgraph form. Flight deck design rules, design considerations, functions allocated to the crew, redundancy and automation concerns, and examples of accident data that were reviewed are listed.

  17. 31. DECK / VERTICAL / UPPER CHORD DETAIL OF THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. DECK / VERTICAL / UPPER CHORD DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSS AT PIN-CONNECTED EXPANSION JOINT BETWEEN CANTILEVER ARM AND SUSPENDED SPAN. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  18. 22. View is from the deck, looking down to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View is from the deck, looking down to the junction of the last pony truss and the first through truss. This shows how the respective end posts are embedded into the concrete pier extension. There are only two of these, located on each end of pier #6. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  19. 6. DECK OF SIDEWALK AND GUARD RAILS. LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DECK OF SIDEWALK AND GUARD RAILS. LOOKING NORTH. - Route 31 Bridge, New Jersey Route 31, crossing disused main line of Central Railroad of New Jersey (C.R.R.N.J.) (New Jersey Transit's Raritan Valley Line), Hampton, Hunterdon County, NJ

  20. 5. DECK FROM SOUTH, ON EAST SIDEWALK. LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DECK FROM SOUTH, ON EAST SIDEWALK. LOOKING NORTH. - Route 31 Bridge, New Jersey Route 31, crossing disused main line of Central Railroad of New Jersey (C.R.R.N.J.) (New Jersey Transit's Raritan Valley Line), Hampton, Hunterdon County, NJ

  1. 18. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN UNDER GRID DECK, ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL VIEW OF MOVABLE SPAN UNDER GRID DECK, ONE OF TWO DRIVE GEARS ON NORTH SIDE OF PEDESTAL THAT MESHES INTO FIXED GEAR RING, SET INTO TOP OF CENTER CONCRETE PEDESTAL, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (taken in March 1984) - Sharptown Bridge, Spanning Nanticoke River, State Route 313, Sharptown, Wicomico County, MD

  2. Corrosion in prestressed concrete: Pipes, piles, and decks

    SciTech Connect

    Szeliga, M.

    1995-12-31

    This is the first compilation or book focusing on prestressed concrete. It features 21 classic NACE papers on prestressed concrete piping, piles, bridge decks, and cathodic protection. It includes basic corrosion mechanisms of prestressed concrete structures with detailed case histories of corrosion failures and corrective measures.

  3. 7. View showing placement of timber deck placement on chord ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View showing placement of timber deck placement on chord and built up construction of top chord and continuous construction through top panel points, eye bar construction on bottom chord - Bridge No. 2.4, Spanning Boiling Fork Creek at Railroad Milepost JC-2.4, Decherd, Franklin County, TN

  4. Soil on Phoenix Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) of NASA's Phoenix Lander, shows Martian soil piled on top of the spacecraft's deck and some of its instruments. Visible in the upper-left portion of the image are several wet chemistry cells of the lander's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The instrument on the lower right of the image is the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer. The excess sample delivered to the MECA's sample stage can be seen on the deck in the lower left portion of the image.

    This image was taken on Martian day, or sol, 142, on Saturday, Oct. 19, 2008. Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Designing Flight Deck Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

  6. 5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, deck view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. Interior of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view to north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of the Fisher School Covered Bridge, view to north showing road deck, guardrail, and howe truss. - Fisher School Covered Bridge, Crab Creek Road at Fiver Rivers Road, Fisher, Lincoln County, OR

  8. 12. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING LOWER CHORDS, FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING LOWER CHORDS, FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS AND UNDERSIDE OF STEEL DECKING. VIEW TO WEST. - Whispering Pines Bridge, Spanning East Verde River at Forest Service Control Road, Payson, Gila County, AZ

  9. View of Tensaw River Bridge, looking northeast. Photograph taken from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Tensaw River Bridge, looking northeast. Photograph taken from observation deck of Battleship USS Alabama - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  10. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF SINGLE PANEL POINTS TAKEN FROM BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING CONNECTION BETWEEN VERTICAL AND UPPER CHORD MEMBER. - White Bowstring Arch Truss Bridge, Spanning Yellow Creek at Cemetery Drive (Riverside Drive), Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  11. 14. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDERS, BEARING SHOES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF UNDERSIDE OF BRIDGE, SHOWING GIRDERS, BEARING SHOES, FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS, LATERAL BRACING AND CONCRETE DECK. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  12. 22. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing downwest side. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View of Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge facing down-west side. Looking at road deck and vertical laced channel. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  13. Bridging Human Reliability Analysis and Psychology, Part 2: A Cognitive Framework to Support HRA

    SciTech Connect

    April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jing Xing

    2012-06-01

    This is the second of two papers that discuss the literature review conducted as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) effort to develop a hybrid human reliability analysis (HRA) method in response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020. This review was conducted with the goal of strengthening the technical basis within psychology, cognitive science and human factors for the hybrid HRA method being proposed. An overview of the literature review approach and high-level structure is provided in the first paper, whereas this paper presents the results of the review. The psychological literature review encompassed research spanning the entirety of human cognition and performance, and consequently produced an extensive list of psychological processes, mechanisms, and factors that contribute to human performance. To make sense of this large amount of information, the results of the literature review were organized into a cognitive framework that identifies causes of failure of macrocognition in humans, and connects those proximate causes to psychological mechanisms and performance influencing factors (PIFs) that can lead to the failure. This cognitive framework can serve as a tool to inform HRA. Beyond this, however, the cognitive framework has the potential to also support addressing human performance issues identified in Human Factors applications.

  14. 10. DECK VIEW FORWARD FROM MAIN DECK TO FORECASTLE. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DECK VIEW FORWARD FROM MAIN DECK TO FORECASTLE. NOTE PIPE FITTING FOR OIL PUMPING SYSTEM (DISCHARGE). THE HATCH OPENINGS TO RIGHT ARE ABOVE THE SHIP'S BOILER ROOM. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 21. FANTAIL DECK, SHOWING DETAIL OF DECK EXTENSION AND EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. FANTAIL DECK, SHOWING DETAIL OF DECK EXTENSION AND EXTERIOR LOCKING MECHANISM ON HATCH DOOR TO CREW'S BERTHING. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  16. Bridging Human Reliability Analysis and Psychology, Part 1: The Psychological Literature Review for the IDHEAS Method

    SciTech Connect

    April M. Whaley; Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Katya L. Le Blanc; Jing Xing

    2012-06-01

    In response to Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) SRM-M061020, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is sponsoring work to update the technical basis underlying human reliability analysis (HRA) in an effort to improve the robustness of HRA. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a hybrid of existing methods addressing limitations of current HRA models and in particular issues related to intra- and inter-method variabilities and results. This hybrid method is now known as the Integrated Decision-tree Human Event Analysis System (IDHEAS). Existing HRA methods have looked at elements of the psychological literature, but there has not previously been a systematic attempt to translate the complete span of cognition from perception to action into mechanisms that can inform HRA. Therefore, a first step of this effort was to perform a literature search of psychology, cognition, behavioral science, teamwork, and operating performance to incorporate current understanding of human performance in operating environments, thus affording an improved technical foundation for HRA. However, this literature review went one step further by mining the literature findings to establish causal relationships and explicit links between the different types of human failures, performance drivers and associated performance measures ultimately used for quantification. This is the first of two papers that detail the literature review (paper 1) and its product (paper 2). This paper describes the literature review and the high-level architecture used to organize the literature review, and the second paper (Whaley, Hendrickson, Boring, & Xing, these proceedings) describes the resultant cognitive framework.

  17. Use of NdBFe magnets in audio deck sliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonen, S. A. E.; Basak, A.

    1992-07-01

    Rotary motors and strings are usually employed for the movement of sliders on audio decks in studios to control the volume of sound in various channels. These sliding mechanisms can be made more reliable and compact by using dc stepping linear motors built with high energy product NdBFe magnets.

  18. 27. VIEW NORTHWEST FROM DECKING ON SOUTHEAST CORNER OF PIVOT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW NORTHWEST FROM DECKING ON SOUTHEAST CORNER OF PIVOT PIER, DRIVE SYSTEM FOR SWING-SPAN INCLUDES: (from left to right) WEDGE DRIVE GEAR BOX, SHAFTS TO WEDGE DRIVE DRIVE, WEDGE DRIVE CRANK SHAFTS, ELECTRIC MOTOR, INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER GASOLINE ENGINE, CONTROL RODS FOR STARTING AND CHOKING ENGINE, PIVOT (bottom center), AND TRACK ON CONCRETE PIER - Tipers Bridge, Spanning Great Wicomico River at State Route 200, Kilmarnock, Lancaster County, VA

  19. Optimization of cable preloading on cable-stayed bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang Cheng; Vlahinos, Andreas S.; Shu, HungShan

    1997-05-01

    Generally, geometric nonlinearities of cable-stayed bridges depend on the behaviors of cables, pylons, the bridge deck and their interactions. These are geometry change, cable sag, and the interactions of axial forces, the bending moment and their deformations in the pylons and bridge deck. Therefore, a large cable-stayed bridges system having a large number of cables can be analyzed under different load conditions. In investigating nonlinear behaviors of cable- stayed bridges, the nonlinear behavior of cables needs to be considered because it may cause the nonlinear behavior of whole bridge system. The nonlinear behavior of a cable gained from its sag. With an increasing axial load, the elongation of the cable is increased but the total cable sag is decreased. Cable-stayed bridge uses cables instead of the internal piers to support the bridge deck. Usually, cable- stayed bridge decks are straight with a little camber compared to the total length of the bridge. Keeping the bridge deck in the position where is the designer desired is not only for bridge aesthetics but also for people on the bridge in terms of psychological effect of improving confidence in structure and engineering considerations. To achieve the serviceability and engineering requirements, preloading of the cable is necessary. In this paper, one such a bridge with geometry similarly to an existing cable- stayed bridge. Quincy Bayview Bridge, located in Illinois, USA, has been considered. Quincy Bayview Bridge has 58 cables in the two planes. Four methods have been considered in this paper to make the optimum selection of cable preloading. The objective is to select appropriate method to determine cable prestrains in order to minimize the deformations and stresses due to dead load of the bridge. Thus, it is not a trivial problem since a change in the prestress of a cable influence the deformation every where in the structure. The best method would be determined by comparing the calculated bending and

  20. Wireless vibration monitoring for damage detection of highway bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Matthew J.; Gangone, Michael V.; Janoyan, Kerop D.; Jha, Ratneshwar

    2008-03-01

    The development of low-cost wireless sensor networks has resulted in resurgence in the development of ambient vibration monitoring methods to assess the in-service condition of highway bridges. However, a reliable approach towards assessing the health of an in-service bridge and identifying and localizing damage without a priori knowledge of the vibration response history has yet to be formulated. A two-part study is in progress to evaluate and develop existing and proposed damage detection schemes. The first phase utilizes a laboratory bridge model to investigate the vibration response characteristics induced through introduction of changes to structural members, connections, and support conditions. A second phase of the study will validate the damage detection methods developed from the laboratory testing with progressive damage testing of an in-service highway bridge scheduled for replacement. The laboratory bridge features a four meter span, one meter wide, steel frame with a steel and cement board deck composed of sheet layers to regulate mass loading and simulate deck wear. Bolted connections and elastomeric bearings provide a means for prescribing variable local stiffness and damping effects to the laboratory model. A wireless sensor network consisting of fifty-six accelerometers accommodated by twenty-eight local nodes facilitates simultaneous, real-time and high-rate acquisition of the vibrations throughout the bridge structure. Measurement redundancy is provided by an array of wired linear displacement sensors as well as a scanning laser vibrometer. This paper presents the laboratory model and damage scenarios, a brief description of the developed wireless sensor network platform, an overview of available test and measurement instrumentation within the laboratory, and baseline measurements of dynamic response of the laboratory bridge model.

  1. 14. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING DAMAGE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING DAMAGE TO FLOOR BEAMS AND DECK OF WEST APPROACH SPAN, CAUSED WHEN CONTRACTOR'S FORCES, WORKING ON ADJACENT ABUTMENT FOR REPLACEMENT BRIDGE, DYNAMITED GRANITE BOULDERS INTO UPSTREAM SIDE OF HISTORIC BRIDGE - Middle Fork Stanislaus River Bridge, Spans Middle Fork Stanislaus River at State Highway 108, Dardanelle, Tuolumne County, CA

  2. 13. Looking north, from the southern approach to the bridge. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Looking north, from the southern approach to the bridge. The bridge deck, which is concrete with several patch coats of asphalt (now chiefly gravel and some turf), demonstrates a sharp gradient from the abutment to the bridge center line. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  3. Similarities and differences in bare concrete deck deterioration curves from multi NDE technology surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinyoung; Gucunski, Nenad; Dinh, Kien

    2016-04-01

    Reinforced concrete decks are in most cases the fastest deteriorating components of a bridge due to the multitude of influencing factors: direct traffic loading and environmental effects, maintenance activities (salting), etc. Among many deterioration types, corrosion-induced deterioration is the most common problem in reinforced concrete decks. The study concentrates on the condition assessment of bridge decks using complementary NDE techniques. The assessment has three main components: assessment of corrosive environment and corrosion processes, and assessment with respect to the deck delamination. The study concentrates on a complementary use of five NDE techniques: impact echo (IE) to detect and characterize delamination, ground penetrating radar (GPR) to describe the corrosive environment and detect delamination, and electrical resistivity (ER) to estimate the corrosion rate by measuring concrete resistivity. The ability of the NDE methods to objectively characterize deterioration progression is illustrated by the results from NDE surveys of 10 bridges of different ages in New Jersey during a period of one year. The deterioration progression is illustrated by condition maps and condition indices. As demonstrated in the paper, multiple deterioration models are developed utilizing the proposed methodology, which shows high potential for development of more realistic deterioration and life cycle cost models for bridge decks.

  4. Nondestructive evaluation inspection of the Arlington Memorial Bridge using a robotic assisted bridge inspection tool (RABIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gucunski, Nenad; Boone, Shane D.; Zobel, Rob; Ghasemi, Hamid; Parvardeh, Hooman; Kee, Seong-Hoon

    2014-04-01

    The information presented in this report provides a detailed assessment of the condition of the Arlington Memorial Bridge (AMB) deck. The field-data collection was obtained by both the RABIT™ Bridge Inspection Tool and a number of semi-automated non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tools. The deployment of the semi-automated NDE tools was performed to inspect the AMB deck condition and also to validate data obtained by the RABIT™ Bridge Inspection Tool. Data mining and analysis were accomplished through enhanced data interpretation and visualization capabilities using advanced data integration, fusion, and 2D rendering. One of the major challenges that the research team had to overcome in assessing the condition of the AMB deck was the presence of an asphalt overlay on the entire bridge deck.

  5. Characterization of stormwater runoff from bridges in North Carolina and the effects of bridge runoff on receiving streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Chad; Fitzgerald, Sharon; Lauffer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of a collaborative study between USGS, NC Department of Transportation and URS Corporation to characterize stormwater runoff from bridges in North Carolina and the effects of bridge runoff on receiving streams. This investigation measured bridge deck runoff from 15 bridges for 12-15 storms, stream water-quality data for baseflow and storm conditions at four of the bridge deck sites and streambed sediment chemistry upstream and downstream of 30 bridges across North Carolina. Background on why the study was conducted, objectives and scope and a general summary of the major results and conclusions will be presented.

  6. Towards multiple hazard resilient bridges: a methodology for modeling frequent and infrequent time-varying loads Part I, Comprehensive reliability and partial failure probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zach; Lee, George C.

    2012-09-01

    The current AASHTO load and resistance factor design (LRFD) guidelines are formulated based on bridge reliability, which interprets traditional design safety factors into more rigorously deduced factors based on the theory of probability. This is a major advancement in bridge design specifications. However, LRFD is only calibrated for dead and live loads. In cases when extreme loads are significant, they need to be individually assessed. Combining regular loads with extreme loads has been a major challenge, mainly because the extreme loads are time variables and cannot be directly combined with time invariant loads to formulate the probability of structural failure. To overcome these difficulties, this paper suggests a methodology of comprehensive reliability, by introducing the concept of partial failure probability to separate the loads so that each individual load combination under a certain condition can be approximated as time invariant. Based on these conditions, the extreme loads (also referred to as multiple hazard or MH loads) can be broken down into single effects. In Part II of this paper, a further breakdown of these conditional occurrence probabilities into pure conditions is discussed by using a live truck and earthquake loads on a bridge as an example. There are three major steps in establishing load factors from MH load distributions: (1) formulate the failure probabilities; (2) normalize various load distributions; and (3) establish design limit state equations. This paper describes the formulation of the failure probabilities of single and combined loads.

  7. On the typography of flight-deck documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf

    1992-01-01

    Many types of paper documentation are employed on the flight-deck. They range from a simple checklist card to a bulky Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM). Some of these documentations have typographical and graphical deficiencies; yet, many cockpit tasks such as conducting checklists, way-point entry, limitations and performance calculations, and many more, require the use of these documents. Moreover, during emergency and abnormal situations, the flight crews' effectiveness in combating the situation is highly dependent on such documentation; accessing and reading procedures has a significant impact on flight safety. Although flight-deck documentation are an important (and sometimes critical) form of display in the modern cockpit, there is a dearth of information on how to effectively design these displays. The object of this report is to provide a summary of the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed matter. The report attempts 'to bridge' the gap between basic research about typography, and the kind of information needed by designers of flight-deck documentation. The report focuses on typographical factors such as type-faces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Some graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are also discussed. In addition, several aspects of cockpit reading conditions such as glare, angular alignment, and paper quality are addressed. Finally, a list of recommendations for the graphical design of flight-deck documentation is provided.

  8. 17. LOOKING FROM DECK ABOVE MESS UP AT DECK ABOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. LOOKING FROM DECK ABOVE MESS UP AT DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM. RECTANGULAR WINDOWS IS AT REAR OF PILOT HOUSE. TO RIGHT OF WINDOW IS TOP OF STAIRS TO STARBOARD WING OF FLYBRIDGE. AT EXTREME RIGHT IS ENGINE CONTROLS AND IN BACKGROUND IS COMPASS WITH COVER OVER IT. RIGHT EDGE OF THIS IMAGE IS SAME AS IMAGE 14, JUST OBSTRUCTED IN IMAGE 14 BY LIFE PRESERVER AND SEAT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  9. 46 CFR 116.1110 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENT Drainage and Watertight Integrity of Weather Decks § 116.1110 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must...

  10. 46 CFR 178.410 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.410 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck...

  11. 46 CFR 116.1110 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENT Drainage and Watertight Integrity of Weather Decks § 116.1110 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must...

  12. 46 CFR 116.1110 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENT Drainage and Watertight Integrity of Weather Decks § 116.1110 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must...

  13. 46 CFR 116.1110 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENT Drainage and Watertight Integrity of Weather Decks § 116.1110 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must...

  14. 46 CFR 178.410 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.410 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck...

  15. 46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on a...

  16. 46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on a...

  17. 46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on a...

  18. 46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on a...

  19. 46 CFR 178.410 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.410 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck...

  20. 46 CFR 178.430 - Drainage of well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.430 Drainage of well deck vessels. (a) The weather deck on a well deck vessel must be watertight. (b) The area required on a...

  1. 46 CFR 178.410 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.410 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck...

  2. 46 CFR 178.410 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178.410 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck...

  3. Seismic Retrofitting of an Existing Steel Railway Bridge by Fluid Viscous Dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Avijit; Ghosh, Aparna Dey

    2016-09-01

    There are over a lakh of bridges in the Indian Railways, many of which have become seismically deficient, either through aging or due to inadequate seismic design considerations. The extensive damage of bridges all over the world in recent earthquakes has propelled significant advancement in earthquake protection and retrofitting of bridges. Amongst various passive control systems that are reliable as well as cost-effective, Fluid Viscous Dampers (FVDs) are proving to be successful in bridge vibration control. Orificed FVDs, commercially available as Taylor Devices, have already been successfully installed in several bridges worldwide. However, there has been no such application or study related to Indian railway bridges. In this paper, an existing thirty years' old railway bridge in Jharkhand, India, has been analyzed in SAP2000v14 considering reduced stiffness and found deficient when subjected to spectrum-compatible accelerograms. Subsequent retrofitting of the bridge superstructure with FVDs has been carried out and the results indicate substantial reductions in the responses of the bridge deck.

  4. Central Extracorporeal Life Support With Left Ventricular Decompression to Berlin Heart Excor: A Reliable "Bridge to Bridge" Strategy in Crash and Burn Patients.

    PubMed

    Weymann, Alexander; Farag, Mina; Sabashnikov, Anton; Fatullayev, Javid; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Schmack, Bastian; Arif, Rawa; Müller, Florian; Alt, Christina; Raake, Philip; Prakash Patil, Nikhil; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Rüdiger Simon, Andre; Karck, Matthias; Ruhparwar, Arjang

    2016-11-08

    The aim of this study was to compare patients with severe biventricular heart failure who underwent Berlin Heart Excor implantation with (cardiogenic shock [CS] status) or without the need for preoperative extracorporeal life support (ECLS) as a bridge to long-term device. A total of 40 consecutive patients with severe biventricular heart failure underwent Berlin Heart Excor implantation with (CS status, n = 20, 50%) or without (control, n = 20, 50%) the need for preoperative ECLS as a bridge to long-term device from March 2007 to May 2015 at our institution. Demographics and preoperative baseline characteristics as well as early and long-term outcomes including mortality and complication rates were retrospectively compared between the two groups. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of demographics and most preoperative clinical characteristics. The mean age in the ECLS (CS group) and control group was 43.5 ± 19.4 and 41.3 ± 16.4 (P = 0.705), whereas 20 and 25% of patients were females (P = 1.000). However, patients from the ECLS group had preoperatively higher lactate (P = 0.037), aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.001), and alanine aminotransferase (P < 0.001) levels, all of them significantly decreased after surgery (P  = 0.004, P = 0.017, and P = 0.001, respectively) and did not show any statistical differences to the corresponding values from the control group (P = 0.597, P = 0.491, and P = 0.339, respectively). Postoperatively, patients from the control and ECLS groups had statistically similar incidences of liver failure (30 vs. 35%, P = 0.736), renal failure (45 vs. 70%, P = 0.110), need for reopening (35 vs. 60%, P = 0.113), major cerebrovascular events (35 vs. 30%, P = 0.736), sepsis (10 vs. 25%, P = 0.407), wound infection (20 vs. 30%, P = 0.716), abdominal ischemia requiring surgery (28.6 vs. 36.8%, P = 0.719), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (25 vs. 35.3%, P = 1.000). The

  5. 75 FR 4584 - Wire Decking From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Wire Decking From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of wire decking, provided for... Commerce has defined the subject merchandise as ``welded-wire rack decking, which is also known as,...

  6. 33 CFR 155.790 - Deck lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Deck lighting. 155.790 Section..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.790 Deck lighting. (a) A self-propelled vessel with a capacity of... and sunrise must have deck lighting that adequately illuminates— (1) Each transfer operations...

  7. 33 CFR 155.790 - Deck lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Deck lighting. 155.790 Section..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.790 Deck lighting. (a) A self-propelled vessel with a capacity of... and sunrise must have deck lighting that adequately illuminates— (1) Each transfer operations...

  8. 33 CFR 155.790 - Deck lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Deck lighting. 155.790 Section..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.790 Deck lighting. (a) A self-propelled vessel with a capacity of... and sunrise must have deck lighting that adequately illuminates— (1) Each transfer operations...

  9. 33 CFR 155.790 - Deck lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Deck lighting. 155.790 Section..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.790 Deck lighting. (a) A self-propelled vessel with a capacity of... and sunrise must have deck lighting that adequately illuminates— (1) Each transfer operations...

  10. 33 CFR 155.790 - Deck lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deck lighting. 155.790 Section..., Procedures, Equipment, and Records § 155.790 Deck lighting. (a) A self-propelled vessel with a capacity of... and sunrise must have deck lighting that adequately illuminates— (1) Each transfer operations...

  11. 2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM UPSTREAM OF BRIDGE IN ITS SETTING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW FROM UPSTREAM OF BRIDGE IN ITS SETTING, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST FROM LOWER (RAILROAD) DECK OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC TRANSPORTATION COMPANY'S I STREET BRIDGE - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  12. 61. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER'S BRIDGE Ms. 14, 6 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER'S BRIDGE Ms. 14, 6 miles E to McLeod, 4.5 miles S on McLeod-Shuqualak road. Overall view of bridge, looking E along N side, from below deck level. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  13. 23. General views of Moody Bridge, in descending order: 1) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. General views of Moody Bridge, in descending order: 1) the northern approach with a partial 'barrel shot', 2) partial view of southern approach detailing bridge decking, railing and portal bracing, and 3) an elevation view to the northeast showing timber piers and abutment of southern approach. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  14. 25. VIEW OF McGREGOR BRIDGE (18811936), CROSSING THE MERRIMACK RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW OF McGREGOR BRIDGE (1881-1936), CROSSING THE MERRIMACK RIVER AT BRIDGE STREET, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. NORTH ELEVATION OF DOUBLE-DECKED, THREE-SPAN DOUGLAS PATENT PARABOLIC IRON TRUSS ERECTED BY CORRUGATED METAL COMPANY (BERLIN IRON BRIDGE COMPANY, BERLIN, CT) From 'Bridge Street Bridge', photographer and date unknown. - Notre Dame Bridge, Spanning Merrimack River on Bridge Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  15. UAV Deck Recovery Stability Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    any point from touch-down to hangar stowage and back to launch position. Deck handling studies determine turnover limits, sliding freedom, tiedown...beam behind the LPD rack on the port side of the hangar near a fire hatch. The energy index was calculated based on the MRU’s evaluation of the...deck’s motion. Figure 18 – Motion Reference Unit (MRU) on LCS-2 The CPU is housed in a rack encased standard PC hard disk (Figure 19). Other

  16. 23 CFR 661.47 - Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.47 Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds? No. Bridge maintenance repairs, e.g., guard rail repair, deck repairs, repair...

  17. 23 CFR 661.47 - Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.47 Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds? No. Bridge maintenance repairs, e.g., guard rail repair, deck repairs, repair...

  18. 23 CFR 661.47 - Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.47 Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds? No. Bridge maintenance repairs, e.g., guard rail repair, deck repairs, repair...

  19. 23 CFR 661.47 - Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.47 Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds? No. Bridge maintenance repairs, e.g., guard rail repair, deck repairs, repair...

  20. 23 CFR 661.47 - Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.47 Can bridge maintenance be performed with IRRBP funds? No. Bridge maintenance repairs, e.g., guard rail repair, deck repairs, repair...

  1. 46 CFR 177.900 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... strength and support equivalent to fixed rails. Deck rails must include a top rail with the minimum height required by this section, and lower courses or equivalent protection as required by this section. (b) Deck... to the top rail in any direction. The point and uniform loads do not need to be...

  2. Commander Brand sleeps on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Brand, with hands folded in front of his chest, sleeps on aft flight deck. Brand's head is just above aft flight deck floor with his back to onorbit station panels. The back and feet of a second crewmember appear next to Brand.

  3. 46 CFR 177.900 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... simultaneously. (c) Where space limitations make deck rails impractical for areas designed for crew use only.... (2) Rails on a vessel subject to the 1966 International Convention on Load Lines must be at least 1... installed between a top rail required by paragraph (a) of this section, and the deck so that no open...

  4. 46 CFR 177.900 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... simultaneously. (c) Where space limitations make deck rails impractical for areas designed for crew use only.... (2) Rails on a vessel subject to the 1966 International Convention on Load Lines must be at least 1... installed between a top rail required by paragraph (a) of this section, and the deck so that no open...

  5. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, SHOWING SPRING LINE OF SPANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, SHOWING SPRING LINE OF SPANS FROM CROWN OF MID-CHANNEL PIER, PAIRED COLUMNS SUPPORTING DECK, ARCHED WINDOW RAILING, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST FROM EUREKA SOUTHERN RAILROAD BRIDGE. CABLES VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND ARE EARTHQUAKE RESTRAINERS RETROFITTED TO 1952 HIGHWAY BRIDGE, WHICH FUNCTIONED AS DESIGNED IN APRIL 1992 TEMBLOR - Van Duzen River Bridge, Spanning Van Duzen River at CA State Highway 101, Alton, Humboldt County, CA

  6. 58. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER'S BRIDGE, 1884, Ms. 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. MISSISSIPPI, NOXUBEE CO. MACON MAHORNER'S BRIDGE, 1884, Ms. 14, E 6.5 mi. to McLeod, 4.5 miles S on McLeod-Shuqualak road. Mahorner's bridge (1884). Lower panel point, west span. View is at right-angles to the bridge and from below deck level. show pin connection, floor beams, and stringers. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  7. UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TRIPLE PIPE TOWERS, SHOWING HOWE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TRIPLE PIPE TOWERS, SHOWING HOWE PIPE TRUSS RAILING AND TRUSSED DECK BEAMS TYPICAL TO BRIDGES BUILT BY FLINN-MOYER COMPANY. NOTE THAT TOWER PIPES LIE IN ONE PLANE, UNLIKE TRIPODAL ARRANGEMENT AT CLEAR FORK OF THE BRAZOS SUSPENSION BRIDGE. ELEVATION VIEW. - Clear Fork of Brazos River Suspension Bridge, Spanning Clear Fork of Brazos River at County Route 179, Albany, Shackelford County, TX

  8. Summit Panorama with Rover Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Summit Panorama with Rover (QTVR)

    The panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took the hundreds of images combined into this 360-degree view, the 'Husband Hill Summit' panorama. The images were acquired on Spirit's sols 583 to 586 (Aug. 24 to 27, 2005), shortly after the rover reached the crest of 'Husband Hill' inside Mars' Gusev Crater. This is the largest panorama yet acquired from either Spirit or Opportunity. The panoramic camera shot 653 separate images in 6 different filters, encompassing the rover's deck and the full 360 degrees of surface rocks and soils visible to the camera from this position. This is the first time the camera has been used to image the entire rover deck and visible surface from the same position. Stitching together of all the images took significant effort because of the large changes in resolution and parallax across the scene.

    The image is an approximately true-color rendering using the 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 480-nanometer filters for the surface, and the 600-nanometer and 480-nanometer filters for the rover deck. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

    This panorama provided the team's first view of the 'Inner Basin' region (center of the image), including the enigmatic 'Home Plate' feature seen from orbital data. After investigating the summit area, Spirit drove downhill to get to the Inner Basin region. Spirit arrived at the summit from the west, along the direction of the rover tracks seen in the middle right of the panorama. The peaks of 'McCool Hill' and 'Ramon Hill' can be seen on the horizon near the center of the panorama. The summit region itself is a broad, windswept plateau. Spirit spent more than a month exploring the summit region, measuring the chemistry and mineralogy of soils and rocky outcrops at the peak

  9. Evaluation of subsurface damage in concrete deck joints using impact echo method

    DOE PAGES

    Rickard, Larry; Choi, Wonchang

    2016-01-01

    Many factors can affect the overall performance and longevity of highway bridges, including the integrity of their deck joints. This study focuses on the evaluation of subsurface damage in deteriorated concrete deck joints, which includes the delamination and corrosion of the reinforcement. Impact echo and surface wave technology, mainly a portable seismic property analyzer (PSPA), were employed to evaluate the structural deficiency of concrete joints. Laboratory tests of core samples were conducted to verify the nondestructive test results. As a result, the primary advantage of the PSPA as a bridge assessment tool lies in its ability to assess the concrete’smore » modulus and to detect subsurface defects at a particular point simultaneously.« less

  10. Evaluation of subsurface damage in concrete deck joints using impact echo method

    SciTech Connect

    Rickard, Larry; Choi, Wonchang

    2016-01-01

    Many factors can affect the overall performance and longevity of highway bridges, including the integrity of their deck joints. This study focuses on the evaluation of subsurface damage in deteriorated concrete deck joints, which includes the delamination and corrosion of the reinforcement. Impact echo and surface wave technology, mainly a portable seismic property analyzer (PSPA), were employed to evaluate the structural deficiency of concrete joints. Laboratory tests of core samples were conducted to verify the nondestructive test results. As a result, the primary advantage of the PSPA as a bridge assessment tool lies in its ability to assess the concrete’s modulus and to detect subsurface defects at a particular point simultaneously.

  11. 46 CFR 116.1110 - Drainage of flush deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENT Drainage and Watertight Integrity of Weather Decks § 116.1110 Drainage of flush deck vessels. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel must be... in the forward one-third length of the vessel if: (1) The bulwarks do not form a well enclosed on...

  12. 46 CFR 69.109 - Under-deck tonnage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) If the tonnage deck runs in a continuous line from stem to stern, the line of the tonnage deck is the longitudinal line at the underside of the tonnage deck. (2) If the tonnage deck runs at different levels from... plates are excessive in length, the tonnage length terminates at the extreme end of the vessel less...

  13. The Effectiveness of Hot-deck Procedures in Small Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Javaid

    A simulation study was conducted to identify the best hot-deck variation to impute missing values. The three variations included in the study were the hot-deck random, the hot-deck sequential, and the hot-deck distance. The properties of these methods were investigated under three levels of the proportion of incomplete records and four levels…

  14. 46 CFR 69.109 - Under-deck tonnage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) If the tonnage deck runs in a continuous line from stem to stern, the line of the tonnage deck is the longitudinal line at the underside of the tonnage deck. (2) If the tonnage deck runs at different levels from... length Divisions 1 50 ft. or less 6 2 Over 50 ft. but not exceeding 100 ft 8 3 Over 100 ft. but...

  15. 46 CFR 69.109 - Under-deck tonnage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) If the tonnage deck runs in a continuous line from stem to stern, the line of the tonnage deck is the longitudinal line at the underside of the tonnage deck. (2) If the tonnage deck runs at different levels from... length Divisions 1 50 ft. or less 6 2 Over 50 ft. but not exceeding 100 ft 8 3 Over 100 ft. but...

  16. 46 CFR 69.109 - Under-deck tonnage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) If the tonnage deck runs in a continuous line from stem to stern, the line of the tonnage deck is the longitudinal line at the underside of the tonnage deck. (2) If the tonnage deck runs at different levels from... length Divisions 1 50 ft. or less 6 2 Over 50 ft. but not exceeding 100 ft 8 3 Over 100 ft. but...

  17. 46 CFR 69.109 - Under-deck tonnage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) If the tonnage deck runs in a continuous line from stem to stern, the line of the tonnage deck is the longitudinal line at the underside of the tonnage deck. (2) If the tonnage deck runs at different levels from... length Divisions 1 50 ft. or less 6 2 Over 50 ft. but not exceeding 100 ft 8 3 Over 100 ft. but...

  18. 30. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH TOWARD THE WALKWAY EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH TOWARD THE WALKWAY EAST ABUTMENT. THE HORIZONTAL CABLES RUN FROM THE ABUTMENT TO THE QUARTER POINT OF THE WALKWAY DECK. February 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 15. BRIDGE TENDER ALBERT REEVES OF MAURICETOWN AND HELPER WALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BRIDGE TENDER ALBERT REEVES OF MAURICETOWN AND HELPER WALLY HALES HOLDING HUGE KEY ABOVE HOLE IN DECK OF CENTER SWING SPAN TO REVEAL KEY BASETHE KEY IS SET UPON A MALE FITTING USED TO OPEN THE SPAN - Maurice River Pratt Through-Truss Swing Bridge, Spanning Maurice River, Mauricetown, Cumberland County, NJ

  20. UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE, SHOWING COMPLETED SINGLE PIPE TOWERS, WOODEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    UNIDENTIFIED CATENARY SUSPENSION BRIDGE, SHOWING COMPLETED SINGLE PIPE TOWERS, WOODEN DECK LAID OVER LONGITUDINAL CABLES, AND WIRES READY FOR CABLE SPINNING. NOTE WORKER IN LEFT FOREGROUND STANDING IN ANCHORAGE PIT. BARREL VIEW. - Clear Fork of Brazos River Suspension Bridge, Spanning Clear Fork of Brazos River at County Route 179, Albany, Shackelford County, TX

  1. 15. 'Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. 'Concrete Bridge Over Salt River, Port Kenyon, Humboldt County, California, A.J. Logan, County Surveyor, H.J. Brunnier, Consulting Engineer, March 7, 1919,' showing general plan, plan of top chord, elevation of main girder, transverse section, plan section at deck level. - Salt River Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Dillon Road, Ferndale, Humboldt County, CA

  2. Review on antibacterial characteristics of bridge engineering biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qing-qing; Chen, Meng-yao; He, Rui-lin; Zhang, Zhong-feng; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the research on timber construction materials used in bridge construction. It focuses on the application of antiseptic treatments and the use of timber engineering materials in decks and bridges. This review also provides an overview on the future research and prospects of engineered timber materials. PMID:26858558

  3. Definition of the 2005 flight deck environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, K. W.; Regal, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed description of the functional requirements necessary to complete any normal commercial flight or to handle any plausible abnormal situation is provided. This analysis is enhanced with an examination of possible future developments and constraints in the areas of air traffic organization and flight deck technologies (including new devices and procedures) which may influence the design of 2005 flight decks. This study includes a discussion on the importance of a systematic approach to identifying and solving flight deck information management issues, and a description of how the present work can be utilized as part of this approach. While the intent of this study was to investigate issues surrounding information management in 2005-era supersonic commercial transports, this document may be applicable to any research endeavor related to future flight deck system design in either supersonic or subsonic airplane development.

  4. Resource management on the flight deck. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, G. E. (Editor); White, M. D. (Editor); Lauber, J. K. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Several approaches to the training and selection of aircrew are presented including both industry and nonindustry perspectives. Human factor aspects of the problem are also examined with specific emphasis on the psychology of the flight deck situation.

  5. 29 CFR 1918.33 - Deck loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Employees giving signals to crane operators shall not be permitted to walk over deck loads from rail to coaming unless there is a safe route of passage. If it is necessary to stand or walk at the outboard...

  6. 29 CFR 1918.33 - Deck loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Employees giving signals to crane operators shall not be permitted to walk over deck loads from rail to coaming unless there is a safe route of passage. If it is necessary to stand or walk at the outboard...

  7. 29 CFR 1918.33 - Deck loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Employees giving signals to crane operators shall not be permitted to walk over deck loads from rail to coaming unless there is a safe route of passage. If it is necessary to stand or walk at the outboard...

  8. 29 CFR 1918.33 - Deck loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Employees giving signals to crane operators shall not be permitted to walk over deck loads from rail to coaming unless there is a safe route of passage. If it is necessary to stand or walk at the outboard...

  9. 29 CFR 1918.33 - Deck loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Employees giving signals to crane operators shall not be permitted to walk over deck loads from rail to coaming unless there is a safe route of passage. If it is necessary to stand or walk at the outboard...

  10. 49 CFR 176.138 - Deck stowage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Stowage § 176.138 Deck stowage. (a) [Reserved] (b) Class...

  11. Functional categories for future flight deck designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    1993-01-01

    With the addition of each new system on the flight deck, the danger of increasing overall operator workload while reducing crew understanding of critical mission information exists. The introduction of more powerful onboard computers, larger databases, and the increased use of electronic display media may lead to a situation of flight deck 'sophistication' at the expense of losses in flight crew capabilities and situational awareness. To counter this potentially negative impact of new technology, research activities are underway to reassess the flight deck design process. The fundamental premise of these activities is that a human-centered, systems-oriented approach to the development of advanced civil aircraft flight decks will be required for future designs to remain ergonomically sound and economically competitive. One of the initial steps in an integrated flight deck process is to define the primary flight deck functions needed to support the mission goals of the vehicle. This would allow the design team to evaluate candidate concepts in relation to their effectiveness in meeting the functional requirements. In addition, this would provide a framework to aid in categorizing and bookkeeping all of the activities that are required to be performed on the flight deck, not just activities of the crew or of a specific system. This could then allow for a better understanding and allocation of activities in the design, an understanding of the impact of a specific system on overall system performance, and an awareness of the total crew performance requirements for the design. One candidate set of functional categories that could be used to guide an advanced flight deck design are described.

  12. 4. VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 05100025D01986N (JAMES P. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF GEORGIA DOT BRIDGE NO. 051-00025D-01986N (JAMES P. HOULIHAN BRIDGE) FACING EAST SHOWING STEEL GRID DECKING. OPERATOR'S HOUSE LOCATED ON UPPER SECTION OF TRUSS. - Georgia DOT Bridge No. 051-00025D-01986N, US 17 & State Route 25 Spanning Savannah River, Port Wentworth, Chatham County, GA

  13. 77 FR 15009 - Safety Zones; Sellwood Bridge Project, Willamette River; Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... the bridge with a new deck arch structure compliant with current loading and seismic requirements... two temporary structures and two new bridge piers which will each require a cofferdam. The temporary structures will be constructed to facilitate the moving of the older bridge. To ensure the safety...

  14. 77 FR 14970 - Safety Zones; Sellwood Bridge Project, Willamette River; Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... obsolete. The project will renew the bridge with a new deck arch structure compliant with current loading... structures and two new bridge piers which will each require a cofferdam. The temporary structures will be... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Sellwood Bridge Project, Willamette...

  15. 26. Photocopy of 1968 repair drawing for 'WalpoleWestminster Bridge Over: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of 1968 repair drawing for 'Walpole-Westminster Bridge Over: Connecticut River', unattributed. (Filed with N.H. Department of Transportation, Bridge Design Division plan archives, Concord, N.H.) Sheet: Deck and Expansion Joint Details June 13, 1968 - Walpole-Westminster Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River between Walpole, NH & Westminster, VT, Walpole, Cheshire County, NH

  16. Railway bridge monitoring during construction and sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaudi, Daniele; Casanova, Nicoletta; Kronenberg, Pascal; Vurpillot, Samuel

    1997-05-01

    The Moesa railway bridge is a composite steel concrete bridge on three spans of 30 m each. The 50 cm thick concrete deck is supported on the lower flanges of two continuous, 2.7 m high I-beams. The bridge has been constructed alongside an old metallic bridge. After demolishing this one, the new bridge has been slid for 5 m by 4 hydraulic jacks and positioned on the refurbished piles of the old bridge. About 30 fiber optic, low-coherence sensors were imbedded in the concrete deck to monitor its deformations during concrete setting and shrinkage, as well as during the bridge sliding phase. In the days following concrete pour it was possible to follow its thermal expansion due to the exothermic setting reaction and the following thermal and during shrinkage. The deformations induced by the additional load produced by the successive concreting phases were also observed. During the bridge push, which extended over six hours, the embedded and surface mounted sensors allowed the monitoring of the curvature variations in the horizontal plane due to the slightly uneven progression of the jacks. Excessive curvature and the resulting cracking of concrete could be ruled out by these measurements. It was also possible to observe the bridge elongation under the heating action of the sun.

  17. Work on Phoenix Science Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Space Systems technicians Jim Young (left) and Jack Farmerie (right) work on the science deck of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    The spacecraft was built in a 100,000-class clean room near Denver under NASA's planetary protection practices to keep organics from being taken to Mars. The lander's robotic arm, built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, is seen at the top of the picture. The color and grey dots will be used to calibrate the spacecraft's Surface Stereoscopic Imager camera once the spacecraft has landed on the red planet.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Subsea well with retrievable piping deck

    SciTech Connect

    Pokladnik, R.L.; Valka, W.A.

    1984-03-27

    An apparatus and method for drilling and completing a subsea well located at the seabed using a retrievable piping deck. The apparatus includes a template supported on the seabed, the retrievable piping deck supported on the template, a plurality of wellheads supported on the template and a plurality of Christmas trees supported on the wellheads. The piping deck has preinstalled flow lines and hydraulic lines to conduct well fluid from the Christmas trees to the surface and to conduct hydraulic control fluid from the surface to the trees. In addition to the Christmas trees, a well fluid manifold and a gaseous-liquid component separator can be supported on the template. The fluid connections between the Christmas trees and the hydraulic and flow lines and between the manifold and separator and the hydraulic and flow lines are accomplished by vertically oriented stab-in connectors. After installation of the template and drilling of the wells, the piping deck is lowered independently to the template and coupled thereto and then the Christmas trees and manifold-separator are lowered to the template and into fluid communication with the piping deck hydraulic and flow lines.

  19. 46 CFR 171.140 - Drainage of a flush deck vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.140 Drainage of a flush deck vessel. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel...

  20. 46 CFR 171.140 - Drainage of a flush deck vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.140 Drainage of a flush deck vessel. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel...

  1. 46 CFR 171.140 - Drainage of a flush deck vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.140 Drainage of a flush deck vessel. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel...

  2. 46 CFR 171.140 - Drainage of a flush deck vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.140 Drainage of a flush deck vessel. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel...

  3. 46 CFR 171.140 - Drainage of a flush deck vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.140 Drainage of a flush deck vessel. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the weather deck on a flush deck vessel...

  4. 2. ROSS POWERHOUSE: TRANSFORMER DECK, TAILRACE, AND BOATHOUSE AS SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. ROSS POWERHOUSE: TRANSFORMER DECK, TAILRACE, AND BOATHOUSE AS SEEN FROM EAST END OF TRANSFORMER DECK, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Ross Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 10.7 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  5. 61. View forward down hurricane deck toward salon clerestory, walking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. View forward down hurricane deck toward salon clerestory, walking beam, stack, and wheelhouse. Second smaller stack is from donkey boiler on main deck. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  6. 10. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS FOCASTLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS FOCASTLE DECK, SHOWING MOST OF BOOM. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  7. 14 CFR 125.315 - Admission to flight deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.315 Admission to flight deck. (a) No person may admit any person to the flight deck of an airplane unless the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admission to flight deck. 125.315...

  8. 14 CFR 125.315 - Admission to flight deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.315 Admission to flight deck. (a) No person may admit any person to the flight deck of an airplane unless the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admission to flight deck. 125.315...

  9. 14 CFR 125.315 - Admission to flight deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.315 Admission to flight deck. (a) No person may admit any person to the flight deck of an airplane unless the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admission to flight deck. 125.315...

  10. 14 CFR 125.315 - Admission to flight deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.315 Admission to flight deck. (a) No person may admit any person to the flight deck of an airplane unless the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admission to flight deck. 125.315...

  11. 14 CFR 125.315 - Admission to flight deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.315 Admission to flight deck. (a) No person may admit any person to the flight deck of an airplane unless the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admission to flight deck. 125.315...

  12. 46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deck engine mechanic. 12.15-13 Section 12.15-13 Shipping... ENDORSEMENTS Qualified Member of the Engine Department § 12.15-13 Deck engine mechanic. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as deck engine mechanic shall be a person holding an MMC or MMD endorsed as junior engineer....

  13. 46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deck engine mechanic. 12.15-13 Section 12.15-13 Shipping... ENDORSEMENTS Qualified Member of the Engine Department § 12.15-13 Deck engine mechanic. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as deck engine mechanic shall be a person holding an MMC or MMD endorsed as junior engineer....

  14. 46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deck engine mechanic. 12.15-13 Section 12.15-13 Shipping... ENDORSEMENTS Qualified Member of the Engine Department § 12.15-13 Deck engine mechanic. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as deck engine mechanic shall be a person holding an MMC or MMD endorsed as junior engineer....

  15. 46 CFR 12.15-13 - Deck engine mechanic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deck engine mechanic. 12.15-13 Section 12.15-13 Shipping... ENDORSEMENTS Qualified Member of the Engine Department § 12.15-13 Deck engine mechanic. (a) An applicant for an endorsement as deck engine mechanic shall be a person holding an MMC or MMD endorsed as junior engineer....

  16. 29 CFR 1918.36 - Weather deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weather deck rails. 1918.36 Section 1918.36 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Working Surfaces § 1918.36 Weather deck rails. Removable weather deck rails shall be kept in place except when cargo operations require them to be...

  17. 46 CFR 108.167 - Weather deck ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weather deck ladders. 108.167 Section 108.167 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.167 Weather deck ladders. Each unit must have at least one permanent, inclined ladder between each weather deck. Classified Locations...

  18. 46 CFR 174.215 - Drainage of weather deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 174.215 Section 174.215 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... weather deck. The weather deck must have open rails to allow rapid clearing of water, or must have...

  19. 46 CFR 72.10-45 - Weather deck communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 72.10-45 Section 72.10-45... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined ladders. Where ladders are...

  20. 46 CFR 190.10-45 - Weather deck communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 190.10-45 Section 190.10-45... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined ladders....

  1. 46 CFR 190.10-45 - Weather deck communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 190.10-45 Section 190.10-45... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined ladders....

  2. 29 CFR 1918.36 - Weather deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weather deck rails. 1918.36 Section 1918.36 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Working Surfaces § 1918.36 Weather deck rails. Removable weather deck rails shall be kept in place except when cargo operations require them to be...

  3. 46 CFR 174.215 - Drainage of weather deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 174.215 Section 174.215 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... weather deck. The weather deck must have open rails to allow rapid clearing of water, or must have...

  4. 46 CFR 173.062 - Drainage of weather deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 173.062 Section 173.062 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.062 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck of each...

  5. 46 CFR 173.062 - Drainage of weather deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 173.062 Section 173.062 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.062 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck of each...

  6. 46 CFR 108.167 - Weather deck ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weather deck ladders. 108.167 Section 108.167 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.167 Weather deck ladders. Each unit must have at least one permanent, inclined ladder between each weather deck. Classified Locations...

  7. 46 CFR 92.10-45 - Weather deck communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 92.10-45 Section 92.10-45... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined ladders....

  8. 46 CFR 108.167 - Weather deck ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weather deck ladders. 108.167 Section 108.167 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.167 Weather deck ladders. Each unit must have at least one permanent, inclined ladder between each weather deck. Classified Locations...

  9. 46 CFR 190.10-45 - Weather deck communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 190.10-45 Section 190.10-45... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined ladders....

  10. 46 CFR 72.10-45 - Weather deck communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 72.10-45 Section 72.10-45... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined ladders. Where ladders are...

  11. 46 CFR 108.167 - Weather deck ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weather deck ladders. 108.167 Section 108.167 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.167 Weather deck ladders. Each unit must have at least one permanent, inclined ladder between each weather deck. Classified Locations...

  12. 46 CFR 72.10-45 - Weather deck communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 72.10-45 Section 72.10-45... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined ladders. Where ladders are...

  13. 46 CFR 92.10-45 - Weather deck communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 92.10-45 Section 92.10-45... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined ladders....

  14. 46 CFR 174.215 - Drainage of weather deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 174.215 Section 174.215 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... weather deck. The weather deck must have open rails to allow rapid clearing of water, or must have...

  15. 46 CFR 108.167 - Weather deck ladders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weather deck ladders. 108.167 Section 108.167 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Means of Escape § 108.167 Weather deck ladders. Each unit must have at least one permanent, inclined ladder between each weather deck. Classified Locations...

  16. 46 CFR 92.10-45 - Weather deck communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 92.10-45 Section 92.10-45... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined ladders....

  17. 46 CFR 173.062 - Drainage of weather deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 173.062 Section 173.062 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.062 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck of each...

  18. 46 CFR 174.215 - Drainage of weather deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 174.215 Section 174.215 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... weather deck. The weather deck must have open rails to allow rapid clearing of water, or must have...

  19. 29 CFR 1918.36 - Weather deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weather deck rails. 1918.36 Section 1918.36 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Working Surfaces § 1918.36 Weather deck rails. Removable weather deck rails shall be kept in place except when cargo operations require them to be...

  20. 29 CFR 1918.36 - Weather deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weather deck rails. 1918.36 Section 1918.36 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Working Surfaces § 1918.36 Weather deck rails. Removable weather deck rails shall be kept in place except when cargo operations require them to be...

  1. 46 CFR 174.215 - Drainage of weather deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 174.215 Section 174.215 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES... weather deck. The weather deck must have open rails to allow rapid clearing of water, or must have...

  2. 46 CFR 173.062 - Drainage of weather deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 173.062 Section 173.062 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.062 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck of each...

  3. 46 CFR 92.10-45 - Weather deck communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 92.10-45 Section 92.10-45... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined ladders....

  4. 46 CFR 72.10-45 - Weather deck communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 72.10-45 Section 72.10-45... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined ladders. Where ladders are...

  5. 29 CFR 1918.36 - Weather deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weather deck rails. 1918.36 Section 1918.36 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Working Surfaces § 1918.36 Weather deck rails. Removable weather deck rails shall be kept in place except when cargo operations require them to be...

  6. 46 CFR 190.10-45 - Weather deck communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 190.10-45 Section 190.10-45... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined ladders....

  7. 46 CFR 92.10-45 - Weather deck communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 92.10-45 Section 92.10-45... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 92.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined ladders....

  8. 46 CFR 190.10-45 - Weather deck communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 190.10-45 Section 190.10-45... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 190.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined ladders....

  9. 46 CFR 72.10-45 - Weather deck communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weather deck communications. 72.10-45 Section 72.10-45... ARRANGEMENT Means of Escape § 72.10-45 Weather deck communications. (a) Vertical communication shall be provided between the various weather decks by means of permanent inclined ladders. Where ladders are...

  10. 46 CFR 173.062 - Drainage of weather deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drainage of weather deck. 173.062 Section 173.062 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSEL USE School Ships § 173.062 Drainage of weather deck. The weather deck of each...

  11. 46 CFR 111.30-11 - Deck coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deck coverings. 111.30-11 Section 111.30-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-11 Deck coverings. Non-conducting deck coverings, such as...

  12. 46 CFR 111.30-11 - Deck coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deck coverings. 111.30-11 Section 111.30-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-11 Deck coverings. Non-conducting deck coverings, such as...

  13. 46 CFR 111.30-11 - Deck coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deck coverings. 111.30-11 Section 111.30-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-11 Deck coverings. Non-conducting deck coverings, such as...

  14. 46 CFR 111.30-11 - Deck coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Deck coverings. 111.30-11 Section 111.30-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-11 Deck coverings. Non-conducting deck coverings, such as...

  15. 46 CFR 111.30-11 - Deck coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deck coverings. 111.30-11 Section 111.30-11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-11 Deck coverings. Non-conducting deck coverings, such as...

  16. 19. FROM DECK ABOVE PILOT HOUSE, LOOKING TOWARDS STERN, IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. FROM DECK ABOVE PILOT HOUSE, LOOKING TOWARDS STERN, IN FOREGROUND IS DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM, BEYOND ARE DECK ABOVE MESS WITH RHI (RIGID HULL INFLATABLE) AT LEFT, THEN STACK AND BEYOND IT IS THE FIDLY. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  17. ROAD BRIDGES IN MINAMI-SANRIKU WASHED AWAY IN THE MARCH 11th 2011 GREAT EAST JAPAN EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aglipay, Mary Roxanne I.; Konagai, Kazuo; Kyokawa, Hiroyuki; Keshab, Sharma

    On March 11th, 2011, Minami-Sanriku, located in the northeastern coast of Japan was severely inundated by the tsunami that followed the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. Road bridges near the coastlines in this area have been extensively damaged with their decks being overturned or carried over long distances. An attempt was made to deduce as rational scenarios as possible before remaining debris was cleaned up. Though the reasons for the washout of bridges can be many and complex, it is to be noted that bridge decks have hollows for the optimum light-weight solution, which fact eventually allowed the bridge decks to be carried over remarkable distances. Poor connection details and cavities, hollows between deck beams, are considered to have facilitated overturning due to uplift forces.

  18. Standard plans for southern pine bridges. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hilbrich Lee, P.D.; Ritter, M.A.; Triche, M.

    1995-09-01

    This publication contains standardized designs and details for three timber bridge superstructure types, including stress-laminated sawn lumber bridges, stress laminated glued laminated timber (glulam) bridges, and longitudinal sawn lumber stringer bridges with transverse plank decks. Each set of plans encompasses numerous span length and width combinations, design loadings for AASHTO HS 20-44 and HS 25-44 vehicles, and two options for live-load deflection criteria.

  19. TDWR information on the flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, Dave

    1991-01-01

    TDWR information on the flight deck is presented in the form of view-graphs. The following subject areas are covered: air/ground wind shear information integration research; wind shear detection/warning and avoidance system; initial experiment; and future plans.

  20. 46 CFR 177.900 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... simultaneously. (c) Where space limitations make deck rails impractical for areas designed for crew use only...) high. (4) While engaged in big game angling, the minimum rail height may be reduced to not less than... section as applicable must be installed when big game angling is not being conducted. (e) Where...

  1. Flight-deck automation: Promises and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, E. L.; Curry, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The state of the art in human factors in flight-deck automation is presented. A number of critical problem areas are identified and broad design guidelines are offered. Automation-related aircraft accidents and incidents are discussed as examples of human factors problems in automated flight.

  2. 46 CFR 116.900 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... direction. The point and uniform loads do not need to be applied simultaneously. (c) Where space limitations... International Convention on Load Lines must be at least 1,000 millimeters (39.5 inches) high. (3) All other... required by paragraph (a) of this section and the deck so that no open space exists that is more than...

  3. 46 CFR 177.900 - Deck rails.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rails must be designed and constructed to withstand a point load of 91 kilograms (200 pounds) applied at... simultaneously. (c) Where space limitations make deck rails impractical for areas designed for crew use only...) high. (4) While engaged in big game angling, the minimum rail height may be reduced to not less...

  4. Flight deck automation: Promises and realities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Susan D. (Editor); Orlady, Harry W. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Issues of flight deck automation are multifaceted and complex. The rapid introduction of advanced computer-based technology onto the flight deck of transport category aircraft has had considerable impact both on aircraft operations and on the flight crew. As part of NASA's responsibility to facilitate an active exchange of ideas and information among members of the aviation community, a NASA/FAA/Industry workshop devoted to flight deck automation, organized by the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division of NASA Ames Research Center. Participants were invited from industry and from government organizations responsible for design, certification, operation, and accident investigation of transport category, automated aircraft. The goal of the workshop was to clarify the implications of automation, both positive and negative. Workshop panels and working groups identified issues regarding the design, training, and procedural aspects of flight deck automation, as well as the crew's ability to interact and perform effectively with the new technology. The proceedings include the invited papers and the panel and working group reports, as well as the summary and conclusions of the conference.

  5. Social psychology on the flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Social psychological and personality factors that can influence resource management on the flight deck are discussed. It is argued that personality and situational factors intersect to determine crew responses and that assessment of performance under full crew and mission conditions can provide the most valuable information about relevant factors. The possibility of training procedures to improve performance on these dimensions is discussed.

  6. Non-destructive inspection protocol for reinforced concrete barriers and bridge railings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintakunta, Satish R.; Boone, Shane D.

    2014-02-01

    Reinforced concrete highway barriers and bridge railings serve to prevent errant vehicles from departing the travel way at grade separations. Despite the important role that they play in maintaining safety and their ubiquitous nature, barrier inspection rarely moves beyond visual inspection. In August 2008, a tractor-trailer fatally departed William Preston Lane, Jr. Memorial Bridge after it dislodged a section of the bridge barrier. Investigations following the accident identified significant corrosion of the anchor bolts attaching the bridge railing to the bridge deck. As a result of the information gathered during its investigation of the accident, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) made recommendations to the Federal Highway Administration concerning Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of concrete bridge railings. The Center for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center in McLean, VA is currently evaluating feasibility of using four technologies - ground penetrating radar (GPR), ultrasonic pulse-echo, digital radiography and infrared thermal imaging methods to develop bridge inspection methods that augment visual inspections, offer reliable measurement techniques, and are practical, both in terms of time and cost, for field inspection work. Controlled samples containing predefined corrosion levels in reinforcing steel were embedded at barrier connection points for laboratory testing. All four NDE techniques were used in the initial phase I testing. An inspection protocol for detecting and measuring the corrosion of reinforced steel embedded in the anchorage system will be developed as part of phase II research. The identified technologies shall be further developed for field testing utilizing a structure with a barrier in good condition and a structure with a barrier in poor condition.

  7. Non-destructive inspection protocol for reinforced concrete barriers and bridge railings

    SciTech Connect

    Chintakunta, Satish R.; Boone, Shane D.

    2014-02-18

    Reinforced concrete highway barriers and bridge railings serve to prevent errant vehicles from departing the travel way at grade separations. Despite the important role that they play in maintaining safety and their ubiquitous nature, barrier inspection rarely moves beyond visual inspection. In August 2008, a tractor-trailer fatally departed William Preston Lane, Jr. Memorial Bridge after it dislodged a section of the bridge barrier. Investigations following the accident identified significant corrosion of the anchor bolts attaching the bridge railing to the bridge deck. As a result of the information gathered during its investigation of the accident, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) made recommendations to the Federal Highway Administration concerning Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of concrete bridge railings. The Center for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) at Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center in McLean, VA is currently evaluating feasibility of using four technologies - ground penetrating radar (GPR), ultrasonic pulse-echo, digital radiography and infrared thermal imaging methods to develop bridge inspection methods that augment visual inspections, offer reliable measurement techniques, and are practical, both in terms of time and cost, for field inspection work. Controlled samples containing predefined corrosion levels in reinforcing steel were embedded at barrier connection points for laboratory testing. All four NDE techniques were used in the initial phase I testing. An inspection protocol for detecting and measuring the corrosion of reinforced steel embedded in the anchorage system will be developed as part of phase II research. The identified technologies shall be further developed for field testing utilizing a structure with a barrier in good condition and a structure with a barrier in poor condition.

  8. Cognitive representations of flight-deck information attributes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Wendell R.; Jonsson, Jon E.; Rogers, William H.

    1994-01-01

    A large number of aviation issues are generically being called fligh-deck information management issues, underscoring the need for an organization or classification structure. One objective of this study was to empirically determine how pilots organize flight-deck information attributes and -- based upon that data -- develop a useful taxonomy (in terms of better understanding the problems and directing solutions) for classifying flight-deck information management issues. This study also empirically determined how pilots model the importance of flight-deck information attributes for managing information. The results of this analysis suggest areas in which flight-deck researchers and designers may wish to consider focusing their efforts.

  9. Eye Tracking Metrics for Workload Estimation in Flight Deck Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Kyle; Schnell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Flight decks of the future are being enhanced through improved avionics that adapt to both aircraft and operator state. Eye tracking allows for non-invasive analysis of pilot eye movements, from which a set of metrics can be derived to effectively and reliably characterize workload. This research identifies eye tracking metrics that correlate to aircraft automation conditions, and identifies the correlation of pilot workload to the same automation conditions. Saccade length was used as an indirect index of pilot workload: Pilots in the fully automated condition were observed to have on average, larger saccadic movements in contrast to the guidance and manual flight conditions. The data set itself also provides a general model of human eye movement behavior and so ostensibly visual attention distribution in the cockpit for approach to land tasks with various levels of automation, by means of the same metrics used for workload algorithm development.

  10. Bridge permeameter

    DOEpatents

    Graf, Darin C.; Warpinski, Norman R.

    1996-01-01

    A system for single-phase, steady-state permeability measurements of porous rock utilizes a fluid bridge arrangement analogous to a Wheatstone bridge. The arms of the bridge contain the sample and calibrated flow resistors.

  11. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizjak, Karmen Fifer; Šajna, Aljoša; Slanc, Katja; Knez, Friderik

    2016-10-01

    The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world's total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  12. I-5/Gilman advanced technology bridge project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Karbhari, Vistasp M.; Seible, Frieder

    2000-04-01

    The UCSD led I-5/Gilman Advanced Technology Bridge Project will design and construct a fully functional traffic bridge of advanced composite materials across Interstate 5 in La Jolla, California. Its objective is to demonstrate the use of advanced composite technologies developed by the aerospace industry in commercial applications to increase the life expectancy of new structures and for the rehabilitation of aging infrastructure components. The structure will be a 450 ft long, 60 ft wide cable-stayed bridge supported by a 150 ft A-frame pylon with two vehicular lanes, two bicycle lanes, pedestrian walkways and utility tunnels. The longitudinal girders and pylon will be carbon fiber shells filled with concrete. The transverse deck system will consist of hollow glass/carbon hybrid tubes and a polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete deck with an arch action. Selected cables will be composite. The bridge's structural behavior will be monitored to determine how advanced composite materials perform in civil infrastructure applications. The bridge will be instrumented to obtain performance and structural health data in real time and, where possible, in a remote fashion. The sensors applied to the bridge will include electrical resistance strain gages, fiberoptic Bragg gratings and accelerometers.

  13. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  14. Three Bridge Fryer's Ford Bridge, Nimrod Bridge, and Ward's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Three Bridge - Fryer's Ford Bridge, Nimrod Bridge, and Ward's Crossing Bridge - Fryer's Ford Bridge, Spanning East Fork of Point Remove Creek at Fryer Bridge Road (CR 67), Solgohachia, Conway County, AR

  15. Training needs for advanced technology flight decks.

    PubMed

    Maurino, D

    1991-05-01

    The author examines training implications of increased automation in aircraft flight decks. Training issues include the need for basic pilot skills and knowledge, general knowledge of the aircraft, revision of Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) to reflect changes due to technology, and tailoring Line-Oriented Flight Training to focus on routine human-automation interfaces and CRM principles in addition to scenarios of abnormal conditions.

  16. Flight-deck automation - Promises and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, E. L.; Curry, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The paper analyzes the role of human factors in flight-deck automation, identifies problem areas, and suggests design guidelines. Flight-deck automation using microprocessor technology and display systems improves performance and safety while leading to a decrease in size, cost, and power consumption. On the other hand negative factors such as failure of automatic equipment, automation-induced error compounded by crew error, crew error in equipment set-up, failure to heed automatic alarms, and loss of proficiency must also be taken into account. Among the problem areas discussed are automation of control tasks, monitoring of complex systems, psychosocial aspects of automation, and alerting and warning systems. Guidelines are suggested for designing, utilising, and improving control and monitoring systems. Investigation into flight-deck automation systems is important as the knowledge gained can be applied to other systems such as air traffic control and nuclear power generation, but the many problems encountered with automated systems need to be analyzed and overcome in future research.

  17. The Collapse of the I-35W Bridge in Minneapolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    On Wednesday, Aug. 1, 2007, at 6:05 p.m. (during evening rush hour), the I-35W bridge across the Mississippi River in Minneapolis collapsed, killing 13 people and injuring 145. At the time of the collapse, repair work was in progress on the deck of the bridge, resulting in an additional 287 tons of construction material and equipment being on the…

  18. 57. INTERIOR VIEW OF VAL BRIDGE STRUCTURE SHOWING LAUNCHING TUBE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. INTERIOR VIEW OF VAL BRIDGE STRUCTURE SHOWING LAUNCHING TUBE, STAIRS AND PORTION OF LAUNCHING DECK. NOTE SUPPORT CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY IN DISTANCE. Date unknown, circa March 1948. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 86. Round Meadow Creek Viaduct. This steel girder bridge, built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. Round Meadow Creek Viaduct. This steel girder bridge, built in 1939, has a reinforced concrete deck and piers. It is an example of a major in-line, or straight, viaduct over a deep ravine. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  20. Characterization of water-quality and bed-sediment conditions in Currituck Sound, North Carolina, prior to the Mid-Currituck Bridge construction, 2011–15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Chad R.; Fitzgerald, Sharon; Antolino, Dominick J.

    2015-12-24

    The characterization of water-quality and bed-sediment chemistry in Currituck Sound along the proposed alignment of the Mid-Currituck Bridge summarized herein provides a baseline for determining the effect of bridge construction and bridge deck runoff on environmental conditions in Currituck Sound.

  1. 46 CFR 28.565 - Water on deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water on deck. 28.565 Section 28.565 Shipping COAST... VESSELS Stability § 28.565 Water on deck. (a) Each vessel with bulwarks must comply with the requirements... energy, “b” in Figure 28.565, must not be less than the water on deck heeling energy, “a” in Figure...

  2. 46 CFR 28.565 - Water on deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water on deck. 28.565 Section 28.565 Shipping COAST... VESSELS Stability § 28.565 Water on deck. (a) Each vessel with bulwarks must comply with the requirements... energy, “b” in Figure 28.565, must not be less than the water on deck heeling energy, “a” in Figure...

  3. 46 CFR 28.565 - Water on deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water on deck. 28.565 Section 28.565 Shipping COAST... VESSELS Stability § 28.565 Water on deck. (a) Each vessel with bulwarks must comply with the requirements... energy, “b” in Figure 28.565, must not be less than the water on deck heeling energy, “a” in Figure...

  4. 46 CFR 28.565 - Water on deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water on deck. 28.565 Section 28.565 Shipping COAST... VESSELS Stability § 28.565 Water on deck. (a) Each vessel with bulwarks must comply with the requirements... energy, “b” in Figure 28.565, must not be less than the water on deck heeling energy, “a” in Figure...

  5. 46 CFR 28.565 - Water on deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water on deck. 28.565 Section 28.565 Shipping COAST... VESSELS Stability § 28.565 Water on deck. (a) Each vessel with bulwarks must comply with the requirements... energy, “b” in Figure 28.565, must not be less than the water on deck heeling energy, “a” in Figure...

  6. 3. Elevation, tram deck, bonanza "A" frame and crushers level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Elevation, tram deck, bonanza "A" frame and crushers level 11. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  7. 26. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. RAILROAD, RR BRIDGE MISSISSIPPI, CLAY CO., WAVERLY 1.5 mi. S of MS. 50 Proposed 218-foot deck, plate-girder turn span, submitted by the Wisconsin Bridge and Iron Co., Milwaukee, Wisc. May 15 1914. Act size: approx. 23x34 in. Credit: columbus and Greenville RR, Columbus, Ms. Sarcone Photography, Columbus, Ms. Sep 1978. - Bridges of the Upper Tombigbee River Valley, Columbus, Lowndes County, MS

  8. Monitoring system for the displacement of the moveable end of a bridge using optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ki-Tae

    2008-12-01

    The displacement of the moveable end bearing of a bridge is a very critical item that must be measured when evaluating the behavior of a bridge that might be affected by a falling deck or temperature variations, and the movement of the bearing shoe must be periodic monitored by maintenance personnel. But this type of monitoring method is inefficient since the maintenance personnel must perform the inspection in close proximity to the bridge substructure, which takes time and effort. So, for efficient maintenance, inspectors must be able to monitor the bearing shoe without proximity to substructure, which will necessitate the development of a reliable, movable end bearing monitoring system that is convenient for maintenance or monitoring personnel. However, with the existing system, the cabling is very complex and the noise affected by electromagnetic waves might occur. For this reason, this study was intended to develop the sensor system to monitor the displacement of the movable end bearing, using optical fiber sensor, which is durable and is not affected by electromagnetic waves. To that end, an optical fiber measuring device for monitoring the displacement of movable end bearing was developed, and a displacement-measuring algorithm, that uses measured data, was accordingly proposed. The monitoring system that was developed in the study is able to comprehensively collect the displacement data of the movable end bearing without the need to approach the substructure of the bridge by the maintenance personnel. Moreover, thanks to the high reliability of the data, it is expected to significantly enhance the work efficiency as well.

  9. Bridge permeameter

    DOEpatents

    Graf, D.C.; Warpinski, N.R.

    1996-08-13

    A system is described for single-phase, steady-state permeability measurements of porous rock which utilizes a fluid bridge arrangement analogous to a Wheatstone bridge. The arms of the bridge contain the sample and calibrated flow resistors. 8 figs.

  10. Advanced ground-penetrating, imaging radar for bridge inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Warhus, J.P.; Mast, J.E.; Johansson, E.M.; Nelson, S.E.; Lee, Hua

    1993-08-01

    Inspecting high-value structures, like bridges and buildings using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an application of the technology that is growing in importance. In a typical inspection application, inspectors use GPR to locate structural components, like reinforcing bars embedded in concrete, to avoid weakening the structure while collecting core samples for detailed inspection. Advanced GPR, integrated with imaging technologies for use as an NDE tool, can provide the capability to locate and characterize construction flaws and wear- or age-induced damage in these structures without the need for destructive techniques like coring. In the following sections, we discuss an important inspection application, namely, concrete bridge deck inspection. We describe an advanced bridge deck inspection system concept and provide an overview of a program aimed at developing such a system. Examples of modeling, image reconstruction, and experimental results are presented.

  11. 30. View of main deck at bow (looking aft from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. View of main deck at bow (looking aft from samson post, upper deck removed), showing anchor windlass (left foreground), head (right foregound), and forward deckhouse; weather canopy overhead not an original or permanent feature - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

  12. 27. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK WITH TENDER ANNIE RUTH ALONGSIDE. COVER OF FORWARD COMPANIONWAY HAS BEEN PLACED ON MAIN DECK; SUN AWNING A TYPICAL FEATURE IN TROPICAL CLIMATES. CREW MEMBERS UNKNOWN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  13. Crewmember working on the mid deck Zeolite Crystal Growth experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    View showing Payload Specialist Bonnie Dunbar, in the mid deck, conducting the Zeolite Crystal Growth (ZCG) Experiment in the mid deck stowage locker work area. View shows assembly of zeolite sample in the metal autoclave cylinders prior to insertion into the furnace.

  14. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crew member: Main deck watch. 157.168 Section 157.168 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with...

  15. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crew member: Main deck watch. 157.168 Section 157.168 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with...

  16. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crew member: Main deck watch. 157.168 Section 157.168 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with...

  17. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crew member: Main deck watch. 157.168 Section 157.168 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with...

  18. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.165 - Ship's deck machinery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's deck machinery. 1915.165 Section 1915.165 Labor... (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.165 Ship's deck machinery. (a) Before work is performed on the anchor windlass or any...

  3. 18. FROM DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS BOW, AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. FROM DECK ABOVE CO'S STATEROOM, LOOKING TOWARDS BOW, AT DECK ABOVE PILOT HOUSE AND BEYOND IS MAST. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  4. 20. FROM DECK ABOVE CREW'S BERTHING, LOOKING TOWARDS THE BOW, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. FROM DECK ABOVE CREW'S BERTHING, LOOKING TOWARDS THE BOW, SHOWING WINCH FIDLY, STACK, AND UPPER DECKS. TO EITHER SIDE OF THE FIDLY IS A RHI (RIGID HULL INFLATABLE) AND CRANES. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  5. 33 CFR 157.168 - Crew member: Main deck watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crew member: Main deck watch. 157... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.168 Crew member: Main deck watch. During COW operations, the master shall ensure that at least one member of the crew with...

  6. VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG INFEED DECK. NOTE ROOF SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG IN-FEED DECK. NOTE ROOF SUPPORT OVER CARRIAGE AND LOG IN-FEED DECK IN UPPER RIGHT. (SEE OR-89-18 AND OR-89-23 FOR RELATED ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS.) - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  7. 22. VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG INFEED DECK. NOTE ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW OF DEBARKER FROM LOG IN-FEED DECK. NOTE ROOF SUPPORT OVER CARRIAGE AND LOG IN-FEED DECK IN UPPER RIGHT. (SEE OR-89-18 AND OR-89-23 FOR RELATED ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS.) - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  8. Non-intrusive schemes for speed and axle identification in bridge-weigh-in-motion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalhori, Hamed; Makki Alamdari, Mehrisadat; Zhu, Xinqun; Samali, Bijan; Mustapha, Samir

    2017-02-01

    Bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) is an approach through which the axle and gross weight of trucks travelling at normal highway speed are identified using the response of an instrumented bridge. The vehicle speed, the number of axles, and the axle spacing are crucial parameters, and are required to be determined in the majority of BWIM algorithms. Nothing-on-the-road (NOR) strategy suggests using the strain signals measured at some particular positions underneath the deck or girders of a bridge to obtain this information. The objective of this research is to present a concise overview of the challenges of the current non-intrusive schemes for speed and axle determination through bending-strain and shear-strain based approaches. The problem associated with the global bending-strain responses measured at quarter points of span is discussed and a new sensor arrangement is proposed as an alternative. As for measurement of local responses rather than the global responses, the advantage of shear strains over bending strains is presented. However, it is illustrated that shear strains at quarter points of span can only provide accurate speed estimation but fail to detect the correct number of axles. As a remedy, it is demonstrated that, even for closely-spaced axles, the shear strain at the beginning of the bridge is capable of reliably identifying the number of axles. In order to provide a fully automated speed and axle identification system, appropriate signal processing including low-pass filtering and wavelet transforms are applied to the raw time signals. As case studies, the results of experimental testing in laboratory and on a real bridge are presented.

  9. A Prototype Roof Deck Designed to Self-Regulate Deck Temperature and Reduce Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A

    2011-01-01

    A prototype roof and attic assembly exploits the use of radiation, convection and insulation controls to reduce the heat transfer penetrating its roof deck by almost 85% of the heat transfer crossing a conventional roof and attic assembly. The assembly exhibited attic air temperatures that did not exceed the peak day outdoor ambient temperature. The design includes a passive ventilation scheme that pulls air from the soffit and attic into an inclined air space above the deck. The design complies with fire protection codes because the air intake is internal and closed to the elements. Field data were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for new and retrofit home constructions in hot, moderate and cold climates to access economics for the assembly.

  10. Smart suspension systems for bridge-friendly vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yonghong; Tan, Chin An; Bergman, Larry A.; Tsao, T. C.

    2002-06-01

    In this paper, the effects of using semi-active control strategy (such as MR dampers) in vehicle suspensions on the coupled vibrations of a vehicle traversing a bridge are examined in order to develop various designs of smart suspension systems for bridge-friendly vehicles. The bridge-vehicle coupled system is modeled as a simply supported beam traversed by a two-degree-of-freedom quarter-car model. The surface unevenness on the bridge deck is modeled as a deterministic profile of a sinusoidal wave. As the vehicle travels along the bridge, the system is excited as a result of the surface unevenness and this excitation is characterized by a frequency defined by the speed of travel and the wavelength of the profile. The dynamic interactions between the bridge and the vehicle due to surface deck irregularities are obtained by solving the coupled equations of motion. Numerical results of a passive control strategy show that, when the lower natural frequency of the vehicle matches with a natural frequency (usually the first frequency) of the bridge and the excitation frequency, the maximum response of the bridge is large while the response of the vehicle is relatively smaller, meaning that the bridge behaves like a vibration absorber. This is undesirable from a bridge design viewpoint. Comparative studies of passive and semi-active controls for the vehicle suspension are performed. It is demonstrated that skyhook control can significantly mitigate the response of the bridge, while ground-hook control reduces the tire force impacted onto the bridge.

  11. High speed research system study. Advanced flight deck configuration effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swink, Jay R.; Goins, Richard T.

    1992-01-01

    In mid-1991 NASA contracted with industry to study the high-speed civil transport (HSCT) flight deck challenges and assess the benefits, prior to initiating their High Speed Research Program (HSRP) Phase 2 efforts, then scheduled for FY-93. The results of this nine-month effort are presented, and a number of the most significant findings for the specified advanced concepts are highlighted: (1) a no nose-droop configuration; (2) a far forward cockpit location; and (3) advanced crew monitoring and control of complex systems. The results indicate that the no nose-droop configuration is critically dependent upon the design and development of a safe, reliable, and certifiable Synthetic Vision System (SVS). The droop-nose configuration would cause significant weight, performance, and cost penalties. The far forward cockpit location, with the conventional side-by-side seating provides little economic advantage; however, a configuration with a tandem seating arrangement provides a substantial increase in either additional payload (i.e., passengers) or potential downsizing of the vehicle with resulting increases in performance efficiencies and associated reductions in emissions. Without a droop nose, forward external visibility is negated and takeoff/landing guidance and control must rely on the use of the SVS. The technologies enabling such capabilities, which de facto provides for Category 3 all-weather operations on every flight independent of weather, represent a dramatic benefits multiplier in a 2005 global ATM network: both in terms of enhanced economic viability and environmental acceptability.

  12. Orbiter Flight Deck Redesign (A Physical Layout for a Futuristic Flight Deck)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorsandi, Mehrzad

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this summer project was to develop a set of schematic drawings for redesign of the Space Shuttle flight deck from which three dimensional computer drawings can be built and viewed in a virtual environment. In order to achieve this goal, first recommendations for overall redesign of Space Shuttle previously made by experts in the field were reviewed and relevant information was extracted and delineated. Original drawings of the Space Shuttle made by Rockwell were obtained and carefully examined. In order to implement and assess any modifications in terms of space saving parameters, it was determined that the drawings alone could not achieve this objective. As a complement, physical measurements of the mockup of Space Shuttle flight deck were made and the information was categorized and properly labeled on the original drawings. Then, spacesaving redesign ideas, as motivated by expert recommendations on such things as information display panel upgrade by technologically advanced flat display units, were implemented. Next, the redesign ideas were executed on the Forward flight deck, Overhead Console, Right and Left Console, and Center Console. A new 3-D computer drawing of this was developed by modifying the existing drawing on the in-house developed software (PLAID). Finally, the drawing was transported to a Virtual Environment and observed.

  13. Analysis Of Thermal Patterns On A Motorized Ski Deck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Charles C.

    1987-05-01

    Analysis of pressure distributions on skis while skiing is of interest to ski researchers in that it yields useful information on ski design parameters such as spring constant, damping, and dimensional shape in a dynamic environment. Obtaining pressure distribution data on skis while skiing is a complex task due to the amount of instrumentation required and mobility of the skier. Research has been performed on analyzing pressure distributions from skiers on a ski deck using infrared thermography. The ski deck offers a platform where the skier is stationary and the deck (carpet) moves under the skier. As the skier skis on the revolving ski deck carpet, thermal patterns are observed behind the skier on the carpet surface. The intensity of these thermal patterns are proportional to the temperature rise on the deck surface and the pressure applied by the ski bottom to the deck surface. Several thermograms were analyzed for different skiing turns ranging from basic wedge turns through advanced linked turns. Transient pressure distributions are presented for various maneuvers. Infrared thermography coupled with revolving ski deck technology has been used to qualitatively depict ski pressure distributions for ski instructors teaching students how to ski. This has resulted in a quicker and safer learning process. The technique can also be used as a quantitative tool for the analysis of newer and safer ski designs.

  14. 46 CFR 69.181 - Locating the line of the second deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locating the line of the second deck. 69.181 Section 69... VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.181 Locating the line of the second deck. (a) If the second deck is not stepped, the line of the second deck is the longitudinal line of...

  15. 46 CFR 69.181 - Locating the line of the second deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locating the line of the second deck. 69.181 Section 69... VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.181 Locating the line of the second deck. (a) If the second deck is not stepped, the line of the second deck is the longitudinal line of...

  16. 46 CFR 69.181 - Locating the line of the second deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locating the line of the second deck. 69.181 Section 69... VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.181 Locating the line of the second deck. (a) If the second deck is not stepped, the line of the second deck is the longitudinal line of...

  17. 46 CFR 69.181 - Locating the line of the second deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locating the line of the second deck. 69.181 Section 69... VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.181 Locating the line of the second deck. (a) If the second deck is not stepped, the line of the second deck is the longitudinal line of...

  18. 46 CFR 69.181 - Locating the line of the second deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locating the line of the second deck. 69.181 Section 69... VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.181 Locating the line of the second deck. (a) If the second deck is not stepped, the line of the second deck is the longitudinal line of...

  19. 46 CFR 28.810 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs. 28..., storm rails and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section, deck... weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand...

  20. 46 CFR 28.810 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs. 28..., storm rails and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section, deck... weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand...

  1. 46 CFR 28.810 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs. 28..., storm rails and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section, deck... weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand...

  2. 46 CFR 28.810 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs. 28..., storm rails and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section, deck... weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand...

  3. 46 CFR 28.810 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails and hand grabs. 28..., storm rails and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section, deck... weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand...

  4. Interior view of the Flight Deck looking forward, the Commander's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of the Flight Deck looking forward, the Commander's seat and controls are on the left and the pilot's seat and controls are on the right of the view. Note that the flight deck windows have protective covers over them in this view. This images can be digitally stitched with image HAER No. TX-116-A-20 to expand the view to include the overhead control panels of the flight deck. This view was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  5. Facility S 372, replacement dolphins and ramp from upper deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility S 372, replacement dolphins and ramp from upper deck of ferry boat (YFB 87). - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ferry Landing Type, Halawa Landing on Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 12. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK CENTER AREA SHOWING ASPHALT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK CENTER AREA SHOWING ASPHALT AND NORTH SIDE GUARD WALL - Route 1 Extension, South Street Viaduct, Spanning Conrail & Wheeler Point Road at South Street, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  7. 9. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK AT EAST SIDE SHOWING GRANITE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK AT EAST SIDE SHOWING GRANITE BLOCK PAVING, EXPANSION JOINT AND NORTH SIDE PIPE RAILING - Route 1 Extension, South Street Viaduct, Spanning Conrail & Wheeler Point Road at South Street, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  8. 37. View aft of port side of main deck taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. View aft of port side of main deck taken from just aft of midship house, showing main hatch, mainmast and poop bulkhead. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 6. DECK #4 TOPSIDE FROM NORTHEAST CORNER END PIECE FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DECK #4 TOPSIDE FROM NORTHEAST CORNER END PIECE FOR ROBOTIC ARM FOR ANCHORING ASTRONAUT FOR MECHANICAL WORK. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  10. 19. Crew's mess, deck house, forward. From left to right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Crew's mess, deck house, forward. From left to right, volunteers Larry Boucher and Maggie Lindley, deckhand Bruce Vanvick, and volunteer Harry Morgan. - Steam Tug HERCULES, Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. Interior below decks in fish hold looking forward. Fish hatch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior below decks in fish hold looking forward. Fish hatch opening is at upper left, ceiling planks and knees at center and right. - Purse Seiner SHENANDOAH, Gig Harbor Peninsula Historical Society and Museum, Gig Harbor, Pierce County, WA

  12. 51. Port elevation, in port. Note reduced turtle deck due ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Port elevation, in port. Note reduced turtle deck due to quarters expansion. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE SUMAC, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  13. 45. Starboard elevation under way. Note large turtle deck and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Starboard elevation under way. Note large turtle deck and crane configuration. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE SUMAC, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  14. 3. General view from above, view to southeast showing deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view from above, view to southeast showing deck and crib relationship with bilge and keel blocks. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Marine Railway, Between Piers 2 & 3, on Charlestown Waterfront at west end of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. 6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH OF OPERATOR DECK, SHOWING MOTOR CONTROLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH OF OPERATOR DECK, SHOWING MOTOR CONTROLS AND LEVERS AND HOIST FOR TRASH RAKE - Cabot Station Electric Generating Plant, Gantry Crane, Montague City Road, Turners Falls vicinity, Montague, Franklin County, MA

  16. 8. VIEW, LOOKING EAST OF OPERATOR DECK, SHOWING TRASHRAKE HOIST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW, LOOKING EAST OF OPERATOR DECK, SHOWING TRASH-RAKE HOIST, LEVER CONTROLS, MOTOR CONTROLLER - Cabot Station Electric Generating Plant, Gantry Crane, Montague City Road, Turners Falls vicinity, Montague, Franklin County, MA

  17. 17. VIEW FROM OPERATOR DECK, SHOWING TRASH RACKS, CHUTES, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW FROM OPERATOR DECK, SHOWING TRASH RACKS, CHUTES, AND HEADGATE COVERS, LOOKING NORTH - Cabot Station Electric Generating Plant, Gantry Crane, Montague City Road, Turners Falls vicinity, Montague, Franklin County, MA

  18. 5. DETAIL OF PENSTOCK OPENINGS AND HEADGATE DECK FROM UPSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF PENSTOCK OPENINGS AND HEADGATE DECK FROM UPSTREAM (WEST) SIDE, WITH SOUTH EMBANKMENT (MI-98-E) COREWALL AT RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, Powerhouse, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

  19. 19. DECK VIEW LOOKING FORWARD WITH MAST, RIGGING AND BOWSPRIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DECK VIEW LOOKING FORWARD WITH MAST, RIGGING AND BOWSPRIT DETAILS - HATCH COVER REMOVED TO SHOW CENTERBOARD TRUNK - KATHRYN-Two-sail Bateau "Skipjack", Dogwood Harbor, Chesapeake Bay, Tilghman, Talbot County, MD

  20. 3. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BOILER ROOM, FROM MEZZANINE DECK NEAR TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BOILER ROOM, FROM MEZZANINE DECK NEAR TOP OF STAIRWAY, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heating Plant, North of B Street & West of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  1. 14. Car deck, looking forward, 1915 Mack Truck on left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Car deck, looking forward, 1915 Mack Truck on left with 1926 Dodge behind, 1937 Diamond Pickup Truck on right with 1931 Ford Model A Mail Truck behind. - Ferry EUREKA, Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 48. VIEW OF PIER DECK, TAKEN FROM HALFWAY BETWEEN APPPROACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. VIEW OF PIER DECK, TAKEN FROM HALFWAY BETWEEN APPPROACH AND 1ST TEE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING CAPTAIN'S GALLEY (LEFT) AND NEPTUNE'S LOCKER (RIGHT) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  3. 69. VIEW OF DECK AND PILINGS FROM LIFEGUARD TOWER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. VIEW OF DECK AND PILINGS FROM LIFEGUARD TOWER AT 2ND TEE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING NEPTUNE'S LOCKER AND CAPTAIN'S GALLEY IN BACKGROUND AT RIGHT - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  4. 47. VIEW OF PIER DECK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM GATE, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. VIEW OF PIER DECK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM GATE, SHOWING CAPTAIN'S GALLEY (LEFT) AND NEPTUNE'S LOCKER (RIGHT) IN CENTER - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  5. 15. SOUTH SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK SHOWING NEW AUXILIARY FLAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. SOUTH SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK SHOWING NEW AUXILIARY FLAME DUCTS UNDER CONSTRUCTION, UMBILICAL MAST AT RIGHT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28402, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  6. Interior view of second level deck along west side; camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of second level deck along west side; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. Working decks for buoy maintenance. White Sage on left, White ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Working decks for buoy maintenance. White Sage on left, White Holly on right. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HOLLY, U.S. Coast Guard 8th District Base, 4640 Urquhart Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  8. 42. View from forward end of poop deck, port side, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. View from forward end of poop deck, port side, looking aft toward poop capstan, booby hatch, and mizzenmast. Photograph by Russell Booth, June 1989. - Ship BALCLUTHA, 2905 Hyde Street Pier, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. Edwards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. 11. DETAIL SHOWING ROLLING ENGINE DECK AND NORTHEAST TRUSS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL SHOWING ROLLING ENGINE DECK AND NORTHEAST TRUSS OF SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. 5. INTERIOR DETAIL OF 'BATTLESHIP DECK' WALL PARTITION AND CEILING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR DETAIL OF 'BATTLESHIP DECK' WALL PARTITION AND CEILING OF FIRST FLOOR OF 1930 ADDITION TO OFFICE BUILDING - Midwest Steel & Iron Works Company, 25 Larimer Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  12. Astronaut William Readdy on flight deck wearing sun glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    On Discovery's forward flight deck, Astronaut William F. Readdy, pilot, wears shades to block out bright sunshine. Much of the sunshine that normally would be coming through forward windows is blocked by an array of portable computers.

  13. 23. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM NORTH END OF BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM NORTH END OF BUILDING, SHOWING FOURTH STEAM UNIT IN PLACE AT FAR SOUTH END. April 6, 1950 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 8. TURBINE DECK (UPPER FLOOR) INSIDE STEAM PLANT, SHOWING STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. TURBINE DECK (UPPER FLOOR) INSIDE STEAM PLANT, SHOWING STEAM TURBINES AND GENERATORS, LOOKING NORTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 35. VIEW OF MAIN DECK ENGINE FLAT, LOOKING AFT AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW OF MAIN DECK ENGINE FLAT, LOOKING AFT AT STEAM CHEST AND CYLINDER HEADS. ORIGINAL STEAM FIRE PUMP IS ON PORT SIDE - Steam Schooner WAPAMA, Kaiser Shipyard No. 3 (Shoal Point), Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  16. 8. FOCASTLE DECK TOWARDS STERN, WINCHES (EITHER SIDE) ARE REPLACEMENTS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FOCASTLE DECK TOWARDS STERN, WINCHES (EITHER SIDE) ARE REPLACEMENTS. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  17. 4. TOPSIDE VIEW FROM UPPER DECK LOOKING DOWN INTO TANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. TOPSIDE VIEW FROM UPPER DECK LOOKING DOWN INTO TANK WITH SHUTTLE CARGO BAY MOCK-UP AT BOTTOM OF 40 FOOT TANK. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  18. 5. TOPSIDE VIEW FROM UPPER DECK LOOKING DOWN INTO TANK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. TOPSIDE VIEW FROM UPPER DECK LOOKING DOWN INTO TANK WITH SHUTTLE CARGO BAY MOCK-UP AT BOTTOM OF 40 FOOT TANK. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  19. Crewmembers photographing the Earth from the aft flight deck windows.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mission Pilot Mike Baker and Mission Specialist Tamara Jernigan looking out the aft flight deck overhead windows and photographing the Earth below. Jernigan is looking out the window while Baker is photographing with a Hasselblad 70mm camera.

  20. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF DECK OF 1886 TRUSS, SHOWING HIP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF DECK OF 1886 TRUSS, SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, SIDEWALK AND GUARDRAIL, LOOKING EAST - Sixth Street Viaduct, Spanning Burlington Northern Railroad & Valley Street, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  1. DETAIL VIEW OF A CAMERA PEDESTAL ON THE BLAST DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF A CAMERA PEDESTAL ON THE BLAST DECK OF THE 0 LEVEL - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Mobile Launcher Platforms, Launcher Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  2. Safer Bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Safer bridges are among a number of spinoff benefits from NASA procedures for testing 'cfracture toughness" of a structural part, meaning its ability to -siscracktsh at might cause failure. The New River Bridge in West Virginia, shown under construction, is the world's largest single span bridge. U.S. Steel fracture toughness requirements for such bridges include NASA-developed test procedures. Bridge materials and other metal structures may develop flaws during their service lifetimes. Such flaws can affect the structural integrity of the part. Thus, it is important to know the "fracture toughness" of a structural part, or its ability to resist cracks. NASA has long experience in developing fracture toughness tests for aerospace hardware. Since 1960, NASA-Lewis has worked closely with the American Society for Testing & Materials. Lewis and NASA-funded industrial contractors have made many important contributions to test procedures, now recommended by ASTM, for measuring fracture toughness.

  3. General view of he forward wall of the mid deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of he forward wall of the mid deck of the Orbiter Discovery. In this view a majority of wall panels have been removed to reveal the avionics bays in the interstitial space between the mid deck forward wall and the forward bulkhead of the pressurized crew compartment. This photograph was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  4. Bridge aerodynamics and aeroelasticity: A comparison of modeling schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Teng; Kareem, Ahsan

    2013-11-01

    Accurate modeling of wind-induced loads on bridge decks is critical to ensure the functionality and survivability of long-span bridges. Over the last few decades, several schemes have emerged to model bridge behavior under winds from an aerodynamic/aeroelastic perspective. A majority of these schemes rely on the quasi-steady (QS) theory. This paper systematically compares and assesses the efficacy of five analytical models available in the literature with a new model presented herein. These models include: QS theory-based model, corrected QS theory-based model, linearized QS theory-based model, semi-empirical linear model, hybrid model, and the proposed modified hybrid model. The ability of these models to capture fluid memory and nonlinear effects either individually or collectively is examined. In addition, their ability to include the effects of turbulence in the approach flow on the bridge behavior is assessed. All models are compared in a consistent manner by utilizing the time domain approach. The underlying role of each model in capturing the physics of bridge behavior under winds is highlighted and the influence of incoming turbulence and its interaction with the bridge deck is examined. A discussion is included that focuses on a number of critical parameters pivotal to the effectiveness of corresponding models.

  5. Structural health monitoring of composite repair patches in bridge rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhanjun; Ghosh, Kumar; Qing, Xinlin; Karbhari, Vistasp; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2006-03-01

    In recent years, there are many issues involving safety on old bridges, aircrafts and other structures, which threaten the lives of the people using those structures, as well as the structures themselves. To prevent future failure, various measures are being taken. Structure rehabilitations with carbon fiber reinforced composite patches have been adopted and demonstrated to be an excellent way to enhance/repair the structures and prolong the service life. However, there are still many problems residing in this kind of technology that remain unsolved, for example, the failure of the interface between composite repair patches and their host structures. This is a critical issue that must be addressed in order to show the viability of composite patches. In order to study debond occurring between composite repair patches and their host structures, a structure health monitoring scheme was demonstrated on a concrete bridge model in the laboratory. The system is based on active sensing with diagnostic lamb waves, in which piezoelectric transducers are used as both sensors and actuators. In the test, six SMART Layers, each having eight piezoelectirc transducers, were integrated with two composite repair strips on the deck slab of the concrete bridge model. For the three diagnostic layers with each composite repair patch, two layers were bonded on the top surface of the patch, and the other is embedded at the interface between the composite repair patch and the deck slab of the concrete bridge model. The loading procedure of the test included three phases. First, the bridge model was preloaded to initiate cracks on the deck slabs and the repair patches were then implemented. Second, the load was raised to reach the shear capacity of the girders of the bridge model and then the repair patches were implemented on those girders. Lastly, the structure was loaded to damage the deck slabs. During the test, the initiation and development of debond between composite repair patches

  6. A New Multiconstraint Method for Determining the Optimal Cable Stresses in Cable-Stayed Bridges

    PubMed Central

    Asgari, B.; Osman, S. A.; Adnan, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cable-stayed bridges are one of the most popular types of long-span bridges. The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is sensitive to the load distribution between the girder, pylons, and cables. The determination of pretensioning cable stresses is critical in the cable-stayed bridge design procedure. By finding the optimum stresses in cables, the load and moment distribution of the bridge can be improved. In recent years, different research works have studied iterative and modern methods to find optimum stresses of cables. However, most of the proposed methods have limitations in optimising the structural performance of cable-stayed bridges. This paper presents a multiconstraint optimisation method to specify the optimum cable forces in cable-stayed bridges. The proposed optimisation method produces less bending moments and stresses in the bridge members and requires shorter simulation time than other proposed methods. The results of comparative study show that the proposed method is more successful in restricting the deck and pylon displacements and providing uniform deck moment distribution than unit load method (ULM). The final design of cable-stayed bridges can be optimised considerably through proposed multiconstraint optimisation method. PMID:25050400

  7. A new multiconstraint method for determining the optimal cable stresses in cable-stayed bridges.

    PubMed

    Asgari, B; Osman, S A; Adnan, A

    2014-01-01

    Cable-stayed bridges are one of the most popular types of long-span bridges. The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is sensitive to the load distribution between the girder, pylons, and cables. The determination of pretensioning cable stresses is critical in the cable-stayed bridge design procedure. By finding the optimum stresses in cables, the load and moment distribution of the bridge can be improved. In recent years, different research works have studied iterative and modern methods to find optimum stresses of cables. However, most of the proposed methods have limitations in optimising the structural performance of cable-stayed bridges. This paper presents a multiconstraint optimisation method to specify the optimum cable forces in cable-stayed bridges. The proposed optimisation method produces less bending moments and stresses in the bridge members and requires shorter simulation time than other proposed methods. The results of comparative study show that the proposed method is more successful in restricting the deck and pylon displacements and providing uniform deck moment distribution than unit load method (ULM). The final design of cable-stayed bridges can be optimised considerably through proposed multiconstraint optimisation method.

  8. Measurement of Deflection Line on Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Rudolf; Štroner, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Prestressed concrete bridges are very sensitive to the increase in long-term deflections. Reliable forecasts of deflections of bridge structures during construction and durability are crucial for achieving good durability. The main results of measurements are the changes of the deflection line of the bridge structures, which places special demands on the measurement procedure. Results from measurements are very useful for the improvement of mathematical prediction methods of behaviour of long span prestressed concrete structures.

  9. A Prototype Roof Deck Designed to Self-Regulate Deck Temperature and Reduce Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William A

    2011-01-01

    A prototype roof and attic assembly exploits the use of radiation, convection and insulation controls to reduce its peak day heat transfer by almost 85 percent of the heat transfer crossing a conventional roof and attic assembly. The assembly exhibits attic air temperatures that do not exceed the maximum daily outdoor ambient temperature. The design includes a passive ventilation scheme that pulls air from the soffit and attic into an inclined air space above the roof deck. The design complies with fire protection codes because the air intake is internal and closed to the elements. Field data were benchmarked against an attic computer tool and simulations made for new and retrofit constructions in hot, moderate and cold climates to gauge the cost of energy savings and potential payback.

  10. Problems associated with nondestructive evaluation of bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prine, David W.

    1995-05-01

    The US has 542,000 bridges that consume billions of dollars per year in construction, rehabilitation, and maintenance funds and which are the lifelines of US commerce. The 1992 ISTEA (Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act) mandates the implementation of a quantitative computerized bridge management system by 1996. A prime need of such a system are quantitative bridge inspection methods to feed accurate reliable condition information to the huge database of bridges. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will fill a critical need in the implementation of effective bridge management. However, many serious barriers exist to the widespread routine application of this technology to bridges. This paper provides an overview of the typical problems associated with applying NDE to bridges.

  11. Commander Brand and Pilot Overmyer operate controls on forward flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    On forward flight deck, Commander Brand and Pilot Overmyer operate controls from commanders and pilots seats. Overall view taken from the aft flight deck looking forward shows both astronauts reviewing procedures and checking CRT screen data.

  12. Commander Brand and Pilot Overmyer operate controls on forward flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    On forward flight deck, Commander Brand and Pilot Overmyer operate controls from commanders and pilots seats. Overall view taken from the aft flight deck looking forward shows Overmyer pointing to data on Panel 7 (F7) CRT 1 screen.

  13. Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Monica (Compiler); Sharkey, John (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the NASA Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging (ELA-TB) Workshop held in Huntsville, Alabama, September 29-October 1, 1992. The workshop was sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Systems Development and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The workshop addressed key technologies bridging the entire field of electrical actuation including systems methodology, control electronics, power source systems, reliability, maintainability, and vehicle health management with special emphasis on thrust vector control (TVC) applications on NASA launch vehicles. Speakers were drawn primarily from industry with participation from universities and government. In addition, prototype hardware demonstrations were held at the MSFC Propulsion Laboratory each afternoon. Splinter sessions held on the final day afforded the opportunity to discuss key issues and to provide overall recommendations. Presentations are included in this document.

  14. Unique submersible pumps system used in rig deck loadout

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    In one of the largest offshore skidding operations ever undertaken in the UK, a unique system of submersible pumps linked through central control stations was used to load out the deck of a new-built semisubmersible rig onto three barges. Ninety-three submersible pumps and a hydraulic track system were required to move the deck onto the 100 x 14 x 7.5-meter barges. The most critical task was to maintain the barges at a constant level as they took on the load. The problem was overcome with combined dewatering and ballasting actions, carried out simultaneously from each control center and from each barge.

  15. Detail view of the flight deck looking aft. The aft ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the flight deck looking aft. The aft viewing windows are uncovered in this view and look out towards the payload bay. The overhead viewing windows have exterior covers in place in this view. The aft flight deck contains displays and controls for executing maneuvers for rendezvous, docking, payload deployment and retrieval, payload monitoring and the remote manipulator arm controls. Payload bay doors are also operated from this location. This view was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  16. Detail view of the interior of the flight deck looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the interior of the flight deck looking forward showing the overhead control panels. Note that the flight deck windows have protective covers over them in this view. This images can be digitally stitched with image HAER No. TX-116-A-19 to expand the view to include the Commander and Pilot positions during ascent and reentry and landing. This view was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  17. Endeavour, OV-105, forward flight deck controls during Rockwell manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, forward flight deck controls are documented during manufacture, assembly, and checkout at North American Rockwell facilities Building 150, Palmdale, California. Overall view looks from aft flight deck forward showing displays and controls with panel F7 CRT screens lit and window shades in place on W2, W3, W4, W5. OV-105 is undergoing final touches prior to rollout and a scheduled flight for STS-49. View was included as part of Rockwell International (RI) Submittal No. 40 (STS 87-0342-40) with alternate number A901207 R-16/NAS9-17800.

  18. Bridges, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Michael, Ed.; Zito, Michael, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of the one issue in volume 7 of "Bridges," a publication produced by the California Head Start-State Collaboration Office to detail the activities of the educational partnership and to provide relevant information to programs participating in the partnership. The Summer 2002 issue focuses on several topics of…

  19. Software Bridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    I-Bridge is a commercial version of software developed by I-Kinetics under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The software allows users of Windows applications to gain quick, easy access to databases, programs and files on UNIX services. Information goes directly onto spreadsheets and other applications; users need not manually locate, transfer and convert data.

  20. Wheatstone's Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2005-01-01

    The arrangement of four resistors, a source of emf, and a galvanometer, known as Wheatstone's bridge, has been in existence for more than 170 years. The only other piece of apparatus with its staying power is Atwood's machine. Now that it has reached mature status, it seems only fitting to describe its origin, analysis, circuit topology, and past and future uses.

  1. 75 FR 34688 - Wire Decking From the People's Republic of China: Correction to the Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... International Trade Administration Wire Decking From the People's Republic of China: Correction to the Final... affirmative countervailing duty determination of wire decking from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Wire Decking from the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

  2. 46 CFR 166.05 - Course of study for deck students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Course of study for deck students. 166.05 Section 166.05... OF NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS § 166.05 Course of study for deck students. The course of study for deck students shall include (a) all the instructions in the rudiments of seamanship and navigation necessary...

  3. 46 CFR 178.450 - Calculation of drainage area for cockpit and well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178... Drainage area in inch2 = (Recess Volume × Recess Ratio) + (Weather Deck Volume × Weather Deck Ratio) Recess...) measured in centimeters2 (feet2). VR=volume of any weather tight structure below the bulwark of the...

  4. 46 CFR 178.450 - Calculation of drainage area for cockpit and well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178... Drainage area in inch2 = (Recess Volume × Recess Ratio) + (Weather Deck Volume × Weather Deck Ratio) Recess...) measured in centimeters2 (feet2). VR=volume of any weather tight structure below the bulwark of the...

  5. 46 CFR 178.450 - Calculation of drainage area for cockpit and well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178... Drainage area in inch2 = (Recess Volume × Recess Ratio) + (Weather Deck Volume × Weather Deck Ratio) Recess...) measured in centimeters2 (feet2). VR=volume of any weather tight structure below the bulwark of the...

  6. 46 CFR 178.450 - Calculation of drainage area for cockpit and well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178... Drainage area in inch2 = (Recess Volume × Recess Ratio) + (Weather Deck Volume × Weather Deck Ratio) Recess...) measured in centimeters2 (feet2). VR=volume of any weather tight structure below the bulwark of the...

  7. 46 CFR 178.450 - Calculation of drainage area for cockpit and well deck vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INTACT STABILITY AND SEAWORTHINESS Drainage of Weather Decks § 178... Drainage area in inch2 = (Recess Volume × Recess Ratio) + (Weather Deck Volume × Weather Deck Ratio) Recess...) measured in centimeters2 (feet2). VR=volume of any weather tight structure below the bulwark of the...

  8. 46 CFR 109.575 - Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. 109.575... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.575 Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. The master or person in charge shall ensure that no liquids are allowed to accumulate on the helicopter decks....

  9. 46 CFR 109.575 - Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. 109.575... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.575 Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. The master or person in charge shall ensure that no liquids are allowed to accumulate on the helicopter decks....

  10. 46 CFR 109.575 - Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. 109.575... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.575 Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. The master or person in charge shall ensure that no liquids are allowed to accumulate on the helicopter decks....

  11. 46 CFR 109.575 - Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. 109.575... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.575 Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. The master or person in charge shall ensure that no liquids are allowed to accumulate on the helicopter decks....

  12. 46 CFR 109.575 - Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. 109.575... DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.575 Accumulation of liquids on helicopter decks. The master or person in charge shall ensure that no liquids are allowed to accumulate on the helicopter decks....

  13. 46 CFR 108.137 - Bulkhead and deck separations of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulkhead and deck separations of accommodation spaces. 108.137 Section 108.137 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE....137 Bulkhead and deck separations of accommodation spaces. Each boundary bulkhead and deck...

  14. 46 CFR 69.175 - Tonnage assignments for vessels with a second deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tonnage assignments for vessels with a second deck. 69.175 Section 69.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND... with a second deck. (a) At the option of the vessel owner, a vessel having a second deck is...

  15. 46 CFR 69.175 - Tonnage assignments for vessels with a second deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tonnage assignments for vessels with a second deck. 69.175 Section 69.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND... with a second deck. (a) At the option of the vessel owner, a vessel having a second deck is...

  16. 46 CFR 69.175 - Tonnage assignments for vessels with a second deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tonnage assignments for vessels with a second deck. 69.175 Section 69.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND... with a second deck. (a) At the option of the vessel owner, a vessel having a second deck is...

  17. 46 CFR 69.175 - Tonnage assignments for vessels with a second deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tonnage assignments for vessels with a second deck. 69.175 Section 69.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND... with a second deck. (a) At the option of the vessel owner, a vessel having a second deck is...

  18. 46 CFR 69.175 - Tonnage assignments for vessels with a second deck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tonnage assignments for vessels with a second deck. 69.175 Section 69.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND... with a second deck. (a) At the option of the vessel owner, a vessel having a second deck is...

  19. 33 CFR 149.329 - How must work vests and deck suits be marked?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must work vests and deck... Lifesaving Equipment Manned Deepwater Port Requirements § 149.329 How must work vests and deck suits be marked? All work vests and deck suits must be fitted with Type I retroreflective material, approved...

  20. 46 CFR 28.410 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. 28..., lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section... weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand...

  1. 46 CFR 28.410 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. 28..., lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section... weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand...

  2. 46 CFR 28.410 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. 28..., lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section... weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand...

  3. 46 CFR 28.410 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. 28..., lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section... weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand...

  4. 46 CFR 28.410 - Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deck rails, lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. 28..., lifelines, storm rails, and hand grabs. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (d) of this section... weather decks accessible to individuals. Where space limitations make deck rails impractical, hand...

  5. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  6. PBF Cooling Tower. View of stairway to fan deck. Vents ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower. View of stairway to fan deck. Vents are made of redwood. Camera facing southwest toward north side of Cooling Tower. Siding is corrugated asbestos concrete. Photographer: Kirsh. Date: June 6, 1969. INEEL negative no. 69-3463 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. General view of the flight deck of the orbiter Discovery ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the flight deck of the orbiter Discovery looking forward and overhead at the overhead instrumentation and control panels. This view was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  8. General view of the aft Flight Deck looking at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the aft Flight Deck looking at the mission specialist seats directly behind and to the side of the commander and pilot's seats. These seats are removed, packed and stowed during on-orbit activities. This image was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. Closeup view of the aft flight deck of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the aft flight deck of the Orbiter Discovery looking at the aft center control panels A6, A7, A8, A12, A13, A14, A16 and A17. This View was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. 75 FR 44988 - Wire Decking From China; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ...: 2010-18714] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 701-TA-466 and 731-TA-1162 (Final)] Wire... establishment of an industry in the United States is not materially retarded, by reason of imports of wire... industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports of wire decking from...

  11. 11. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS HATCH DOOR INTO WINCH ROOM IN THE SUPERSTRUCTURE (LABELED AT PASSAGE & HYDRAULIC MACHINERY ON PLAN). - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. Closeup view of the mid deck aft wall of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the mid deck aft wall of the Orbiter Discovery showing a mission specific configuration of stowage lockers within the modular system designed for maximum flexibility. This photograph was taken at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  13. 19. TRAVELING CRANE ATOP SUPERSTRUCTURE, FROM RUN LINE DECK. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. TRAVELING CRANE ATOP SUPERSTRUCTURE, FROM RUN LINE DECK. Looking up to north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. STS-30 Commander Walker on forward flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    On Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, forward flight deck between commanders and pilots seats, STS-30 Commander David M. Walker smiles while having his picture taken. Walker, wearing a mission polo shirt and light blue flight coverall pants, holds onto the commanders seat back. Forward flight control panels are visible above Walker's head and behind him.

  15. 28. HULETT NO. 4 SEEN FROM THE DECK OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. HULETT NO. 4 SEEN FROM THE DECK OF THE 'GEORGE M. CARL.' THE END OF UNLOADING, TRACTOR SCRAPERS ARE LOWERED INTO THE HOLD TO 'CLEAN UP.' PRIOR TO ABOUT 1953, MEN WITH SHOVELS DID THE JOB. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  16. 2. SOUTH REAR. TEST STAND 15 DECK AT LEFT; COVERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH REAR. TEST STAND 1-5 DECK AT LEFT; COVERED TANKS (BUILDING 8649) AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Shop Building for Test Stand 1-5, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. 19. On salon deck level, view looking forward at tops ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. On salon deck level, view looking forward at tops of steam chimneys (rising from boilers) showing safety valves, safety valve vent pipe, and smoke bonnet underneath smokestack. Steam chimneys are integral parts of the boilers and in effect are smokestacks surrounded by a pressurized steam space continuous with the boiler steam spaces. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  18. 38. Port side of engine compartment at salon deck level, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Port side of engine compartment at salon deck level, with salon wall panels removed to show engine frame. Main connecting rod from crank to walking beam appears at extreme right of view, top of cylinder and piston rod appear at extreme left. - Ferry TICONDEROGA, Route 7, Shelburne, Chittenden County, VT

  19. 22. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM SOUTH END OF BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM SOUTH END OF BUILDING, SHOWING TOPS OF DIESEL ENGINES AT FAR NORTH END, PRIOR TO INSTALLATION OF STEAM UNIT NO. 4. Ca. 1948 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 4. A member of a buoy tender's deck force prepares ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. A member of a buoy tender's deck force prepares to trip the chain stopper. This will release the buoy's anchor for the plunge to the sea-floor. - U.S. Coast Guard Buoy Tenders, 180' Class, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 Second Street Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 51. VIEW OF EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK; MAIN PANEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. VIEW OF EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH DECK; MAIN PANEL CONTAINS UMBILICAL MAST POWER CONNECTORS; RAIL AND FIRE SUPPRESSION NOZZLES IN FOREGROUND; TELEVISION CAMERA AND CAMERA TOWER IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. 85. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST OF FUEL PIPELINE TO LAUNCH DECK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    85. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST OF FUEL PIPELINE TO LAUNCH DECK. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF SKID 2 VISIBLE ON LEFT. DOORS OF ROOMS ON SOUTHWEST SIDE OF LSB (BLDG. 770) VISIBLE IN CENTER OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. 7. ROCKET SLED ON DECK OF TEST STAND 15. Photo ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ROCKET SLED ON DECK OF TEST STAND 1-5. Photo no. "6085, G-EAFB-16 SEP 52." Looking south to machine shop. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-5, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. 17. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE, DECK LEVEL OF MST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE, DECK LEVEL OF MST. NOTE CANVAS CURTAIN (RIGHT) USED TO COVER SOUTH SIDE OF MST BELOW LOWEST ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. 11. MAIN DECK, VIEW FORWARD FROM MIDSHIP, LOOKING AT MIDSHIP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. MAIN DECK, VIEW FORWARD FROM MIDSHIP, LOOKING AT MIDSHIP CABINS, GALLEY AND STEAM-POWERED WINCH EQUIPMENT. TWO PORT OIL TANK HATCHES CAN BE SEEN AT LEFT AND ONE STARBOARD OIL TANK AT RIGHT - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 49 CFR 176.210 - On deck stowage requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On deck stowage requirements. 176.210 Section 176.210 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 2 (Compressed...

  7. 49 CFR 1544.237 - Flight deck privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flight deck privileges. 1544.237 Section 1544.237 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS...

  8. 49 CFR 1544.237 - Flight deck privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flight deck privileges. 1544.237 Section 1544.237 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS...

  9. 49 CFR 1544.237 - Flight deck privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flight deck privileges. 1544.237 Section 1544.237 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS...

  10. 49 CFR 1544.237 - Flight deck privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flight deck privileges. 1544.237 Section 1544.237 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS...

  11. 49 CFR 1544.237 - Flight deck privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flight deck privileges. 1544.237 Section 1544.237 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS...

  12. 5. View to east of west elevation. Second story deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View to east of west elevation. Second story deck at right opens off 'Fireside' guest room; Helmuth Deetjen hand-carved the balusters. Scale just visible against first story wall at lower right. - Deetjen's Big Sur Inn, Hayloft Building, East Side of State Highway 1, Big Sur, Monterey County, CA

  13. 33 CFR 142.87 - Guarding of deck openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guarding of deck openings. 142.87 Section 142.87 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH General Workplace Conditions §...

  14. RETENTION BASIN. ERECTING REINFORCING STEEL FOR CONCRETE DECK. STACK RISES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RETENTION BASIN. ERECTING REINFORCING STEEL FOR CONCRETE DECK. STACK RISES AT TOP LEFT. CAMERA FACES WEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2581. Unknown Photographer, 6/18/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. Computational simulation of periodic thermal processes in the roof deck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stastnik, S.

    2016-06-01

    The climate changes in the Central Europe highlight the importance of protection of buildings against overheating during summer season, with the crucial thermal insulation and accumulation role of the roof deck. This paper demonstrates the possibility of computational simulation of such periodic thermal processes, applying the evaluation of thermal attenuation using complex arithmetics, in confrontation with real experimental data.

  16. Meeting Mathematics Standards with a Deck of Playing Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Deborah A.; McDonald, Shirley A.; Bothman, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The activities contained in this document have been presented at several conference sessions. Participants engaged in hands-on activities for Grades 3 through 8 that utilized a deck of playing cards to meet mathematics content and process standards. Activities included variations of card games, but with a mathematical twist, and other card-based…

  17. 11. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BUOY DECK, NEAR PILOT HOUSE SUPERSTRUCTURE, LOOKING TOWARDS HATCH DOOR INTO WINCH ROOM IN THE SUPERSTRUCTURE (LABELED AS FASSAGE & HYDRAULIC MACHINERY ON PLAN), SHOWING UNDERSIDE OF GEARED WHEEL OF BOOM. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  18. 12. BOOM, FROM SUPERSTRUCTURE DECK (ABOVE WINCH ROOM), SHOWING DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. BOOM, FROM SUPERSTRUCTURE DECK (ABOVE WINCH ROOM), SHOWING DETAIL OF GEARED WHEEL OF BOOM, FLYBRIDGE AT LEFT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  19. 11. Historic drawing, Pier 10. Plan of deck and pilings, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic drawing, Pier 10. Plan of deck and pilings, 1932. Photographic copy of original. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 10, Between Piers 9 & 11 along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. 29. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW LOOKING FORWARD ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM POINT ALONGSIDE WINDLASS. SUN AWNINGS APPEAR TO HAVE BEEN FASHIONED FROM VESSEL'S SAILS Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  1. 28. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW LOOKING AFT ON STARBOARD SIDE OF MAIN DECK FROM POINT ALONGSIDE WINDLASS. SUN AWNING APPEARS TO HAVE BEEN FASHIONED FROM VESSEL'S SAILS. CREW MEMBERS UNKNOWN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  2. 46 CFR 42.13-20 - Deck line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...)), provided that the deck line may be placed with reference to another fixed point on the vessel on condition that the freeboard is correspondingly corrected. The location of the reference point and the... upper edge shall normally pass through the point where the continuation outwards of the upper surface...

  3. 46 CFR 42.13-20 - Deck line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...)), provided that the deck line may be placed with reference to another fixed point on the vessel on condition that the freeboard is correspondingly corrected. The location of the reference point and the... upper edge shall normally pass through the point where the continuation outwards of the upper surface...

  4. 46 CFR 42.13-20 - Deck line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...)), provided that the deck line may be placed with reference to another fixed point on the vessel on condition that the freeboard is correspondingly corrected. The location of the reference point and the... upper edge shall normally pass through the point where the continuation outwards of the upper surface...

  5. 46 CFR 42.13-20 - Deck line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...)), provided that the deck line may be placed with reference to another fixed point on the vessel on condition that the freeboard is correspondingly corrected. The location of the reference point and the... upper edge shall normally pass through the point where the continuation outwards of the upper surface...

  6. 46 CFR 42.13-20 - Deck line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...)), provided that the deck line may be placed with reference to another fixed point on the vessel on condition that the freeboard is correspondingly corrected. The location of the reference point and the... upper edge shall normally pass through the point where the continuation outwards of the upper surface...

  7. View of the yacht club facing east. The new deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the yacht club facing east. The new deck and the avila pier are on the right and the harbor storage and restrooms are on the left. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  8. The Belizean Bridge Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murfin, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Describes the famous swing bridge in Belize. Students build bridges from a variety of materials and answer the questions, What are different types of bridges?, How do bridges work?, How can you tell if a bridge design will be safe?, and What is the best way to build a bridge over a river while still allowing boat traffic? (SAH)

  9. Buffeting response of long-span cable-supported bridges under skew winds. Part 2: case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y. L.; Zhu, L. D.

    2005-03-01

    The finite-element-based framework for buffeting analysis of long-span cable-supported bridges under skew winds has been presented in Part 1 of this paper. The framework is now applied to the Tsing Ma Suspension Bridge in Hong Kong as a case study. The wind velocities and bridge responses measured by the Wind and Structural Health Monitoring System (WASHMS) of the bridge during Typhoon Sam in 1999 are first analyzed to find the skew wind characteristics surrounding the bridge, the modal damping ratios and acceleration responses of the bridge. The buffeting responses of the bridge under skew winds during Typhoon Sam are then computed using the wind characteristics and modal damping ratios measured from the field and the aerodynamic coefficients and flutter derivatives of the bridge deck and tower measured from the wind tunnel under skew winds. The computed acceleration responses of the bridge deck and cable are finally compared with the responses measured from the field. The comparison is found to be satisfactory in general and the case study forms a good practical demonstration for the verification of the proposed method for buffeting analysis of long-span cable-supported bridges under skew winds.

  10. Offshore deck to substructure mating system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, B.N.; Baldwin, R.L.; Allen, J.D.

    1993-06-15

    An offshore platform, in combination, a deck for installation to be supported by a substructure is described including a plurality of upstanding column members, said deck including a corresponding plurality of depending legs, the improvement characterized by: at least one of said legs including a stabbing tip assembly for engagement with a corresponding column member, said stabbing tip assembly comprising an outer body for engagement with said column member to transfer permanent weight of said deck to said column member, a generally vertically movable locating pin disposed in said body for movement to stab into receiver means including means forming a receptacle on said column member for locating said dock with respect to said column member, and resilient means supported by said body for accommodating lateral and vertically-imposed loads acting between said column member and said leg during placement of said deck on said substructure to minimize the imposition of peak forces on said deck and said substructure; said receiver means comprising a generally cylindrical receiver shoe forming said receptacle, said shoe comprising part of a jack assembly supported on said column member and said shoe being operable to be moved to a position to permit contact of said leg with said column member to provide supporting relationship therebetween; and said jack assembly comprising a generally cylindrical body member supported on said column member and forming a chamber with said shoe for receiving particulate material to support said shoe in a first position for receiving said locating pin, said shoe being movable to a second position in response to removing said particulate material from said chamber to permit movement of said leg into engagement with said body member.

  11. The Naturalistic Flight Deck System: An Integrated System Concept for Improved Single-Pilot Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul C.; Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Cox, David E.; Jackson, Bruce; Palmer, Michael T.; Pope, Alan T.; Schlecht, Robin W.; Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Trujillo, Anna C.; Williams, Ralph A.; Kinney, J. Bryan; Barry, John S., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews current and emerging operational experiences, technologies, and human-machine interaction theories to develop an integrated flight system concept designed to increase the safety, reliability, and performance of single-pilot operations in an increasingly accommodating but stringent national airspace system. This concept, know as the Naturalistic Flight Deck (NFD), uses a form of human-centered automation known as complementary-automation (or complemation) to structure the relationship between the human operator and the aircraft as independent, collaborative agents having complimentary capabilities. The human provides commonsense knowledge, general intelligence, and creative thinking, while the machine contributes specialized intelligence and control, extreme vigilance, resistance to fatigue, and encyclopedic memory. To support the development of the NFD, an initial Concept of Operations has been created and selected normal and non-normal scenarios are presented in this document.

  12. Special Fluid Viscous Dampers For The Messina Strait Bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Colato, Gian Paolo; Infanti, Samuele; Castellano, Maria Gabriella

    2008-07-08

    The Messina Strait Bridge would be the world's longest suspension bridge, with a design earthquake characterised by a PGA value of 0.58 g and a distance between the ipocenter and the bridge of 15 km. Said critical structure of course would need a suitable restraint system for traffic braking loads, wind and seismic actions. Each type of load requires a specific behaviour of the restraint system, making its design a big challenge.The restraint system comprises special types of fluid viscous dampers, installed both in longitudinal and transverse direction, both at the towers and at the anchorages. In seismic conditions they behave as viscous dampers, to reduce the forces on the structural elements and the movements of the bridge deck. But in service dynamic conditions, e.g. under traffic or wind load, the devices shall behave like shock transmission units, thus preventing the longitudinal and transverse movements of the deck.FIP Industriale cooperated with the selected General Contractor, a consortium lead by Impregilo, in the design of said viscous dampers. This paper describes the main features of said devices.

  13. Bridging the Gap in Homeland Security: 62d Engineer Battalion Helps Secure the Nation’s Borders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Engineer 19 standards. Standing 15 feet tall, they were topped by a cap and corbel that allowed the finished bridge deck to sit even with a...caps had to be raised on nearly 3 feet of cribbing to meet the elevation of the abutment corbel and approach slabs. Two John DeereTM 410 tractors were

  14. 46 CFR 171.135 - Weather deck drainage on a vessel of 100 gross tons or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weather deck drainage on a vessel of 100 gross tons or...) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.135 Weather deck drainage on a vessel of 100 gross tons or more. The weather deck must...

  15. 46 CFR 171.135 - Weather deck drainage on a vessel of 100 gross tons or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weather deck drainage on a vessel of 100 gross tons or...) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.135 Weather deck drainage on a vessel of 100 gross tons or more. The weather deck must...

  16. 46 CFR 171.135 - Weather deck drainage on a vessel of 100 gross tons or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weather deck drainage on a vessel of 100 gross tons or...) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.135 Weather deck drainage on a vessel of 100 gross tons or more. The weather deck must...

  17. 46 CFR 171.135 - Weather deck drainage on a vessel of 100 gross tons or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weather deck drainage on a vessel of 100 gross tons or...) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.135 Weather deck drainage on a vessel of 100 gross tons or more. The weather deck must...

  18. 46 CFR 171.135 - Weather deck drainage on a vessel of 100 gross tons or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weather deck drainage on a vessel of 100 gross tons or...) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Drainage of Weather Decks § 171.135 Weather deck drainage on a vessel of 100 gross tons or more. The weather deck must...

  19. 40 CFR Table 28 to Subpart G of... - Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 28 Table 28 to Subpart G of Part 63—Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks Deck construction Typical deck seam length factor...

  20. Moving forces identification based on structure health monitoring for cable-stayed bridge with regularizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fujian; Li, Hui

    2011-04-01

    A new approach suitable for cable-stayed bridge is presented in this paper. Moving force identification method for cablestayed bridge was seldom reported. In previous research bridges were modeled as Timoshenko beams or orthotropic plates, while cable-stayed bridge can't be modeled as beams or plates. In this paper, the deck of bridge was separated from other parts, by replacing the cables with equivalent forces based on measurements. And according to D'Alembert principle the equation of motion of deck can be established, from which the moving external forces can be obtained, given measured time-varying cable forces and accelerations. However this is typically an inverse and ill-posed problem, because the measured global variables is not so sensitive to local loads such as vehicle loads for a large-span bridge meanwhile the noise plays an essential role in measured signals. The Tikhonov regularization methods are adopted for solving the ill-posed problem. Simulation studies are used to verify the method. The main contributions of this paper are: a. to propose a method for identifying moving forces on cable-stayed bridge; b. both the location and the magnitude of the force can be identified; c. the vehicles in different lanes can be identified.